Science.gov

Sample records for anisum foeniculum vulgare

  1. Pharmacological evidence of hypotensive activity of Marrubium vulgare and Foeniculum vulgare in spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    El Bardai, S; Lyoussi, B; Wibo, M; Morel, N

    2001-05-01

    The hypotensive effects of the water extract of Marrubium vulgare L. and Foeniculum vulgare L. were investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Oral administration of Marrubium or Foeniculum extract lowered the systolic blood pressure of SHR but not of WKY. In SHR, Foeniculum but not Marrubium treatment increased water, sodium and potassium excretion. Ex vivo as well as in vitro, Marrubium extract inhibited the contractile responses of rat aorta to noradrenaline and to KCl (100 mM). Inhibition was greater in aorta from SHR compared to WKY and was not affected by the NO synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine. Vascular effects of Foeniculum extract were less pronounced than those of Marrubium and were blocked by N-nitro-L-arginine. These results indicate that hypotensive activity of Marrubium and Foeniculum extracts seems to be mediated through different pathways: Foeniculum appeared to act mainly as a diuretic and a natriuretic while Marrubium displayed vascular relaxant activity. PMID:11349824

  2. Study of Foeniculum vulgare Effect on Folliculogenesis in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Khazaei, Mozafar; Montaseri, Azadeh; Khazaei, Mohammad Rasool; Khanahmadi, Masumeh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Foeniculum vulgare (FVE) is used in traditional medicine for its antiseptic, palliative and anti-inflammatory effects. Traditionally, FVE is utilized for treating female infertility. The present study aims to investigate the effects of FVE extract on folliculogenesis in female albino mice. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a total of 20 female albino mice were divided into four groups. Groups 1 and 2 (experimental) received FVE alcoholic extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for five days. Group 3 (negative control) received ethanol and group 4 (positive control) was administered normal saline, in the same doses as the experimental groups. Animals in all groups were sacrificed on the sixth day of the study; their ovaries were dissected out and prepared for histological examinations. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained microscopic slides were evaluated and the numbers of ovarian follicles were compared between groups. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Results: The total follicle numbers were 26.5 ± 5.24 for group 1 (100 mg/kg FVE), 27.2 ± 4.1 for group 2 (200 mg/kg FVE), 10.1 ± 2.53 for group 3 (ethanol control) and 17.2 ± 3.9 for the saline control group (group 4). The numbers of graffian, antral and multilaminar follicles increased significantly in both experimental groups when compared with the control groups (p<0.05), however there were no significant differences in follicle numbers among the experimental groups. The number of unilaminar primary follicles did not significantly change between all groups. GCMS analysis of FVE extract identified the presence of diosgenin, an estrogenic compound. Conclusion: FVE induced folliculogenesis in female mice ovary and increased the number of growing ovarian follicles. The estrogenic component of FVE, diosgenin, may exert this effect. PMID:25101154

  3. Method for attaining fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seed oil fractions with different composition and antioxidant capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is cultivated for its seeds and foliage, which contain essential oil. We hypothesized that the collection of fennel seed oil at different time points during the distillation process may result in fennel oil with distinct composition and bioactivity. We collected ess...

  4. Method for obtaining three products with different properties from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of distillation time (DT; 15-1080 min) on yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed essential oil (EO) as well as on the yield, composition, and properties of lipids extracted from steam-distilled fenne...

  5. Salinity impact on yield, water use, mineral and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experimental study was carried out to determine the effects of salinity on water consumption, plant height, fresh and seed yields, biomass production, ion accumulation and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) under greenhouse conditions. The experiment was conducted with a ...

  6. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: a review of its botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, contemporary application, and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Badgujar, Shamkant B; Patel, Vainav V; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H

    2014-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses. PMID:25162032

  7. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vainav V.; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H.

    2014-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses. PMID:25162032

  8. A striking and frequent cause of premature thelarche in children: Foeniculum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Türkyilmaz, Zafer; Karabulut, Ramazan; Sönmez, Kaan; Can Başaklar, Abdullah

    2008-11-01

    Isolated premature thelarche is a common disorder characterized by breast development, usually younger than 2 years, with no other signs of puberty. Although it is usually associated with adrenal or ovarian disorders, hypothyroidism, and use of exogenous hormones or drugs, it may also be associated with long-term use of herbal medicine. Thus, long-term use of preparations such as Foeniculum vulgare, which is used to eliminate gas and regulate intestinal function in children, may cause premature thelarche, and thus, the use of such preparations should be limited. PMID:18970951

  9. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Foeniculum vulgare and Crithmum maritimum essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ruberto, G; Baratta, M T; Deans, S G; Dorman, H J

    2000-12-01

    The essential oils obtained from Crithmum maritimum L. (marine fennel) and two samples of Foeniculum vulgare Miller (common fennel) were analysed by GC and GC-MS and assayed for their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The antioxidant activity of the oils was evaluated by two lipid model systems: a modified thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) assay and a spectrophotometric detection of hydroperoxydienes from linoleic acid in a micellar system. The oils demonstrated antioxidant capacities, comparable in some cases to that of alpha-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), used as reference antioxidants. Concerning the antimicrobial tests the essential oils were assayed against twenty-five genera of bacteria, including animal and plant pathogens, food poisoning and spoilage bacteria. Oils from the two samples of F. vulgare showed a higher and broader degree of inhibition than that of C. maritimum. PMID:11199122

  10. Effects of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on chickens highly infected with Eimeria tenella (Phylum Apicomplexa)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intensive poultry production systems depend on chemoprophylaxis with anticoccidial drugs to combat infection. A floor-pen study was conducted to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on Eimeria tenella infection. Five experimental groups were established: negative control (untreated, unchallenged); positive control (untreated, challenged); a group medicated with 125 ppm lasalocid and challenged; a group medicated with A. annua leaf powder at 1.5% in feed and challenged; and a group treated with the mixed oils of A. annua and Foeniculum vulgare in equal parts, 7.5% in water and challenged. The effects of A. annua and oil extract of A. annua + F. vulgare on E. tenella infection were assessed by clinical signs, mortality, fecal oocyst output, faeces, lesion score, weight gain, and feed conversion. Results Clinical signs were noticed only in three chickens from the lasalocid group, six from the A. annua group, and nine from the A. annua + F. vulgare group, but were present in 19 infected chickens from the positive control group. Bloody diarrhea was registered in only two chickens from A. annua group, but in 17 chickens from the positive control group. Mortality also occurred in the positive control group (7/20). Chickens treated with A. annua had a significant reduction in faecal oocysts (95.6%; P = 0.027) and in lesion score (56.3%; P = 0.005) when compared to the positive control. At the end of experiment, chickens treated with A. annua leaf powder had the highest body weight gain (68.2 g/day), after the negative control group, and the best feed conversion (1.85) among all experimental groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that A. annua leaf powder (Aa-p), at 1.5% of the daily diet post-infection, can be a valuable alternative for synthetic coccidiostats, such as lasalocid. PMID:24731599

  11. Effects of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on on chickens highly infected with Eimeria tenella (Phylum Apicomplexa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Intensive poultry production systems depend on chemoprophylaxis with anticoccidial drugs to combat infection. A floor-pen study was conducted to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on Eimeria tenella infection. Five experimental groups were establi...

  12. Major essential oils composition and immunotoxicity activity from leaves of Foeniculum vulgare against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Ro, Hee-Myong; Moon, Huyng-In

    2011-09-01

    The leaves of Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae) were extracted and the major essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed the essential oils of F. vulgare leaves. The F. vulgare essential oil yield was 0.97%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were methyl clavicol (46.3%), α-phellandrene (18.2%), fenchone (10.6%), (E)-anethole (11.3%), myrcene (3.4%), and α-pinene (2.1%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 41.23 ppm and an LC(90) value of 65.24 ppm. Also, methyl clavicol (≥98.0%), α-phellandrene (≥95.0%), fenchone (≥98.0%), (E)-anethole (≥99.0%), myrcene (≥99.0%), and α-pinene (≥99.0%) were tested against the F(21) laboratory strain of A. aegypti. Fenchone (≥98.0%) and (E)-anethole (≥99.0%) have medium activity with an LC(50) value of 73.11 ppm and 102.41 ppm. The above data indicate that major compounds interaction may play a more important role in the toxicity of essential oil. PMID:21077804

  13. Anthelmintic effects of the essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae) against Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Kamila A L; de Melo, Nathalya I; Aguiar, Daniela P; de Oliveira, Pollyanna F; Groppo, Milton; da Silva Filho, Ademar A; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Cunha, Wilson R; Tavares, Denise C; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Crotti, Antônio E M

    2015-07-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae), known as fennel, is a widespread aromatic herbaceous plant, and its essential oil is used as additive in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and perfume industries. The in vitro antischistosomal activity and cytotoxic effects against V79 cells of the essential oil of F. vulgare cultivated in southeastern Brazil (FV-EO) was investigated. The FV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. (E)-Anethole (69.8%) and limonene (22.5%) were identified as the major constituents. Its anthelmintic activity against Schistosoma mansoni was evaluated at concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 μg/ml, and it was found to be active against adult S. mansoni worms, although it was less effective than the positive control praziquantel (PZQ) in terms of separation of the coupled pairs, mortality, and decreased motor activity. However, FV-EO elicited an interesting dose-dependent reduction in the number of S. mansoni eggs. On their own, (E)-anethole and the limonene enantiomers were much less effective than FV-EO and PZQ. An XTT-cytotoxicity-based assay evidenced no FV-EO cytotoxicity against V79 cells. In summary, FV-EO displayed moderate in vitro schistosomicidal activity against adult S. mansoni worms, exerted remarkable inhibitory effects on the egg development, and was of low toxicity. PMID:26172330

  14. Essential oil composition of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. fruits from pharmacies in different countries.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Orav, Anne; Arak, Elmar

    2012-01-01

    Variations in the essential oil composition of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. commercial fruits obtained from retail pharmacies in Estonia, Norway, Austria and Moldova and from a spice shop in Turkey were determined using capillary GC techniques. The essential oil content of all the samples was 5-51 mL kg(-1) and between 22 and 51 mL kg(-1) in fennel fruits bought from pharmacies. A total of 34 compounds were identified. The major component was trans-anethole (34.8-82.0%); the other principal compounds in oils were fenchone (1.6-22.8%), estragole (2.4-17.0%), limonene (0.8-16.5%), and cis-anethole (0.1-8.6%). The yield of essential oil (5.0 mL kg(-1)) and content of trans-anethole was very low (34.8%) in the Turkish spice sample. Maximum yield of essential oil was found in fennel from Norway and Austria (50.7 and 50.5 mL kg(-1), respectively); these samples were rich in fenchone (21.2% and 22.8%), but contained less trans-anethole (64.6-63.7) than samples from Estonia and Moldova (82.0% and 80.9%). The typical samples of sweet fennel (bought from Estonia and Moldova) and bitter fennel (from Norway and Austria) were found to conform completely or partially to EP standards, although fennel type was always not marked on the packages. PMID:21827282

  15. Beneficial effects of Foeniculum vulgare on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Birdane, Fatih Mehmet; Cemek, Mustafa; Birdane, Yavuz Osman; Gülçin, İlhami; Büyükokuroğlu, Mehmet Emin

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine the anti-ulcerogenic and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts of Foeniculum vulgare (FVE) on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. METHODS: FVE was administered by gavage at doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg, and famotidine was used at the dose of 20 mg/kg. Following a 60 min period, all the rats were given 1 mL of ethanol (80%) by gavage. One hour after the administration of ethanol, all groups were sacrificed, and the gastric ulcer index was calculated; whole blood malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), serum nitrate, nitrite, ascorbic acid, retinol and β-carotene levels were measured in all the groups. RESULTS: It was found that pretreatment with FVE significantly reduced ethanol-induced gastric damage. This effect of FVE was highest and statistically significant in 300 mg/kg group compared with the control (4.18 ± 2.81 vs 13.15 ± 4.08, P < 0.001). Also, pretreatment with FVE significantly reduced the MDA levels, while significantly increased GSH, nitrite, nitrate, ascorbic acid, retinol and β-carotene levels. CONCLUSION: FVE has clearly a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion, and this effect, at least in part, depends upon the reduction in lipid peroxidation and augmentation in the antioxidant activity. PMID:17278229

  16. Distinguishing Foeniculum vulgare fruit from two adulterants by combination of microscopy and GC-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Dong; Mao, Wen-Wen; Zhou, Ping; Li, Ping; Li, Hui-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Foeniculum vulgare fruit (FVF) is a widely used traditional medicine. However, two adulterants, namely Anethum graveolens fruit (AGF) and Cuminum cyminum fruit (CCF), have been found in use as FVF in China owing to similar appearance and odor. For the purpose of accurate differentiation of the three herbal medicines, extensive anatomical examination and chemical profiling were conducted. Using light microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, the macroscopic and microscopic features of the three species were compared. It was found that some microscopic characteristics, including transverse shape of mericarp, presence or absence of reticulate cells and non-glandular hairs, as well as fluorescence of endocarp, were of diagnostic significance. Moreover, essential oils were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed using GC-MS. The analytical results indicated significant chemical variations in different species: in FVF, trans-anethole (83.20%) was the predominant volatile compound followed by estragole (5.03%) and limonene (3.45%), while in AGF, the first, second and third compounds with highest content were carvone (42.58%), apiol (20.76%) and limonene (20.32%), and in CCF were cuminlaldehyde (36.00%), 2-caren-10-al (23.25%) and γ-terpinene (9.65%), respectively. In conclusion, the proposed light microscopy coupled with fluorescence microscopy and/or GC-MS analysis allowed successful distinguishing FVF from AGF and CCF. PMID:25994836

  17. Cytotoxicity of syringin and 4-methoxycinnamyl alcohol isolated from Foeniculum vulgare on selected human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lall, Namrita; Kishore, Navneet; Binneman, Brigitte; Twilley, Danielle; van de Venter, Maryna; du Plessis-Stoman, Debbie; Boukes, Gerhardt; Hussein, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the cytotoxic effect of seven plant extracts and the isolated compounds - syringin and 4-methoxycinnamyl alcohol - on cancerous and non-cancerous cells. The ethanol extract of Foeniculum vulgare was found to exhibit the most significant toxicity with an IC50 value of 19.97 μg/mL on HeLa cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two compounds, syringin (1) and 4-methoxycinnamyl alcohol (2). Both compounds showed toxicity against MCF-7, HeLa and DU145 cancer cell line. The results showed that compound 2 showed high toxicity against all the cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 14.24, 7.82 and 22.10 μg/mL, respectively. 4-Methoxycinnamyl alcohol also showed no apoptotic effect in cell cycle analysis after 48 h at a concentration of 10 μg/mL. However, DNA fragmentation study revealed that necrosis took place at a concentration of 10 μg/mL after 48 h exposure. PMID:25588942

  18. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gurinder J; Arora, Daljit S

    2009-01-01

    Background Anethum graveolens Linn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Trachyspermum ammi L. are widely used traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments. To provide a scientific basis to traditional uses of these plants, their aqueous and organic seed extracts, as well as isolated phytoconstituents were evaluated for their antibacterial potential. Methods Antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic seed extracts was assessed using agar diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and viable cell count studies; and their antibacterial effect was compared with some standard antibiotics. The presence of major phytoconstituents was detected qualitatively and quantitatively. The isolated phytoconstituents were subjected to disc diffusion assay to ascertain their antibacterial effect. Results Hot water and acetone seed extracts showed considerably good antibacterial activity against all the bacteria except Klebsiella pneumoniae and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentration for aqueous and acetone seed extracts ranged from 20–80 mg/ml and 5–15 mg/ml respectively. Viable cell count studies revealed the bactericidal nature of the seed extracts. Statistical analysis proved the better/equal efficacy of some of these seed extracts as compared to standard antibiotics. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 2.80 – 4.23% alkaloids, 8.58 – 15.06% flavonoids, 19.71 – 27.77% tannins, 0.55–0.70% saponins and cardiac glycosides. Conclusion Antibacterial efficacy shown by these plants provides a scientific basis and thus, validates their traditional uses as homemade remedies. Isolation and purification of different phytochemicals may further yield significant antibacterial agents. PMID:19656417

  19. Native plant recovery in study plots after fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) control on Santa Cruz Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Power, Paula; Stanley, Thomas R.; Cowan, Clark; Robertson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the California Channel Islands and supports a diverse and unique flora which includes 9 federally listed species. Sheep, cattle, and pigs, introduced to the island in the mid-1800s, disturbed the soil, browsed native vegetation, and facilitated the spread of exotic invasive plants. Recent removal of introduced herbivores on the island led to the release of invasive fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), which expanded to become the dominant vegetation in some areas and has impeded the recovery of some native plant communities. In 2007, Channel Islands National Park initiated a program to control fennel using triclopyr on the eastern 10% of the island. We established replicate paired plots (seeded and nonseeded) at Scorpion Anchorage and Smugglers Cove, where notably dense fennel infestations (>10% cover) occurred, to evaluate the effectiveness of native seed augmentation following fennel removal. Five years after fennel removal, vegetative cover increased as litter and bare ground cover decreased significantly (P < 0.0001) on both plot types. Vegetation cover of both native and other (nonfennel) exotic species increased at Scorpion Anchorage in both seeded and nonseeded plots. At Smugglers Cove, exotic cover decreased significantly (P = 0.0001) as native cover comprised of Eriogonum arborescensand Leptosyne gigantea increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in seeded plots only. Nonseeded plots at Smugglers Cove were dominated by exotic annual grasses, primarily Avena barbata. The data indicate that seeding with appropriate native seed is a critical step in restoration following fennel control in areas where the native seed bank is depauperate.

  20. Effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) on the kidney in experimental PCOS female rats

    PubMed Central

    Sadrefozalayi, Somayyeh; Farokhi, Farah

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Foeniculum vulgare seed (F. vulgare) is an herbal plant which is used with phytoestrogene compounds for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) treatment. In this research, renoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (AEF) in experimental PCOS female rats is studied. Materials and Methods: Forty female rats were randomly divided into five groups. The first group served as control, was injected with an equivalent volume (0.2 ml) of normal saline, and received normal diet. Animals in the second group were non poly cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rats which were treated with intragastric administration of aqueous extract of F. vulgare (150 mg/kg b.w.). In the third group, the rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of estradiolvalerate (EV) (4 mg in 0.2 ml of sesame oil). The fourth groups were treated with EV and AEF (150mg/kg bw) with the same route. The fifth groups were treated with EV and AEF (100mg/kg bw). After 4 weeks of study, all of the rats were sacrificed, their kidneys tissues were processed for light microscopy, and some biochemical parameters of serum were measured. Results: The mean values of blood urea nitrogen in PCOS rats treated with low dose of AEF and EV and non-treated, was significantly (p<0.05) increased compared with non-PCOS and PCOS rats treated with high dose of AEF. Moreover, histopathological changes of kidney samples were comparable in PCOS rats with respect to treated groups with AEF. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of fennel seed showed the beneficial effect (especially at dose of 150 mg/kg b.w.) on renal function in PCOS rats. PMID:25050308

  1. Seed germination of medicinal plant, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), as affected by different priming techniques.

    PubMed

    Tahaei, Amirreza; Soleymani, Ali; Shams, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Reduced seed germination is among the most important factors adversely affecting crop stand and subsequent plant growth. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an important medicinal plant with poor seed germination rate, occasionally. It is accordingly pertinent to find methods which can enhance fennel seed germination and remove the barriers of dormancy breaking. The present experiments studied the effects of two different priming (cold moist stratification and osmopriming) and 14 dormancy breaking techniques (hormonal, osmopriming, biopriming, chemical priming, and hydropriming) on the seed germination and seedling growth of two different fennel genotypes under growth chamber conditions. In the first and second experiment, the priming techniques including the time lengths of cold moist stratification (0, 15, 30, and 45 days) and the concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000, osmopriming at -0.99, -1.35, and -2.33 MPa) were used as the main plots. However, in both experiments, the dormancy breaking techniques and fennel genotypes were factorially combined and used as the subplots. Different seed- and seedling-related parameters including germination (%), plumule, radicle and seedling length, average germination time, rate and homogeneity of germination, and seed vigor index were determined. Both priming techniques were efficient on the enhancement of seed germination and seedling growth. Among the dormancy breaking techniques, Aminol Forte (biopriming), kadostim (biopriming), benzyl adenine + kinetin (biopriming), distilled water (hydropriming), gibberellin + kinetin (hormonal priming), and benzyl adenine + kinetin + gibberellin (biopriming) were the most effective ones. The related concentrations were equal to 100 mg/l, 10(-5) M, and 0.4 %. The fennel genotypes reacted significantly different under priming conditions. It is possible to enhance seed germination and seedling growth of fennel using priming and dormancy breaking

  2. Comparison of Scolicidal Effects of Amphotricin B, Silver Nanoparticles,_and Foeniculum vulgare Mill on Hydatid Cysts Protoscoleces

    PubMed Central

    LASHKARIZADEH, Mohammad Reza; ASGARIPOUR, Keivan; SAEDI DEZAKI, Ebrahim; FASIHI HARANDI, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgery is the preferred treatment for hydatid cyst (cystic echinococcosis, CE). At present, various scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of protoscoleces during surgery, but they are associated with adverse side effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the scolicidal effects of amphotricin B, Silver nano particles, Foeniculum vulgare Mill, essential oil and hypertonic saline against protoscoleces of hydatid cyst on an in vitro model. Methods: Protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from the naturally infected livers of sheep and goats. Various concentrations of AmB (2.5–20 mg/ml), Ag-NPs (0.5–4 mg/ml), F. vulgare essential oil (0.125–1 mg/ml) and hypertonic saline (10–20%) were used for 5–60 min. Eosin exclusion test was used to determine the viability of protoscoleces. Results: Maximum protoscolicidal effect of AmB and Ag-NPs was found at concentrations of 20 and 4 mg/mL, resulting in only 82.3% and 71.6% of the protoscoleces after 60 min of incubation, respectively. In contrast, F. vulgare essential oil at concentration of 1 mg/ml and hypertonic saline 20% killed 100% protoscoleces after 5 and 10 min of exposure, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated weak scolicidal activity of AmB and Ag-NPs; whereas F. vulgare essential oil had potent scolicidal activity against protoscoleces of hydatid cyst that revealed the potential of F. vulgare as a natural source for the production of new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, further studies will be needed to confirm these results by checking the essential oil and its active component in the in vivo model. PMID:26246818

  3. Repellent activity of constituents identified in Foeniculum vulgare fruit against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyoung; Kim, Soon-Il; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2002-11-20

    The repellent activity of materials derived from the methanol extract of fruits from Foeniculum vulgareagainst hungry Aedes aegypti females was examined using skin and patch tests and compared with that of the commercial N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid. The biologically active constituents of the Foeniculum fruits were characterized as (+)-fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid by spectroscopic analyses. Responses varied according to compound, dose, and exposure time. In a skin test with female mosquitoes, at a dose of 0.4 mg/cm(2), (+)-fenchone and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid exhibited moderate repellent activity at 30 min after treatment, whereas deet provided >1 h of protection against adult mosquitoes at 0.2 mg/cm(2). (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid was a more potent repellent agent than (E)-9-octadecenoic acid. (+)-Fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid merit further study as potential mosquito repellent agents or as lead compounds. PMID:12428949

  4. Effect of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi Essential Oils on the Growth and Mycotoxins Production by Aspergillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth, and mycotoxin production. In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils were carried out on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Plant materials were hydrodistilled for 4-5 h in Clevenger apparatus. 0.25 μL/mL, 0.5 μL/mL, 1 μL/mL, 2 μL/mL, and 4 μL/mL concentrations of each essential oil were prepared in 0.1% Tween 80 (V/V). T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 μL/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 μL/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting toxin production from A. niger and A. flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 μL/mL, respectively. C. martinii, F. vulgare, and T. ammi oils as antifungals were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5336.297 μL/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity. In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by Aspergillus species. PMID:26904653

  5. Outbreak of fatal nitrate toxicosis associated with consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare) in cattle farmed in Campania region (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Costagliola, Alessandro; Roperto, Franco; Benedetto, Domenico; Anastasio, Aniello; Marrone, Raffaele; Perillo, Antonella; Russo, Valeria; Papparella, Serenella; Paciello, Orlando

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are toxicants that have become increasingly significant environmental chemicals. Increase in environmental distribution of nitrogenous compounds, especially in surface and ground water, has been attributed to the intensive use of nitrate as agricultural fertilizers and to increasing amounts of nitrogenous wastes produced by municipalities, industries, and feedlots. The purpose of this study is to illustrate a fatal nitrate toxicosis in cattle associated with the consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare). Fifteen cows from the same farm suddenly developed weakness, muscular tremors, respiratory distress, and finally convulsions. The affected animals died within 24 to 48 h from the onset of the clinical signs. Five cows underwent a complete post-mortem examination. In all examined animals, gross lesions included presence of dark unclotted blood around the nostrils and the anal region, moderate inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and brown discoloration of the skeletal muscles and kidneys. The histological examination showed tubular degeneration and congestion of glomerular vessels in the kidney. Toxicological analysis detected nitrates at 4 672.2 ppm in the fennels used to feed the animals. The source of exposure to nitrates was identified in the fennels. The fennels were grown in a polluted area of the Campania region in southern Italy and distributed in a public market for human consumption. The waste from the sale of the fennels was fed to the cows. The accumulation of nitrates in some vegetables poses a risk not only for animal health but also for human and environmental safety. PMID:24453016

  6. The Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Foeniculum vulgare Mill on Leukocytes and Hematological Tests in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Kooti, Wesam; Bazvand, Maryam; Ghasemi Boroon, Maryam; Amirzargar, Ashraf; Afrisham, Reza; Afzalzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Jalali, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants have a long history in treating blood disorders, which is one of the most common problems in today's advanced world. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a medicinal plant with a high content of polyphenols and has antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of fennel on some hematological indices in male rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, thirty male Wistar rats were divided into six groups (five rats in each group). The first group (control) did not receive any dose; the second group (sham) received 1 mL normal saline (extraction solvent); and the experimental groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively received 1 mL hydro alcoholic extract of fennel in four doses of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg of body weight every 48 hours for 30 days by gavage. One day after the last gavage following induction of anesthesia and taking blood from the heart of rats, measurement of red and white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and tests of bleeding and coagulation time (CT) were performed. The data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA test using SPSS15 software. Results: Fennel increased mean RBC (7.54 ± 0.53 × 106) and WBC (5.89 ± 0.78 × 103) values, especially at a dose of 250 mg/mL and CT (2.45 ± 0.20) at a dose of 500mg/mL compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Fennel increased red and white blood cells probably due to the presence of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fennel and reduced negative effects of free radicals on blood cells. PMID:25866717

  7. Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of Foeniculum vulgare essential oils from Portugal and Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Diara Kady; Matosc, Olivia; Novoa, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Delgado, Manuel; Moiteiro, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal mosquito-borne infection with 50 million cases per year and 2.5 billion people vulnerable to the disease. This major public health problem has recurrent epidemics in Latin America and occurred recently in Cape Verde and Madeira Island. The lack of anti-viral treatment or vaccine makes the control of mosquito vectors a high option to prevent virus transmission. Essential oil (EO) constituents can affect insect's behaviour, being potentially effective in pest control. The present study evaluated the potential use of Foenicultm vulgare (fennel) EO in the control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. EOs isolated from fennel aerial parts collected in Cape Verde and from a commercial fennel EO of Portugal were analysed by NMR, GC and GC-MS. trans-Anethole (32 and 30%, respectively), limonene (28 and 18%, respectively) and fenchone (10% in both cases) were the main compounds identified in the EOs isolated from fennel from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. The larvicidal activity of the EOs and its major constituents were evaluated, using WHO procedures, against third instar larvae ofAe. aegypti for 24 h. Pure compounds, such as limonene isomers, were also assayed. The lethal concentrations LC50, C90 and LC99 were determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. A 99% mortality of Ae. aegypti larvae was estimated at 37.1 and 52.4 µL L-1 of fennel EOs from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. Bioassays showed that fennel EOs from both countries displayed strong larvicidal effect against Ae. aegypti, the Cape Verde EO being as active as one of its major constituents, (-)-limonene. PMID:25973508

  8. Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils From Eucalyptus staigeriana (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiales: Laminaceae), and Foeniculum vulgare (Apiales: Apiaceae) on the Biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Lopes, F S C; Barbosa, D R S; Breda, M O; Dutra, K A; Guedes, C A; Navarro, D M A F; Teixeira, A A C

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. Its control is often achieved through repeated applications per season of insecticides, which may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Thus, the study of alternative methods with less environmental impact has expanded to include the use of essential oils. These oils are products of the secondary metabolism in plants, and their insecticidal activity has been widely demonstrated in populations of many pest insects. This study evaluated the insecticidal activities of essential oils from Eucalyptus staigeriana, Ocimum gratissimum, and Foeniculum vulgare on Spodoptera frugiperda. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles and contact toxicity of these oils as well as their sublethal effects on larvae and reproductive parameters in adults were evaluated. All three oils had sublethal effects on S. frugiperda; however, the oil of O. gratissimum showed the best results at all doses tested. These essential oils may have promise for control of S. frugiperda. PMID:26868417

  9. Comparative chemical composition and antioxidant activities of wild and cultivated Laurus nobilis L. leaves and Foeniculum vulgare subsp. piperitum (Ucria) coutinho seeds.

    PubMed

    Conforti, Filomena; Statti, Giancarlo; Uzunov, Dimitar; Menichini, Francesco

    2006-10-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activities of wild and cultivated Laurus nobilis leaves and Foeniculum vulgare subsp. piperitum seeds were determined. Differences were found in the total phenolic content of fennel. GC-MS analysis of the non polar fractions showed a different composition between wild and cultivated plants. Cultivated laurel had a high content of terpenes such as linool, alpha-terpinol, alpha-terpinyl acetate, thymol, caryophyllene, aromandrene, selinene, farnesene, and cadinene, while wild laurel had a high content of eugenol and methyl eugenol, vitamin E, and sterols. The antioxidant potential of the extracts was determined using three complementary methods. Wild plants showed greater radical scavenging activity than the cultivated plants. The extracts also exhibited a significant antioxidant capacity also in the beta-carotene-linoleic acid test system. A high level of antioxidant activity was observed in wild laurel (IC50 = 1 microg/ml). Significant antioxidant activity measured in bovine brain was observed in wild laurel. PMID:17015951

  10. Assessment of Free Radical Scavenging Potential and Oxidative DNA Damage Preventive Activity of Trachyspermum ammi L. (Carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel) Seed Extracts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids results in generation of free radicals in an organism which is the major cause of onset of various degenerative diseases. Antioxidants scavenge these free radicals, thereby protecting the cell from damage. The present study was designed to examine the free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of traditionally used spices Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel). The aqueous, methanolic, and acetonic extracts of T. ammi and F. vulgare seeds were prepared using soxhlet extraction assembly and subjected to qualitative and quantitative estimation of phytochemical constituents. Free radical scavenging potential was investigated using standard methods, namely, DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay along with the protection against oxidative DNA damage. The results stated that acetonic seed extracts (AAcSE and FAcSE) of both the spices possessed comparatively high amount of total phenolics whereas methanolic seed extracts (AMSE and FMSE) were found to have highest amount of total flavonoids. At 1 mg/mL concentration, highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was shown by FMSE (96.2%), AAcSE was recorded with highest FRAP value (2270.27 ± 0.005 μmol/L), and all the seed extracts have been shown to mitigate the damage induced by Fenton reaction on calf thymus DNA. Therefore, the study suggests that T. ammi and F. vulgare seed extracts could contribute as a highly significant bioresource of antioxidants to be used in our day-to-day life and in food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25143939

  11. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice through ERK-dependent NF-κB Activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui Su; Kang, Purum; Kim, Ka Young; Seol, Geun Hee

    2015-03-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) is used to flavor food, in cosmetics, as an antioxidant, and to treat microbial, diabetic and common inflammation. No study to date, however, has assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of fennel in experimental models of inflammation. The aims of this study were to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of fennel in model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. Mice were randomly assigned to seven groups (n=7~10). In five groups, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 1% Tween 80-saline (vehicle), fennel (125, 250, 500µl/kg), or dexamethasone (1 mg/kg), followed 1 h later by intratracheal instillation of LPS (1.5 mg/kg). In two groups, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle or fennel (250µl/kg), followed 1 h later by intratracheal instillation of sterile saline. Mice were sacrificed 4 h later, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues were obtained. Fennel significantly and dose-dependently reduced LDH activity and immune cell numbers in LPS treated mice. In addition fennel effectively suppressed the LPS-induced increases in the production of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, with 500µl/kg fennel showing maximal reduction. Fennel also significantly and dose-dependently reduced the activity of the proinflammatory mediator matrix metalloproteinase 9 and the immune modulator nitric oxide (NO). Assessments of the involvement of the MAPK signaling pathway showed that fennel significantly decreased the LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK. Fennel effectively blocked the inflammatory processes induced by LPS, by regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine production, transcription factors, and NO. PMID:25729281

  12. Vulgar Music and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Rock music, rap, and heavy metal are all forms of vulgar music. Vulgarity refers to actions and communication that are "common, noisy, and gross," and are "untranscendent." A technological society is a vulgar society in its base of materialism and exclusive concern with power. Its excessive rationality produces a need for escape, for ecstasy, for…

  13. Review of Pharmacological Properties and Chemical Constituents of Pimpinella anisum

    PubMed Central

    Shojaii, Asie; Abdollahi Fard, Mehri

    2012-01-01

    Pimpinella anisum (anise), belonging to Umbelliferae family, is an aromatic plant which has been used In Iranian traditional medicine (especially its fruits) as carminative, aromatic, disinfectant, and galactagogue. Because the wide traditional usage of Pimpinella anisum for treatment of diseases, in this review published scientific reports about the composition and pharmacological properties of this plant were collected with electronic literature search of GoogleScholar, PubMed, Sciencedirect, Scopus, and SID from 1970 to 2011. So far, different studies were performed on aniseeds and various properties such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, muscle relaxant, analgesic and anticonvulsant activity as well as different effects on gastrointestinal system have been reported of aniseeds. It can also reduce morphine dependence and has beneficial effects on dysmenorrhea and menopausal hot flashes in women. In diabetic patients, aniseeds showed hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect and reduce lipid peroxidation. The most important compounds of aniseeds essential oil were trans-anetole, estragole, γ-hymachalen, para-anisaldehyde and methyl cavicol. Due to broad spectrum of pharmacological effects, and very few clinical studies of Pimpinella anisum, more clinical trials are recommended to evaluate the beneficial effects of this plant in human models and synthesis of new drugs from the active ingredients of this plant in future. PMID:22848853

  14. Review of Pharmacological Properties and Chemical Constituents of Pimpinella anisum.

    PubMed

    Shojaii, Asie; Abdollahi Fard, Mehri

    2012-01-01

    Pimpinella anisum (anise), belonging to Umbelliferae family, is an aromatic plant which has been used In Iranian traditional medicine (especially its fruits) as carminative, aromatic, disinfectant, and galactagogue. Because the wide traditional usage of Pimpinella anisum for treatment of diseases, in this review published scientific reports about the composition and pharmacological properties of this plant were collected with electronic literature search of GoogleScholar, PubMed, Sciencedirect, Scopus, and SID from 1970 to 2011. So far, different studies were performed on aniseeds and various properties such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, muscle relaxant, analgesic and anticonvulsant activity as well as different effects on gastrointestinal system have been reported of aniseeds. It can also reduce morphine dependence and has beneficial effects on dysmenorrhea and menopausal hot flashes in women. In diabetic patients, aniseeds showed hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect and reduce lipid peroxidation. The most important compounds of aniseeds essential oil were trans-anetole, estragole, γ-hymachalen, para-anisaldehyde and methyl cavicol. Due to broad spectrum of pharmacological effects, and very few clinical studies of Pimpinella anisum, more clinical trials are recommended to evaluate the beneficial effects of this plant in human models and synthesis of new drugs from the active ingredients of this plant in future. PMID:22848853

  15. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum L. seeds on milk production in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Abedzadeh, Shirin; Taghiabadi, Elahe

    2014-08-01

    Pimpinella anisum L. (P. anisum) is used as a galactagogue in traditional medicine; hence, the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum seeds on milk production in rats was evaluated. The milk production was assessed by measuring the pups' weights during the suckling period. The intraperitoneal LD(50) values of P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 4.93 and 3.77 g/kg, respectively. The aqueous (1 g/kg) and ethanolic extracts (1 g/kg) increased the milk production significantly (p < 0.001), with about 68.1% and 81% more milk being produced, respectively, than in the control group. The pups gained weight during the study period with the aqueous (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.05) and ethanolic (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.01) extracts. Thus, P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts can increase milk production in rats. PMID:25151455

  16. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oils of Portuguese Foeniculum vulgare fruits.

    PubMed

    Mota, Ana S; Martins, M Rosário; Arantes, Sílvia; Lopes, Violeta R; Bettencourt, Eliseu; Pombal, Sofia; Gomes, Arlindo C; Silva, Lúcia A

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from fruits of six fennel accessions collected from wild populations occurring in the centre and south of Portugal. Composition of essential oils was established by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The obtained yields of the essential oils were found to vary greatly in the range of 1.1 to 2.9% (v/w) and the chemical composition varied with the region of collection. A total of 16 compounds were identified. The main compounds were fenchone (16.9 - 34.7%), estragole (2.5 - 66.0%) and trans-anethole (7.9 - 77.7%). The percentages of these three main compounds were used to determine the relationship between the different oil samples and to group them into four different chemotypes: anethole/fenchone; anethole; estragole and anethole/estragole. Antifungal activity of essential oils was evaluated against six food spoilage fungi: Aspergillus niger, A. japonicus, A. oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizophus oryzae and R. stolonifer. Antibacterial activity was assessed against three Gram-positive strains: Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and S. aureus ATCC 28213; and against six Gram-negative strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922; Morganella morganii LFG 08; Proteus mirabilis LFG 04; Salmonella enteritidis LFG 05; S. entiritidis serovar typhimurium LFG 06 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 by the disc diffusion agar method; the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the broth macro-dilution method. The MIC values varied from 62.5 (E. coli ATCC 25922) to 2000 µmL (P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853). PMID:25973507

  17. Sage (Salvia officinalis) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) improve cryopreserved boar epididymal semen quality study.

    PubMed

    Monton, A; Gil, L; Malo, C; Olaciregui, M; Gonzalez, N; de Blas, I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fennel and sage extracts and the influence of the egg yolk source (fresh or pasteurized) on the success of freezing boar epididymal spermatozoa. In experiment 1, epididymal sperm was recovered by flushing and cryopreserved in a lactose-egg yolk solution supplemented with various concentrations (10, 5 and 2.5 g/L) of sage or fennel. Sperm quality was evaluated (motility, viability, HOST and acrosome integrity) at 0 h and 2 h after thawing. Fennel 10 g/L and sage 5 g/L and control (no extracts) were selected for experiment 2 which also compared fresh or pasteurized egg yolk in the freezing extender and measured DNA integrity of the frozen sperm. Results showed that the interaction between fennel and sage antioxidants with fresh egg yolk significantly improved post thaw sperm quality and protected boar epididymal spermatozoa from cryopreservation damage as a result of oxidative stress. PMID:26017296

  18. Intake of selected bioactive compounds from plant food supplements containing fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) among Finnish consumers.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Liisa; Salmenhaara, Maija; Isoniemi, Merja; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Finglas, Paul; Plumb, Jenny; Tuominen, Pirkko; Savela, Kirsti

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the intake of selected bioactive compounds from fennel-containing plant food supplements (PFS) among Finnish consumers. The estimated average intake of estragole was 0.20mg/d, of trans-anethole 1.15mg/d, of rosmarinic acid 0.09mg/d, of p-coumaric acid 0.0068mg/d, of kaempferol 0.0034mg/d, of luteolin 0.0525μg/d, of quercetin 0.0246mg/d, of matairesinol 0.0066μg/d and of lignans 0.0412μg/d. The intakes of kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin, matairesinol and lignans from PFS were low in comparison with their dietary supply. The intake of estragole was usually moderate, but a heavy consumption of PFS may lead to a high intake of estragole. The intake of trans-anethole did not exceed the acceptable daily intake, but PFS should be taken into account when assessing the total exposure. To our knowledge, this study provided the first intake estimates of trans-anethole, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid in human populations. PMID:26471600

  19. Antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects of methanolic extract and volatile oil of fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Ragaa Hosny; El-Bastawesy, Amal Mohamad; Abdel-Monem, Mohamad Gamil; Noor, Assmaa Mahmoud; Al-Mehdar, Hussain Abdel Rahman; Sharawy, Sabry Mohamad; El-Merzabani, Mahmuod Mohamad

    2011-09-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of fennel seed methanolic extract (FSME) for its antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antitumor activities and for its capacity to serve as a nontoxic radioprotector in Swiss albino mice. We also assessed the natural antioxidant compounds of FSME for use in industrial application. Cytotoxic activity of FSME was evaluated in a mouse model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and on different types of human cell lines in vitro. The safety and optimum dose of FSME were determined. FSME, 100 mg/kg, was injected intraperitoneally into mice bearing EAC before the mice were exposed to three 2-Gy doses of gamma irradiation. After 30 days, mice were fasted for 18 hours and then sacrificed to observe the lifespan of EAC-bearing hosts. Malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase activity, glutathione content, and total protein in serum, liver tissue, and ascitic fluid were determined. Iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin, and ferritin were also evaluated in serum. The data showed the presence of different types of compounds in FSME, such as flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, phenols, and sterols; estragole (71.099%) was the predominant alcohol, gallic acid was the phenolic compound (18.895%), and L-limonene was the most prevalent monoterpene hydrocarbon (11.967%). The mean±standard deviation 50% inhibitory concentrations were 50±0.03 μg/mL for the MCF7 breast cancer cell line and 48±022 μg/mL for the Hepg-2 liver cancer cell line. The significant increase in MDA levels and the significant decrease in catalase activity and glutathione content in liver and tumor tissue in mice bearing EAC were ameliorated after FSME administration. In contrast, total protein content was increased in ascitic fluid. Serum iron was inversely proportional to the levels of ferritin and transferrin and total iron-binding capacity. Administration of FSME before irradiation exerted a cytoprotective effect against gamma irradiation, as manifested by a restoration of the MDA level, catalase activity, and GSH content to near-normal levels. In conclusion, FSME may have remarkable anticancer potential against a breast cancer cell line (MCF7) and liver cancer cell line (Hepg-2). It also showed strong free radical-scavenging activity (100%). Thus, FSME may reduce oxidative stress and protect mouse cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species. In addition, it could be used as a safe, effective, and easily accessible source of natural antioxidants to improve the oxidative stability of fatty foods during storage. FSME also exhibited an antitumor effect by modulating lipid peroxidation and augmenting the antioxidant defense system in EAC-bearing mice with or without exposure to radiation. PMID:21812646

  20. Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of Pimpinella anisum in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Essential oil of Pimpinella anisum L. Apiaceae (anise oil) has been widely used in traditional Persian medicine to treat a variety of diseases, including some neurological disorders. This study was aimed to test the possible anti-seizure and anti-hypoxia effects of anise oil. Methods The effects of different concentrations of anise oil were tested on seizure attacks induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) injection and neuronal hypoxia induced by oxygen withdrawal as well as on production of dark neurons and induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in in vivo and in vitro experimental models of rat brain. Results Anise oil significantly prolonged the latency of seizure attacks and reduced the amplitude and duration of epileptiform burst discharges induced by injection of intraperitoneal PTZ. In addition, anise oil significantly inhibited production of dark neurons in different regions of the brain in epileptic rats. Anise oil also significantly enhanced the duration of the appearance of anoxic terminal negativity induced by oxygen withdrawal and inhibited induction of LTP in hippocampal slices. Conclusions Our data indicate the anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of anise oil, likely via inhibition of synaptic plasticity. Further evaluation of anise oil to use in the treatment of neurological disorders is suggested. PMID:22709243

  1. Ameliorative effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on immunohistochemical and ultrastuctural changes of cerebellum of albino rats induced by aspartame.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hamid, Manal; Gallaly, Sanaa Rida

    2014-05-01

    The study aims to investigate the protective effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on aspartame (ASP) which resulted in cerebellar changes. The rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1: (control group): served as control animals. Group 2: control P. anisum oil received .5 mL/kg/d/b wt. once daily. Group 3 (ASP group): received daily 250 mg/kg/b wt. of ASP dissolved in distilled water and given orally to the animals by intra-gastric tube for 2 months. Group 4: received .5 mL/kg/b wt. of prophylactic P. anisum oil once daily, followed by ASP after 2 h for 2 months. The histopathological approach revealed marked changes in the Purkinje cells, myleinated nerve fibers and granular cells of ASP-treated animals. Some of these cells appeared with deeply stained cytoplasm. Ultrastructural examination showed Purkinje cells with dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and condensed mitochondria. Granular cells appeared with less c nuclei and surrounded by dissolution of most Mossy rosettes structures. Most myelinated nerve fibers showed thickening of myelinated sheath and others showed splitting of their myelin sheath. The histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural alterations were much less observed in concomitant use of P. anisum oil with ASP. Cerebellar cortex is considered target areas of ASP neurotoxicity, while P. anisum oil, when used in combination with ASP displays a protective action against neurotoxicity. PMID:24684500

  2. Evaluation of antidepressant-like effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum fruit in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shahamat, Zahra; Abbasi-Maleki, Saeid; Mohammadi Motamed, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pimpinella anisum (P. anisum) has different pharmacological properties such as anticonvulsant, analgesic, tranquilizer, antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects. In this study the antidepressant-like effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum fruit in mice was investigated. Materials and Methods: Forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were used to determine the antidepressant effects of P. anisum (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) fruit extracts. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) and imipramine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) were used as standard drugs. Results: All the three doses of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (except 50 mg/kg of aqueous extract in FST) significantly and dose-dependently reduced the immobility times in both FST and TST. All doses of extracts increased the swimming time dose-dependently, without any significant change in climbing time. In addition, all doses of ethanolic extract reduced immobility times and increased swimming time insignificantly higher than aqueous extract. But, the two extracts decreased the duration of climbing time similarly. Fluoxetine and imipramine decreased immobility time in both tests. Fluoxetine increased the swimming time without modifying climbing time. In contrast, imipramine increased climbing time without any significant change in swimming time. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that P. anisum possesses an antidepressant-like activity similar to that of fluoxetine, which has a potential clinical value for application in the management of depression. PMID:27462555

  3. First report of bacterial streak of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) in California caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. apii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new bacterial streak disease appeared on fennel leaves, stems and bulbs grown in Salinas California production fields. Initial symptoms consisted of small black lesions on stems that spread down the stem to the bulbs and up the stem to leaves as the disease progressed. The disease rendered the pl...

  4. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Tea Drinking Suppresses Subjective Short-term Appetite in Overweight Women.

    PubMed

    Bae, JiYoung; Kim, JiEun; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2015-07-01

    Appetite controlling has been an main strategy for regulating food intake and energy balance in obesity treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of drinking tea of the medicinal herbs, fennel and fenugreek, on the subjective appetite in overweight Korean women. The study was conducted using a placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomized, and 3-way crossover design. Nine healthy women were given fennel tea (FT), fenugreek tea (FGT), or placebo tea (PT). After drinking a given tea, a lunch buffet was provided and then food consumption of subjects was analyzed. Subjective appetite, hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were measured at seven independent time point using a visual analog scale (VAS). Mean age of 9 subjects were 49.7 ± 4.5 years and their mean body mass index were 24.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2). There was no significant difference in food consumption in the lunch buffet after drinking each tea; however, with respect to the subjective appetite scale, FGT decreased hunger, led to less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). Similarly, the consumption of FT resulted in decreased hunger, less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). The area under the curve of VAS graph indicated that FGT resulted in a higher feeling of fullness than the PT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, drinking the FT and FGT were significantly effective aid to suppress subjective appetite among overweight women in South Korea. PMID:26251835

  5. In vitro antifungal activity and mechanism of essential oil from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) on dermatophyte species.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hong; Chen, Xinping; Liang, Jingnan

    2015-01-01

    Fennel seed essential oil (FSEO) is a plant-derived natural therapeutic against dermatophytes. In this study, the antifungal effects of FSEO were investigated from varied aspects, such as MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration, mycelia growth, spore germination and biomass. The results indicated that FSEO had potent antifungal activities on Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 40051, Trichophyton tonsurans 10-0400, Microsporum gypseum 44693-1 and Trichophyton mentagrophytes 10-0060, which is better than the commonly used antifungal agents fluconazole and amphotericin B. Flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy experiments suggested that the antifungal mechanism of FSEO was to damage the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles. Further study revealed that it could also inhibit the mitochondrial enzyme activities, such as succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and ATPase. With better antifungal activity than the commonly used antifungal agents and less possibility of inducing drug resistance, FSEO could be used as a potential antidermatophytic agent. PMID:25351709

  6. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Tea Drinking Suppresses Subjective Short-term Appetite in Overweight Women

    PubMed Central

    Bae, JiYoung; Kim, JiEun

    2015-01-01

    Appetite controlling has been an main strategy for regulating food intake and energy balance in obesity treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of drinking tea of the medicinal herbs, fennel and fenugreek, on the subjective appetite in overweight Korean women. The study was conducted using a placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomized, and 3-way crossover design. Nine healthy women were given fennel tea (FT), fenugreek tea (FGT), or placebo tea (PT). After drinking a given tea, a lunch buffet was provided and then food consumption of subjects was analyzed. Subjective appetite, hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were measured at seven independent time point using a visual analog scale (VAS). Mean age of 9 subjects were 49.7 ± 4.5 years and their mean body mass index were 24.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2. There was no significant difference in food consumption in the lunch buffet after drinking each tea; however, with respect to the subjective appetite scale, FGT decreased hunger, led to less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). Similarly, the consumption of FT resulted in decreased hunger, less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). The area under the curve of VAS graph indicated that FGT resulted in a higher feeling of fullness than the PT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, drinking the FT and FGT were significantly effective aid to suppress subjective appetite among overweight women in South Korea. PMID:26251835

  7. Allelopathic Plants. Hordeum vulgare L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an annual cereal and one of the first agricultural crops to be domesticated. It is a versatile crop and is broadly used as a food grain for human consumption, malt source for brewing, and feed grain for livestock. On-farm crop uses include pasture, a hay and silage sou...

  8. 21 CFR 182.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., black (black caraway) Nigella sativa L. Elder flowers Sambucus canadensis L. Fennel, common Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fennel, sweet (finocchio, Florence fennel) Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. duice (DC.)...

  9. 21 CFR 182.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., black (black caraway) Nigella sativa L. Elder flowers Sambucus canadensis L. Fennel, common Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fennel, sweet (finocchio, Florence fennel) Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. duice (DC.)...

  10. 21 CFR 182.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sativa L. Elder flowers Sambucus canadensis L. Fennel, common Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fennel, sweet (finocchio, Florence fennel) Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. duice (DC.) Alex. Fenugreek Trigonella...

  11. 21 CFR 582.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Elder flowers Sambucus canadensis L. Fennel, common Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fennel, sweet (finocchio, Florence fennel) Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. duice (DC.) Alex. Fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum...

  12. 21 CFR 182.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., black (black caraway) Nigella sativa L. Elder flowers Sambucus canadensis L. Fennel, common Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fennel, sweet (finocchio, Florence fennel) Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. duice (DC.)...

  13. 21 CFR 582.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Elder flowers Sambucus canadensis L. Fennel, common Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fennel, sweet (finocchio, Florence fennel) Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. duice (DC.) Alex. Fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum...

  14. 21 CFR 582.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Elder flowers Sambucus canadensis L. Fennel, common Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fennel, sweet (finocchio, Florence fennel) Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. duice (DC.) Alex. Fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum...

  15. 21 CFR 182.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., black (black caraway) Nigella sativa L. Elder flowers Sambucus canadensis L. Fennel, common Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fennel, sweet (finocchio, Florence fennel) Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. duice (DC.)...

  16. 21 CFR 582.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Elder flowers Sambucus canadensis L. Fennel, common Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fennel, sweet (finocchio, Florence fennel) Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. duice (DC.) Alex. Fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum...

  17. 21 CFR 582.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Elder flowers Sambucus canadensis L. Fennel, common Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fennel, sweet (finocchio, Florence fennel) Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. duice (DC.) Alex. Fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum...

  18. Isolation of terpenoids from Pimpinella anisum essential oil by high-performance counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Walasek, Magdalena; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Głowniak, Kazimierz

    2013-08-01

    High-performance counter-current chromatography was successfully used for the isolation and purification of terpenoid compounds from the essential oil of Pimpinella anisum L. A two-phase solvent system composed of n-heptane/methanol/ethyl acetate/water (5:2:5:2, v/v/v/v) was suitable for the purification of linalool, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, p-anisaldehyde, while n-heptane/methanol (1:1, v/v) was used for the isolation of anethole and foeniculin. A scale-up process from analytical to preparative was developed. Additionally, a stepwise gradient elution was applied and instead of two different runs, 40 min each, one 80 min separation was performed; although the time of separation remains the same, it was possible to repeat the efficiency even if the water-containing mobile phase was changed to a nonaqueous system. The obtained essential oil, as well as purified compounds, was analyzed by GC. A total of 0.64 mg of linalool, 0.52 mg of terpinen-4-ol, 0.10 mg of α-terpineol, 0.62 mg of p-anisaldehyde, 15 mg of anethole, and 2.12 mg of foeniculin were obtained from 210 mg of the essential oil of P. anisum L. in a short time with purities of 99, 98, 94, 93.54, 93, and 93.6%, respectively. PMID:23749680

  19. Phytotoxic activities of Mediterranean essential oils.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; Frei, Fernando; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2010-06-01

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae), Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae). The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation. PMID:20657443

  20. Pimpinella anisum in the treatment of functional dyspepsia: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshegir, S. Ashraffodin; Mazaheri, Mohammad; Ghannadi, Alireza; Feizi, Awat; Babaeian, Mahmoud; Tanhaee, Maryam; Karimi, Mehrdad; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Background: We aimed to evaluate the effects of Pimpinella anisum (anise) from Apiaceae family on relieving the symptoms of postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) in this double-blind randomized clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Totally, 107 patients attending the gastroenterology clinic, aged 18-65 years, diagnosed with PDS according to ROME III criteria and signed a written consent form were enrolled. They were randomized to receive either anise or placebo, blindly, for 4 weeks. Anise group included 47 patients and received anise powders, 3 g after each meal (3 times/day). Control group involved 60 patients and received placebo powders (corn starch), 3 gafter each meal (3 times/day). The severity of Functional dyspepsia (FD) symptoms was assessed by FD severity scale. Assessments were done at baseline and by the end of weeks 2, 4 and 12. Mean scores of severity of FD symptoms and the frequency distribution of patients across the study period were compared. Results: The age, sex, body mass index, smoking history, and coffee drinking pattern of the intervention and control groups were not significantly different. Mean (standard deviation) total scores of FD severity scale before intervention in the anise and control groups were 10.6 (4.1) and 10.96 (4.1), respectively (P = 0.6). They were 7.04 (4.1) and 12.30 (4.3) by week 2, respectively (P = 0.0001), 2.44 (4.2) and 13.05 (5.2) by week 4, respectively (P = 0.0001), and 1.08 (3.8) and 13.30 (6.2) by week 12, respectively (P = 0.0001). Conclusion: This study showed the effectiveness of anise in relieving the symptoms of postpartum depression. The findings were consistent across the study period at weeks 2, 4 and 12. PMID:25767516

  1. Studies on essential oils: part 10; antibacterial activity of volatile oils of some spices.

    PubMed

    Singh, G; Kapoor, I P S; Pandey, S K; Singh, U K; Singh, R K

    2002-11-01

    The essential oils extracted from the seeds of seven spices, Anethum graveolens, Carum capticum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum and Seseli indicum have been studied for antibacterial activity against eight pathogenic bacteria, causing infections in the human body. It has been found that the oil of C. capticum is very effective against all tested bacteria. The oil of C. cyminum and A. graveolens also gave similar results. These oils are equally or more effective when compared with standard antibiotics, at a very low concentration. PMID:12410554

  2. Fennel and anise as estrogenic agents.

    PubMed

    Albert-Puleo, M

    1980-12-01

    Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, and anise, Pimpinella anisum, are plants which have been used as estrogenic agents for millennia. Specifically, they have been reputed to increase milk secretion, promote menstruation, facilitate birth, alleviate the symptoms of the male climacteric, and increase libido. In the 1930s, some interest was shown in these plants in the development of synthetic estrogens. The main constituent of the essential oils of fennel and anise, anethole, has been considered to be the active estrogenic agent. However, further research suggests that the actual pharmacologically active agents are polymers of anethole, such as dianethole and photoanethole. PMID:6999244

  3. The effect of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) gel 3% in decreasing hair thickness in idiopathic mild to moderate hirsutism, A randomized placebo controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Akha, Ozra; Rabiei, Khadijeh; Kashi, Zahra; Bahar, Adele; Zaeif-Khorasani, Elham; Kosaryan, Mehrnoush; Saeedi, Majid; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Emadian, Omid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hirsutism is a common symptom presenting to primary care endocrinologists, gynecologists, and dermatologists. Management is usually a long and troublesome process. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of fennel topical gel on mild to moderate idiopathic hirsutism. Methods: The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out from 2009 to 2011, in Sari, Iran. Forty four women with mild to moderate idiopathic hirsutism were randomly divided to case and control groups, each group included 22 cases. The case group received fennel gel 3% and the control group received placebo. The effect of fennel gel 3% was defined as reduction of thickness of facial hair in micrometer by microscope in comparison with placebo. Measurements were performed at zero time and 24 weeks after treatment. This study was registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trial (www.irct.ir) with registration number 138901213672N1. Results: The mean age of patients was 26.9±6.7 and 25.6±4.3 years in case and control groups, respectively. Hair thickness was similar between the two groups before intervention. The hair thickness reduced from 97.9±31.5 to 75.6±26.7 micron in patients receiving fennel gel after 24 weeks (P<0.001). Four patients complained of itching (3 in case group) and 4 patients complained of irritation and itching (3 in case group). However, this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The study indicated that fennel gel 3% is effective in decreasing hair thickness in women with idiopathic mild to moderate hirsutism. PMID:24490010

  4. Inhibitory effect of different fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) samples and their phenolic compounds on formation of advanced glycation products and comparison of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Salami, Maryam; Rahimmalek, Mehdi; Ehtemam, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-12-15

    In this study, antioxidant, antibacterial and antiglycation properties of methanolic extracts of 23 fennel samples were evaluated and their major compounds were determined using HPLC analysis. The anti-glycative activity of extracts was evaluated in the bovine serum albumin (BSA)/glucose system. The level of glycation, conformational alterations and protein binding to RAGE receptors were assessed by Congo red binding assay and a brown staining method. Among samples, Kh1 from Iran possessed the highest TFC (14.8mgQUEg(-1)), TPC (262mg/g DW) and antioxidant activity (IC50=76μg/ml). The HPLC results revealed high variation in 23 fennel samples according to their major flavonoid (quercetin, apigenin and rutin) and phenolic (chlorogenic, caffeic and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) compounds. The antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts against four food-borne pathogens was also assessed. The seed extracts of Kh1 and En samples showed moderate to good inhibitory activities (MICs=62.5-125μg/ml) against three bacteria, as well as high anti-glycative activity. PMID:27451172

  5. Toxic effects of sub-chronic exposure of male albino rats to emamectin benzoate and possible ameliorative role of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, El-Sayed A; Galal, Azza A A

    2015-05-01

    Emamectin benzoate (EB) is an avermectin insecticide used extensively in pest control on vegetable and field crops. Few studies have been done for evaluating adverse effects of EB. In the current study, we evaluated the toxic effects of EB on male rats and the possible ameliorative role of fennel essential oil (FEO). Thirty two male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups. All groups were treated orally with distilled water (control group), 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW (FEO group), 2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (EB group), and 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW+2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (FEO+EB group) for 28 days. The obtained results showed that EB treatment resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, body weight gain, RBC count, Hb concentration, % PCV, MCV and MCHC. Moreover, EB significantly decreased total leukocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet count but significantly increased granulocyte count. EB markedly decreased total protein, albumin, globulin, IgG and IgM concentrations with a significant increase in TNF-α secretion. EB had a negative impact on the liver as it significantly increased ALT, ALP, and MDA, while decreasing SOD activity. Regarding to the histopathological examination, EB treatment induced coagulative necrosis and blood vessels congestion of the liver in treated rats. Furthermore, it resulted in depletion and necrosis of the white pulp of the spleen in treated rats. The co-administration of FEO with EB, however, improved the majority of parameters studied, suggesting that FEO is an important substance in decreasing toxic effects of EB. PMID:25935540

  6. Registration of the BISON genetic stocks in Hordeum vulgare L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A set of near-isogenic lines (NILs) was developed in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) at Oregon State University, and evaluated for resistance to barley stripe rust (BSR, incited by Puccinia striiformis f.sp. hordei) and agronomic potential. The NILs, henceforth the BISON lines (Barley stripe ...

  7. An in vivo and in vitro investigation on hepatoprotective effects of Pimpinella anisum seed essential oil and extracts against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Heidari, Reza; Razmjou, Mojtaba; Karimi, Forouzan; Moein, Mahmood Reza; Farshad, Omid; Akbarizadeh, Amin Reza; Shayesteh, Mohammad Reza Houshangi

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Protective effects of different extracts and essential oil from Pimpinella anisum L. seeds were examined against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity. The parameters such as serum transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase activity, hepatic glutathione content, liver lipid peroxidation and histopathological changes of liver were assessed as toxicity markers. In the in vitro model of this study, markers such as cell viability, cellular reduced and oxidized glutathione and lipid peroxidation in HepG2 cells were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Human liver cancer cell line HepG2 and male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with extracts and essential oil, and markers of hepatotoxicity were investigated. Results: The data revealed that the n-hexane extract, effectively attenuated CCl4-induced toxicity in both in vitro and in vivo models in current investigation. Conclusion: As the oxidative stress markers were ameliorated, it might be concluded that anise seed possesses protective effects probably due to its antioxidant constituents. PMID:25825639

  8. Bioactivity of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum essential oils and their major components against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Kimbaris, Athanasios C; Koliopoulos, George; Michaelakis, Antonios; Konstantopoulou, Maria A

    2012-12-01

    Mosquitoes constitute a severe health problem in many areas all over the world. There are many regions of the tropics and subtropics where mosquitoes are one of the main reasons for inhibiting the economic upgrade. Except nuisance, their medical importance is another matter of attention since mosquitoes are vectors for a wide variety of vector-borne diseases. Due to disadvantages of currently used chemical control methods, it is unavoidable to search for eco-friendly new molecules. We report herein the evaluation of the larvicidal effect exhibited by essential oils of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum against late third to early fourth instar mosquito larvae of Culex pipiens. Furthermore, phytochemical analysis of plant samples revealed their major compounds to be β-caryophyllene, eugenol, eucalyptol, α-terpinyl acetate, and (E)-anethole which were also tested for their potential larvicidal activity. For D. caryophyllus and L. sativum, this was the first report on the chemical composition of their essential oils. The essential oils of I. verum and P. anisum demonstrated high larvicidal activity with a LC(50) <18 mg L(-1). The other two essential oils of D. caryophyllus and L. sativum revealed moderate larvicidal activity, displaying a LC(50) value above 50 mg L(-1). Among the pure components, the most toxic were eugenol, (E)-anethole, and α-terpinyl acetate, with LC(50) values 18.28, 16.56, and 23.03 mg L(-1), respectively. Eucalyptol (1,8 cineole) and β-caryophyllene were inactive at concentrations even as high as 100 mg L(-1), showing the least significant activity against mosquito larvae. Results allow some rationalization on the relative importance of the major compounds regarding the larvicidal activity of selected essential oils and their potential use as vector control agents. PMID:22955447

  9. The vasorelaxant activity of marrubenol and marrubiin from Marrubium vulgare.

    PubMed

    El Bardai, Sanae; Morel, Nicole; Wibo, Maurice; Fabre, Nicolas; Llabres, Gabriel; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2003-01-01

    Crude extracts of the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare show a potent in vitro inhibition of KCl-induced contraction of rat aorta. Bio-guided fractionations, spectroscopic analysis and chemical derivatization revealed the furanic labdane diterpenes marrubenol and marrubiin as the most active compounds. PMID:12567286

  10. Marruboside, a new phenylethanoid glycoside from Marrubium vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Sahpaz, Sevser; Hennebelle, Thierry; Bailleul, François

    2002-06-01

    A new phenylethanoid glycoside, marruboside, has been isolated from the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare L. Its structure was established as 3,4-dihydroxy-beta-phenylethoxy-O-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)]-4-O-caffeoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. PMID:12049220

  11. Expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) during salinity stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a salt-tolerant crop species with considerable economic importance in salinity-affected arid and semiarid regions of the world. In this work, barley cultivar Morex was used for transcriptional profiling during salinity stress using a microarray containing ~22,750 prob...

  12. Isolation and pharmacological activity of phenylpropanoid esters from Marrubium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Sahpaz, Sevser; Garbacki, Nancy; Tits, Monique; Bailleul, Francois

    2002-03-01

    The isolation and identification of major phenylpropanoid esters from Marrubium vulgare: (+) (E)-caffeoyl-L-malic acid 1, acteoside 2, forsythoside B 3, arenarioside 4, ballotetroside 5, as well as their anti-inflammatory activity are reported for the first time. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of these five compounds on cyclooxygenase (Cox) catalysed prostaglandin biosynthesis activity. Only the glycosidic phenylpropanoid esters showed an inhibitory activity towards the Cox-2 enzyme and three of them: acteoside 2, forsythoside B 3, arenarioside 4, exhibited higher inhibitory potencies on Cox-2 than on Cox-1. These results are of interest, as Cox-2 is mainly associated with inflammation and the Cox-1 inhibition with adverse side effects often observed with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The occurrence of these phenylpropanoid esters could also explain some other pharmacological properties of M. vulgare. PMID:11849848

  13. Chemistry, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities of volatile oils and their components.

    PubMed

    De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2009-12-01

    The present paper reports the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of several essential oils and their components. Analysis showed that three oils (Carum carvi L., Verbena officinalis L. and Majorana hortensis L.) contained predominantly oxygenated monoterpenes, while others studied (Pimpinella anisum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) mainly contained anethole. C. carvi, V. officinalis and M. hortensis oils exhibited the most potent antioxidant activity, due their contents of carvacrol, anethole and estragol. Antibacterial action was assessed against a range of pathogenic and useful bacteria and fungi of agro-food interest. V. officinalis and C. carvi oils proved the most effective, in particular against Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Carvacrol proved most active against Escherichia coli, and completely inhibited the growth of Penicillium citrinum. The oils proved inactive towards some Lactobacilli strains, whereas single components showed an appreciable activity. These results may be important for use of the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products. PMID:20120118

  14. Essential oil diversity of European Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Lukas, Brigitte; Schmiderer, Corinna; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    This investigation focused on the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil compounds of European Origanum vulgare. Extracts of 502 individual O. vulgare plants from 17 countries and 51 populations were analyzed via GC. Extracts of 49 plants of 5 populations of Israeli Origanum syriacum and 30 plants from 3 populations of Turkish Origanum onites were included to exemplify essential oil characteristics of 'high-quality' oregano. The content of essential oil compounds of European O. vulgare ranged between 0.03% and 4.6%. The monoterpenes were primarily made up of sabinene, myrcene, p-cymene, 1,8-cineole, β-ocimene, γ-terpinene, sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, carvacrol methyl ether, linalyl acetate, thymol and carvacrol. Among the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, germacrene D-4-ol, spathulenol, caryophyllene oxide and oplopanone were often present in higher amounts. According to the proportions of cymyl-compounds, sabinyl-compounds and the acyclic linalool/linalyl acetate three different main monoterpene chemotypes were defined. The cymyl- and the acyclic pathway were usually active in plants from the Mediterranean climate whereas an active sabinyl-pathway was a characteristic of plants from the Continental climate. PMID:26454793

  15. Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis of Marrubiin in Marrubium vulgare L. via HPTLC Technique

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Keyvan; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Torbati, Mohammadali; Fathiazad, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study we aimed to quantify marrubiin, as the major active compound, in the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare from Iran using a HPTLC-densitometry technique. Methods: Quantitative determination of marrubiin in M. vulgare methanol extract was performed by HPTLC analysis via a fully automated TLC scanner. Later on, the in vitro antioxidant activity of the M. vulgare methanol extract was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Furthermore, total phenolics and flavonoids contents of the methanol extract were quantified, spectrophotometrically. Results: The amount of marrubiin was calculated as 156 mg/g of M. vulgare extract. The antioxidant assay revealed a strong radical scavenging activity for the M. vulgare methanol extract with RC50 value of 8.24μg/mL. Total phenolics and flavonoids contents for M. vulgare were determined as 60.4 mg gallic acid equivalent and 12.05 mg quercetin equivalent per each gram of the extract, correspondingly. Conclusion: The presented fingerprint of marrubiin in M. vulgare extract developed by HPTLC densitometry afforded a detailed chemical profile, which might be useful in the identification as well as quality evaluation of herbal medications based on M. vulgare. Besides, the considerable antioxidant activity of M. vulgare was associated with the presence of marrubiin along with phenolics and flavonoids exerting a synergistic effect. PMID:27123428

  16. An attempt of postharvest orange fruit rot control using essential oils from Mediterranean plants.

    PubMed

    Camele, Ippolito; De Feo, Vincenzo; Altieri, Luciana; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Luigi Rana, Gian

    2010-12-01

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested at different doses against four fungi known as causal agents of post-harvest orange fruit rot: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, Phytophthora citrophthora, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris (Family Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Family Verbenaceae), and Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Carum carvi (Family Apiaceae). Because preliminary in vitro experiments showed that only the oils from V. officinalis, T. vulgaris, and O. vulgare exhibited some fungistatic activity against the above-named fungi, these three essential oils were used in successive in vivo tests carried out to protect healthy "Washington navel" orange fruits from artificial infection by the same micromycetes. The essential oil of T. vulgaris, at a 2,000 ppm dose, controlled fruit rot by B. cinerea, P. citrophthora, and R. stolonifer but was ineffective against P. italicum. Essential oils of V. officinalis and O. vulgare inhibited infection by the first two fungi and only by P. citrophthora, respectively. This finding represents an important result, with the goal of using the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life. PMID:20874226

  17. Antibacterial activity against Clostridium genus and antiradical activity of the essential oils from different origin.

    PubMed

    Kačániová, Miroslava; Vukovič, Nenad; Horská, Elena; Salamon, Ivan; Bobková, Alica; Hleba, Lukáš; Fiskelová, Martina; Vatľák, Alexander; Petrová, Jana; Bobko, Marek

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the antimicrobial and antiradical activities of 15 essential oils were investigated. The antimicrobial activities were determined by using agar disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods against Clostridium genus and antioxidant properties of essential oils by testing their scavenging effect on DPPH radicals activities. We determined the antibacterial activity of Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium hystoliticum, Clostridium intestinale, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium ramosum. We obtained the original commercial essential oils samples of Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus montana, Mentha piperita, Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia montana, Origanum vulgare L. (2 samples), Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abies alba Mill., Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch and Thymus vulgaris L. produced in Slovakia (Calendula a.s., Nova Lubovna, Slovakia). The results of the disk diffusion method showed very high essential oils activity against all tested strains of microorganisms. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Pimpinella anisum, against C. hystoliticum was found at Pinus sylvestris, against C. intestinale was found at Satureia hortensis L., against C. perfringens was found at Origanum vulgare L. and against C. ramosum was found at Pinus sylvestris. The results of broth microdilution assay showed that none of the essential oils was active against C. hystoliticum. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. intestinale was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. perfringens was found at Satureia montana and against C. ramosum was found at Abius alba and Carum carvi. Antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity was determined at several solutions of oil samples (50 μL.mL(-1)-0.39 μL.mL(-1)) and the best scavenging effect for the highest concentration (50 μL.mL(-1)) was observed. The antioxidant properties

  18. Contact Toxicity and Repellency of the Main Components From the Essential Oil of Clausena anisum-olens Against Two Stored Product Insects.

    PubMed

    You, Chun Xue; Jiang, Hai Yan; Zhang, Wen Juan; Guo, Shan Shan; Yang, Kai; Lei, Ning; Ma, Ping; Geng, Zhu Feng; Du, Shu Shan

    2015-01-01

    The essential oil of Clausena anisum-olens (Blanco) Merr. showed strong contact toxicity and repellency against Lasioderma serricorne and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults. The components of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. It was found that the main components were myristicin (36.87%), terpinolene (13.26%), p-cymene-8-ol (12.38%), and 3-carene (3.88%). Myristicin and p-cymene-8-ol were separated by silica gel column chromatography, and their molecular structures were confirmed by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis. Myristicin and p-cymene-8-ol showed strong contact toxicity against L. serricorne (LD50 = 18.96 and 39.68 μg per adult) and Li. bostrychophila (LD50 = 20.41 and 35.66 μg per adult). The essential oil acting against the two grain storage insects showed LD50 values of 12.44 and 74.46 μg per adult, respectively. Myristicin and p-cymene-8-ol have strong repellent toxicity to Li. bostrychophila. PMID:26136499

  19. Phytochemical Profile and Evaluation of the Biological Activities of Essential Oils Derived from the Greek Aromatic Plant Species Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Pimpinella anisum and Fortunella margarita.

    PubMed

    Fitsiou, Eleni; Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Spyridopoulou, Katerina; Tiptiri-Kourpeti, Angeliki; Vamvakias, Manolis; Bardouki, Haido; Panayiotidis, Mihalis Ι; Galanis, Alex; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Chlichlia, Katerina; Pappa, Aglaia

    2016-01-01

    Natural products, known for their medicinal properties since antiquity, are continuously being studied for their biological properties. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of the volatile preparations of essential oils of the Greek plants Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil), Mentha spicata (spearmint), Pimpinella anisum (anise) and Fortunella margarita (kumquat). GC/MS analyses revealed that the major components in the essential oil fractions, were carvone (85.4%) in spearmint, methyl chavicol (74.9%) in sweet basil, trans-anethole (88.1%) in anise, and limonene (93.8%) in kumquat. We further explored their biological potential by studying their antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Only the essential oils from spearmint and sweet basil demonstrated cytotoxicity against common foodborne bacteria, while all preparations were active against the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Antioxidant evaluation by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity assays revealed a variable degree of antioxidant potency. Finally, their antiproliferative potential was tested against a panel of human cancer cell lines and evaluated by using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. All essential oil preparations exhibited a variable degree of antiproliferative activity, depending on the cancer model used, with the most potent one being sweet basil against an in vitro model of human colon carcinoma. PMID:27537869

  20. Contact Toxicity and Repellency of the Main Components From the Essential Oil of Clausena anisum-olens Against Two Stored Product Insects

    PubMed Central

    You, Chun Xue; Jiang, Hai Yan; Zhang, Wen Juan; Guo, Shan Shan; Yang, Kai; Lei, Ning; Ma, Ping; Geng, Zhu Feng; Du, Shu Shan

    2015-01-01

    The essential oil of Clausena anisum-olens (Blanco) Merr. showed strong contact toxicity and repellency against Lasioderma serricorne and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults. The components of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. It was found that the main components were myristicin (36.87%), terpinolene (13.26%), p-cymene-8-ol (12.38%), and 3-carene (3.88%). Myristicin and p-cymene-8-ol were separated by silica gel column chromatography, and their molecular structures were confirmed by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis. Myristicin and p-cymene-8-ol showed strong contact toxicity against L. serricorne (LD50 = 18.96 and 39.68 μg per adult) and Li. bostrychophila (LD50 = 20.41 and 35.66 μg per adult). The essential oil acting against the two grain storage insects showed LD50 values of 12.44 and 74.46 μg per adult, respectively. Myristicin and p-cymene-8-ol have strong repellent toxicity to Li. bostrychophila. PMID:26136499

  1. Pharmacokinetic Herb-Drug Interaction between Essential Oil of Aniseed (Pimpinella anisum L., Apiaceae) and Acetaminophen and Caffeine: A Potential Risk for Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Samojlik, Isidora; Petković, Stojan; Stilinović, Nebojša; Vukmirović, Saša; Mijatović, Vesna; Božin, Biljana

    2016-02-01

    Aniseed (Pimpinella anisum L., Apiaceae) and its essential oil (EO) have been widely used. Because there are some data about the impact of aniseed EO on drug effects, this survey aimed to assess the potential of pharmacokinetic herb-drug interaction between aniseed EO and acetaminophen and caffeine in mice. The chemical analysis (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) of aniseed EO has confirmed trans-anethole (87.96%) as the main component. The pharmacokinetic studies of intraperitoneally (i.p.) and orally applied acetaminophen (200 mg/kg) and caffeine (20 mg/kg) were performed in mice after 5 days of oral treatment with human equivalent dose of aniseed EO (0.3 mg/kg/day). The analysis of pharmacokinetic data showed that in the group treated by aniseed EO, the significant decrease in the peak plasma concentration of acetaminophen after oral application (p = 0.024) was revealed when compared with control group and the reduction of systemic exposure to the drug after oral application (74 ± 32% vs. 85 ± 35% in the control) was noted. The bioavailability of orally applied caffeine was also significantly decreased (p = 0.022) after the EO treatment in comparison with the control (57 ± 24% vs. 101 ± 29%). Therefore, the compromised therapeutic efficacy of acetaminophen and caffeine during the usage of aniseed EO preparations should be considered. PMID:26619825

  2. Crop residue and residue management effects on Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda: Armadillidiidae) populations and soybean stand densities.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W A; Alfaress, S; Whitworth, R J; McCornack, B P

    2012-10-01

    In general, Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille) are considered nonpests of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], but changes in soil conservation practices have shifted the pest status of this organism from an opportunistic to a perennial, early-season pest in parts of central Kansas. As a result, soybean producers that rotate with corn (Zea mays L.) under conservation tillage practices have resorted to removing excess corn residue by using controlled burns. In a 2-yr field study (2009-2010), we demonstrated that residue removal in burned compared with unburned plots (measured as previous crop residue weights) had minimal impact on numbers of live and dead A. vulgare, soybean seedling emergence, and isopod feeding damage over time. Specifically, removal of residue by burning did not result in higher emergence rates for soybean stands or less feeding damage by A. vulgare. In a separate study, we found that number of live A. vulgare and residue weights had no consistent relationship with seedling emergence or feeding damage. Furthermore, seedling emergence was not impacted by higher numbers ofA. vulgare in unburned plots, indicating that emergence in this study may have been influenced by factors other than A. vulgare densities. These studies demonstrate that removing residue through controlled burning did not impact seedling emergence in presence of A. vulgare and that residue and feeding damage to seedlings did not consistently relate to A. vulgare densities. Other factors that may have influenced a relationship between residue and live isopod numbers, such as variable moisture levels, are discussed. PMID:23156159

  3. Analgesic profile of hydroalcoholic extract obtained from Marrubium vulgare.

    PubMed

    de Souza, M M; de Jesus, R A; Cechinel-Filho, V; Schlemper, V

    1998-04-01

    Marrubium vulgare L. is a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to cure a variety of diseases. Recently we have demonstrated that a hydroalcoholic extract of this plant showed significant, nonspecific antispasmodic effects on isolated smooth muscle. In this report, we have investigated the possible analgesic effects of the same hydroalcoholic extract in different models of pain in mice. The results suggest that this extract exhibits significant analgesic activity, antagonizing chemically-induced acute pain. Such effects may be related to the presence of steroids and terpenes, which were detected by TLC analysis. PMID:23195761

  4. [Development of a vulgarity scale based on Ortega's "The revolt of the masses"].

    PubMed

    Hatori, Tsuyoshi; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Fujii, Satoshi

    2008-12-01

    This study developed a scale measuring the spiritual vulgarity of the masses, based upon Ortega's "The revolt of the masses" (1957). A questionnaire was constructed with forty items, based on Ortega's descriptions of the characteristics of the spiritual vulgarity of the masses. The questionnaire was completed by 200 university students. The results of factor analysis of the vulgarity measurements yielded two subscales; autistic attitude and contumelious attitude. The two scales were correlated with other existing measures of social values, which was further evidence of validity. PMID:19172911

  5. Antiurolithic activity of Origanum vulgare is mediated through multiple pathways

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Origanum vulgare Linn has traditionally been used in the treatment of urolithiasis. Therefore, we investigated the crude extract of Origanum vulgare for possible antiurolithic effect, to rationalize its medicinal use. Methods The crude aqueous-methanolic extract of Origanum vulgare (Ov.Cr) was studied using the in vitro and in vivo methods. In the in vitro experiments, supersaturated solution of calcium and oxalate, kidney epithelial cell lines (MDCK) and urinary bladder of rabbits were used, whereas, in the in vivo studies, rat model of urolithiasis was used for the study of preventive and curative effect. Results In the in vitro experiments, Ov.Cr exhibited a concentration-dependent (0.25-4 mg/ml) inhibitory effect on the slope of nucleation and aggregation and also decreased the number of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals (COM) produced in calcium oxalate metastable solutions. It also showed concentration-dependent antioxidant effect against DPPH free radical and lipid peroxidation induced in rat kidney tissue homogenate. Ov.Cr reduced the cell toxicity using MTT assay and LDH release in renal epithelial cells (MDCK) exposed to oxalate (0.5 mM) and COM (66 μg/cm2) crystals. Ov.Cr relaxed high K+ (80 mM) induced contraction in rabbit urinary bladder strips, and shifted the calcium concentration-response curves (CRCs) towards right with suppression of the maximum response similar to that of verapamil, a standard calcium channel blocker. In male Wistar rats receiving lithogenic treatment comprising of 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water given for 3 weeks along with ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) for the first 5 days, Ov.Cr treatment (10-30 mg/kg) prevented as well as reversed toxic changes including loss of body weight, polyurea, crystalluria, oxaluria, raised serum urea and creatinine levels and crystal deposition in kidneys compared to their respective controls. Conclusion These data indicating the antiurolithic activity in Ov.Cr, possibly mediated

  6. Protein profiling of hemocytes from the terrestrial crustacean Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Herbinière, Juline; Grève, Pierre; Strub, Jean-Marc; Thiersé, Danièle; Raimond, Maryline; van Dorsselaer, Alain; Martin, Gilbert; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2008-01-01

    To establish and maintain a successful infection, microbial pathogens have evolved various strategies to infect the host in the face of a functional immune system. In this context, the alpha-proteobacteria Wolbachia capacities to infect new host species have been greatly evidenced. Indeed, in terrestrial isopods, experimentally transferred Wolbachia invade all host tissues, including immune cells such as hemocytes. To investigate mechanisms that have to be avoided by bacteria to maintain themselves in hemocytes, we characterized the hemocyte proteome of Armadillidium vulgare by a 2D gel electrophoresis approach. Fifty-six proteins were identified and classified into functional groups (stress and immunity, glucose metabolisms, cytoskeleton, others). We focused on immune response and cytoskeleton proteins often exploited by bacteria to invade their host. From the microsequences obtained by mass spectrometry, PCR primers were designed to amplify seven partial cDNAs encoding masquerade, alpha2-macroglobulin, transglutaminase, MnSOD, calreticulin, cyclophilin, and vinculin, confirming their expression in hemocytes. PMID:18329099

  7. Chemical compositions and antioxidant properties of essential oils from nine species of Turkish plants obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and steam distillation.

    PubMed

    Topal, Ummihan; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu; Otles, Semih

    2008-01-01

    Chemical compositions and antioxidant activities of essential oils from nine different species of Turkish plants, namely Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Cuminum cyminum L., Piper nigrum L., Lavandula stoechas spp., Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum L., Thymus serpyllum and Liquidamber orientalis Mill., were studied. Essential oils were obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction and steam distillation, and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activities of SCCO2 extraction and steam distillation extracts were tested by means of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Essential oils extracted by SCCO2 and steam distillation showed different compositions in different species. In the DPPH assay, R. officinalis, C. cyminum, P. anisum, T. serpyllum and L. orientalis essential oils obtained by SCCO2 extraction showed higher antioxidant activity than steam distillation extracts, with radical scavenging activities ranging from 87.1 +/- 0.23% to 92.0 +/- 0.34% compared with the butylated hydroxytoluene positive control (91.4 +/- 0.21%). PMID:19382349

  8. Repellents in the Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica, against the pill-bug, Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Morisawa, Jun; Kim, Chul-Sa; Kashiwagi, Takehiro; Tebayashi, Shin-ichi; Horiike, Michio

    2002-11-01

    Sandaracopimarinol and (1S,6R)-2,7(14),10-bisabolatrien-1-ol-4-one were isolated and identified from Cryptomeria japonica as repellents against Armadillidium vulgare which is well known as an unpleasant pest in the house and as vegetable pest in Japan. These compounds strongly repelled A. vulgare when they were combined, although each compound alone did not show any activity. PMID:12506982

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare under Glutathione Reveals High Demand for Thiamin Transport and Antioxidant Protection

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qian; Zhang, Weiwen; Zhang, Lu; Qiao, Bin; Pan, Chensong; Yi, Hong; Wang, Lili; Yuan, Ying-jin

    2012-01-01

    Ketogulonicigenium vulgare, though grows poorly when mono-cultured, has been widely used in the industrial production of the precursor of vitamin C with the coculture of Bacillus megaterium. Various efforts have been made to clarify the synergic pattern of this artificial microbial community and to improve the growth and production ability of K. vulgare, but there is still no sound explanation. In previous research, we found that the addition of reduced glutathione into K. vulgare monoculture could significantly improve its growth and productivity. By performing SEM and TEM, we observed that after adding GSH into K. vulgare monoculture, cells became about 4–6 folds elongated, and formed intracytoplasmic membranes (ICM). To explore the molecular mechanism and provide insights into the investigation of the synergic pattern of the co-culture system, we conducted a comparative iTRAQ-2-D-LC-MS/MS-based proteomic analysis of K. vulgare grown under reduced glutathione. Principal component analysis of proteomic data showed that after the addition of glutathione, proteins for thiamin/thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) transport, glutathione transport and the maintenance of membrane integrity, together with several membrane-bound dehydrogenases had significant up-regulation. Besides, several proteins participating in the pentose phosphate pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle were also up-regulated. Additionally, proteins combating intracellular reactive oxygen species were also up-regulated, which similarly occurred in K. vulgare when the co-cultured B. megaterium cells lysed from our former research results. This study reveals the demand for transmembrane transport of substrates, especially thiamin, and the demand for antioxidant protection of K. vulgare. PMID:22384164

  10. Antioedematogenic effect of marrubiin obtained from Marrubium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Stulzer, Hellen K; Tagliari, Monika P; Zampirolo, Julio A; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Schlemper, Valfredo

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the antioedematogenic profile of marrubiin (1), the main constituent of Marrubium vulgare, a medicinal plant used in folk medicine of several countries to treat different pathologies. Compound (1) was analyzed in a model of microvascular leakage in mice ears. The results show that it exhibits significant and dose-related antioedematogenic effects. The results obtained for ID50 values (mg/kg, i.p.) and maximal inhibition (%) for the different phlogistic agents used were as follows: histamine (HIS, 13.84 mg/kg and 73.7%); (BK, 18.82 mg/kg and 70.0%); carrageenan (CAR, 13.61 mg/kg and 63.0%). The other phlogistic agonists, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), caused inhibition of less than 50%. In addition, (1) (100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the OVO-induced allergic edema in actively sensitized animals (maximal inhibition 67.6+/-4%). Our results demonstrate that the systemic administration of marrubiin exerts a non-specific inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory agent-induced microvascular extravasation of Evans blue in mouse ear. PMID:16846706

  11. Comparative proteomic analysis of experimental evolution of the Bacillus cereus-Ketogulonicigenium vulgare co-culture.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qian; Zou, Yang; Lv, Yajin; Song, Hao; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The microbial co-culture system composing of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare and Bacillus cereus was widely adopted in industry for the production of 2-keto-gulonic acid (2-KGA), the precursor of vitamin C. We found serial subcultivation of the co-culture could enhance the yield of 2-KGA by 16% in comparison to that of the ancestral co-culture. To elucidate the evolutionary dynamics and interaction mechanisms of the two microbes, we performed iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analyses of the pure cultures of K. vulgare, B. cereus and their co-culture during serial subcultivation. Hierarchy cluster analyses of the proteomic data showed that the expression level of a number of crucial proteins associated with sorbose conversion and oligopeptide transport was significantly enhanced by the experimental evolution. In particular, the expression level of sorbose/sorbosone dehydrogenase was enhanced in the evolved K. vulgare, while the expression level of InhA and the transport efficiency of oligopeptides were increased in the evolved B. cereus. The decreased sporulating protein expression and increased peptide transporter expression observed in evolved B. cereus, together with the increased amino acids synthesis in evolved K. vulgare suggested that serial subcultivation result in enhanced synergistic cooperation between K. vulgare and B. cereus, enabling an increased production of 2-KGA. PMID:24619085

  12. Efficacy of Essential Oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on Echinococcus granulosus

    PubMed Central

    Pensel, P. E.; Maggiore, M. A.; Gende, L. B.; Eguaras, M. J.; Denegri, M. G.; Elissondo, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils against E. granulosus protoscoleces and cysts. Essential oils were added to the medium resulting in thymol final concentrations of 10 μg/mL. The essential oils had a time-dependent effect provoking the complete loss of protoscolex viability after 72 days of postincubation. The results were confirmed at the ultrastructure level. Loss of infectivity in protoscoleces incubated with O. vulgare after 60 days was observed. On the other hand, the weight of cysts recorded in mice inoculated with T. vulgaris treated protoscoleces was significantly lower than that obtained in control group. Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase activity was readily detected in the culture supernatant of protoscoleces treated either with the essential oils or thymol. T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils and thymol can induce cell apoptosis of protoscoleces after short incubation times. The efficacy of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils was also demonstrated in vitro on E. granulosus murine cysts. Our data suggest that essential oils of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare have anthelmintic effect against protoscoleces and cysts of E. granulosus. PMID:25180033

  13. Evidence for a new feminizing Wolbachia strain in the isopod Armadillidium vulgare: evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Cordaux, R; Michel-Salzat, A; Frelon-Raimond, M; Rigaud, T; Bouchon, D

    2004-07-01

    Wolbachia are intracellular maternally inherited alpha-Proteobacteria infecting a wide range of arthropods. In the common pill bug Armadillidium vulgare, the known Wolbachia strain is responsible for feminization of genetic males. We have investigated Wolbachia diversity in 20 populations of A. vulgare from west and east Europe, north Africa and north America. A new Wolbachia strain (wVulM) was identified through the variability of the wsp gene, distantly related to that previously known (wVulC) in this host species. No individual with multiple infections was detected. Inoculation experiments indicated that the new wVulM bacterial strain also induces feminization in A. vulgare. However, the wVulC strain showed a higher transmission rate than the wVulM strain and was the most geographically widespread Wolbachia in A. vulgare populations. Mitochondrial 16SrDNA gene sequencing was conducted in Wolbachia-infected individuals, revealing the occurrence of four host lineages. The comparison of bacterial strains and their respective host mitochondrial phylogenies failed to show concordance, indicating horizontal transmission of the Wolbachia strains within populations of A. vulgare. PMID:15138452

  14. Hepatoprotective activity of white horehound (Marrubium vulgare) extract against cyclophosphamide toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ettaya, Amani; Dhibi, Sabah; Samout, Noura; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-04-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of Marrubium vulgare against cyclophosphamide toxicity in Wistar rats was evaluated. Adult male rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 each: a control group, a group injected with cyclophosphamide (150 mg·kg(-1)) for 3 days, a group orally given a M. vulgare aqueous extract ((500 mg of dry leaves)·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 30 days then treated with cyclophosphamide, and a group receiving only M. vulgare for 30 days. After 33 days of treatment, activities of alanine amino transferase (ALAT), aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in serum. Moreover, lipid peroxidation level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in liver. Alterations of these hepatic biomarkers and increased lipid peroxidation confirmed cyclophosphamide-induced liver toxicity. Cyclophosphamide also decreased the enzymatic defense system against oxidative stress. However, when this drug was administered in rats given M. vulgare extract, all the biological parameters underwent much less alteration. Administration of M. vulgare extract was found to be beneficial by attenuating cyclophosphamide-induced liver damage. The protective effect of the plant is mainly attributed to its antioxidant properties and the existence of phenolic acids and flavonoids, as highlighted by HPLC-based analysis. PMID:26886858

  15. Cloning and characterization of four B-hordein genes from Tibetan hull-less barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare).

    PubMed

    Han, Zhao-Xue; Qian, Gang; Pan, Zhi-Fen; Deng, Guang-Bing; Wu, Fang; Tang, Ya-Wei; Qiang, Xiao-Lin; Yu, Mao-Qun

    2006-10-01

    Four B-hordein genes, designated BH1-BH4, were cloned using PCR amplification from two hull-less barley cultivars, ZQ7239 and ZQ148, collected from Tibet. The results of sequencing indicated that BH1-BH4 contained complete open reading frames (ORFs). Comparison of their predicted polypeptide sequences with the published sequences suggested that they all share the same basic protein structure. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the deduced amino-acid sequences of BH1-BH4 genes were more closely related to B-hordeins from cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) than to any other prolamins from wild barley and Aegilops tauschii. Comparison of the coding regions of BH1-BH4 genes showed that BH1 had a lower sequence identity to other previously published B-hordeins than the other three B-hordeins obtained in this study. BH1 was then cloned in a bacterial expression vector based on bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. The resulting plasmid produced a 28.15 kDa protein in Escherichia coli. The potential value of B-hordein genes in grain quality improvement of hull-less barley has been discussed. PMID:17046594

  16. Insights into mutualism mechanism and versatile metabolism of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare Hbe602 based on comparative genomics and metabolomics studies.

    PubMed

    Jia, Nan; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Du, Jin; Pan, Cai-Hui; Tian, Geng; Lang, Ji-Dong; Fang, Jian-Huo; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Ketogulonicigenium vulgare has been widely used in vitamin C two steps fermentation and requires companion strain for optimal growth. However, the understanding of K. vulgare as well as its companion strain is still preliminary. Here, the complete genome of K. vulgare Hbe602 was deciphered to provide insight into the symbiosis mechanism and the versatile metabolism. K. vulgare contains the LuxR family proteins, chemokine proteins, flagellar structure proteins, peptides and transporters for symbiosis consortium. Besides, the growth state and metabolite variation of K. vulgare were observed when five carbohydrates (D-sorbitol, L-sorbose, D-glucose, D-fructose and D-mannitol) were used as carbon source. The growth increased by 40.72% and 62.97% respectively when K. vulgare was cultured on D-mannitol/D-sorbitol than on L-sorbose. The insufficient metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids and vitamins is the main reason for the slow growth of K. vulgare. The combined analysis of genomics and metabolomics indicated that TCA cycle, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were significantly up-regulated when K. vulgare was cultured on the D-mannitol/D-sorbitol, which facilitated the better growth. The present study would be helpful to further understand its metabolic structure and guide the engineering transformation. PMID:26979567

  17. Insights into mutualism mechanism and versatile metabolism of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare Hbe602 based on comparative genomics and metabolomics studies

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Nan; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Du, Jin; Pan, Cai-Hui; Tian, Geng; Lang, Ji-Dong; Fang, Jian-Huo; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Ketogulonicigenium vulgare has been widely used in vitamin C two steps fermentation and requires companion strain for optimal growth. However, the understanding of K. vulgare as well as its companion strain is still preliminary. Here, the complete genome of K. vulgare Hbe602 was deciphered to provide insight into the symbiosis mechanism and the versatile metabolism. K. vulgare contains the LuxR family proteins, chemokine proteins, flagellar structure proteins, peptides and transporters for symbiosis consortium. Besides, the growth state and metabolite variation of K. vulgare were observed when five carbohydrates (D-sorbitol, L-sorbose, D-glucose, D-fructose and D-mannitol) were used as carbon source. The growth increased by 40.72% and 62.97% respectively when K. vulgare was cultured on D-mannitol/D-sorbitol than on L-sorbose. The insufficient metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids and vitamins is the main reason for the slow growth of K. vulgare. The combined analysis of genomics and metabolomics indicated that TCA cycle, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were significantly up-regulated when K. vulgare was cultured on the D-mannitol/D-sorbitol, which facilitated the better growth. The present study would be helpful to further understand its metabolic structure and guide the engineering transformation. PMID:26979567

  18. [In vitro effect of Hordeum vulgare on the crystallization of calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite)].

    PubMed

    Djaroud, Samira; Harrache, Djamila; Amar, Amina

    2012-01-01

    The recommended conservative treatment of hyperoxaluria is mainly based on hyperhydration and ingestion of inhibitors of crystallization. In accordance with this context, the aim of this study was to determine the in vitro effect of Hordeum vulgare on calcium oxalate crystallization oxalo-dependent. The crystallization of calcium oxalate monohydrate in supersaturated aqueous solution at 37 °C, was followed in a model turbidimetric continuous in a closed system. The proposed model is very good reproducibility (CV < 10%), crystallization was monitored continuously in the presence of Hordeum vulgare at different concentrations (0.0625 to 1 g/L). The comparison of turbidimetric parameters, that characterize the growth stage of monohydrated oxalate calcium crystals and observation of the crystals obtained at the end of crystallization into scanning electron microscopy, have been able to demonstrate the inducing effect of Hordeum vulgare to 0.0625 g/L and a slight inhibitory effect at the others concentrations. PMID:23207820

  19. Composition and antiproliferative effect of essential oil of Origanum vulgare against tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Begnini, Karine Rech; Nedel, Fernanda; Lund, Rafael Guerra; Carvalho, Pedro Henrique de Azambuja; Rodrigues, Maria Regina Alves; Beira, Fátima Tereza Alves; Del-Pino, Francisco Augusto Burkert

    2014-10-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death and is responsible for one in eight deaths worldwide. The use of herbs as complementary medicine for cancer, especially advanced cancer, has recently increased. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro, the antiproliferative effect of Origanum vulgare against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29). The essential oil (EO) was extracted from a bought amount of O. vulgare dried leaves and analyzed in a gas chromatograph interfaced with a mass selective detector. The cytotoxicity test was performed by sulforhodamine B assay. The results show that the EO is composed mostly of 4-terpineol and induces a high cytotoxicity effect in HT-29. In the MCF-7 cell line the EO was less effective. In conclusion, this study showed that O. vulgare main component is 4-terpineol and was effective in inducing cancer cell growth inhibition. PMID:25230257

  20. Lysine Biosynthesis in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Birger Lindberg

    1974-01-01

    Lysine biosynthesis in seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Emir) was studied by direct injection of the following precursors into the endosperm of the seedlings: acetate-1-14C; acetate-2-14C; pyruvate-1-14C; pyruvate-2-14C; pyruvate-3-14C; alanine-1-14C; aspartic acid-1-14C; aspartic acid-2-14C; aspartic acid-3-14C; aspartic acid-4-14C; α-aminoadipic acid-1-14C; and α, ε-diaminopimelic acid-1-(7)-14C. The distribution of activity in the individual carbon atoms of lysine in the different biosynthetic experiments was determined by chemical degradation. The incorporation percentages and labeling patterns obtained are in agreement with the occurrence of the diaminopimelic acid pathway. The results do not fit the incorporation percentages and labeling patterns expected if the α-aminoadipic acid pathway was operating. However, the results show that barley seedlings are able to convert a small part of the α-aminoadipic acid administered directly to lysine. The labeling pattern of lysine was found to be symmetrical around carbon 4. This indicates that the biosynthetic pathway proceeds via a symmetrical intermediate like ll-α, ε-diaminopimelic acid, or includes compounds as 2, 3-dihydrodipicolinic acid or Δ1-piperideine-2, 6-dicarboxylic acid which probably isomerise with concomitant lack of asymmetry in the labeling. The percentages of incorporation show that both the mesoand ll-forms of α, ε-diaminopimelic acid are metabolically convertible to lysine in seedlings of barley. PMID:16658942

  1. Growth retardation and elemental differences in juvenile Armadillidium vulgare latreille exposed to lead nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, M.; Heisey, R.; Witkus, R. ); Vernon, G.M. )

    1992-01-01

    Although it is well established that isopods store heavy metals, especially zinc, cadmium, lead and copper, there is relatively little known about the effects of these metals on the isopod. The literature is sparse relating to the effects of non-essential heavy metals on concentrations of essential elements in isopods. The contaminated isopods assimilated insignificant concentrations of lead in their tissues. In a recent study adult A. vulgare exposed to lead sequestered copper and zinc in the hepatopancreas to levels far above the controls. In the present study, the effect of lead nitrate on A. vulgare recently released from the brood pouch was examined.

  2. Antispasmodic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Marrubium vulgare on isolated tissues.

    PubMed

    Schlemper, V; Ribas, A; Nicolau, M; Cechinel Filho, V

    1996-09-01

    Marrubium vulgare is a medicinal plant used in Brazil and in many countries in folk medicine against several diseases, including gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of the roots and aerial parts of M. vulgare in several smooth muscle preparations in vitro. The results showed that this extract exert a significant antispasmodic activity which inhibits the action of some neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine, bradykinin, prostaglandin E(2), histamine and oxytocin, with putative selectivity for cholinergic contractions. These findings support the popular use in folk medicine of this plant as an antispasmodic. PMID:23194972

  3. Optimization of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid extraction from oregano herbs (Origanum onites L., Origanum vulgare spp. hirtum and Origanum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Baranauskaitė, Justė; Jakštas, Valdas; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Kopustinskienė, Dalia M; Drakšienė, Gailutė; Masteikova, Ruta; Bernatonienė, Jurga

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to increase the extraction efficiency of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid from the different species of oregano herbs (Origanum onites L., Origanum vulgare spp. hirtum and Origanum vulgare L.). Various extraction methods (ultrasound-assisted, heat-reflux, continuous stirring, maceration, percolation) and extraction conditions (different solvent, material:solvent ratio, extraction temperature, extraction time) were used, and the active substances were determined by HPLC. The lowest content of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid was obtained by percolation. During heat-reflux extraction, the content of active substances depended on the solvent used: ethanol/non-aqueous solvent (glycerol or propylene glycol) mixture was more effective compared with ethanol alone. The results showed that for each species of oregano the most optimal extraction method should be selected to maximize the content of biologically active substances in the extracts. PMID:25942003

  4. Empirical prediction and validation of antibacterial inhibitory effects of various plant essential oils on common pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Akdemir Evrendilek, Gulsun

    2015-06-01

    In this study, fractional compound composition, antioxidant capacity, and phenolic substance content of 14 plant essential oils-anise (Pimpinella anisum), bay leaves (Laurus nobilis), cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum verum), clove (Eugenia caryophyllata), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), hop (Humulus lupulus), Istanbul oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum), Izmir oregano (Origanum onites), mint (Mentha piperita), myrtus (Myrtus communis), orange peel (Citrus sinensis), sage (Salvia officinalis), thyme (Thymbra spicata), and Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum)--were related to inhibition of 10 bacteria through multiple linear or non-linear (M(N)LR) models-four Gram-positive bacteria of Listeria innocua, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis, and six Gram-negative bacteria of Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Klebsiella oxytoca. A total of 65 compounds with different antioxidant capacity, phenolic substance content and antibacterial properties were detected with 14 plant essential oils. The best-fit M(N)LR models indicated that relative to anise essential oil, the essential oils of oreganos, cinnamon, and thyme had consistently high inhibitory effects, while orange peel essential oil had consistently a low inhibitory effect. Regression analysis indicated that beta-bisabolene (Turkish and Istanbul oreganos), and terpinolene (thyme) were found to be the most inhibitory compounds regardless of the bacteria type tested. PMID:25764982

  5. Molluscicidal and Mosquitocidal activities of the essential oils of Thymus capitatus Hoff. et Link. and Marrubium vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Salama, Maha M; Taher, Eman E; El-Bahy, Mohamed M

    2012-01-01

    Steam distillation of essential oils of aerial parts of Thymus capitatus and Marrubium vulgare L. collected at North cost of Egypt yielded 0.5% and 0.2%, respectively. Results of Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the two samples identified 96.27% and 90.19% of the total oil composition for T. capitatus and M. vulgare, respectively. The two oil samples appeared dominated by the oxygenated constituents (88.22% for T. capitatus and 57.50% for M. vulgare), composed of phenols, mainly carvacrol (32.98%) and thymol (32.82%) in essential oil of T. capitatus, and thymol (34.55%) in essential oil of M. vulgare. It was evaluated the molluscicidal activity of T. capitatus and M. vulgare essential oils on adult and eggs of Biomphalaria alexandrina as well as their mosquitocidal activity on Culex pipiens. The LC50 and LC90 of T. capitatus essential oil against adult snails was 200 and 400 ppm/3hrs, respectively, while for M. vulgare it was 50 and 100 ppm/3hrs, respectively. Moreover, M. vulgare showed LC100 ovicidal activity at 200 ppm/24 hrs while T. capitatus oil showed no ovicidal activity. It was verified mosquitocidal activity, with LC50 and LC90 of 100 and 200 ppm/12hrs respectively for larvae, and 200 and 400 ppm/12hrs respectively for pupae of C. pipiens. PMID:22983292

  6. Rumen fermentation and production effects of Origanum vulgare L. leaves in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A lactating cow trial was conducted to study the effects of dietary addition of oregano leaf material (Origanum vulgare L.; 0, control vs. 500 g/d, OV) on ruminal fermentation, methane production, total tract digestibility, manure gas emissions, N metabolism, organoleptic characteristics of milk, an...

  7. Genetic dissection of grain beta-glucan and amylose content in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High beta glucan (BG) barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) have major potential as food ingredients due to the well know health benefits. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with BG have been reported in hulled barley, however no QTL studies have been reported in hulless barley. In this study, QTL an...

  8. Role of Phenolic Acids in Expression of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Autotoxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of phenolic acids in autotoxicity of four barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties was investigated using radicle growth bioassays and analytical techniques. Total phenolic content of barley plant components varied within and between varieties during the 1999-2002 growing seasons. Inhibition o...

  9. The discovery of resistant sources of spring barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and unique greenbug biotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schiazphis graminum Ronani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for resistance to greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild...

  10. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for the isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare and transferability in terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Isabelle; Valette, Victorien; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric; Cordaux, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Armadillidium vulgare is a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea, Oniscidea) which harbors Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts. A. vulgare is the major model for the study of Wolbachia-mediated feminization of genetic males in crustaceans. As a consequence of their impact on host sex determination mechanisms, Wolbachia endosymbionts are thought to significantly influence A. vulgare evolution on various grounds, including population genetic structure, diversity and reproduction strategies. To provide molecular tools for examining these questions, we isolated microsatellite loci through 454 pyrosequencing of a repeat-enriched A. vulgare genomic library. We selected 14 markers and developed three polymorphic microsatellite multiplex kits. We tested the kits on two A. vulgare natural populations and found high genetic variation, thereby making it possible to investigate the impact of Wolbachia endosymbionts on A. vulgare nuclear variation at unprecedented resolution. In addition, we tested the transferability of these kits by cross-species amplification in five other terrestrial isopod species harboring Wolbachia endosymbionts. The microsatellite loci showed good transferability in particular in Armadillidium nasatum and Chaetophiloscia elongata, for which these markers represent promising tools for future genetic studies. PMID:24098543

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci for the Isopod Crustacean Armadillidium vulgare and Transferability in Terrestrial Isopods

    PubMed Central

    Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric; Cordaux, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Armadillidium vulgare is a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea, Oniscidea) which harbors Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts. A. vulgare is the major model for the study of Wolbachia-mediated feminization of genetic males in crustaceans. As a consequence of their impact on host sex determination mechanisms, Wolbachia endosymbionts are thought to significantly influence A. vulgare evolution on various grounds, including population genetic structure, diversity and reproduction strategies. To provide molecular tools for examining these questions, we isolated microsatellite loci through 454 pyrosequencing of a repeat-enriched A. vulgare genomic library. We selected 14 markers and developed three polymorphic microsatellite multiplex kits. We tested the kits on two A. vulgare natural populations and found high genetic variation, thereby making it possible to investigate the impact of Wolbachia endosymbionts on A. vulgare nuclear variation at unprecedented resolution. In addition, we tested the transferability of these kits by cross-species amplification in five other terrestrial isopod species harboring Wolbachia endosymbionts. The microsatellite loci showed good transferability in particular in Armadillidium nasatum and Chaetophiloscia elongata, for which these markers represent promising tools for future genetic studies. PMID:24098543

  12. Agronomic, metabolomic and lipidomic characterisation of Sicilian Origanum vulgare (L.) ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Martinelli, Federico; Mariotti, Lorenzo; Leto, Claudio; Maggio, Antonella; La Bella, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Although Origanum vulgare (L.) has been deeply analysed at phytochemical level, poor knowledge is available regarding non-volatile compounds such as lipids. The aim of this work was to characterise five wild Sicilian Origanum ecotypes from an agronomic, metabolomic and lipidomic perspective. Serradifalco presented higher dry weight and inflorescences/plant than the others while Favara had a significantly higher number of branches per plant and more extensive flowered stratum. Metabolomic analysis, performed with LC-MS-TOF, allowed a preliminary characterisation of the non-volatile metabolome of the five oregano ecotypes Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum. Twenty-five metabolites were identified belonging to organic acids, amino acids, lysophosphatidylcholines, carnithines, nucleic bases and lysophosphatidylethanolamines. Lipidomic analysis identified 115 polar plant membrane glycerolipid species. Thirteen of them were differentially present in the two chosen ecotypes. The role of these metabolites in plant physiology from a qualitative and pharmacological point of view was discussed. PMID:26540480

  13. Time measurement in the photoperiodic induction of sexual rest in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille).

    PubMed

    Nasri-Ammar, K; Souty-Grosset, C; Mocquard, J P

    2001-08-01

    The photoperiodic control of sexual rest in Armadillidium vulgare was investigated using various experimental protocols. When reared in conditions of a Nanda-Hamner (i.e. resonance) protocol from their first parturial moult to their post experimental moult, females showed a weak resonance effect in sexual rest incidence. The transfer from a long day cycle to a symmetrical skeleton photoperiod--consisting of two equal light pulses per 24 h of continuous darkness--revealed the involvement of a circadian oscillatory system in the photoperiodic clock of this species. The data, obtained in the whole experiments, suggested that both oscillator and hourglass features are involved in the photoperiodic response controlling the sexual rest in Armadillidium vulgare. Moreover, when non-24-h light-dark cycles (with a long photophase) were applied, a mechanism responsible of arrest of reproduction also implied a photoperiodic counter which accumulated and added up the photoperiodic information within a sensitive period during post parturial intermoult. PMID:11510415

  14. Dataset for transcriptional response of barley (Hordeum vulgare) exposed to drought and subsequent re-watering.

    PubMed

    Kokáš, Filip; Vojta, Petr; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an economically important species, which can be cultivated in environmentally adverse conditions due to its higher tolerance in contrast to other cereal crops. The draft of H. vulgare genome is available already for couple of years; however its functional annotation is still incomplete. All available databases were searched to expand current annotation. The improved annotation was used to describe processes and genes regulated in transgenic lines showing higher tolerance to drought in our associated article, doi:10.1016/j.nbt.2016.01.010 (Vojta et al., 2016) [1]. Here we present whole transcriptome response, using extended annotation, to severe drought stress and subsequent re-watering in wild-type barley plants in stem elongation phase of growth. Up- and down-regulated genes fall into distinct GO categories and these enriched by stress and revitalization are highlighted. Transcriptomic data were evaluated separately for root and aerial tissues. PMID:27331111

  15. Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf: An Extensive Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Quality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Veni; Vasudeva, Neeru

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Standardization and detailed pharmacognostical studies of Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf for authentication and commercial utilization. Methods: Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf was with standardization according to standard procedures described in WHO, 2011 and I.P. 1996. Results: The physicochemical parameters total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and sulphated ash were found to be 11.5%, 11%, 5, 10.5% w/w respectively. Foaming index was found be <100. The trace elements were found to be copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, cobalt, manganese, nickel and copper in ethanol extract and phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds etc. Conclusion: The standardization parameters viz. physico-chemical parameters, macroscopy, microscopy, taxonomy, anatomy and preliminary phytochemical screening, microbial and aflatoxin count, HPTLC profile is being reported to help in authentication and development of monograph of this plant. PMID:24312848

  16. Structure and evolution of the atypical mitochondrial genome of Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Marcadé, Isabelle; Cordaux, Richard; Doublet, Vincent; Debenest, Catherine; Bouchon, Didier; Raimond, Roland

    2007-12-01

    The crustacean isopod Armadillidium vulgare is characterized by an unusual approximately 42-kb-long mitochondrial genome consisting of two molecules co-occurring in mitochondria: a circular approximately 28-kb dimer formed by two approximately 14-kb monomers fused in opposite polarities and a linear approximately 14-kb monomer. Here we determined the nucleotide sequence of the fundamental monomeric unit of A. vulgare mitochondrial genome, to gain new insight into its structure and evolution. Our results suggest that the junction zone between monomers of the dimer structure is located in or near the control region. Direct sequencing indicated that the nucleotide sequences of the different monomer units are virtually identical. This suggests that gene conversion and/or replication processes play an important role in shaping nucleotide sequence variation in this mitochondrial genome. The only heteroplasmic site we identified predicts an alloacceptor tRNA change from tRNA(Ala) to tRNA(Val). Therefore, in A. vulgare, tRNA(Ala) and tRNA(Val) are found at the same locus in different monomers, ensuring that both tRNAs are present in mitochondria. The presence of this heteroplasmic site in all sequenced individuals suggests that the polymorphism is selectively maintained, probably because of the necessity of both tRNAs for maintaining proper mitochondrial functions. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for the tRNA gene recruitment model of tRNA evolution. Moreover, interspecific comparisons showed that the A. vulgare mitochondrial gene order is highly derived compared to the putative ancestral arthropod type. By contrast, an overall high conservation of mitochondrial gene order is observed within crustacean isopods. PMID:17906827

  17. Adaptive variation in offspring size in the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brody, M.S.; Lawlor, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Variation in the birth size of offspring of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was observed in laboratory experiments and in field populations. In the laboratory, larger offspring were produced when the mother's food supply was reduced. In field populations, larger offspring were produced during the summer, a period of reduced food availability. Smaller offspring are produced in the spring, when food is readily available. Females may be making larger young to increase survival during the more severe conditions of the summer breeding period.

  18. Feminizing Wolbachia: a transcriptomics approach with insights on the immune response genes in Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wolbachia are vertically transmitted bacteria known to be the most widespread endosymbiont in arthropods. They induce various alterations of the reproduction of their host, including feminization of genetic males in isopod crustaceans. In the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare, the presence of Wolbachia is also associated with detrimental effects on host fertility and lifespan. Deleterious effects have been demonstrated on hemocyte density, phenoloxidase activity, and natural hemolymph septicemia, suggesting that infected individuals could have defective immune capacities. Since nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in Wolbachia-A. vulgare interactions and its secondary immunocompetence modulation, we developed a transcriptomics strategy and compared A. vulgare gene expression between Wolbachia-infected animals (i.e., “symbiotic” animals) and uninfected ones (i.e., “asymbiotic” animals) as well as between animals challenged or not challenged by a pathogenic bacteria. Results Since very little genetic data is available on A. vulgare, we produced several EST libraries and generated a total of 28 606 ESTs. Analyses of these ESTs revealed that immune processes were over-represented in most experimental conditions (responses to a symbiont and to a pathogen). Considering canonical crustacean immune pathways, these genes encode antimicrobial peptides or are involved in pathogen recognition, detoxification, and autophagy. By RT-qPCR, we demonstrated a general trend towards gene under-expression in symbiotic whole animals and ovaries whereas the same gene set tends to be over-expressed in symbiotic immune tissues. Conclusion This study allowed us to generate the first reference transcriptome ever obtained in the Isopoda group and to identify genes involved in the major known crustacean immune pathways encompassing cellular and humoral responses. Expression of immune-related genes revealed a modulation of host immunity when females are

  19. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum. PMID:27513459

  20. Antiurolithiatic and antioxidant activity of Hordeum vulgare seeds on ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jignesh G.; Patel, Bharat G.; Patel, Sandip B.; Patel, Ravindra K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to investigate the antiurolithiatic and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Hordeum vulgare seeds (EHV) on ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Urolithiasis was produced in Wistar albino rats by adding 0.75% v/v ethylene glycol (EG) to drinking water for 28 days. The ethanolic extract of Hordeum vulgare seeds (EHV) was assessed for its curative and preventive action in urolithiasis. In preventive treatment, the EHV given from 1st day to 28th day, while in the curative regimen, the EHV was given from 15th day to 28th day. Various renal functional and injury markers such as urine volume, calcium, phosphate, uric acid, magnesium, urea, and oxalate were evaluated using urine, serum, and kidney homogenate. Antioxidant parameters such as lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were also determined. Results: The EHV treatment (both preventive and curative) increased the urine output significantly compared to the control. The EHV treatment significantly reduced the urinary excretion of the calcium, phosphate, uric acid, magnesium, urea, and oxalate and increased the excretion of citrate compared to EG control. The increased deposition of stone forming constituents in the kidneys of calculogenic rats were significantly lowered by curative and preventive treatment with EHV. It was also observed that the treatment with EHV produced significant decrease in lipid peroxidation, and increased levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Conclusion: These results suggest the usefulness of ethanolic extract of Hordeum vulgare seeds as an antiurolithiatic and antioxidant agent. PMID:23248392

  1. The role of Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda: Oniscidea) in litter decomposition and soil organic matter stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalodova, Alexandra; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Armadilidum vulgare is common terrestrial isopod in Europe which is also important invasive species in North America. In ienvasive range it can reach densities up to 10 000 individuals per m square, consume all litter fall and substantially effect litter mineralisation and nutrient release. Here we are focusing on the effects of A. vulgare feeding on organic matter decomposition and stabilization. During 65 weeks laboratory experiment we observed the microbial activity of intact leaf litter (Acer pseudoplatanus), faecal pellets of terrestrial isopods (Armadillidium vulgare) produced from the same litter and unconsumed residues of this litter. Simultaneously we compared the response of microbial activity of excrements and litter to changes of humidity, temperature and addition of easily decomposable substances. Microbial respiration of faecal pellets was lower than microbial respiration of intact leaf litter or unconsumed litter residues. At the same time moisture and temperature fluctuations and addition of easily decomposable substances led to much higher increase in respiration in litter than in faecal pellets. As a conclusion, processing of litter by soil macrofauna slowed down microbial respiration and made it less sensitive to environmental fluctuation. 13C NMR spectra from excrements indicated preferential loss of polysaccharide-carbon and accumulation of lignin with some modification to the O-aromatic-C. Thermochemolysis showed that not only amount of lignin increased in litter but also its quality changed. Guaiacyl units were depleted, which indicate breakdown of guaiacyl associated with gut passage.

  2. Multi-infections of feminizing Wolbachia strains in natural populations of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Valette, Victorien; Bitome Essono, Paul-Yannick; Le Clec'h, Winka; Johnson, Monique; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Maternally inherited Wolbachia (α-Proteobacteria) are widespread parasitic reproductive manipulators. A growing number of studies have described the presence of different Wolbachia strains within a same host. To date, no naturally occurring multiple infections have been recorded in terrestrial isopods. This is true for Armadillidium vulgare which is known to harbor non simultaneously three Wolbachia strains. Traditionally, such Wolbachia are detected by PCR amplification of the wsp gene and strains are characterized by sequencing. The presence of nucleotide deletions or insertions within the wsp gene, among these three different strains, provides the opportunity to test a novel genotyping method. Herein, we designed a new primer pair able to amplify products whose lengths are specific to each Wolbachia strain so as to detect the presence of multi-infections in A. vulgare. Experimental injections of Wolbachia strains in Wolbachia-free females were used to validate the methodology. We re-investigated, using this novel method, the infection status of 40 females sampled in 2003 and previously described as mono-infected based on the classical sequencing method. Among these females, 29 were identified as bi-infected. It is the first time that naturally occurring multiple infections of Wolbachia are detected within an individual A. vulgare host. Additionally, we resampled 6 of these populations in 2010 to check the infection status of females. PMID:24324814

  3. Multi-Infections of Feminizing Wolbachia Strains in Natural Populations of the Terrestrial Isopod Armadillidium Vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Valette, Victorien; Bitome Essono, Paul-Yannick; Le Clec’h, Winka; Johnson, Monique; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Maternally inherited Wolbachia (α-Proteobacteria) are widespread parasitic reproductive manipulators. A growing number of studies have described the presence of different Wolbachia strains within a same host. To date, no naturally occurring multiple infections have been recorded in terrestrial isopods. This is true for Armadillidium vulgare which is known to harbor non simultaneously three Wolbachia strains. Traditionally, such Wolbachia are detected by PCR amplification of the wsp gene and strains are characterized by sequencing. The presence of nucleotide deletions or insertions within the wsp gene, among these three different strains, provides the opportunity to test a novel genotyping method. Herein, we designed a new primer pair able to amplify products whose lengths are specific to each Wolbachia strain so as to detect the presence of multi-infections in A. vulgare. Experimental injections of Wolbachia strains in Wolbachia-free females were used to validate the methodology. We re-investigated, using this novel method, the infection status of 40 females sampled in 2003 and previously described as mono-infected based on the classical sequencing method. Among these females, 29 were identified as bi-infected. It is the first time that naturally occuring multiple infections of Wolbachia are detected within an individual A. vulgare host. Additionally, we resampled 6 of these populations in 2010 to check the infection status of females. PMID:24324814

  4. Biosynthesis of the labdane diterpene marrubiin in Marrubium vulgare via a non-mevalonate pathway.

    PubMed

    Knöss, W; Reuter, B; Zapp, J

    1997-09-01

    The biosynthesis of the furanic labdane diterpene marrubiin has been studied in plantlets and shoot cultures of Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae). The use of [2-14C]acetate, [2-14C]pyruvate, [2-14C]mevalonic acid and [U-14C]glucose incorporation experiments showed that the labelling of sterols in etiolated shoot cultures of M. vulgare was in accordance with their biosynthesis via the acetate-mevalonate pathway. In contrast, the incorporation rates of these precursors into the diterpene marrubiin could not be explained by biosynthesis of this compound via the acetate-mevalonate pathway. Cultivation of etiolated shoot cultures of M. vulgare on medium containing [1-13C]glucose and subsequent 13C-NMR spectroscopy of marrubiin led to the conclusion that the biosynthesis of marrubiin follows a non-mevalonate pathway. All isoprenic units of 13C-labelled marrubiin were enriched in those carbons that correspond to positions 1 and 5 of a putative precursor isopentenyl diphosphate. This labelling pattern from [1-13C]glucose is consistent with an alternative pathway via trioses, which has already been shown to occur in Eubacteria and Gymnospermae. The labdane skeleton is a precursor of many other skeletal types of diterpenes. Therefore it becomes obvious that in connection with the few known examples of a non-mevalonate pathway to isoprenoids the formation of some isoprenoids in plants via a non-mevalonate pathway might be quite common. PMID:9291117

  5. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Thormann, Imke; Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M M; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum. PMID:27513459

  6. Binary and Tertiary Mixtures of Satureja hortensis and Origanum vulgare Essential Oils as Potent Antimicrobial Agents Against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Lesjak, Marija; Simin, Natasa; Orcic, Dejan; Franciskovic, Marina; Knezevic, Petar; Beara, Ivana; Aleksic, Verica; Svircev, Emilija; Buzas, Krisztina; Mimica-Dukic, Neda

    2016-03-01

    Essential oils possess strong antimicrobial activity, even against multiresistant Helicobacter pylori. Available therapies against H. pylori infection have multiple disadvantages, indicating a great need for a development of new therapeutics. The purpose of this study was to develop a potent natural product based anti-H. pylori formulation. First, anti-H. pylori activity of nine essential oils was determined, after which the most active oils were mixed in various ratios for further testing. Satureja hortensis, Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oils expressed the highest activity (MIC = 2 μL mL(-1)). Their binary and ternary mixtures exhibited notably higher antimicrobial activity (MIC ≤ 2 μL mL(-1)). The most active was the mixture of S. hortensis and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum oils in volume ratio 2:1, which expressed 4 times higher activity than individual oils (MIC = 0.5 μL mL(-1)). According to GC-MS, both oils in the mixture were characterized by high content of phenols (48-73%), with carvacrol as the main carrier of antimicrobial activity. Presented in vitro study pointed out binary mixture of S. hortensis and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oils in volume ratio 2:1 as promising candidate for further in vivo studies targeting H. pylori infection. PMID:26686190

  7. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of essential oils isolated from Thymbra capitata L. (Cav.) andOriganum vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Faleiro, Leonor; Miguel, Graça; Gomes, Sónia; Costa, Ludmila; Venâncio, Florencia; Teixeira, Adriano; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2005-10-19

    Antilisterial activities of Thymbra capitata and Origanum vulgare essential oils were tested against 41 strains of Listeria monocytogenes. The oil of T. capitata was mainly constituted by one component, carvacrol (79%), whereas for O. vulgare three components constituted 70% of the oil, namely, thymol (33%), gamma-terpinene (26%), and p-cymene (11%). T. capitata essential oil had a significantly higher antilisterial activity in comparison to O. vulgare oil and chloramphenicol. No significant differences in L. monocytogenes susceptibilities to the essential oils tested were registered. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of T. capitata essential oil and of carvacrol were quite similar, ranging between 0.05 and 0.2 microL/mL. Antioxidant activity was also tested, the essential oil of T. capitata showing significantly higher antioxidant activity than that of O. vulgare. Use of T. capitata and O. vulgare essential oils can constitute a powerful tool in the control of L. monocytogenes in food and other industries. PMID:16218659

  8. Diterpene synthases of the biosynthetic system of medicinally active diterpenoids in Marrubium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela; Dullat, Harpreet; O'Neil-Johnson, Mark; Starks, Courtney; Hamberger, Björn; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2014-09-01

    Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant whose major bioactive compounds, marrubiin and other labdane-related furanoid diterpenoids, have potential applications as anti-diabetics, analgesics or vasorelaxants. Metabolite and transcriptome profiling of M. vulgare leaves identified five different candidate diterpene synthases (diTPSs) of the TPS-c and TPS-e/f clades. We describe the in vitro and in vivo functional characterization of the M. vulgare diTPS family. In addition to MvEKS ent-kaurene synthase of general metabolism, we identified three diTPSs of specialized metabolism: MvCPS3 (+)-copalyl diphosphate synthase, and the functional diTPS pair MvCPS1 and MvELS. In a sequential reaction, MvCPS1 and MvELS produce a unique oxygenated diterpene scaffold 9,13-epoxy-labd-14-ene en route to marrubiin and an array of related compounds. In contrast with previously known diTPSs that introduce a hydroxyl group at carbon C-8 of the labdane backbone, the MvCPS1-catalyzed reaction proceeds via oxygenation of an intermediate carbocation at C-9, yielding the bicyclic peregrinol diphosphate. MvELS belongs to a subgroup of the diTPS TPS-e/f clade with unusual βα-domain architecture. MvELS is active in vitro and in vivo with three different prenyl diphosphate substrates forming the marrubiin precursor 9,13-epoxy-labd-14-ene, as identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, manoyl oxide and miltiradiene. MvELS fills a central position in the biosynthetic system that forms the foundation for the diverse repertoire of Marrubium diterpenoids. Co-expression of MvCPS1 and MvELS in engineered E. coli and Nicotiana benthamiana offers opportunities for producing precursors for an array of biologically active diterpenoids. PMID:24990389

  9. Genome sequence of a crustacean iridovirus, IIV31, isolated from the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Piégu, Benoît; Guizard, Sébastien; Yeping, Tan; Cruaud, Corinne; Asgari, Sassan; Bideshi, Dennis K; Federici, Brian A; Bigot, Yves

    2014-07-01

    Members of the family Iridoviridae are animal viruses that infect only invertebrates and poikilothermic vertebrates. The invertebrate iridovirus 31 (IIV31) was originally isolated from adult pill bugs, Armadillidium vulgare (class Crustacea, order Isopoda, suborder Oniscidea), found in southern California on the campus of the University of California, Riverside, USA. IIV31 virions are icosahedral, have a diameter of about 135 nm, and contain a dsDNA genome 220.222 kbp in length, with 35.09 mol % G+C content and 203 ORFs. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence of this virus and its annotation. This is the eighth genome sequence of an IIV reported. PMID:24722681

  10. Efficient genetic transformation and regeneration system from hairy root of Origanum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Peyman; de Sa, Maria Fatima Grossi; da Silva, André Luís Lopes; Makhzoum, Abdullah; da Luz Costa, Jefferson; Borghetti, Ivo Albertto; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    Origanum vulgare L is commonly known as a wild marjoram and winter sweet which has been used in the traditional medicine due to its therapeutic effects as stimulant, anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and many other diseases. A reliable gene transfer system via Agrobacterium rhizogenes and plant regeneration via hairy roots was established in O. vulgare for the first time. The frequency of induced hairy roots was different by modification of the co-cultivation medium elements after infection by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains K599 and ATCC15834. High transformation frequency (91.3 %) was achieved by co-cultivation of explants with A. rhizogenes on modified (MS) medium. The frequency of calli induction with an 81.5 % was achieved from hairy roots on MS medium with 0.25 mg/L(-1) 2,4-D. For shoot induction, initiated calli was transferred into a medium containing various concentrations of BA (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mg/L(-1)). The frequency of shoot generation (85.18 %) was achieved in medium fortified with 0.25 mg/L(-1) of BA. Shoots were placed on MS medium with 0.25 mg/l IBA for root induction. Roots appeared and induction rate was achieved after 15 days. PMID:27436918

  11. Phenolic compounds of 'Galega Vulgar' and 'Cobrançosa' olive oils along early ripening stages.

    PubMed

    Peres, Fátima; Martins, Luisa L; Mourato, Miguel; Vitorino, Conceição; Antunes, Paulo; Ferreira-Dias, Suzana

    2016-11-15

    In this study, the lipophilic and hydrophilic phenol composition of virgin olive oils (VOO) obtained from olives from two of the most important Portuguese cultivars ('Galega Vulgar' and 'Cobrançosa'), harvested at different ripening stages and under two irrigation schemes (rain fed and irrigated), was evaluated. Phenolic alcohols (hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol), phenolic acids and derivatives and flavonoids (luteolin and apigenin), as well as tocopherols were quantified. Lipophilic (>300mgkg(-1)) and hydrophilic phenols (>600mgkg(-1)) were present in high contents in both VOO, for early ripening stages. Gamma-tocopherol content is higher in 'Galega Vulgar' VOO. Total phenols showed a decrease between ripening index 2.5 and 3.5. The dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA), also known as oleacein, was the major phenolic compound identified in both oils. The concentration of free hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol in both VOO is very low while their esterified derivatives, like 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and p-HPEA-EDA, are much more abundant. PMID:27283606

  12. Cation regulation by the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) during dehydration in air.

    PubMed

    Koh, Huishan; Wright, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    Many terrestrial arthropods display tight osmotic and ionic regulation of the hemolymph during dehydration. In this study, we sought to quantify the level of regulation of the major hemolymph cations in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea). Inulin space measurements showed that the hemolymph comprises 52 ± 2.2% of the hydrated water content but contributes 71 ± 9.8% of water losses during desiccation. Hemolymph concentrations of Na+, K+ and Ca²+ were measured in variably dehydrated animals using ion-selective microelectrodes and compared with predicted concentrations assuming no regulation. Na+ and Ca²+ are quite tightly regulated, showing respective concentration increases of 20.8% and 7.1% following a 50% reduction in hemolymph volume, but K+ showed no measurable regulation. The excreted cation fraction during desiccation is negligible. Sites of ion sequestration were examined by injecting ²²Na and ⁴⁵Ca into the hemolymph of hydrated animals and assaying tissue-specific activities following dehydration. Na+ is apparently sequestered non-specifically by an unknown mechanism. Ca²+ accumulates in the dorsal somatic tissues, possibly in the calcium pool of the cuticle. How A. vulgare avoids significant disruptions of E(m) and neuromuscular function in the absence of K+ regulation, and how it sequesters Na+, both pose intriguing challenges for future work. PMID:21335098

  13. The effect of external marking on the behaviour of the common pill woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Drahokoupilová, Táňa; Tuf, Ivan Hadrián

    2012-01-01

    Zoologists distinguish individual animals using marking techniques. Generally they test the potential influence of marking on survival only; the influence on behaviour is usually neglected. We evaluated the influence of two external marking techniques (nail polish and queen-bee marker) on the behaviour of common pill woodlouse, Armadillidium vulgare. The behaviour was examined from two points of view: (1) activity during 24 hours and (2) specific expressions of behaviour (exploring, feeding, resting and hiding) over a 24 hour period. We compared behaviour among woodlice marked with nail polish and queen-bee marker with the unmarked control group during a nine-day experiment. Although we did not find any influence of marking on survival, there was an evident influence on behaviour in most cases. Generally, in the groups of marked individuals of Armadillidium vulgare there were large differences observed against the control group in the overall activity. Activity of marked individuals was significantly reduced and they preferred hiding. The influence of polish and marker on the overall frequencies of behavioural categories was evident, mainly in feeding, resting and hiding. The influence on the frequency of exploring was significant in the polish marked group only. PMID:22536105

  14. Individual variation in the seasonal reproduction of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare Latr. (Crustacea, Oniscidea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Nasri, Karima; Mocquard, Jean-Pierre; Juchault, Pierre

    1998-08-01

    Under particular conditions of photoperiod and temperature, Armadillidium vulgare females, originating from a single population, might exhibit individual differences in the onset of reproduction and duration of the breeding period. In a population issued from a strain from middle latitudes, some females underwent only one parturial moult (northern tendency) and others three parturial moults (southern tendency). Females with an atypical northern phenology are the most numerous and tend to be found near the Danish population. In the latter, there is an asymmetrical response to laboratory selection (favourable to females with a longer breeding period). The asymmetrical variation in atypical individuals acts as a safety device against the unpredictability of the environment. The adaptation of this species, originally from the Mediterranean periphery, to a northern environment has led to a reduction in its capacity to breed over long periods of time. Populations from middle latitudes can undergo one or several parturial moults which enables the species to successfully colonize even far-away countries. These intrapopulation differences have an essential role and explain why Armadillidium vulgare is one of the most widely distributed species among Oniscidea.

  15. The effect of external marking on the behaviour of the common pill woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Drahokoupilová, Táňa; Tuf, Ivan Hadrián

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Zoologists distinguish individual animals using marking techniques. Generally they test the potential influence of marking on survival only; the influence on behaviour is usually neglected. We evaluated the influence of two external marking techniques (nail polish and queen-bee marker) on the behaviour of common pill woodlouse, Armadillidium vulgare. The behaviour was examined from two points of view: (1) activity during 24 hours and (2) specific expressions of behaviour (exploring, feeding, resting and hiding) over a 24 hour period. We compared behaviour among woodlice marked with nail polish and queen-bee marker with the unmarked control group during a nine-day experiment. Although we did not find any influence of marking on survival, there was an evident influence on behaviour in most cases. Generally, in the groups of marked individuals of Armadillidium vulgare there were large differences observed against the control group in the overall activity. Activity of marked individuals was significantly reduced and they preferred hiding. The influence of polish and marker on the overall frequencies of behavioural categories was evident, mainly in feeding, resting and hiding. The influence on the frequency of exploring was significant in the polish marked group only. PMID:22536105

  16. Essential Oil from Origanum vulgare Completely Inhibits the Growth of Multidrug-Resistant Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, Giovanna; Maggini, Valentina; Maida, Isabel; Lo Nostro, Antonella; Calonico, Carmela; Sassoli, Chiara; Perrin, Elena; Fondi, Marco; Mengoni, Alessio; Chiellini, Carolina; Vannacci, Alfredo; Gallo, Eugenia; Gori, Luigi; Bogani, Patrizia; Bilia, Anna Rita; Campana, Silvia; Ravenni, Novella; Dolce, Daniela; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2016-06-01

    Essential oils (EOs) are known to inhibit the growth of a wide range of microorganisms. Particularly interesting is the possible use of EOs to treat multidrug-resistant cystic fibrosis (CF) pathogens. We tested the essential oil (EO) from Origanum vulgare for in vitro antimicrobial activity, against three of the major human opportunistic pathogens responsible for respiratory infections in CF patients; these are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Achromobacter xylosoxidans. Antibiotic susceptibility of each strain was previously tested by the standard disk diffusion method. Most strains were resistant to multiple antibiotics and could be defined as multi-drug-resistant (MDR). The antibacterial activity of O. vulgare EO (OEO) against a panel of 59 bacterial strains was evaluated, with MIC and MBC determined at 24, 48 and 72 hours by a microdilution method. The OEO was effective against all tested strains, although to a different extent. The MBC and MIC of OEO for S. aureus strains were either lower or equal to 0.50%, v/v, for A. xylosoxidans strains were lower or equal to 1% and 0.50%, v/v, respectively; and for S. maltophilia strains were lower or equal to 0.25%, v/v. The results from this study suggest that OEO might exert a role as an antimicrobial in the treatment of CF infections. PMID:27534136

  17. Compositional analysis and in vivo anti-diabetic activity of wild Algerian Marrubium vulgare L. infusion.

    PubMed

    Boudjelal, Amel; Henchiri, Cherifa; Siracusa, Laura; Sari, Madani; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) is a plant traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in Algeria. Compositional analysis of the aqueous infusion revealed the presence of fifteen metabolites, all belonging to the class of polyphenols. Particularly, seven flavonoids have been detected, together with 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid in small amounts; the extract is dominated by the presence of a series of complex molecules, characterized as verbascoside (acteoside) derivatives. Concerning the anti-diabetic effectiveness a series of in vivo experiments were carried out on albinos Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced in the animals by intra-peritoneal injection of alloxane; they were treated twice a day with aqueous extract from aerial part infusion (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (5mg/kg body weight) for 15 days. Oral administration of 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract the Marrubium vulgare induced an significant effect antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic (dose-dependent effect). A decrease in blood glucose by 50% for the dose 100 mg/kg and more than 60% for doses 200 and 300 mg/kg, as well as a significant lowering of total lipids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels in treated animals, compared with diabetic controls group (p<0.001), have been observed. Glibenclamide was used as reference and showed similar effects. PMID:22100836

  18. Analysis of the antinociceptive properties of marrubiin isolated from Marrubium vulgare.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, R A; Cechinel-Filho, V; Oliveira, A E; Schlemper, V

    2000-04-01

    We have shown previously that Marrubium vulgare, a medicinal plant employed frequently in folk medicine to treat a variety of ailments, exhibits antispasmodic and antinociceptive effects in different experimental models. This work describes the antinociceptive profile of marrubiin, the main constituent of this plant, which was analysed in some models of nociception in mice. The results showed that marrubiin exhibits potent and dose-related antinociceptive effects, whose calculated ID50 values (micromol/kg, i.p.) were the following: 2.2 in the writhing test, 6.6 (first phase) and 6.3 (second phase) in the formalin-induced pain test and 28.8 when evaluated in the capsaicin test. It was more potent than some well-known analgesic drugs. The antinociception produced by the marrubiin was not reversed by naloxone when analyzed against the writhing test. In the hot-plate test, marrubiin did not increase the latency period of pain induced by the thermal stimuli. Its exact mechanism of action remains to be determined, but the results suggest that marrubiin, like hydroalcoholic extract of M. vulgare, does not interact with opioid systems. PMID:10839213

  19. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Echium vulgare in Honey Originate Primarily from Floral Nectar.

    PubMed

    Lucchetti, Matteo A; Glauser, Gaetan; Kilchenmann, Verena; Dübecke, Arne; Beckh, Gudrun; Praz, Christophe; Kast, Christina

    2016-06-29

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey can be a potential human health risk. So far, it has remained unclear whether PAs in honey originate from pollen or floral nectar. We obtained honey, nectar, and plant pollen from two observation sites where Echium vulgare L. was naturally abundant. The PA concentration of honey was determined by targeted analysis using a high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system (HPLC-MS/MS), allowing the quantification of six different PAs and PA-N-oxides present in E. vulgare. Echium-type PAs were detected up to 0.153 μg/g in honey. Nectar and plant pollen were analyzed by nontargeted analysis using ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-MS), allowing the detection of 10 alkaloids in small size samples. Echium-type PAs were detected between 0.3-95.1 μg/g in nectar and 500-35000 μg/g in plant pollen. The PA composition in nectar and plant pollen was compared to the composition in honey. Echimidine (+N-oxide) was the main alkaloid detected in honey and nectar samples, while echivulgarine (+N-oxide) was the main PA found in plant pollen. These results suggest that nectar contributes more significantly to PA contamination in honey than plant pollen. PMID:27244472

  20. In Vitro Susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum to Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita and Origanum vulgare Essential Oils Combinations.

    PubMed

    de Souza Silveira Valente, Júlia; de Oliveira da Silva Fonseca, Anelise; Denardi, Laura Bedin; Dal Ben, Vanessa Silveira; de Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; Baptista, Cristiane Telles; Braga, Caroline Quintana; Zambrano, Cristina Gomes; Alves, Sydney Hartz; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Pereira, Daniela Isabel Brayer

    2016-08-01

    Pythium insidiosum is the etiologic agent of pythiosis, a severe and emerging disease that affects mammals. Failure of conventional antifungal therapies is partially justified by the absence of ergosterol in the plasma membrane of this oomycete. Despite research advancement, the treatment of pythiosis has not been not fully established. The present study investigated the in vitro susceptibility profile of Brazilian isolates of P. insidiosum (n = 20) against Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita and Origanum vulgare essential oils, and their combinations. Susceptibility tests were performed according to CLSI M38-A2 protocol, and combinations were evaluated by the microdilution cherkerboard method. All tested essential oils showed antimicrobial activity against P. insidiosum, and the greatest activity of O. vulgare was highlighted. Synergistic and/or indifferent effect was observed for all combinations evaluated, especially the M. piperita and O. vulgare combination, which showed 65 % synergism. This is the first study to report in vitro combinations of essential oils against P. insidiosum indicating the susceptibility of this oomycete to M. alternifolia, M. piperita and O. vulgare essential oils, as well as their combinations. PMID:27209011

  1. Morphological and physiological development of anterior thoracic stretch receptors in two isopods, Armadillidium vulgare and Ligia exotica.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Masazumi; Ohata, Ayako; Niida, Akiyoshi

    2007-07-01

    Abdominal muscle receptor organs (MROs) monitor the position and movement of abdomen in crustaceans. Thoracic segments of decapods are fused and immovable. It is speculated that MROs had retrograded simple shape, N-cells that lost receptor muscles, a receptor cell and accessory nerves. We focused on the effect of segmental movement in respect to thoracic N-cells and MROs in isopods that have movable thoracic segments. Armadillidium vulgare rolled up its body segments. Ligia exotica swam by quick movement of the posterior thoracic segments. Both isopods possessed N-cells and MROs in the thorax. N-cells were a simple structure, but N-cells from the second and third thoracic segments of A. vulgare had a muscle strand. MROs(T3-T4) (from the third and fourth thoracic segments) of A. vulgare had two receptor muscles. MROs(T3-T4) of L. exotica had one long receptor muscle. N-cells of both species and MROs of A. vulgare showed slowly adapting stretch-activated discharges. MROs of L. exotica showed both slowly and rapidly adapting discharges. The stretch-activated responses of N-cells and MROs inhibited each other. N-cells or MROs in the thorax of isopods are not related to the segmental structure. The morphology and physiology of N-cells and MROs are specialized to species-specific behaviors. PMID:17473927

  2. A new genetic linkage map of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) facilitates genetic dissection of height and spike length and angle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant height and spike length and angle are important agronomic traits in the production of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to strong correlations with lodging and disease. The objective of this study was to use QTL analysis to identify genetic regions associated with each trait in a recombinant inb...

  3. Physiological Responses of Resistant and Susceptible Barley, Hordeum vulgare to the Russian Wheat Aphid, Diurpahis noxia (Mordvilko)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is limited information on the mechanisms of resistance in barley, Hordeum vulgare L., to the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Knowledge of the physiological responses of barley to D. noxia feeding is critical to identifying resistance mechanisms and unde...

  4. Genome Sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and Analysis of Its Companion Mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus Strain Consortium.

    PubMed

    Jia, Nan; Du, Jin; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus strains have been widely used as the companion strain of Ketogulonigenium vulgare in the process of vitamin C fermentation. Different Bacillus strains generate different effects on the growth of K. vulgare and ultimately influence the productivity. First, we identified that Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 was an appropriate strain to cooperate with K. vulgare and the product conversion rate exceeded 90% in industrial vitamin C fermentation. Here, we report the genome sequencing of the B. endophyticus Hbe603 industrial companion strain and speculate its possible advantage in the consortium. The circular chromosome of B. endophyticus Hbe603 has a size of 4.87 Mb with GC content of 36.64% and has the highest similarity with that of Bacillus megaterium among all the bacteria with complete genomes. By comparing the distribution of COGs with that of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and B. megaterium, B. endophyticus has less genes related to cell envelope biogenesis and signal transduction mechanisms, and more genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, as well as lipid transport and metabolism. Genome-based functional studies revealed the specific capability of B. endophyticus in sporulation, transcription regulation, environmental resistance, membrane transportation, extracellular proteins and nutrients synthesis, which would be beneficial for K. vulgare. In particular, B. endophyticus lacks the Rap-Phr signal cascade system and, in part, spore coat related proteins. In addition, it has specific pathways for vitamin B12 synthesis and sorbitol metabolism. The genome analysis of the industrial B. endophyticus will help us understand its cooperative mechanism in the K. vulgare-Bacillus strain consortium to improve the fermentation of vitamin C. PMID:26248285

  5. The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In order to validate its antiseptic and anticancer properties with respect to traditional uses, we have screened for the first time the antimicrobial activity of aerial parts of M. vulgare L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. Methods The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of M. vulgare essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50) were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of M. vulgare essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. Results The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against the different tested microorganisms. The present results results showed a significant activity against microorganisms especially Gram (+) bacteria with inhibition zones and minimal inhibitory concentration values in the range of 6.6-25.2 mm and 1120-2600 μg/ml, respectively, whereas Gram (-) bacteria exhibited a higher resistance. As far as the antifungal activity, among four strains tested, Botrytis cinerea exhibited the strongest activity with inhibition zones of 12.6 mm. However, Fusarium solani, Penicillium digitatum and Aspergillus niger were less sensitive to M. vulgare essential oil. About the citotoxicity assay, this finding indicate the capability of this essential oil to inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cell lines under some conditions with IC50 value of 0.258 μg/ml. Conclusion This investigation showed that the M. vulgare essential oil has a potent antimicrobial activity against some Gram (+) pathogenic bacteria and Botrytis cinerea fungi. The present studies confirm the use of this essential oil as anticancer

  6. Genome Sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and Analysis of Its Companion Mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus Strain Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Nan; Du, Jin; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus strains have been widely used as the companion strain of Ketogulonigenium vulgare in the process of vitamin C fermentation. Different Bacillus strains generate different effects on the growth of K. vulgare and ultimately influence the productivity. First, we identified that Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 was an appropriate strain to cooperate with K. vulgare and the product conversion rate exceeded 90% in industrial vitamin C fermentation. Here, we report the genome sequencing of the B. endophyticus Hbe603 industrial companion strain and speculate its possible advantage in the consortium. The circular chromosome of B. endophyticus Hbe603 has a size of 4.87 Mb with GC content of 36.64% and has the highest similarity with that of Bacillus megaterium among all the bacteria with complete genomes. By comparing the distribution of COGs with that of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and B. megaterium, B. endophyticus has less genes related to cell envelope biogenesis and signal transduction mechanisms, and more genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, as well as lipid transport and metabolism. Genome-based functional studies revealed the specific capability of B. endophyticus in sporulation, transcription regulation, environmental resistance, membrane transportation, extracellular proteins and nutrients synthesis, which would be beneficial for K. vulgare. In particular, B. endophyticus lacks the Rap-Phr signal cascade system and, in part, spore coat related proteins. In addition, it has specific pathways for vitamin B12 synthesis and sorbitol metabolism. The genome analysis of the industrial B. endophyticus will help us understand its cooperative mechanism in the K. vulgare-Bacillus strain consortium to improve the fermentation of vitamin C. PMID:26248285

  7. Floral volatiles ofTanacetum vulgare L. attractive toLobesia botrana den. et schiff. females.

    PubMed

    Gabel, B; Thiéry, D; Suchy, V; Marion-Poll, F; Hradsky, P; Farkas, P

    1992-05-01

    The European grapevine moth (EGVM),Lobesia botrana, is a major pest of grapes in Europe. Females are attracted to a nonhost plant: tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), which is a common weed in Slovakian vineyards. A steam distillate extract of tansy flowers was analyzed by means of a GC-EAG technique to screen constituents detected by the olfactory receptors of EGVM females. From more than 200 GC peaks, nine peaks corresponding to monoterpenoids released an EAG response in more than 70% of the females (N=15):p-cymene,d-limonene,α-thujene,α-thujone,β-thujone, thujyl alcohol, terpinene-4-ol, (Z)-verbenol, and piperitone. The steam distillate of tansy as well as a synthetic blend of identified compounds released consistent attraction in a field cage. The use of nonhost plants and host plant odors in integrated pest management is discussed. PMID:24253963

  8. [Stress response genes expression analysis of barley Hordeum vulgare under space flight environment].

    PubMed

    Shagimardanova, E I; Gusev, O A; Sychev, V N; Levinskikh, M A; Sharipova, M R; Il'inskaia, O N; Bingham, G; Sugimoto, M

    2010-01-01

    Transcriptome of barley Hordeum vulgare grown aboard International Space Station (ISS) was analyzed by means of microarray. It was revealed 500 genes with mRNA level, changed more than two folds in space environment. Among them are genes encoding stress response proteins, videlicet Heat Shock Proteins (HSP), Pathogenesis-Related Proteins (PR) and Antioxidant Proteins. Further analysis of these genes by real time PCR showed enhanced transcription level of Reactive oxygen Species (ROS) scavenging genes. The mRNA level of superoxide dismutase (sod) was 6 folds higher in space environment when compare to Earth conditions. Glutamyl transferase gene expression was enhanced 24 times in space. Transcription of catalase gene (cat) was increased 18 times and of ascorbate peroxidase was increased 3 times in space in comparison with ground control. For the first time it was shown that space flight environment may induce oxidative stress in plants. PMID:21090239

  9. Origanum vulgare and Thymbra capitata Essential Oils from Spain: Determination of Aromatic Profile and Bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Perez, Enrique; Cutillas, Ana-Belen; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Oregano (Thymbra capitata and Origanum vulgare) essential oils (EOs), cultivated and extracted in the South-East of Spain, were analysed by GC/MS to determine their composition. (E)-β-Caryophyllene (0.5-4.9%), thymol (0.2-5.8%), p-cymene (3.8-8.2%), γ-terpinene (2.1-10.7%) and carvacrol (58.7-77.4%) were determined as the main molecules. This characterisation was completed with enantioselective gas chromatography, where (-)-(E)-β-caryophyllene, (+)-a- pinene and (+)-β-pinene were determined as the main enantiomers. Antioxidant activity was evaluated positively by several methods, accounting for activity against free radicals and reducing power. Important inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase (LOX) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was observed supporting potential anti-inflammatory, anti-Alzheimer and insecticidal activities, mainly due to carvacrol. These properties support the potential use of oregano EOs as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredients. PMID:26996035

  10. Conglobation in the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare, as a water conservation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Smigel, Jacob T; Gibbs, Allen G

    2008-01-01

    Water balance of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was investigated during conglobation (rolling-up behavior). Water loss and metabolic rates were measured at 18 +/- 1 degrees C in dry air using flow-through respirometry. Water-loss rates decreased 34.8% when specimens were in their conglobated form, while CO2 release decreased by 37.1%. Water loss was also measured gravimetrically at humidities ranging from 6 to 75 %RH. Conglobation was associated with a decrease in water-loss rates up to 53 %RH, but no significant differences were observed at higher humidities. Our findings suggest that conglobation behavior may help to conserve water, in addition to its demonstrated role in protection from predation. PMID:20233103

  11. Conglobation in the Pill Bug, Armadillidium vulgare, as a Water Conservation Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Smigel, Jacob T.; Gibbs, Allen G.

    2008-01-01

    Water balance of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was investigated during conglobation (rolling-up behavior). Water loss and metabolic rates were measured at 18 ± 1°C in dry air using flow-through respirometry. Water-loss rates decreased 34.8% when specimens were in their conglobated form, while CO2 release decreased by 37.1%. Water loss was also measured gravimetrically at humidities ranging from 6 to 75 %RH. Conglobation was associated with a decrease in water-loss rates up to 53 %RH, but no significant differences were observed at higher humidities. Our findings suggest that conglobation behavior may help to conserve water, in addition to its demonstrated role in protection from predation. PMID:20233103

  12. Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes in Marrubium vulgare and Leonurus cardiaca.

    PubMed

    Knöss, W; Zapp, J

    1998-05-01

    Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes has been investigated in different parts of field-grown plants of MARRUBIUM VULGARE (Lamiaceae) and LEONURUS CARDIACA (Lamiaceae). Furanic labdane diterpenes were produced and accumulated only in the aerial parts. Greatest amounts were measured in leaves and flowers. Up to 4 mg furanic labdane diterpenes per g fresh weight were found. Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes in plantlets seemingly depends on a developmental programme. No furanic labdane diterpenes were detected in plantlets during the first four to five weeks following germination. At this time the leaves became more differentiated and the number of trichomes on leaves was obviously increasing. Young leaves and buds contained most furanic labdane diterpenes. It was proven that at least a part of the non-volatile furanic labdane diterpenes is stored in peltate glandular trichomes. NMR signals of marrubiin were investigated with correlated spectra. Some (1)H- and (13)C-NMR assignments reported in literature were revised. PMID:17253250

  13. Analgesic potential of marrubiin derivatives, a bioactive diterpene present in Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Meyre-Silva, C; Yunes, R A; Schlemper, V; Campos-Buzzi, F; Cechinel-Filho, V

    2005-04-01

    Marrubiin, a furane labdane diterpene, is the main analgesic compound present in Marrubium vulgare, a medicinal plant used in Brazil and other countries to treat several ailments. Considering its important pharmacological action, as well as its high yield, some structural modifications were performed in order to obtain more active compounds. Success was obtained in reducing the lactonic function, in the formation of marrubiinic acid and two esterified derivatives, which exhibited significant analgesic effect against the writhing test in mice. Marrubiinic acid showed better activity and excellent yield, and its analgesic effect was confirmed in other experimental models of pain in mice, suggesting its possible use as a model to obtain new and potent analgesic agents. PMID:15848207

  14. Chemical constituents of Marrubium vulgare as potential inhibitors of nitric oxide and respiratory burst.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Farzana; Rasoola, Shagufta; Shah, Zafar Ali; Soomro, Samreen; Jabeen, Almas; Mesaik, M Ahmed; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2014-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the whole plant of Marrubium vulgare L., led to the isolation of three new secondary metabolites, 11-oxomarrubiin (1), vulgarcoside A (2) and 3-hydroxyapigenin-4'-O-(6"-O-p-coumaroyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), along with four known constituents 4-7 from the polar fractions of the methanolic extract. The structures of all compounds were deduced on the basis of NMR data and HRESI-MS measurements. The new constituents 1-3 exhibited moderate to low level of inhibition on nitric oxide (NO.) production. The compound 2 also showed a moderate inhibition on pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. The new constituents 1-3 showed no inhibitory effect on Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production. PMID:25230489

  15. A new monoterpene acid from Marrubium vulgare with potential antihepatotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Bahar; Masoodi, Mubashir H; Siddique, Anwarul H; Khan, Shamshir

    2010-11-01

    The whole plant of Marrubium vulgare L. afforded a new terpenoid, characterised as p-menthane-5,6-dihydroxy-3-carboxylic acid (1), which has been designated as marrubic acid. Its structure has been elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical analyses. The compound (1) also exhibited a significant antihepatotoxic activity by reducing the elevated levels of serum enzymes such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) by 40.16%, serum glutamate pyruvate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGPT) by 35.06%, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) by 30.51%. On the other hand, total protein (TP) levels were increased by 34.07%, as compared to the standard drug silymarin, which decreased SGOT by 53.04%, SGPT by 55.96%, ALP by 35.87% and increased TP levels by 59.59%. These biochemical observations were also supplemented by histopathological examinations of liver sections. PMID:20628963

  16. Endosperm structure affects the malting quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Ulla R M; Wilhelmson, Annika; Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo; Rajala, Ari; Reinikainen, Pekka; Kotaviita, Erja; Simolin, Helena; Home, Silja

    2005-09-01

    Twenty-seven barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) samples collected from growing sites in Scandinavia in 2001 and 2002 were examined to study the effect of endosperm structure on malting behavior. Samples were micromalted, and several malt characteristics were measured. Samples were classified as having a mealier or steelier endosperm on the basis of light transflectance (LTm). Because endosperm structure is greatly dependent on protein content, three barley sample pairs with similar protein contents were chosen for further analysis. During malting, the steelier barley samples produced less root mass, but showed higher respiration losses and higher activities of starch-hydrolyzing enzymes. Malts made from steelier barley had a less friable structure, with more urea-soluble D hordein and more free amino nitrogen and soluble protein. The reason for these differences may lie in the structure or localization of the hordeins as well as the possible effects of endosperm packing on water uptake and movement of enzymes. PMID:16131143

  17. Egg envelopes of Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille, 1804) (Crustacea, Isopoda Oniscidea): Ultrastructure and lectins binding.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, V; Sinatra, F; Villaggio, G; Longo, G

    2016-09-01

    The ultrastructural study carried out on (a) oocytes of Armadillidium vulgare during vitellogenesis, (b) mature eggs taken from the ovaries during the parturial moult of the posterior half of the body, and (c) fertilized eggs collected within a few hours of their release into the brood pouch, has clearly demonstrated that before the fertilization the chorion is the only envelope present in the egg of oniscidean isopods. In the mature eggs, the chorion appears as a uniformly electron-dense lamina, about 0.4-0.5 µm thick, which does not show any specialized area. A second envelope, described by other authors as vitelline envelope, is formed above the oolemma only right after fertilization and appears separated from the chorion by a space full of liquid. The ways in which the genesis of this envelope is realized are not yet clear; it could be interpreted rather as a fertilization membrane. The investigations carried out with the aid of a battery of FITC-lectins have highlighted the presence at the chorion surface of unfertilized eggs of various saccharide residues distributed in uniform way. No significant change was observed in the pattern of lectins binding to the chorion of eggs taken from the brood pouch, thus demonstrating how, after the fertilization, no significant rearrangement in the distribution of saccharide residues present on the egg surface occurs in A. vulgare. The ways in which, therefore, the recognition, the binding and the entry of the peculiar sperm of oniscidean isopods into the egg occur, still remain all to be deciphered. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:792-798, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27324273

  18. Metallothioneins and heat shock proteins 70 in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea) exposed to cadmium and lead.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, V; Giannetto, A; Brundo, M V; Maisano, M; Ferrante, M; Copat, C; Mauceri, A; Longo, G

    2015-06-01

    The heavy metals bioaccumulation capability in Armadillidium vulgare feeded with chestnut leaves contaminated with various sublethal concentrations of Cd and Pb, was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The metal concentration found in the hepatopancreas of treated animals, as measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), affected the expression and localization of MT and HSP70 as shown by immunohistochemical and western blotting analysis. The Cd content of the animals treated with the various concentrations of the metal has been always higher than that of chestnut leaves contaminated. The accumulation of Pb was, instead, always modest compared to the content of the chestnut leaves. The immunohistochemical investigation in hepatopancreas tissue of animals treated with increasing concentrations of Cd and Pb, by using the anti-MT and anti-HSP70 antibodies, has provided a response clearly positive even if differentiated in relation to the metal and concentration tested. In particular, a positive response to anti-MT antibody was detected in B and S cells nuclei and S cells cytoplasm; the localization of HSP70 was particularly intense at the cell surface. Western blotting analysis showed significant up-regulation of the expression (about 2.6 fold) of HSP70 proteins in the hepatopancreas of animals exposed to highest Pb concentrations respect to control. Moreover, samples exposed to higher Cd and Pb concentrations showed a higher expression of MT (3.2 fold and 4 fold respectively) compared to control. In summary, our data beyond to clearly demonstrate for the first time the expression of MT in terrestrial isopods, suggest that A. vulgare would be a suitable organism for assessing Cd and Pb exposure in environments threatened by metal pollution as suggested by the modulation of the biomarkers MT and HSP70. PMID:25779333

  19. Chitosan boosts the antimicrobial activity of Origanum vulgare essential oil in modified atmosphere packaged pork.

    PubMed

    Paparella, Antonello; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Rossi, Chiara; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Guerrieri, Oana; Serio, Annalisa

    2016-10-01

    The potential of chitosan as a possible booster of the antimicrobial activity of Origanum vulgare EO (OEO) against spoilage bacteria and Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in fresh pork meat. Pork fillets were inoculated with 3 L. monocytogenes strains, dipped either in Origanum vulgare (oregano) Essential Oil (OEO) at 2 and 4%, or in chitosan 1% alone or added with 2 and 4% OEO, then packed under modified atmosphere (70% O2, 20% CO2, 10% N2) and stored at 4 °C for 15 days. OEO did not reduce L. monocytogenes growth, while 2 Log decrease was obtained after 2 days of storage in treatments with chitosan alone or with OEO, with growth inhibition up to day 15 in samples with chitosan and OEO 4%. When OEO was combined with chitosan, total viable counts and spoilage bacteria were reduced and contained over time, particularly Pseudomonas (2.0 Log CFU/g at day 15) and Brochothrix thermosphacta (undetectable). All the treatments applied extended meat shelf-life with respect to control, whose commercial shelf-life was 10 days. Chitosan treatments enhanced L* and maintained a* values almost stable during storage. Chitosan and OEO singly applied reduced lipid oxidation (0.62-0.75 mg malondialdehyde/Kg meat) compared to control (0.99 mg malondialdehyde/Kg meat). Finally, chitosan treated samples were not recognized with respect to the control, whereas OEO gave bitter taste; chitosan with OEO instead mitigated the effect of OEO addition to meat. Chitosan combined with OEO boosts its antimicrobial activity and shows a potential for application in industrial production of fresh pork in MAP, to achieve shelf-life extension, control of L. monocytogenes growth, stability of color and protective effect from oxidation, with low sensory impact. PMID:27375241

  20. Essential Oil Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Origanum vulgare subsp. glandulosum Desf. at Different Phenological Stages

    PubMed Central

    Chaabane, Hédia; Jemli, Maroua; Boulila, Abdennacer; Boussaid, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Variation in the quantity and quality of the essential oil (EO) of wild population of Origanum vulgare at different phenological stages, including vegetative, late vegetative, and flowering set, is reported. The oils of air-dried samples were obtained by hydrodistillation. The yield of oils (w/w%) at different stages were in the order of late vegetative (2.0%), early vegetative (1.7%), and flowering (0.6%) set. The oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 36, 33, and 16 components were identified and quantified in vegetative, late vegetative, and flowering set, representing 94.47%, 95.91%, and 99.62% of the oil, respectively. Carvacrol was the major compound in all samples. The ranges of major constituents were as follows: carvacrol (61.08–83.37%), p-cymene (3.02–9.87%), and γ-terpinene (4.13–6.34%). Antibacterial activity of the oils was tested against three Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria by the disc diffusion method and determining their diameter of inhibition and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. The inhibition zones and MIC values for bacterial strains, which were sensitive to the EO of O. vulgare subsp. glandulosum, were in the range of 9–36 mm and 125–600 μg/mL, respectively. The oils of various phenological stages showed high activity against all tested bacteria, of which Bacillus subtilis was the most sensitive and resistant strain, respectively. Thus, they represent an inexpensive source of natural antibacterial substances that exhibited potential for use in pathogenic systems. PMID:24320986

  1. Complete genomic sequence of barley (Hordeum vulgare) endornavirus (HvEV) determined by next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Candresse, Thierry; Marais, Armelle; Sorrentino, Roberto; Faure, Chantal; Theil, Sébastien; Cadot, Valérie; Rolland, Mathieu; Villemot, Julie; Rabenstein, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Endornaviruses are unusual plant-, fungus- and oomycete-infecting viruses with a large, ca 14- to 17-kb linear double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome and a persistent lifestyle. The complete genome sequence of an endornavirus from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Nerz variety was determined from paired Illumina MySeq reads derived from purified dsRNAs. The genome is 14,243 nt long, with 5' and 3' non-coding regions of 207 and 47 nt, respectively. It encodes a single large protein of 4663 amino acids that carries conserved motifs for a methyltransferase, a helicase and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The sequence of Hordeum vulgare endornavirus (HvEV) carries all the hallmarks of a typical member of the genus Endornavirus, with the exception of an UDP-glycosyltransferase motif observed in many, but not all, endornaviral genomes. PMID:26666441

  2. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    PubMed

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides. PMID:21707233

  3. Effect of cadmium on selected physiological and morphological parameters in metallicolous and non-metallicolous populations of Echium vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Sławomir; Bednarek, Wiesław; Wójcik, Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium tolerance of three populations of Echium vulgare L., naturally occurring on two Zn-Pb waste deposits (metallicolous populations M1, M2) and on an uncontaminated site (non-metallicolous population, NM) was investigated. The plants were cultivated in hydroponics at 0, 5, 15, 30, or 50μM Cd for 14 days. Although Cd reduced the content of photosynthetic pigments indifferently in the three populations, plant growth parameters and root viability analyses confirmed different Cd tolerances decreasing in the order M1>M2>NM in the populations studied. Organic acids (tartrate, malate, citrate, succinate) were not responsible for the elevated Cd tolerance of the metallicolous populations, although malate and citrate might participate in Cd detoxification in the roots of the M1 and M2. Phytochelatin concentrations were higher in the roots of M1 and M2 populations of E. vulgare, suggesting their role in Cd detoxification and different Cd tolerances. PMID:24732029

  4. Taxonomic complexity in the halophyte Limonium vulgare and related taxa (Plumbaginaceae): insights from analysis of morphological, reproductive and karyological data

    PubMed Central

    Cortinhas, Ana; Erben, Matthias; Paula Paes, Ana; Espírito Santo, Dalila; Guara-Requena, Miguel; Caperta, Ana D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Limonium is a well-known example of a group of plants that is taxonomically complex due to certain biological characteristics that hamper species' delineation. The closely related polyploid species Limonium vulgare Mill., L. humile Mill. and L. narbonense Mill. are defined species and can be used for studying patterns of morphological and reproductive variation. The first two taxa are usually found in Atlantic Europe and the third in the Mediterranean region, but a number of intermediate morphological forms may be present alongside typical examples of these species. This study attempts to elucidate morphological, floral and karyological diversity representative of these taxa in the Iberian Peninsula. Methods The extent of morphological differentiation was tested through comparison of 197 specimens from both Portugal and Spain using 17 descriptive morphological characters and 19 diagnostic morphometric characters. Analyses of floral morphisms (heterostyly and pollen–stigma dimorphism) and karyological determinations were also conducted. Key Results and Conclusions Discriminant analysis using morphometric variables reliably assigned individuals in natural populations to their respective groups. In addition, the results provide the first direct evidence that L. narbonense and a new species, Limonium maritimum Caperta, Cortinhas, Paes, Guara, Espírito-Santo and Erben, sp. nov., related to L. vulgare are present on Portuguese coasts. Most of these species are found together in mixed populations, especially L. vulgare and L. narbonense. It is hypothesized that taxonomic biodiversity found in sites where distinct species co-occur facilitates the evolutionary processes of hybridization, introgression and apomixis. This study therefore contributes to the elucidation of the taxonomic diversity in L. vulgare-related species and may also help in implementing future conservation programmes to maintain the evolutionary processes generating biodiversity

  5. Terpene hydrocarbons in Pimpinella anisum L.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, G; Reichling, J; Martin, R; Becker, H

    1986-06-20

    The essential oil of anise (fruits and shoots) was investigated focusing on the composition of the hydrocarbon fraction. Several sesquiterpenes were identified by GC-MS and the relative composition of the fractions was established by GC analysis. gamma-Himachalene and the diterpene neophytadiene were isolated by TLC and column chromatography at low temperatures. Their structures were determined by MS and NMR including 1H-1H correlated COSY and NOE experiments. PMID:3737372

  6. Effects of parasitic sex-ratio distorters on host genetic structure in the Armadillidium vulgare-Wolbachia association.

    PubMed

    Verne, S; Johnson, M; Bouchon, D; Grandjean, F

    2012-02-01

    In the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea, Oniscidea), Wolbachia facilitates its spread through vertical transmission via the eggs by inducing feminization of genetic males. The spread of feminizing Wolbachia within and across populations is therefore expected to influence mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic structure by hitchhiking. To test this hypothesis, we analysed nuclear and mtDNA genetic structure, and Wolbachia prevalence in 13 populations of the pill bug host. Wolbachia prevalence (ranging from 0% to 100% of sampled females) was highly variable among populations. All three Wolbachia strains previously observed in A. vulgare were present (wVulC, wVulM and wVulP) with wVulC being the most prevalent (nine of 13 populations). The host showed a genetic structure on five microsatellite loci that is compatible with isolation by distance. The strong genetic structure observed on host mtDNA was correlated with Wolbachia prevalence: three mitotypes were in strong linkage disequilibrium with the three strains of Wolbachia. Neutrality tests showed that the mtDNA polymorphism is not neutral, and we thus suggest that this unusual pattern of mtDNA polymorphism found in A. vulgare was due to Wolbachia. PMID:22188300

  7. Inhibitory Effects of Physalis alkekengi L., Alcea rosea L., Bunium persicum B. Fedtsch. and Marrubium vulgare L. on Mushroom Tyrosinase

    PubMed Central

    Namjoyan, Foroogh; Jahangiri, Alireza; Azemi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Arkian, Elaheh; Mousavi, Hamideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The key enzyme in the process of melanin biosynthesis is tyrosinase. Skin hyperpigmentation and browning of foods are undesirable phenomena which tyrosinase represents. Therefore, tyrosinase inhibitors have been used increasingly for medicinal and cosmetic products. Objectives: In this study, inhibitory effects of four plants including: physalis alkekengi L., Alcea rosea L., Bunium persicum B. Fedtsch. and Marrubium vulgare L. on diphenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase were evaluated. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory activities of hydroalcoholic extracts of plants against oxidation of L-Dopa (as a substrate) by mushroom tyrosinase were investigated. Results: The hydroalcoholic extract of P. alkekengi showed the most tyrosinase inhibitory effect with IC50 of 0.09 mg/mL vs. 0.38, 0.38 and 2.82 mg/mL of B. persicum, A. rosea and M. vulgare, respectively. M. vulgare exhibited uncompetitive inhibition and other plants showed mixed type inhibition on mushroom tyrosinase. Conclusions: All plants could inhibit mushroom tyrosinase, but more investigations on human tyrosinase and clinical studies are needed. PMID:25866725

  8. Cardioprotective effect of methanolic extract of Marrubium vulgare L. on isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Keyvan; Soraya, Hamid; Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Khorrami, Arash; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin; Garjani, Alireza

    2013-08-01

    Isoproterenol injection (100 mg/kg; sc) produced changes in ECG pattern including ST-segment elevation and suppressed R-amplitude. The methanolic extract of M. vulgare at doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg significantly amended the ECG changes. A severe myocardial necrosis and edematous along with a sharp reduction in the arterial blood pressure, left ventricular contractility (LVdP/dt(max or min)), but a marked increase in the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were seen in the isoproterenol group. All parameters were significantly improved by the extract treatment. The extract (10 mg/kg) strongly increased LVdP/dt(max). Similarly, treatment with 40 mg/kg of M. vulgare lowered the elevated LVEDP and the heart to body weight ratio. In addition to in vitro antioxidant activity, the extract suppressed markedly the elevation of malondialdehyde levels both in serum and in myocardium. The results demonstrate that M. vulgare protects myocardium against isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction and suggest that the effects could be related to antioxidant activities. PMID:24228389

  9. The potential of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil in inhibiting the growth of some food-related Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2008-01-01

    Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) has been currently known for their interesting antimicrobial activity being regarded as alternative antimicrobial for use is food conservation systems. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of O. vulgare essential oil in inhibiting the growth of some food-related Aspergillus species (A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. terreus, A. ochraceus, A. fumigatus and A. niger). The essential oil revealed a strong anti-Aspergillus property providing an inhibition of all assayed mould strains. MIC values were between 80 and 20 μL/mL being found a MIC50 of 40 μL/mL. The essential oil at concentration of 80 and 40 μL/mL provided a fungicidal effect on A. flavus, A. fumigatus and A. niger noted by a total inhibition of the radial mycelial growth along 14 days of interaction. In addition, the essential oil was able to inhibit the mould spores germination when assayed at concentrations of 80 and 40 μL/mL. Our results showed the interesting anti-Aspergillus activity of O. vulgare essential oil supporting their possible use as anti-mould compound in food conservation. PMID:24031231

  10. A microsatellite sequence from the rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea) distinguishes between the centromeres of Hordeum vulgare and H. bulbosum in hybrid plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, N S; Armstrong, K C; Fedak, G; Ho, K; Park, N I

    2002-02-01

    A TC/AG-repeat microsatellite sequence derived from the rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea) hybridized to all of the centromeres of Hordeum vulgare chromosomes, but hybridized faintly or not at all to the chromosomes of Hordeum bulbosum. Using this H. vulgare centromere-specific probe, the chromosomes of four F1 hybrids between H. vulgare and H. bulbosum were analyzed. The chromosome constitution in the root tips of the hybrids was mosaic, i.e., 7 (7v, H. vulgare) and 14 (7v + 7b H. bulbosum), or 14 (7v + 7b) and 27 (14v + 13b), or 7 (7v), 14 (7v + 7b), and 27 (14v + 13b). The 27-chromosome tetraploid hybrid cells were revealed to have the NOR (nucleolus organizer region) bearing chromosome of H. bulbosum in a hemizygous state, which might indicate some role for this chromosome in the chromosome instability of the hybrid condition. The chromosomal distribution showed that the chromosomes of H. vulgare were concentric and chromosomes of H. bulbosum were peripheral in the mitotic squash. This non-random chromosome distribution and the centromere-specific repeated DNA differences in the two species were discussed in relation to H. bulbosum chromosome elimination. Meiotic chromosome analyses revealed a high frequency of homoeologous chromosome pairing in early prophase. However, this chromosome pairing did not persist until later meiotic stages and many univalents and chromosome fragments resulted. These were revealed to be H. bulbosum by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with the H. vulgare centromere-specific probe. Because the chromosome segregation of H. vulgare and H. bulbosum chromosomes at anaphase I of meiosis was random, the possibility for obtaining chromosome substitution lines in diploid barley from the diploid hybrid was discussed. PMID:11908659

  11. Lipid Composition of Plasma Membranes and Endomembranes Prepared from Roots of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Dennis J.; DuPont, Frances M.

    1989-01-01

    Membrane fractions enriched in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), tonoplast and Golgi membranes (TG) and plasma membranes (PM) were prepared from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv CM 72) roots and the lipid compositions of the three fractions were analyzed and compared. Plants were grown in an aerated nutrient solution with or without 100 millimolar NaCl. Each membrane fraction had a characteristic lipid composition. The mole per cent of the individual phospholipids, glycolipids, and sterols in each fraction was not altered when roots were grown in 100 millimolar NaCl. The ER had the highest percentages of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine of the three fractions (7 and 45 mole per cent, respectively, of the total lipid). The TG contained the highest percentage of glycosylceramide (13 mole per cent). The PM had the highest percentage of phosphatidylserine (3 mole per cent) and nearly equal percentages of phosphatidylethanolamine (15 mole per cent and phosphatidylcholine (18 mole per cent). The most abundant sterols in membranes prepared from barley roots were stigmasterol (10 mole per cent), sitosterol (50 mole per cent), and 24ζ-methylcholesterol (40 mole per cent of the total sterol). Salt-treated plants contained a slightly higher percentage of stigmasterol than controls. The percentage of stigmasterol increased with age and a simple cause and effect relationship between salt treatment and sterol composition was not observed. PMID:16666904

  12. Nitrogen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings induces molecular and metabolic adjustments that trigger aphid resistance

    PubMed Central

    Comadira, Gloria; Rasool, Brwa; Karpinska, Barbara; Morris, Jenny; Verrall, Susan R.; Hedley, Peter E.; Foyer, Christine H.; Hancock, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) pollution resulting from the use of synthetic fertilizers represents a significant contribution to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, providing a rationale for reduced use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Nitrogen limitation results in extensive systems rebalancing that remodels metabolism and defence processes. To analyse the regulation underpinning these responses, barley (Horedeum vulgare) seedlings were grown for 7 d under N-deficient conditions until net photosynthesis was 50% lower than in N-replete controls. Although shoot growth was decreased there was no evidence for the induction of oxidative stress despite lower total concentrations of N-containing antioxidants. Nitrogen-deficient barley leaves were rich in amino acids, sugars and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. In contrast to N-replete leaves one-day-old nymphs of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) failed to reach adulthood when transferred to N-deficient barley leaves. Transcripts encoding cell, sugar and nutrient signalling, protein degradation and secondary metabolism were over-represented in N-deficient leaves while those associated with hormone metabolism were similar under both nutrient regimes with the exception of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in auxin metabolism and responses. Significant similarities were observed between the N-limited barley leaf transcriptome and that of aphid-infested Arabidopsis leaves. These findings not only highlight significant similarities between biotic and abiotic stress signalling cascades but also identify potential targets for increasing aphid resistance with implications for the development of sustainable agriculture. PMID:26038307

  13. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Acid Soil Resistance in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Gaofeng; Broughton, Sue; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ma, Yanling; Zhou, Meixue; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) have been used to detect QTLs underlying complex traits in major crops. In this study, we collected 218 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines including wild barley and cultivated barley from China, Canada, Australia, and Europe. A total of 408 polymorphic markers were used for population structure and LD analysis. GWAS for acid soil resistance were performed on the population using a general linkage model (GLM) and a mixed linkage model (MLM), respectively. A total of 22 QTLs (quantitative trait loci) were detected with the GLM and MLM analyses. Two QTLs, close to markers bPb-1959 (133.1 cM) and bPb-8013 (86.7 cM), localized on chromosome 1H and 4H respectively, were consistently detected in two different trials with both the GLM and MLM analyses. Furthermore, bPb-8013, the closest marker to the major Al3+ resistance gene HvAACT1 in barley, was identified to be QTL5. The QTLs could be used in marker-assisted selection to identify and pyramid different loci for improved acid soil resistance in barley. PMID:27064793

  14. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxic Activities of the Ethanolic Origanum vulgare Extract and Its Major Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Coccimiglio, John; Alipour, Misagh; Jiang, Zi-Hua; Gottardo, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Oregano is a perennial shrub that grows in the mountains of the Mediterranean and Euro/Irano-Siberian regions. This study was conducted to identify the major constituents of the ethanolic Origanum vulgare extract and examine the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of the extract but more importantly the contribution of its specific major constituent(s) or their combination to the overall extract biological activity. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the extract contained monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds, the major ones being carvacrol and thymol and to a lesser extent p-cymene, 1-octacosanol, creosol, and phytol. A549 epithelial cells challenged with the extract showed a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. A combination of thymol and carvacrol at equimolar concentrations to those present in the extract was less cytotoxic. The A549 cells pretreated with nonlethal extract concentrations protected against hydrogen-peroxide-induced cytotoxicity, an antioxidant effect more effective than the combination of equimolar concentrations of thymol/carvacrol. Inclusion of p-cymene and/or 1-octacosanol did not alter the synergistic antioxidant effects of the carvacrol/thymol mixture. The extract also exhibited antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including clinical isolates. In conclusion, the oregano extract has cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities mostly attributed to carvacrol and thymol. PMID:27051475

  15. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxic Activities of the Ethanolic Origanum vulgare Extract and Its Major Constituents.

    PubMed

    Coccimiglio, John; Alipour, Misagh; Jiang, Zi-Hua; Gottardo, Christine; Suntres, Zacharias

    2016-01-01

    Oregano is a perennial shrub that grows in the mountains of the Mediterranean and Euro/Irano-Siberian regions. This study was conducted to identify the major constituents of the ethanolic Origanum vulgare extract and examine the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of the extract but more importantly the contribution of its specific major constituent(s) or their combination to the overall extract biological activity. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the extract contained monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds, the major ones being carvacrol and thymol and to a lesser extent p-cymene, 1-octacosanol, creosol, and phytol. A549 epithelial cells challenged with the extract showed a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. A combination of thymol and carvacrol at equimolar concentrations to those present in the extract was less cytotoxic. The A549 cells pretreated with nonlethal extract concentrations protected against hydrogen-peroxide-induced cytotoxicity, an antioxidant effect more effective than the combination of equimolar concentrations of thymol/carvacrol. Inclusion of p-cymene and/or 1-octacosanol did not alter the synergistic antioxidant effects of the carvacrol/thymol mixture. The extract also exhibited antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including clinical isolates. In conclusion, the oregano extract has cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities mostly attributed to carvacrol and thymol. PMID:27051475

  16. [Cytogenetic analysis of alloplasmic recombinant lines (H. vulgare)-T. aestivum with unstable fertility and viability].

    PubMed

    Badaeva, E D; Pershina, L A; Bil'danova, L L

    2006-02-01

    Comparative cytogenetic analysis was performed with four alloplasmic recombinant (Hordeum vulgare)-Triticum aestivum lines differing in morphological traits, number of seeds per spike, and seed plumpness. None of the lines displayed introgression of the barley genetic material: the karyotypes included only common wheat chromosomes. Two lines, 79(B) and 79(D), were cytogenetically stable. Plants of lines 79(A) and 79(C) displayed a high frequency of unbalanced chromosome aberrations, including dicentric and polycentric chromosomes, terminal deletions varying in size, acentric fragments, and multiple unidentifiable translocations. Previous studies of the mitochondrial genome showed that the two cytologically unstable lines, which were also unstable in fertility and viability, are characterized by heteroplasmy at the mitochondrial 18S-5S locus (simultaneous presence of barley and wheat fragments). Stable lines 79(B) and 79(D) with normal fertility contained only wheat mitochondrial markers. It was assumed that the substantial instability of the nuclear genome in lines 79(C) and 79(A) was a result of nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility and was associated with heteroplasmy, while elimination or considerable reduction of barley material in the mitochondrial genome stabilized the nuclear genome of lines 79(B) and 79(D). In turn, the instability of the nuclear genome was responsible for a decrease in viability and fertility of plants. PMID:16583704

  17. Developmental pattern of aquaporin expression in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaves

    PubMed Central

    Besse, Matthieu; Knipfer, Thorsten; Miller, Anthony J.; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Jahn, Thomas P.; Fricke, Wieland

    2011-01-01

    Aquaporins are multifunctional membrane channels which belong to the family of major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) and are best known for their ability to facilitate the movement of water. In the present study, earlier results from microarray experiments were followed up. These experiments had suggested that, in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), aquaporin family members are expressed in distinct patterns during leaf development. Real-time PCR and in situ hybridization were used to analyse the level and tissue-distribution of expression of candidate aquaporins, focusing on plasma membrane and tonoplast intrinsic proteins (PIPs, TIPs). Water channel function of seven aquaporins, whose transcripts were the most abundant and the most variable, was tested through expression in yeast and, in part, through expression in oocytes. All PIP1 and PIP2 subfamily members changed in expression during leaf development, with expression being much higher or lower in growing compared with mature tissue. The same applied to those TIPs which were expressed at detectable levels. Specific roles during leaf development are proposed for particular aquaporins. PMID:21737414

  18. Changing environmental conditions and applying organic fertilizers in Origanum vulgare L.

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Morales-Prado, Luis E.; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel V.; Hernández-Montiel, Luis G.; Rueda-Puente, Edgar O.; Nieto-Garibay, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Any improvement in agricultural systems that results in higher production should also reduce negative environmental impacts and enhance sustainability. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of two different production systems, one open-field and the other shade-enclosure with four bocashi doses, in order to find the best environmental option in terms of yield, physiological and morphometric characteristics in one oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) cultivar. In this study a completely randomized block design was used with four replications and evaluated for photosynthetic and transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll, leaf area and temperature, aerial and roots fresh and dry biomass, fresh and dry yield. The results showed that oregano adapted best to the shade-enclosure with increase yield of fresh and dry leaf weight of 165% and 118%, respectively, when compared to open-field. Also, higher doses of bocashi improved yield in both environments but more so in shade-enclosure. Soil moisture retention was higher in shade-enclosure which was reflected in physiological variables for soil matric potential, transpiration, stomatal conductivity, photosynthesis being significantly higher in shade-enclosure compared to open-field, thus improving yield. It seems that oregano plants can be grown and perform better under shade-enclosure than open-field and bocashi is a suitable organic fertilizer. PMID:26257756

  19. The best timing of mate search in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Beauché, Fanny; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Mate choice is mediated by many components with the criteria varying across the animal kingdom. Chemical cues used for mate attractiveness can also reflect mate quality. Regarding the gregarious species Armadillidium vulgare (isopod crustacean), we tested whether individuals can discriminate conspecifics at two different levels (between sex and physiological status) based on olfactory perception. Tested conspecifics were individuals of the same or opposite sex, with the females at different moult stages. We found that the attractiveness of individuals was mediated by short-distance chemical cues and tested individuals were able to discriminate and prefer individuals of the opposite sex. Moreover, male preference to female increased during their moulting status as they matured. Males were particularly more attracted by females with appearing white calcium plates, which corresponds to the beginning of their higher receptivity period. These differences in attractiveness due to sex and physiological status are likely to shape the composition of aggregates and facilitate mate finding and optimize the reproductive success for both males and females. Thus aggregation pheromones could be linked to sex pheromones in terrestrial isopods. PMID:23469225

  20. The Best Timing of Mate Search in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Beauché, Fanny; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Mate choice is mediated by many components with the criteria varying across the animal kingdom. Chemical cues used for mate attractiveness can also reflect mate quality. Regarding the gregarious species Armadillidium vulgare (isopod crustacean), we tested whether individuals can discriminate conspecifics at two different levels (between sex and physiological status) based on olfactory perception. Tested conspecifics were individuals of the same or opposite sex, with the females at different moult stages. We found that the attractiveness of individuals was mediated by short-distance chemical cues and tested individuals were able to discriminate and prefer individuals of the opposite sex. Moreover, male preference to female increased during their moulting status as they matured. Males were particularly more attracted by females with appearing white calcium plates, which corresponds to the beginning of their higher receptivity period. These differences in attractiveness due to sex and physiological status are likely to shape the composition of aggregates and facilitate mate finding and optimize the reproductive success for both males and females. Thus aggregation pheromones could be linked to sex pheromones in terrestrial isopods. PMID:23469225

  1. Effects of landfill leachate treatment on hepatopancreas of Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea, Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Manti, Anita; Canonico, Barbara; Mazzeo, Roberto; Santolini, Riccardo; Ciandrini, Eleonora; Sisti, Davide; Rocchi, Marco Bruno Luigi; Nannoni, Francesco; Protano, Giuseppe; Papa, Stefano

    2013-11-01

    The major environmental impact of landfills is emission of pollutants via the leachate and gas pathways. The hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Crustacea, Latreille 1804) plays an important role in the bioaccumulation of contaminants, such as heavy metals. To evaluate the effects of landfill leachate treatment, 2 different approaches were applied: 1) the detection of accumulation of trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Sb, Zn, Pb, Ni, V) in hepatopancreatic cells, and 2) the evaluation of biological effect of contaminants on fresh hepatopancreatic cells by flow-cytometric analyses. The presence of 2 different cell types (herein referred to as "small" [S] cells and "big" [B] cells, in agreement with the literature based on morphological examinations) was detected for the first time by flow cytometry, which also highlighted their different response to stress stimuli. In particular, B cells appeared more sensitive to landfill leachate treatment, being more damaged in the short term, while S cells seemed more adaptive. Furthermore, S cells could represent a pool from which they are able to differentiate into B cells. These findings were also confirmed by principal component analyses, underlining that S SYBR Green I bright cells correlate with specific chemicals (Ca, Cu, Co), confirming their resistance to stress stimuli, and suggesting that the decrease of specific cell types may prime other elements to replace them in a homeostasis-preservation framework. PMID:23929682

  2. Self-corrective behavior for turn alternation in pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare).

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Toru; Migita, Masao; Mitsuishi, Meiji

    2016-01-01

    Pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare) demonstrate a behavior called turn alternation that keeps their overall direction of movement straight after obstacles in experimental settings force them to deviate from a course. For example, this behavior is seen when they alternate their path choice on successive trials of the T-maze test. However, sometimes pill bugs stop after turning and change their direction (directional change). The function of this directional change has not been investigated because such individuals are usually omitted from the data. The present paper shows that pill bugs use directional changes to prevent them from turning in the same direction on two successive turns, a behavior called turn repetition. We examined the behavior of 36 pill bugs that each completed 130 successive T-maze trials. Directional changes appeared more frequently when individuals had begun a turn repetition than when they had begun a turn alternation. Furthermore, after correcting for turn repetition, turn alternations increased. These results suggest that pill bugs have an inherent mechanism that acts to maintain turn-alternating behavior. PMID:26621257

  3. Characterization and cDNA cloning of androgenic gland hormone of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Okuno, A; Hasegawa, Y; Ohira, T; Katakura, Y; Nagasawa, H

    1999-10-22

    The sex differentiation in crustaceans is known to be controlled by a peptide hormone called androgenic gland hormone (AGH). AGH was extracted and purified from the androgenic glands (AGs) of the male isopod Armadillidium vulgare by high-performance liquid chromatography. AGH consisted of two peptide chains and their N-terminal amino acid sequences were determined. A cDNA encoding AGH was cloned by PCR and sequenced. The cDNA had an open reading frame of 432 bp, which encoded a preproAGH consisting of a signal peptide (21 residues), B chain (44 residues), C peptide (46 residues), and A chain (29 residues). Through processing, the A and B chains might form a heterodimer interlinked by disulfide bonds. The A chain possessed a putative N-linked glycosylation site. A Northern blot analysis using the cDNA as a probe detected a hybridization signal with 0.8 kb in the RNA preparation only from the AGs. PMID:10529379

  4. Streptomyces coacervatus sp. nov., isolated from the intestinal tract of Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Shibazaki, Azusa; Omoto, Yuta; Kudo, Takuji; Yaguchi, Takashi; Saito, Akihiro; Ando, Akikazu; Mikami, Yuzuru; Gonoi, Tohru

    2011-05-01

    A Gram-staining-positive bacterium, designated AS-0823(T), which formed spiral spore chains on the aerial mycelium, was isolated from the intestinal tract of Armadillidium vulgare, a small terrestrial crustacean commonly found on the ground around houses in Japan. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Streptomyces and was most closely related to Streptomyces longisporus ISP 5166(T) (98.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Streptomyces curacoi NBRC 12761(T) (98.4 %) and Streptomyces griseoruber NBRC 12873(T) (98.4 %). The affiliation of strain AS-0823(T) to the genus Streptomyces was supported by chemotaxonomic data: iso-C(16 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0) as the major cellular fatty acids, ll-diaminopimelic acid as the characteristic diamino acid in the peptidoglycan and the absence of mycolic acids. DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical analysis supported the differentiation of strain AS-0823(T) from S. longisporus JCM 4395(T). Therefore, strain AS-0823(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Streptomyces coacervatus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AS-0823(T) ( = IFM 11055(T)  = DSM 41983(T)  = JCM 17138(T)). PMID:20525817

  5. Embryo tolerance and maternal control of the marsupial environment in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda: Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Surbida, K L; Wright, J C

    2001-01-01

    Marsupial development in terrestrial isopods subjects embryos to potential physiological stresses, including desiccation, osmotic variation, and high ammonia concentrations. In this study, we investigated tolerance of osmotic extremes, total ammonia, and pH in developmental stages of Armadillidium vulgare cultured in vitro. Marsupial stages were classified as stage 1 (chorionated eggs), stage 2 (having shed the chorion), and stage 3 (mancas). All stages showed wide but differing tolerance ranges. Stage 1 eggs possess the greatest ammonia tolerance, with high 7-d survival in 150 mM total ammonia, and a wide pH tolerance range. Mancas show the widest osmotic tolerance (100-1,400 mosm x kg(-1)) and display proficient hemolymph osmoregulation over this range. Stage 2 eggs reveal the narrowest tolerance ranges for all three parameters but still qualify as eurytopic. Silver staining revealed two distinct ion-transporting tissues in the developmental stages: a median band on the vitelline membrane of stage 1 and stage 2 eggs, corresponding in location to the embryonic dorsal organ, and the posterior three pairs of pleopodal endopodites in mancas. Gravid females do not downregulate ammonia but show efficient regulation of marsupial fluid pH and downregulation of osmolality during dehydration, both of which will provide additional protection to the marsupial young. PMID:11731981

  6. Partial characterization of vitellin and localization of vitellogenin production in the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Okuno, A; Katayama, H; Nagasawa, H

    2000-07-01

    Vitellins were purified separately from ovaries and eggs of the isopod, Armadillidium vulgare. Ovarian vitellin consisted of at least six proteins with relative molecular masses of 205, 200, 185, 180, 122 and 112 kDa. The larger four proteins disappeared in eggs within a week after oviposition and a 59-kDa protein appeared thereafter. The amino-terminal amino acid sequences of these vitellin proteins were identical except for the ovarian 112 kDa, egg 112 kDa and 59 kDa proteins, and showed considerable similarity to those of known vitellogenins from other animals. Comparison of tryptic peptide maps of the 122 and 112 kDa proteins from eggs on reversed-phase HPLC and sequence identification of two randomly selected peaks having the same retention times indicated that two peptides were mostly similar in sequence. PCR-assisted cloning of the 5' region of a cDNA (591 bp) encoding vitellogenin revealed the presence of a signal peptide consisting of 16 amino acid residues and clarified the structural relationship among the protein components except for the ovarian 112 kDa and the egg 59 kDa proteins. Northern blot analysis revealed that the fat body is the main vitellogenin producing organ. PMID:11007182

  7. The Discovery of Resistant Sources of Spring Barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and Unique Greenbug Biotypes.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J Scott; Mornhinweg, Dolores W; Payton, Mark E; Puterka, Gary J

    2016-02-01

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for the complex of greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) that previously showed potential for greenbug resistance. Three of those entries, WBDC 53, WBDC 117, WBDC 336, exhibited very dominant sources of resistance to older known biotypes B, C, E, F, H, I, and TX1, which also add to the host-plant differentials used to separate these greenbug biotypes. We also re-evaluated the earlier known set of greenbug biotypes that have been in culture for several years against the known host-plant differentials, and included seven newer greenbug isolates collected from Wyoming to the full complement of small grain differentials. This resulted in the discovery of five new greenbug biotypes, WY10 MC, WY81, WY10 B, WY12 MC, and WY86. Wyoming isolates WY4 A and WY4 B were identical in their phenotypic profile, and should be combined as a single unique greenbug biotype. These barley trials resulted in finding new sources of host-plant resistance, although more research needs to be conducted on what type of resistance was found, and how it can be used. We also document that the Wheatland, Wyoming area serves as a very conducive environment for the development of new greenbug biotypes. PMID:26527793

  8. Farmers without borders—genetic structuring in century old barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, N E G; Russell, J; Macaulay, M; Leino, M W; Hagenblad, J

    2015-01-01

    The geographic distribution of genetic diversity can reveal the evolutionary history of a species. For crop plants, phylogeographic patterns also indicate how seed has been exchanged and spread in agrarian communities. Such patterns are, however, easily blurred by the intense seed trade, plant improvement and even genebank conservation during the twentieth century, and discerning fine-scale phylogeographic patterns is thus particularly challenging. Using historical crop specimens, these problems are circumvented and we show here how high-throughput genotyping of historical nineteenth century crop specimens can reveal detailed geographic population structure. Thirty-one historical and nine extant accessions of North European landrace barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), in total 231 individuals, were genotyped on a 384 single nucleotide polymorphism assay. The historical material shows constant high levels of within-accession diversity, whereas the extant accessions show more varying levels of diversity and a higher degree of total genotype sharing. Structure, discriminant analysis of principal components and principal component analysis cluster the accessions in latitudinal groups across country borders in Finland, Norway and Sweden. FST statistics indicate strong differentiation between accessions from southern Fennoscandia and accessions from central or northern Fennoscandia, and less differentiation between central and northern accessions. These findings are discussed in the context of contrasting historical records on intense within-country south to north seed movement. Our results suggest that although seeds were traded long distances, long-term cultivation has instead been of locally available, possibly better adapted, genotypes. PMID:25227257

  9. Biochemical and Physiological Studies on the Effects of Senescence Leaves of Populus deltoides on Triticum vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Khaket, Tejinder Pal; Kumar, Viney; Singh, Jasbir; Dhanda, Suman

    2014-01-01

    Triticum vulgare (Wheat) based products are the major dietary source of food in developing countries. In India, it grows in association with boundary plantations of Populus deltoids (poplar). During winter, poplar enters in dormancy which cause a heavy leaf fall at the time of wheat seed germination. Large number of poplar senescence leaves may adversely affect the wheat. Therefore, the present study was performed to examine the effect of senescence poplar leaves on wheat germ and some other biochemical parameters. Seed's germination rate was determined by measuring root and shoot lengths, percent germination, germination index, and inhibition percentage. Biochemical parameters, namely, pigment, carbohydrate, protein, and phenol content, were estimated. Activities of catalase and polyphenol oxidase which are stress marker enzymes were also measured. Results revealed that germination and other biochemical parameters of wheat were severely affected by senescence poplar leaves even at very low concentration. So, intercropping of poplar along with wheat may be chosen carefully as wheat is the major dietary staple. PMID:25610892

  10. Farmers without borders-genetic structuring in century old barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Forsberg, N E G; Russell, J; Macaulay, M; Leino, M W; Hagenblad, J

    2015-02-01

    The geographic distribution of genetic diversity can reveal the evolutionary history of a species. For crop plants, phylogeographic patterns also indicate how seed has been exchanged and spread in agrarian communities. Such patterns are, however, easily blurred by the intense seed trade, plant improvement and even genebank conservation during the twentieth century, and discerning fine-scale phylogeographic patterns is thus particularly challenging. Using historical crop specimens, these problems are circumvented and we show here how high-throughput genotyping of historical nineteenth century crop specimens can reveal detailed geographic population structure. Thirty-one historical and nine extant accessions of North European landrace barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), in total 231 individuals, were genotyped on a 384 single nucleotide polymorphism assay. The historical material shows constant high levels of within-accession diversity, whereas the extant accessions show more varying levels of diversity and a higher degree of total genotype sharing. Structure, discriminant analysis of principal components and principal component analysis cluster the accessions in latitudinal groups across country borders in Finland, Norway and Sweden. FST statistics indicate strong differentiation between accessions from southern Fennoscandia and accessions from central or northern Fennoscandia, and less differentiation between central and northern accessions. These findings are discussed in the context of contrasting historical records on intense within-country south to north seed movement. Our results suggest that although seeds were traded long distances, long-term cultivation has instead been of locally available, possibly better adapted, genotypes. PMID:25227257

  11. Nitrogen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings induces molecular and metabolic adjustments that trigger aphid resistance.

    PubMed

    Comadira, Gloria; Rasool, Brwa; Karpinska, Barbara; Morris, Jenny; Verrall, Susan R; Hedley, Peter E; Foyer, Christine H; Hancock, Robert D

    2015-06-01

    Agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) pollution resulting from the use of synthetic fertilizers represents a significant contribution to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, providing a rationale for reduced use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Nitrogen limitation results in extensive systems rebalancing that remodels metabolism and defence processes. To analyse the regulation underpinning these responses, barley (Horedeum vulgare) seedlings were grown for 7 d under N-deficient conditions until net photosynthesis was 50% lower than in N-replete controls. Although shoot growth was decreased there was no evidence for the induction of oxidative stress despite lower total concentrations of N-containing antioxidants. Nitrogen-deficient barley leaves were rich in amino acids, sugars and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. In contrast to N-replete leaves one-day-old nymphs of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) failed to reach adulthood when transferred to N-deficient barley leaves. Transcripts encoding cell, sugar and nutrient signalling, protein degradation and secondary metabolism were over-represented in N-deficient leaves while those associated with hormone metabolism were similar under both nutrient regimes with the exception of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in auxin metabolism and responses. Significant similarities were observed between the N-limited barley leaf transcriptome and that of aphid-infested Arabidopsis leaves. These findings not only highlight significant similarities between biotic and abiotic stress signalling cascades but also identify potential targets for increasing aphid resistance with implications for the development of sustainable agriculture. PMID:26038307

  12. Differential heat sensitivity index in barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) monitored by chlorophyll a fluorescence OKJIP.

    PubMed

    Oukarroum, Abdallah; El Madidi, Saïd; Strasser, Reto J

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to differentiate the heat tolerance in ten varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) originating from Morocco. Five modern varieties and five landraces (local varieties) collected at five different geographical localities in the south of Morocco were investigated in the present study. After two weeks of growth, detached leaves were short term exposure to various temperatures (25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 °C) for 10 min in the dark. Two chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters derived from chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (OKJIP) (performance index (PIABS) and relative variable fluorescence at the K-step (VK)) were analysed. Heat treatment had a significant effect on the PIABS and VK at 45 °C treatment and the analysis of variance for PIABS and VK is highly significant between all varieties. The slope of the relationship between logPIABS and VK named heat sensitivity index (HSI) was used to evaluate the thermotolerance of photosystem II (PSII) between the studied barley varieties. According to this approach, barley varieties were screened and ranked for improving heat tolerance. HSI was found to be a new indicator with regard to distinguishing heat tolerance of different barley cultivars. PMID:27093113

  13. Characterization of the association of nitrate reductase with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) root membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyerhoff, P. A.; Fox, T. C.; Travis, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The nature of the association between nitrate reductase (NR) and membranes was examined. Nitrate reductase activity (NRA) associated with the microsomal fraction of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots amounted to 0.6 to 0.8% of soluble NRA following sonication in the presence of 250 mM KI and repeated osmotic shock. This treatment removed all contaminating soluble NRA from microsomes of uninduced barley roots that had been homogenized in a soluble extract from roots of NO3(-)-induced plants. On continuous sucrose gradients, NRA co-migrated specifically with VO4(-)-sensitive ATPase activity, a plasma membrane (PM) marker; activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, assayed as cytosolic marker, co-migrated with NRA. Microsomal NRA was absent in barley deficient in soluble NR. Perturbation and trypsinolysis experiments with PM vesicles isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning indicated that NR is associated with the periphery of the cytoplasmic face of the bilayer. These results demonstrate that PM and soluble NRs are essentially the same protein but that the membrane-associated form is tightly bound. Although it is possible that PM-associated NR exists in vivo, unequivocal evidence for this has yet to be shown. However, PM NR is definitely present in vitro.

  14. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy surface analysis of aluminum ion stress in barley roots. [Hordeum vulgare

    SciTech Connect

    Millard, M.M.; Foy, C.D.; Coradetti, C.A.; Reinsel, M.D. )

    1990-06-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to analyze root surface changes when Dayton barley (Hordeum vulgare) (Al tolerant) and Kearney barley (Al sensitive) seedlings were grown in nutrient solution in the presence and absence of 37.0 micromolar Al. The electron spectra from root surfaces contained strong lines in order of decreasing intensity from organic forms of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen and weak lines due to inorganic elements in the form of anions and cations on the surface. The surface composition of root tips from Kearney was C, 65.6%; 0, 26.8%; N, 4.4% and tips from Dayton was C, 72.7%; O, 23.6%; N, 1.9%, grown in the absence of aluminum. Electron lines characteristic of nitrate, potassium, chloride, phosphate were also present in the spectra from those roots. Dayton roots grown in the presence of 37.0 micromolar aluminum contained 2.1% aluminum while Kearney contained 1.3% aluminum. The ratio of aluminum to phosphate was close to 1.0. Dayton roots usually contained twice as much aluminum phosphate in the surface region as Kearney. Dayton may be less susceptible to Al toxic effects by accumulation of aluminum phosphate on the root surface which then acts as a barrier to the transport of aluminum into the interior of the roots.

  15. Comparative Diversity Analysis of Rflps and Isozymes within and among Populations of Hordeum Vulgare Ssp. Spontaneum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Q.; Maroof, MAS.; Kleinhofs, A.

    1993-01-01

    DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and isozyme variation were surveyed in 268 accessions of a wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) sampled from diverse ecogeographical areas in Israel and Iran. A total of 24 markers was used: 7 well characterized isozyme loci and 15 DNA probes which detected 17 putative loci and included three classes of DNA sequences (single copy, low copy and repetitive) representing all 7 barley chromosomes. Survey results indicated that both RFLPs and isozymes are highly polymorphic both within and among populations of this wild barley. The number of alleles per locus and average level of diversity do not differ between isozymes and RFLPs. However, the relative amounts of within vs. between population components vary greatly between these two sets of molecular markers. Isozymes demonstrated a larger amount of within population diversity, whereas RFLPs resolved a higher proportion of between population differentiation. Furthermore, RFLPs detected more heterozygosity than did isozymes. Both classes of markers resolved large numbers of multilocus combinations, the majority of which were represented by only one individual in the total sample. Up to 30% of the loci differ among individuals within populations, and about 50% of the loci differ among plants in different populations. While many important aspects of population diversity as determined by RFLPs are significantly correlated with those of isozymes, such correlation values are generally low, indicating that only a small proportion of the genetic variation detected by one class of markers can be predicted by the other. PMID:8102343

  16. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Acid Soil Resistance in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gaofeng; Broughton, Sue; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ma, Yanling; Zhou, Meixue; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) have been used to detect QTLs underlying complex traits in major crops. In this study, we collected 218 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines including wild barley and cultivated barley from China, Canada, Australia, and Europe. A total of 408 polymorphic markers were used for population structure and LD analysis. GWAS for acid soil resistance were performed on the population using a general linkage model (GLM) and a mixed linkage model (MLM), respectively. A total of 22 QTLs (quantitative trait loci) were detected with the GLM and MLM analyses. Two QTLs, close to markers bPb-1959 (133.1 cM) and bPb-8013 (86.7 cM), localized on chromosome 1H and 4H respectively, were consistently detected in two different trials with both the GLM and MLM analyses. Furthermore, bPb-8013, the closest marker to the major Al(3+) resistance gene HvAACT1 in barley, was identified to be QTL5. The QTLs could be used in marker-assisted selection to identify and pyramid different loci for improved acid soil resistance in barley. PMID:27064793

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of procirsin, an active aspartic protease precursor from Cirsium vulgare (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Lufrano, Daniela; Faro, Rosário; Castanheira, Pedro; Parisi, Gustavo; Veríssimo, Paula; Vairo-Cavalli, Sandra; Simões, Isaura; Faro, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Typical aspartic proteinases from plants of the Astereaceae family like cardosins and cyprosins are well-known milk-clotting enzymes. Their effectiveness in cheesemaking has encouraged several studies on other Astereaceae plant species for identification of new vegetable rennets. Here we report on the cloning, expression and characterization of a novel aspartic proteinase precursor from the flowers of Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. The isolated cDNA encoded a protein product with 509 amino acids, termed cirsin, with the characteristic primary structure organization of plant typical aspartic proteinases. The pro form of cirsin was expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to be active without autocatalytically cleaving its pro domain. This contrasts with the acid-triggered autoactivation by pro-segment removal described for several recombinant plant typical aspartic proteinases. Recombinant procirsin displayed all typical proteolytic features of aspartic proteinases as optimum acidic pH, inhibition by pepstatin, cleavage between hydrophobic amino acids and strict dependence on two catalytic Asp residues for activity. Procirsin also displayed a high specificity towards κ-casein and milk-clotting activity, suggesting it might be an effective vegetable rennet. The findings herein described provide additional evidences for the existence of different structural arrangements among plant typical aspartic proteinases. PMID:22727116

  18. Bio-efficacy of the essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare Lamiaceae. Ssp. Hirtum).

    PubMed

    Grondona, Ezequiel; Gatti, Gerardo; López, Abel G; Sánchez, Leonardo Rodolfo; Rivero, Virginia; Pessah, Oscar; Zunino, María P; Ponce, Andrés A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactivity of the essential oil isolated from Origanum vulgare L. (EOv). We analyzed the in vivo anti-inflammatory properties in a mouse-airway inflammation model and the in vitro antimicrobial activity, genotoxicity over the anaphase-telophase with the Allium cepa strain and its cytotoxicity/viability in A549 culture cells. In vivo, EOv modified the levels of tumor necrosis factor -α and viable activated macrophages and was capable to mitigate the effects of degradation of conjugated dienes. In vitro, EOv reduced the viability of cultured A549 cells as well as the mitotic index and a number of chromosomal aberrations; however, it did not change the number of phases. We found that EOv presents antimicrobial activity against different Gram (-) and (+) strains, measured by disc-diffusion test and confirmed with a more accurate method, the AutoCad software. We postulate that EOv presents antibacterial, antioxidant and chemopreventive properties and could be play an important role as bioprotector agent. PMID:25266989

  19. Trifluralin-induced disorganization of microtubular cytoskeleton alters the development of roots in Hordeum vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Sheval, E V; Kazhura, Yu I; Poleshuk, Nina A; Lazareva, Elena M; Smirnova, Elena A; Maximova, Natalia P; Polyakov, V Y

    2008-12-01

    The extensive use of herbicides in agriculture becomes an important factor in environmental pollution, especially in case of slowly degradable compounds. Some agents act on plants during a long period of time, even if a very low concentration of the herbicide remains in the soil. Here, we investigated the toxicological effect of a low concentration of dinitroaniline herbicide, trifluralin, on growing seedlings of Hordeum vulgare L. Trifluralin in concentration of 1 microg/ml inhibited root growth. The mitotic activity of meristematic cells was suppressed due to the retardation of metaphase progression--alteration that can be caused by cytoskeleton disorder. Using antibodies to alpha-tubulin, we investigated the distribution of microtubules in root meristem cells. During all stages of mitosis, the highly regular system of microtubular cytoskeleton observed in control cells was slightly disorganized. An examination of root structure using light and electron microscopy demonstrated that the cell walls did not form normally during cell division that led to the appearance of large multinucleated cells. Also, the premature (pathological) cell differentiation was induced by trifluralin. A part of differentiating cells showed intracellular structural changes that are consistent with programmed cell death. It seems that the development of alterations in trifluralin-treated roots was due to the microtubular cytoskeleton disorganization. PMID:19133502

  20. Chlorophyll Fluorescence as a Possible Tool for Salinity Tolerance Screening in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed Central

    Belkhodja, R.; Morales, F.; Abadia, A.; Gomez-Aparisi, J.; Abadia, J.

    1994-01-01

    The application of chlorophyll fluorescence measurements to screening barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes for salinity tolerance has been investigated. Excised barley leaves were cut under water and incubated with the cut end immersed in water or in a 100-mM NaCl solution, either in the dark or in high light. Changes in rapid fluorescence kinetics occurred in excised barley leaves exposed to the saline solution only when the incubation was carried out in the presence of high light. Fluorescence changes consisted of decreases in the variable to maximum fluorescence ratio and in increases in the relative proportion of variable fluorescence leading to point I in the Kautsky fluorescence induction curve. These relative increases in fluorescence at point I appeared to arise from a delayed plastoquinone reoxidation in the dark, since they disappeared after short, far-red illumination, which is known to excite photosystem I preferentially. We show that a significant correlation existed between some fluorescence parameters, measured after a combined salt and high-light treatment, and other independent measurements of salinity tolerance. These results suggest that chlorophyll fluorescence, and especially the relative fluorescence at point I in the Kautsky fluorescence induction curve, could be used for the screening of barley genotypes for salinity tolerance. PMID:12232117

  1. Reverse micellar extraction of beta-galactosidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Hemavathi, A B; Umesh Hebbar, H; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2008-12-01

    The reverse micellar system of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane was used for the extraction and primary purification of beta-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) from the aqueous extract of barley (Hordeum vulgare) for the first time. The process parameters such as the concentration of the surfactant, the volume of the sample injected, and its protein concentration, pH, and ionic strength of the initial aqueous phase for forward extraction, buffer pH, and salt concentration for back extraction are varied to optimize the extraction efficiency. Studies carried out with both phase transfer and injection mode of reverse micellar extraction confirmed the injection mode to be more suitable for beta-galactosidase extraction. The extent of reverse micellar solubilization of proteins increased with an increase in protein concentration of the feed sample. However, back extraction efficiency remained almost constant (13-14.4%), which indicates the selectivity of AOT reverse micelles for a particular protein under given experimental conditions. beta-Galactosidase was extracted with an activity recovery of 98.74% and a degree of purification of 7.2-fold. PMID:18480974

  2. Activity of ladanein on leukemia cell lines and its occurrence in Marrubium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Alkhatib, Racha; Joha, Sami; Cheok, Meyling; Roumy, Vincent; Idziorek, Thierry; Preudhomme, Claude; Quesnel, Bruno; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François; Hennebelle, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Three methoxylated flavones isolated from Marrubium peregrinum - ladanein, scutellarein-5,7,4'-trimethyl ether, and scutellarein-5,6,7,4'-tetramethyl ether - were assayed for their cytotoxicity towards a recently developed dasatinib-resistant murine leukemia cell line (DA1-3b/M2 (BCR-ABL)), together with the structurally related non-methylated flavone scutellarein. The most active compound, ladanein, was looked for in 20 common Lamiaceae species by a quick HPLC screening. Among the possible positive results, the most interesting source was found to be Marrubium vulgare, which led to the isolation and identification of ladanein for the first time in this species. Ladanein also displayed moderate (20-40 microM) activities against K562, K562R (imatinib-resistant), and 697 human leukemia cell lines but was toxic neither to MOLM13 nor to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This work provides a common natural source for the hemi-synthesis of future ladanein-derived flavones and the study of their antileukemic activity. PMID:19644796

  3. Spatially resolved analysis of variation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain micronutrient accumulation.

    PubMed

    Detterbeck, Amelie; Pongrac, Paula; Rensch, Stefan; Reuscher, Stefan; Pečovnik, Matic; Vavpetič, Primož; Pelicon, Primož; Holzheu, Stefan; Krämer, Ute; Clemens, Stephan

    2016-09-01

    Genetic biofortification requires knowledge on natural variation and the underlying mechanisms of micronutrient accumulation. We therefore studied diversity in grain micronutrient concentrations and spatial distribution in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a genetically tractable model cereal and an important crop with widespread cultivation. We assembled a diverse collection of barley cultivars and landraces and analysed grain micronutrient profiles in genebank material and after three independent cultivations. Lines with contrasting grain zinc (Zn) accumulation were selected for in-depth analysis of micronutrient distribution within the grain by micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE). Also, we addressed association with grain cadmium (Cd) accumulation. The analysis of > 120 lines revealed substantial variation, especially in grain Zn concentrations. A large fraction of this variation is due to genetic differences. Grain dissection and μ-PIXE analysis of contrasting lines showed that differences in grain Zn accumulation apply to all parts of the grain including the endosperm. Cd concentrations exceeded the Codex Alimentarius threshold in most of the representative barley lines after cultivation in a Cd-contaminated agricultural soil. Two important conclusions for biofortification are: first, high-Zn grains contain more Zn also in the consumed parts of the grain; and second, higher micronutrient concentrations are strongly associated with higher Cd accumulation. PMID:27125321

  4. Biogenesis of water splitting by photosystem II during de-etiolation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Shevela, Dmitriy; Arnold, Janine; Reisinger, Veronika; Berends, Hans-Martin; Kmiec, Karol; Koroidov, Sergey; Bue, Ann Kristin; Messinger, Johannes; Eichacker, Lutz A

    2016-07-01

    Etioplasts lack thylakoid membranes and photosystem complexes. Light triggers differentiation of etioplasts into mature chloroplasts, and photosystem complexes assemble in parallel with thylakoid membrane development. Plastids isolated at various time points of de-etiolation are ideal to study the kinetic biogenesis of photosystem complexes during chloroplast development. Here, we investigated the chronology of photosystem II (PSII) biogenesis by monitoring assembly status of chlorophyll-binding protein complexes and development of water splitting via O2 production in plastids (etiochloroplasts) isolated during de-etiolation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Assembly of PSII monomers, dimers and complexes binding outer light-harvesting antenna [PSII-light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) supercomplexes] was identified after 1, 2 and 4 h of de-etiolation, respectively. Water splitting was detected in parallel with assembly of PSII monomers, and its development correlated with an increase of bound Mn in the samples. After 4 h of de-etiolation, etiochloroplasts revealed the same water-splitting efficiency as mature chloroplasts. We conclude that the capability of PSII to split water during de-etiolation precedes assembly of the PSII-LHCII supercomplexes. Taken together, data show a rapid establishment of water-splitting activity during etioplast-to-chloroplast transition and emphasize that assembly of the functional water-splitting site of PSII is not the rate-limiting step in the formation of photoactive thylakoid membranes. PMID:26836813

  5. Host origin and tissue microhabitat shaping the microbiota of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, Jessica; Lesobre, Jérôme; Moumen, Bouziane; Bouchon, Didier

    2016-05-01

    We present the first in-depth investigation of the host-associated microbiota of the terrestrial isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare. This species is an important decomposer of organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems and a major model organism for arthropod-Wolbachia symbioses due to its well-characterized association with feminizing Wolbachia 16S rRNA gene pyrotags were used to characterize its bacterial microbiota at multiple levels: (i) in individuals from laboratory lineages and field populations and (ii) in various host tissues. This integrative approach allowed us to reveal an unexpectedly high bacterial diversity, placing this species in the same league as termites in terms of symbiotic diversity. Interestingly, both animal groups belong to the same ecological guild in terrestrial ecosystems. While Wolbachia represented the predominant taxon in infected individuals, it was not the only major player. Together, the most abundant taxa represented a large scope of symbiotic interactions, including bacterial pathogens, a reproductive parasite (Wolbachia) and potential nutritional symbionts. Furthermore, we demonstrate that individuals from different populations harboured distinct bacterial communities, indicating a strong link between the host-associated microbiota and environmental bacteria, possibly due to terrestrial isopod nutritional ecology. Overall, this work highlights the need for more studies of host-microbiota interactions and bacterial diversity in non-insect arthropods. PMID:27004796

  6. Tanacetum vulgare as a bioindicator of trace-metal contamination: a study of a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine.

    PubMed

    Jasion, Mateusz; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the possibility of use of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) as an ecological indicator of metal concentration in a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine in Bełchatów (Poland). Tanacetum vulgare is the only species growing abundantly and spontaneously in the lignite mine waste dumps. Metal concentrations in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and soil were measured in dump sites differing in type and time of reclamation and therefore differing in pollution levels. Tanacetum vulgare appeared to be an accumulator of chromium and iron in roots, whereas highest concentrations of manganese and zinc were found in leaves. A high bioaccumulation factor for cadmium (Cd) was observed in dumps and control sites, indicating that even small amounts of Cd in the environment may result in significant uptake by the plant. The lowest concentrations of metals were found in plants from sites situated on dumps reclaimed with argillaceous limestone. PMID:23748998

  7. Clinical trial of Cecropia obtusifolia and Marrubium vulgare leaf extracts on blood glucose and serum lipids in type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Arellano, A; Aguilar-Santamaría, L; García-Hernández, B; Nicasio-Torres, P; Tortoriello, J

    2004-11-01

    Cecropia obtusifolia and Marrubium vulgare have been widely used in Mexican traditional medicine for the control of type 2 diabetes. In order to evaluate the clinical effect produced by the aqueous extract from these species on type 2 non-controlled diabetes mellitus, a total of 43 outpatients were included. Based on the European NIDDM (policy group) criteria, only patients with poor response to the conventional treatment were selected. All patients maintained their medical treatment and also received a prepared infusion of the dry leaves of the plant treatment for 21 days. In a double-blind manner, the patients were randomly grouped as follows: 22 patients were treated with C. obtusifolia and 21 with M. vulgare. The fasting blood glucose values were reduced by 15.25% on patients treated with C. obtusifolia, while cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased by 14.62% and 42.0%, respectively (ANOVA p< 0.02). In the case of patients treated with M. vulgare, the plasma glucose level was reduced by 0.64% and cholesterol and triglycerides by 4.16% and 5.78%, respectively. When the results were compared between groups, significant differences in glucose and cholesterol diminution were found. The obtained results showed that the infusion prepared with the leaves of C. obtusifolia (containing 2.99+/-0.14mg of chlorogenic acid/g of dried plant) produced beneficial effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms when it was administered as an adjunct on patients with type 2 diabetes with poor response to conventional medical treatment. PMID:15636168

  8. The effect of drought on photosynthetic plasticity in Marrubium vulgare plants growing at low and high altitudes.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Ghader; Ajory, Neda

    2015-11-01

    Photosynthesis is a biological process most affected by water deficit. Plants have various photosynthetic mechanisms that are matched to specific climatic zones. We studied the photosynthetic plasticity of C3 plants at water deficit using ecotypes of Marrubium vulgare L. from high (2,200 m) and low (1,100 m) elevation sites in the Mishou-Dagh Mountains of Iran. Under experimental drought, high-altitude plants showed more tolerance to water stress based on most of the parameters studied as compared to the low-altitude plants. Increased tolerance in high-altitude plants was achieved by lower levels of daytime stomatal conductance (g s) and reduced damaging effect on maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) (F v /F m ) coupled with higher levels of carotenoids and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). High-altitude plants exhibited higher water use efficiency (WUE) than that in low-altitude plants depending on the presence of thick leaves and the reduced daytime stomatal conductance. Additionally, we have studied the oscillation in H(+) content and diel gas exchange patterns to determine the occurrence of C3 or weak CAM (Crassulacean acid metabolism) in M. vulgare through 15 days drought stress. Under water-stressed conditions, low-altitude plants exhibited stomatal conductance and acid fluctuations characteristic of C3 photosynthesis, though high-altitude plants exhibited more pronounced increases in nocturnal acidity and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activity, suggesting photosynthetic flexibility. These results indicated that the regulation of carotenoids, NPQ, stomatal conductance and diel patterns of CO2 exchange presented the larger differences among studied plants at different altitudes and seem to be the protecting mechanisms controlling the photosynthetic performance of M. vulgare plants under drought conditions. PMID:26314352

  9. Structure of Hordeum vulgare NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase 2. Unwinding the reaction mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkensgaard, Kristine G.; Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Henriksen, Anette

    2009-09-01

    The first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, a protein involved in seed development and germination, has been determined. The structure is in a conformation that excludes NADPH binding and indicates that a domain reorientation facilitated by Trx binding precedes NADPH binding in the reaction mechanism. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are protein disulfide reductases that regulate the intracellular redox environment and are important for seed germination in plants. Trxs are in turn regulated by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs), which provide reducing equivalents to Trx using NADPH to recycle Trxs to the active form. Here, the first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, HvNTR2 from Hordeum vulgare (barley), is presented, which is also the first structure of a monocot plant NTR. The structure was determined at 2.6 Å resolution and refined to an R{sub cryst} of 19.0% and an R{sub free} of 23.8%. The dimeric protein is structurally similar to the structures of AtNTR-B from Arabidopsis thaliana and other known low-molecular-weight NTRs. However, the relative position of the two NTR cofactor-binding domains, the FAD and the NADPH domains, is not the same. The NADPH domain is rotated by 25° and bent by a 38% closure relative to the FAD domain in comparison with AtNTR-B. The structure may represent an intermediate between the two conformations described previously: the flavin-oxidizing (FO) and the flavin-reducing (FR) conformations. Here, analysis of interdomain contacts as well as phylogenetic studies lead to the proposal of a new reaction scheme in which NTR–Trx interactions mediate the FO to FR transformation.

  10. Phenotypic plasticity and interpopulation differences in life history traits of Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda:Oniscidae).

    PubMed

    Hassall, Mark; Helden, Alvin; Benton, Timothy

    2003-09-01

    The hypothesis that the balance of trade-offs between survivorship, growth and reproductive allocation in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare will change when resource input is increased has been investigated experimentally. When the quality of food available was increased, by adding a mixture of litter from herbaceous dicotyledonous plants to a background low-quality food of dead grasses, survivorship was found to be the most phenotypically plastic trait, increasing by 168%. Growth rates increased by 99% but reproductive allocation by only 21%. In the field, members of a population from a site with more high-quality food grew more than twice as fast as those from a site where less high-quality food was available. The population from the site with higher food availability, contrary to predictions from the laboratory study, did not survive as well as that from the site with less available high-quality food. This may be because the site that is more favourable for growth has a more stressful physical environment due to much bigger temperature fluctuations, which are known to be an important cause of mortality in this species. When individuals from both populations were reared under controlled laboratory conditions, both the parental and F1 generations from the poor growth environment survived better than those from the good growth habitat. However, even when given an excess of high-quality food those from the poor growth environment continued to grow more slowly and had a lower reproductive allocation than those from the site with higher food availability. We conclude that microevolutionary changes may have occurred in the balance of resource allocation between survivorship, growth and reproductive allocation, to favour higher survivorship during the longer prereproductive period at the site where growth to the threshold size for reproduction takes longer. PMID:12827489

  11. Optimization protocol for the extraction of antioxidant components from Origanum vulgare leaves using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Mudasir; Hussain, Abdullah I; Chatha, Shahzad A S; Khosa, Muhammad K K; Kamal, Ghulam Mustafa; Kamal, Mohammad A; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Maili

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, the response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite rotatable design (CCRD), was used to determine optimum conditions for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from Origanum vulgare leaves. Four process variables were evaluated at three levels (31 experimental designs): methanol (70%, 80%, and 90%), the solute:solvent ratio (1:5, 1:12.5, 1:20), the extraction time (4, 10, 16 h), and the solute particle size (20, 65, 110 micron). Using RSM, a quadratic polynomial equation was obtained by multiple regression analysis for predicting optimization of the extraction protocol. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied and the significant effect of the factors and their interactions were tested at 95% confidence interval. The antioxidant extract (AE) yield was significantly influenced by solvent composition, solute to solvent ratio, and time. The maximum AE was obtained at methanol (70%), liquid solid ratio (20), time (16 h), and particle size (20 micron). Predicted values thus obtained were closer to the experimental value indicating suitability of the model. Run 25 (methanol:water 70:30; solute:solvent 1:20; extraction time 16 h and solute particle size 20) showed highest TP contents (18.75 mg/g of dry material, measured as gallic acid equivalents) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 5.04 μg/mL). Results of the present study indicated good correlation between TP contents and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Results of the study indicated that phenolic compounds are powerful scavengers of free radical as demonstrated by a good correlation between TP contents and DPPH radical scavenging activity. PMID:27081365

  12. Optimization protocol for the extraction of antioxidant components from Origanum vulgare leaves using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Mudasir; Hussain, Abdullah I.; Chatha, Shahzad A.S.; Khosa, Muhammad K.K.; Kamal, Ghulam Mustafa; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Maili

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, the response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite rotatable design (CCRD), was used to determine optimum conditions for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from Origanum vulgare leaves. Four process variables were evaluated at three levels (31 experimental designs): methanol (70%, 80%, and 90%), the solute:solvent ratio (1:5, 1:12.5, 1:20), the extraction time (4, 10, 16 h), and the solute particle size (20, 65, 110 micron). Using RSM, a quadratic polynomial equation was obtained by multiple regression analysis for predicting optimization of the extraction protocol. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied and the significant effect of the factors and their interactions were tested at 95% confidence interval. The antioxidant extract (AE) yield was significantly influenced by solvent composition, solute to solvent ratio, and time. The maximum AE was obtained at methanol (70%), liquid solid ratio (20), time (16 h), and particle size (20 micron). Predicted values thus obtained were closer to the experimental value indicating suitability of the model. Run 25 (methanol:water 70:30; solute:solvent 1:20; extraction time 16 h and solute particle size 20) showed highest TP contents (18.75 mg/g of dry material, measured as gallic acid equivalents) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 5.04 μg/mL). Results of the present study indicated good correlation between TP contents and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Results of the study indicated that phenolic compounds are powerful scavengers of free radical as demonstrated by a good correlation between TP contents and DPPH radical scavenging activity. PMID:27081365

  13. Implication of phospholipase D in response of Hordeum vulgare root to short-term potassium deprivation.

    PubMed

    Hafsi, Chokri; Russo, Marco A; Sgherri, Cristina; Izzo, Riccardo; Navari-Izzo, Flavia; Abdelly, Chedly

    2009-03-15

    To verify the possible involvement of lipids and several other compounds including hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) in the response of Hordeum vulgare to early potassium deprivation, plants were grown in hydroponic conditions for 30d with a modified Hewitt nutrient solution containing 3mM K(+). They were then incubated for increasing periods of time ranging from 2 to 36h in the same medium deprived of K(+). In contrast to leaves, root K(+) concentration showed its greatest decrease after 6h of treatment. The main lipids of the control barley roots were phospholipids (PL), representing more than 50% of the total lipids. PL did not change with treatment, whereas free sterols (FS) decreased following K(+) deprivation, showing a reduction of approximately 17% after 36h. With respect to the individual PL, 30h K(+) deprivation led to a reduction in phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylinositol (PI) levels, whereas phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidic acid (PA) levels increased. The maximum PA accumulation and the highest phospholipase D (PLD) activation, estimated by an accumulation of phosphatidylbutanol (PtBut), were observed after 24h of K(+) starvation. At the root level, H(2)O(2) showed the maximum value after 6h of incubation in -K solution. In parallel, G3PDH activity reached its minimum. On the basis of a concomitant stimulation of PLD activity and, consequently, PA accumulation, enhancement of H(2)O(2) production, and inhibition of G3PDH activity, we suggest a possible involvement of these three compounds in an early response to K(+) deprivation. PMID:18814934

  14. Drought acclimation in wild and cultivated barley lines. [Hordeum spontaneum; Hordeum vulgare

    SciTech Connect

    Glinka, Z. ); Gunasekera, D.; Mane, S.; Berkowitz, G. )

    1991-05-01

    Wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) seeds collected from arid and temperate regions in Israel were used, along with cultivated barley (H. vulgare) in a study to evaluate the range of acclimation responses to low leaf water potential ({Psi}w). Stress was imposed on plants by withholding water until {Psi}w was {minus}2 megapascals (MPa). Protoplast volume (PV) was measured at {minus}0.2 and {minus}2 MPa (imposed in vitro) in leaf tissue from well-watered and stressed plants. In well-watered plants, PV declined at {minus}2, as compared to {minus}0.2 MPa in all lines. With tissue from in situ stressed plants, PV reduction at {minus}2 MPa was not as great in some lines. The change in the extent of PV reduction occurring at {minus}2 MPa was used as an index of drought acclimation. The 13 wild barley lines were separated into high, medium, and low acclimation groups. Lines collected from arid regions scored in the high acclimation group. The cultivated barley lines scored in the medium and low groups. Relative water content decline at low leaf {Psi}w in situ was not a good indicator of acclimation; all lines responded similarly. Photosynthesis in situ was measured at high and low leaf {Psi}w in lines from the three groupings. Photosynthetic sensitivity to low {Psi}w was twice as great in low acclimation, as compared to high acclimation lines. It was concluded that PV response to low {Psi}w is a good indicator of drought acclimation in barley, and that wild lines offer a range of acclimation potential which could be used in breeding programs.

  15. Localization and pattern of graviresponse across the pulvinus of barley Hordeum vulgare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. G.; Lu, C. R.; Ghosheh, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1989-01-01

    Pulvini of excised stem segments from barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Larker') were pretreated with 1 millimolar coumarin before gravistimulation to reduce longitudinal cell expansion and exaggerate radial cell enlargement. The cellular localization and pattern of graviresponse across individual pulvini were then evaluated by cutting the organ in cross-section, photographing the cross-section, and then measuring pulvinus thickness and the radial width of cortical and epidermal cells in enlargements of the photomicrographs. With respect to orientation during gravistimulation, we designated the uppermost point of the cross-section 0 degrees and the lowermost point 180 degrees. A gravity-induced increase in pulvinus thickness was observable within 40 degrees of the vertical in coumarin-treated pulvini. In upper halves of coumarin-treated gravistimulated pulvini, cells in the inner cortex and inner epidermis had increased radial widths, relative to untreated gravistimulated pulvini. In lower halves of coumarin-treated pulvini, cells in the central and outer cortex and in the outer epidermis showed the greatest increase in radial width. Cells comprising the vascular bundles also increased in radial width, with this pattern following that of the central cortex. These results indicate (a) that all cell types are capable of showing a graviresponse, (b) that the graviresponse occurs in both the top and the bottom of the responding organ, and (c) that the magnitude of the response increases approximately linearly from the uppermost point to the lowermost. These results are also consistent with models of gravitropism that link the pattern and magnitude of the graviresponse to graviperception via statolith sedimentation.

  16. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Aquaporin Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Hove, Runyararo M.; Ziemann, Mark; Bhave, Mrinal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare). The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive search of publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data, draft barley genome data, GenBank transcripts and sixteen new annotations together revealed that the barley MIP family is comprised of at least forty AQPs. Alternative splicing events were likely in two plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) AQPs. Analyses of the AQP signature sequences and specificity determining positions indicated a potential of several putative AQP isoforms to transport non-aqua substrates including physiological important substrates, and respond to abiotic stresses. Analysis of our publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data identified notable differential expression of HvPIP1;2 and HvTIP4;1 under salt stress. Analyses of other gene expression resources also confirmed isoform-specific responses in different tissues and/or in response to salinity, as well as some potentially inter-cultivar differences. The work reports systematic and comprehensive analysis of most, if not all, barley AQP genes, their sequences, expression patterns in different tissues, potential transport and stress response functions, and a strong framework for selection and/or development of stress tolerant barley varieties. In addition, the barley data would be highly valuable for genetic studies of the evolutionarily closely related wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). PMID:26057533

  17. Transcriptome analysis of the vernalization response in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Greenup, Aaron G; Sasani, Sharyar; Oliver, Sandra N; Walford, Sally A; Millar, Anthony A; Trevaskis, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Temperate cereals, such as wheat (Triticum spp.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), respond to prolonged cold by becoming more tolerant of freezing (cold acclimation) and by becoming competent to flower (vernalization). These responses occur concomitantly during winter, but vernalization continues to influence development during spring. Previous studies identified VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) as a master regulator of the vernalization response in cereals. The extent to which other genes contribute to this process is unclear. In this study the Barley1 Affymetrix chip was used to assay gene expression in barley seedlings during short or prolonged cold treatment. Gene expression was also assayed in the leaves of plants after prolonged cold treatment, in order to identify genes that show lasting responses to prolonged cold, which might contribute to vernalization-induced flowering. Many genes showed altered expression in response to short or prolonged cold treatment, but these responses differed markedly. A limited number of genes showed lasting responses to prolonged cold treatment. These include genes known to be regulated by vernalization, such as VRN1 and ODDSOC2, and also contigs encoding a calcium binding protein, 23-KD jasmonate induced proteins, an RNase S-like protein, a PR17d secretory protein and a serine acetyltransferase. Some contigs that were up-regulated by short term cold also showed lasting changes in expression after prolonged cold treatment. These include COLD REGULATED 14B (COR14B) and the barley homologue of WHEAT COLD SPECIFIC 19 (WSC19), which were expressed at elevated levels after prolonged cold. Conversely, two C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR (CBF) genes showed reduced expression after prolonged cold. Overall, these data show that a limited number of barley genes exhibit lasting changes in expression after prolonged cold treatment, highlighting the central role of VRN1 in the vernalization response in cereals. PMID:21408015

  18. Dawn and Dusk Set States of the Circadian Oscillator in Sprouting Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Weiwei; Clausen, Jenni; Boden, Scott; Oliver, Sandra N.; Casao, M. Cristina; Ford, Brett; Anderssen, Robert S.; Trevaskis, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The plant circadian clock is an internal timekeeper that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the external environment. The transcript levels of clock genes, which oscillate to control circadian outputs, were examined during early seedling development in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a model for temperate cereal crops. Oscillations of clock gene transcript levels do not occur in barley seedlings grown in darkness or constant light but were observed with day-night cycles. A dark-to-light transition influenced transcript levels of some clock genes but triggered only weak oscillations of gene expression, whereas a light-to-dark transition triggered robust oscillations. Single light pulses of 6, 12 or 18 hours induced robust oscillations. The light-to-dark transition was the primary determinant of the timing of subsequent peaks of clock gene expression. After the light-to-dark transition the timing of peak transcript levels of clock gene also varied depending on the length of the preceding light pulse. Thus, a single photoperiod can trigger initiation of photoperiod-dependent circadian rhythms in barley seedlings. Photoperiod-specific rhythms of clock gene expression were observed in two week old barley plants. Changing the timing of dusk altered clock gene expression patterns within a single day, showing that alteration of circadian oscillator behaviour is amongst the most rapid molecular responses to changing photoperiod in barley. A barley EARLY FLOWERING3 mutant, which exhibits rapid photoperiod–insensitive flowering behaviour, does not establish clock rhythms in response to a single photoperiod. The data presented show that dawn and dusk cues are important signals for setting the state of the circadian oscillator during early development of barley and that the circadian oscillator of barley exhibits photoperiod-dependent oscillation states. PMID:26068005

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of the Vernalization Response in Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Greenup, Aaron G.; Sasani, Sharyar; Oliver, Sandra N.; Walford, Sally A.; Millar, Anthony A.; Trevaskis, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Temperate cereals, such as wheat (Triticum spp.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), respond to prolonged cold by becoming more tolerant of freezing (cold acclimation) and by becoming competent to flower (vernalization). These responses occur concomitantly during winter, but vernalization continues to influence development during spring. Previous studies identified VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) as a master regulator of the vernalization response in cereals. The extent to which other genes contribute to this process is unclear. In this study the Barley1 Affymetrix chip was used to assay gene expression in barley seedlings during short or prolonged cold treatment. Gene expression was also assayed in the leaves of plants after prolonged cold treatment, in order to identify genes that show lasting responses to prolonged cold, which might contribute to vernalization-induced flowering. Many genes showed altered expression in response to short or prolonged cold treatment, but these responses differed markedly. A limited number of genes showed lasting responses to prolonged cold treatment. These include genes known to be regulated by vernalization, such as VRN1 and ODDSOC2, and also contigs encoding a calcium binding protein, 23-KD jasmonate induced proteins, an RNase S-like protein, a PR17d secretory protein and a serine acetyltransferase. Some contigs that were up-regulated by short term cold also showed lasting changes in expression after prolonged cold treatment. These include COLD REGULATED 14B (COR14B) and the barley homologue of WHEAT COLD SPECIFIC 19 (WSC19), which were expressed at elevated levels after prolonged cold. Conversely, two C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR (CBF) genes showed reduced expression after prolonged cold. Overall, these data show that a limited number of barley genes exhibit lasting changes in expression after prolonged cold treatment, highlighting the central role of VRN1 in the vernalization response in cereals. PMID:21408015

  20. Evidence for an Inactivating System of Nitrate Reductase in Hordeum vulgare L. during Darkness That Requires Protein Synthesis 1

    PubMed Central

    Travis, R. L.; Jordan, W. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1969-01-01

    The disappearance of nitrate reductase activity in leaves of Hordeum vulgare L. during darkness was inhibited by cycloheximide, actinomycin D, and low temperature. Thus, protein synthesis was probably required for the disappearance of nitrate reductase in the dark. Since chloramphenicol did not affect the rate of loss of activity, the degradation or inactivation apparently required protein synthesis by the cytoplasmic ribosomal system. Consistent with this observation, nitrate reductase is also reportedly located in the cytoplasm. Thus, the amount of nitrate reductase activity present in leaves of barley may be controlled by a balance between activating and inactivating systems. PMID:16657182

  1. Radiation injury and acute death in Armadillidium vulgare (terrestrial isopod, Crustacea) subjected to ionizing radiation. [/sup 137/Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsuchi, Y.; Egami, N.

    1981-01-01

    From whole- and partial-body irradiation experiments with adult Armadillidium vulgare, the following conclusions were drawn: the LD/sub 50/-30 days for this animal when subjected to ..gamma.. radiation at 25 +- 2/sup 0/C was about 30 kR. Radiosensitivity of the animal changed during the molt cycle. Ionizing radiation increased mortality at ecdysis and during intermolt stages. Anatomical and histological observations indicated that (1) gastrointestinal injury as the major cause of acute death does not apply to this animal because the intestine is not a cell-proliferative organ: (2) the epidermis may be the critical target organ.

  2. Comparative study of the antihypertensive activity of Marrubium vulgare and of the dihydropyridine calcium antagonist amlodipine in spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    El Bardai, Sanae; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Wibo, Maurice; Morel, Nicole

    2004-08-01

    Water extract of Marrubium vulgare is widely used as antihypertensive treatment in folk medicine. We have compared the effect of 10-week-long treatment with amlodipine or Marrubium water extract on systolic blood pressure (SBP), cardiovascular remodeling and vascular relaxation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Both treatments produced similar decrease in SBP. Amlodipine treatment reduced left ventricle, aortic and mesenteric artery weight. Marrubium treatment had a significant antihypertrophic effect in aorta only. Relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) of mesenteric artery was improved by Marrubium but not by amlodipine treatment. These results demonstrate that, in addition to its antihypertensive effect, Marrubium water extract improved the impaired endothelial function in SHR. PMID:15554450

  3. Crystal structure of L-sorbose dehydrogenase, a pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent enzyme with homodimeric assembly, from Ketogulonicigenium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaodong; Xiong, Xianghua; Jiang, Dunquan; Chen, Sihan; Huang, Enyu; Zhang, Weicai; Liu, Xinqi

    2014-05-01

    The crystal structure of the L-sorbose dehydrogenase (SDH) from Ketogulonicigenium vulgare Y25 has been determined at 2.7 Å resolution using the molecular replacement method. The overall structure of SDH is similar to that of other quinoprotein dehydrogenases; consisting of an eight bladed β-propeller PQQ domain and protrusion loops. We identified a stable homodimer in crystal and demonstrated its existence in solution by sedimentation velocity measurement. By biochemical characterization of the SDH in vitro, using L-sorbose as substrate and cytochrome c551 as electron acceptor, we revealed cytochrome c551 acting as physiological primary electron acceptor for SDH. PMID:24557074

  4. Proteomic Response of Hordeum vulgare cv. Tadmor and Hordeum marinum to Salinity Stress: Similarities and Differences between a Glycophyte and a Halophyte

    PubMed Central

    Maršálová, Lucie; Vítámvás, Pavel; Hynek, Radovan; Prášil, Ilja T.; Kosová, Klára

    2016-01-01

    Response to a high salinity treatment of 300 mM NaCl was studied in a cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare Syrian cultivar Tadmor and in a halophytic wild barley H. marinum. Differential salinity tolerance of H. marinum and H. vulgare is underlied by qualitative and quantitative differences in proteins involved in a variety of biological processes. The major aim was to identify proteins underlying differential salinity tolerance between the two barley species. Analyses of plant water content, osmotic potential and accumulation of proline and dehydrin proteins under high salinity revealed a relatively higher water saturation deficit in H. marinum than in H. vulgare while H. vulgare had lower osmotic potential corresponding with high levels of proline and dehydrins. Analysis of proteins soluble upon boiling isolated from control and salt-treated crown tissues revealed similarities as well as differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare. The similar salinity responses of both barley species lie in enhanced levels of stress-protective proteins such as defense-related proteins from late-embryogenesis abundant family, several chaperones from heat shock protein family, and others such as GrpE. However, there have also been found significant differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare salinity response indicating an active stress acclimation in H. marinum while stress damage in H. vulgare. An active acclimation to high salinity in H. marinum is underlined by enhanced levels of several stress-responsive transcription factors from basic leucine zipper and nascent polypeptide-associated complex families. In salt-treated H. marinum, enhanced levels of proteins involved in energy metabolism such as glycolysis, ATP metabolism, and photosynthesis-related proteins indicate an active acclimation to enhanced energy requirements during an establishment of novel plant homeostasis. In contrast, changes at proteome level in salt-treated H. vulgare indicate plant tissue damage as

  5. Proteomic Response of Hordeum vulgare cv. Tadmor and Hordeum marinum to Salinity Stress: Similarities and Differences between a Glycophyte and a Halophyte.

    PubMed

    Maršálová, Lucie; Vítámvás, Pavel; Hynek, Radovan; Prášil, Ilja T; Kosová, Klára

    2016-01-01

    Response to a high salinity treatment of 300 mM NaCl was studied in a cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare Syrian cultivar Tadmor and in a halophytic wild barley H. marinum. Differential salinity tolerance of H. marinum and H. vulgare is underlied by qualitative and quantitative differences in proteins involved in a variety of biological processes. The major aim was to identify proteins underlying differential salinity tolerance between the two barley species. Analyses of plant water content, osmotic potential and accumulation of proline and dehydrin proteins under high salinity revealed a relatively higher water saturation deficit in H. marinum than in H. vulgare while H. vulgare had lower osmotic potential corresponding with high levels of proline and dehydrins. Analysis of proteins soluble upon boiling isolated from control and salt-treated crown tissues revealed similarities as well as differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare. The similar salinity responses of both barley species lie in enhanced levels of stress-protective proteins such as defense-related proteins from late-embryogenesis abundant family, several chaperones from heat shock protein family, and others such as GrpE. However, there have also been found significant differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare salinity response indicating an active stress acclimation in H. marinum while stress damage in H. vulgare. An active acclimation to high salinity in H. marinum is underlined by enhanced levels of several stress-responsive transcription factors from basic leucine zipper and nascent polypeptide-associated complex families. In salt-treated H. marinum, enhanced levels of proteins involved in energy metabolism such as glycolysis, ATP metabolism, and photosynthesis-related proteins indicate an active acclimation to enhanced energy requirements during an establishment of novel plant homeostasis. In contrast, changes at proteome level in salt-treated H. vulgare indicate plant tissue damage as

  6. ANTIHEPATOTOXIC EFFECT OF MARRUBIUM VULGARE AND WITHANIA SOMNIFERA EXTRACTS ON CARBON TETRACHLORIDE-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Elberry, Ahmed A.; Harraz, Fathalla M.; Ghareib, Salah A.; Nagy, Ayman A.; Gabr, Salah A.; Suliaman, Mansour I.; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2010-01-01

    Marrubium vulgare and Withania somnifera are used in folk medicine of several countries. Many researches showed that they are used for the treatment of variety of diseases due to their antioxidant effects. The present aim of this study was to evaluate the antihepatotoxic and antioxidant activities of the both extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Both extracts were given orally in a dose of 500 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks along with CCl4 started at the 7th week of induction of hepatotoxicity. The antihepatotoxic activity was assessed by measuring aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), tissue content and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as histopathological examination. Both extracts showed a significant antihepatotoxic effect by reducing significantly the levels of AST, ALT and LDH. However, ALP levels were decreased non-significantly. Regarding the antioxidant activity, they exhibited significant effects by increasing the GPx, GR and GST activities with increased GSH tissue contents and decreased production of MDA level. Furthermore, both extracts alleviated histopathological changes in rats’ liver treated with CCl4. M. vulgare and W. somnifera protect the rats’ liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. This effect may be attributed, at least in part, to the antioxidant activities of these extracts. PMID:24825994

  7. Large gene overlaps and tRNA processing in the compact mitochondrial genome of the crustacean Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Doublet, Vincent; Ubrig, Elodie; Alioua, Abdelmalek; Bouchon, Didier; Marcadé, Isabelle; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    A faithful expression of the mitochondrial DNA is crucial for cell survival. Animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) presents a highly compact gene organization. The typical 16.5 kbp animal mtDNA encodes 13 proteins, 2 rRNAs and 22 tRNAs. In the backyard pillbug Armadillidium vulgare, the rather small 13.9 kbp mtDNA encodes the same set of proteins and rRNAs as compared to animal kingdom mtDNA, but seems to harbor an incomplete set of tRNA genes. Here, we first confirm the expression of 13 tRNA genes in this mtDNA. Then we show the extensive repair of a truncated tRNA, the expression of tRNA involved in large gene overlaps and of tRNA genes partially or fully integrated within protein-coding genes in either direct or opposite orientation. Under selective pressure, overlaps between genes have been likely favored for strong genome size reduction. Our study underlines the existence of unknown biochemical mechanisms for the complete gene expression of A. vulgare mtDNA, and of co-evolutionary processes to keep overlapping genes functional in a compacted mitochondrial genome. PMID:26361137

  8. In vivo ion fluxes across the eggs of Armadillidium vulgare (Oniscidea: Isopoda): the role of the dorsal organ.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jonathan C; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The thin-walled, lecithotrophic eggs of land isopods (suborder Oniscidea) are brooded in a fluid-filled maternal marsupium until a few days following the second embryonic molt. Eggs of Armadillidium vulgare possess a well-developed dorsal organ underlying a broad silver-staining saddle on the vitelline membrane. Based on its chloride permeability and known transport functions in planktotrophic crustaceans, we hypothesized that the dorsal organ functions in passive or active ion movements. To study this, we employed the automated scanning electrode technique with self-referencing ion-selective microelectrodes to measure ion fluxes across the dorsal organ and adjacent egg poles. Stage 1 (chorionated) eggs revealed only small ion fluxes, indicating low permeability. Early stage 2 eggs--between the first embryonic molt and blastokinesis--showed evidence for active uptake of Ca(2+) and Cl(-) and possibly Na(+) against low bathing concentrations, and uptake fluxes were predominantly localized over the dorsal organ. Late stage 2 eggs revealed no capacity for ion uptake, consistent with the atrophy of the dorsal organ at blastokinesis, but high ion permeability. In all stages, the silver-staining saddle showed a sustained outward proton flux indicating that it is the primary site for metabolic acid/CO(2) excretion. The emerging picture is that the embryo dorsal organ in A. vulgare serves important functions in ion regulation, calcium provisioning, and acid excretion. PMID:20465420

  9. Combined application of origanum vulgare l. essential oil and acetic acid for controlling the growth of staphylococcus aureus in foods

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Barros, Jefferson Carneiro; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; Neto, Nelson Justino Gomes; da Costa, Ana Caroliny Vieira

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the occurrence of an enhancing inhibitory effect of the combined application of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil and acetic acid against Staphylococcus aureus by the determination of Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) index and kill-time assay in nutrient broth, meat broth and in a food model (meat pieces). Acetic acid showed MIC and MFC of 0.6 and 1.25 μL.mL-1, respectively. For O. vulgare essential oil MIC and MBC were 1.25 and 2.5 μL.mL-1, respectively. FIC indexes of the mixture of essential oil and acetic acid at MIC x ½ were ≤ 1.0, showing an additive effect. No synergy was found at kill-time study. Anti-staphylococcal effect of the antimicrobials alone or in mixture (MIC x ½) was lower in meat than in nutrient and meat broths. The effective combination of essential oils and organic acids could appear as an attractive alternative for the food industry, as the doses to inhibit the microbial growth in foods can be lowered. PMID:24031377

  10. Antihepatotoxic effect of marrubium vulgare and withania somnifera extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Elberry, Ahmed A; Harraz, Fathalla M; Ghareib, Salah A; Nagy, Ayman A; Gabr, Salah A; Suliaman, Mansour I; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2010-09-01

    Marrubium vulgare and Withania somnifera are used in folk medicine of several countries. Many researches showed that they are used for the treatment of variety of diseases due to their antioxidant effects. The present aim of this study was to evaluate the antihepatotoxic and antioxidant activities of the both extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Both extracts were given orally in a dose of 500 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks along with CCl4 started at the 7th week of induction of hepatotoxicity. The antihepatotoxic activity was assessed by measuring aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), tissue content and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as histopathological examination. Both extracts showed a significant antihepatotoxic effect by reducing significantly the levels of AST, ALT and LDH. However, ALP levels were decreased non-significantly. Regarding the antioxidant activity, they exhibited significant effects by increasing the GPx, GR and GST activities with increased GSH tissue contents and decreased production of MDA level. Furthermore, both extracts alleviated histopathological changes in rats' liver treated with CCl4. M. vulgare and W. somnifera protect the rats' liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. This effect may be attributed, at least in part, to the antioxidant activities of these extracts. PMID:24825994

  11. Marrubium vulgare extract inhibits human-LDL oxidation and enhances HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophage.

    PubMed

    Berrougui, Hicham; Isabelle, Maxim; Cherki, Mounia; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2006-12-14

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the beneficial properties of aqueous extracts of Marrubium vulgare (AEM) towards cardiovascular disease by protecting human-LDL against lipid peroxidation and promoting HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux. Human-LDL were oxidised by incubation with CuSO(4) in the presence of increased concentrations of AEM (0-100 microg/ml). LDL lipid peroxidation was evaluated by conjugated diene formation, vitamin E disappearance as well as LDL-electrophoretic mobility. HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux assay was carried out in human THP-1 macrophages. Incubation of LDL with AEM significantly prolonged the lag phase (P=0.014), lowered the progression rate of lipid peroxidation (P=0.004), reduced the disappearance of vitamin E and the electrophoretic mobility in a dose-dependent manner. Also, incubation of HDL with AEM significantly increased HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages implicating an independent ATP binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) pathways. Our findings suggest that M. vulgare provides a source of natural antioxidants, which inhibit LDL oxidation and enhance reverse cholesterol transport and thus can prevent cardiovascular diseases development. These antioxidant properties increase the anti-atherogenic potential of HDL. PMID:17045616

  12. Large gene overlaps and tRNA processing in the compact mitochondrial genome of the crustacean Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Doublet, Vincent; Ubrig, Elodie; Alioua, Abdelmalek; Bouchon, Didier; Marcadé, Isabelle; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    A faithful expression of the mitochondrial DNA is crucial for cell survival. Animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) presents a highly compact gene organization. The typical 16.5 kbp animal mtDNA encodes 13 proteins, 2 rRNAs and 22 tRNAs. In the backyard pillbug Armadillidium vulgare, the rather small 13.9 kbp mtDNA encodes the same set of proteins and rRNAs as compared to animal kingdom mtDNA, but seems to harbor an incomplete set of tRNA genes. Here, we first confirm the expression of 13 tRNA genes in this mtDNA. Then we show the extensive repair of a truncated tRNA, the expression of tRNA involved in large gene overlaps and of tRNA genes partially or fully integrated within protein-coding genes in either direct or opposite orientation. Under selective pressure, overlaps between genes have been likely favored for strong genome size reduction. Our study underlines the existence of unknown biochemical mechanisms for the complete gene expression of A. vulgare mtDNA, and of co-evolutionary processes to keep overlapping genes functional in a compacted mitochondrial genome. PMID:26361137

  13. Enhanced Pb Absorption by Hordeum vulgare L. and Helianthus annuus L. Plants Inoculated with an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Consortium.

    PubMed

    Arias, Milton Senen Barcos; Peña-Cabriales, Juan José; Alarcón, Alejandro; Maldonado Vega, María

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) consortium conformed by (Glomus intraradices, Glomus albidum, Glomus diaphanum, and Glomus claroideum) on plant growth and absorption of Pb, Fe, Na, Ca, and (32)P in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants was evaluated. AMF-plants and controls were grown in a substrate amended with powdered Pb slag at proportions of 0, 10, 20, and 30% v/v equivalent to total Pb contents of 117; 5,337; 13,659, and 19,913 mg Pb kg(-1) substrate, respectively. Mycorrhizal root colonization values were 70, 94, 98, and 90%, for barley and 91, 97, 95, and 97%, for sunflower. AMF inoculum had positive repercussions on plant development of both crops. Mycorrhizal barley absorbed more Pb (40.4 mg Pb kg(-1)) shoot dry weight than non-colonized controls (26.5 mg Pb kg(-1)) when treated with a high Pb slag dosage. This increase was higher in roots than shoots (650.0 and 511.5 mg Pb kg(-1) root dry weight, respectively). A similar pattern was found in sunflower. Plants with AMF absorbed equal or lower amounts of Fe, Na and Ca than controls. H. vulgare absorbed more total P (1.0%) than H. annuus (0.9%). The arbuscular mycorrizal consortium enhanced Pb extraction by plants. PMID:25495930

  14. Antibacterial activities of Origanum vulgare alone and in combination with different antimicrobials against clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Veni; Vasudeva, Neeru; Sharma, Sunil; Duhan, Joginder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Typhoid fever continues to remain a major public health problem especially in the areas where there is problem of sanitation and hygiene. The emergence of multidrug resistance of Salmonella typhi, the bacteria responsible for Typhoid to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole has further complicated the treatment and management of enteric fever. One strategy for the treatment of the multidrug resistant bacteria is to use herbs in combination with conventional drugs. The present study was done to find out the interaction effect of phenolic, nonphenolic fractions, and volatile oil of Origanum vulgare with ciprofloxacin. Materials and Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by microdilution method for individual phytoconstituents and in combination with ciprofloxacin was compared for clinically isolated bacteria from patients infected with S. typhi. Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) and Fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) were also calculated. Results: The MIC declined to a significant level indicating synergistic relationship between ciprofloxacin and phenolic, nonphenolic fractions and volatile oil in vitro. The FICI exhibits synergistic effect for all the three samples while indifferent and antagonistic for samples and for phenolic and nonphenolic fractions. Conclusions: Present study shows that not only the formulation using O. vulgare and ciprofloxacin can overcome multidrug resistance but also will reduce the toxic effects of ciprofloxacin. PMID:24991069

  15. Ecotypic differentiation and phenotypic plasticity in reproductive traits of Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda: Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Hassall, Mark; Helden, Alvin; Goldson, Andrew; Grant, Alastair

    2005-03-01

    Armadillidium vulgare differed in growth and survivorship on two field sites. Growth rates were higher at a site with consistently higher quality food than at the other site where less high-quality food was produced and which was less predictably accessible. Survivorship was higher at the second site where temperature fluctuations were consistently smaller. Individuals from the two populations were kept for 6 months under the same food and temperature conditions and patterns of resource allocation to reproductive traits analysed. Members of the population from the site with good growth conditions had significantly higher reproductive allocation, by 13.5%, and larger broods, by 9.1%, than those from the site with poor growth conditions. Contrary to theoretical predictions, they also had significantly larger offspring, by 7.5% dry mass. Larger offspring survived better than small ones. This differential survivorship, by 20% for a 3.4% difference in live mass, was much more pronounced under conditions of moisture stress and under fluctuating temperature regimes. Larger offspring would therefore be at a selective advantage on the site with more severe temperature fluctuations. Phenotypic plasticity in reproductive traits in response to experimental changes in food quality, temperature and crowding were monitored. Reproductive allocation was increased by 20.8% under conditions of higher food quality, by 14.7% at higher temperatures, and by 12.5% under less crowded conditions. Brood size, but not offspring dry mass, increased when food quality increased. When crowding increased by 25.0%, the size of broods remained the same but the dry mass of individual offspring decreased by 11.2%. Members of the population from the site with more variable access to high-quality food showed more plasticity in reproductive traits in response to changes in food supply than members of the population from the site with the more predictable food supply. Members of the population from the

  16. Evidence for Lack of Acquisition of Tolerance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028 after Exposure to Subinhibitory Amounts of Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oil and Carvacrol

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Isabelle da Silva; Gomes Neto, Nelson Justino; Tavares, Adassa Gama; Nunes, Pollyana Campos; Magnani, Marciane

    2012-01-01

    Overnight exposure of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to sublethal amounts of Origanum vulgare essential oil (OV) and carvacrol (CAR) did not result in direct and cross-bacterial protection. Cells subcultured with increasing amounts of OV or CAR survived up to the MIC of either compound, revealing few significant changes in bacterial susceptibility. PMID:22544235

  17. CO-BOMBARDMENT, INTEGRATION AND EXPRESSION OF RICE CHITINASE AND THAUMATIN-LIKE PROTEIN GENES IN BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE CV. CONLON)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins associated with degradation of structural components of pathogenic filamentous fungi were overexpressed in the two-rowed malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar Conlon. Transgenes were introduced by co-bombardment with two plasmids, one carrying a rice (Oryza ...

  18. Physiochemical Properties of the Pulp and Almonds of TUCUMÃ (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) for Oil Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, R. M.; Ribeiro, A. I.; Melo, W. J.; Queiroz, M. R.; Russo, A. C.; Amaral, J. B.

    2009-04-01

    Tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) it is a palm tree commonly found at the Amazonian forest of firm earth, it produces nutritious fruits, quite appreciated by the local population. The seeds are for the obtaining of eatable olive oil and soap, the endocarp is employee for the local population in the making of earrings, rings, bracelets, necklaces and other workmanships. This species has occurrence also in Acre, Rondônia, Pará, Mato Grosso, Roraima, Trindad, Guyana and Bolivia. The objective of this work was to accomplish mechanical tests on the fruits with the purpose of studying the rupture of the shell and the whole income almonds and to obtain the impact loads in tucumã fruits. It was also characterized biochemical compositions of the pulp and the almond seeking the use for the other ends. The physiochemical parameters analyzed were: moisture content, fats gray, total protein, fiber, carbohydrate, calorie, fats acids and vitamins, just in the pulp: vitamin E, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B5, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D3 and vitamin E. The obtained results revealed that the maximum force of rupture was of approximately 6200 N for the direction apex-insert and 7200 N for the perpendicular direction; then this the tucumã fruit with high shell hardness when compared to the other types of chestnuts, being necessary studies to design machines capable to promote mechanical breaking and thus facilitating, its commercial exploration. The pulp of the tucumã fruits, presented a significant amount of fats (32%), following by carbohydrates (19,7%) and fibers (18,4). The caloric value was of 380 Kcal/g. Also the pulp presented good amount of vitamin B3 (niacin - 76,7%) and C (acid ascorbic - 23,6%). In relation to the fat acids the pulp presents contents of acid oleic (C18.1) about 72,8% following for linoléico (C18.2), being a good product for the human and animal feeding,. In the almond 24,2% of fiber, 10,7% of fats, 17,0% of

  19. Do predator cues influence turn alternation behavior in terrestrial isopods Porcellio laevis Latreille and Armadillidium vulgare Latreille?

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Kevin G; Kight, Scott L

    2014-07-01

    Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Oniscidea) make more alternating maze turns in response to negative stimuli, a navigational behavior that corrects divergence from a straight line. The present study investigates this behavioral pattern in two species, Porcellio laevis Latreille and Armadillidium vulgare Latreille, in response to short-term vs. long-term exposure to indirect cues from predatory ants. Neither isopod species increased the number of alternating turns in response to short-term indirect exposure to ants, but both species made significantly more alternating turns following continuous indirect exposure to ants for a period of one-week. These results are surprising given differences in behavioral and morphological predator defenses between these species (the Armadillidiidae curl into defensive postures when attacked, whereas the Porcellionidae flee). The marked similarity in alternating turn behavior of the two families suggests evolutionary conservation of antipredator navigation mechanisms. PMID:24954552

  20. HPLC-HRMS method for fast phytochelatins determination in plants. Application to analysis of Clinopodium vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Bardarov, Krum; Naydenov, Mladen; Djingova, Rumyana

    2015-09-01

    An optimized analytical method based on C8 core-shell reverse phase chromatographic separation and high resolution mass spectral (HRMS) detection is developed for a fast analysis of unbound phytochelatins (PCs) in plants. Its application to analysis of Clinopodium vulgare L. is demonstrated where proper PCs liberating and preservation conditions were employed using dithiotreitol in the extraction step. A baseline separation of glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins from 2 to 5 (PC2-PC5) for 3 min was achieved at conventional HPLC backpressure, with detection limits from 3 ppt (for GSH) to 2.5 ppb (for PC5). It is shown, that the use of HRMS with tandem mass spectral (MS/MS) capabilities permits additional wide range screening ability for iso-phytochelatins and PC similar compounds, based on exact mass and fragment spectra in a post acquisition manner. PMID:26003687

  1. Feminization of the Isopod Cylisticus convexus after Transinfection of the wVulC Wolbachia Strain of Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Badawi, Myriam; Grève, Pierre; Cordaux, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive parasites such as Wolbachia are able to manipulate the reproduction of their hosts by inducing parthenogenesis, male-killing, cytoplasmic incompatibility or feminization of genetic males. Despite extensive studies, no underlying molecular mechanism has been described to date. The goal of this study was to establish a system with a single Wolbachia strain that feminizes two different isopod species to enable comparative analyses aimed at elucidating the genetic basis of feminization. It was previously suggested that Wolbachia wVulC, which naturally induces feminization in Armadillidium vulgare, induces the development of female secondary sexual characters in transinfected Cylisticus convexus adult males. However, this does not demonstrate that wVulC induces feminization in C. convexus since feminization is the conversion of genetic males into functional females that occurs during development. Nevertheless, it suggests that C. convexus may represent a feminization model suitable for further development. Knowledge about C. convexus sexual differentiation is also essential for comparative analyses, as feminization is thought to take place just before or during sexual differentiation. Consequently, we first described gonad morphological differentiation of C. convexus and compared it with that of A. vulgare. Then, wVulC was injected into male and female C. convexus adult individuals. The feminizing effect was demonstrated by the combined appearance of female secondary sexual characters in transinfected adult males, as well as the presence of intersexes and female biases in progenies in which wVulC was vertically transmitted from transinfected mothers. The establishment of a new model of feminization of a Wolbachia strain in a heterologous host constitutes a useful tool towards the understanding of the molecular mechanism of feminization. PMID:26047139

  2. Feminization of the Isopod Cylisticus convexus after Transinfection of the wVulC Wolbachia Strain of Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Myriam; Grève, Pierre; Cordaux, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive parasites such as Wolbachia are able to manipulate the reproduction of their hosts by inducing parthenogenesis, male-killing, cytoplasmic incompatibility or feminization of genetic males. Despite extensive studies, no underlying molecular mechanism has been described to date. The goal of this study was to establish a system with a single Wolbachia strain that feminizes two different isopod species to enable comparative analyses aimed at elucidating the genetic basis of feminization. It was previously suggested that Wolbachia wVulC, which naturally induces feminization in Armadillidium vulgare, induces the development of female secondary sexual characters in transinfected Cylisticus convexus adult males. However, this does not demonstrate that wVulC induces feminization in C. convexus since feminization is the conversion of genetic males into functional females that occurs during development. Nevertheless, it suggests that C. convexus may represent a feminization model suitable for further development. Knowledge about C. convexus sexual differentiation is also essential for comparative analyses, as feminization is thought to take place just before or during sexual differentiation. Consequently, we first described gonad morphological differentiation of C. convexus and compared it with that of A. vulgare. Then, wVulC was injected into male and female C. convexus adult individuals. The feminizing effect was demonstrated by the combined appearance of female secondary sexual characters in transinfected adult males, as well as the presence of intersexes and female biases in progenies in which wVulC was vertically transmitted from transinfected mothers. The establishment of a new model of feminization of a Wolbachia strain in a heterologous host constitutes a useful tool towards the understanding of the molecular mechanism of feminization. PMID:26047139

  3. Enhancement of 2-keto-gulonic acid yield by serial subcultivation of co-cultures of Bacillus cereus and Ketogulonicigenium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yang; Hu, Menglong; Lv, Yajin; Wang, Yang; Song, Hao; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2013-03-01

    The co-cultures of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare and Bacillus cereus were subcultured daily for a total of 150 transfers. The yield of 2-keto-gulonic acid (2-KGA) and medium pH in the co-cultures were measured. We found that the serial subcultivation increased the yield of 2-KGA from 77% (original co-culture) to 93% (the 150th transfer of transferred co-culture). The resulted strains are of industrial interests for vitamin C production. PMID:23218663

  4. Malting revisited: Germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is inhibited by both oxygen deficiency and high carbon dioxide concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kleinwächter, Maik; Meyer, Ann-Kathrin; Selmar, Dirk

    2012-05-01

    During malting, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds are germinated to promote the mobilisation of storage compounds. Germination is strongly influenced by O2 and CO2; however, any distinction between the particular effects is missing. Since, in this study, the ambient O2 concentration was maintained when high CO2 concentrations were applied, for the first time the impacts of CO2 and of O2 deficiency could be distinguished unambiguously. Germination was inhibited by both O2 deficiency and high CO2 (80%) concentrations, documented by the lack of any growth of coleoptiles and any increase of α-amylase and β-glucanase activity. In contrast, the related impacts of O2 starvation and high CO2 on fermentation differ strongly, demonstrated by quite different patterns of ethanol emission. Additionally, the stress metabolism - monitored by the means of GABA accumulation - was also differently impacted. The elucidation of the underlying, so far unknown, mechanisms will provide novel opportunities to improve malting. PMID:26434318

  5. A Metabolic Control Analysis of the Glutamine Synthetase/Glutamate Synthase Cycle in Isolated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Chloroplasts.

    PubMed Central

    Baron, A. C.; Tobin, T. H.; Wallsgrove, R. M.; Tobin, A. K.

    1994-01-01

    Ammonia assimilation in chloroplasts occurs via the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase (GS/GOGAT) cycle. To determine the extent to which these enzymes contribute to the control of ammonia assimilation, a metabolic control analysis was performed on isolated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaf chloroplasts. Pathway flux was measured polarographically as ammonium-plus-2-oxoglutarate-plus-glutamine-dependent O2 evolution in illuminated chloroplasts. Enzyme activity was modulated by titration with specific, irreversible inhibitors of GS (phosphinothricin) and GOGAT (azaserine). Flux control coefficients (CJ0E0) were determined (a) by differentiation of best-fit hyperbolic curves of the data sets (flux versus enzyme activity), and (b) from estimates of the deviation indices (D/[prime]E0). Both analyses gave similar values for the coefficients. The control coefficient for GS was relatively high and the value did not change significantly with changes in 2-oxoglutarate concentration (C/0E0 = 0.58 at 5 mM 2-oxoglutarate and 0.40 at 20 mM 2-oxoglutarate). The control coefficient for GOGAT decreased with decreasing glutamine concentrations, from 0.76 at 20 mM glutamine to 0.19 at 10 mM glutamine. Thus, at high concentrations of glutamine, GOGAT exerts a major control over flux with a significant contribution also from GS. At lower concentrations of glutamine, however, GOGAT exerts far less control over pathway flux. PMID:12232211

  6. Nitric oxide mediated amelioration of arsenic toxicity which alters the alternative oxidase (Aox1) gene expression in Hordeum vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pratiksha; Singh, Shalini; Dubey, Pragyan; Singh, Aradhana; Singh, A K

    2015-10-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) as a key molecule in the signal transduction pathway of a biotic stress response has already been described. Recent studies indicate that it also participate in the signaling of abiotic stresses. In the present study, we showed the altered expression of stress responsive gene alternative oxidase (Aox1) in seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in response to arsenic toxicity. Arsenic toxicity decreased the germination percentage, biomass, chlorophyll and carotenoid content whereas, arsenic toxicity enhanced the MDA content and proline content in a dose dependent manner. Other enzyme activities like catalase and superoxide dismutase increased with the increase in concentrations but it fell down at higher concentration of arsenic. Pretreatment of nitric oxide results in the enhanced expression of alternative oxidase which showed the adaptation of alternative pathway during the arsenic stress and it also enhances the growth ability and adaptability towards the arsenic stress. The results support the conclusion that nitric oxide ameliorates the arsenic toxicity not only at the level of antioxidant defense but also by affecting other mechanism of detoxification. PMID:26036416

  7. Changes in Physiological and Agronomical Parameters of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Exposed to Cerium and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Marchiol, Luca; Mattiello, Alessandro; Pošćić, Filip; Fellet, Guido; Zavalloni, Costanza; Carlino, Elvio; Musetti, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The aims of our experiment were to evaluate the uptake and translocation of cerium and titanium oxide nanoparticles and to verify their effects on the growth cycle of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Barley plants were grown to physiological maturity in soil enriched with either 0, 500 or 1000 mg·kg−1 cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) or titanium oxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) and their combination. The growth cycle of nCeO2 and nTiO2 treated plants was about 10 days longer than the controls. In nCeO2 treated plants the number of tillers, leaf area and the number of spikes per plant were reduced respectively by 35.5%, 28.3% and 30% (p ≤ 0.05). nTiO2 stimulated plant growth and compensated for the adverse effects of nCeO2. Concentrations of Ce and Ti in aboveground plant fractions were minute. The fate of nanomaterials within the plant tissues was different. Crystalline nTiO2 aggregates were detected within the leaf tissues of barley, whereas nCeO2 was not present in the form of nanoclusters. PMID:26999181

  8. Increased yield stability of field-grown winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varietal mixtures through ecological processes

    PubMed Central

    Creissen, Henry E.; Jorgensen, Tove H.; Brown, James K.M.

    2016-01-01

    Crop variety mixtures have the potential to increase yield stability in highly variable and unpredictable environments, yet knowledge of the specific mechanisms underlying enhanced yield stability has been limited. Ecological processes in genetically diverse crops were investigated by conducting field trials with winter barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare), grown as monocultures or as three-way mixtures in fungicide treated and untreated plots at three sites. Mixtures achieved yields comparable to the best performing monocultures whilst enhancing yield stability despite being subject to multiple predicted and unpredicted abiotic and biotic stresses including brown rust (Puccinia hordei) and lodging. There was compensation through competitive release because the most competitive variety overyielded in mixtures thereby compensating for less competitive varieties. Facilitation was also identified as an important ecological process within mixtures by reducing lodging. This study indicates that crop varietal mixtures have the capacity to stabilise productivity even when environmental conditions and stresses are not predicted in advance. Varietal mixtures provide a means of increasing crop genetic diversity without the need for extensive breeding efforts. They may confer enhanced resilience to environmental stresses and thus be a desirable component of future cropping systems for sustainable arable farming. PMID:27375312

  9. Sperm storage, sperm translocation and genitalia formation in females of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea, Peracarida, Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Andreas; Suzuki, Sachiko

    2011-01-01

    We investigated sperm storage, sperm transfer from the oviduct to the seminal receptacle, and formation of the cuticular genitalia in female Armadillidium vulgare using light and electron microscopy. Apolysis of the genitalia within the oviduct forms a circum-genital lumen. During insemination this space is filled with immobile spermatozoa. Sperm transfer into the seminal receptacle takes place before oviposition. Within a peculiar proximal neck region of the oviduct spermatozoa are bundled and enveloped by a folded epicuticular layer. The envelope tightly surrounds the spermatozoa probably forming a seal against the main part of the circum-genital lumen. We propose that hydrostatic pressure produced by the muscle cells surrounding the oviduct leads to sperm transfer into the seminal receptacle. Within the seminal receptacle the sperm bundle forms a ring just around the orifice to the oviduct. At one side sheath-like extensions of epithelial cells surround the ring of spermatozoa holding it in place. At the other side oocytes would have access to the sperm during oviposition, probably allowing for fertilisation when they pass right through the ring of spermatozoa. After oviposition the new genitalia are formed from epicuticular folds, and cuticle secreted by the epithelial cells. PMID:20659586

  10. Spatial distribution of calcite and amorphous calcium carbonate in the cuticle of the terrestrial crustaceans Porcellio scaber and Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Hild, Sabine; Marti, Othmar; Ziegler, Andreas

    2008-07-01

    The crustacean cuticle is an interesting model to study the properties of mineralized bio-composites. The cuticle consists of an organic matrix composed of chitin-protein fibres associated with various amounts of crystalline and amorphous calcium carbonate. It is thought that in isopods the relative amounts of these mineral polymorphs depend on its function and the habitat of the animal. In addition to the composition, the distribution of the various components should affect the properties of the cuticle. However, the spatial distribution of calcium carbonate polymorphs within the crustacean cuticle is unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the mineralized cuticles of the terrestrial isopods Armadillidium vulgare and Porcellio scaber using scanning electron-microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and confocal mu-Raman spectroscopic imaging. We show for the first time that the mineral phases are arranged in distinct layers. Calcite is restricted to the outer layer of the cuticle that corresponds to the exocuticle. Amorphous calcium carbonate is located within the endocuticle that lies below the exocuticle. Within both layers mineral is arranged in rows of granules with diameters of about 20 nm. The results suggest functional implications of mineral distribution that accord to the moulting and escape behaviour of the animals. PMID:18550385

  11. Antifungal Activity of Some Constituents of Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oil Against Postharvest Disease of Peach Fruit.

    PubMed

    Elshafie, Hazem S; Mancini, Emilia; Sakr, Shimaa; De Martino, Laura; Mattia, Carlo Andrea; De Feo, Vincenzo; Camele, Ippolito

    2015-08-01

    Plant essential oils (EOs) can potentially replace synthetic fungicides in the management of postharvest fruit and vegetable diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effectiveness of thymol, carvacrol, linalool, and trans-caryophyllene, single constituents of the EO of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum against Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena, and M. fructicola, which are important phytopathogens and causal agents of brown rot of pome and stone fruits in pre- and postharvest. Moreover, the possible phytotoxic activity of these constituents was assessed and their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. In vitro experiment indicated that thymol and carvacrol possess the highest antifungal activity. Results of in vivo trials confirmed the strong efficacy of thymol and carvacrol against brown rot of peach fruits. The thymol MIC resulted to be 0.16 μg/μL against M. laxa and M. fructigena and 0.12 μg/μL against M. fructicola, whereas for carvacrol they were 0.02 μg/μL against the first two Monilinia species and 0.03 μg/μL against the third. Results of this study indicated that thymol and carvacrol could be used after suitable formulation for controlling postharvest fruit diseases caused by the three studied Monilinia species. PMID:25599273

  12. Conflict between feminizing sex ratio distorters and an autosomal masculinizing gene in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare Latr.

    PubMed

    Rigaud, T; Juchault, P

    1993-02-01

    Female sex determination in the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare is frequently under the control of feminizing parasitic sex factors (PSF). One of these PSF is an intracytoplasmic Wolbachia-like bacterium (F), while the other (f) is suspected of being an F-bacterial DNA sequence unstably integrated into the host genome. In most wild populations harboring PSF, all individuals are genetic males (ZZ), and female phenotypes occur only due to the presence of PSF which overrides the male determinant carried by the Z chromosome (females are thus ZZ +F or ZZ +f neo-females). Here we report the effects of the conflict between these PSF and a dominant autosomal masculinizing gene (M) on phenotypes. The M gene is able to override the feminizing effect of the f sex factor and, consequently, male sex may be restored. However, M is unable to restore male sex when competing with the F bacteria. It seems that the main effect of M is to delay the expression of F bacteria slightly, inducing intersex phenotypes. Most of these intersexes are functional females, able to transmit the masculinizing gene. The frequency of M and its effects on the sex ratio in wild populations are discussed. PMID:8436273

  13. Conflict between Feminizing Sex Ratio Distorters and an Autosomal Masculinizing Gene in the Terrestrial Isopod Armadillidium Vulgare Latr

    PubMed Central

    Rigaud, T.; Juchault, P.

    1993-01-01

    Female sex determination in the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare is frequently under the control of feminizing parasitic sex factors (PSF). One of these PSF is an intracytoplasmic Wolbachia-like bacterium (F), while the other (f) is suspected of being an F-bacterial DNA sequence unstably integrated into the host genome. In most wild populations harboring PSF, all individuals are genetic males (ZZ), and female phenotypes occur only due to the presence of PSF which overrides the male determinant carried by the Z chromosome (females are thus ZZ +F or ZZ +f neo-females). Here we report the effects of the conflict between these PSF and a dominant autosomal masculinizing gene (M) on phenotypes. The M gene is able to override the feminizing effect of the f sex factor and, consequently, male sex may be restored. However, M is unable to restore male sex when competing with the F bacteria. It seems that the main effect of M is to delay the expression of F bacteria slightly, inducing intersex phenotypes. Most of these intersexes are functional females, able to transmit the masculinizing gene. The frequency of M and its effects on the sex ratio in wild populations are discussed. PMID:8436273

  14. Detection of QTLs for salt tolerance in Asian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by association analysis with SNP markers

    PubMed Central

    Sbei, Hanen; Sato, Kazuhiro; Shehzad, Tariq; Harrabi, Moncef; Okuno, Kazutoshi

    2014-01-01

    Two hundred ninety-six Asian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions were assessed to detect QTLs underlying salt tolerance by association analysis using a 384 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker system. The experiment was laid out at the seedling stage in a hydroponic solution under control and 250 mM NaCl solution with three replications of four plants each. Salt tolerance was assessed by leaf injury score (LIS) and salt tolerance indices (STIs) of the number of leaves (NL), shoot length (SL), root length (RL), shoot dry weight (SDW) and root dry weight (RDW). LIS was scored from 1 to 5 according to the severity of necrosis and chlorosis observed on leaves. There was a wide variation in salt tolerance among Asian barley accessions. LIS and STI (SDW) were the most suitable traits for screening salt tolerance. Association was estimated between markers and traits to detect QTLs for LIS and STI (SDW). Seven significant QTLs were located on chromosomes 1H (2 QTLs), 2H (2 QTLs), 3H (1 QTL), 4H (1 QTL) and 5H (1 QTL). Five QTLs were associated with LIS and 2 QTLs with STI (SDW). Two QTLs associated with LIS were newly identified on chromosomes 3H and 4H. PMID:25914593

  15. The cytotoxic effect of essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. and/or Rosmarinus officinalis L. on Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Azerêdo, Geíza Alves de; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz de; Souza, Evandro Leite de

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. (OV) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (RO), both singly and in combination at sub-inhibitory concentrations (¼ MIC + ¼ MIC), against Aeromonas hydrophila and to investigate the possible mechanisms underlying these activities. Used singly (OV: 2.5 μL/mL; RO: 20 μL/mL) or in a mixture (OV: 0.625 μL/mL + RO: 5 μL/L), these essential oils led to a significant decrease (p<0.01) in bacterial viability after 24 h of exposure. A decrease in glucose consumption by A. hydrophila and release of cellular material were observed immediately after the addition of the essential oils, both singly and as a mixture, and continued for up to 6 h. Electron microscopy of cells exposed to the essential oils revealed severe changes in the plasma membrane, cytoplasmic appearance, and cell shape during the 6-h exposure period. OV and RO essential oils combined at sub-inhibitory concentrations could be rationally applied to inhibit the growth of A. hydrophila in food products, particularly minimally processed vegetables. PMID:22300224

  16. Characterisation of marrubenol, a diterpene extracted from Marrubium vulgare, as an L-type calcium channel blocker.

    PubMed

    El-Bardai, Sanae; Wibo, Maurice; Hamaide, Marie-Christine; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Quetin-Leclercq, Joelle; Morel, Nicole

    2003-12-01

    1. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of the relaxant activity of marrubenol, a diterpenoid extracted from Marrubium vulgare. In rat aorta, marrubenol was a more potent inhibitor of the contraction evoked by 100 mM KCl (IC50: 11.8+/-0.3 microM, maximum relaxation: 93+/-0.6%) than of the contraction evoked by noradrenaline (maximum relaxation: 30+/-1.5%). 2. In fura-2-loaded aorta, marrubenol simultaneously inhibited the Ca2+ signal and the contraction evoked by 100 mM KCl, and decreased the quenching rate of fura-2 fluorescence by Mn2+. 3. Patch-clamp data obtained in aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5) indicated that marrubenol inhibited Ba2+ inward current in a voltage-dependent manner (KD: 8+/-2 and 40+/-6 microM at holding potentials of -50 and -100 mV, respectively). 4. These results showed that marrubenol inhibits smooth muscle contraction by blocking L-type calcium channels. PMID:14597602

  17. Water uptake by seminal and adventitious roots in relation to whole-plant water flow in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Knipfer, Thorsten; Fricke, Wieland

    2011-01-01

    Prior to an assessment of the role of aquaporins in root water uptake, the main path of water movement in different types of root and driving forces during day and night need to be known. In the present study on hydroponically grown barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) the two main root types of 14- to 17-d-old plants were analysed for hydraulic conductivity in dependence of the main driving force (hydrostatic, osmotic). Seminal roots contributed 92% and adventitious roots 8% to plant water uptake. The lower contribution of adventitious compared with seminal roots was associated with a smaller surface area and number of roots per plant and a lower axial hydraulic conductance, and occurred despite a less-developed endodermis. The radial hydraulic conductivity of the two types of root was similar and depended little on the prevailing driving force, suggesting that water uptake occurred along a pathway that involved crossing of membrane(s). Exudation experiments showed that osmotic forces were sufficient to support night-time transpiration, yet transpiration experiments and cuticle permeance data questioned the significance of osmotic forces. During the day, 90% of water uptake was driven by a tension of about –0.15 MPa. PMID:20974734

  18. Limitation of Cell Elongation in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Leaves Through Mechanical and Tissue-Hydraulic Properties.

    PubMed

    Touati, Mostefa; Knipfer, Thorsten; Visnovitz, Tamás; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Fricke, Wieland

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the mechanical and hydraulic limitation of growth in leaf epidermal cells of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in response to agents which affect cellular water (mercuric chloride, HgCl(2)) and potassium (cesium chloride, CsCl; tetraethylammonium, TEA) transport, pump activity of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and wall acidification (fusicoccin, FC). Cell turgor (P) was measured with the cell pressure probe, and cell osmotic pressure (π) was analyzed through picoliter osmometry of single-cell extracts. A wall extensibility coefficient (M) and tissue hydraulic conductance coefficient (L) were derived using the Lockhart equation. There was a significant positive linear relationship between relative elemental growth rate and P, which fit all treatments, with an overall apparent yield threshold of 0.368 MPa. Differences in growth between treatments could be explained through differences in P. A comparison of L and M showed that growth in all except the FC treatment was co-limited through hydraulic and mechanical properties, though to various extents. This was accompanied by significant (0.17-0.24 MPa) differences in water potential (ΔΨ) between xylem and epidermal cells in the leaf elongation zone. In contrast, FC-treated leaves showed ΔΨ close to zero and a 10-fold increase in L. PMID:25907571

  19. Purification and characterization of soluble (cytosolic) and bound (cell wall) isoforms of invertases in barley (Hordeum vulgare) elongating stem tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karuppiah, N.; Vadlamudi, B.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1989-01-01

    Three different isoforms of invertases have been detected in the developing internodes of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Based on substrate specificities, the isoforms have been identified to be invertases (beta-fructosidases EC 3.2.1.26). The soluble (cytosolic) invertase isoform can be purified to apparent homogeneity by diethylaminoethyl cellulose, Concanavalin-A Sepharose, organo-mercurial Sepharose, and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. A bound (cell wall) invertase isoform can be released by 1 molar salt and purified further by the same procedures as above except omitting the organo-mercurial Sepharose affinity chromatography step. A third isoform of invertase, which is apparently tightly associated with the cell wall, cannot be isolated yet. The soluble and bound invertase isoforms were purified by factors of 60- and 7-fold, respectively. The native enzymes have an apparent molecular weight of 120 kilodaltons as estimated by gel filtration. They have been identified to be dimers under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. The soluble enzyme has a pH optimum of 5.5, Km of 12 millimolar, and a Vmax of 80 micromole per minute per milligram of protein compared with cell wall isozyme which has a pH optimum of 4.5, Km of millimolar, and a Vmax of 9 micromole per minute per milligram of protein.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on phytopathogenic strains isolated from soybean.

    PubMed

    Oliva, M de las M; Carezzano, M E; Giuliano, M; Daghero, J; Zygadlo, J; Bogino, P; Giordano, W; Demo, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species isolated from soybean. Strains with characteristics of P. syringae were isolated from leaves of soybean plants with blight symptoms. Ten of these could be identified in Group Ia of LOPAT as P. syringae. Six of these were confirmed as P. syringae using 16S rRNA, indicating the presence of these phytopathogenic bacteria in east and central Argentina. All the phytopathogenic bacteria were re-isolated and identified from the infected plants. MIC values for thyme were 11.5 and 5.7 mg·ml(-1) on P. syringae strains, while oregano showed variability in the inhibitory activity. Both essential oils inhibited all P. syringae strains, with better inhibitory activity than the antibiotic streptomycin. The oils were not bactericidal for all pseudomonads. Both oils contained high carvacrol (29.5% and 19.7%, respectively) and low thymol (1.5%). Natural products obtained from aromatic plants represent potential sources of molecules with biological activity that could be used as new alternatives for the treatment of phytopathogenic bacteria infections. PMID:25359697

  1. Combination Studies of Oreganum Vulgare Extract Fractions and Volatile Oil along with Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole against Common Fish Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Veni; Vasudeva, Neeru; Dhuhan, Joginder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The study is aimed at finding new antibiotic therapy for aquaculture due to potential of bacteria to develop resistance to the existing therapies. Use of large quantities of synthetic antibiotics in aquaculture thus has the potential to be detrimental to fish health, to the environment and wildlife and to human health. Methods: Antimicrobial potential of volatile oil and fractions of chloroform extract of Oreganum vulgare was evaluated alone and in the presence of standard antimicrobials against common fish pathogens by disc-diffusion, agar well assay and two fold microdilution method by nanodrop spectrophotometric method. Results: The best results were represented by volatile oil followed by phenolic fraction by disc-diffusion, agar well and microdilution assays (Minimum inhibitory concentration). By the interaction studies, it was observed that the volatile oil and phenolic fraction were able to inhibit the pathogens at very low concentration compared to standard drugs. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was calculated and volatile oil and phenolic fractions were found to be synergistic against Pseudomonas fluorescens and Candida albicans. Conclusion: The experimental data suggests the use of volatile oil and phenolic fraction in combination with standard antimicrobials to maintain healthy aquaculture with lesser adverse effects as compared to synthetic antibiotic therapy. PMID:24312842

  2. Development of PLA films containing oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare L. virens) intended for use in food packaging.

    PubMed

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Pichardo, S; Bermúdez, J M; Baños, A; Núñez, C; Guillamón, E; Aucejo, S; Cameán, A M

    2016-08-01

    Consumers' concerns about the environment and health have led to the development of new food packaging materials avoiding petroleum-based matrices and synthetic additives. The present study has developed polylactic acid (PLA) films containing different concentrations of essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. virens (OEO). The effectiveness of this new active packaging was checked for use in ready-to-eat salads. A plasticising effect was observed when OEO was incorporated in PLA films. The rest of the mechanical and physical properties of developed films did not show much change when OEO was included in the film. An antioxidant effect was recorded only for films containing the highest percentages of the active agent (5% and 10%). In addition, films exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus carnosus. Moreover, in ready-to-eat salads, antimicrobial activity was only observed against yeast and moulds, where 5% and 10% of OEO was the most effective. PMID:27455176

  3. Larvicidal potential of carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol from the essential oil of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. However, the use of synthetic insecticides to control Culicidae may lead to resistance, high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Nowadays, plant-borne mosquitocides may serve as suitable alternative in the fight against mosquito vectors. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) leaf essential oil (EO) and its major chemical constituents was evaluated against the malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi and An. subpictus, the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the essential oil of O. vulgare contained 17 compounds. The major chemical components were carvacrol (38.30%) and terpinen-4-ol (28.70%). EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, An. subpictus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 values of 67.00, 74.14, 80.35 and 84.93 μg/ml. The two major constituents extracted from the O. vulgare EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the four mosquito vectors. Carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol appeared to be most effective against An. stephensi (LC50=21.15 and 43.27 μg/ml, respectively) followed by An. subpictus (LC50=24.06 and 47.73 μg/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=26.08 and 52.19 μg/ml) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50=27.95 and 54.87 μg/ml). Overall, this research adds knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides against malaria, filariasis and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors. PMID:26850541

  4. Treatment of experimental pythiosis with essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Mentha piperita singly, in association and in combination with immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Anelise O S; Pereira, Daniela I B; Botton, Sônia A; Pötter, Luciana; Sallis, Elisa S V; Júnior, Sérgio F V; Filho, Fernando S M; Zambrano, Cristina Gomes; Maroneze, Beatriz P; Valente, Julia S S; Baptista, Cristiane T; Braga, Caroline Q; Ben, Vanessa Dal; Meireles, Mario C A

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the in vivo antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Mentha piperita both singly, associated and in combination with immunotherapy to treat experimental pythiosis. The disease was reproduced in 18 rabbits divided into six groups (n=3): group 1, control; group 2, treated with essential oil of Mentha piperita; group 3, treated with essential oil of Origanum vulgare; group 4, treated with commercial immunotherapic; group 5, treated with a association of oils of M. piperita and O. vulgare and group 6, treated with a combination of both oils plus immunotherapy. Essential oils were added in a topical cream base formula, and lesions were treated daily for 45 days. The animals in groups 4 and 6 received a dose of immunotherapeutic agent every 14 days. The results revealed that the evolution of lesions in groups 5 and 6 did not differ from one another but differed from the other groups. The lesions of group 5 increased 3.16 times every measurement, while those of group 6 increased 1.83 times, indicating that the smallest growth of the lesions occurred when the combination of therapies were used. A rabbit from group 5 showed clinical cure at day 20 of treatment. This research is the pioneer in the treatment of experimental pythiosis using essential oils from medicinal plants and a combination of therapies. This study demonstrated that the use of essential oils can be a viable alternative treatment to cutaneous pythiosis, particularly when used in association or combination with immunotherapy. PMID:26036789

  5. Identification of 6-octadecynoic acid from a methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtera, Anna; Miyamae, Yusaku; Nakai, Naomi; Kawachi, Atsushi; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko; Neffati, Mohamed; Akita, Toru; Maejima, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Seiji; Kambe, Taiho; Mori, Naoki; Irie, Kazuhiro; Nagao, Masaya

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •6-ODA, a rare fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified from Marrubium vulgare. •6-ODA was synthesized from petroselinic acid as a starting material. •6-ODA stimulated lipid accumulation in HSC-T6 and 3T3-L1 cells. •The first report of a fatty acid with a triple bond functioning as a PPARγ agonist. •This study sheds light on novel functions of a fatty acid with a triple bond. -- Abstract: 6-Octadecynoic acid (6-ODA), a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified in the methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Fibrogenesis caused by hepatic stellate cells is inhibited by PPARγ whose ligands are clinically used for the treatment of diabetes. Plant extracts of Marrubium vulgare L., were screened for activity to inhibit fibrosis in the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6 using Oil Red-O staining, which detects lipids that typically accumulate in quiescent hepatic stellate cells. A methanol extract with activity to stimulate accumulation of lipids was obtained. This extract was found to have PPARγ agonist activity using a luciferase reporter assay. After purification using several chromatographic methods, 6-ODA, a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified as a candidate of PPARγ agonist. Synthesized 6-ODA and its derivative 9-octadecynoic acid (9-ODA), which both have a triple bond but in different positions, activated PPARγ in a luciferase reporter assay and increased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a PPARγ-dependent manner. There is little information about the biological activity of fatty acids with a triple bond, and to our knowledge, this is the first report that 6-ODA and 9-ODA function as PPARγ agonists.

  6. Effects of Cerium and Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles in Soil on the Nutrient Composition of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Kernels.

    PubMed

    Pošćić, Filip; Mattiello, Alessandro; Fellet, Guido; Miceli, Fabiano; Marchiol, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The implications of metal nanoparticles (MeNPs) are still unknown for many food crops. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cerium oxide (nCeO₂) and titanium oxide (nTiO₂) nanoparticles in soil at 0, 500 and 1000 mg·kg(-1) on the nutritional parameters of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) kernels. Mineral nutrients, amylose, β-glucans, amino acid and crude protein (CP) concentrations were measured in kernels. Whole flour samples were analyzed by ICP-AES/MS, HPLC and Elemental CHNS Analyzer. Results showed that Ce and Ti accumulation under MeNPs treatments did not differ from the control treatment. However, nCeO₂ and nTiO₂ had an impact on composition and nutritional quality of barley kernels in contrasting ways. Both MeNPs left β-glucans unaffected but reduced amylose content by approximately 21%. Most amino acids and CP increased. Among amino acids, lysine followed by proline saw the largest increase (51% and 37%, respectively). Potassium and S were both negatively impacted by MeNPs, while B was only affected by 500 mg nCeO₂·kg(-1). On the contrary Zn and Mn concentrations were improved by 500 mg nTiO₂·kg(-1), and Ca by both nTiO₂ treatments. Generally, our findings demonstrated that kernels are negatively affected by nCeO₂ while nTiO₂ can potentially have beneficial effects. However, both MeNPs have the potential to negatively impact malt and feed production. PMID:27294945

  7. Calcium transport in protoplasts isolated from ml-o barley isolines resistant and susceptible to powdery mildew. [Hordeum vulgare L

    SciTech Connect

    Wrona, A.F.; Spanswick, R.M.; Aist, J.R. )

    1988-12-01

    Free cytoplasmic calcium has been postulated to play a role in preventing powdery mildew in a series of homozygous ml-o mutants of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. Protoplasts isolated from 7-day-old plants of the ml-o resistant-susceptible (R-S) barley isolines, Riso 5678/3* {times} Carlsberg II R and S, were used to test for differences in fluxes of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma. Greater influx or lesser efflux might account for a higher free cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} postulated to exist in ml-o R mutants. Uniform patterns of uptake were maintained for 3 hours from solutions of 0.2 and 2 millimolar Ca{sup 2+}. Washout curves of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} from R and S protoplasts revealed three compartments - presumed to represent release from the vacuole, organelles, and the cytoplasm (which included bound as well as free Ca{sup 2+}). Uptake and washout did not differ between isolines. On the basis of recent determinations of submicromolar levels of free cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} and their initial rates of {sup 45}ca-labeled Ca{sup 2+} uptake, they show that measurement of the unidirectional influx of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma is not feasible because the specific activity of the pool of free cytoplasmic calcium increases almost instantaneously to a level that would result in a significant, but unknown, efflux of label. Similarly, measurement of the efflux of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma is not possible since the activity of the pool of free cytoplasmic calcium is a factor of 350 smaller than the most rapid component of the washout experiment. This pool of cytoplasmic free Ca{sup 2+} will wash out too rapidly and be too small to detect under the conditions of these experiments.

  8. Genetic analysis of the accumulation of COR14 proteins in wild (Hordeum spontaneum) and cultivated (Hordeum vulgare) barley.

    PubMed

    Crosatti, C; Nevo, E; Stanca, A M; Cattivelli, L

    1996-10-01

    The cold-regulated (COR14) protein of 14 kDa is a polypeptide accumulated under low-temperature conditions in the chloroplasts of barley leaves. In H. vulgare the COR14 antibody cross-reacts with two proteins, with a slightly different relative molecular weight around the marker of 14.4 kDa, referred to as COR14a and COR14b (high and low relative molecular weight, respectively). In a collection of H. spontaneum genotypes a clear polymorphism was found for the corresponding COR proteins. While some accessions showed the same COR pattern as cultivated barley, in 38 out of 61 accessions examined the COR14 antibody cross-reacted with an additional coldregulated protein with a relative molecular weight of about 24 kDa (COR24). The accumulation of COR24 was often associated with the absence of COR14b; the relationship between the COR14b/COR24 polymorphism and the adaptation of H. spontaneum to different environments is discussed. By studying COR14 accumulation in cultivated barley we have found that the threshold induction-temperature of COR14a is associated with the loci controlling winter hardiness. This association was demonstrated by using either a set of 30 cultivars of different origin, or two sets of frost-tolerant and frost-sensitive F1 doubled-haploid lines derived from the cross Dicktoo (winter type) x Morex (spring type). These results suggest that the threshold induction-temperature of COR14a can be a potential biochemical marker for the identification of superior frostresistant barley genotypes. PMID:24162433

  9. Ethyl Acetate Extract of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum Prevents Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Milica; Nikolic, Ivana; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Saksida, Tamara; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Vasic, Bobana; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G; Stojanovic, Ivana

    2016-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that develops as a consequence of pancreatic β-cell death induced by proinflammatory mediators. Because Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Greek oregano) contains antiinflammatory molecules, we hypothesized that it might be beneficial for the treatment of T1D. An ethyl acetate extract of oregano (EAO) was prepared from the leaves by a polar extraction method. Phytochemical composition was determined by liquid chromatography-UV diode array coupled to ion-trap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization interface (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n) ). In vitro immunomodulatory effect of EAO was estimated by measuring proliferation (MTT) or cytokine secretion (ELISA) from immune cells. Diabetes was induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLDS) in male C57BL/6 mice and EAO was administered intraperitoneally for 10 d. Determination of cellular composition (flow cytometry) and cytokine production (ELISA) was performed on 12th d after diabetes induction. EAO suppressed the function of both macrophages and lymphocytes in vitro. In vivo, EAO treatment significantly preserved pancreatic islets and reduced diabetes incidence in MLDS-challenged mice. Besides down-modulatory effect on macrophages, EAO reduced the number of total CD4(+) and activated CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells. Furthermore, EAO affected the number of T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells through downregulation of their key transcription factors T-bet and RORγT. Because EAO treatment protects mice from development of hyperglycemia by reducing proinflammatory macrophage/Th1/Th17 response, this plant extract could represent a basis for future diabetes therapy. PMID:27219840

  10. Precursor structure, distribution and possible functions of pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille).

    PubMed

    Fouda, Maged Mohamed Ali; Hiragaki, Susumu; Tufail, Muhammad; Shao, Qi-Miao; Takeda, Makio

    2010-12-01

    Pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) is an 18 amino acid neuropeptide that induces pigment migration in Decapoda and serves as a circadian neurotransmitter in the locomotor activity rhythm in Drosophila. In this study, a cDNA encoding PDH was cloned from adult brains of the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare (Av). The cDNA comprising 529 bp encodes a peptide (AvPDH) that consists of a putative 26 amino acid signal peptide, and a 34 amino acid PDH-precursor-related peptide containing an 18 amino acid mature peptide. The peptide shows a high sequence identity (55-77%) to crustacean β-PDHs and insect PDFs. The tissue-specific expression pattern was examined by reverse transcription PCR. The transcript is expressed in the brain strongly and ventral nerve cord weakly, but the signal was not detected in the intestinal tract. A similar expression profile appeared in Western blot analyses. Western blot analyses with timed samples showed more intense expression of PDH-like antigen at night. PDH-like immunohistochemical reactivity (PDH-ir) was detected in the optic lobe, anteromedian protocerebrum, accessory lobe, tritocerebrum, and suboesophageal ganglion but the reactivity was faint or nil in the pseudofrontal organ (sinus gland). These results were substantiated by in situ hybridization. Co-localization using anti-Gryllus bimaculatus (Gb)-PDF, anti-Bombyx mori (Bm)-CLK, and anti-Bm-CYC showed a co-localization of these antigens in the optic lobe and SOG. The results provide the first structural and immunocytochemical identification of PDH neurons in terrestrial isopods, and the co-localization of PDH with CLK and CYC supports its possible involvement in circadian clock. A day/night rhythm of PDH content is also a new feature. PMID:20637211

  11. Regulatory Mechanisms in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in First Internodes of Sorghum vulgare: Effect of Presumed Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis 1

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, Helen A.

    1966-01-01

    There was a 6 to 24-hour lag in the production of anthocyanins in the light after excision of 4-day-old etiolated internodes of Sorghum vulgare variety Wheatland milo. In internodes infiltrated with water, apigeninidin was formed first at 12 to 24 hours and continued to be produced slowly. Luteolinidin was formed slightly later, but its formation rapidly exceeded that of apigeninidin. Cyanidin was the last type to be produced, but equaled the amounts of luteolinidin by 4 days. In noninfiltrated internodes, the production of cyanidin was greatly accelerated, beginning at about 6 hours. Data from experiments with inhibitors that presumably affect protein synthesis at different loci indicated that protein synthesis was necessary for maximum production of all 3 anthocyanins, but that different steps were rate limiting. Light independent synthesis of apigeninidin and luteolinidin was inhibited by chloramphenicol and l-ethionine but not by actinomycin D and 8-azaguanine. However, the synthesis of these 2 anthocyanins was not inhibited by puromycin, but was sometimes stimulated. The light-induced synthesis of cyanidin was inhibited by actinomycin, azaguanine, chloramphenicol and ethionine. Actinomycin no longer was inhibitory if added after incubation for 6 hours in air. All inhibitors were capable of inhibiting to various degrees either the incorporation of 14C-uracil into RNA or 14C-leucine into protein. The inhibitor data suggest that the light insensitive synthesis of apigeninidin and luteolinidin may be controlled by enzyme synthesis at the level of ribosomes via stable mRNA, while the light-induced production of cyanidin is dependent initially on the production of mRNA. The latter hypothesis is similar to that recently proposed by Lange and Mohr for a cyanidin produced in Sinapis seedlings. PMID:16656361

  12. Anti-oxidant studies and anti-microbial effect of Origanum vulgare Linn in combination with standard antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Veni; Vasudeva, Neeru; Kumar, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Origanum is one of the over 200 genera in the Lamiaceae (mint family), and this genus includes culinary, fragrant, and medicinal properties. The plant is reported to contain anti-microbial properties, but it lacks combination studies with that of synthetic antibiotics. Aim: To investigate the anti-oxidant and anti-microbial interaction studies of Origanum vulgare with standard drugs against Bacillus species of bacteria and Aspergillus niger. Materials and Methods: The anti-oxidant properties of phenolic, non-phenolic fractions of chloroform extract and volatile oil were evaluated by free radical-scavenging, hydrogen peroxide radical-scavenging assay, reducing power, and metal chelating assays. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration and fractional inhibitory concentration index were determined which demonstrates the behavior of volatile oil, phenolic, and non-phenolic fractions of volatile oil with that of ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. The IC50 value for volatile oil was found to be 15, 30, and 30 μg/ml and that of phenolic fraction was 60, 120, and 120 μg/ml for free radical-scavenging, hydrogen peroxide-scavenging, and metal chelating assays respectively. Non-phenolic fraction was found to act antagonistically along with ciprofloxacin against B. cereus and B. subtilis, while the phenolic fraction exhibited indifferent activity along with ciprofloxacin against both the bacterial strains. Conclusion: This combination of drug therapy will not only prove effective in antibiotic resistance, but these natural constituents will also help in preventing body from harmful radicals which lead to fatal diseases. PMID:25364204

  13. Effects of Cerium and Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles in Soil on the Nutrient Composition of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Kernels

    PubMed Central

    Pošćić, Filip; Mattiello, Alessandro; Fellet, Guido; Miceli, Fabiano; Marchiol, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The implications of metal nanoparticles (MeNPs) are still unknown for many food crops. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cerium oxide (nCeO2) and titanium oxide (nTiO2) nanoparticles in soil at 0, 500 and 1000 mg·kg−1 on the nutritional parameters of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) kernels. Mineral nutrients, amylose, β-glucans, amino acid and crude protein (CP) concentrations were measured in kernels. Whole flour samples were analyzed by ICP-AES/MS, HPLC and Elemental CHNS Analyzer. Results showed that Ce and Ti accumulation under MeNPs treatments did not differ from the control treatment. However, nCeO2 and nTiO2 had an impact on composition and nutritional quality of barley kernels in contrasting ways. Both MeNPs left β-glucans unaffected but reduced amylose content by approximately 21%. Most amino acids and CP increased. Among amino acids, lysine followed by proline saw the largest increase (51% and 37%, respectively). Potassium and S were both negatively impacted by MeNPs, while B was only affected by 500 mg nCeO2·kg−1. On the contrary Zn and Mn concentrations were improved by 500 mg nTiO2·kg−1, and Ca by both nTiO2 treatments. Generally, our findings demonstrated that kernels are negatively affected by nCeO2 while nTiO2 can potentially have beneficial effects. However, both MeNPs have the potential to negatively impact malt and feed production. PMID:27294945

  14. Variability in Proline-Accumulating Ability of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars Induced by Vapor Pressure Deficit 1

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, Bodapati P.; Aspinall, Donald; Paleg, Leslie G.

    1992-01-01

    This work was undertaken in an effort to reconcile the conflicting proline-accumulating responses of the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars, Excelsior and Proctor, reported by Singh et al. (1972) and Hanson et al. (1976). It deals with the effects of different vapor pressure deficits (VPD) during growth and subsequent drought stress on several barley cultivars. A higher VPD (1.2 kilopascals) during Clipper seedling growth resulted in higher solute-accumulating ability, seemingly independently of leaf water potential, than a lower VPD (0.12 kilopascals). The higher VPD during stress also resulted in higher solute contents, and this response may be more closely related to leaf water potential. When the responses of Excelsior and Proctor were examined in detail, it was found that the relative proline-accumulating ability of the two cultivars was dependent upon the VPD under which they were grown. At low VPD, Proctor accumulated significantly more proline than did Excelsior; whereas at higher VPD, Excelsior accumulated more proline than did Proctor. The crossover occurred at a VPD of about 0.72 kilopascals. This reversal of cultivar response was enhanced by multiplying seed under the two VPD extremes. Glycinebetaine accumulation did not demonstrate the crossover effect, although the concentration of this compound in all cultivars also depended on the VPD prevailing during growth and/or stress. Solute levels, in general, were more closely related to the decrease in relative water content than to a decrease in leaf water potential. It is concluded that the conflicting proline-accumulating responses of Excelsior and Proctor could be explained by these findings. PMID:16668700

  15. Variation between Ethiopian and North American Barley Varieties (Hordeum vulgare) in Response to Russian Wheat Aphid (Diuraphis noxia) populations

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Alemu; Belay, Tesfay; Hussein, Temam

    2014-01-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), causes severe damage to barley, Hordeum vulgare L. (Poales: Poaceae), in the highlands of Ethiopia. Little information is available on the control of this pest in Ethiopia. An experiment aimed at evaluating the resistance of barley varieties from the USA to D. noxia populations and determining biotypic variation between Ethiopian and North American D. noxia populations was conducted. The D. noxia-resistant barley varieties Burton and RWA-1758 from the USA, the resistant barley line 3296-15 from Ethiopia, and a local Ethiopian susceptible variety were included in a randomized design in a greenhouse under natural light conditions. There were highly significant differences (P < 0.001) in the mean D. noxia population, leaf chlorosis, leaf rolling, plant stunting, number of tillers per plant, and the percentage of infested tillers per plant between the resistant and susceptible varieties. The aphid population per tiller was lower on the resistant barley plants than on the susceptible plants. Severe plant damage was observed on the local barley variety, while the least damage was observed on Burton, followed by RWA-1758. Burton and RWA-1758 were therefore highly resistant and moderately resistant, respectively, to the northern Ethiopian D. noxia populations, indicating similarities in biotypes between the United States and northern Ethiopian D. noxia populations. The damage to variety 3296-15 was greater than to Burton and RWA-1758. Leaf chlorosis scores and leaf rolling scores for variety 3296-15 upon treatment with the north Ethiopian D. noxia population indicate likely biotypic variation between D. noxia populations of northern and central Ethiopia. PMID:25373187

  16. Chemometrics applied to the analysis of induced phytochelatins in Hordeum vulgare plants stressed with various toxic non-essential metals and metalloids.

    PubMed

    Dago, Àngela; González, Inmaculada; Ariño, Cristina; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Esteban, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    Hordeum vulgare plants were stressed with Hg, Cd and As and their phytotoxicity was evaluated in terms of growth inhibition and total metal uptake by the plant. The synthesised phytochelatins ((γ-Glu-Cys)n-Gly, n=2-5; PCs) were determined by HPLC with amperometric detection at a glassy carbon electrode. The results indicate that H. vulgare is a good phytostabilisation plant due to its capacity to accumulate heavy metals in roots. Cd and Hg are the most uptake toxic elements, being Cd the most potent inducer of PCs. The data obtained on the different PCs and related peptides induced by each heavy metal were used to perform a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the results as a function of the contaminating toxic element or its concentration level. The nature of the stressor element could be predicted from the pattern of PCs and related peptides identified by PCA. PCs were the most strongly induced peptides under Cd and Hg stress, whereas As only tended to synthesise small thiols such as glutathione and γ-glutamylcysteine, both precursors of PCs synthesis. This finding indicates that PCs are induced at different rates depending on the metal stressor used. PMID:24274289

  17. Armadillidin: a novel glycine-rich antibacterial peptide directed against gram-positive bacteria in the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare (Terrestrial Isopod, Crustacean).

    PubMed

    Herbinière, Juline; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Grève, Pierre; Strub, Jean-Marc; Frère, Jacques; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Martin, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    We report the isolation and the characterization of a novel antibacterial peptide from hemocytes of the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare, naturally infected or uninfected by Wolbachia, an intracellular Gram-negative bacterium. This molecule displays antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria despite its composition which classes it into the glycine-rich antibacterial peptide family, usually directed against fungi and Gram-negative bacteria. The complete sequence was determined by a combination of Edman degradation, mass spectrometry and cDNA cloning using a hemocyte library. The mature peptide (53 residues) has a 5259 Da molecular mass and is post-translationally modified by a C-terminal amidation. This peptide is characterized by a high level of glycine (47%) and a fivefold repeated motif GGGFH(R/S). As no evident sequence homology to other hitherto described antibacterial peptides has been found out, this antibacterial peptide was named armadillidin. Armadillidin is constitutively expressed in hemocytes and appears to be specific of A. vulgare. PMID:15752546

  18. Neuroprotective Effects of Herbal Extract (Rosa canina, Tanacetum vulgare and Urtica dioica) on Rat Model of Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Daneshmand, Parvaneh; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Dehghan Shasaltaneh, Marzieh; Kamali, Koorosh; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Nazari, Reza; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease (SAD) is caused by genetic risk factors, aging and oxidative stresses. The herbal extract of Rosa canina (R. canina), Tanacetum vulgare (T. vulgare) and Urtica dioica (U. dioica) has a beneficial role in aging, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of this herbal extract in the rat model of SAD was investigated. Methods: The rats were divided into control, sham, model, herbal extract -treated and ethanol-treated groups. Drug interventions were started on the 21st day after modeling and each treatment group was given the drugs by intraperitoneal (I.P.) route for 21 days. The expression levels of the five important genes for pathogenesis of SAD including Syp, Psen1, Mapk3, Map2 and Tnf-α were measured by qPCR between the hippocampi of SAD model which were treated by this herbal extract and control groups. The Morris Water Maze was adapted to test spatial learning and memory ability of the rats. Results: Treatment of the rat model of SAD with herbal extract induced a significant change in expression of Syp (p=0.001) and Psen1 (p=0.029). In Morris Water Maze, significant changes in spatial learning seen in the rat model group were improved in herbal-treated group. Conclusion: This herbal extract could have anti-dementia properties and improve spatial learning and memory in SAD rat model. PMID:27563424

  19. Identification of 6-octadecynoic acid from a methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist.

    PubMed

    Ohtera, Anna; Miyamae, Yusaku; Nakai, Naomi; Kawachi, Atsushi; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko; Neffati, Mohamed; Akita, Toru; Maejima, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Seiji; Kambe, Taiho; Mori, Naoki; Irie, Kazuhiro; Nagao, Masaya

    2013-10-18

    6-Octadecynoic acid (6-ODA), a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified in the methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Fibrogenesis caused by hepatic stellate cells is inhibited by PPARγ whose ligands are clinically used for the treatment of diabetes. Plant extracts of Marrubium vulgare L., were screened for activity to inhibit fibrosis in the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6 using Oil Red-O staining, which detects lipids that typically accumulate in quiescent hepatic stellate cells. A methanol extract with activity to stimulate accumulation of lipids was obtained. This extract was found to have PPARγ agonist activity using a luciferase reporter assay. After purification using several chromatographic methods, 6-ODA, a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified as a candidate of PPARγ agonist. Synthesized 6-ODA and its derivative 9-octadecynoic acid (9-ODA), which both have a triple bond but in different positions, activated PPARγ in a luciferase reporter assay and increased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a PPARγ-dependent manner. There is little information about the biological activity of fatty acids with a triple bond, and to our knowledge, this is the first report that 6-ODA and 9-ODA function as PPARγ agonists. PMID:24025677

  20. Volatile oil composition and antiproliferative activity of Laurus nobilis, Origanum syriacum, Origanum vulgare, and Salvia triloba against human breast adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Kalaldeh, Jelnar Z; Abu-Dahab, Rana; Afifi, Fatma U

    2010-04-01

    Medicinal plants and culinary herbs have gained importance in the last decade as cytotoxic and antitumor agents. We hypothesized that some of the commonly used spices with reported antimicrobial activity might have antiproliferative activity. In the present study, selected spices used in Jordan were chemically analyzed and investigated for their antiproliferative activity to the adenocarcinoma of breast cell line (MCF7). The composition of the essential oils of Laurus nobilis L, Origanum syriacum L, Origanum vulgare L, and Salvia triloba L was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antiproliferative activities of the hydrodistilled volatile oils and the crude ethanol and water extracts were evaluated using the sulphorhodamine B assay. 1,8-Cineol was the major constituent in the hydrodistilled oils of both plants, L nobilis and S triloba, with concentrations of 40.91% and 45.16%, respectively. The major constituent of O syriacum was the carvacrol (47.10%), whereas that of O vulgare was trans-sabinene hydrate (27.19%). The ethanol crude extracts of O syriacum, L nobilis, and S triloba showed antiproliferative activity to MCF7 with IC(50) values 6.40, 24.49, and 25.25 microg/mL, respectively. However, none of the hydrodistilled essential oils of the tested plant species or their aqueous extracts demonstrated cytotoxic activity. PMID:20534330

  1. Evaluation of phytotoxicity effect of olive mill wastewater treated by different technologies on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Rusan, Munir J M; Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Zuraiqi, Said; Bashabsheh, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    Olive-mill wastewater (OMW) is a by-product effluent of olive oil extraction process that is produced in large amount in the Mediterranean region. OMW is believed to induce phytotoxic effect on organisms including seed germination and plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of untreated and treated OMW with different techniques on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The following treatments were investigated: (1) tap water (control); (2) OMW treated by aerobic biological technology in a Jacto Reactor (JR); (3) OMW treated by solar fenton oxidation (SFO); (4) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by nanofiltration (MF+NF); (5) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by reverse osmosis (MF+RO) process; (6) diluted OMW with tap water (25 % OMW); (7) diluted OMW with tap water (50 % OMW); (8) diluted OMW with tap water (75 % OMW); and (9) untreated OMW (100 % OMW). A germination test was conducted in an incubator at temperature of 23 (∘)C. In each petri dish, a filter paper was mounted and ten seeds of barley were placed on the filter paper. Five milliliter of water were added to each petri dish. The seed germination was determined by counting the number of germinated seeds to calculate the percentage of germination (G %). Germination rate index (GRI), seed vigor index (SVI), and phytotoxicity index (PI) were also calculated. Then, the dry weights and lengths of the shoots and the roots of the germinated seeds were measured. The results show that 100, 75, and 50 %OMW were very phytotoxic and completely prohibited seed germination. However, phytotoxicity decreased significantly following treatments of OMW with all techniques investigated and by the 25 % OMW dilution, as results of removing the phenols and other phytotoxic organic compounds from the OMW or by diluting it. This was evidenced by relative enhancement of the dry weights and lengths of shoot and root as well as the G %, GRI, SVG, and PI. It was concluded that if

  2. Population-genetic analysis of HvABCG31 promoter sequence in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The cuticle is an important adaptive structure whose origin played a crucial role in the transition of plants from aqueous to terrestrial conditions. HvABCG31/Eibi1 is an ABCG transporter gene, involved in cuticle formation that was recently identified in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum). To study the genetic variation of HvABCG31 in different habitats, its 2 kb promoter region was sequenced from 112 wild barley accessions collected from five natural populations from southern and northern Israel. The sites included three mesic and two xeric habitats, and differed in annual rainfall, soil type, and soil water capacity. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the aligned HvABCG31 promoter sequences clustered the majority of accessions (69 out of 71) from the three northern mesic populations into one cluster, while all 21 accessions from the Dead Sea area, a xeric southern population, and two isolated accessions (one from a xeric population at Mitzpe Ramon and one from the xeric ‘African Slope’ of “Evolution Canyon”) formed the second cluster. The southern arid populations included six haplotypes, but they differed from the consensus sequence at a large number of positions, while the northern mesic populations included 15 haplotypes that were, on average, more similar to the consensus sequence. Most of the haplotypes (20 of 22) were unique to a population. Interestingly, higher genetic variation occurred within populations (54.2%) than among populations (45.8%). Analysis of the promoter region detected a large number of transcription factor binding sites: 121–128 and 121–134 sites in the two southern arid populations, and 123–128,125–128, and 123–125 sites in the three northern mesic populations. Three types of TFBSs were significantly enriched: those related to GA (gibberellin), Dof (DNA binding with one finger), and light. Conclusions Drought stress and adaptive natural selection may have been important determinants in the observed

  3. Purification and properties of three (1-->3)-beta-D-glucanase isoenzymes from young leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed Central

    Hrmova, M; Fincher, G B

    1993-01-01

    Three (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.39) isoenzymes GI, GII and GIII were purified from young leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare) using (NH4)2SO4 fractional precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, chromatofocusing and gel-filtration chromatography. The three (1-->3)-beta-D-glucanases are monomeric proteins of apparent M(r)32,000 with pI values in the range 8.8-10.3. N-terminal amino-acid-sequence analyses confirmed that the three isoenzymes represent the products of separate genes. Isoenzymes GI and GII are less stable at elevated temperatures and are active over a narrower pH range than is isoenzyme GIII, which is a glycoprotein containing 20-30 mol of hexose equivalents/mol of enzyme. The preferred substrate for the enzymes is laminarin from the brown alga Laminaria digitata, an essentially linear (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan with a low degree of glucosyl substitution at 0-6 and a degree of polymerization of approx. 25. The three enzymes are classified as endohydrolases, because they yield (1-->3)-beta-D-oligoglucosides with degrees of polymerization of 3-8 in the initial stages of hydrolysis of laminarin. Kinetic analyses indicate apparent Km values in the range 172-208 microM, kcat. constants of 36-155 s-1 and pH optima of 4.8. Substrate specificity studies show that the three isoenzymes hydrolyse substituted (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans with degrees of polymerization of 25-31 and various high-M(r), substituted and side-branched fungal (1-->3;1-->6)-beta-D-glucans. However, the isoenzymes differ in their rates of hydrolysis of a (1-->3;1-->6)-beta-D-glucan from baker's yeast and their specific activities against laminarin vary significantly. The enzymes do not hydrolyse (1-->3;1-->4)-beta-D-glucans, (1-->6)-beta-D-glucan, CM-cellulose, insoluble (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans or aryl beta-D-glycosides. Images Figure 3 Figure 6 PMID:8424790

  4. Comparison of the effects of Origanum vulgare with LHRH-A2 and 17β-estradiol on the ultrastructure of gonadotroph cells and ovarian oogenesis in immature Trichogaster trichopterus.

    PubMed

    Bagheri Ziari, Sedigheh; Naji, Tahereh; Hosseinzadeh Sahafi, Homayoun

    2015-10-01

    Origanum vulgare is a plant of the mint family that contains phytoestrogens. This study compared the effects of O. vulgare, LHRH-A2, and 17β-estradiol on the ultrastructure of gonadotroph cells and ovarian oogenesis in immature Trichogaster trichopterus. Fish (5.1±0.032cm and 2.1±0.043g, n=150) were randomly divided into four treatment groups (three hormonal treatments and control) and treated intramuscularly at four levels with 17β-estradiol or O. vulgare at 10, 20, 30 and 50mg/kg body weight and with LHRH-A2 at 0.001, 0.002, 0.003, and 0.005mg/kg body weight. There were three control treatments: saline, ethanol and placebo. Fish were kept in 15 tanks, with 10 fish per tank, injected a total of seven doses over 13 days. Gonadosomatic index (GSI) and oocyte diameter were lower (P≤0.05) in the control than in the three hormonal treatments. The highest GSI and oocyte diameter responses were observed in fish treated with 17β-estradiol (2.76±0.23%, 149.8±15.43mm) followed by O. vulgare (1.86±0.18%, 104.3±11.5mm) and LHRH-A2 (1.52±0.12%, 91.75±9.02mm) (P≤0.05). Moreover, there was a significant effect of dose level within all the hormonal treatments (P≤0.05). The effect of treatment on the length and weight was likely GSI. Ovarian tissue results showed faster oogenesis of oocytes in fish treated with O. vulgare, after 17β-estradiol. Ultrastructure of gonadotroph cells demonstrated less stimulation by O. vulgare than by 17β-estradiol and LHRH-A2. This study suggests that compared with the two hormonal treatments, O. vulgare dose-dependently affects ovarian oogenesis and gonadotroph cells. PMID:26324391

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-13 - Fruits and vegetables allowed importation subject to specified conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (b)(2)(iii), (b)(2)(vi). Egypt Pineapple Ananas comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). El Salvador Fennel... Cucurbitaceae Fruit (b)(2)(iii), (b)(3). Fennel Foeniculum vulgare Leaf and stem (b)(2)(i). German chamomile... spp. Fruit (b)(3), (b)(5)(xvi). Passion fruit Passiflora spp. Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Nicaragua...

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-13 - Fruits and vegetables allowed importation subject to specified conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (b)(2)(iii), (b)(2)(vi). Egypt Pineapple Ananas comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). El Salvador Fennel... Cucurbitaceae Fruit (b)(2)(iii), (b)(3). Fennel Foeniculum vulgare Leaf and stem (b)(2)(i). German chamomile... spp. Fruit (b)(3), (b)(5)(xvi). Passion fruit Passiflora spp. Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Nicaragua...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-13 - Fruits and vegetables allowed importation subject to specified conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (b)(2)(iii), (b)(2)(vi). Egypt Pineapple Ananas comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). El Salvador Fennel... Cucurbitaceae Fruit (b)(2)(iii), (b)(3). Fennel Foeniculum vulgare Leaf and stem (b)(2)(i). German chamomile... spp. Fruit (b)(3), (b)(5)(xvi). Passion fruit Passiflora spp. Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Nicaragua...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-13 - Fruits and vegetables allowed importation subject to specified conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (b)(2)(iii), (b)(2)(vi). Egypt Pineapple Ananas comosus Fruit (b)(2)(vi). El Salvador Fennel... Cucurbitaceae Fruit (b)(2)(iii), (b)(3). Fennel Foeniculum vulgare Leaf and stem (b)(2)(i). German chamomile... spp. Fruit (b)(3), (b)(5)(xvi). Passion fruit Passiflora spp. Fruit (b)(2)(vi). Nicaragua...

  9. Armochaetoglobins A-J: Cytochalasan Alkaloids from Chaetomium globosum TW1-1, a Fungus Derived from the Terrestrial Arthropod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunmei; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Junjun; Zhu, Hucheng; Sun, Bin; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jinwen; Luo, Zengwei; Yao, Guangmin; Xue, Yongbo; Zhang, Yonghui

    2015-06-26

    Ten new cytochalasan alkaloids, termed armochaetoglobins A-J (1-10), and four known chaetoglobosins (11-14) were isolated from a methanol extract of Chaetomium globosum TW1-1, a fungus isolated from the medicinal terrestrial arthropod Armadillidium vulgare. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and ECD calculations. Armochaetoglobins A-E (1-5) represented the first examples of seco-chaetoglobosins arising from an oxidative cleavage of C-19 and C-20. Among these compounds, armochaetoglobin A (1) features an unusual pyrrole ring. The cytotoxic activities of 2-10 were evaluated, and armochaetoglobin H (8) showed moderate inhibitory activities against five human cancer cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 3.31 to 9.83 μM. PMID:26068802

  10. Localization of crustacean hyperglycemic and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormones in separate cell types in the protocerebrum of the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea, Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Azzouna, A; Philippe, M; Jarry, T; Grève, P; Martin, G

    2003-04-01

    We gave an accurate immunolocalization of CHH (crustacean hyperglycemic hormone) and VIH (vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone) in the brain and the sinus gland of the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare. The two immune sera have been respectively raised against HPLC-purified CHH and against a small peptide derived from the N-terminus of VIH. By immunocytochemistry, we showed that CHH and VIH were synthesized in different perikarya and stored in different axon endings of the sinus gland. As in other crustacean species studied to date, CHH was located in the axon endings filled with the biggest granules. Immunoblotting confirmed that VIH was stored in the sinus glands of both the female and the male. These clear localizations of CHH- and VIH-antigens do not preclude that only one peptide is released from a given type of SG endings and do not rule out that each peptide can be involved in the control of different physiological processes. PMID:12679090

  11. Effect of Shoot Removal and Malate on the Activity of Nitrate Reductase Assayed in Vivo in Barley Roots (Hordeum vulgare cv. Midas)

    PubMed Central

    Deane-Drummond, Celia E.; Clarkson, David T.; Johnson, Christopher B.

    1979-01-01

    There is a diurnal variation of nitrate reductase activity (NRA) measured in vivo in barley roots (Hordeum vulgare cv. Midas). In intact plants receiving a 16-hour photoperiod, NRA increases when the light is switched on, reaches a maximum value after 7 to 8 hours, and thereafter declines. Shoot removal (detopping) at the start of the photoperiod prevents the rise in NRA; detopping after 5 hours light leads to a rapid fall in NRA. The inclusion of 10 millimolar malate in the external medium causes a rise in NRA in plants detopped at the beginning of the photoperiod and thus seems to substitute partially for the illuminated shoot. Oxalate, fumarate, and tartrate did not have this effect. Preincubation of the roots of intact plants with 10 millimolar malate for 3 hours, prior to detopping, causes an increase in the flux of amino acids into the xylem sap of detopped roots. PMID:16661028

  12. Edible films from methylcellulose and nanoemulsions of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oils as shelf life extenders for sliced bread.

    PubMed

    Otoni, Caio G; Pontes, Silvania F O; Medeiros, Eber A A; Soares, Nilda de F F

    2014-06-01

    Consumers are increasingly demanding foods with lower synthetic preservatives. Plant essential oils are natural compounds with remarkable antimicrobial properties and may be incorporated as emulsions into water-soluble polymers to form antimicrobial films. Coarse emulsions (diameters of 1.3-1.9 μm) and nanoemulsions (diameters of 180-250 nm) of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oils were produced through low-speed mixing and ultrasonication, respectively. Methylcellulose was added for film-forming purposes. Both essential oils reduced the rigidity and increased the extensibility of the methylcellulose films, effects that were even more pronounced for nanodroplets. Both essential oils lessened the counts of yeasts and molds in sliced bread during 15 days, and droplet size reduction provided a further improvement in antimicrobial properties. Due to increased bioavailability, less preservative content might be used and still deliver the same antimicrobial efficiency if encapsulated in smaller particles. PMID:24815228

  13. Catabolism of (+/-)-abscisic acid by excised leaves of Hordeum vulgare L. cv Dyan and its modification by chemical and environmental factors

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, A.K.; Railton, I.D.

    1987-05-01

    Excised light-grown leaves and etiolated leaves of Hordeum vulgare L. cv Dyan catabolized applied (+/-)-(2-/sup 14/C)abscisic acid ((+/-)-(2-/sup 14/C)ABA) to phaseic acid (PA), dihydrophaseic acid (DPA), and 2'-hydroxymethyl ABA (2'-HMABA). Identification of these catabolites was made by microchemical methods and by combined capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) following high dose feeds of nonlabeled substrate to leaves. Circular dichroism analysis revealed that 2'-HMABA was derived from the (-) enantiomer of ABA. Refeeding studies were used to confirm the catabolic route. The methyl ester of (+/-)-(2/sup 14/C)-ABA was hydrolyzed efficiently by light-grown leaves of H. vulgare. Leaf age played a significant role in (+/-)-ABA catabolism, with younger leaves being less able than their older counterparts to catabolize this compound. The catabolism of (+/-)-ABA was inhibited markedly in water-stressed Hordeum leaves which was characterized by a decreased incorporation of label into 2'-HMABA, DPA, and conjugates. The specific, mixed function oxidase inhibitor, ancymidol, did not inhibit, dramatically (+/-)-ABA catabolism in light-grown leaves of Hordeum whereas the 80s ribosome, translational inhibitor, cycloheximide, inhibited this process markedly. The 70s ribosome translational inhibitors, lincomycin and chloramphenicol, were less effective than cycloheximide in inhibiting (+/-)-ABA catabolism, implying that cytoplasmic protein synthesis is necessary for the catabolism of (+/-)-ABA in Hordeum leaves whereas chloroplast protein synthesis plays only a minor role. This further suggests that the enzymes involved in (+/-)-ABA catabolism in this plant are cytoplasmically synthesized and are turned-over rapidly, although the enzyme responsible for glycosylating (+/-)-ABA itself appeared to be stable.

  14. Marrubium vulgare L. methanolic extract inhibits inflammatory response and prevents cardiomyocyte fibrosis in isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Keyvan; Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Soraya, Hamid; Rameshrad, Maryam; Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin; Garjani, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays, finding new therapeutic compounds from natural products for treatment and prevention of a variety of diseases including cardiovascular disorders is getting a great deal of attention. This approach would result in finding new drugs which are more effective and have fewer side effects than the conventional medicines. The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the methanolic extract of Marrubiumvulgare, a popular traditional medicinal herb, on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rat model. Methods: Male Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of control, sham, isoproterenol, and treatment with 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg/12h of the extract given orally concurrent with MI induction. A subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (100 mg/kg/day) for two consecutive days was used to induce MI. Then, histopathological changes and inflammatory markers were evaluated. Results: Isoproterenol injection increased inflammatory response, as shown by a significant increase in peripheral neutrophil count, myocardial myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and serum levels of creatinine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and TNF-α (p<0.001). In the groups treated with 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg of M.vulgare extract serum CK-MB was subsided by 55.4%, 52.2% and 69%, respectively. Also treatment with the extract (40 mg/kg) significantly reduced (p<0.001) MPO activity in MI group. The levels of TNF-α was also considerably declined in the serums of MI group (p<0.001). In addition, peripheral neutrophil count, was significantly lowered by all doses of the extract (p<0.001). Interstitial fibrosis significantly was attenuated in treated groups compared with control MI group. Conclusion: The results of study demonstrate that the M. vulgare extract has strong protective effects against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction and it seems possible that this protection is due to its anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:24790895

  15. Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia.

    PubMed

    Felšöciová, Soňa; Kačániová, Miroslava; Horská, Elena; Vukovič, Nenad; Hleba, Lukáš; Petrová, Jana; Rovná, Katarina; Stričík, Michal; Hajduová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Mentha piperita, Chamomilla recutita L., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia hortensis L., Origanum vulgare L., Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L. for antifungal activity against five Penicillium species: Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseofulvum. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against Penicillium fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: Pimpinella anisum, Chamomilla recutita L., Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be Origanum vulgare L. and Pimpinella anisum. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Rosmarinus officinalis. PMID:25780826

  16. Accurate Mass GC/LC-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols of Spicy Fruits from the Apiaceae Family.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao; Aparicio, Mario; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2015-01-01

    The triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and the regio-stereospecific distribution of fatty acids (FA) of seed oils from most of the Apiaceae family are not well documented. The TAG structure ultimately determines the final physical properties of the oils and the position of FAs in the TAG molecule affects the digestion; absorption and metabolism; and physical and technological properties of TAGs. Fixed oils from the fruits of dill (Anethum graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), anise (Pimpinella anisum), carrot (Daucus carota), celery (Apium graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), and Khella (Ammi visnaga), all from the Apiaceae family, were extracted at room temperature in chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v) using percolators. Crude lipids were fractionated by solid phase extraction to separate neutral triacylglycerols (TAGs) from other lipids components. Neutral TAGs were subjected to transesterification process to convert them to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMES) using 1% boron trifluoride (BF₃) in methanol. FAMES were analyzed by gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (GC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Triglycerides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (LC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Petroselinic acid was the major fatty acid in all samples ranging from 57% of the total fatty acids in caraway up to 82% in fennel. All samples contained palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1n-9), stearic (C18:0), petroselinic (C18:1n-12), linoleic (C18:2n-6), linolinic (18:3n-3), and arachidic (C20:0) acids. TAG were analyzed using LC-QTOF for accurate mass identification and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques for regiospesific elucidation of the identified TAGs. Five major TAGs were detected in all samples but with different relative concentrations in all of the tested samples. Several other TAGs were detected as minor components and were present in

  17. Accurate Mass GC/LC-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols of Spicy Fruits from the Apiaceae Family

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thao; Aparicio, Mario; Saleh, Mahmoud A.

    2016-01-01

    The triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and the regio-stereospecific distribution of fatty acids (FA) of seed oils from most of the Apiaceae family are not well documented. The TAG structure ultimately determines the final physical properties of the oils and the position of FAs in the TAG molecule affects the digestion; absorption and metabolism; and physical and technological properties of TAGs. Fixed oils from the fruits of dill (Anethum graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), anise (Pimpinella anisum), carrot (Daucus carota), celery (Apium graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), and Khella (Ammi visnaga), all from the Apiaceae family, were extracted at room temperature in chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v) using percolators. Crude lipids were fractionated by solid phase extraction to separate neutral triacylglycerols (TAGs) from other lipids components. Neutral TAGs were subjected to transesterification process to convert them to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMES) using 1% boron trifluoride (BF3) in methanol. FAMES were analyzed by gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (GC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Triglycerides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (LC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Petroselinic acid was the major fatty acid in all samples ranging from 57% of the total fatty acids in caraway up to 82% in fennel. All samples contained palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1n-9), stearic (C18:0), petroselinic (C18:1n-12), linoleic (C18:2n-6), linolinic (18:3n-3), and arachidic (C20:0) acids. TAG were analyzed using LC-QTOF for accurate mass identification and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques for regiospesific elucidation of the identified TAGs. Five major TAGs were detected in all samples but with different relative concentrations in all of the tested samples. Several other TAGs were detected as minor components and were present in

  18. Interactions and Toxicity of Cu-Zn mixtures to Hordeum vulgare in Different Soils Can Be Rationalized with Bioavailability-Based Prediction Models.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hao; Versieren, Liske; Rangel, Georgina Guzman; Smolders, Erik

    2016-01-19

    Soil contamination with copper (Cu) is often associated with zinc (Zn), and the biological response to such mixed contamination is complex. Here, we investigated Cu and Zn mixture toxicity to Hordeum vulgare in three different soils, the premise being that the observed interactions are mainly due to effects on bioavailability. The toxic effect of Cu and Zn mixtures on seedling root elongation was more than additive (i.e., synergism) in soils with high and medium cation-exchange capacity (CEC) but less than additive (antagonism) in a low-CEC soil. This was found when we expressed the dose as the conventional total soil concentration. In contrast, antagonism was found in all soils when we expressed the dose as free-ion activities in soil solution, indicating that there is metal-ion competition for binding to the plant roots. Neither a concentration addition nor an independent action model explained mixture effects, irrespective of the dose expressions. In contrast, a multimetal BLM model and a WHAM-Ftox model successfully explained the mixture effects across all soils and showed that bioavailability factors mainly explain the interactions in soils. The WHAM-Ftox model is a promising tool for the risk assessment of mixed-metal contamination in soils. PMID:26649642

  19. Habituation of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus to Origanum vulgare L. essential oil does not induce direct-tolerance and cross-tolerance to salts and organic acids

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Adassa Gama; do Monte, Daniel Farias Marinho; Albuquerque, Allan dos Reis; Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Magnani, Marciane; de Siqueira, José Pinto; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains that were isolated from foods were investigated for their ability to develop direct-tolerance and cross-tolerance to sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), lactic acid (LA) and acetic acid (AA) after habituation in sublethal amounts (1/2 of the minimum inhibitory concentration - 1/2 MIC and 1/4 of the minimum inhibitory concentration - 1/4 MIC) of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO). The habituation of S. aureus to 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC of OVEO did not induce direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested strains, as assessed by modulation of MIC values. Otherwise, exposing the strains to OVEO at sublethal concentrations maintained or increased the sensitivity of the cells to the tested stressing agents because the MIC values of OVEO, NaCl, KCl, LA and AA against the cells that were previously habituated to OVEO remained the same or decreased when compared with non-habituated cells. These data indicate that OVEO does not have an inductive effect on the acquisition of direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested enterotoxigenic strains of S. aureus to antimicrobial agents that are typically used in food preservation. PMID:26413067

  20. Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum from different areas in the Southern Apennines (Italy).

    PubMed

    Mancini, Emilia; Camele, Ippolito; Elshafie, Hazem S; De Martino, Laura; Pellegrino, Carlo; Grulova, Daniela; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2014-04-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum, growing wild in three different localities in the Southern Apennines, was studied by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 103 compounds were identified. The oils were mainly composed of phenolic compounds and all oils belonged to the chemotype carvacrol/thymol. The three essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro phytotoxic activity by determining their influence on the germination and initial radicle elongation of Sinapis arvensis L., Phalaris canariensis L., Lepidium sativum L., and Raphanus sativus L. The seed germination and radicle growth were affected in various degrees. Moreover, the antifungal activity of the three essential oils was assayed against three species causing pre- and postharvest fruit decay (Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena, and M. fructicola). At 1000 ppm, the three oils completely inhibited fungal growth. The hemolytic activity of the oils was assayed and showed no effect on the cell membranes of bovine erythrocytes. PMID:24706631

  1. Characterization of plant growth promoting traits of bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) grown under Fe sufficiency and deficiency.

    PubMed

    Scagliola, M; Pii, Y; Mimmo, T; Cesco, S; Ricciuti, P; Crecchio, C

    2016-10-01

    Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are considered a promising approach to replace the conventional agricultural practices, since they have been shown to affect plant nutrient-acquisition processes by influencing nutrient availability in the rhizosphere and/or those biochemical processes determining the uptake at root level of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe), that represent the major constraints for crop productivity worldwide. We have isolated novel bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) plants, previously grown in hydroponic solution (either Fe deficient or Fe sufficient) and subsequently transferred onto an agricultural calcareous soil. PGPB have been identified by molecular tools and characterized for their capacity to produce siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and to solubilize phosphate. Selected bacterial isolates, showing contemporarily high levels of the three activities investigated, were finally tested for their capacity to induce Fe reduction in cucumber roots two isolates, from barley and tomato plants under Fe deficiency, significantly increased the root Fe-chelate reductase activity; interestingly, another isolate enhanced the reduction of Fe-chelate reductase activity in cucumber plant roots, although grown under Fe sufficiency. PMID:27295343

  2. Microencapsulation, Chemical Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Mexican (Lippia graveolens H.B.K.) and European (Origanum vulgare L.) Oregano Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Regalado-González, Carlos; Vázquez-Landaverde, Pedro; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; García-Almendárez, Blanca E.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of solvent polarity (methanol and pentane) on the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oils (EO's) of Lippia graveolens H.B.K. (MXO) and Origanum vulgare L. (EUO) was studied by GC-MS. Composition of modified starch microencapsulated EO's was conducted by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The antimicrobial activity of free and microencapsulated EO's was evaluated. They were tested against Salmonella sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas fragi, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Micrococcus luteus. Thymol and carvacrol were among the main components of EO's and their free and microencapsulated inhibitory activity was tested against M. luteus, showing an additive combined effect. Chemical composition of EO's varied according to the solvent used for GC analysis and to volatile fraction as evaluated by HS-SPME. Thymol (both solvents) was the main component in essential oil of MXO, while carvacrol was the main component of the volatile fraction. EUO showed α-pinene (methanol) and γ-terpinene (pentane) as major constituents, the latter being the main component of the volatile fraction. EO's showed good stability after 3 months storage at 4°C, where antimicrobial activity of microencapsulated EO's remained the same, while free EO's decreased 41% (MXO) and 67% (EUO) from initial activity. Microencapsulation retains most antimicrobial activity and improves stability of EO's from oregano. PMID:25177730

  3. Sexual differentiation traits in functional males with female genital apertures (male symbol fga) in the woodlice Armadillidium vulgare Latr. (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Azzouna, Atf; Greve, Pierre; Martin, Gilbert

    2004-08-01

    This study reports the results of examination of the gonadal morphology and ultrastructural features of the androgenic hormone (AH)-producing androgenic gland cells of laboratory stocks of functional male woodlice, Armadillidium vulgare, with female genital apertures ( male symbol fga), with and without experimentally induced infections of the sex-ratio-distorting endobacterial parasite, Wolbachia. Males ( male symbol fga) have been reported in wild populations containing individuals infected with this maternally transmitted sex-ratio-distorting parasite. We report a reduction of testicular segment (utricle) number, androgenic gland cell hypertrophy, and electron-dense ultrastructural cytological features in male symbol fga males. The presence of the Wolbachia parasite had no effect on the features we examined. These results suggest that male symbol fga males are produced as the result of a delayed expression/action of the male sex-determining AH which causes a "lag-phase" delay in male differentiation in genetic males and is not due to the presence, in genetic females, of a hypothetical, epigenetic "M" gene as suggested by Rigaud and Juchault. Our results favor the interpretation of males as true genetic (ZZ) males in which the delayed AH action appears to involve cellular AH trafficking pathways which may be controlled by an impaired autosomal gene responsible for AH action. PMID:15242750

  4. Microencapsulation, chemical characterization, and antimicrobial activity of Mexican (Lippia graveolens H.B.K.) and European (Origanum vulgare L.) oregano essential oils.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hernández, Elvia; Regalado-González, Carlos; Vázquez-Landaverde, Pedro; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; García-Almendárez, Blanca E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of solvent polarity (methanol and pentane) on the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oils (EO's) of Lippia graveolens H.B.K. (MXO) and Origanum vulgare L. (EUO) was studied by GC-MS. Composition of modified starch microencapsulated EO's was conducted by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The antimicrobial activity of free and microencapsulated EO's was evaluated. They were tested against Salmonella sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas fragi, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Micrococcus luteus. Thymol and carvacrol were among the main components of EO's and their free and microencapsulated inhibitory activity was tested against M. luteus, showing an additive combined effect. Chemical composition of EO's varied according to the solvent used for GC analysis and to volatile fraction as evaluated by HS-SPME. Thymol (both solvents) was the main component in essential oil of MXO, while carvacrol was the main component of the volatile fraction. EUO showed α-pinene (methanol) and γ-terpinene (pentane) as major constituents, the latter being the main component of the volatile fraction. EO's showed good stability after 3 months storage at 4°C, where antimicrobial activity of microencapsulated EO's remained the same, while free EO's decreased 41% (MXO) and 67% (EUO) from initial activity. Microencapsulation retains most antimicrobial activity and improves stability of EO's from oregano. PMID:25177730

  5. A pair of chiral flavonolignans as novel anti-cyanobacterial allelochemicals derived from barley straw (Hordeum vulgare): characterization and comparison of their anti-cyanobacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xi; Huang, Haomin; Ge, Zhiwei; Rounge, Trine B; Shi, Jiyan; Xu, Xinhua; Li, Ruobing; Chen, Yingxu

    2014-05-01

    The inhibitory effect of barley straw (Hordeum vulgare) on cyanobacteria has been observed in many field and laboratory studies for over 30 years, although the compounds responsible for this anti-cyanobacterial effect have remained unknown. In this study, a pair of chiral flavonolignans were isolated from barley straw extract using a bioassay-guided isolation procedure against Microcystis sp. The structures of the allelopathic compounds were elucidated by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and HPLC-MS (high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry), and turned out to be salcolin A and B. The enantiomers differ in their anti-cyanobacterial abilities. Both enantiomers exhibited inhibitory effects on Microcystis sp., and the EC50 (concentration for 50% of maximal effect) of salcolin A and B were 6.02 × 10(-5) and 9.60 × 10(-5 ) mol l(-1) , respectively. Furthermore, the modes of actions of the enantiomers were investigated and compared at a single cell level by flow cytometry. Salcolin A was found to induce an increase on cyanobacterial intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels and to inhibit esterase activity, whereas salcolin B caused leakages of cyanobacterial cytoplasms. Thus, salcolin A was more 'algistatic', and salcolin B was more 'algicidal'. This study suggests that salcolin is the key allelochemical in barley straw's inhibitory effect on cyanobacteria and could be used as an agent in the future control of cyanobacterial harmful algae blooms. PMID:24034604

  6. The comparative genotoxicological study of new local anesthetics, 3-(2-alkoxyphenylcarbamoyloxy)quinuclidium chlorides, on Salmonella typhimurium, Saccharromyces cerevisiae, Vicia faba, Hordeum vulgare and Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Miadoková, E; Vlcková, V; Dúhová, V; Trebatická, M; Grolmus, J; Bohmová, B; Podstavková, S; Rauko, P; Plesníková, I; Vlcek, D

    1996-06-01

    Potential gentoxicity of five new local anesthetics, derivatives of phenylcarbamic acid differing in the length of the alkyl chain of the alkoxy substituent, was studied on five test systems. There was a direct relationship with increased toxic effect in bacteria and yeast as a function of the elongation of the alkyl chain of the alkoxy substituents of the phenylcarbamic acid esters. On the other hand, no structure-toxicity relationship was found after application of 3-(2-alkoxyphenylcarbamoyloxy)-quinuclidium chlorides on plants and Drosophila. All anesthetics were nonmutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100, and TA102 in the absence and in the presence of S9 mix. Pentyloxy and heptyloxy derivatives increased rates of genetic changes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mainly revertants at the isoleucine locus. Pentyloxy and hexyloxy derivatives increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations in Vicia faba root-tip meristems. No chlorophyll mutations were detected after treatment of Hordeum vulgare with pentyloxy, hexyloxy and heptyloxy derivatives. No sex-linked recessive lethals were scored in Drosphila melanogaster males. The rates of aneuploids induced in their germ cells were significantly increased after treatment with butoxy and octyloxy derivatives. However, the local toxic and genotoxic effects of test anesthetics on the microorganisms of the anesthetized tissues may be of some importance. In particular, the genotoxic effect exhibited in fungi by the heptyloxy derivative, a potent local anesthetic, was remarkable. PMID:8817059

  7. Genome-Wide Analysis of APETALA2/Ethylene-Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) Gene Family in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Guo, Baojian; Wei, Yafeng; Xu, Ruibin; Lin, Shen; Luan, Haiye; Lv, Chao; Zhang, Xinzhong; Song, Xiyun; Xu, Rugen

    2016-01-01

    APETALA2/Ethylene-Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) gene family is plant specific transcription factor. It plays critical roles in development process, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and responses to plant hormones. However, limited data are available on the contributions of AP2/ERF gene family in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). In the present study, 121 HvAP2/ERF genes in barley were identified by using bioinformatics methods. A total of 118 HvAP2/ERF (97.5%) genes were located on seven chromosomes. According to phylogenetic classification of AP2/ERF family in Arabidopsis, HvAP2/ERF proteins were divided into AP2 (APETALA2), RAV (Related to ABI3/VP), DREB (dehydration responsive element binding), ERF (ethylene responsive factors) and soloist sub families. The analysis of duplication events indicated that tandem repeat and segmental duplication contributed to the expansion of the AP2/ERF family in barley. HvDREB1s/2s genes displayed various expression patterns under abiotic stress and phytohormone. Taken together, the data generated in this study will be useful for genome-wide analysis to determine the precise role of the HvAP2/ERF gene during barley development, abiotic stress and phytohormone responses with the ultimate goal of improving crop production. PMID:27598245

  8. Amino acid transport across the tonoplast of vacuoles isolated from barley mesophyll protoplasts: Uptake of alanine, leucine, and glutamine. [Hordeum vulgare L

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, K.J.; Jaeger, R.; Kaiser, G.; Martinoia, E. )

    1990-01-01

    Mesophyll protoplasts from leaves of well-fertilized barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants contained amino acids at concentrations as high as 120 millimoles per liter. With the exception of glutamic acid, which is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, a major part of all other amino acids was contained inside the large central vacuole. Alanine, leucine, and glutamine are the dominant vacuolar amino acids in barley. Their transport into isolated vacuoles was studied using {sup 14}C-labeled amino acids. Uptake was slow in the absence of ATP. A three- to sixfold stimulation of uptake was observed after addition of ATP or adenylyl imidodiphosphate an ATP analogue not being hydrolyzed by ATPases. Other nucleotides were ineffective in increasing the rate of uptake. ATP-Stimulated amino acid transport was not dependent on the transtonoplast pH or membrane potential. p-Chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid and n-ethyl maleimide increased transport independently of ATP. Neutral amino acids such as valine or leucine effectively decreased the rate of alanine transport. Glutamine and glycine were less effective or not effective as competitive inhibitors of alanine transport. The results indicate the existence of a uniport translocator specific for neutral or basic amino acids that is under control of metabolic effectors.

  9. Root spatial metabolite profiling of two genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) reveals differences in response to short-term salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Shelden, Megan C.; Dias, Daniel A.; Jayasinghe, Nirupama S.; Bacic, Antony; Roessner, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the most salt-tolerant cereal crop and has excellent genetic and genomic resources. It is therefore a good model to study salt-tolerance mechanisms in cereals. We aimed to determine metabolic differences between a cultivated barley, Clipper (tolerant), and a North African landrace, Sahara (susceptible), previously shown to have contrasting root growth phenotypes in response to the early phase of salinity stress. GC-MS was used to determine spatial changes in primary metabolites in barley roots in response to salt stress, by profiling three different regions of the root: root cap/cell division zone (R1), elongation zone (R2), and maturation zone (R3). We identified 76 known metabolites, including 29 amino acids and amines, 20 organic acids and fatty acids, and 19 sugars and sugar phosphates. The maintenance of cell division and root elongation in Clipper in response to short-term salt stress was associated with the synthesis and accumulation of amino acids (i.e. proline), sugars (maltose, sucrose, xylose), and organic acids (gluconate, shikimate), indicating a potential role for these metabolic pathways in salt tolerance and the maintenance of root elongation. The processes involved in root growth adaptation and the underlying coordination of metabolic pathways appear to be controlled in a region-specific manner. This study highlights the importance of utilizing spatial profiling and will provide us with a better understanding of abiotic stress response(s) in plants at the tissue and cellular level. PMID:26946124

  10. Paradox of plant growth promotion potential of rhizobacteria and their actual promotion effect on growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Ratering, Stefan; Suarez, Christian; Zapata Montoya, Ana Maria; Geissler-Plaum, Rita; Schnell, Sylvia

    2015-12-01

    From the rhizosphere of two salt tolerant plant species, Hordeum secalinum and Plantago winteri growing in a naturally salt meadow, 100 strains were isolation on enrichment media for various plant growth-promoting (PGP) functions (ACC deaminase activity, auxin synthesis, calcium phosphate mobilization and nitrogen fixation). Based on the taxonomic affiliation of the isolated bacteria and their enrichment medium 22 isolates were selected to test their growth promotion effect on the crop barley (Hordeum vulgare) under salt stress in pot experiment. In parallel the isolates were characterized in pure culture for their plant growth-promoting activities. Surprisingly the best promotors did not display a promising set of PGP activities. Isolates with multiple PGP-activities in pure culture like Microbacterium natoriense strain E38 and Pseudomonas brassicacearum strain E8 did not promote plant growth. The most effective isolate was strain E108 identified as Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, which increased barley growth up to 300%. In pure culture strain E108 showed only two out of six plant growth promoting activities and would have been neglected. Our results highlight that screening based on pure culture assays may not be suitable for recognition of best plant growth promotion candidates and could preclude the detection of both new PGPR and new plant promotion mechanisms. PMID:26640049

  11. Increased expression of six ZIP family genes by zinc (Zn) deficiency is associated with enhanced uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Zn in barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Tiong, Jingwen; McDonald, Glenn; Genc, Yusuf; Shirley, Neil; Langridge, Peter; Huang, Chun Y

    2015-09-01

    Low zinc (Zn) in soils reduces yield and grain Zn content. Regulation of ZRT/IRT-like protein (ZIP) family genes is a major mechanism in plant adaptation to low and fluctuating Zn in soil. Although several Zn deficiency-inducible ZIP genes are identified in cereals, there has been no systematic study on the association of Zn deficiency-induced uptake and root-to-shoot translocation with expression of ZIP family genes. We measured Zn deficiency-induced uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Zn in barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants by resupplying 0.5 μM Zn, and quantified the transcripts of thirteen HvZIP genes. Subcellular localization and tissue-specific expression were also determined for Zn deficiency-inducible HvZIP genes. Zn deficiency enhanced the capacity of uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Zn, and sustained the enhanced capacity for 6 d after Zn resupply. Six HvZIP genes were highly induced in roots of Zn-deficient plants, and their proteins were localized in the plasma membrane. Tissue-specific expression in roots supports their roles in uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Zn under low Zn conditions. Our results provide a comprehensive view on the physiological roles of ZIP genes in plant adaptation to low and fluctuating Zn in soil, and pave the way for development of new strategies to improve Zn-deficiency tolerance and biofortification in cereals. PMID:25904503

  12. Effect of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oils on Trypanosoma cruzi (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida) growth and ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Giani F; das Graças Cardoso, Maria; Guimarães, Luiz Gustavo L; Salgado, Ana Paula S P; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F S; Soares, Maurilio J

    2007-03-01

    In the present work, we have investigated the effect of essential oils obtained from Origanum vulgare L. (oregano) and Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme) on growth and ultrastructure of diverse evolutive forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Culture epimastigotes and bloodstream trypomastigotes were incubated for 24 h with different concentrations of oregano or thyme essential oils and with thymol (the main constituent of thyme), and the inhibitory concentration (IC)(50) was determined by cell counting. Crude extract of oregano essential oil inhibited epimastigote growth (IC(50)/24 h = 175 microg/ml) and also induced trypomastigote lysis (IC(50)/24 h = 115 microg/ml). Thyme essential oil presented IC(50)/24 h values of 77 microg/ml for epimastigotes and 38 mug/ml for trypomastigotes, while treatment with thymol resulted in an IC(50)/24 h of 62 microg/ml for epimastigotes and 53 microg/ml for trypomastigotes. Scanning electron microscopy of treated cells showed few morphological alterations at the plasma membrane. Observation by transmission electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic swelling with occasional morphological alterations in plasma and flagellar membrane. Our data indicate that oregano and thyme essential oils are effective against T. cruzi, with higher activity of thyme, and that thymol may be the main component responsible for the trypanocidal activity. PMID:17024354

  13. Assessment of tolerance induction by Origanum vulgare L. essential oil or carvacrol in Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultivated in a meat-based broth and in a meat model.

    PubMed

    da Silva Luz, Isabelle; Gomes-Neto, Nelson Justino; Magnani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO) and carvacrol in inhibiting the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, as well as the development of direct tolerance and cross-tolerance when this bacterium was challenged with sublethal amounts of these substances in a meat-based broth and in a meat model. OVEO and carvacrol at their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC decreased the viable cell counts of P. aeruginosa in meat-based broth. Direct tolerance or cross-tolerance was not induced after exposure of the assayed bacterial strain to sublethal amounts of OVEO or carvacrol in meat-based broth and in an artificially contaminated ground beef. Bacterial cells progressively subcultured in meat-based broth with increasing amounts of the tested substances survived up to the MIC of OVEO and to 1/2 MIC of carvacrol. The results reveal a lack of induction of tolerance in P. aeruginosa by exposure to OVEO or carvacrol in meat-based broth and in a meat model. PMID:25293767

  14. Root spatial metabolite profiling of two genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) reveals differences in response to short-term salt stress.

    PubMed

    Shelden, Megan C; Dias, Daniel A; Jayasinghe, Nirupama S; Bacic, Antony; Roessner, Ute

    2016-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the most salt-tolerant cereal crop and has excellent genetic and genomic resources. It is therefore a good model to study salt-tolerance mechanisms in cereals. We aimed to determine metabolic differences between a cultivated barley, Clipper (tolerant), and a North African landrace, Sahara (susceptible), previously shown to have contrasting root growth phenotypes in response to the early phase of salinity stress. GC-MS was used to determine spatial changes in primary metabolites in barley roots in response to salt stress, by profiling three different regions of the root: root cap/cell division zone (R1), elongation zone (R2), and maturation zone (R3). We identified 76 known metabolites, including 29 amino acids and amines, 20 organic acids and fatty acids, and 19 sugars and sugar phosphates. The maintenance of cell division and root elongation in Clipper in response to short-term salt stress was associated with the synthesis and accumulation of amino acids (i.e. proline), sugars (maltose, sucrose, xylose), and organic acids (gluconate, shikimate), indicating a potential role for these metabolic pathways in salt tolerance and the maintenance of root elongation. The processes involved in root growth adaptation and the underlying coordination of metabolic pathways appear to be controlled in a region-specific manner. This study highlights the importance of utilizing spatial profiling and will provide us with a better understanding of abiotic stress response(s) in plants at the tissue and cellular level. PMID:26946124

  15. Uptake, degradation and chiral discrimination of N-acyl-D/L-homoserine lactones by barley (Hordeum vulgare) and yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) plants.

    PubMed

    Götz, Christine; Fekete, Agnes; Gebefuegi, Istvan; Forczek, Sándor T; Fuksová, Kvetoslava; Li, Xiaojing; Englmann, Matthias; Gryndler, Milan; Hartmann, Anton; Matucha, Miroslav; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schröder, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Bacterial intraspecies and interspecies communication in the rhizosphere is mediated by diffusible signal molecules. Many Gram-negative bacteria use N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) as autoinducers in the quorum sensing response. While bacterial signalling is well described, the fate of AHLs in contact with plants is much less known. Thus, adsorption, uptake and translocation of N-hexanoyl- (C6-HSL), N-octanoyl- (C8-HSL) and N-decanoyl-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL) were studied in axenic systems with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and the legume yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban) as model plants using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) and tritium-labelled AHLs. Decreases in AHL concentration due to abiotic adsorption or degradation were tolerable under the experimental conditions. The presence of plants enhanced AHL decline in media depending on the compounds' lipophilicity, whereby the legume caused stronger AHL decrease than barley. All tested AHLs were traceable in root extracts of both plants. While all AHLs except C10-HSL were detectable in barley shoots, only C6-HSL was found in shoots of yam bean. Furthermore, tritium-labelled AHLs were used to determine short-term uptake kinetics. Chiral separation by GC-MS revealed that both plants discriminated D-AHL stereoisomers to different extents. These results indicate substantial differences in uptake and degradation of different AHLs in the plants tested. PMID:17899036

  16. Molecular mapping of a non-host resistance gene YrpstY1 in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for resistance to wheat stripe rust.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xinxia; He, Zhonghu; Lu, Yaming; Wang, Zhenlin; Xia, Xianchun

    2010-10-01

    Cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is considered as a non-host or inappropriate host species for wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. Most barley cultivars show a broad-spectrum resistance to wheat stripe rust. To determine the genes for resistance to wheat stripe rust in barley, a cross was made between a resistant barley line Y12 and a susceptible line Y16. The two parents, F(1) and 147 BC(1) plants were tested at seedling stage with Chinese prevalent race CYR32 of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici by artificial inoculation in greenhouse. The results indicated that Y12 possessed one dominant resistance gene to wheat stripe rust, designated YrpstY1 provisionally. A total of 388 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to map the resistance gene in Y12 using bulked segregant analysis. A linkage map, including nine SSR loci on chromosome 7H and YrpstY1, was constructed using the BC(1) population, indicating that the resistance gene YrpstY1 is located on chromosome 7H. It is potential to transfer the resistance gene into common wheat for stripe rust resistance. PMID:21039455

  17. The enzymology of alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) isoforms from Hordeum vulgare and other organisms, and the HvAlaAT crystal structure.

    PubMed

    Duff, Stephen M G; Rydel, Timothy J; McClerren, Amanda L; Zhang, Wenlan; Li, Jimmy Y; Sturman, Eric J; Halls, Coralie; Chen, Songyang; Zeng, Jiamin; Peng, Jiexin; Kretzler, Crystal N; Evdokimov, Artem

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we describe the expression, purification, kinetics and biophysical characterization of alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) from the barley plant (Hordeum vulgare). This dimeric PLP-dependent enzyme is a pivotal element of several key metabolic pathways from nitrogen assimilation to carbon metabolism, and its introduction into transgenic plants results in increased yield. The enzyme exhibits a bi-bi ping-pong reaction mechanism with a K(m) for alanine, 2-oxoglutarate, glutamate and pyruvate of 3.8, 0.3, 0.8 and 0.2 mM, respectively. Barley AlaAT catalyzes the forward (alanine-forming) reaction with a k(cat) of 25.6 s(-1), the reverse (glutamate-forming) reaction with k(cat) of 12.1 s(-1) and an equilibrium constant of ~0.5. The enzyme is also able to utilize aspartate and oxaloacetate with ~10% efficiency as compared to the native substrates, which makes it much more specific than related bacterial/archaeal enzymes (that also have lower K(m) values). We have crystallized barley AlaAT in complex with PLP and l-cycloserine and solved the structure of this complex at 2.7 Å resolution. This is the first example of a plant AlaAT structure, and it reveals a canonical aminotransferase fold similar to structures of the Thermotoga maritima, Pyrococcus furiosus, and human enzymes. This structure bridges our structural understanding of AlaAT mechanism between three kingdoms of life and allows us to shed some light on the specifics of the catalysis performed by these proteins. PMID:22750542

  18. Rapid Buildup of Genetic Diversity in Founder Populations of the Gynodioecious Plant Species Origanum vulgare after Semi-Natural Grassland Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Helsen, Kenny; Jacquemyn, Hans; Hermy, Martin; Vandepitte, Katrien; Honnay, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    In most landscapes the success of habitat restoration is largely dependent on spontaneous colonization of plant species. This colonization process, and the outcome of restoration practices, can only be considered successful if the genetic makeup of founding populations is not eroded through founder effects and subsequent genetic drift. Here we used 10 microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic effects of recent colonization of the long-lived gynodioecious species Origanum vulgare in restored semi-natural grassland patches. We compared the genetic diversity and differentiation of fourteen recent populations with that of thirteen old, putative source populations, and we evaluated the effects of spatial configuration of the populations on colonization patterns. We did not observe decreased genetic diversity in recent populations, or inflated genetic differentiation among them. Nevertheless, a significantly higher inbreeding coefficient was observed in recent populations, although this was not associated with negative fitness effects. Overall population genetic differentiation was low (FST = 0.040). Individuals of restored populations were assigned to on average 6.1 different source populations (likely following the ‘migrant pool’ model). Gene flow was, however, affected by the spatial configuration of the grasslands, with gene flow into the recent populations mainly originating from nearby source populations. This study demonstrates how spontaneous colonization after habitat restoration can lead to viable populations in a relatively short time, overcoming pronounced founder effects, when several source populations are nearby. Restored populations can therefore rapidly act as stepping stones and sources of genetic diversity, likely increasing overall metapopulation viability of the study species. PMID:23840642

  19. Phylogenetic and comparative gene expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare)WRKY transcription factor family reveals putatively retained functions betweenmonocots and dicots

    SciTech Connect

    Mangelsen, Elke; Kilian, Joachim; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Kolukisaoglu, Uner; Harter, Klaus; Jansson, Christer; Wanke, Dierk

    2008-02-01

    WRKY proteins belong to the WRKY-GCM1 superfamily of zinc finger transcription factors that have been subject to a large plant-specific diversification. For the cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare), three different WRKY proteins have been characterized so far, as regulators in sucrose signaling, in pathogen defense, and in response to cold and drought, respectively. However, their phylogenetic relationship remained unresolved. In this study, we used the available sequence information to identify a minimum number of 45 barley WRKY transcription factor (HvWRKY) genes. According to their structural features the HvWRKY factors were classified into the previously defined polyphyletic WRKY subgroups 1 to 3. Furthermore, we could assign putative orthologs of the HvWRKY proteins in Arabidopsis and rice. While in most cases clades of orthologous proteins were formed within each group or subgroup, other clades were composed of paralogous proteins for the grasses and Arabidopsis only, which is indicative of specific gene radiation events. To gain insight into their putative functions, we examined expression profiles of WRKY genes from publicly available microarray data resources and found group specific expression patterns. While putative orthologs of the HvWRKY transcription factors have been inferred from phylogenetic sequence analysis, we performed a comparative expression analysis of WRKY genes in Arabidopsis and barley. Indeed, highly correlative expression profiles were found between some of the putative orthologs. HvWRKY genes have not only undergone radiation in monocot or dicot species, but exhibit evolutionary traits specific to grasses. HvWRKY proteins exhibited not only sequence similarities between orthologs with Arabidopsis, but also relatedness in their expression patterns. This correlative expression is indicative for a putative conserved function of related WRKY proteins in mono- and dicot species.

  20. Effects of the Essential Oil from Origanum vulgare L. on Survival of Pathogenic Bacteria and Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria in Semihard Cheese Broth and Slurry.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Geany Targino; de Carvalho, Rayssa Julliane; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Schaffner, Donald; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Magnani, Marciane

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed the inhibitory effects of the essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. (OVEO) on Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and a mesophilic starter coculture composed of lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris) in Brazilian coalho cheese systems. The MIC of OVEO was 2.5 μl/ml against both S. aureus and L. monocytogenes and 0.6 μl/ml against the tested starter coculture. In cheese broth containing OVEO at 0.6 μl/ml, no decrease in viable cell counts (VCC) of both pathogenic bacteria was observed, whereas the initial VCC of the starter coculture decreased approximately 1.0 log CFU/ml after 24 h of exposure at 10°C. OVEO at 1.25 and 2.5 μl/ml caused reductions of up to 2.0 and 2.5 log CFU/ml in S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, respectively, after 24 h of exposure in cheese broth. At these same concentrations, OVEO caused a greater decrease of initial VCC of the starter coculture following 4 h of exposure. Higher concentrations of OVEO were required to decrease the VCC of all target bacteria in semisolid coalho cheese slurry compared with cheese broth. The VCC of Lactococcus spp. in coalho cheese slurry containing OVEO were always lower than those of pathogenic bacteria under the same conditions. These results suggest that the concentrations of OVEO used to control pathogenic bacteria in semihard cheese should be carefully evaluated because of its inhibitory effects on the growth of starter lactic acid cultures used during the production of the product. PMID:26818985

  1. Comparative analyses of genotoxicity, oxidative stress and antioxidative defence system under exposure of methyl parathion and hexaconazole in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Dubey, Pragyan; Mishra, Amit Kumar; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the comparative effects of methyl parathion and hexaconazole on genotoxicity, oxidative stress, antioxidative defence system and photosynthetic pigments in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. variety karan-16). The seeds were exposed with three different concentrations, i.e. 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 % for 6 h after three pre-soaking durations 7, 17 and 27 h which represents G1, S and G2 phases of the cell cycle, respectively. Ethyl methane sulphonate, a well-known mutagenic agent and double distilled water, was used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The results indicate significant decrease in mitotic index with increasing concentrations of pesticides, and the extent was higher in methyl parathion. Chromosomal aberrations were found more frequent in methyl parathion than hexaconazole as compared to their respective controls. Treatment with the pesticides induced oxidative stress which was evident with higher contents of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation, and the increase was more prominent in methyl parathion. Contents of total phenolics were increased; however, soluble protein content showed a reverse trend. Among the enzymatic antioxidants, activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were significantly up-regulated, and more increase was noticed in hexaconazole. Increments in total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were observed up to 0.1 % but decreased at higher concentration (0.5 %), and the reductions were more prominent in methyl parathion than hexaconazole as compared to their respective controls. Methyl parathion treatment caused more damage in the plant cells of barley as compared to hexaconazole, which may be closely related to higher genotoxicity and oxidative stress. PMID:26286802

  2. Evidence of Phytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Hordeum vulgare L. Exposed to CeO2 and TiO2 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Mattiello, Alessandro; Filippi, Antonio; Pošćić, Filip; Musetti, Rita; Salvatici, Maria C.; Giordano, Cristiana; Vischi, Massimo; Bertolini, Alberto; Marchiol, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Engineered nanoscale materials (ENMs) are considered emerging contaminants since they are perceived as a potential threat to the environment and the human health. The reactions of living organisms when exposed to metal nanoparticles (NPs) or NPs of different size are not well known. Very few studies on NPs–plant interactions have been published, so far. For this reason there is also great concern regarding the potential NPs impact to food safety. Early genotoxic and phytotoxic effects of cerium oxide NPs (nCeO2) and titanium dioxide NPs (nTiO2) were investigated in seedlings of Hordeum vulgare L. Caryopses were exposed to an aqueous dispersion of nCeO2 and nTiO2 at, respectively 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg l-1 for 7 days. Genotoxicity was studied by Randomly Amplified Polymorphism DNA (RAPDs) and mitotic index on root tip cells. Differences between treated and control plants were observed in RAPD banding patterns as well as at the chromosomal level with a reduction of cell divisions. At cellular level we monitored the oxidative stress of treated plants in terms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and ATP content. Again nCeO2 influenced clearly these two physiological parameters, while nTiO2 were ineffective. In particular, the dose 500 mg l-1 showed the highest increase regarding both ROS generation and ATP content; the phenomenon were detectable, at different extent, both at root and shoot level. Total Ce and Ti concentration in seedlings was detected by ICP-OES. TEM EDSX microanalysis demonstrated the presence of aggregates of nCeO2 and nTiO2 within root cells of barley. nCeO2 induced modifications in the chromatin aggregation mode in the nuclei of both root and shoot cells. PMID:26635858

  3. Analysis of Drought-Induced Proteomic and Metabolomic Changes in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Leaves and Roots Unravels Some Aspects of Biochemical Mechanisms Involved in Drought Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Chmielewska, Klaudia; Rodziewicz, Paweł; Swarcewicz, Barbara; Sawikowska, Aneta; Krajewski, Paweł; Marczak, Łukasz; Ciesiołka, Danuta; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Mikołajczak, Krzysztof; Ogrodowicz, Piotr; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Surma, Maria; Adamski, Tadeusz; Bednarek, Paweł; Stobiecki, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    In this study, proteomic and metabolomic changes in leaves and roots of two barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes, with contrasting drought tolerance, subjected to water deficit were investigated. Our two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF/TOF) analyses revealed 121 drought-responsive proteins in leaves and 182 in roots of both genotypes. Many of the identified drought-responsive proteins were associated with processes that are typically severely affected during water deficit, including photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. However, the highest number of identified leaf and root proteins represented general defense mechanisms. In addition, changes in the accumulation of proteins that represent processes formerly unassociated with drought response, e.g., phenylpropanoid metabolism, were also identified. Our tandem gas chromatography – time of flight mass spectrometry (GC/MS TOF) analyses revealed approximately 100 drought-affected low molecular weight compounds representing various metabolite types with amino acids being the most affected metabolite class. We compared the results from proteomic and metabolomic analyses to search for existing relationship between these two levels of molecular organization. We also uncovered organ specificity of the observed changes and revealed differences in the response to water deficit of drought susceptible and tolerant barley lines. Particularly, our results indicated that several of identified proteins and metabolites whose accumulation levels were increased with drought in the analyzed susceptible barley variety revealed elevated constitutive accumulation levels in the drought-resistant line. This may suggest that constitutive biochemical predisposition represents a better drought tolerance mechanism than inducible responses. PMID:27512399

  4. Analysis of the primary sequence and secondary structure of the unusually long SSU rRNA of the soil bug, Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Choe, C P; Hancock, J M; Hwang, U W; Kim, W

    1999-12-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the SSU rRNA gene from the soil bug, Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea, Isopoda), was determined. It is 3214 bp long, with a GC content of 56.3%. It is not only the longest SSU rRNA gene among Crustacea but also longer than any other SSU rRNA gene except that of the strepsipteran insect, Xenos vesparum (3316 bp). The unusually long sequence of this species is explained by the long sequences of variable regions V4 and V7, which make up more than half of the total length. RT-PCR analysis of these two regions showed that the long sequences also exist in the mature rRNA and sequence simplicity analysis revealed the presence of slippage motifs in these two regions. The putative secondary structure of the rRNA is typical for eukaryotes except for the length and shape variations of the V2, V4, V7, and V9 regions. Each of the V2, V4, and V7 regions was elongated, while the V9 region was shortened. In V2, two bulges, located between helix 8 and helix 9 and between helix 9 and helix 10, were elongated. In V4, stem E23-3 was dramatically expanded, with several small branched stems. In V7, stem 43 was branched and expanded. Comparisons with the unusually long SSU rRNAs of other organisms imply that the increase in total length of SSU rRNA is due mainly to expansion in the V4 and V7 regions. PMID:10594181

  5. Protein Differences between Two Isogenic Cultivars of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) that Differ in Sensitivity to Photoperiod and Far-Red Light 1

    PubMed Central

    Principe, Jan M.; Hruschka, William R.; Thomas, Brian; Deitzer, Gerald F.

    1992-01-01

    A photoperiodically sensitive cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Shabet) (BMDR-8) and an isogenic, single-gene recessive mutant of this genotype that is insensitive to photoperiod (BMDR-1) were grown under continuous cool white light with or without supplemental far-red fluorescent light. BMDR-1 initiates flowers 6 days after germination, irrespective of light treatment, whereas BMDR-8 remains vegetative for at least a week longer, even in continuous light. When far-red light is added, the delay of flowering in BMDR-8 is overcome and both genotypes initiate floral primordia at the same time. Total phenol extracted proteins of seedlings of both genotypes were resolved by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. No protein differences were found between the genotypes when isoelectric focusing gels were run in the first dimension. Two qualitative genotypic differences were found when nonequilibrium pH gradient gel electrophoresis was run in the first dimension. An 85-kilodalton polypeptide (A) and a 26-kilodalton polypeptide (B) were always present in BMDR-8 but never found in BMDR-1. The levels of A appeared to decrease from the BMDR-8 during the first 3 days of far-red treatment but did not disappear completely even after 6 days of growth in the presence of farred. Polypeptide B decreases rapidly in continuous cool white light but is stabilized by far-red. The phytochrome content of BMDR-1 was found to be greater than that for BMDR-8. This increase appears to be caused by the type I (etiolated-tissue abundant) phytochrome pool, even in plants grown in continuous light. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:16668813

  6. Clinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a medical device in various forms containing Triticum vulgare for the treatment of venous leg ulcers - a randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Romanelli, Marco; Macchia, Michela; Panduri, Salvatore; Paggi, Battistino; Saponati, Giorgio; Dini, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the efficacy and tolerability of the topical application of an aqueous extract of Triticum vulgare (TV) in different vehicles (cream, impregnated gauzes, foam, hydrogel, and dressing gel) for the treatment of venous lower leg ulcers. Fifty patients were randomized to receive one of the five investigational vehicles. Treatment was performed up to complete healing or to a maximum of 29 days. The wound size reduction from baseline was the primary efficacy variable, which was measured by means of a noninvasive laser scanner instrument for wound assessment. In all groups, apart from the foam group, a similar trend toward the reduction of the surface area was observed. The cream showed the greatest effect on the mean reduction of the lesion size. At last visit, six ulcers were healed: two in the cream group, three in the gauze group, and one in the dressing gel group. In the patients treated with the cream, the gauzes, the hydrogel, and the dressing gel, the reduction of lesion size was 40%-50%; the reduction was smaller in the foam group. No impact in terms of age on the healing process was found. The Total Symptoms Score decreased in all groups during the study; a greater efficacy in terms of signs/symptoms was observed in the patients treated with the gauzes. In the dressing gel group, one patient had an infection of the wound after 3 weeks of treatment and 2 of colonization, leading to a systemic antibiotic treatment. The events were judged as nonrelated to the device used. On the basis of the results, it could be argued that the medical device may be useful in the treatment of chronic venous ulcers. PMID:26060395

  7. Analysis of Drought-Induced Proteomic and Metabolomic Changes in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Leaves and Roots Unravels Some Aspects of Biochemical Mechanisms Involved in Drought Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Chmielewska, Klaudia; Rodziewicz, Paweł; Swarcewicz, Barbara; Sawikowska, Aneta; Krajewski, Paweł; Marczak, Łukasz; Ciesiołka, Danuta; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Mikołajczak, Krzysztof; Ogrodowicz, Piotr; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Surma, Maria; Adamski, Tadeusz; Bednarek, Paweł; Stobiecki, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    In this study, proteomic and metabolomic changes in leaves and roots of two barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes, with contrasting drought tolerance, subjected to water deficit were investigated. Our two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF/TOF) analyses revealed 121 drought-responsive proteins in leaves and 182 in roots of both genotypes. Many of the identified drought-responsive proteins were associated with processes that are typically severely affected during water deficit, including photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. However, the highest number of identified leaf and root proteins represented general defense mechanisms. In addition, changes in the accumulation of proteins that represent processes formerly unassociated with drought response, e.g., phenylpropanoid metabolism, were also identified. Our tandem gas chromatography - time of flight mass spectrometry (GC/MS TOF) analyses revealed approximately 100 drought-affected low molecular weight compounds representing various metabolite types with amino acids being the most affected metabolite class. We compared the results from proteomic and metabolomic analyses to search for existing relationship between these two levels of molecular organization. We also uncovered organ specificity of the observed changes and revealed differences in the response to water deficit of drought susceptible and tolerant barley lines. Particularly, our results indicated that several of identified proteins and metabolites whose accumulation levels were increased with drought in the analyzed susceptible barley variety revealed elevated constitutive accumulation levels in the drought-resistant line. This may suggest that constitutive biochemical predisposition represents a better drought tolerance mechanism than inducible responses. PMID:27512399

  8. QTLs for straw quality characteristics identified in recombinant inbred lines of a Hordeum vulgare x H. spontaneum cross in a Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Grando, S; Baum, M; Ceccarelli, S; Goodchild, A; El-Haramein, F Jaby; Jahoor, A; Backes, G

    2005-02-01

    Barley straw is commonly used as animal feed in many developing countries. Even a small increase in its nutritive value can have a large impact on animal production, and hence, on rural livelihood and human nutrition. Straw quality is strongly affected by environmental factors and is, therefore, difficult to improve with empirical breeding. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers to facilitate the improvement of straw quality in barley. For this purpose, we have used the genetic linkage map that was already developed for recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the cross between a Hordeum vulgare cultivar ('Arta') and a H. spontaneum line (H. spontaneum 41-1), covering a total of 890 cM. Straw parameters from RILs grown at Tel Hadya and Breda (ICARDA's research stations) in 2 years (1996/1997 and 1997/1998) were analyzed by NIRS for predicted nutritional characteristics including neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin, digestible organic matter in dry matter, voluntary intake, crude protein, and straw morphology (the percentage of blades, sheaths, and stems). Localization of QTLs was performed using Windows QTL Cartographer, version 2.0. Seventy-three QTLs were identified, the majority of which (17) in the driest of the four environments. Only six QTLs were identified in two environments; in five cases, one of the two was the wettest environment. This is discussed in relation to the possibility of improving straw quality in favorable environments where yields are higher, rather than in dry environments where straw quality is already relatively good. PMID:15678328

  9. Comparative kinetics and reciprocal inhibition of nitrate and nitrite uptake in roots of uninduced and induced barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, M.; Travis, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Nitrate and NO2- transport by roots of 8-day-old uninduced and induced intact barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var CM 72) seedlings were compared to kinetic patterns, reciprocal inhibition of the transport systems, and the effect of the inhibitor, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. Net uptake of NO3- and NO2- was measured by following the depletion of the ions from the uptake solutions. The roots of uninduced seedlings possessed a low concentration, saturable, low Km, possibly a constitutive uptake system, and a linear system for both NO3- and NO2-. The low Km system followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and approached saturation between 40 and 100 micromolar, whereas the linear system was detected between 100 and 500 micromolar. In roots of induced seedlings, rates for both NO3- and NO2- uptake followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and approached saturation at about 200 micromolar. In induced roots, two kinetically identifiable transport systems were resolved for each anion. At the lower substrate concentrations, less than 10 micromolar, the apparent low Kms of NO3- and NO2- uptake were 7 and 9 micromolar, respectively, and were similar to those of the low Km system in uninduced roots. At substrate concentrations between 10 and 200 micromolar, the apparent high Km values of NO3- uptake ranged from 34 to 36 micromolar and of NO2- uptake ranged from 41 to 49 micromolar. A linear system was also found in induced seedlings at concentrations above 500 micromolar. Double reciprocal plots indicated that NO3- and NO2- inhibited the uptake of each other competitively in both uninduced and induced seedlings; however, Ki values showed that NO3- was a more effective inhibitor than NO2-. Nitrate and NO2- transport by both the low and high Km systems were greatly inhibited by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, whereas the linear system was only slightly inhibited.

  10. Broadly Conserved Fungal Effector BEC1019 Suppresses Host Cell Death and Enhances Pathogen Virulence in Powdery Mildew of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Whigham, Ehren; Qi, Shan; Mistry, Divya; Surana, Priyanka; Xu, Ruo; Fuerst, Gregory; Pliego, Clara; Bindschedler, Laurence V; Spanu, Pietro D; Dickerson, Julie A; Innes, Roger W; Nettleton, Dan; Bogdanove, Adam J; Wise, Roger P

    2015-09-01

    The interaction of barley, Hordeum vulgare L., with the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei is a well-developed model to investigate resistance and susceptibility to obligate biotrophic pathogens. The 130-Mb Blumeria genome encodes approximately 540 predicted effectors that are hypothesized to suppress or induce host processes to promote colonization. Blumeria effector candidate (BEC)1019, a single-copy gene encoding a putative, secreted metalloprotease, is expressed in haustorial feeding structures, and host-induced gene silencing of BEC1019 restricts haustorial development in compatible interactions. Here, we show that Barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing of BEC1019 significantly reduces fungal colonization of barley epidermal cells, demonstrating that BEC1019 plays a central role in virulence. In addition, delivery of BEC1019 to the host cytoplasm via Xanthomonas type III secretion suppresses cultivar nonspecific hypersensitive reaction (HR) induced by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, as well as cultivar-specific HR induced by AvrPphB from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. BEC1019 homologs are present in 96 of 241 sequenced fungal genomes, including plant pathogens, human pathogens, and free-living nonpathogens. Comparative analysis revealed variation at several amino acid positions that correlate with fungal lifestyle and several highly conserved, noncorrelated motifs. Site-directed mutagenesis of one of these, ETVIC, compromises the HR-suppressing activity of BEC1019. We postulate that BEC1019 represents an ancient, broadly important fungal protein family, members of which have evolved to function as effectors in plant and animal hosts. PMID:25938194

  11. The influence of vernalization and daylength on expression of flowering-time genes in the shoot apex and leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed Central

    Sasani, Shahryar; Hemming, Megan N.; Oliver, Sandra N.; Greenup, Aaron; Tavakkol-Afshari, Reza; Mahfoozi, Siroos; Poustini, Kazem; Sharifi, Hamid-Reza; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James; Trevaskis, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Responses to prolonged low-temperature treatment of imbibed seeds (vernalization) were examined in barley (Hordeum vulgare). These occurred in two phases: the perception of prolonged cold, which occurred gradually at low temperatures, and the acceleration of reproductive development, which occurred after vernalization. Expression of the VERNALIZATION1 gene (HvVRN1) increased gradually in germinating seedlings during vernalization, both at the shoot apex and in the developing leaves. This occurred in darkness, independently of VERNALIZATION2 (HvVRN2), consistent with the hypothesis that expression of HvVRN1 is induced by prolonged cold independently of daylength flowering-response pathways. After vernalization, expression of HvVRN1 was maintained in the shoot apex and leaves. This was associated with accelerated inflorescence initiation and with down-regulation of HvVRN2 in the leaves. The largest determinant of HvVRN1 expression levels in vernalized plants was the length of seed vernalization treatment. Daylength did not influence HvVRN1 expression levels in shoot apices and typically did not affect expression in leaves. In the leaves of plants that had experienced a saturating seed vernalization treatment, expression of HvVRN1 was higher in long days, however. HvFT1 was expressed in the leaves of these plants in long days, which might account for the elevated HvVRN1 expression. Long-day up-regulation of HvVRN1 was not required for inflorescence initiation, but might accelerate subsequent stages of inflorescence development. Similar responses to seed vernalization were also observed in wheat (Triticum aestivum). These data support the hypothesis that VRN1 is induced by cold during winter to promote spring flowering in vernalization-responsive cereals. PMID:19357429

  12. Analysis of inhibition of photosynthesis due to water stress in the C3 species Hordeum vulgare and Vicia faba: Electron transport, CO 2 fixation and carboxylation capacity.

    PubMed

    Lal, A; Ku, M S; Edwards, G E

    1996-07-01

    A C3 monocot, Hordeum vulgare and C3 dicot, Vicia faba, were studied to evaluate the mechanism of inhibition of photosynthesis due to water stress. The net rate of CO2 fixation (A) and transpiration (E) were measured by gas exchange, while the true rate of O2 evolution (J O2) was calculated from chlorophyll fluorescence analysis through the stress cycle (10 to 11 days). With the development of water stress, the decrease in A was more pronounced than the decrease in J O2 resulting in an increased ratio of Photosystem II activity per CO2 fixed which is indicative of an increase in photorespiration due to a decrease in supply of CO2 to Rubisco. Analyses of changes in the J O2 A ratios versus that of CO2 limited photosynthesis in well watered plants, and RuBP pool/RuBP binding sites on Rubisco and RuBP activity, indicate a decreased supply of CO2 to Rubisco under both mild and severe stress is primarily responsible for the decrease in CO2 fixation. In the early stages of stress, the decrease in C i (intercellular CO2) due to stomatal closure can account for the decrease in photosynthesis. Under more severe stress, CO2 supply to Rubisco, calculated from analysis of electron flow and CO2 exchange, continued to decrease. However, C i, calculated from analysis of transpiration and CO2 exchange, either remained constant or increased which may be due to either a decrease in mesophyll conductance or an overestimation of C i by this method due to patchiness in conductance of CO2 to the intercellular space. When plants were rewatered after photosynthesis had dropped to 10-30% of the original rate, both species showed near full recovery within two to four days. PMID:24271534

  13. Characterization of a group of pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent dehydrogenases that are involved in the conversion of L-sorbose to 2-Keto-L-gulonic acid in Ketogulonicigenium vulgare WSH-001.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lili; Du, Guocheng; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian; Liu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Ketogulonicigenium vulgare WSH-001 is an industrial strain used for vitamin C production. Based on genome sequencing and pathway analysis of the bacterium, some of its potential pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent dehydrogenases were predicted, including KVU_pmdA_0245, KVU_2142, KVU_2159, KVU_1366, KVU_0203, KVU_0095, and KVU_pmdB_0115. BLAST and function domain searches showed that enzymes encoded by these genes may act as putative PQQ-dependent L-sorbose dehydrogenases (SDH) or L-sorbosone dehydrogenases (SNDH). To validate whether these dehydrogenases are PQQ-dependent or not, these seven putative dehyrogenases were overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified for characterization. Biochemical and kinetic characterization of the purified proteins have led to the identification of seven enzymes that possess the ability to oxidize L-sorbose or L-sorbosone to varying degrees. In addition, the dehydrogenation of sorbose in K. vulgare is validated to be PQQ dependent, identification of these PQQ-dependent dehydrogenases expanded the PQQ-dependent dehydrogenase family. Besides, the optimal combination of enzymes that could more efficiently catalyze the conversion of sorbose to gulonic acid was proposed. These are important in supporting the development of metabolic engineering strategies and engineering of efficient strains for one-step production of vitamin C in the future. PMID:23970495

  14. Molecular size and net charge of pathogenesis-related enzymes from barley (Hordeum vulgare L., v. Karat) infected with Drechslera teres f. teres (Sacch.) Shoem.

    PubMed

    Rothe, G M; Welschbillig, N; Reiss, E

    1998-05-01

    Molecular size and net charge of isoforms of pathogenesis-related (PR) chitinase, beta-1,3-glucanase and peroxidase were studied in uninfected barley (Hordeum vulgare L., v. Karat) leaves and in barley leaves infected with the pathogenic fungus Drechslera teres f. teres (Sacch.) Shoem. Molecular characteristics were determined by time-dependent polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis under native conditions and by applying an extended version of the computer program MOL-MASS (Rothe, G. M., Weidmann, H., Electrophoresis 1991, 12, 703-709). Uninfected barley leaves contained predominantly one peroxidase isozyme but also three very weak peroxidases. Activities of all of these three peroxidases increased considerably after infection with Drechslera teres. The molecular masses of peroxidases 1 and 3 were estimated to be 38 +/- 5 and 42 +/- 7 kDa and their apparent valences at pH 8.4 were Z = 3.13 and 3.20, respectively. Amongst the chitinase isoforms, chitinase 1 and chitinase 2 appeared after infection, while chitinase 3 was also observed in uninfected leaves of barley. The molecular mass of chitinase 3 (31 +/- 6 kDa; f/fo = 1.20) was larger than that of chitinase 1 (20 +/- 2 kDa; f/fo = 1.04) and chitinase 2 (23 +/- 3 kDa; f/fo = 1.06). The valence of constitutive chitinase 3 (Z = 1.44 +/- 0.81) at pH 8.4 was lower than that of adaptive chitinase 1 (Z = 3.27 +/- 1.02) and chitinase 2 (Z = 2.96 +/- 1.38). Infection of barley leaves with Drechslera teres also induced the hydrolytic enzyme beta-1,3-glucanase 1; beta-1,3-glucanase 2 appeared in uninfected and in infected leaves. Constitutive beta-1,3-glucanase 2 was smaller (molecular mass 19 +/- kDa; f/fo = 1.05) than adaptive beta-1,3-glucanase 1 (molecular mass 26 +/- 4 kDa; f/fo = 1.07). The valence of adaptive beta-1,3-glucanase 1 (Z = 9.58 +/- 4.17) was approximately threefold that of beta-1,3-glucanase 2 (Z = 2.80 +/- 0.93). PMID:9629909

  15. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants

    PubMed Central

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A. M.; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant–plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar ‘Alva’ cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar ‘Kara’. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant–plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant–plant signalling between ‘Alva’ and ‘Kara’. Methods The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by ‘Alva’ under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ‘Kara’ plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the ‘Alva’ plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for ‘Kara’ plants exposed to ‘Alva’ VOCs, and also for ‘Alva’ plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Key Results Total VOC emissions by ‘Alva’ were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by ‘Alva’ plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of ‘Kara’. Conclusions The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions

  16. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cultivated oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Fournomiti, Maria; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Mantzourani, Ioanna; Plessas, Stavros; Theodoridou, Irene; Papaemmanouil, Virginia; Kapsiotis, Ioannis; Panopoulou, Maria; Stavropoulou, Elisavet; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia E.; Alexopoulos, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    Background Oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) are aromatic plants with ornamental, culinary, and phytotherapeutic use all over the world. In Europe, they are traditionally used in the southern countries, particularly in the Mediterranean region. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils (EOs) derived from those plants have captured the attention of scientists as they could be used as alternatives to the increasing resistance of traditional antibiotics against pathogen infections. Therefore, significant interest in the cultivation of various aromatic and medicinal plants is recorded during the last years. However, to gain a proper and marketable chemotype various factors during the cultivation should be considered as the geographical morphology, climatic, and farming conditions. In this frame, we have studied the antimicrobial efficiency of the EOs from oregano, sage, and thyme cultivated under different conditions in a region of NE Greece in comparison to the data available in literature. Methods Plants were purchased from a certified supplier, planted, and cultivated in an experimental field under different conditions and harvested after 9 months. EOs were extracted by using a Clevenger apparatus and tested for their antibacterial properties (Minimum inhibitory concentration – MIC) against clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli (n=27), Klebsiella oxytoca (n=7), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=16) strains by using the broth microdilution assay. Results Our results showed that the most sensitive organism was K. oxytoca with a mean value of MIC of 0.9 µg/mL for oregano EOs and 8.1 µg/mL for thyme. The second most sensitive strain was K. pneumoniae with mean MIC values of 9.5 µg/mL for thyme and 73.5 µg/mL for oregano EOs. E. coli strains were among the most resistant to EOs antimicrobial action as the observed MICs were 24.8–28.6 µg/mL for thyme and above 125 µg/mL for thyme and sage

  17. Effects of Medicinal herb Extracts and their Components on Steatogenic Hepatotoxicity in Sk-hep1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, You-Jin; Yoon, Yujin; Choi, Ho-Sung; Park, Sora; Oh, Sehee; Jeong, Se-Mi; Suh, Hyo-Ryung; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2011-12-01

    Herbal medicines are widely used in many countries for the treatment of many diseases. Although the use of herb extracts as alternative medicine is growing, their toxicological properties have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we have investigated the effects of water and ethanol extracts of 18 herbs on the hepatic lipid metabolism and steatogenic hepatotoxicity. Ethanol extracts of Cirsium japonicum, Carthamus tinctorius, Rehmanniae glutinosa (preparata), Polygala tenuifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Polygonum multiflorum, and Acorus gramineus and water extracts of Polygonum multiflorum and Rehmanniae glutinosa induced lipid accumulation in Sk-hep1 human hepatoma cells as determined by Nile red staining. These extracts increased the luciferase activity of sterol regulatory element (SRE) and decreased that of peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE), indicating the possibilities of enhanced fatty acid synthesis and decreased fatty acid oxidation. To identify the components responsible for the fat accumulation, we tested 50 chemicals isolated from the nine herbs. Apigenin, luteolin, pectolinarin and lupeol from Cirsium japonicum, 8-methoxypsoralen and umbelliferone from Foeniculum vulgare and pomonic acid and jiocerebroside from Rehmanniae glutinosa significantly increased the accumulation of lipid droplets. These results suggest that ethanol extracts of Cirsium japonicum, Carthamus tinctorius, Rehmanniae glutinosa (preparata), Polygala tenuifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Polygonum multiflorum, and Acorus gramineus and water extracts of Polygonum multiflorum and Rehmanniae glutinosa can cause fatty liver disease by decreasing β-oxidation of fatty acid and increasing lipogenesis. PMID:24278574

  18. Mechanism-based inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 by Indonesian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Subehan; Usia, Tepy; Iwata, Hiroshi; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2006-05-24

    Thirty samples of Indonesian medicinal plants were tested for their mechanism-based inhibition on cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and CYP2D6 via erythromycin N-demethylation and dextromethorphan O-demethylation activities in human liver microsomes. From screening with 0 and 20min preincubation at 0.5mg/ml of methanol extracts, five plants (Cinnamomum burmani bark, Foeniculum vulgare seed, Strychnos ligustrina wood, Tinospora crispa stem, and Zingiber cassumunar rhizome) showed more than 30% increase of CYP3A4 inhibition, while three (Alpinia galanga rhizome, Melaleuca leucadendron leaf, and Piper nigrum fruit) showed more than 30% increase of CYP2D6 inhibition. In these eight plants, Foeniculum vulgare seed, Cinnamomum burmani bark, and Strychnos ligustrina wood showed time-dependent inhibition on CYP3A4 and Piper nigrum fruit and Melaleuca leucadendron leaf on CYP2D6. Among these, four plants other than Melaleuca leucadendron revealed NADPH-dependent inhibition. Thus, Foeniculum vulgare, Cinnamomum burmani, and Strychnos ligustrina should contain mechanism-based inhibitors on CYP3A4 and Piper nigrum contain that on CYP2D6. PMID:16414224

  19. Tracking and identification of antibacterial components in the essential oil of Tanacetum vulgare L. by the combination of high-performance thin-layer chromatography with direct bioautography and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Móricz, Ágnes M; Häbe, Tim T; Böszörményi, Andrea; Ott, Péter G; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2015-11-27

    Two tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) essential oils were obtained by steam distillation of the capitula with subsequent liquid-liquid extraction (oil 1) or with use of an auxiliary phase for the trapping of the steam components (oil 2). These oils were investigated against Bacillus subtilis F1276, B. subtilis spizizenii (DSM 618), Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola, Ralstonia solanacearum strain GMI1000 and Aliivibrio fischeri, using the coupling of high-performance thin-layer chromatography to direct bioautography (HPTLC-DB). Using this method with the potato and tomato pathogen R. solanacearum is shown for the first time. Due to the advanced extraction process, oil 2 was richer in components and provided more inhibition zones. The main bioactive components were identified by scanning HPTLC-Direct Analysis in Real Time mass spectrometry (HPTLC-DART-MS) and solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography electron impact MS (SPME-GC-EI-MS) as cis- and trans-chrysanthenol as well as trans-chrysanthenyl acetate. cis-Chrysanthenol exhibited antibacterial effects against all tested bacteria, whereas trans-chrysanthenol inhibited B. subtilis, R. solanacearum and A. fischeri. trans-Chrysanthenyl acetate was an inhibitor for X. euvesicatoria, R. solanacearum and A. fischeri. Although HPTLC-DART-MS resulted in a comparable fragmentation, the ionization characteristics and the recorded mass spectra clearly showed that DART is a softer ionization technique than EI. It is also more affected by ambient conditions and thus prone to additional oxidation products. PMID:26499972

  20. 1H, 13C, 15N backbone and side chain NMR resonance assignments for the N-terminal RNA recognition motif of the HvGR-RBP1 protein involved in the regulation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) senescence

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Katelyn E.; Tripet, Brian P.; Parrott, David; Fischer, Andreas M.; Copié, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    Leaf senescence is an important process in the developmental life of all plant species. Senescence efficiency influences important agricultural traits such as grain protein content and plant growth, which are often limited by nitrogen use. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating this highly orchestrated process. To enhance our understanding of leaf senescence and its regulation, we have undertaken the structural and functional characterization of previously unknown proteins that are involved in the control of senescence in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Previous microarray analysis highlighted several barley genes whose transcripts are differentially expressed during senescence, including a specific gene which is greater than 40 fold up-regulated in the flag leaves of early- as compared to late-senescing near-isogenic barley lines at 14 and 21 days past flowering (anthesis). From inspection of its amino acid sequence, this gene is predicted to encode a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein herein referred to as HvGR-RBP1. HvGR-RBP1 has been expressed as a recombinant protein in E. coli, and preliminary NMR data analysis has revealed that its glycine-rich C-terminal region [residues: 93–162] is structurally disordered whereas its N-terminal region [residues: 1–92] forms a well-folded domain. Herein, we report the complete 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments of backbone and sidechain atoms, and the secondary structural topology of the N-terminal RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) domain of HvGR-RBP1, as a first step to unraveling its structural and functional role in the regulation of barley leaf senescence. PMID:23417794

  1. Quantitative parameters and ecological implications of a specialized tritrophic interaction involving a seed-feeding tortricid, Pseudargyrotoza conwagana, a braconid parasitoid, Bracon otiosus, and the wild privet, Ligustrum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Ángel; Falcó, José Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about tritrophic interactions involving seed-feeding insects, parasitoid wasps, and wild fleshy fruits. Here, we examine relationships between Pseudargyrotoza conwagana (F.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), Bracon otiosus Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), and the wild privet, Ligustrum vulgare L. (Lamiales: Oleaceae), after collecting fruits in a hedgerow habitat in northwest Spain and rearing insects indoors. No other insect species was detected in this trophic system. Each fruit contained one to four seeds, each infested fruit contained only one seed-feeding tortricid caterpillar, and each parasitized caterpillar was affected by a single braconid individual, i.e., B. otiosus was a solitary parasitoid. Almost half of the wild privet shrubs were infested by P. conwagana, and infestation ranged from 2 to 32% of fruits per infested shrub. The general effect of P.conwagana on wild privet dispersal can be considered low, as the overall rate of seed infestation was low (6% of seeds). The infestation rate was higher in wild privet shrubs with a larger number of seeds per fruit, and tortricid caterpillars that left the fruits successfully ate >80% of seeds. In total, the parasitism rate was moderate (25% of caterpillars), but varied considerably (0‒75%) among shrubs where P. conwagana infestation was detected. Parasitism only occurred in shrubs showing high infestation rates (19‒32% infested fruits), i.e., with high host densities; however, the parasitism rate was density-independent in these shrubs. The wild privets benefited from the action of B. otiosus in two ways: the tortricid caterpillar population was partly eliminated, and the caterpillars were prevented from eating more than one seed per fruit. The B. otiosus sex ratio was very balanced (1 male to 1.18 females). Winter diapause and protandry were prevalent in B. otiosus. PMID:25368072

  2. Clinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a medical device in various forms containing Triticum vulgare for the treatment of venous leg ulcers – a randomized pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Romanelli, Marco; Macchia, Michela; Panduri, Salvatore; Paggi, Battistino; Saponati, Giorgio; Dini, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the efficacy and tolerability of the topical application of an aqueous extract of Triticum vulgare (TV) in different vehicles (cream, impregnated gauzes, foam, hydrogel, and dressing gel) for the treatment of venous lower leg ulcers. Fifty patients were randomized to receive one of the five investigational vehicles. Treatment was performed up to complete healing or to a maximum of 29 days. The wound size reduction from baseline was the primary efficacy variable, which was measured by means of a noninvasive laser scanner instrument for wound assessment. In all groups, apart from the foam group, a similar trend toward the reduction of the surface area was observed. The cream showed the greatest effect on the mean reduction of the lesion size. At last visit, six ulcers were healed: two in the cream group, three in the gauze group, and one in the dressing gel group. In the patients treated with the cream, the gauzes, the hydrogel, and the dressing gel, the reduction of lesion size was 40%–50%; the reduction was smaller in the foam group. No impact in terms of age on the healing process was found. The Total Symptoms Score decreased in all groups during the study; a greater efficacy in terms of signs/symptoms was observed in the patients treated with the gauzes. In the dressing gel group, one patient had an infection of the wound after 3 weeks of treatment and 2 of colonization, leading to a systemic antibiotic treatment. The events were judged as nonrelated to the device used. On the basis of the results, it could be argued that the medical device may be useful in the treatment of chronic venous ulcers. PMID:26060395

  3. Quantitative Parameters and Ecological Implications of a Specialized Tritrophic Interaction Involving a Seed-Feeding Tortricid, Pseudargyrotoza conwagana, a Braconid Parasitoid, Bracon otiosus, and the Wild Privet, Ligustrum vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Ángel; Falcó, José Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about tritrophic interactions involving seed-feeding insects, parasitoid wasps, and wild fleshy fruits. Here, we examine relationships between Pseudargyrotoza conwagana (F.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), Bracon otiosus Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), and the wild privet, Ligustrum vulgare L. (Lamiales: Oleaceae), after collecting fruits in a hedgerow habitat in northwest Spain and rearing insects indoors. No other insect species was detected in this trophic system. Each fruit contained one to four seeds, each infested fruit contained only one seedfeeding tortricid caterpillar, and each parasitized caterpillar was affected by a single braconid individual, i.e., B. otiosus was a solitary parasitoid. Almost half of the wild privet shrubs were infested by P. conwagana, and infestation ranged from 2 to 32% of fruits per infested shrub. The general effect of P.conwagana on wild privet dispersal can be considered low, as the overall rate of seed infestation was low (6% of seeds). The infestation rate was higher in wild privet shrubs with a larger number of seeds per fruit, and tortricid caterpillars that left the fruits successfully ate >80% of seeds. In total, the parasitism rate was moderate (25% of caterpillars), but varied considerably (0–75%) among shrubs where P. conwagana infestation was detected. Parasitism only occurred in shrubs showing high infestation rates (19–32% infested fruits), i.e., with high host densities; however, the parasitism rate was densityindependent in these shrubs. The wild privets benefited from the action of B. otiosus in two ways: the tortricid caterpillar population was partly eliminated, and the caterpillars were prevented from eating more than one seed per fruit. The B. otiosus sex ratio was very balanced (1 male to 1.18 females). Winter diapause and protandry were prevalent in B. otiosus. PMID:25368072

  4. Crystallisation of wild-type and variant forms of a recombinant plant enzyme β-D-glucan glucohydrolase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and preliminary X-ray analysis.

    PubMed

    Luang, Sukanya; Ketudat Cairns, James R; Streltsov, Victor A; Hrmova, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Wild-type and variant crystals of a recombinant enzyme beta-d-glucan glucohydrolase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were obtained by macroseeding and cross-seeding with microcrystals obtained from native plant protein. Crystals grew to dimensions of up to 500 x 250 x 375 mum at 277 K in the hanging-drops by vapour-diffusion. Further, the conditions are described that yielded the wild-type crystals with dimensions of 80 x 40 x 60 mum by self-nucleation vapour-diffusion in sitting-drops at 281 K. The wild-type and recombinant crystals prepared by seeding techniques achived full size within 5-14 days, while the wild-type crystals grown by self-nucleation appeared after 30 days and reached their maximum size after another two months. Both the wild-type and recombinant variant crystals, the latter altered in the key catalytic and substrate-binding residues Glu220, Trp434 and Arg158/Glu161 belonged to the P4(3)2(1)2 tetragonal space group, i.e., the space group of the native microcrystals was retained in the newly grown recombinant crystals. The crystals diffracted beyond 1.57-1.95 A and the cell dimensions were between a = b = 99.2-100.8 A and c = 183.2-183.6 A. With one molecule in the asymmetric unit, the calculated Matthews coefficients were between 3.4-3.5 A(3).Da(-1) and the solvent contents varied between 63.4% and 64.5%. The macroseeding and cross-seeding techniques are advantageous, where a limited amount of variant proteins precludes screening of crystallisation conditions, or where variant proteins could not be crystallized. PMID:20717535

  5. Downregulation of a barley (Hordeum vulgare) leucine-rich repeat, non-arginine-aspartate receptor-like protein kinase reduces expression of numerous genes involved in plant pathogen defense.

    PubMed

    Parrott, David L; Huang, Li; Fischer, Andreas M

    2016-03-01

    Pattern recognition receptors represent a first line of plant defense against pathogens. Comparing the flag leaf transcriptomes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) near-isogenic lines varying in the allelic state of a locus controlling senescence, we have previously identified a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase gene (LRR-RLK; GenBank accession: AK249842), which was strongly upregulated in leaves of early-as compared to late-senescing germplasm. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that this gene codes for a subfamily XII, non-arginine-aspartate (non-RD) LRR-RLK. Virus-induced gene silencing resulted in a two-fold reduction of transcript levels as compared to controls. Transcriptomic comparison of leaves from untreated plants, from plants treated with virus only without any plant sequences (referred to as 'empty virus' control), and from plants in which AK249842 expression was knocked down identified numerous genes involved in pathogen defense. These genes were strongly induced in 'empty virus' as compared to untreated controls, but their expression was significantly reduced (again compared to 'empty virus' controls) when AK249842 was knocked down, indicating that their expression partially depends on the LRR-RLK investigated here. Expression analysis, using datasets from BarleyBase/PLEXdb, demonstrated that AK249842 transcript levels are heavily influenced by the allelic state of the well-characterized mildew resistance a (Mla) locus, and that the gene is induced after powdery mildew and stem rust infection. Together, our data suggest that AK249842 is a barley pattern recognition receptor with a tentative role in defense against fungal pathogens, setting the stage for its full functional characterization. PMID:26820571

  6. Protein quality in cereals and pulses. 1. Application of microbiological and other in vitro methods in the evaluation of rice (Oryza sativa L.), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.), barley and field beans (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Ford, J E; Hewitt, D

    1979-03-01

    1. The Streptococcus zymogenes assay procedure was modified and used in the estimation of available methionine and relative nutritional value in rice (Oryza sativa L.), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.), barley and field beans (Vicia faba L.). The results were assessed in relation to the content of tannins and 'dye-binding lysine', and to published information on the nutritional quality of some of the test samples. 2. In grain of ten varieties of sorghum, for which other workers had reported a correlation (r -0.82; P less than 0.01) between tannin content and amino acid digestibility in chicks, the available methionine content ranged from 6.3 to 17.7 g/kg protein (nitrogen x 6.25) and was highly correlated with tannin content (r -0.97; P less than 0.001). The content of total methionine and dye-binding lysine varied little between varieties and was not related to tannin content. 3. In nine samples of rice the availability of methionine was uniformly high, in accordance with literature values for true digestibility of the N. 4. In field beans the presence of tammins in the seed coat was associated with a significant (P less than 0.001) reduction in the availability of methionine. In eleven tannin-free varieties the coefficient of availability averaged 0.791, compared with 0.685 in eleven tannin-containing varieties. The standard deviation associated with both values was 0.04. There was no such difference between the corresponding dye-binding lysine values. 5. Thirty-three samples of barley were examined, representing fourteen varieties, four of which had been grown at several widely different latitudes in England and Sweden. There was little difference in methionine content between samples. The average availability coefficient for eighteen samples grown in England was 0.995+/-0.044, and for fifteen varieties grown in Sweden it was 0.851+/-0.042. The difference was not associated with any difference in tannin content, which was uniformly low. The findings contradict

  7. Hydrolysis of (1,4)-β-D-mannans in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is mediated by the concerted action of (1,4)-β-D-mannan endohydrolase and β-D-mannosidase

    PubMed Central

    Hrmova, Maria; Burton, Rachel A.; Biely, Peter; Lahnstein, Jelle; Fincher, Geoffrey B.

    2006-01-01

    A family GH5 (family 5 glycoside hydrolase) (1,4)-β-D-mannan endohydrolase or β-D-mannanase (EC 3.2.1.78), designated HvMAN1, has been purified 300-fold from extracts of 10-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings using ammonium sulfate fractional precipitation, followed by ion exchange, hydrophobic interaction and size-exclusion chromatography. The purified HvMAN1 is a relatively unstable enzyme with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa, a pI of 7.8 and a pH optimum of 4.75. The HvMAN1 releases Man (mannose or D-mannopyranose)-containing oligosaccharides of degree of polymerization 2–6 from mannans, galactomannans and glucomannans. With locust-bean galactomannan and mannopentaitol as substrates, the enzyme has Km constants of 0.16 mg·ml−1 and 5.3 mM and kcat constants of 12.9 and 3.9 s−1 respectively. Product analyses indicate that transglycosylation reactions occur during hydrolysis of (1,4)-β-D-manno-oligosaccharides. The complete sequence of 374 amino acid residues of the mature enzyme has been deduced from the nucleotide sequence of a near full-length cDNA, and has allowed a three-dimensional model of the HvMAN1 to be constructed. The barley HvMAN1 gene is a member of a small (1,4)-β-D-mannan endohydrolase family of at least six genes, and is transcribed at low levels in a number of organs, including the developing endosperm, but also in the basal region of young roots and in leaf tips. A second barley enzyme that participates in mannan depolymerization through its ability to hydrolyse (1,4)-β-D-manno-oligosaccharides to Man is a family GH1 β-D-mannosidase, now designated HvβMANNOS1, but previously identified as a β-D-glucosidase [Hrmova, MacGregor, Biely, Stewart and Fincher (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 11134–11143], which hydrolyses 4NP (4-nitrophenyl) β-D-mannoside three times faster than 4NP β-D-glucoside, and has an action pattern typical of a (1,4)-β-D-mannan exohydrolase. PMID:16771710

  8. Aromatic plant-derived essential oil: an alternative larvicide for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Pitasawat, B; Champakaew, D; Choochote, W; Jitpakdi, A; Chaithong, U; Kanjanapothi, D; Rattanachanpichai, E; Tippawangkosol, P; Riyong, D; Tuetun, B; Chaiyasit, D

    2007-04-01

    Five aromatic plants, Carum carvi (caraway), Apium graveolens (celery), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Zanthoxylum limonella (mullilam) and Curcuma zedoaria (zedoary) were selected for investigating larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors. Two laboratory-reared mosquito species, Anopheles dirus, the major malaria vector in Thailand, and Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in urban areas, were used. All of the volatile oils exerted significant larvicidal activity against the two mosquito species after 24-h exposure. Essential oil from mullilam was the most effective against the larvae of A. aegypti, while A. dirus larvae showed the highest susceptibility to zedoary oil. PMID:17337133

  9. Assessment of the use potential of edible sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus) processing waste within the agricultural system: influence on soil chemical and biological properties and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum vulgare) growth in an amended acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Garau, Giovanni; Castaldi, Paola; Deiana, Salvatore; Campus, Paolo; Mazza, Antonio; Deiana, Pietrino; Pais, Antonio

    2012-10-30

    In this study we evaluated the influence of ground purple sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) endoskeletons, a processing waste common to all edible sea urchin plants, on the chemical, biochemical and microbiological features of an acidic (pH 5.65) sandy-loam soil. The purple sea urchin endoskeletons were characterized by a high content of total carbonates (∼94%), a moderately alkaline pH in water (pH 7.88) and electrical conductivity values (3.55 mS/cm) very similar to those of commercial lime. To evaluate the influence of the P. lividus endoskeletons on soil properties four different amendment rates were tested, notably 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0% based on soil dry weight, and the effects compared with those recorded on unamended control soil. The addition of the purple sea urchin processing waste caused an immediate and significant pH increase which was positively related to the rate of the amendment addition. After a six months equilibration period, the differences in soil pH were still evident and significant increases of electrical conductivity and available phosphorus were also detected in soils with the higher amendment rates. The number of heterotrophic and cellulolytic bacteria and actinomycetes significantly increased after amendment addition while the number of culturable fungi steadily declined. The analysis of the Biolog Community Level Physiological Profile indicated a clear influence of the purple sea urchin processing waste on the structure of the native microbial community while a significant increase of microbial functionality (i.e. dehydrogenase activity) was recorded in soil treated with the higher amendment rates (i.e. 3.0 and 5.0%). The improvement of microbial abundance and functionality as well as the change of the microbial community structure were ascribed to the pH shift induced by the P. lividus processing waste. To investigate possible effects on soil fertility, dwarf bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum vulgare) growth were also

  10. Inhibitory effects of various essential oils and individual components against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae and their chemical compositions.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Ozcelik, Berrin; Kan, Yüksel; Kartal, Murat

    2011-10-01

    In the current study, in vitro inhibitory activity of several essential oils obtained from the cultivated plants, Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha piperita and M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, O. onites, O. vulgare, Satureja cuneifolia, and a number of individual essential oil components of terpene and aromatic types were screened against 10 isolated strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzyme, which makes this microorganism quite resistant against the antibiotics: trimetoprime-sulfametoksazol, sulbactam-ampicilin, clavulonate-amoxicilin, ceftriaxon, cefepime, imipenem, ceftazidime, tobramicine, gentamisine, ofloxacin, and ciprofloksasin. All of the essential oils and the components exerted a remarkable inhibition ranging between 32 and 64 μg/mL against all of these strains as strong as the references (ampicilin and oflaxocin) inhibiting at 32 μg/mL. Besides, chemical compositions of the essential oils were elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oils and the pure components widely found in essential oils screened herein have shown remarkable inhibition against ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae strains, which leads to the suggestion that they may be used as food preservatives for this purpose. Practical Application:  The essential oils obtained from Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha piperita and M. spicata, O.cimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, O. onites, O. vulgare, and Satureja cuneifolia as well as common essential oil components have shown notable inhibitory effects against 10 isolated strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzyme and they might be used as food preservative or ingredient. PMID:22417594

  11. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production: a potential source of botanical food preservative

    PubMed Central

    Gemeda, Negero; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production. Method In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Results Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5 336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations. Conclusions In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi. PMID:25183114

  12. A study of antioxidant activity, enzymatic inhibition and in vitro toxicity of selected traditional sudanese plants with anti-diabetic potential

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease with life-threatening complications. Despite the enormous progress in conventional medicine and pharmaceutical industry, herbal-based medicines are still a common practice for the treatment of diabetes. This study evaluated ethanolic and aqueous extracts of selected Sudanese plants that are traditionally used to treat diabetes. Methods Extraction was carried out according to method described by Sukhdev et. al. and the extracts were tested for their glycogen phosphorylase inhibition, Brine shrimp lethality and antioxidant activity using (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and iron chelating activity. Extracts prepared from the leaves of Ambrosia maritima, fruits of Foeniculum vulgare and Ammi visnaga, exudates of Acacia Senegal, and seeds of Sesamum indicum and Nigella sativa. Results Nigella sativa ethanolic extract showed no toxicity on Brine shrimp Lethality Test, while its aqueous extract was toxic. All other extracts were highly toxic and ethanolic extracts of Foeniculum vulgare exhibited the highest toxicity. All plant extracts with exception of Acacia senegal revealed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Conclusions These results highly agree with the ethnobotanical uses of these plants as antidiabetic. This study endorses further studies on plants investigated, to determine their potential for type 2 diabetes management. Moreover isolation and identification of active compounds are highly recommended. PMID:24885334

  13. Pimpinella anisum in modifying the quality of life in patients with functional dyspepsia: A double-blind randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshegir, S. Ashraffodin; Mazaheri, Mohammad; Ghannadi, Alireza; Feizi, Awat; Babaeian, Mahmoud; Tanhaee, Maryam; Karimi, Mehrdad; Adibi, Peyman

    2014-01-01

    Background: We aimed to assess the effects of anise on quality of life (QOL) of patients with functional dyspepsia (FD) in a double-blind randomized clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Of 180 patients attending the gastroenterology clinic, 107 ones with the diagnosis of postprandial distress syndrome according to Rome III criteria were enrolled. They were randomized into two groups, anise and placebo. Anise group involved 47 patients and received anise powders, 3 g after each meal (3 times/day) for 4 weeks. Control group had 60 patients who received placebo powders (cornstarch), 3 g after each meal (3 times/day) for 4 weeks. The QOL was assessed by short-form (SF)-36 questionnaire. Mean scores of eight health domains of the two groups were compared at baseline and at the end of study. Results: The age, sex, body mass index, smoking history, tea and coffee drinking patterns of the two groups were not significantly different. All domains of SF-36 were similar between the two groups at baseline but were significantly different at week 12. At baseline, mean score of physical component summary was 159 in placebo group and 167 in anise group (P = 0.1). At week 12, the score was 141 in placebo group and 251 in anise group (P = 0.0001). Mean baseline score of mental component summary was 172 and 165 in placebo and anise groups, respectively (P = 0.1). At week 12, the score was 135 in placebo group and 233 in anise group (P = 0.0001). Conclusion: The current study revealed the effectiveness of anise in improvement of QOL in patients with FD. PMID:25709650

  14. Application of 2D-HPLC/taste dilution analysis on taste compounds in aniseed (Pimpinella anisum L.).

    PubMed

    Pickrahn, Stephen; Sebald, Karin; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-09-24

    This is the first application of fully automated, preparative, two-dimensional HPLC combined with sensory analysis for taste compound discovery using a sweet and licorice-like bitter-tasting aniseed extract as an example. Compared to the traditional iterative fractionation of food extracts by sensory-guided sequential application of separation techniques, the fully automated 2D-HPLC allowed the comprehensive separation of the aniseed extract into 256 subfractions and reduced the fractionation time from about 1 week to <1day. Using a smart sensory strategy to locate high-impact fractions, e.g., by evaluating first-dimension fractions by reconstituting them from second-dimension subfractions, followed by straightforward application of the taste dilution analysis on the individual second-dimension subfractions revealed the sweet-tasting trans-anethole and the bitter-tasting trans-pseudoisoeugenol 2-methylbutyrate, showing recognition thresholds of 70 and 68 μmol/L, respectively, as the primary orosensory active compounds in aniseed. 2D-HPLC combined with smart sensory analysis seems to be a promising strategy to speed the discovery of the key players imparting the attractive taste of foods. PMID:25186288

  15. In Vitro Activity of Twenty Commercially Available, Plant-Derived Essential Oils against Selected Dermatophyte Species.

    PubMed

    Nardoni, Simona; Giovanelli, Silvia; Pistelli, Luisa; Mugnaini, Linda; Profili, Greta; Pisseri, Francesca; Mancianti, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    The in vitro activity of twenty chemically defined essential oils (EOs) obtained from Boswellia sacra, Citrus bergamia, C. limon, C. medica, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Eucalyptus globulus, Foeniculum vulgare, Helichrysum italicum, Illicium verum, Litsea cubeba, Mentha spicata, Myrtus communis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, O. vulgare, Pelargonium graveolens, Rosmarinus officinalis, Santalum album, Satureja montana, and Thymus serpyllum was assayed against clinical animal isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. erinacei, T. terrestre and Microsporum gypseum, main causative agents of zoonotic and/or environmental dermatophytoses in humans. Single main components present in high amounts in such EOs were also tested. Different dermatophyte species showed remarkable differences in sensitivity. In general, more effective EOs were T. serpyllum (MIC range 0.025%-0.25%), O. vulgare (MIC range 0.025%-0.5%) and L. cubeba (MIC range 0.025%-1.5%). F. vulgare showed a moderate efficacy against geophilic species such as M gypseum and T terrestre. Among single main components tested, neral was the most active (MIC and MFC values 5 0.25%). The results of the present study seem to be promising for an in vivo use of some assayed EOs. PMID:26434145

  16. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils of Apiaceae Plants against Malaria Vector, Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Sedaghat, MM; Dehkordi, A Sanei; Abai, MR; Khanavi, M; Mohtarami, F; Abadi, Y Salim; Rafi, F; Vatandoost, H

    2011-01-01

    Background: Plant extracts and oils may act as alternatives to conventional pesticides for malaria vector control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oils of three plants of Apiaceae family against Anopheles stephensi, the main malaria vector in Iran. Methods: Essential oils from Heracleum persicum, Foeniculum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum seeds were hydro distillated, then their larvicidal activity were evaluated against laboratory-reared larvae of An. stephensi according to standard method of WHO. After susceptibility test, results were analysis using Probit program. Results: Essential oils were separated from H. persicum, F. vulgare and C. sativum plants and their larvicidal activities were tested. Result of this study showed that F. vulgare oil was the most effective against An. stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 20.10 and 44.51 ppm, respectively. Conclusion: All three plants essential oil can serve as a natural larvicide against An. stephensi. F. vulgare oil exhibited more larvicidal properties. PMID:22808418

  17. Antibacterial activity of essential oils, their blends and mixtures of their main constituents against some strains supporting livestock mastitis.

    PubMed

    Fratini, Filippo; Casella, Sergio; Leonardi, Michele; Pisseri, Francesca; Ebani, Valentina Virginia; Pistelli, Laura; Pistelli, Luisa

    2014-07-01

    Ten of the most known and used commercial essential oils (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L., Citrus bergamia Risso, Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Origanum majorana L., Origanum vulgare L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Satureja montana L., Thymus vulgaris L. ct. carvacrol, Thymus vulgaris L. ct. thymol) were tested against six bacteria strains Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus xylosus and Escherichia coli, responsible for mastitis in animals. The best results were achieved by S. montana, T. vulgaris ct. thymol and O. vulgare. Two binary mixtures of essential oils (EOs) were prepared of S. montana and T. vulgaris ct. thymol (ST) and of S. montana and O. vulgare (SO). The ST mixture exhibited the best inhibitory activity against all the tested bacterial strains. Two artificial mixtures of carvacrol/thymol (AB) and carvacrol/thymol/p-cymene (CD) were prepared and tested against all of the bacterial strains used. The results exhibited a general reduction of the inhibitory activity of mixture AB, although not reaching the inhibition of the ST and SO mixtures. However the mixture CD presented an apparent strong inhibition against S. aureus and S. sciuri. The EO mixtures and the mixture CD represent promising phytotherapic approaches against bacteria strains responsible for environmental mastitis. PMID:24727086

  18. [Peculicidal activity of plant essential oils and their based preparations].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The peculicidal activity of eight plant essential oils in 75% isopropyl alcohol was in vitro investigated. Of them, the substances that were most active against lice were tea tree (Melaleuca), eucalyptus, neem, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils; KT50 was not more than 3 minutes on average; KT95 was 4 minutes. After evaporating the solvent, only five (tea tree, cassia, clove, anise (Anisum vulgare), and Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) oils) of the eight test botanical substances were active against lice. At the same time, KT50 and KT95 showed 1.5-5-fold increases. Citronella and anise oils had incomplete ovicidal activity. Since the lice were permethrin-resistant, the efficacy of preparations based on essential oils was much higher than permethrin. PMID:25296426

  19. Determination of trace elements in Syrian medicinal plants and their infusions by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuder, A.; Sawan, M. Kh.; Karjou, J.; Razouk, A. K.

    2009-07-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) techniques suited well for a multi-element determination of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, and Sr in some Syrian medicinal plant species. The accuracy and the precision of both techniques were verified by analyzing the Standard Reference Materials (SRM) peach-1547 and apple leaves-1515. A good agreement between the measured concentrations of the previously mentioned elements and the certified values were obtained with errors less than 10.7% for TXRF and 15.8% for XRF. The determination of Br was acceptable only by XRF with an error less than 24%. Furthermore, the XRF method showed a very good applicability for the determination of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, and Br in infusions of different Syrian medicinal plant species, namely anise ( Anisum vulgare), licorice root ( Glycyrrhiza glabra), and white wormwood ( Artemisia herba-alba).

  20. Anticancer Activity of Certain Herbs and Spices on the Cervical Epithelial Carcinoma (HeLa) Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Berrington, Danielle; Lall, Namrita

    2012-01-01

    Acetone extracts of selected plant species were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line. The plants studied were Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Upright and ground cove rosemary), Lavandula spica L. (Lavender), Laurus nobilis L. (Bay leaf), Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme), Lavandula x intermedia L. (Margaret Roberts Lavender), Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Curly leaved parsley), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel), and Capsicum annuum L. (Paprika). Antioxidant activity was determined using a quantitative DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) assay. The rosemary species exhibited effective radical scavenging capacity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 3.48 ± 0.218 μg/mL and 10.84 ± 0.125 μg/mL and vitamin C equivalents of 0.351 g and 1.09 g for McConnell's Blue and Tuscan Blue, respectively. Cytotoxicity was measured using XTT (Sodium 3′-[1-(phenyl amino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis-[4-methoxy-6-nitro] benzene sulfonic acid hydrate) colorimetric assay. Only L. nobilis and O. vulgare exhibited pronounced effects on the HeLa cell line. Dose-dependent studies revealed IC50 of 34.46 ± 0.48 μg/mL and 126.3 ± 1.00 μg/mL on the HeLa cells and on the Vero cells 124.1 μg/mL ± 18.26 and 163.8 μg/mL ± 2.95 for L. nobilis and O. vulgare, respectively. Light (eosin and haematoxylin staining) and confocal microscopy (Hoechst 33342, acridine orange, and propidium iodide staining) were used to evaluate the cytotoxic mechanism of action for L. nobilis and O. vulgare. PMID:22649474

  1. Anticancer Activity of Certain Herbs and Spices on the Cervical Epithelial Carcinoma (HeLa) Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Berrington, Danielle; Lall, Namrita

    2012-01-01

    Acetone extracts of selected plant species were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line. The plants studied were Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Upright and ground cove rosemary), Lavandula spica L. (Lavender), Laurus nobilis L. (Bay leaf), Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme), Lavandula x intermedia L. (Margaret Roberts Lavender), Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Curly leaved parsley), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel), and Capsicum annuum L. (Paprika). Antioxidant activity was determined using a quantitative DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) assay. The rosemary species exhibited effective radical scavenging capacity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 3.48 ± 0.218 μg/mL and 10.84 ± 0.125 μg/mL and vitamin C equivalents of 0.351 g and 1.09 g for McConnell's Blue and Tuscan Blue, respectively. Cytotoxicity was measured using XTT (Sodium 3'-[1-(phenyl amino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis-[4-methoxy-6-nitro] benzene sulfonic acid hydrate) colorimetric assay. Only L. nobilis and O. vulgare exhibited pronounced effects on the HeLa cell line. Dose-dependent studies revealed IC(50) of 34.46 ± 0.48 μg/mL and 126.3 ± 1.00 μg/mL on the HeLa cells and on the Vero cells 124.1 μg/mL ± 18.26 and 163.8 μg/mL ± 2.95 for L. nobilis and O. vulgare, respectively. Light (eosin and haematoxylin staining) and confocal microscopy (Hoechst 33342, acridine orange, and propidium iodide staining) were used to evaluate the cytotoxic mechanism of action for L. nobilis and O. vulgare. PMID:22649474

  2. Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of Moroccan commercial essential oils.

    PubMed

    Aazza, Smail; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Megías, Cristina; Cortés-Giraldo, Isabel; Vioque, Javier; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Miguel, Maria G

    2014-04-01

    Essential oils (EO) possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, insect repellent, anti-cancer, and antioxidant properties, among others. In the present work, the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of Moroccan commercial EOs (Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Cupressus sempervirens, Eucalyptus globulus, Foeniculum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris) were evaluated and compared with their main constituents. T. vulgaris EO showed the best free radicals scavenging capacity. This EO was also the most effective against lipid peroxidation along with C. limon and F. vulgare EOs. C. sempervirens EO was the most effective in scavenging NO free radicals, whereas C. limon EO showed the best chelating power. Not all of the major compounds of the EO were responsible for the whole activity of the EOs. T. vulgaris EO showed the best anti-proliferative activity against THP-1 cells in contrast to that of F. vulgare. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the EOs were plant species dependent and not always attributable to the EOs main components. Nevertheless, the EOs anti-proliferative activities were more related to their main components, as with T. vulgaris, C. limon, E. globulus and C. sempervirens. PMID:24868891

  3. Influence of general stress-response alternative sigma factors σ(S) (RpoS) and σ(B) (SigB) on bacterial tolerance to the essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. and pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Gomes Neto, Nelson Justino; Magnani, Marciane; Chueca, Beatriz; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-10-15

    This study assessed the influence of general stress-response alternative sigma factors RpoS (σ(S)) and SigB (σ(B)) on tolerance of Escherichia coli (E. coli MG1655 and its isogenic mutant E. coli MG1655 ΔrpoS) and Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes EGD-e and its isogenic mutant L. monocytogenes EGD-e ΔsigB) to the essential oils (EOs) from Origanum vulgare L.-oregano (OVEO) and Rosmarinus officinalis L.-rosemary (ROEO), as well as the changes in tolerance of parental and ΔrpoS and ΔsigB mutant strains to OVEO, ROEO and pulsed electric fields (PEF) following overnight exposure to subinhibitory concentrations (1/2×minimum inhibitory concentration-MIC) of each tested EO. MIC values of OVEO and ROEO against the mutant cells were usually lower than those found against the parental cells. Survivor curves showed that mutant cells were more sensitive to these EOs than parental cells. The recovery of survivors in selective media showed a greater proportion of cells sublethally injured at their cell envelopes in the mutant strains compared with the parental strains. Induction of increased direct-tolerance to OVEO and ROEO or cross-tolerance to PEF was not observed after pre-exposure of parental and mutant cells to EOs. Otherwise, parental and mutant cells of E. coli and L. monocytogenes pre-exposed to OVEO or ROEO showed decreased tolerance when further treated with the homologous stressing agent at 2×MIC. Still, mutant cells pre-exposed to OVEO or ROEO showed lower tolerance to PEF than parental strains. These results showed the influence of σ(S) and σ(B) in tolerance of single strains of E. coli and L. monocytogenes, respectively, to OVEO and ROEO. Moreover, the deletion of σ(S) and σ(B) resulted in decreased tolerance to OVEO, ROEO or PEF in tested strains following exposure to OVEO or ROEO at a subinhibitory concentration. PMID:26159473

  4. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of some essential oils.

    PubMed

    Aridoğan, Buket Cicioğlu; Baydar, Hasan; Kaya, Selçuk; Demirci, Mustafa; Ozbaşar, Demir; Mumcu, Ethem

    2002-12-01

    In this study the composition and antimicrobial properties of essential oils obtained from Origanum onites, Mentha piperita, Juniperus exalsa, Chrysanthemum indicum, Lavandula hybrida, Rosa damascena, Echinophora tenuifolia, Foeniculum vulgare were examined. To evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of these eight aromatic extracts; their in vitro antimicrobial activities were determined by disk diffusion testing, according to the NCCLS criteria. Escherichia coli (ATTC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATTC 27853 were used as standard test bacterial strains. Origanum onites recorded antimicrobial activity against all test bacteria, and was strongest against Staphylococcus aureus. For Rosa damascena, Mentha piperita and Lavandula hybrida antimicrobial activity was recorded only to Staphylococcus aureus. Juniperus exalsa, and Chrysanthemum indicum exhibited antibacterial activities against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. We also examined the in vitro antimicrobial activities of some components of the essential oils and found some components with antimicrobial activity. PMID:12510839

  5. Simulation of germination of pioneer species along an experimental drought gradient.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fernández, María A; Calvo-Magro, E; Ferrer-Castán, D

    2006-10-01

    The germination of ten plant species from the Iberian Peninsula was assessed along a water deficit gradient between -0. 1652 (moist) and -0.4988 MPa (dry) of osmotic potential, created by addition of increasing concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) to distilled water in which plants were grown hydroponically. The level and rate of germination of Daucus carota and Thapsia villosa significantly decreased with decreasing psi. Seeds of Dactylis glomerata and Dittrichia viscosa had positive germination responses to low osmotic potentials; germination of Epilobium hirsutum was not affected by osmotic potential. Germination of Medicago arabica, Cynosurus cristatus, Cistus ladanifer and Cistus albidus, was no favored by the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Germination of Foeniculum vulgare and Thapsia villosa was inhibited by PEG. PMID:17405330

  6. Antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities of some commercial essential oils and their major compounds.

    PubMed

    Aazza, Smail; Lyoussi, Badiâ; Miguel, Maria G

    2011-01-01

    The commercial essential oils of Citrus aurantium L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Thymus vulgaris L., isolated by steam distillation by a company of Morocco were evaluated in terms of in vitro antioxidant activity through several methods. In vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity was also determined. Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. oil was also studied, but it was obtained by peel expression. The best antioxidant was T. vulgaris oil, independent of the method used, mainly due to the presence of the phenolic monoterpenes thymol and carvacrol, which when studied as single compounds also presented the best activities. Concerning the acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity, E. globulus was the most effective. Nevertheless its main components 1,8-cineole and limonene were not the most active, a feature that corresponded to d-3-carene. PMID:21900869

  7. Determination of mineral and trace elements in some medicinal herbs and their infusions consumed in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Başgel, S; Erdemoğlu, S B

    2006-04-15

    Fourteen mineral and trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn) were determined in the herbs and their infusions consumed for medical purposes in Turkey such as chamomile (Matricaria chammomile L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), linden (Tilia vulgaris), nettle (Urtica dioical), rosehip (Fr.Rosa caninae), sage (Salvia officinalis) and senna tea (Cassia anqustifolia). Microwave digestion procedure was applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal herbs. Element concentrations in the medicinal herbs and their infusions were determined by FAAS and ICP-AES. The accuracy and precision were verified against a GBW 07605 Poplar leaves and Tea certified reference material. The mineral and trace element content of medicinal herbs and their infusions showed a wide variability. However, distribution of the elements in the infusions is not high and it is nil especially for Cd, Co, Cr and Pb. PMID:15907975

  8. Cottage cheeses functionalized with fennel and chamomile extracts: Comparative performance between free and microencapsulated forms.

    PubMed

    Caleja, Cristina; Ribeiro, Andreia; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Beatriz P P Oliveira, M; Barreiro, Maria Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-05-15

    Globally, there is a trend for healthy food products, preferably incorporating natural bioactive ingredients, replacing synthetic additives. From previous screening studies, extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) and Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) maintained nutritional properties and improved the antioxidant activity of cottage cheese. Nevertheless, this effect was limited to 7 days. Accordingly, aqueous extracts of these plants were microencapsulated in alginate and incorporated into cottage cheese to achieve an extended bioactivity. Plain cottage cheese, and cheese functionalized by direct addition of free decoctions, were prepared and compared. Independently of plant species, "functionalization type" factor did not show a significant effect on the nutritional parameters, as also confirmed in the linear discriminant analysis, where these parameters were not selected as discriminating variables. Furthermore, samples functionalized with microencapsulated extracts showed higher antioxidant activity after the 7th day, thereby demonstrating that the main purpose of this experimental work was achieved. PMID:26776029

  9. Elemental characterization of wild edible plants from countryside and urban areas.

    PubMed

    Renna, Massimiliano; Cocozza, Claudio; Gonnella, Maria; Abdelrahman, Hamada; Santamaria, Pietro

    2015-06-15

    Thirteen elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Cd, Ni and Pb) in 11 different wild edible plants (WEP) (Amaranthus retroflexus, Foeniculum vulgare, Cichorium intybus, Glebionis coronaria, Sonchus spp., Borago officinalis, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Sinapis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Plantago lagopus and Portulaca oleracea) collected from countryside and urban areas of Bari (Italy) were determined. B.officinalis and P.rhoeas could represent good nutritional sources of Mn and Fe, respectively, as well as A.retroflexus and S.arvensis for Ca. High intake of Pb and Cd could come from P.lagopus and A.retroflexus (1.40 and 0.13 mg kg(-1) FW, respectively). WEP may give a substantial contribution to the elements intake for consumers, but in some cases they may supply high level of elements potentially toxic for human health. Anyway, both ANOVA and PCA analyses have highlighted the low influence of the harvesting site on the elements content. PMID:25660854

  10. Fortification of yogurts with different antioxidant preservatives: A comparative study between natural and synthetic additives.

    PubMed

    Caleja, Cristina; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Carocho, Márcio; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-11-01

    Consumers demand more and more so-called "natural" products and, therefore, the aim of this work was to compare the effects of natural versus synthetic antioxidant preservatives in yogurts. Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) decoctions were tested as natural additives, while potassium sorbate (E202) was used as a synthetic additive. The fortification of yogurts with natural and synthetic antioxidants did not cause significant changes in the yoghurt pH and nutritional value, in comparison with control samples (yogurt without any additive). However, the fortified yogurts showed higher antioxidant activity, mainly the yogurts with natural additives (and among these, the ones with chamomile decoction). Overall, it can be concluded that plant decoctions can be used to develop novel yogurts, by replacing synthetic preservatives and improving the antioxidant properties of the final product, without changing the nutritional profile. PMID:27211646

  11. Repellency and toxicity of aromatic plant extracts against the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Traboulsi, Abdallah F; El-Haj, Samih; Tueni, Marie; Taoubi, Khalil; Nader, Natalie Abi; Mrad, Abir

    2005-06-01

    The insecticidal activities of essential oil extracts from leaves, flowers and roots of aromatic plants against fourth-instar larvae of the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus Forskal were determined. Extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill were the most toxic, followed by those of Ferula hermonis Boiss, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, Pinus pinea L, Laurus nobilis L and Eucalyptus spp with LC50 values of 24.5, 44.0, 60.0, 75.0, 117.0 and 120.0 mg litre(-1), respectively. Combination tests between the LC50 and the maximum sub-lethal concentration (MSLC) were determined. Over 20 major components were identified in extracts from each plant species tested. Five essential oils and nine pure components were studied for their repellency against mosquito bites. Terpineol and 1,8-cineole were the most effective against Culex pipiens molestus bites offering complete protection for 1.6 and 2 h, respectively. PMID:15662650

  12. Folk phytotherapeutical plants from Maratea area (Basilicata, Italy).

    PubMed

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Salerno, Giovanni; Caneva, Giulia

    2005-07-14

    Field ethnobotanical survey was undertaken for the period of 2002-2003 in the Tyrrhenian part of the Basilicata region of southern Italy. Data of 56 species of plants belonging to 29 families where gathered through interviews; among the species, 47 are used in human therapy, 6 as insect repellents, 15 in veterinary medicine, 1 for its ichthyotoxic properties and 3 for magic therapeutic purposes. The most important findings in ethnomedicine relate to Nasturtium officinale (renal colic, liver diseases), Foeniculum vulgare subsp. piperitum (mouth ulcers), Leopoldia comosa (toothache, headache), Micromeria graeca subsp. graeca (coughs) and Ceterach officinarum (malaria), while in the ethnoveterinary field, we have Pteridium aquilinum (wolf bites) and Spartium junceum (fractures of animal limbs). PMID:15878246

  13. Silencing the Vulgar and Voicing the Other Shakespeare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, James R.

    1991-01-01

    From the very first, textbook editions of Shakespeare have been, "badly edited, ineptly glossed, and inexcusably bowdlerized" (Levin, 1976). What is studied in schools is a version, or rather a "perversion" of Shakespeare controlled by narrow religious, sexual, racial, and social interests. A fear of laughter and cultural elitism, among other…

  14. Intrachromosomal mapping of seven biochemical loci in barley, Hordeum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Liu, C J; Heun, M; Gale, M D

    1993-10-01

    Seven biochemical loci, AmpA, Amy1, Amy2, Est-H5, Hor1, Hor2, and Wsp-H1, have been intrachromosomally mapped in the barley genome using a previously published RFLP-based genetic map. In all cases, the map locations confirmed prior chromosome assignments and agreed closely with the map positions of their homoeoloci in hexaploid wheat. PMID:24190199

  15. The Vulgar Canon and Its Uses in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jeffrey

    Employing a body of texts for the reading and study of literature in the English classroom leads to much argumentation, with much disagreement about what is fair game for the writing student. To help determine which texts to select it is necessary to define cultural literacy in a different way from that of E. D. Hirsch. Hirsch would prescribe…

  16. Decision-making and Anticipation in Pill Bugs (Armadillidium vulgare)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, Tohru; Migita, Masao

    2004-08-01

    In the previous study, decision-making of the direction of motion was found in pill bugs. In the present experiment, we find that they autonomously choose specific places for the decision-making. Each individual was placed in a circle track surrounded by water. Small columnar marks were placed in the center of the track at equal intervals. At first, when they encountered the marks, they moved along and passed it. After some minutes, they tended to mount on the top of the marks, stayed for a while and swung the antennae as if they searched for the direction of motion. As time went on, they sometimes traced several marks. It seemed that they anticipated the appearance of the mark in advance to use it for decision-making of the direction of the next motion. In another circle track surrounded by wall, such behaviors were not observed.

  17. Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), anise (Pimpinella anisum) and garlic (Allium sativum) oils against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    PubMed

    Park, Ii-Kwon; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Do-Hyung; Choi, In-Ho; Kim, Lee-Sun; Bak, Won-Chull; Choi, Joon-Weon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2006-08-01

    Plant essential oils from 40 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against larvae of Lycoriella ingénue (Dufour) using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus smithii RT Baker, horseradish, anise and garlic at 10 and 5 microL L(-1) air. Horseradish, anise and garlic oils showed the most potent insecticidal activities among the plant essential oils. At 1.25 microL L(-1), horseradish, anise and garlic oils caused 100, 93.3 and 13.3% mortality, but at 0.625 microL L(-1) air this decreased to 3.3, 0 and 0% respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of one major compound from horseradish, and three each from anise and garlic oils. These seven compounds and m-anisaldehyde and o-anisaldehyde, two positional isomers of p-anisaldehyde, were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua. Allyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic, followed by trans-anethole, diallyl disulfide and p-anisaldehyde with LC(50) values of 0.15, 0.20, 0.87 and 1.47 microL L(-1) respectively. PMID:16786497

  18. Intercropping garlic plants reduces Tetranychus urticae in strawberry crop.

    PubMed

    Hata, Fernando T; Ventura, Maurício U; Carvalho, Mateus G; Miguel, André L A; Souza, Mariana S J; Paula, Maria T; Zawadneak, Maria A C

    2016-07-01

    The effect of aromatic plants on number of twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch, when intercropped with strawberry were assessed in the field. During the first year, chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), or sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) were intercropped with strawberry. Assessments were performed on TSSM populations by taking six samples from July 20 to September 20, 2012. During the second year, garlic plants were intercropped between rows of strawberry at three densities in greenhouse and field. Mobile forms and eggs numbers (only in field) of TSSM were evaluated from April 18 to June 05 (greenhouse) and June 06 to August 14, 2013 (field). It was found that intercropping with garlic caused a greater reduction of TSSM (up to 52 %) in strawberry plants when higher populations of TSSM occurred in the field. TSSM reduction was found in one sample when fennel and chives were intercropped with strawberries (42 and 50 % reduction, respectively); this also occurred when populations of TSSM were higher. The three densities of garlic plants (one, two and three rows among the strawberry rows) reduced TSSM mobile forms by 49, 53 and 60 % (greenhouse) and 44, 51 and 65 % (field), and eggs by 38, 43 and 64 % (field), respectively. The results suggest that intercropping garlic plants between strawberry rows is a promising strategy to reduce TSSM populations. PMID:27085718

  19. Comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity.

    PubMed

    Tognolini, M; Barocelli, E; Ballabeni, V; Bruni, R; Bianchi, A; Chiavarini, M; Impicciatore, M

    2006-02-23

    Essential oils extracted from different plants (Anthemis nobilis L., Artemisia dracunculus L., Cannabis sativa L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., Curcuma longa L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Hypericum perforatum L., Hyssopus officinalis L., Mentha spicata L., Monarda didyma L., Ocimum basilicum L., Ocotea quixos Kosterm., Origanum vulgare L., Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, Pinus silvestris L., Piper crassinervium Kunth., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Salvia sclarea L., Santolina chamaecyparissus L., Thymus vulgaris L., Zingiber officinaie L.) were screened in guinea pig and rat plasma in order to assess antiplatelet activity and inhibition of clot retraction. The oils were chemically analysed and a relationship between components and ability to affect hemostasis was evidenced. O. quixos, F. vulgaris, and A. dracunculus showed the highest antiplatelet activity against ADP, Arachidonic Acid and the Thromboxane A2 agonist U46619 (IC50, 4-132 microg ml(-1)), and a good ability to destabilize clot retraction (IC50, 19-180 microg ml(-1)). For these oils a significant correlation between antiplatelet potency and phenylpropanoids content (54-86%) was evidenced thus suggesting a key role for this moiety in the prevention of clot formation. These findings provide the rationale to take in account the antiplatelet activity in the pharmacological screening of natural products containing phenylpropanoids. PMID:16274702

  20. Indigenous traditional medicine: in vitro anti-giardial activity of plants used in the treatment of diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Brandelli, Clara Lia Costa; Giordani, Raquel Brandt; De Carli, Geraldo Attilio; Tasca, Tiana

    2009-06-01

    The ethnopharmacology for treatment of parasitic infections facilitates and directs the search for new chemical entities. In this direction, this study evaluated the cytotoxicity in vitro, against trophozoites of Giardia lamblia, of aqueous extracts of leaves Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC., barks of Eugenia uniflora L., aerial parts of Foeniculum vulgare Miller, and barks of Psidium guajava L. These plants are traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhea by the indigenous population Mbyá-Guarani, located at the Lomba do Pinheiro, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The in vitro susceptibility qualitative analysis of G. lamblia to aqueous extracts was performed in serial dilutions from 2.5 to 0.02 mg/mL. Results revealed the minimal inhibitory concentrations: 0.313 mg/mL for A. satureioides and E. uniflora, 0.02 mg/mL for P. guajava, and F. vulgare did not present any cytotoxic effect. Quantitative assays of viable trophozoites, showed that A. satureioides presented the highest cytotoxic effect (93.5%), followed by P. guajava (82.2%), and E. uniflora (67.3%). Indigenous Guarani use mainly A. satureioides for the treatment of diarrhea, revealing the conformity with results obtained in vitro. Bioguided assays are necessary to identify the compounds responsible for the activity of the aqueous extract of A. satureioides. PMID:19153765

  1. Susceptibility of Microsporum canis arthrospores to a mixture of chemically defined essential oils: a perspective for environmental decontamination.

    PubMed

    Nardoni, Simona; Tortorano, Annamaria; Mugnaini, Linda; Profili, Greta; Pistelli, Luisa; Giovanelli, Silvia; Pisseri, Francesca; Papini, Roberto; Mancianti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The zoophilic dermatophyte Microsporum canis has cats as natural reservoir, but it is able to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, where different clinical features of the so-called ringworm dermatophytosis have been described. Human infections are increasingly been reported in Mediterranean countries. A reliable control program against M. canis infection in cats should include an antifungal treatment of both the infected animals and their living environment. In this article, a herbal mixture composed of chemically defined essential oils (EOs) of Litsea cubeba (1%), Illicium verum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Pelargonium graveolens (0.5% each) was formulated and its antifungal activity assessed against M. canis arthrospores which represent the infective environmental stage of M. canis. Single compounds present in higher amounts in the mixture were also separately tested in vitro. Litsea cubeba and P. graveolens EOs were most effective (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.5%), followed by EOs of I. verum (MIC 2%) and F. vulgare (MIC 2.5%). Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) values were 0.75% (L. cubeba), 1.5% (P. graveolens), 2.5% (I. verum) and 3% (F. vulgare). MIC and MFC values of the mixture were 0.25% and 0.5%, respectively. The daily spray of the mixture (200 μL) directly onto infected hairs inhibited fungal growth from the fourth day onwards. The compounds present in higher amounts exhibited variable antimycotic activity, with MIC values ranging from >10% (limonene) to 0.1% (geranial and neral). Thus, the mixture showed a good antifungal activity against arthrospores present in infected hairs. These results are promising for a further application of the mixture as an alternative tool or as an adjuvant in the environmental control of feline microsporosis. PMID:25854840

  2. Morphological characterization of pollens from three Apiaceae species and their ingestion by twelve-spotted lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    D'Ávila, V A; Aguiar-Menezes, E L; Gonçalves-Esteves, V; Mendonça, C B F; Pereira, R N; Santos, T M

    2016-04-19

    Larvae and adults of certain species of predator lady beetles feed on pollen, guaranteeing their survival, and at times, reproduction in the absence of preferred prey. Palynology, therefore, may contribute in the investigation of botanical families visited by these predators in order to obtain this floral resource. There are records of the visitation of Apiaceae flowers by Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer, 1775 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae), but not the ingestion of their pollen grains by this lady beetle. The external morphology of pollen grains of three Apiaceae aromatic species (Anethum graveolens L., Coriandrum sativum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) was characterized, and it was evaluated the ingestion of these pollens by fourth instar larvae and adults of C. maculata upon confinement along with flowers of these Apiaceae for 24 and 48 hours. The pollen grains of those species presented similar external morphology. In the two times of exposure, the larvae ingested the same amount of pollen from the three Apiaceae species, and the amount of C. sativum pollen ingested was the same between larvae and adults. The amount of A. graveolens pollen grains ingested by the adults was significantly greater than the pollens of C. sativum and F. vulgare, in 24 hours, with the opposite occurring in 48 hours. In the first 24 hours, the adults ingested more A. graveolens pollen than the larvae, with the opposite occurring with F. vulgare. There was no significant difference in the amount of Apiaceae pollen ingested between larvae and adults in 48 hours. The results suggest that the pollen-eating habits of certain aphidophagous lady beetles may be crucial in their preservation within agro-ecosystems. PMID:27097091

  3. Antimicrobial activity of Northwestern Mexican plants against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Robles-Zepeda, Ramón E; Velázquez-Contreras, Carlos A; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Gálvez-Ruiz, Juan C; Ruiz-Bustos, Eduardo

    2011-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the major etiologic agent of such gastric disorders as chronic active gastritis and gastric carcinoma. Over the past few years, the appearance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has led to the development of better treatments, such as the use of natural products. This study evaluated the anti-H. pylori activity of 17 Mexican plants used mainly in the northwestern part of Mexico (Sonora) for the empirical treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The anti-H. pylori activity of methanolic extracts of the plants was determined by using the broth microdilution method. The 50% minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from less than 200 to 400 μg/mL for Castella tortuosa, Amphipterygium adstringens, Ibervillea sonorae, Pscalium decompositum, Krameria erecta, Selaginella lepidophylla, Pimpinella anisum, Marrubium vulgare, Ambrosia confertiflora, and Couterea latiflora and were greater than 800 μg/mL for Byophyllum pinnatum, Tecoma stans linnaeus, Kohleria deppena, Jatropha cuneata, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Taxodium macronatum. Only Equisetum gigantum showed no activity against H. pylori. This study suggests the important role that these plants may have in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders caused by H. pylori. The findings set the groundwork for further characterization and elucidation of the active compounds responsible for such activity. PMID:21663492

  4. Activity of essential oils and individual components against acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ilkay; Kartal, Murat; Kan, Yüksel; Sener, Bilge

    2008-01-01

    We have tested acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities of nineteen essential oils obtained from cultivated plants, namely one from Anethum graveolens L. (organic fertilizer), two from Foeniculum vulgare Mill. collected at fully-mature and flowering stages (organic fertilizer), two from Melissa officinalis L. (cultivated using organic and chemical fertilizers), two from Mentha piperita L. and M. spicata L. (organic fertilizer), two from Lavandula officinalis Chaix ex Villars (cultivated using organic and chemical fertilizers), two from Ocimum basilicum L. (green and purple-leaf varieties cultivated using only organic fertilizer), four from Origanum onites L., O. vulgare L., O. munitiflorum Hausskn., and O. majorana L. (cultivated using organic fertilizer), two from Salvia sclarea L. (organic and chemical fertilizers), one from S. officinalis L. (organic fertilizer), and one from Satureja cuneifolia Ten. (organic fertilizer) by a spectrophotometric method of Ellman using ELISA microplate-reader at 1 mg/ml concentration. In addition, a number of single components widely encountered in most of the essential oils [gamma-terpinene, 4-allyl anisole, (-)-carvone, dihydrocarvone, (-)-phencone, cuminyl alcohol, cumol, 4-isopropyl benzaldehyde, trans-anethole, camphene, iso-borneol, (-)-borneol, L-bornyl acetate, 2-decanol, 2-heptanol, methyl-heptanol, farnesol, nerol, iso-pulegol, 1,8-cineole, citral, citronellal, citronellol, geraniol, linalool, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, piperitone, iso-menthone, menthofurane, linalyl oxide, linalyl ester, geranyl ester, carvacrol, thymol, menthol, vanilline, and eugenol] was also screened for the same activity in the same manner. Almost all of the essential oils showed a very high inhibitory activity (over 80%) against both enzymes, whereas the single components were not as active as the essential oils. PMID:18810999

  5. Insecticidal Activity of Some Traditionally Used Ethiopian Medicinal Plants against Sheep Ked Melophagus ovinus.

    PubMed

    Gemeda, Negero; Mokonnen, Walelegn; Lemma, Hirut; Tadele, Ashenif; Urga, Kelbessa; Addis, Getachew; Debella, Asfaw; Getachew, Mesaye; Teka, Frehiwot; Yirsaw, Kidist; Mudie, Kissi; Gebre, Solomon

    2014-01-01

    Twelve medicinal plants and a commercially used drug Ivermectin were examined for insecticidal activity against Melophagus ovinus sheep ked at different time intervals using in vitro adult immersion test. The findings show that at 3.13 µL/mL, 6.25 µL/mL and 12.5 µL/mL concentration of Cymbopogon citratus, Foeniculum vulgare and Eucalyptus globulus essential oils respectively, recorded 100% mortalities against M. ovinus within 3 hour of exposure. Significantly higher insecticidal activity of essential oils was recorded (P = 0.00) when compared to 10  μ g/mL Ivermectin after 3-hour exposure of M. ovinus at a concentration of ≥1.57  μ L/mL, ≥3  μ L/mL, and ≥12.7  μ L/mL essential oils of C. citratus, F. vulgare, and E. globulus, respectively. Among essential oils, C. citratus has showed superior potency at a three-hour exposure of the parasite (P = 0.00) at a concentration of ≥0.78  μ L/mL. Strong antiparasitic activity was recorded by aqueous extract of Calpurnia aurea (80% mortality) at a concentration of 200 mg/mL within 24 h among aqueous extracts of 9 medicinal plants. The results indicated all the four medicinal plants, particularly those tested essential oils, can be considered as potential candidates for biocontrol of M. ovinus sheep ked. PMID:24649357

  6. Changes in Volatile Compounds during Aging of Sweet Fennel Fruits-Comparison of Hydrodistillation and Static Headspace Sampling Methods.

    PubMed

    Najdoska-Bogdanov, Mence; Bogdanov, Jane B; Stefova, Marina

    2016-03-01

    Two extraction methods for subsequent gas chromatographic (GC) determination of volatiles from freshly harvested and aged fennel fruit samples (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.,ssp. vulgare var. dulce) have been compared. Hydrodistillation followed by GC-FID and GC-MS analysis was used as a standard method for essential oil characterization, while static headspace followed by GC (SHS-GC-FID) was used as a comparative method for determination of volatile components. As the fennel fruit ages, there is a gradual loss of the volatile components as indicated by the lower yield of essential oil and lower content of volatiles, as indicated by the alternative SHS-GC-FID analysis. Slight differences observed for the main components (trans-anethole, estragole, fenchone, and limonene) using the two methods are negligible, indicating that these volatiles did not undergo chemical transformation during the sample preparation procedures. A difference in anisaldehyde content was observed when the composition of the hydrodistilled essential oil was compared with the SHS-GC-FIDanalysis of volatiles and explanation for the variation of anisaldehyde content and the origin of other compounds was suggested. Comparison of the obtained results showed that limonene oxides, carvone and carveolare detectable in SHS-GC-FID analysis of the aged fennel fruits, while in hydrodistilled samples analyzed by GC-FID they were not present. Another observed difference was the appearance of products in significant amounts with higher retention times than trans-anethole, namely threo- and erythro-anethole β-hydroxymethylether and anethole glycol that are not detectable in the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation. So, the relative abundance of the major components is comparable between these two methods for fennel seed up to 3 years from harvest and they can be used interchangeably depending on the purpose and amount of material. Furthermore, SHS-GC-FID can be used for assessment of maximum storage time

  7. Effects of selected essential oils on the growth and production of ochratoxin A by Penicillium verrucosum.

    PubMed

    Jeršek, Barbara; Poklar Ulrih, Nataša; Skrt, Mihaela; Gavarić, Neda; Božin, Biljana; Smole Možina, Sonja

    2014-06-01

    Essential oils from oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), and pine (Abies alba Mill.) needles and cones, and their active substances thymol, carvacrol, menthol, and anisaldehyde were tested for antifungal activity against Penicillium verrucosum. The lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were achieved for essential oil of oregano, followed by carvacrol, thymol, and menthol. These antifungal components were further investigated, as the main aim of our study was to elucidate the effect of natural antifungals on ochratoxin A production. During 21 days of exposure, the growth of P. verrucosum, and subsequently the production of ochratoxin A, was fully inhibited by thymol at ½ MIC (0.0625 mg mL-1), but menthol at ¼ and ½ MIC (0.1875 and 3750 mg mL-1) showed no growth inhibition. After 21 days of incubation, the greatest inhibitory effect on ochratoxin production (inhibition was 96.9 %) was also achieved with thymol at ¼ MIC (0.0313 mg mL-1). Essential oil of oregano (¼ MIC, 0.2930 μL mL-1) and carvacrol (½ MIC, 0.1953 μL mL-1) stimulate production of ochratoxin A at 13.9 % to 28.8 %, respectively. The observed antifungal effects depended on the agent, the concentration used, and the time of interaction between the agent and P. verrucosum. Our results indicate the possibility of using oregano essential oil as a substitute for artificial preservatives in certain foods, but further research is needed. PMID:24945417

  8. Inhibition of microorganisms involved in deterioration of an archaeological site by silver nanoparticles produced by a green synthesis method.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-González, Rogelio; Martínez-Gómez, Miriam Araceli; González-Chávez, Ma Del Carmen A; Mendoza Hernández, José Carlos

    2016-09-15

    The Citadel, part of the pre-Hispanic city of Teotihuacan and listed as a World Heritage Site, harbors irreplaceable archaeological walls and murals. This city was abandoned by the 7th century and its potential deterioration represents a noteworthy loss of the world's cultural heritage. This research consisted of isolation and identification of bacteria and fungi contributing to this deterioration from walls of a pre-Hispanic city. In addition, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) produced, using a green synthesis method, were tested as potential inhibitors of microbes. AgNP of different sizes and concentrations were tested using in situ assays. Leaf aqueous extracts from two plants species (Foeniculum vulgare and Tecoma stans) and two extraction procedures were used in the NP synthesis. The potential of AgNP as preventive/corrective treatments to protect stucco materials from biodeterioration, as well as the microbial inhibition on three stone materials (stucco, basalt and calcite) was analyzed. Twenty-three bacterial species belonging to eight genera and fourteen fungal species belonging to seven genera were isolated from colored stains, patinas and biofilms produced on the surfaces of archaeological walls from the pre-Hispanic city, Teotihuacan. AgNP from F. vulgare were more effective for in vitro microbial growth inhibition than those from T. stans. Bacteria were less sensitive to AgNP than fungi; however, sensitivity mainly depended on the microbial strain and the plant extract used to prepare AgNP. The use of AgNP as a preventive or corrective treatment to decrease microbial colonization in three kinds of stone used in historical walls was successful. Calcite was more colonized by Alternaria alternata, but less by Pectobacterium carotovorum. This is the first study at different scales (in vitro and tests on different stone types) of inhibition of biodeterioration-causing microorganisms isolated from an archaeological site by green synthesized AgNP. PMID:27015961

  9. Insecticidal Activity of Some Traditionally Used Ethiopian Medicinal Plants against Sheep Ked Melophagus ovinus

    PubMed Central

    Mokonnen, Walelegn; Lemma, Hirut; Tadele, Ashenif; Urga, Kelbessa; Addis, Getachew; Debella, Asfaw; Getachew, Mesaye; Teka, Frehiwot; Yirsaw, Kidist; Mudie, Kissi; Gebre, Solomon

    2014-01-01

    Twelve medicinal plants and a commercially used drug Ivermectin were examined for insecticidal activity against Melophagus ovinus sheep ked at different time intervals using in vitro adult immersion test. The findings show that at 3.13 µL/mL, 6.25 µL/mL and 12.5 µL/mL concentration of Cymbopogon citratus, Foeniculum vulgare and Eucalyptus globulus essential oils respectively, recorded 100% mortalities against M. ovinus within 3 hour of exposure. Significantly higher insecticidal activity of essential oils was recorded (P = 0.00) when compared to 10 μg/mL Ivermectin after 3-hour exposure of M. ovinus at a concentration of ≥1.57 μL/mL, ≥3 μL/mL, and ≥12.7 μL/mL essential oils of C. citratus, F. vulgare, and E. globulus, respectively. Among essential oils, C. citratus has showed superior potency at a three-hour exposure of the parasite (P = 0.00) at a concentration of ≥0.78 μL/mL. Strong antiparasitic activity was recorded by aqueous extract of Calpurnia aurea (80% mortality) at a concentration of 200 mg/mL within 24 h among aqueous extracts of 9 medicinal plants. The results indicated all the four medicinal plants, particularly those tested essential oils, can be considered as potential candidates for biocontrol of M. ovinus sheep ked. PMID:24649357

  10. Seed germination in response to chemicals: effect of nitrogen and pH in the media.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fernández, M A; Calvo-Magro, E; Montanero-Fernández, J; Oyola-Velasco, J A

    2006-01-01

    Seed germination generally presents a peak in the next growing season after a fire. Among other factors associated with fire are the increase of soil nitrogen and changes in the pH of the soil. In this study, we addressed the question, whether or not the germination response of eight species is linked with the increase in pH and nitrogenous compounds in the germination media? We assessed the separate and combined effects of nitrogenous compounds and pH on the percentage and rate of germination of seeds of Medicago arabica (L.) Hudson, Epilobium hirsutum L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Daucus carota L., Thapsia villosa L., Cynosurus cristatus L., Dactylis glomerata L. and Rumex crispus L. All these species are well represented in the Mediterranean ecosystems of the central-west Spain. Water and CaCl2 were used as controls. Nitrogenous compounds increased percent germination (level) and rate in three of the species studied. High pH negatively affected the germination rate of seeds from most species, but had no effect on the per cent germination of any of the species. The higher concentration of the nutritious solutions affected negatively the germination level and rate. The different germination responses of seeds of the studied species could not be exclusively attributed to pH values in the media, whereas the amount and form of Nitrogen in the media has a greater effect on it. These differences in germination are species dependent. PMID:16850869

  11. [Diversity of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) using aromatic plants (Apiaceae) as survival and reproduction sites in agroecological system].

    PubMed

    Lixa, Alice T; Campos, Juliana M; Resende, André L S; Silva, Joice C; Almeida, Maxwell M T B; Aguiar-Menezes, Elen L

    2010-01-01

    Studies show that Apiaceae may provide concentrated vital resources for predator insects, stimulating their abundance, diversity and persistence in agricultural systems, thereby increasing their efficiency as biological control agents. Among the predatory insects, Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) on many different species both as larvae and adults, complementing their diet with pollen and/or nectar. This study aimed to determine the diversity and relative abundance of Coccinellidae species visiting plants of Anethum graveolens (dill), Coriandrum sativum (coriander) and Foeniculum vulgare (sweet fennel) (all Apiaceae), particularly in their blooming seasons, and to evaluate the potential of these aromatic species for providing the resources for survivorship and reproduction of coccinelids. Coccinellids were collected by removal of samplings from September to October, 2007. Besides one unidentified species of Chilocorinae, five species of Coccinellinae were collected: Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer, Coleomegilla quadrifasciata (Schönherr), Cycloneda sanguinea (L.), Eriopis connexa (Germar) and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Meneville. Dill provided a significant increase in the abundance of coccinellids as compared to coriander and sweet fennel. These aromatic species were used by coccinellids as survival and reproduction sites, providing food resources (pollen and/or prey), shelter for larvae, pupae and adults, and mating and oviposition sites as well. PMID:20676507

  12. Biodegradable gelatin-chitosan films incorporated with essential oils as antimicrobial agents for fish preservation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Estaca, J; López de Lacey, A; López-Caballero, M E; Gómez-Guillén, M C; Montero, P

    2010-10-01

    Essential oils of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), herb-of-the-cross (Verbena officinalis L.), pine (Pinus sylvestris) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) were tested for their antimicrobial activity on 18 genera of bacteria, which included some important food pathogen and spoilage bacteria. Clove essential oil showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by rosemary and lavender. In an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of these essential oils as food preservatives, they were also tested on an extract made of fish, where clove and thyme essential oils were the most effective. Then, gelatin-chitosan-based edible films incorporated with clove essential oil were elaborated and their antimicrobial activity tested against six selected microorganisms: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Photobacterium phosphoreum, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The clove-containing films inhibited all these microorganisms irrespectively of the film matrix or type of microorganism. In a further experiment, when the complex gelatin-chitosan film incorporating clove essential oil was applied to fish during chilled storage, the growth of microorganisms was drastically reduced in gram-negative bacteria, especially enterobacteria, while lactic acid bacteria remained practically constant for much of the storage period. The effect on the microorganisms during this period was in accordance with biochemical indexes of quality, indicating the viability of these films for fish preservation. PMID:20688230

  13. Infusions and decoctions of mixed herbs used in folk medicine: synergism in antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-08-01

    Infusions (herbal teas) and decoctions are used frequently to administer oral doses of herbs. Although some herbs are used as single ingredients, they are often prepared as mixtures, as reported by numerous ethnobotanical surveys. The present work was carried out to identify the different types of interaction (synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects) which may be found in the antioxidant activity of preparations from mixtures of the popular herbs Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and Mentha spicata (spearmint). Herbs were prepared using traditional methods, and the effects after different periods of storage, up to 120 days, were also evaluated. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the β-carotene - linoleate system and the TBARS assay. Known antioxidant compounds such as total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and reducing sugars were also determined. Spearmint was found to be present in the herb mixtures with the greatest antioxidant activity and these also had the highest flavonoid content. The most potent antioxidant activity was found in combinations of different herbs, suggesting synergistic effects. PMID:21308820

  14. Effects of oral dosage form and storage period on the antioxidant properties of four species used in traditional herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barreira, João C M; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-04-01

    Herbal infusions and decoctions in water are some of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Although water is not a good solvent for many of the active components in herbs, liquid preparations are rich in several bioactive compounds. Most of them have powerful antioxidant activity and have been related to medicinal herbs' properties. Herein, decoctions and infusions in water of lemon-verbena (Aloysia citrodora) aerial parts and leaves, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) aerial parts with different periods of storage (0, 30, 60 and 120 days), were prepared. The effects of the method of preparation and storage period on their antioxidant properties were analysed. For all the analysed species, infusions gave better results than the corresponding decoctions. Spearmint infusions showed the highest antioxidant properties, at all the storage periods, probably due to the highest levels and synergy between phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid found in this sample. Linear discriminant analysis confirmed that the length of storage period has a significant influence on the antioxidant activity and antioxidant content. Flavonoids and reducing sugars proved to be the parameters that most highly contributed to cluster individual groups according to different periods of storage. PMID:20740475

  15. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

    PubMed Central

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Kalsoom Khan, Abida; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed. PMID:26448818

  16. Effects of herbal essential oil mixture as a dietary supplement on egg production in quail.

    PubMed

    Çabuk, Metin; Eratak, Serdar; Alçicek, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp.), laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), sage leaf (Salvia triloba L.), myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), and citrus peel (Citrus sp.). In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P < 0.001). However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio. PMID:24587729

  17. Can estragole in fennel seed decoctions really be considered a danger for human health? A fennel safety update.

    PubMed

    Gori, L; Gallo, E; Mascherini, V; Mugelli, A; Vannacci, A; Firenzuoli, F

    2012-01-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) mature fruit (commonly known as seeds) and essential oil of fennel are widely used as flavoring agents in food products such as liqueurs, bread, cheese, and an ingredient of cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. Moreover fennel infusions are the classical decoction for nursing babies to prevent flatulence and colic spasm. Traditionally in Europe and Mediterranean areas fennel is used as antispasmodic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, secretomotor, secretolytic, galactagogue, eye lotion, and antioxidant remedy and integrator. Topically, fennel powder is used as a poultice for snake bites. In Asian cultures fennel was ingested to speed the elimination of poisons. As one of the ancient Saxon people's nine sacred herbs, fennel was credited with the power to cure. Fennel was also valued as a magic herb: in the Middle Ages it was draped over doorways on Midsummer's Eve to protect the household from evil spirits. Recently because of estragole carcinogenicity, fennel has been charged to be dangerous for humans especially if used as decoction for babies. But this allegation do not consider the remedy is prepared as a matrix of substances, and recent researches confirm that pure estragole is inactivated by many substance contained in the decoction. PMID:22899959

  18. Interspecific Associations between Cycloneda sanguinea and Two Aphid Species (Aphis gossypii and Hyadaphis foeniculi) in Sole-Crop and Fennel-Cotton Intercropping Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Francisco S.; Ramalho, Francisco S.; Malaquias, José B.; Godoy, Wesley A. C.; Santos, Bárbara Davis B.

    2015-01-01

    Aphids cause significant damage to crop plants. Studies regarding predator-prey relationships in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) crops are important for understanding essential ecological interactions in the context of intercropping and for establishing pest management programs for aphids. This study evaluated the association among Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Cycloneda sanguinea (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in cotton with coloured fibres, fennel and cotton intercropped with fennel. Association analysis was used to investigate whether the presence or absence of prey and predator species can indicate possible interactions between aphids and ladybugs. Significant associations among both apterous and alate H. foeniculi and C. sanguinea were observed in both the fennel and fennel-cotton intercropping systems. The similarity analysis showed that the presence of aphids and ladybugs in the same system is significantly dependent on the type of crop. A substantial amount of evidence indicates that the presence of the ladybug C. sanguinea, is associated with apterous or alate A. gossypii and H. foeniculi in fennel-cotton intercropping system. We recommend that future research vising integrated aphid management taking into account these associations for take decisions. PMID:26241862

  19. Can Estragole in Fennel Seed Decoctions Really Be Considered a Danger for Human Health? A Fennel Safety Update

    PubMed Central

    Gori, L.; Gallo, E.; Mascherini, V.; Mugelli, A.; Vannacci, A.; Firenzuoli, F.

    2012-01-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) mature fruit (commonly known as seeds) and essential oil of fennel are widely used as flavoring agents in food products such as liqueurs, bread, cheese, and an ingredient of cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. Moreover fennel infusions are the classical decoction for nursing babies to prevent flatulence and colic spasm. Traditionally in Europe and Mediterranean areas fennel is used as antispasmodic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, secretomotor, secretolytic, galactagogue, eye lotion, and antioxidant remedy and integrator. Topically, fennel powder is used as a poultice for snake bites. In Asian cultures fennel was ingested to speed the elimination of poisons. As one of the ancient Saxon people's nine sacred herbs, fennel was credited with the power to cure. Fennel was also valued as a magic herb: in the Middle Ages it was draped over doorways on Midsummer's Eve to protect the household from evil spirits. Recently because of estragole carcinogenicity, fennel has been charged to be dangerous for humans especially if used as decoction for babies. But this allegation do not consider the remedy is prepared as a matrix of substances, and recent researches confirm that pure estragole is inactivated by many substance contained in the decoction. PMID:22899959

  20. Investigations into the antibacterial activities of phytotherapeutics against Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Cwikla, C; Schmidt, K; Matthias, A; Bone, K M; Lehmann, R; Tiralongo, E

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of gastric diseases is increasing with H. pylori, the causative agent of acute and chronic gastritis, being a major predisposing factor for peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma. C. jejuni is the most common cause of enteric infections, particularly among children, resulting in severe diarrhoea. Increasing drug resistance of these bacteria against standard antibiotics, and the more widespread use of herbal medicines, favours investigations into additional anti-Helicobacter and anti-Campylobacter effects of phytotherapeutics that are already used for their beneficial effects on bowel and digestive functions. Twenty-one hydroethanol herbal extracts and four essential oils were screened for antibacterial activity using a modification of a previously described micro-dilution assay and compared with the inhibitory effects of antibiotics. The herbal extracts showing the highest growth inhibition of C. jejuni were Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Zingiber officinale, Salvia officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare and Silybum marianum. Agrimonia eupatoria, Hydrastis canadensis, Filipendula ulmaria and Salvia officinalis were the most active herbal extracts in inhibiting the growth of H. pylori. This study provides evidence for additional beneficial effects of phytotherapeutics marketed for their gastrointestinal effects and identifies new beneficial antibacterial effects for some herbal medicines not currently recommended for gastrointestinal problems. PMID:19653313

  1. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity.

    PubMed

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed. PMID:26448818

  2. Simultaneous Determination of Essential Oil Components and Fatty Acids in Fennel using Gas Chromatography with a Polar Capillary Column.

    PubMed

    Najdoska-Bogdanov, Menče; Bogdanov, Jane B; Stefova, Marina

    2015-09-01

    Cultivated and wild growing samples of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae) from R. Macedonia were studied for their volatiles and fatty acid composition. The main essential oil components isolated via hydrodistillation were: trans-anethole (>80%), estragole (< 6%), limonene (< 6%), anisaldehyde (< 1%) and 0.5 % fenchone. An alternative method for characterization of both the non-polar volatile and non volatile fractions was developed using n-hexane and dichloromethane (3:1, v/v) in a Soxhlet extraction followed by transesterification. The obtained extracts were then characterized and the dominant fatty acid was 18:1 (petroselinic and oleic acid) 75.0-82.8%, followed by 18:2 (linoleic acid) 10.8-16.2% and other fatty acids: palmitic (4.3-6.9%), stearic (1.2-1.7%) and myristic (0-2.9%). The results for the volatile fraction after Soxhlet extraction and transesterification did not significantly differ from results obtained after hydrodistillation, especially for the main components (trans-anethole, estragole, fenchone and limonene), implying that the developed method can be used for simultaneous determination of volatiles and fatty acids. PMID:26594773

  3. Novel Application of Natural Anisole Compounds as Enhancers for Transdermal Delivery of Ligustrazine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Jun; Wang, Jiao-Ying; Li, Hui; He, Xin; Zhang, Run-Qi; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Li, Fei; Yang, Zhong-Lin; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    To improve the transdermal delivery of ligustrazine, Foeniculum vulgare food origin anisole compounds were employed as promoters. Transdermal fluxes of ligustrazine were determined by Franz-type diffusion cells. Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectra were used to detect the biophysical changes of the stratum corneum and to explore the mechanism of permeation enhancement. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to monitor the morphological changes of the skin. Among the three anisoles, anisic acid increased the penetration flux of ligustrazine significantly. The ligustrazine flux with anisic acid (11.9 μg/cm(2)/h) was higher than that any other group (p < 0.05). Spectra observations revealed that these anisole enhancers were able to disturb and extract the stratum corneum lipids. In addition, apparent density was used to describe the desquamation extent of the scutella. Multiple mechanisms are involved in the permeation enhancement of ligustrazine, including disturbing and extracting stratum corneum lipid, forming a competitive hydrogen bond. All data suggested that anisole compounds could be a group of safe and active penetration enhancers for transdermal delivery of ligustrazine. PMID:26446204

  4. Laūq: A Sustained-Release Dosage Form for Respiratory Disorders in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    PubMed

    Karegar-Borzi, Hossein; Salehi, Mehdi; Rahimi, Roja

    2016-01-01

    Laūq is a pharmaceutical dosage form that had been mainly used for the treatment of various respiratory disorders in traditional Persian medicine. It is important from 2 aspects: a dosage form with efficient and optimum delivery of drugs to the respiratory tract and biological effects of its ingredients. Natural medicine in laūq has been demonstrated to act in respiratory disorders by their antitussive, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, spasmolytic, and antibacterial activities. Some of these natural remedies act by most of the mentioned mechanisms such as Cydonia oblonga, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Crocus sativus, Hyssopus officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare, and honey. However, the evidence is limited including Cassia fistula, Papaver somniferum, and Drimia maritima. According to positive pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of laūqs, they may be considered as efficient dosage forms for delivery of drugs to the respiratory tract. For better compatibility of patients, it could be substituted laūqs with newer drug delivery systems like lozenges. PMID:26008751

  5. Interspecific Associations between Cycloneda sanguinea and Two Aphid Species (Aphis gossypii and Hyadaphis foeniculi) in Sole-Crop and Fennel-Cotton Intercropping Systems.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Francisco S; Ramalho, Francisco S; Malaquias, José B; Godoy, Wesley A C; Santos, Bárbara Davis B

    2015-01-01

    Aphids cause significant damage to crop plants. Studies regarding predator-prey relationships in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) crops are important for understanding essential ecological interactions in the context of intercropping and for establishing pest management programs for aphids. This study evaluated the association among Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Cycloneda sanguinea (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in cotton with coloured fibres, fennel and cotton intercropped with fennel. Association analysis was used to investigate whether the presence or absence of prey and predator species can indicate possible interactions between aphids and ladybugs. Significant associations among both apterous and alate H. foeniculi and C. sanguinea were observed in both the fennel and fennel-cotton intercropping systems. The similarity analysis showed that the presence of aphids and ladybugs in the same system is significantly dependent on the type of crop. A substantial amount of evidence indicates that the presence of the ladybug C. sanguinea, is associated with apterous or alate A. gossypii and H. foeniculi in fennel-cotton intercropping system. We recommend that future research vising integrated aphid management taking into account these associations for take decisions. PMID:26241862

  6. Fungal control of pathogenic fungi isolated from wild plants in Taif Governorate, Saudia Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abou-Zeid, A M; Altalhi, A D; Abd El-Fattah, R I

    2007-01-01

    Twenty two plants were collected from Taif Governorate and identified as: Euphorbia glomerifera, Juniperus procera, Launaea mucronata, Capparis dcidua, Punica granatum, Opuntia ficus, Prunus persica, Eucalyptus globulus, Medicago sativa, Artemisia monosperma, Trichodesma calathiforme, Artemisia judaica, Foeniculum vulgare, Phagnalon sinaicum, Rumex dentatus, Asphodelus aestives, Pulicaria crispa, Launae sonchoides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Arnebia hispidissima, Avena spp and Aerva lanata. Pathogenic fungi were isolated from some of these plants and identified as Alternaria alternate, Ulocladium botrytis, Cladosporium spp, Cephalosporium spp, Penicillium chrysogenum, Fusarium oxysporum and Humicola grisea. Four antagonistic isolates were tested, 2 from Gliocladium fungus and 2 from Trichoderma fungus. We found that all the four antagonistic isolates (G. deliquescens, G. virens, T. viride and T. hamatum) significantly inhibited the radial growth of the pathogenic fungi tested, with different ratios. The results indicated that the antibiotics produced by the antagonists were more effective than the fungus itself and differ with different fungi. Coating plant stems with antagonists or with antagonist extracts reduce the severity of the disease but not prevent it in all tested pathogens. PMID:18928069

  7. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    PubMed Central

    Çabuk, Metin; Eratak, Serdar; Alçicek, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp.), laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), sage leaf (Salvia triloba L.), myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), and citrus peel (Citrus sp.). In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P < 0.001). However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio. PMID:24587729

  8. Evaluation of native plant flower characteristics for conservation biological control of Prays oleae.

    PubMed

    Nave, A; Gonçalves, F; Crespí, A L; Campos, M; Torres, L

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown that manipulating flowering weeds within an agroecosystem can have an important role in pest control by natural enemies, by providing them nectar and pollen, which are significant sources of nutrition for adults. The aim of this study was to assess if the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard, 1788) (Lepidoptera: Praydidae), and five of its main natural enemies, the parasitoid species Chelonus elaeaphilus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Elasmus flabellatus (Fonscolombe) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), as well as the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), can theoretically access the nectar from 21 flowering weeds that naturally occur in olive groves. Thus, the architecture of the flowers as well as the mouthpart structure and/or the head and thorax width of the pest and its enemies were analyzed. The results suggested that all beneficial insects were able to reach nectar of the plant species from Apiaceae family, i.e. Conopodium majus (Gouan) Loret, Daucus carota L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill., as well as Asparagus acutifolius L., Echium plantagineum L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Lonicera hispanica Boiss. et Reut., Silene gallica L., Spergula arvensis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Calamintha baetica Boiss. et Reut, Malva neglecta Wallr. and Linaria saxatilis (L.) Chaz. P. oleae was not able to access nectar from five plant species, namely: Andryala integrifolia L., Chondrilla juncea L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill and Lavandula stoechas L. PMID:26780918

  9. Antidiabetic antihyperlipidemic and hepato-protective effect of Gluconorm-5: A polyherbal formulation in steptozotocin induced hyperglycemic rats

    PubMed Central

    Gengiah, Kalavathy; Hari, Rajeswary; Anbu, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and hepato-protective effect of Gluconorm-5, was studied in steptozotocin (STZ) induced hyperglycemic rats. Materials and Methods: The hypoglycemic effect of single dose of Gluconorm-5 (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight) made up of five plants namely Camellia sinensis, Punica granatum, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Foeniculum vulgare and Trigonella foenum-graecum was studied in normal, glucose loaded normal and diabetes-induced rats. The extent of antihyperlipidemic and liver-protective effect was studied by estimating the lipid profile, and the liver marker enzymes. Histopathological studies of the pancreatic tissue were also carried out with glibenclamide as standard antihyperglycemic agent. Results: Fifteen days of oral feeding of the Gluconorm-5 (300 and 600 mg/kg) to diabetic rats resulted in a significant (P < 0.01) reduction of blood glucose, lipid profile, liver weight and marker enzymes as compared to those rats in whom STZ induced toxicity was untreated. The diabetic rats treated with the drug showed expanded islets as compared to the untreated diabetic rats, which showed the shrunken islets. The animals that received 300 mg/kg of Gluconorm-5 showed pronounced antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and hepato-protective effect in the present study, which was comparable with glibenclamide, a standard drug. Conclusion: Gluconorm-5 exerts potent antidiabetic antihyperlipidemic and hepato-protective effect, which can be used as adjuvant in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:25737607

  10. Spasmolytic effect of traditional herbal formulation on guinea pig ileum

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dushyant; Ganguly, Kuntal; Hegde, H. V.; Patil, P. A.; Kholkute, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The herbal formulation consisting of Andrographis paniculata Nees., Cassia fistula L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Cuminum cyminum L. is widely used by the local traditional practitioners in rural Northern Karnataka for spasmodic abdominal pain. Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate safety and spasmolytic effect of poly-herbal formulation. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity studies were carried out in Swiss mice, as per the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. The spasmolytic activity of the formulation was studied in isolated guinea pig ileum model using histamine and acetylcholine as agonists. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Dunnetts post-hoc test and P ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulation did not show any adverse toxic effects and found to be safe. It also showed significant (P < 0.05) relaxation in different agonist like histamine and acetylcholine-induced contractions in guinea pig ileum. Conclusion: Antispasmodic activity of the herbal formulation can be attributed to its atropine-like activity. The present findings, therefore, support its utility in spasmodic abdominal pain. PMID:26604555

  11. Effect of fennel on pain intensity in dysmenorrhoea: A placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Shabnam; Esmailzadeh, Sedighe; Baradaran, Mahmood; Basirat, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical effect of Foeniculum vulgare on primary dysmenorrhoea. Sixty virgin girls with complaints of dysmenorrhoea were enrolled in this study, out of which 50 cases were completed the course of treatment and were divided in two groups (study and placebo) and were under treatment for two cycles. In study group a capsule of 30 mg fennel extract, four times a day for three days from start of their menstrual period and in placebo a capsule containing wheat flour in same dose was administered. Intensity of pain was reported by using a 10 - point linear analogue technique. In study group the mean age of menarche was 13.1 ± 0.1 and onset age of dysmenorrhoea was 14.5 ± 0.1 years. Both groups were relieved but there was significant difference between study and placebo group. Study group shown more effective results than placebo in pain relief (P`0.05). Based on the observations, it can be concluded that, fennel is an effective herbal drug for menstrual pain. PMID:23559811

  12. Identification and Fine Mapping of a White Husk Gene in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Hua, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Zhu, Jinghuan; Shang, Yi; Wang, Junmei; Jia, Qiaojun; Zhang, Qisen; Yang, Jianming; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Barley is the only crop in the Poaceae family with adhering husks at maturity. The color of husk at barely development stage could influence the agronomic traits and malting qualities of grains. A barley mutant with a white husk was discovered from the malting barley cultivar Supi 3 and designated wh (white husk). Morphological changes and the genetics of white husk barley were investigated. Husks of the mutant were white at the heading and flowering stages but yellowed at maturity. The diastatic power and α-amino nitrogen contents also significantly increased in wh mutant. Transmission electron microscopy examination showed abnormal chloroplast development in the mutant. Genetic analysis of F2 and BC1F1 populations developed from a cross of wh and Yangnongpi 5 (green husk) showed that the white husk was controlled by a single recessive gene (wh). The wh gene was initially mapped between 49.64 and 51.77 cM on chromosome 3H, which is syntenic with rice chromosome 1 where a white husk gene wlp1 has been isolated. The barley orthologous gene of wlp1 was sequenced from both parents and a 688 bp deletion identified in the wh mutant. We further fine-mapped the wh gene between SSR markers Bmac0067 and Bmag0508a with distances of 0.36 cM and 0.27 cM in an F2 population with 1115 individuals of white husk. However, the wlp1 orthologous gene was mapped outside the interval. New candidate genes were identified based on the barley genome sequence. PMID:27028408

  13. Luteibacter rhizovicinus MIMR1 promotes root development in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Guglielmetti, Simone; Basilico, Roberto; Taverniti, Valentina; Arioli, Stefania; Piagnani, Claudia; Bernacchi, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    In order to preserve environmental quality, alternative strategies to chemical-intensive agriculture are strongly needed. In this study, we characterized in vitro the potential plant growth promoting (PGP) properties of a gamma-proteobacterium, named MIMR1, originally isolated from apple shoots in micropropagation. The analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence allowed the taxonomic identification of MIMR1 as Luteibacter rhizovicinus. The PGP properties of MIMR1 were compared to Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca DSM 19603(T), which was selected as a reference PGP bacterium. By means of in vitro experiments, we showed that L. rhizovicinus MIMR1 and P. chlororaphis DSM 19603(T) have the ability to produce molecules able to chelate ferric ions and solubilize monocalcium phosphate. On the contrary, both strains were apparently unable to solubilize tricalcium phosphate. Furthermore, the ability to produce 3-indol acetic acid by MIMR1 was approximately three times higher than that of DSM 19603(T). By using fluorescent recombinants of strains MIMR1 and DSM 19603(T), we also demonstrated that both bacteria are able to abundantly proliferate and colonize the barley rhizosphere, preferentially localizing on root tips and in the rhizoplane. Finally, we observed a negative effect of DSM 19603(T) on barley seed germination and plant growth, whereas MIMR1, compared to the control, determined a significant increase of the weight of aerial part (+22 %), and the weight and length of roots (+53 and +32 %, respectively). The results obtained in this work make L. rhizovicinus MIMR1 a good candidate for possible use in the formulation of bio-fertilizers. PMID:23653264

  14. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Barley Cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) with Contrasting Grain Protein Content

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Baojian; Luan, Haiye; Lin, Shen; Lv, Chao; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Rugen

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein contents (GPCs) of barley seeds are significantly different between feed and malting barley cultivars. However, there is still no insight into the proteomic analysis of seed proteins between feed and malting barley cultivars. Also, the genetic control of barley GPC is still unclear. GPCs were measured between mature grains of Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. A proteome profiling of differentially expressed protein was established by using a combination of 2-DE and tandem mass spectrometry. In total, 502 reproducible protein spots in barley seed proteome were detected with a pH range of 4–7 and 6–11, among these 41 protein spots (8.17%) were detected differentially expressed between Yangsimai 3 and Naso Nijo. Thirty-four protein spots corresponding to 23 different proteins were identified, which were grouped into eight categories, including stress, protein degradation and post-translational modification, development, cell, signaling, glycolysis, starch metabolism, and other functions. Among the identified proteins, enolase (spot 274) and small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (spot 271) are exclusively expressed in barley Yangsimai 3, which may be involved in regulating seed protein expression. In addition, malting quality is characterized by an accumulation of serpin protein, Alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CMb and Alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1. Most noticeably, globulin, an important storage protein in barley seed, undergoes post-translational processing in both cultivars, and also displays different expression patterns. PMID:27200019

  15. A Single Locus Is Responsible for Salinity Tolerance in a Chinese Landrace Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chengdao; Johnson, Peter; Lu, Chao; Zhou, Meixue

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Salinity and waterlogging are two major abiotic stresses severely limiting barley production. The lack of a reliable screening method makes it very hard to improve the tolerance through breeding programs. Methods This work used 188 DH lines from a cross between a Chinese landrace variety, TX9425 (waterlogging and salinity tolerant), and a Japanese malting barley, Naso Nijo (waterlogging and salinity sensitive), to identify QTLs associated with the tolerance. Results Four QTLs were found for waterlogging tolerance. The salinity tolerance was evaluated with both a hydroponic system and in potting mixture. In the trial with potting mixture, only one major QTL was identified to associate with salinity tolerance. This QTL explained nearly 50% of the phenotypic variation, which makes it possible for further fine mapping and cloning of the gene. This QTL was also identified in the hydroponic experiment for different salt-related traits. The position of this QTL was located at a similar position to one of the major QTLs for waterlogging tolerance, indicating the possibility of similar mechanisms controlling both waterlogging and salinity tolerance. Conclusion The markers associated with the QTL provided a unique opportunity in breeding programs for selection of salinity and waterlogging tolerance. PMID:22916210

  16. Fungi and the natural occurrence of deoxynivalenol and fumonisins in malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Piacentini, Karim C; Savi, Geovana D; Pereira, Maria E V; Scussel, Vildes M

    2015-11-15

    The industrial use of barley grain has experienced continuous growth, mainly due to its economic importance for malt production. From a technological perspective, fungal persistence can reduce product marketability and cause economic losses. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to determine the presence and identification of mycoflora and the occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FBs) in malting barley. The samples presented a low count of fungal colonies, with values ranging from 10.5 to 0.5 × 10(1)CFU g(-1) and the species most found were Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides with 26% and 12% of incidence, respectively. In the samples analyzed for mycotoxins occurrence, DON and FBs were present in 18% and 12%, respectively. The high concentrations of toxins found in the malting samples may be strongly influenced by agricultural practices and the weather conditions during critical phases of plant growth. PMID:25977017

  17. Genetic variations in the hybrids of rice (Oryza sativa) and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Deming, Z; Shanbao, C; Xiaolan, D; Junhua, F; Xianbin, S; Yonghui, L; Liancheng, L; Bensong, X

    1985-08-01

    Some of results from morphological and cytological observations and esterase-isozyme studies of a rice-sorghum hybrid are presented in this paper. There is a great diversity of morphological characters and some special characteristics in the progenies of the hybrids of rice with sorghum. The meiosis of pollen mother cells in the early generations of the hybrid was found to be abnormal. One main band coinciding with one found in sorghum but lacking in rice appeared in the majority of the hybrid lines. This band is characteristic of a are the specificities of the distant hybridization of rice and sorghum, and is rarely observed in the intervariety hybrids or hybrids between subspecies of Oryza sativa, indica and japonica. On the basis of these facts we concluded that the hybrids obtained are true hybrids of rice and sorghum. PMID:24253065

  18. Molecular Marker Development and Linkage Analysis in Three Low Phytic Acid Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Mutant Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytate is the primary form of phosphorus found in mature cereal grain. This form of phosphorus is not available to monogastric animals due to a lack of the enzyme phytase in their digestive tract. Several barley low phytic acid (lpa) mutants have been identified that contain substantial decreases...

  19. Diversity and Evolution of Disease Resistance Genes in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Ethan J.; Ali, Shaukat; Reese, R. Neil; Yen, Yang; Neupane, Surendra; Nepal, Madhav P.

    2016-01-01

    Plant disease resistance genes (R-genes) play a critical role in the defense response to pathogens. Barley is one of the most important cereal crops, having a genome recently made available, for which the diversity and evolution of R-genes are not well understood. The main objectives of this research were to conduct a genome-wide identification of barley Coiled-coil, Nucleotide-binding site, Leucine-rich repeat (CNL) genes and elucidate their evolutionary history. We employed a Hidden Markov Model using 52 Arabidopsis thaliana CNL reference sequences and analyzed for phylogenetic relationships, structural variation, and gene clustering. We identified 175 barley CNL genes nested into three clades, showing (a) evidence of an expansion of the CNL-C clade, primarily due to tandem duplications; (b) very few members of clade CNL-A and CNL-B; and (c) a complete absence of clade CNL-D. Our results also showed that several of the previously identified mildew locus A (MLA) genes may be allelic variants of two barley CNL genes, MLOC_66581 and MLOC_10425, which respond to powdery mildew. Approximately 23% of the barley CNL genes formed 15 gene clusters located in the extra-pericentromeric regions on six of the seven chromosomes; more than half of the clustered genes were located on chromosomes 1H and 7H. Higher average numbers of exons and multiple splice variants in barley relative to those in Arabidopsis and rice may have contributed to a diversification of the CNL-C members. These results will help us understand the evolution of R-genes with potential implications for developing durable resistance in barley cultivars. PMID:27168720

  20. Sequestration of copper and zinc in the hepatopancreas of Armadillidium vulgare latreille following exposure to lead

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, M.; Heisey, R.; Witkus, R. ); Vernon, G.M. )

    1991-06-01

    Heavy metals have been found in tissues of a variety of terrestrial isopods recovered from heavy-metal polluted sites. One of the difficulties encountered in these studies is the interpretation of the influence of multiple non-essential heavy metals on concentrations of essential metals. The primary soft tissue site of heavy metal storage in the isopod is the hepatopancreas, which stores more heavy metal than any other soft tissue of any other animal. In a preliminary study, isopods exposed to lead nitrate showed increased copper and zinc concentrations in hepatopancreas tissue. As a result of these findings, this more extensive study was undertaken.

  1. Identification of resistance to Rhizoctonia root rot in mutant and wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct seeding cereal crops into non-tilled fields is a practice that is gaining importance in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Unfortunately, Rhizoctonia root rot and bare-patch caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 limits the yield of direct-seeded cereals in this region. No resistan...

  2. The associations between Vrs1 alleles and grain quality traits in spring barley Hordeum vulgare L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley head row type is a major trait affecting end use quality. Six rowed forms emerged due to mutations in the Vrs1 gene in two rowed barleys. Whether barley is two (Vrs1) or six rowed (vrs1) directly affects a wide range of morphological traits related to seed yield and grain quality. Vrs1 has be...

  3. QTL analysis of flag leaf in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for morphological traits and chlorophyll content*

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Da-wei; Chen, Ming-can; Zhou, Mei-xue; Chen, Song; Mao, Ying; Zhang, Guo-ping

    2008-01-01

    To understand genetic patterns of the morphological and physiological traits in flag leaf of barley, a double haploid (DH) population derived from the parents Yerong and Franklin was used to determine quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling length, width, length/width, and chlorophyll content of flag leaves. A total of 9 QTLs showing significantly additive effect were detected in 8 intervals on 5 chromosomes. The variation of individual QTL ranged from 1.9% to 20.2%. For chlorophyll content expressed as SPAD value, 4 QTLs were identified on chromosomes 2H, 3H and 6H; for leaf length and width, 2 QTLs located on chromosomes 5H and 7H, and 2 QTLs located on chromosome 5H were detected; and for length/width, 1 QTL was detected on chromosome 7H. The identification of these QTLs associated with the properties of flag leaf is useful for barley improvement in breeding programs. PMID:19067461

  4. Landscape genomics reveal signatures of local adaptation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Abebe, Tiegist D.; Naz, Ali A.; Léon, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Land plants are sessile organisms that cannot escape the adverse climatic conditions of a given environment. Hence, adaptation is one of the solutions to surviving in a challenging environment. This study was aimed at detecting adaptive loci in barley landraces that are affected by selection. To that end, a diverse population of barley landraces was analyzed using the genotyping by sequencing approach. Climatic data for altitude, rainfall and temperature were collected from 61 weather sites near the origin of selected landraces across Ethiopia. Population structure analysis revealed three groups whereas spatial analysis accounted significant similarities at shorter geographic distances (< 40 Km) among barley landraces. Partitioning the variance between climate variables and geographic distances indicated that climate variables accounted for most of the explainable genetic variation. Markers by climatic variables association analysis resulted in altogether 18 and 62 putative adaptive loci using Bayenv and latent factor mixed model (LFMM), respectively. Subsequent analysis of the associated SNPs revealed putative candidate genes for plant adaptation. This study highlights the presence of putative adaptive loci among barley landraces representing original gene pool of the farming communities. PMID:26483825

  5. Ethanol, vinegar and Origanum vulgare oil vapour suppress the development of anthracnose rot in tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Tzortzakis, Nikos G

    2010-08-15

    Anthracnose rot (Colletotrichum coccodes) development in vitro or in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit was evaluated after treatment with absolute ethyl alcohol (AEA), vinegar (VIN), chlorine (CHL) or origanum oil (ORI) and storage at 12 degrees C and 95% relative humidity during or following exposure to the volatiles. Fruit treated with vapours reduced fungal spore germination/production, but in the case of AEA- and VIN-treated fruits, fungal mycelium development was accelerated. Fruit lesion development was suppressed after fruit exposure to pure (100% v/v) AEA or ORI vapours which were accompanied by increased fruit cracking. Exposure to pure VIN-, CHL- and ORI vapours reduced (up to 92%) spore germination in vitro, but no differences were observed in the AEA treatment. The benefits associated with volatiles-enrichment were maintained in fruit pre-exposed to vapours, resulting in suppression in spore germination and spore production. However, studies performed on fungi grown on Potato Dextrose Agar revealed fewer direct effects of volatiles on fungal colony development and spore germination per se, implying that suppression of pathogen development was due in a large part to the impact of volatiles on fruit-pathogen interactions and/or 'memory' effects on fruit tissue. Work is currently focussing on the mechanisms underlying the impacts of volatiles on fruit quality related attributes. The results of this study indicate that volatiles may be considered as an alternative to the traditional postharvest sanitizing techniques. Each commodity needs to be individually assessed, and the volatile concentration and sanitising technique optimised, before the volatile treatment is used commercially. PMID:20576303

  6. Molecular and chemical characterization of a new waxy allele in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley M38 mutant was first selected for its high level of mixed-linkage (1,3), (1,4) beta-D-glucan (MLG) in the grain. This elevated level of MLG was found to be associated with thickened endosperm cell wall and reduced amylose accumulation. The M38 mutation was mapped to a genetic locus flanked by...

  7. Transcript Differences Associated With Non-Acclimated Freezing Tolerance in Two Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley periodically suffers from late spring freezes in area throughout the world, with significant losses to yield. To better understand the response of barley to spring freezes, we examined the response of Dicktoo and Keunal barley varieties in their jointing stage to non-acclimated freezing (NAF...

  8. Aluminium tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.): physiological mechanisms, genetics and screening methods*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun-ping; Raman, Harsh; Zhang, Guo-ping; Mendham, Neville; Zhou, Mei-xue

    2006-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity is one of the major limiting factors for barley production on acid soils. It inhibits root cell division and elongation, thus reducing water and nutrient uptake, consequently resulting in poor plant growth and yield. Plants tolerate Al either through external resistance mechanisms, by which Al is excluded from plant tissues or internal tolerance mechanisms, conferring the ability of plants to tolerate Al ion in the plant symplasm where Al that has permeated the plasmalemma is sequestered or converted into an innocuous form. Barley is considered to be most sensitive to Al toxicity among cereal species. Al tolerance in barley has been assessed by several methods, such as nutrient solution culture, soil bioassay and field screening. Genetic and molecular mapping research has shown that Al tolerance in barley is controlled by a single locus which is located on chromosome 4H. Molecular markers linked with Al tolerance loci have been identified and validated in a range of diverse populations. This paper reviews the (1) screening methods for evaluating Al tolerance, (2) genetics and (3) mechanisms underlying Al tolerance in barley. PMID:16972319

  9. Inheritance of prehaustorial resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Dracatos, Peter M; Ayliffe, Michael; Khatkar, Mehar S; Fetch, Tom; Singh, Davinder; Park, Robert F

    2014-11-01

    Rust pathogens within the genus Puccinia cause some of the most economically significant diseases of crops. Different formae speciales of P. graminis have co-evolved to mainly infect specific grass hosts; however, some genotypes of other closely related cereals can also be infected. This study investigated the inheritance of resistance to three diverse pathotypes of the oat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. avenae) in the 'Yerong' ✕ 'Franklin' (Y/F) barley doubled haploid (DH) population, a host with which it is not normally associated. Both parents, 'Yerong' and 'Franklin', were immune to all P. graminis f. sp. avenae pathotypes; however. there was transgressive segregation within the Y/F population, in which infection types (IT) ranged from complete immunity to mesothetic susceptibility, suggesting the presence of heritable resistance. Both QTL and marker-trait association (MTA) analysis was performed on the Y/F population to map resistance loci in response to P. graminis f. sp. avenae. QTL on chromosome 1H ('Yerong' Rpga1 and Rpga2) were identified using all forms of analysis, while QTL detected on 5H ('Franklin' Rpga3 and Rpga4) and 7H (Rpga5) were only detected using MTA or composite interval mapping-single marker regression analysis respectively. Rpga1 to Rpga5 were effective in response to all P. graminis f. sp. avenae pathotypes used in this study, suggesting resistance is not pathotype specific. Rpga1 co-located to previously mapped QTL in the Y/F population for adult plant resistance to the barley leaf scald pathogen (Rhynchosporium secalis) on chromosome 1H. Histological evidence suggests that the resistance observed within parental and immune DH lines in the population was prehaustorial and caused by callose deposition within the walls of the mesophyll cells, preventing hyphal penetration. PMID:25025780

  10. Quantification of the tissue-culture induced variation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Bednarek, Piotr T; Orłowska, Renata; Koebner, Robert MD; Zimny, Janusz

    2007-01-01

    Background When plant tissue is passaged through in vitro culture, many regenerated plants appear to be no longer clonal copies of their donor genotype. Among the factors that affect this so-called tissue culture induced variation are explant genotype, explant tissue origin, medium composition, and the length of time in culture. Variation is understood to be generated via a combination of genetic and/or epigenetic changes. A lack of any phenotypic variation between regenerants does not necessarily imply a concomitant lack of genetic (or epigenetic) change, and it is therefore of interest to assay the outcomes of tissue culture at the genotypic level. Results A variant of methylation sensitive AFLP, based on the isoschizomeric combinations Acc65I/MseI and KpnI/MseI was applied to analyze, at both the sequence and methylation levels, the outcomes of regeneration from tissue culture in barley. Both sequence mutation and alteration in methylation pattern were detected. Two sets of regenerants from each of five DH donor lines were compared. One set was derived via androgenesis, and the other via somatic embryogenesis, developed from immature embryos. These comparisons delivered a quantitative assessment of the various types of somaclonal variation induced. The average level of variation was 6%, of which almost 1.7% could be accounted for by nucleotide mutation, and the remainder by changes in methylation state. The nucleotide mutation rates and the rate of epimutations were substantially similar between the andro- and embryo-derived sets of regenerants across all the donors. Conclusion We have developed an AFLP based approach that is capable of describing the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the tissue culture-induced variation. We believe that this approach will find particular value in the study of patterns of inheritance of somaclonal variation, since non-heritable variation is of little interest for the improvement of plant species which are sexually propagated. Of significant biological interest is the conclusion that the mode of regeneration has no significant effect on the balance between sequence and methylation state change induced by the tissue culture process. PMID:17335560

  11. The effects of barley straw (Hordeum vulgare) on the growth of freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Ferrier, M D; Butler, B R; Terlizzi, D E; Lacouture, R V

    2005-11-01

    Bioassays were conducted to determine the efficacy of barley straw liquor in controlling algal growth of 12 freshwater species of algae representing three divisions. Barley straw liquor inhibited the growth of three nuisance algae common in freshwater: Synura petersenii, Dinobyron sp., and Microcystis aeruginosa. However, Selenastrum capricornutum, Spirogyra sp., Oscillatoria lutea var. contorta, and Navicula sp. had significantly increased growth in the presence of straw liquor. The growth of the remainder, Ulothrix fimbriata, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Chlorella vulgaris, Anabaena flos-aquae, and Synedra sp. showed no significant difference from controls. In a related field study, we treated four of six ponds with barley straw and monitored their chlorophyll a levels for one growing season. While phytoplankton populations in all ponds decreased in midsummer, the phytoplankton biomass in treated ponds did not differ significantly from that of control ponds, suggesting that the application of barley straw had no effect on algal growth in these systems. PMID:16051085

  12. [Hordein locus polymorphism of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Pomortsev, A A; Martynov, S P; Lialina, E V

    2007-11-01

    Starch gel electrophoresis has been used to study the polymorphism of hordeins encoded by the Hrd A, Hrd B, and Hrd F loci in 93 landrace specimens of barley assigned to 17 ancient provinces located in modem Turkey. Forty-five alleles of Hrd A with frequencies of 0.11-29.34%, 51 alleles of Hrd B with frequencies of 0.11-8.07%, and 5 alleles of Hrd F with frequencies of 0.75-41.29% have been detected. Cluster analysis of the matrix of allele frequencies has demonstrated that barley populations from different old provinces of Turkey are similar to one another. Cluster structure of local barley populations has been found, most populations (82%) falling into three clusters. The first cluster comprises barley populations from six provinces (Thracia, Bithynia, Pontus, Lydia, Cappadocia, and Armenia); the second cluster, populations from five provinces (Paphlagonia, Galatia, Lycaonia, Cilicia, and Mesopotamia); and the third one, populations from three provinces (Phrygia, Karia, and Lycia). Barley populations from Mysia, Pamphlya, and Syria do not fall in any cluster. PMID:18186193

  13. High Resolution Analysis of Meiotic Chromosome Structure and Behaviour in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Dylan; Nibau, Candida; Wnetrzak, Joanna; Jenkins, Glyn

    2012-01-01

    Reciprocal crossing over and independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis generate most of the genetic variation in sexually reproducing organisms. In barley, crossovers are confined primarily to distal regions of the chromosomes, which means that a substantial proportion of the genes of this crop rarely, if ever, engage in recombination events. There is potentially much to be gained by redistributing crossovers to more proximal regions, but our ability to achieve this is dependent upon a far better understanding of meiosis in this species. This study explores the meiotic process by describing with unprecedented resolution the early behaviour of chromosomal domains, the progression of synapsis and the structure of the synaptonemal complex (SC). Using a combination of molecular cytogenetics and advanced fluorescence imaging, we show for the first time in this species that non-homologous centromeres are coupled prior to synapsis. We demonstrate that at early meiotic prophase the loading of the SC-associated structural protein ASY1, the cluster of telomeres, and distal synaptic initiation sites occupy the same polarised region of the nucleus. Through the use of advanced 3D image analysis, we show that synapsis is driven predominantly from the telomeres, and that new synaptic initiation sites arise during zygotene. In addition, we identified two different SC configurations through the use of super-resolution 3D structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM). PMID:22761818

  14. Effect of the simulated weightlessness (clinorotation) on a photosynthetic apparatus of barley plants (hordeum vulgare L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volovik, O. I.; Sytnik, S. K.; Topchiy, N. N.

    The effect of microgravitation (simulated by clinorotation) on the organization and functioning of chloroplasts, isolated from barley plants, is studied with the use SDS-electrophoresis, spectrophotometric and polarography methods. The relative content of monomeric forms of light harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHCII) increases at the expense of its oligomeric forms under clinorotation conditions. The decrease of the portion of the entire complex of photosystem I (PSI) as well as of the sum of the PSI complexes and the complex CPa (related to PSII) was observed in experimental variants. Clinorotation induced the decrease in PSI, PSII and full electron transport activity, and the extent of the reduction depended on the light intensity during plant growth. The ATP synthesis coupled with cyclic, noncyclic and linear electron transport was inhibited under the simulated microgravitation.

  15. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) inositol monophosphatase: gene structure and enzyme characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The de novo synthesis of myo-inositol (Ins) is catalyzed by two enzymatic activities; Ins(3)P1 synthase (MIPS; EC. 5.5.1.4) and Ins monophosphatase (IMPase; EC 3.1.3.25). The barley IMP-1 gene and gene products were studied to facilitate research into the regulation of Ins synthesis and supply. In m...

  16. Identification and Fine Mapping of a White Husk Gene in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Zhu, Jinghuan; Shang, Yi; Wang, Junmei; Jia, Qiaojun; Zhang, Qisen; Yang, Jianming; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Barley is the only crop in the Poaceae family with adhering husks at maturity. The color of husk at barely development stage could influence the agronomic traits and malting qualities of grains. A barley mutant with a white husk was discovered from the malting barley cultivar Supi 3 and designated wh (white husk). Morphological changes and the genetics of white husk barley were investigated. Husks of the mutant were white at the heading and flowering stages but yellowed at maturity. The diastatic power and α-amino nitrogen contents also significantly increased in wh mutant. Transmission electron microscopy examination showed abnormal chloroplast development in the mutant. Genetic analysis of F2 and BC1F1 populations developed from a cross of wh and Yangnongpi 5 (green husk) showed that the white husk was controlled by a single recessive gene (wh). The wh gene was initially mapped between 49.64 and 51.77 cM on chromosome 3H, which is syntenic with rice chromosome 1 where a white husk gene wlp1 has been isolated. The barley orthologous gene of wlp1 was sequenced from both parents and a 688 bp deletion identified in the wh mutant. We further fine-mapped the wh gene between SSR markers Bmac0067 and Bmag0508a with distances of 0.36 cM and 0.27 cM in an F2 population with 1115 individuals of white husk. However, the wlp1 orthologous gene was mapped outside the interval. New candidate genes were identified based on the barley genome sequence. PMID:27028408

  17. Responses to iron limitation in Hordeum vulgare L. as affected by the atmospheric CO2 concentration.

    PubMed

    Haase, S; Rothe, A; Kania, A; Wasaki, J; Römheld, V; Engels, C; Kandeler, E; Neumann, G

    2008-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 treatments stimulated biomass production in Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient barley plants, both in hydroponics and in soil culture. Root/shoot biomass ratio was increased in severely Fe-deficient plants grown in hydroponics but not under moderate Fe limitation in soil culture. Significantly increased biomass production in high CO2 treatments, even under severe Fe deficiency in hydroponic culture, indicates an improved internal Fe utilization. Iron deficiency-induced secretion of PS in 0.5 to 2.5 cm sub-apical root zones was increased by 74% in response to elevated CO2 treatments of barley plants in hydroponics but no PS were detectable in root exudates collected from soil-grown plants. This may be attributed to suppression of PS release by internal Fe concentrations above the critical level for Fe deficiency, determined at final harvest for soil-grown barley plants, even without additional Fe supply. However, extremely low concentrations of easily plant-available Fe in the investigated soil and low Fe seed reserves suggest a contribution of PS-mediated Fe mobilization from sparingly soluble Fe sources to Fe acquisition of the soil-grown barley plants during the preceding culture period. Higher Fe contents in shoots (+52%) of plants grown in soil culture without Fe supply under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations may indicate an increased efficiency for Fe acquisition. No significant influence on diversity and function of rhizosphere-bacterial communities was detectable in the outer rhizosphere soil (0-3 mm distance from the root surface) by DGGE of 16S rRNA gene fragments and analysis of marker enzyme activities for C-, N-, and P-cycles. PMID:18453445

  18. Comparative proteomic analysis of green malts between barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhao; Cai, Guo-Lin; Li, Xiao-Min; Gao, Fei; Yang, Jing-Jing; Lu, Jian; Dong, Jian-jun

    2014-05-15

    The variety of metabolic proteins theoretically reaches a peak at the end of germination in large-scale malting. In the present study, comparative proteomics based on two-dimensional fluorescent difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) was employed to quantitatively analyse the low-salt soluble proteins in green malts from cultivars of Dan'er and Metcalfe. Fifty-nine metabolic proteins with significant differences between cultivars were successfully identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF. The roles of differential proteins in malt quality discrimination were elucidated according to their functions. Among them, 18 proteins exhibited differences in the green malts but not in the malts between the two cultivars. They could be considered as supplementary contributors to the quality defects of Dan'er malt, and new markers for malt quality improvement. PMID:24423531

  19. Examining food additives and spices for their anti-oxidant ability to counteract oxidative damage due to chronic exposure to free radicals from environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Raul A., III

    , and vitamin E. The total phenolic content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) reagent method. Fennel--- Foeniculum Vulgare : Like many of its fellow spices contains its own unique combinations of phytonutrients -- including the flavonoids rutin, quercetin, and various kaempferol glycosides -- that give it strong antioxidant activity. The phytonutrients in fennel extracts compare favorably in research studies to BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene), a potentially toxic antioxidant commonly added to processed food. The most fascinating phytonutrients compound in fennel, may be anethole - the primary component of its volatile oil. In addition to its unusual phytonutrients, fennel bulb is an excellent source of vitamin C Vitamin C is the body's primary water-soluble antioxidant, able to neutralize free radicals in all aqueous environments of the body. The vitamin C found in fennel bulb is directly antimicrobial and is also needed for the proper function of the immune system. The total phenolic content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method Cilantro Powder -- Coriandrum Sativum - Cilantro herb is very low in calories and contains no cholesterol. However its deep-green leaves possess good amounts of antioxidants, essential oils, vitamins, and dietary fiber, which help reduce LDL or "bad cholesterol" while raising HDL or "good cholesterol" levels. Its leaves and seeds contain many essential volatile oils. The leaves and stem are also rich in numerous antioxidant polyphenolic Flavonoids such as quercetin, kaempferel, rhamnetin, and epigenin. The herb is a good source of minerals like potassium, calcium manganese, iron, and magnesium. Carrot Powder -- Daucus Carota : Carrot is known for containing potent amounts of antioxidants. It is known for its phenomenal free-radical scavenging and oxygen radical absorbing abilities. It contains high levels of carotenoids and components of vitamin A and powerful antioxidants. It also has high levels of tocopherol, a fat soluble

  20. Low-angle X-ray scattering from spices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desouky, Omar S.; Ashour, Ahmed H.; Abdullah, Mohamed I.; Elshemey, Wael M.

    2002-07-01

    Low-angle scattering of X-rays is characterized by the presence of one or more peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks are due to the interference of photons coherently scattered from the molecules of the medium. Thus these patterns are closely linked to the molecular structure of the investigated medium. In this work, low-angle X-ray scattering (LAXS) profiles of five spices; pimpinella anisum (anise), coriandrum sativum (coriander), cuminum cyminum (cumin), foenculum vulgare (fennel) and nigella sativa (nigella or black cumin) are presented after extensive measurements. It is found that all spices exhibit one characteristic peak at a scattering angle around 10°. This is equivalent to a value x=0.0565 Å -1, where x=sin( θ⧸2)⧸ λ. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of this peak is found to be characteristic for each type of the investigated spices. The possibility to detect the irradiation of these spices from their LAXS profiles is also examined after 10, 20, 30 and 40 kGy doses of gamma radiation. Except for anise, coriander and cumin at 40 kGy, there are no detectable deviations from the control samples in the scattering profiles of irradiated samples. These results comply with the recommendations of the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) which defines 30 kGy as the maximum dose for irradiation of spices. The present technique could be used to detect over-irradiation, which causes damage to the molecular structure of some spices.

  1. Traditional botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study characterized the botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers of the Lami community, Porto Alegre, southern Brazil based on answers to the following question: Is the local botanical knowledge of the artisanal fishers of the rural-urban district of Lami still active, even since the district’s insertion into the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre? Methods This region, which contains a mosaic of urban and rural areas, hosts the Lami Biological Reserve (LBR) and a community of 13 artisanal fisher families. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 fishers, complemented by participatory observation techniques and free-lists; in these interviews, the species of plants used by the community and their indicated uses were identified. Results A total of 111 species belonging to 50 families were identified. No significant differences between the diversities of native and exotic species were found. Seven use categories were reported: medicinal (49%), human food (23.2%), fishing (12.3%), condiments (8%), firewood (5%), mystical purposes (1.45%), and animal food (0.72%). The medicinal species with the highest level of agreement regarding their main uses (AMUs) were Aloe arborescens Mill., Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., Plectranthus ornatus Codd, Eugenia uniflora L., and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. For illness and diseases, most plants were used for problems with the digestive system (20 species), followed by the respiratory system (16 species). This community possesses a wide botanical knowledge, especially of medicinal plants, comparable to observations made in other studies with fishing communities in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Conclusions Ethnobotanical studies in rural-urban areas contribute to preserving local knowledge and provide information that aids in conserving the remaining ecosystems in the region. PMID:23898973

  2. Wild vegetable mixes sold in the markets of Dalmatia (southern Croatia)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dalmatia is an interesting place to study the use of wild greens as it lies at the intersection of influence of Slavs, who do not usually use many species of wild greens, and Mediterranean culinary culture, where the use of multiple wild greens is common. The aim of the study was to document the mixtures of wild green vegetables which are sold in all the vegetable markets of Dalmatia. Methods All vendors (68) in all 11 major markets of the Dalmatian coast were interviewed. The piles of wild vegetables they sold were searched and herbarium specimens taken from them. Results The mean number of species in the mix was 5.7. The most commonly sold wild plants are: Sonchus oleraceus L., Allium ampeloprasum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Urospermum picroides F.W.Schmidt, Papaver rhoeas L., Daucus carota L., Taraxacum sp., Picris echioides L., Silene latifolia Poir. and Crepis spp. Also the cultivated beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and a few cultivated Brassicaceae varieties are frequent components. Wild vegetables from the mix are usually boiled for 20–30 minutes and dressed with olive oil and salt. Altogether at least 37 wild taxa and 13 cultivated taxa were recorded. Apart from the mixes, Asparagus acutifolius L. and Tamus communis L. shoots are sold in separate bunches (they are usually eaten with eggs), as well as some Asteraceae species, the latter are eaten raw or briefly boiled. Conclusions The rich tradition of eating many wild greens may result both from strong Venetian and Greek influences and the necessity of using all food resources available in the barren, infertile land in the past. Although the number of wild-collected green vegetables is impressive we hypothesize that it may have decreased over the years, and that further in-depth local ethnobotanical studies are needed in Dalmatia to record the disappearing knowledge of edible plants. PMID:23286393

  3. Review of Scientific Evidence of Medicinal Convoy Plants in Traditional Persian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sadati, Seyede Nargess; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Ebadi, Nastaran; Yakhchali, Maryam; Dana, Azadeh Raees; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ramezany, Farid

    2016-01-01

    One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh). According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013. Recent studies have proven the beneficial effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and camphor on the heart and brain, the cerebral therapeutic effects of Asarum europaeum (hazelwort), the hepatoprotective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory), and Apium graveolens (celery) seeds, and the diuretic effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and Cucumis melo (melon) seeds. The effects of vinegar in targeting the liver and brain have also been demonstrated. An evaluation of the results demonstrated that the suggested convoy drugs, including Piper nigrum (black pepper), Piper longum (long pepper), red wine, Camellia sinensis (tea), hazelwort, Mentha longifolia (pennyroyal), Anethum graveolens (dill), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), cinnamon, and Sassafras albidum (sassafras) can increase the bioavailability of coadministered drugs by inhibition of P-gp or cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) or both of them. This evidence could be a good basis for the use of these agents as convoys in TPM. PMID:27041871

  4. Investigations into the antiadhesive activity of herbal extracts against Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Bensch, K; Tiralongo, J; Schmidt, K; Matthias, A; Bone, K M; Lehmann, R; Tiralongo, E

    2011-08-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common bacterial causes of diarrhoea in the industrialized world, being associated with the occurrence of Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and inducing diseases partially through intestinal adherence. With increasing reports of C. jejuni drug resistance against standard antibiotics, investigations into antiadhesive agents for the prevention of bacterial infection are highly significant. Given the consumer-driven development towards holistic and integrative healthcare, research into additional anti-Campylobacter effects of herbal medicines that are already used for their beneficial effects on bowel and digestive functions is important. Twenty-one herbal extracts were screened for antiadhesive activity against C. jejuni using modifications of previously published antiadhesion assays. Antiadhesion effects with IC(50) values <3 mg/mL were obtained for seven ethanol plant extracts, with Zingiber officinale (ginger), Capsicum annum (cayenne) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) displaying the highest antiadhesion activity against C. jejuni (IC(50) : <0.1 mg/mL, 0.29 mg/mL and 0.65 mg/mL, respectively). Differences in antiadhesion activity were found for two different Echinacea species, with E. purpurea displaying significantly higher and dose dependent antiadhesion activity than E. angustifolia. No significant antiadhesion activity (IC(50) values >35 mg/mL) was found for Agrimonia eupatoria (agrimony), Andrographis paniculata (andrographis), Matricaria recutita (chamomile), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Filipendula ulmaria (meadowsweet) and Artemisia absinthium (wormwood) extracts. This study provides evidence for additional beneficial effects of marketed herbal medicines in gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:21280113

  5. Efficacy of plant essential oils on postharvest control of rots caused by fungi on different stone fruits in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Reyes, Jorge Giovanny; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2013-04-01

    The antifungal activity of plant essential oils was evaluated as postharvest treatment on stone fruit against brown rot and grey mold rot of stone fruit caused by Monilinia laxa and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. The essential oils from basil (Ocimum basilicum), fennel (Foeniculum sativum), lavender (Lavandula officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), oregano (Origanum vulgare), peppermint (Mentha piperita), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), savory (Satureja montana), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and wild mint (Mentha arvensis) were tested at two different concentrations on apricots (cv. Kyoto and cv. Tonda di Costigliole), nectarines (cv. Big Top and cv. Nectaross) and plums (cv. Italia and cv. TC Sun). The volatile composition of the essential oils tested was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The treatments containing essential oils from oregano, savory, and thyme at 1% (vol/vol) controlled both B. cinerea and M. laxa growing on apricots cv. Tonda di Costigliole and plums cv. Italia and cv. TC Sun; however, the same treatments were phytotoxic for the carposphere of nectarines cv. Big Top and cv. Nectaross. Treatments with 10% (vol/vol) essential oils were highly phytotoxic, notwithstanding their efficacy against the pathogens tested. The essential oils containing as major components α-pinene, p-cymene, carvacrol, and thymol showed similar results on stone fruit, so their antimicrobial activity and the phytotoxicity produced could be based on the concentration of their principal compounds and their synergistic activity. The efficacy of the essential oil treatments on control of fungal pathogens in postharvest depended on the fruit cultivar, the composition and concentration of the essential oil applied, and the length of storage. PMID:23575125

  6. Review of Scientific Evidence of Medicinal Convoy Plants in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    PubMed

    Sadati, Seyede Nargess; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Ebadi, Nastaran; Yakhchali, Maryam; Dana, Azadeh Raees; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ramezany, Farid

    2016-01-01

    One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh). According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013. Recent studies have proven the beneficial effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and camphor on the heart and brain, the cerebral therapeutic effects of Asarum europaeum (hazelwort), the hepatoprotective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory), and Apium graveolens (celery) seeds, and the diuretic effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and Cucumis melo (melon) seeds. The effects of vinegar in targeting the liver and brain have also been demonstrated. An evaluation of the results demonstrated that the suggested convoy drugs, including Piper nigrum (black pepper), Piper longum (long pepper), red wine, Camellia sinensis (tea), hazelwort, Mentha longifolia (pennyroyal), Anethum graveolens (dill), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), cinnamon, and Sassafras albidum (sassafras) can increase the bioavailability of coadministered drugs by inhibition of P-gp or cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) or both of them. This evidence could be a good basis for the use of these agents as convoys in TPM. PMID:27041871

  7. The Biology and Thermal Requirements of the Fennel Aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    PubMed Central

    Malaquias, José B.; Ramalho, Francisco S.; Lira, Aline C. S.; Oliveira, Flávia Q.; Fernandes, Francisco S.; Godoy, Wesley A. C.; Zanuncio, José C.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the insect development rate and temperature was established very early and represents an important ecological variable for modeling the population dynamics of insects. The accurate determination of thermal constant values and the lower and upper developmental thresholds of Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Apiales: Apiaceae)) crops would obviously benefit the effective application of control measures. This paper is a study of the biology and thermal requirements of H. foeniculi. Winged insects were collected from fennel crops at the Embrapa Algodão in Campina Grande, Paraíba. Nymphs (age ≤24 h) produced by winged insects were subjected to constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 28, 30 or 33°C, a photophase of 12 h and a relative humidity of 70±10%. The results of the study showed that at temperatures between 15 and 30°C, H. foeniculi nymphs were able to develop normally. The four instars were found at all temperatures tested. However, temperatures of 3 and 33°C were lethal to the nymphs. The nymph stage development time varied from 5 (30°C) to 19 (15°C) days. The influence of temperature on the development time is dependent on the instar. The base temperature (Tb) and the thermal constant (K) for the nymph stage were estimated at 11.2°C and 107.5 degree-days, respectively. The shortest nymph development stage was observed at 30°C, and the highest nymph viability (85.0%) was observed at 28°C. This information can be used for developing phenological models based on the temperature and development rate relationships so that outbreaks of H. foeniculi in the fennel crop can be predicted, therefore improving the application of control programs targeting this fennel pest. PMID:25003593

  8. Development and validation of an high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for the simultaneous determination of six phenolic compounds in abnormal savda munziq decoction

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shuge; Liu, Wenxian; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Xuejia; Upur, Halmuart

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Given the high-effectiveness and low-toxicity of abnormal savda munziq (ASMQ), its herbal formulation has long been used in traditional Uyghur medicine to treat complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Settings and Design: ASMQ decoction by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector was successfully developed for the simultaneous quality assessment of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, rosmarinic acid, and luteolin. The six phenolic compounds were separated on an Agilent TC-C18 reversed-phase analytical column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm) by gradient elution using 0.3% aqueous formic acid (v/v) and 0.3% methanol formic acid (v/v) at 1.0 mL/min. Materials and Methods: The plant material was separately ground and mixed at the following ratios (10): Cordia dichotoma (10.6), Anchusa italic (10.6), Euphorbia humifusa (4.9), Adiantum capillus-veneris (4.9), Ziziphus jujube (4.9), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (7.1), Foeniculum vulgare (4.9), Lavandula angustifolia (4.9), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (4.9), and Alhagi pseudoalhagi (42.3). Statistical Analysis Used: The precisions of all six compounds were <0.60%, and the average recoveries ranged from 99.39% to 104.85%. Highly significant linear correlations were found between component concentrations and specific chromatographic peak areas (R2 > 0.999). Results: The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of six active components in ASMQ. Conclusions: Given the simplicity, precision, specificity, and sensitivity of the method, it can be utilized as a quality control approach to simultaneously determining the six phenolic compounds in AMSQ. PMID:25709227

  9. Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils against bacterial and fungal species involved in food poisoning and/or food decay.

    PubMed

    Lixandru, Brînduşa-Elena; Drăcea, Nicoleta Olguţa; Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Drăgulescu, Elena Carmina; Coldea, Ileana Luminiţa; Anton, Liliana; Dobre, Elena; Rovinaru, Camelia; Codiţă, Irina

    2010-01-01

    The currative properties of aromatic and medicinal plants have been recognized since ancient times and, more recently, the antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils has been used in several applications, including food preservation. The purpose of this study was to create directly comparable, quantitative data on the antimicrobial activity of some plant essential oils prepared in the National Institute of Research-Development for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, Bucharest to be used for the further development of food packaging technology, based on their antibacterial and antifungal activity. The essential oils extracted from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and carraway (Carum carvi L.) were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against eleven different bacterial and three fungal strains belonging to species reported to be involved in food poisoning and/or food decay: S. aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 25913, E. coli ATCC 25922, E. coli ATCC 35218, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Cantacuzino Institute Culture Collection (CICC) 10878, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112, Bacillus cereus CIP 5127, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404, Penicillium spp. CICC 251 and two E. coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis clinical isolates. The majority of the tested essential oils exibited considerable inhibitory capacity against all the organisms tested, as supported by growth inhibition zone diameters, MICs and MBC's. Thyme, coriander and basil oils proved the best antibacterial activity, while thyme and spearmint oils better inhibited the fungal species. PMID:21462837

  10. Role of phenolic compounds in peptic ulcer: An overview.

    PubMed

    Sumbul, Sabiha; Ahmad, Mohd Aftab; Mohd, Asif; Mohd, Akhtar

    2011-07-01

    Peptic ulcer is the most common gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorder in clinical practice, which affects approximately 5-10% of the people during their life. The use of herbal drugs for the prevention and treatment of various diseases is constantly developing throughout the world. This is particularly true with regard to phenolic compounds that probably constitute the largest group of plants secondary metabolites. Phenolic compounds have attracted special attention due to their health-promoting characteristics. In the past ten years a large number of the studies have been carried out on the effects of phenolic compounds on human health. Many studies have been carried out that strongly support the contribution of polyphenols to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes mellitus, and suggest a role in the prevention of peptic ulcer. Polyphenols display a number of pharmacological properties in the GIT area, acting as antisecretory, cytoprotective, and antioxidant agents. The antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds have been widely studied, but it has become clear that their mechanisms of action go beyond the modulation of oxidative stress. Various polyphenolic compounds have been reported for their anti-ulcerogenic activity with a good level of gastric protection. Besides their action as gastroprotective, these phenolic compounds can be an alternative for the treatment of gastric ulcers. Therefore, considering the important role of polyphenolic compounds in the prevention or reduction of gastric lesions induced by different ulcerogenic agents, in this review, we have summarized the literature on some potent antiulcer plants, such as, Oroxylum indicum, Zingiber officinale, Olea europaea L., Foeniculum vulgare, Alchornea glandulosa, Tephrosia purpurea, and so on, containing phenolic compounds, namely, baicalein, cinnamic acid, oleuropein, rutin, quercetin, and tephrosin, respectively, as active

  11. Herbal medicines as diuretics: a review of the scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Wright, C I; Van-Buren, L; Kroner, C I; Koning, M M G

    2007-10-01

    There is increasing interest in the health and wellness benefits of herbs and botanicals. This is with good reason as they might offer a natural safeguard against the development of certain conditions and be a putative treatment for some diseases. One such area may be the lowering of blood pressure in those where it is elevated (i.e., hypertension). One class of clinical medicines used to lower blood pressure are known as diuretics and work by increasing the excretion of urine from the body as well as the amount of sodium in urine. There are a growing number of studies purporting diuretic effects with traditional medicines. The aim of this article was to review these studies and identify which extracts promote diuresis (which we assessed on terms of urine excreted and urinary sodium excretion) and also to identify the research needs in this area. We identified a number of species and genuses reporting diuretic effects. Of these, the most promising, at the present time, are the species Foeniculum vulgare, Fraxinus excelsior, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Petroselinum sativum and Spergularia purpurea, and species from the genuses Cucumis (Cucumis melo and Cucumis trigonus), Equisetum (Equisetum bogotense, Equisetum fluviatile, Equisetum giganteum, Equisetum hiemale var. affine and Equisetum myriochaetum), Lepidium (Lepidium latifolium and Lepidium sativum), Phyllanthus (Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus corcovadensis and Phyllanthus sellowianus) and Sambucus (Sambucus mexicana and Sambucus nigra). However, there the number of studies is limited and we recommend that further studies be conducted to confirm reported effects. Such evidence is needed to provide scientific credence to the folklore use of traditional medicines and even be helpful in the development of future medicines, treatments and treatment guidelines. PMID:17804183

  12. GA Enhanced a-Amylase Synthesis in Halved Grains of Barley (Hordeum vulgare): A Simple Laboratory Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, P. W.

    1972-01-01

    A laboratory demonstration is suggested for the formation of a-amylase enzyme in halved grains of barley. Data presented in the article provide some information of the pattern of a- and b-amylase activity during germination. (PS)

  13. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals a New QTL for Salinity Tolerance in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yun; Zhou, Gaofeng; Shabala, Sergey; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Cai, Shengguan; Li, Chengdao; Zhou, Meixue

    2016-01-01

    Salinity stress is one of the most severe abiotic stresses that affect agricultural production. Genome wide association study (GWAS) has been widely used to detect genetic variations in extensive natural accessions with more recombination and higher resolution. In this study, 206 barley accessions collected worldwide were genotyped with 408 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers and evaluated for salinity stress tolerance using salinity tolerance score – a reliable trait developed in our previous work. GWAS for salinity tolerance had been conducted through a general linkage model and a mixed linkage model based on population structure and kinship. A total of 24 significant marker-trait associations were identified. A QTL on 4H with the nearest marker of bPb-9668 was consistently detected in all different methods. This QTL has not been reported before and is worth to be further confirmed with bi-parental populations. PMID:27446173

  14. Antioxidant-guided isolation and mass spectrometric identification of the major polyphenols in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; Rai, Dilip K; Brunton, Nigel P; Gallagher, Eimear; Hossain, Mohammad B

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the relative contribution of individual/classes of polyphenols in barley, to its antioxidant properties, was evaluated. Flash chromatography was used to fractionate the total polyphenol extract of Irish barley cultivar 'Irina', and fractions with highest antioxidant properties were identified using total phenolic content and three in vitro antioxidant assays: DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC. Flavanols (catechin, procyanidin B, prodelphinidin B, procyanidin C) and a novel substituted flavanol (catechin dihexoside, C27H33O16(-), m/z 613.17), were identified as constituents of the fraction with highest antioxidant capacity. Upon identification of phenolics in the other active fractions, the order of most potent contributors to observed antioxidant capacity of barley extract were, flavanols>flavonols (quercetin)>hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic, caffeic, coumaric acids). The most abundant polyphenol in the overall extract was ferulic acid (277.7μg/gdw barley), followed by procyanidin B (73.7μg/gdw barley). PMID:27211640

  15. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Powder

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. H.; Kang, S. N.; Shin, D.; Shim, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP) in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP), antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol), 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP), 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP), and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP). Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05). Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05). These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks. PMID:25557678

  16. Sowing Density: A Neglected Factor Fundamentally Affecting Root Distribution and Biomass Allocation of Field Grown Spring Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Hecht, Vera L; Temperton, Vicky M; Nagel, Kerstin A; Rascher, Uwe; Postma, Johannes A

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the function of root traits and the genetic variation in these traits are often conducted under controlled conditions using individual potted plants. Little is known about root growth under field conditions and how root traits are affected by agronomic practices in particular sowing density. We hypothesized that with increasing sowing density, root length density (root length per soil volume, cm cm(-3)) increases in the topsoil as well as specific root length (root length per root dry weight, cm g(-1)) due to greater investment in fine roots. Therefore, we studied two spring barley cultivars at ten different sowing densities (24-340 seeds m(-2)) in 2 consecutive years in a clay loam field in Germany and established sowing density dose-response curves for several root and shoot traits. We took soil cores for measuring roots up to a depth of 60 cm in and between plant rows (inter-row distance 21 cm). Root length density increased with increasing sowing density and was greatest in the plant row in the topsoil (0-10 cm). Greater sowing density increased specific root length partly through greater production of fine roots in the topsoil. Rooting depth (D50) of the major root axes (root diameter class 0.4-1.0 mm) was not affected. Root mass fraction decreased, while stem mass fraction increased with sowing density and over time. Leaf mass fraction was constant over sowing density but greater leaf area was realized through increased specific leaf area. Considering fertilization, we assume that light competition caused plants to grow more shoot mass at the cost of investment into roots, which is partly compensated by increased specific root length and shallow rooting. Increased biomass per area with greater densities suggest that density increases the efficiency of the cropping system, however, declines in harvest index at densities over 230 plants m(-2) suggest that this efficiency did not translate into greater yield. We conclude that plant density is a modifier of root architecture and that root traits and their utility in breeding for greater productivity have to be understood in the context of high sowing densities. PMID:27446171

  17. Sowing Density: A Neglected Factor Fundamentally Affecting Root Distribution and Biomass Allocation of Field Grown Spring Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Vera L.; Temperton, Vicky M.; Nagel, Kerstin A.; Rascher, Uwe; Postma, Johannes A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the function of root traits and the genetic variation in these traits are often conducted under controlled conditions using individual potted plants. Little is known about root growth under field conditions and how root traits are affected by agronomic practices in particular sowing density. We hypothesized that with increasing sowing density, root length density (root length per soil volume, cm cm−3) increases in the topsoil as well as specific root length (root length per root dry weight, cm g−1) due to greater investment in fine roots. Therefore, we studied two spring barley cultivars at ten different sowing densities (24–340 seeds m−2) in 2 consecutive years in a clay loam field in Germany and established sowing density dose-response curves for several root and shoot traits. We took soil cores for measuring roots up to a depth of 60 cm in and between plant rows (inter-row distance 21 cm). Root length density increased with increasing sowing density and was greatest in the plant row in the topsoil (0–10 cm). Greater sowing density increased specific root length partly through greater production of fine roots in the topsoil. Rooting depth (D50) of the major root axes (root diameter class 0.4–1.0 mm) was not affected. Root mass fraction decreased, while stem mass fraction increased with sowing density and over time. Leaf mass fraction was constant over sowing density but greater leaf area was realized through increased specific leaf area. Considering fertilization, we assume that light competition caused plants to grow more shoot mass at the cost of investment into roots, which is partly compensated by increased specific root length and shallow rooting. Increased biomass per area with greater densities suggest that density increases the efficiency of the cropping system, however, declines in harvest index at densities over 230 plants m−2 suggest that this efficiency did not translate into greater yield. We conclude that plant density is a modifier of root architecture and that root traits and their utility in breeding for greater productivity have to be understood in the context of high sowing densities. PMID:27446171

  18. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Anjali; Sharma, Arti; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav; Dharamvir, Keya

    2015-08-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds.

  19. Asymmetric growth of root epidermal cells is related to the differentiation of root hair cells in Hordeum vulgare (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Marzec, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The root epidermis of most vascular plants harbours two cell types, namely trichoblasts (capable of producing a root hair) and atrichoblasts. Here, in vivo analysis, confocal laser-scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, histological analysis, and three-dimensional reconstruction were used to characterize the cell types present in the barley root epidermis and their distribution in the tissue. Both trichoblasts and atrichoblasts were present in the wild-type cultivars and could be distinguished from one another at an early stage. Trichoblast/atrichoblast differentiation depended on asymmetric cell expansion after a period of symmetrical cell division. After asymmetric growth, only the shorter epidermal cells could produce root hairs, whereas the longer cells became atrichoblasts. Moreover, the root epidermis did not develop root hairs at all if the epidermal cells did not differentiate into two asymmetric cell types. The root hairless phenotype of bald root barley (brb) and root hairless 1.b (rhl1.b) mutants was caused by a mutation in a gene related to the asymmetric expansion of the root epidermal cells. Additionally, the results showed that the mechanism of trichoblast/atrichoblast differentiation is not evolutionally conserved across the subfamilies of the Poaceae; in the Pooideae subfamily, both asymmetric division and asymmetric cell expansion have been observed. PMID:24043851

  20. Do root hydraulic properties change during the early vegetative stage of plant development in barley (Hordeum vulgare)?

    PubMed Central

    Suku, Shimi; Knipfer, Thorsten; Fricke, Wieland

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims As annual crops develop, transpirational water loss increases substantially. This increase has to be matched by an increase in water uptake through the root system. The aim of this study was to assess the contributions of changes in intrinsic root hydraulic conductivity (Lp, water uptake per unit root surface area, driving force and time), driving force and root surface area to developmental increases in root water uptake. Methods Hydroponically grown barley plants were analysed during four windows of their vegetative stage of development, when they were 9–13, 14–18, 19–23 and 24–28 d old. Hydraulic conductivity was determined for individual roots (Lp) and for entire root systems (Lpr). Osmotic Lp of individual seminal and adventitious roots and osmotic Lpr of the root system were determined in exudation experiments. Hydrostatic Lp of individual roots was determined by root pressure probe analyses, and hydrostatic Lpr of the root system was derived from analyses of transpiring plants. Key Results Although osmotic and hydrostatic Lp and Lpr values increased initially during development and were correlated positively with plant transpiration rate, their overall developmental increases (about 2-fold) were small compared with increases in transpirational water loss and root surface area (about 10- to 40-fold). The water potential gradient driving water uptake in transpiring plants more than doubled during development, and potentially contributed to the increases in plant water flow. Osmotic Lpr of entire root systems and hydrostatic Lpr of transpiring plants were similar, suggesting that the main radial transport path in roots was the cell-to-cell path at all developmental stages. Conclusions Increase in the surface area of root system, and not changes in intrinsic root hydraulic properties, is the main means through which barley plants grown hydroponically sustain an increase in transpirational water loss during their vegetative development. PMID:24287810

  1. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) low phytic acid 1-1: an endosperm-specific filial determinant of seed total phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cultivated cereal and legume seed crops, inositol hexaphosphate (Ins P6 or “phytic acid”) typically accounts for 75% (±10%) of seed total phosphorus (P). Genetic blocks in seed Ins P6 accumulation in some cases can also alter the distribution or total amount of seed P. In non-mutant barley (Horde...

  2. Mutation at the circadian clock gene EARLY MATURITY 8 adapts domesticated barley (Hordeum vulgare) to short growing seasons

    PubMed Central

    Faure, Sebastien; Turner, Adrian S.; Gruszka, Damian; Christodoulou, Vangelis; Davis, Seth J.; von Korff, Maria; Laurie, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The circadian clock is an autonomous oscillator that produces endogenous biological rhythms with a period of about 24 h. This clock allows organisms to coordinate their metabolism and development with predicted daily and seasonal changes of the environment. In plants, circadian rhythms contribute to both evolutionary fitness and agricultural productivity. Nevertheless, we show that commercial barley varieties bred for short growing seasons by use of early maturity 8 (eam8) mutations, also termed mat-a, are severely compromised in clock gene expression and clock outputs. We identified EAM8 as a barley ortholog of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock regulator EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) and demonstrate that eam8 accelerates the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth and inflorescence development. We propose that eam8 was selected as barley cultivation moved to high-latitude short-season environments in Europe because it allowed rapid flowering in genetic backgrounds that contained a previously selected late-flowering mutation of the photoperiod response gene Ppd-H1. We show that eam8 mutants have increased expression of the floral activator HvFT1, which is independent of allelic variation at Ppd-H1. The selection of independent eam8 mutations shows that this strategy facilitates short growth-season adaptation and expansion of the geographic range of barley, despite the pronounced clock defect. PMID:22566625

  3. Water-deficiency conditions differently modulate the methylome of roots and leaves in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Chwialkowska, Karolina; Nowakowska, Urszula; Mroziewicz, Anna; Szarejko, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    One of the strategies of plant adaptation to stress is the modulation of gene expression, which may result from the regulation of DNA methylation. This study attempted to characterize and compare the barley methylome of leaves and roots under water-deficiency treatment and in the subsequent rewatering phase. Our results, obtained using methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism sequencing analysis, indicated that the overall DNA methylation level in the barley genome was high and in general stable under water-deficiency conditions. Nevertheless, numerous differentially methylated sites (DMSs) were induced by stress in the leaves and roots. Equal proportions of novel stress-induced methylation and demethylation events were observed within the genes in the leaves, but new methylations dominated in the roots. Repetitive elements preferentially underwent demethylation in the leaves and novel methylations in the roots. Importantly, rewatering and plant recovery resulted in the reversibility of the majority of stress-induced methylation events, but this process was more efficient in the leaves than in the roots. Different biological processes were enriched within the subsets of the DMSs that were identified in the genic regions of leaves and roots. We assume that the organ specificity of the methylome changes in response to water deficiency might be an important regulatory mechanism that leads to multi-level mechanisms of stress tolerance in barley. PMID:26739862

  4. Characterization and transcriptional analysis of two gene clusters for type IV secretion machinery in Wolbachia of Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Félix, Christine; Pichon, Samuel; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Braig, Henk; Chen, Lanming; Garrett, Roger A; Martin, Gilbert; Grève, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited alpha-proteobacteria that induce feminization of genetic males in most terrestrial crustacean isopods. Two clusters of vir genes for a type IV secretion machinery have been identified at two separate loci and characterized for the first time in a feminizing Wolbachia. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these operons are transcriptionally active in ovaries and in all other tissues tested, suggesting that T4SS has a significant role in Wolbachia biology. These observations and the identification of homologous vir genes in Wolbachia strains infecting insects or nematodes show that vir genes are conserved among Wolbachia strains whatever the phenotype induced by the bacteria. PMID:18582562

  5. Behavioral evidence for internal factors affecting duration of conglobation in pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare, Isopoda, Crustacea). Short communication.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Hiroe; Moriyama, T

    2012-01-01

    Pill bugs individually walked an experimental pathway, then were induced to conglobate with a puff of air. After recovering, they were stimulated again. Sixty of 80 pill bugs conglobated both times, first moving either antennae (A) or legs (L) during recovery. Both AA and LL groups showed a significant positive correlation between first (t1) and second (t2) conglobation times. In the AL group, pathway locomotion time (t0) was significantly positively correlated to both t1 and t2. We conclude that pill bugs determine conglobation time based partly on their previous states. PMID:22776477

  6. Inhibition of germination of dormant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains by blue light as related to oxygen and hormonal regulation.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Hai Ha; Sechet, Julien; Bailly, Christophe; Leymarie, Juliette; Corbineau, Françoise

    2014-06-01

    Germination of primary dormant barley grains is promoted by darkness and temperatures below 20 °C, but is strongly inhibited by blue light. Exposure under blue light at 10 °C for periods longer than five days, results in a progressive inability to germinate in the dark, considered as secondary dormancy. We demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of blue light is reinforced in hypoxia. The inhibitory effect of blue light is associated with an increase in embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content (by 3.5- to 3.8-fold) and embryo sensitivity to both ABA and hypoxia. Analysis of expression of ABA metabolism genes shows that increase in ABA mainly results in a strong increase in HvNCED1 and HvNCED2 expression, and a slight decrease in HvABA8'OH-1. Among the gibberellins (GA) metabolism genes examined, blue light decreases the expression of HvGA3ox2, involved in GA synthesis, increases that of GA2ox3 and GA2ox5, involved in GA catabolism, and reduces the GA signalling evaluated by the HvExpA11 expression. Expression of secondary dormancy is associated with maintenance of high embryo ABA content and a low HvExpA11 expression. The partial reversion of the inhibitory effect of blue light by green light also suggests that cryptochrome might be involved in this hormonal regulation. PMID:24256416

  7. Acne vulgarism treatment using ultra-short laser pulse generated by micro- and nano-ring resonator system.

    PubMed

    Jalil, M A; Phelawan, J; Aziz, M S; Saktioto, T; Ong, C T; Yupapin, Preecha P

    2013-04-01

    Acne vulgaris is adebilitating dermatologic disease, and is conventionally treated by laser therapy using a microring resonator system. An evolving understanding of laser-tissue interactions involving Propioni bacterium acneproducing porphyrins, and the development of lasers to target the sebaceous glands, has led to the development of an escalating number of laser light for acne treatment. The results show that the full width at half maximum of the proposed laser pulse of 0.15 nm can be generated using a microring resonator system. The power of the laser is 200 W and the wavelength laser is 1,032 nm, which is proposed as a treatment of acne vulgaris diseases. PMID:22991968

  8. Root-to-shoot signalling: apoplastic alkalinization, a general stress response and defence factor in barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Felle, H H; Herrmann, A; Hückelhoven, R; Kogel, K-H

    2005-12-01

    We used a noninvasive microprobe technique to record in substomatal cavities of barley leaves the apoplastic pH response to different stress situations. When K+ (or Na+) activity at the roots of intact plants was increased from 1 to 50 mM, the leaf apoplastic pH increased by 0.4 to 0.6 units within 8 to 12 min when stomata were open, and within 15 to 20 min when stomata were closed. This reaction was accompanied by a correlative increase in K+ activity. Addition of 1 microM abscisic acid caused an apoplastic alkalinization of 0.5 to 0.8 units, and low temperatures (4 degrees C) increased pH by 0.2 to 0.3 units. Addition of 100 mM sorbitol or pH changes in the range 4.0 to 7.9 had no effect, ruling out that osmotic potential and/or pH is the carried signal. On detached leaves, the same treatments yielded qualitatively similar results, suggesting that the xylem is the most likely signal path. Following the attack of powdery mildew, the apoplastic pH of barley leaves substantially increases. We demonstrate that in susceptible barley, pretreatment (soil drench) with the resistance-inducing chemical benzo- (1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester markedly enhances this pH response. This is consistent with previous finding that apoplastic alkalinization is related to the degree of resistance towards this fungus. PMID:16389490

  9. The Efficiency of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Bran in Ameliorating Blood and Treating Fatty Heart and Liver of Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abulnaja, Khalid O.; El Rabey, Haddad A.

    2015-01-01

    The current study focused on testing the hypolipidemic activity of two doses of barley bran on hypercholesterolemic male rats. Twenty-four male albino rats weighing 180–200 gm were divided into four groups. The first group (G1) was the negative control, the second group (G2) was the positive control group fed 2% cholesterol in the diet, and rats of the third and the fourth groups were fed 2% cholesterol and were cosupplemented with 5% and 10% barley bran, respectively, for 8 weeks. The hypercholesterolemic rats of (G2) showed an increase in lipid profile, liver enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase-MB, and lipid peroxide and a decrease in antioxidant enzymes, whereas kidney function, fasting blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin total protein, and total bilirubin were not significantly affected compared with the negative control group in G1. Moreover, histology of heart, liver, and kidney of G2 rats showed histopathological changes compared with the negative control. Administration of the two doses of barley bran in G3 and G4 to the hypercholesterolemic rats ameliorated the level of lipids, liver enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase-MB. In addition, the histology of heart, liver, and kidney tissues nearly restored the normal state as in G1. PMID:25866539

  10. Comparison of some antioxidant properties of plant extracts from Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Eleutherococcus senticosus and Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Vaško, Ladislav; Vašková, Janka; Fejerčáková, Andrea; Mojžišová, Gabriela; Poráčová, Janka

    2014-08-01

    Phenolic compounds from plants are known for their antioxidant properties and have been proposed as therapeutic agents to counteract oxidative stress. However, under normal circumstances, the body only receives a very small amount of these substances in the diet. We have investigated the effect of extracts from known and frequently used plants as part of diet, food seasoning, medicinal tea, and sweetener at different concentrations on the ability to scavenge free radicals, to affect antioxidant enzymes, and finally in the survival of cancer cell lines. We found extract concentrations of about 100 μg.ml(-1) more indicative in the assessment of all parameters investigated. Ginseng possessed a very good ability to scavenge superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, while stevia also manifested significant effects against hydroxyl radicals. Both extracts also showed NO decomposition ability. The antioxidant defense system against the excessive production of radicals in mitochondria was sufficient. In contrast, the range of operating concentrations for sage and oregano mainly presented no significant effects against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Taken together with the significantly reduced activity of glutathione peroxidase, this led to the depletion of glutathione. The demonstrated modulation of redox state capability was sufficient to affect the viability of all tested cancer cell lines, but especially A-549, CEM and HeLa by oregano extract. Results support the promising role of the tested extracts as a source of compounds for further in vivo studies with the ability to powerfully interfere with or modify the redox state of cells according to the type of disease, which is expected to be associated with oxidative stress. PMID:24737278

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals a New QTL for Salinity Tolerance in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Fan, Yun; Zhou, Gaofeng; Shabala, Sergey; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Cai, Shengguan; Li, Chengdao; Zhou, Meixue

    2016-01-01

    Salinity stress is one of the most severe abiotic stresses that affect agricultural production. Genome wide association study (GWAS) has been widely used to detect genetic variations in extensive natural accessions with more recombination and higher resolution. In this study, 206 barley accessions collected worldwide were genotyped with 408 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers and evaluated for salinity stress tolerance using salinity tolerance score - a reliable trait developed in our previous work. GWAS for salinity tolerance had been conducted through a general linkage model and a mixed linkage model based on population structure and kinship. A total of 24 significant marker-trait associations were identified. A QTL on 4H with the nearest marker of bPb-9668 was consistently detected in all different methods. This QTL has not been reported before and is worth to be further confirmed with bi-parental populations. PMID:27446173

  12. Accurate evaluation and verification of varietal ranking for flooding tolerance at the seedling stage in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mano, Yoshiro; Takeda, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Soil flooding or waterlogging is a major abiotic stress in upland crops. In barley, there have been several reported studies of selection for flooding-tolerant genotypes, but it is difficult to obtain varietal rankings that are consistent among researchers. Our objectives were to establish experimental conditions that could be applied by other research groups and to verify the varietal ranking conducted in an earlier study. We conducted greenhouse experiments on 14 barley varieties. At the 2.5-leaf stage, they were flooded with 0% or 0.1% soluble starch solution (mimicking reducing conditions). At 13 to 15 days after the start of treatment, the degree of leaf injury and the shoot dry weight ratio (treatment:control) were recorded. Reliable and highly repeatable results were obtained for the criterion of leaf injury under reducing conditions, whereas shoot dry weight ratio was unstable. The varieties OUJ820 and OUA301 were highly tolerant, whereas OUA002 and OUJ247 were sensitive; these results matched those of the earlier study. The experimental conditions that we developed here may be useful for selection testing and genetic analysis of flooding tolerance in other laboratories. PMID:23136508

  13. Stimulation of Phenolics, Antioxidant and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities During Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Seed Germination.

    PubMed

    Ha, K-S; Jo, S-H; Mannam, V; Kwon, Y-I; Apostolidis, E

    2016-06-01

    The rationale of this study was to enhance the nutritional quality of dry barley seeds. In this study we are evaluating the effect of germination on barley seeds relevant to total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity (in terms of DPPH free-radical scavenging) and the in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Barley seeds were germinated for 18.5, 24, 30, 48, and 67 h and then extracted in water. The total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities changed with germination time. More specifically, within the first 48 h of germination the total phenolic content increased from 1.1 mg/g fresh weight (0 h) to 3.4 mg/g fresh weight (48 h) and then slightly reduced by 67 h. Similarly, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was significantly increased from an IC50 128.82 mg/mL (0 h) to an IC50 18.88 mg/mL (48 h) and then slightly reduced by 67 h. Significant maltase inhibitory activity was observed only with 48 h-germinated extract. Antioxidant activities increased continuously from an IC50 15.72 mg/mL at 0 h to and IC50 5.72 mg/mL after 48 h of germination. Based on our observations, barley seed germination was over after 48 h. During the progress of germination phenolic compounds are becoming available and are more easily extracted. After 48 h, lignification is initiated resulting to the decreased total phenolic content and observed antioxidant and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition activities. The above results indicate the positive effect of germination in barley seeds for enhanced antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. PMID:27188780

  14. Extraction of high-quality RNA from germinating barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds containing high levels of starch.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparative evaluation of gene expression levels can lead to improved understanding of the gene networks underlying traits of economic importance. Extraction of high-quality RNA from germinating barley seeds that contain high levels of starch is of vital importance for analysing the expression of ca...

  15. Creation of the first ultra-low gluten barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for coeliac and gluten-intolerant populations.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Gregory J; Blundell, Malcolm J; Colgrave, Michelle L; Howitt, Crispin A

    2016-04-01

    Coeliac disease is a well-defined condition that is estimated to affect approximately 1% of the population worldwide. Noncoeliac gluten sensitivity is a condition that is less well defined, but is estimated to affect up to 10% of the population, and is often self-diagnosed. At present, the only remedy for both conditions is a lifelong gluten-free diet. A gluten-free diet is often expensive, high in fat and low in fibre, which in themselves can lead to adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is an opportunity to use novel plant breeding strategies to develop alternative gluten-free grains. In this work, we describe the breeding and characterization of a novel ultra-low gluten (ULG) barley variety in which the hordein (gluten) content was reduced to below 5 ppm. This was achieved using traditional breeding strategies to combine three recessive alleles, which act independently of each other to lower the hordein content in the parental varieties. The grain of the initial variety was shrunken compared to wild-type barleys. We implemented a breeding strategy to improve the grain size to near wild-type levels and demonstrated that the grains can be malted and brewed successfully. The ULG barley has the potential to provide novel healthy foods and beverages for those who require a gluten-free diet. PMID:26427614

  16. A study on zinc distribution in calcareous soils for cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L.) and barely ( Hordeum Vulgare L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boroomand, Naser; Maleki, Mohammad Reza

    2010-05-01

    Compared to other cereals, such as wheat and barley cultivars which have low sensitivity to Zn deficiency, cowpea is sensitive to zinc (Zn) deficiency, however it extensively grows even in soils with deficient in Zn. A 8-week greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the response of cowpea and barely to Zn in calcareous soils with different DTPA- Zn. The soil samples were taken from soil surface up to 0.3 m in which their DTPA- Zn ranged from 0.5 to 3.5 mg kg-1. Shoot dry matter, concentration and uptake of Zn were found to be significantly correlated with soil DTPA- Zn in cowpea and barely. Critical deficiency level of Zn in cowpea was 1.3 mg kg-1 in soil and 28.5 mg kg-1 in shoot dry matter, however, to barely symptoms of Zn deficiency was not observed and concentration of Zn was higher than the critical level reported in literatures. Organic carbon (OC), calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE), pH and field capacity soil moisture content(FC) were significantly correlated with plant responses to Zn which were the most influenced characteristics to Zn uptake by plants.

  17. Transcriptome Assembly and Analysis of Tibetan Hulless Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum) Developing Grains, with Emphasis on Quality Properties

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Long, Hai; Gao, Ping; Deng, Guangbing; Pan, Zhifen; Liang, Junjun; Tang, Yawei; Tashi, Nyima; Yu, Maoqun

    2014-01-01

    Background Hulless barley is attracting increasing attention due to its unique nutritional value and potential health benefits. However, the molecular biology of the barley grain development and nutrient storage are not well understood. Furthermore, the genetic potential of hulless barley has not been fully tapped for breeding. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we investigated the transcriptome features during hulless barley grain development. Using Illumina paired-end RNA-Sequencing, we generated two data sets of the developing grain transcriptomes from two hulless barley landraces. A total of 13.1 and 12.9 million paired-end reads with lengths of 90 bp were generated from the two varieties and were assembled to 48,863 and 45,788 unigenes, respectively. A combined dataset of 46,485 All-Unigenes were generated from two transcriptomes with an average length of 542 bp, and 36,278 among were annotated with gene descriptions, conserved protein domains or gene ontology terms. Furthermore, sequences and expression levels of genes related to the biosynthesis of storage reserve compounds (starch, protein, and β-glucan) were analyzed, and their temporal and spatial patterns were deduced from the transcriptome data of cultivated barley Morex. Conclusions/Significance We established a sequences and functional annotation integrated database and examined the expression profiles of the developing grains of Tibetan hulless barley. The characterization of genes encoding storage proteins and enzymes of starch synthesis and (1–3;1–4)-β-D-glucan synthesis provided an overview of changes in gene expression associated with grain nutrition and health properties. Furthermore, the characterization of these genes provides a gene reservoir, which helps in quality improvement of hulless barley. PMID:24871534

  18. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Anjali Sharma, Arti; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav; Dharamvir, Keya

    2015-08-28

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds.

  19. Melanin biosynthesis inhibitory activity of a compound isolated from young green barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Tian Xiao; Irino, Nobuto; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2015-07-01

    In the course to find compounds that inhibit melanin biosynthesis (i.e., whitening agents), we evaluated the effects of the methanol-soluble fraction (i.e., the water-soluble portion of methanol extracts-CHP20P-MeOH eluted fraction) from young green barley leaves on melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. Activity-guided fractionation led to an isolate called tricin (compound 1) as an inhibitory compound of melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. Furthermore, tricin analogs such as tricetin, tricetin trimethyl ether, luteolin, and apigenin were used for analyzing the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of 5,7-dihydroxyflavones studies. Tricin demonstrated stronger inhibitory activity compared to three other compounds. The results suggest that a hydroxyl group at the C-4' position and methoxy groups at the C-3',5' positions of the tricin skeleton may have important roles in this inhibitory activity in B16 melanoma cells. Our results suggest that tricin inhibits melanin biosynthesis with higher efficacy than arbutin, and it could be used as a whitening agent. PMID:25827948

  20. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of compounds with antimicrobial activity from Origanum vulgare L.: determination of optimal extraction parameters.

    PubMed

    Santoyo, S; Cavero, S; Jaime, L; Ibañez, E; Señoráns, F J; Reglero, G

    2006-02-01

    Oregano leaves were extracted using a pilot-scale supercritical fluid extraction plant under a wide range of extraction conditions, with the goal of determining the extraction and fractionation conditions to obtain extracts with optimal antimicrobial activity. In this investigation, the essential oil-rich fractions were selectively precipitated in the second separator, and their chemical composition and antimicrobial activity were investigated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the various fractions resulted in the identification of 27 compounds of the essential oil. The main components of these fractions were carvacrol, trans-sabinene hydrate, cis-piperitol, borneol, terpinen-4-ol, and linalool. Antimicrobial activity was investigated by the disk diffusion and broth dilution methods against six different microbial species, including two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis), two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), a yeast (Candida albicans), and a fungus (Aspergillus niger). All of the supercritical fluid extraction fractions obtained showed antimicrobial activity against all of the microorganisms tested, although the most active fraction was the one obtained in experiment 5 (fraction was obtained with 7% ethanol at 150 bar and 40 degrees C). C. albicans was the most sensitive microorganism to the oregano extracts, whereas the least susceptible was A. niger. Carvacrol, sabinene hydrate, borneol, and linalool standards also showed antimicrobial activity against all of the microorganisms tested, with carvacrol being the most effective. Consequently, it was confirmed that essential oil from experiment 5, with the best antimicrobial activity, also presented the highest quantity of carvacrol. PMID:16496578

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of "Rathayibacter tanaceti" Strain VKM Ac-2596 Isolated from Tanacetum vulgare Infested by a Foliar Nematode.

    PubMed

    Vasilenko, Oleg V; Starodumova, Irina P; Tarlachkov, Sergey V; Dorofeeva, Lubov V; Avtukh, Alexander N; Evtushenko, Lyudmila I

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome of "Rathayibacter tanaceti" VKM Ac-2596 is 3.17 Mb in size with an average G+C content of 70.7% and comprises at least two nonidentical copies of ribosomal small subunit (SSU-rRNA) genes. The semiconductor sequencing platform Ion Torrent was used. PMID:27313291

  2. Fatty acid composition as a tool for screening alternative feedstocks for production of biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Cori...

  3. Fatty acid profile as a basis for screening feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid (FA) profile was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Coriandr...

  4. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude protein extracts from seeds of six different medical plants against standard bacterial strains

    PubMed Central

    Al Akeel, Raid; Al-Sheikh, Yazeed; Mateen, Ayesha; Syed, Rabbani; Janardhan, K.; Gupta, V.C.

    2013-01-01

    A huge group of natural antimicrobial compounds are active against a large spectrum of bacterial strains causing infectious threat. The present study was conducted to investigate the crude extracts of antimicrobial protein and peptide efficacy from six medicinal plant seeds. Extraction was carried out in Sodium phosphate citrate buffer, and Sodium acetate buffer using different pH. Antimicrobial activities of these plants were determined by the microbiological technique using Agar well diffusion Assay. Extremely strong activity was observed in the seed extracts of Allium ascolinicum extracted in sodium phosphate citrate buffer at pH (5.8) against Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with zone of inhibition 17 mm, 17 mm and 15 mm and Rumex vesicarius at pH (7.6), Ammi majus at pH (6.8), Cichorium intybus at pH (7.4) and Cucumis sativus at pH (7.8) also showed better sensitivity against the bacterial strains with zone of inhibition ranges 16–10 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Antibacterial activity pattern of different plant extracts prepared in sodium acetate buffer pH (6.5), among all the plant seed extracts used Foeniculum vulgare had shown good inhibition in all the bacterial strains used, with zone of inhibition ranges 11–12.5 mm, The extracts of C. intybus and C. sativus were found to be effective with zone of inhibition 11–6 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Most of the strains found to have shown better sensitivity compared with the standard antibiotic Chloramphenicol (25 mcg). Our results showed that the plants used for our study are the richest source for antimicrobial proteins and peptides and they may be used for industrial extraction and isolation of antimicrobial compounds which may find a place in medicine industry as constituents of antibiotics. PMID:24600307

  5. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude protein extracts from seeds of six different medical plants against standard bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Al Akeel, Raid; Al-Sheikh, Yazeed; Mateen, Ayesha; Syed, Rabbani; Janardhan, K; Gupta, V C

    2014-04-01

    A huge group of natural antimicrobial compounds are active against a large spectrum of bacterial strains causing infectious threat. The present study was conducted to investigate the crude extracts of antimicrobial protein and peptide efficacy from six medicinal plant seeds. Extraction was carried out in Sodium phosphate citrate buffer, and Sodium acetate buffer using different pH. Antimicrobial activities of these plants were determined by the microbiological technique using Agar well diffusion Assay. Extremely strong activity was observed in the seed extracts of Allium ascolinicum extracted in sodium phosphate citrate buffer at pH (5.8) against Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with zone of inhibition 17 mm, 17 mm and 15 mm and Rumex vesicarius at pH (7.6), Ammi majus at pH (6.8), Cichorium intybus at pH (7.4) and Cucumis sativus at pH (7.8) also showed better sensitivity against the bacterial strains with zone of inhibition ranges 16-10 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Antibacterial activity pattern of different plant extracts prepared in sodium acetate buffer pH (6.5), among all the plant seed extracts used Foeniculum vulgare had shown good inhibition in all the bacterial strains used, with zone of inhibition ranges 11-12.5 mm, The extracts of C. intybus and C. sativus were found to be effective with zone of inhibition 11-6 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Most of the strains found to have shown better sensitivity compared with the standard antibiotic Chloramphenicol (25 mcg). Our results showed that the plants used for our study are the richest source for antimicrobial proteins and peptides and they may be used for industrial extraction and isolation of antimicrobial compounds which may find a place in medicine industry as constituents of antibiotics. PMID:24600307

  6. The importance of a taste. A comparative study on wild food plant consumption in twenty-one local communities in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ghirardini, Maria Pia; Carli, Marco; del Vecchio, Nicola; Rovati, Ariele; Cova, Ottavia; Valigi, Francesco; Agnetti, Gaia; Macconi, Martina; Adamo, Daniela; Traina, Mario; Laudini, Francesco; Marcheselli, Ilaria; Caruso, Nicolò; Gedda, Tiziano; Donati, Fabio; Marzadro, Alessandro; Russi, Paola; Spaggiari, Caterina; Bianco, Marcella; Binda, Riccardo; Barattieri, Elisa; Tognacci, Alice; Girardo, Martina; Vaschetti, Luca; Caprino, Piero; Sesti, Erika; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Coletto, Erika; Belzer, Gabriele; Pieroni, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in twenty-one local communities in Italy, fourteen of which were located in Northern Italy, one in Central Italy, one in Sardinia, and four in Southern Italy. 549 informants were asked to name and describe food uses of wild botanicals they currently gather and consume. Data showed that gathering, processing and consuming wild food plants are still important activities in all the selected areas. A few botanicals were quoted and cited in multiple areas, demonstrating that there are ethnobotanical contact points among the various Italian regions (Asparagus acutifolius, Reichardia picroides, Cichorium intybus, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, Silene vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Sonchus and Valerianella spp.). One taxon (Borago officinalis) in particular was found to be among the most quoted taxa in both the Southern and the Northern Italian sites. However, when we took into account data regarding the fifteen most quoted taxa in each site and compared and statistically analysed these, we observed that there were a few differences in the gathering and consumption of wild food plants between Northern and Southern Italy. In the North, Rosaceae species prevailed, whereas in the South, taxa belonging to the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, and Liliaceae s.l. families were most frequently cited. We proposed the hypothesis that these differences may be due to the likelihood that in Southern Italy the erosion of TK on wild vegetables is taking place more slowly, and also to the likelihood that Southern Italians' have a higher appreciation of wild vegetables that have a strong and bitter taste. A correspondence analysis confirmed that the differences in the frequencies of quotation of wild plants within the Northern and the Southern Italian sites could be ascribed only partially to ethnic/cultural issues. An additional factor could be recent socio-economic shifts, which may be having a continued effort on

  7. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in Palestine (Northern West Bank): A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammed S; Jamous, Rana M; Al-Shafie', Jehan H; Elgharabah, Wafa' A; Kherfan, Fatemah A; Qarariah, Kifayeh H; Khdair, Isra' S; Soos, Israa M; Musleh, Aseel A; Isa, Buthainah A; Herzallah, Hanan M; Khlaif, Rasha B; Aiash, Samiah M; Swaiti, Ghadah M; Abuzahra, Muna A; Haj-Ali, Maha M; Saifi, Nehaya A; Azem, Hebah K; Nasrallah, Hanadi A

    2008-01-01

    Background A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in fifteen local communities distributed in five districts in the Palestinian Authority, PA (northern West Bank), six of which were located in Nablus, two in Jenin, two in Salfit, three in Qalqilia, and two in Tulkarm. These are among the areas in the PA whose rural inhabitants primarily subsisted on agriculture and therefore still preserve the traditional knowledge on wild edible plants. Methods Data on the use of wild edible plants were collected for one-year period, through informed consent semi-structured interviews with 190 local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document use diversity, and relative importance of each species. Results and discussion The study recorded 100 wild edible plant species, seventy six of which were mentioned by three informants and above and were distributed across 70 genera and 26 families. The most significant species include Majorana syriaca, Foeniculum vulgare, Malvasylvestris, Salvia fruticosa, Cyclamen persicum, Micromeria fruticosa, Arum palaestinum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Gundelia tournefortii, and Matricaria aurea. All the ten species with the highest mean cultural importance values (mCI), were cited in all five areas. Moreover, most were important in every region. A common cultural background may explain these similarities. One taxon (Majoranasyriaca) in particular was found to be among the most quoted species in almost all areas surveyed. CI values, as a measure of traditional botanical knowledge, for edible species in relatively remote and isolated areas (Qalqilia, and Salfit) were generally higher than for the same species in other areas. This can be attributed to the fact that local knowledge of wild edible plants and plant gathering are more spread in remote or isolated areas. Conclusion Gathering, processing and consuming wild edible plants are still practiced in all the studied Palestinian areas. About 26 % (26/100) of the

  8. The importance of a taste. A comparative study on wild food plant consumption in twenty-one local communities in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in twenty-one local communities in Italy, fourteen of which were located in Northern Italy, one in Central Italy, one in Sardinia, and four in Southern Italy. 549 informants were asked to name and describe food uses of wild botanicals they currently gather and consume. Data showed that gathering, processing and consuming wild food plants are still important activities in all the selected areas. A few botanicals were quoted and cited in multiple areas, demonstrating that there are ethnobotanical contact points among the various Italian regions (Asparagus acutifolius, Reichardia picroides, Cichorium intybus, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, Silene vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Sonchus and Valerianella spp.). One taxon (Borago officinalis) in particular was found to be among the most quoted taxa in both the Southern and the Northern Italian sites. However, when we took into account data regarding the fifteen most quoted taxa in each site and compared and statistically analysed these, we observed that there were a few differences in the gathering and consumption of wild food plants between Northern and Southern Italy. In the North, Rosaceae species prevailed, whereas in the South, taxa belonging to the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, and Liliaceae s.l. families were most frequently cited. We proposed the hypothesis that these differences may be due to the likelihood that in Southern Italy the erosion of TK on wild vegetables is taking place more slowly, and also to the likelihood that Southern Italians' have a higher appreciation of wild vegetables that have a strong and bitter taste. A correspondence analysis confirmed that the differences in the frequencies of quotation of wild plants within the Northern and the Southern Italian sites could be ascribed only partially to ethnic/cultural issues. An additional factor could be recent socio-economic shifts, which may be having a continued effort on

  9. Endophytic colonization of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia reveals plant growth promotion and a general defense and stress transcriptomic response.

    PubMed

    Larriba, Eduardo; Jaime, María D L A; Nislow, Corey; Martín-Nieto, José; Lopez-Llorca, Luis Vicente

    2015-07-01

    Plant crop yields are negatively conditioned by a large set of biotic and abiotic factors. An alternative to mitigate these adverse effects is the use of fungal biological control agents and endophytes. The egg-parasitic fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia has been traditionally studied because of its potential as a biological control agent of plant-parasitic nematodes. This fungus can also act as an endophyte in monocot and dicot plants, and has been shown to promote plant growth in different agronomic crops. An Affymetrix 22K Barley GeneChip was used in this work to analyze the barley root transcriptomic response to P. chlamydosporia root colonization. Functional gene ontology (GO) and gene set enrichment analyses showed that genes involved in stress response were enriched in the barley transcriptome under endophytism. An 87.5% of the probesets identified within the abiotic stress response group encoded heat shock proteins. Additionally, we found in our transcriptomic analysis an up-regulation of genes implicated in the biosynthesis of plant hormones, such as auxin, ethylene and jasmonic acid. Along with these, we detected induction of brassinosteroid insensitive 1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BR1) and other genes related to effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Our study supports at the molecular level the growth-promoting effect observed in plants endophytically colonized by P. chlamydosporia, which opens the door to further studies addressing the capacity of this fungus to mitigate the negative effects of biotic and abiotic factors on plant crops. PMID:25982739

  10. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, that nodulate Phaseolus vulgars have characteristics in common with Sinorhizobium meliloti isolates from mainland Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean and Medicago rhizobia isolated from five locations on the island of Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, by partial analysis of 10 chromosomal genes were shown to exhibit close similarity to Sinorhizobium meliloti. Several bean isolates from Lanzarote, mainland Spain and Tunisia nodulated Leu...

  11. Quantitative Trait Loci for Salinity Tolerance Identified under Drained and Waterlogged Conditions and Their Association with Flowering Time in Barley (Hordeum vulgare. L)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yanling; Shabala, Sergey; Li, Chengdao; Liu, Chunji; Zhang, Wenying; Zhou, Meixue

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting crop production via adverse effects of osmotic stress, specific ion toxicity, and stress-related nutritional disorders. Detrimental effects of salinity are also often exacerbated by low oxygen availability when plants are grown under waterlogged conditions. Developing salinity-tolerant varieties is critical to overcome these problems, and molecular marker assisted selection can make breeding programs more effective. Methods In this study, a double haploid (DH) population consisting of 175 lines, derived from a cross between a Chinese barley variety Yangsimai 1 (YSM1) and an Australian malting barley variety Gairdner, was used to construct a high density molecular map which contained more than 8,000 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Salinity tolerance of parental and DH lines was evaluated under drained (SalinityD) and waterlogged (SalinityW) conditions at two different sowing times. Results Three quantitative trait loci (QTL) located on chromosome 1H, single QTL located on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 4H, 5H and 7H, were identified to be responsible for salinity tolerance under different environments. Waterlogging stress, daylight length and temperature showed significant effects on barley salinity tolerance. The QTL for salinity tolerance mapped on chromosomes 4H and 7H, QSlwd.YG.4H, QSlwd.YG.7H and QSlww.YG.7H were only identified in winter trials, while the QTL on chromosome 2H QSlsd.YG.2H and QSlsw.YG.2H were only detected in summer trials. Genes associated with flowering time were found to pose significant effects on the salinity QTL mapped on chromosomes 2H and 5H in summer trials. Given the fact that the QTL for salinity tolerance QSlsd.YG.1H and QSlww.YG.1H-1 reported here have never been considered in the literature, this warrants further investigation and evaluation for suitability to be used in breeding programs. PMID:26247774

  12. Comparison of the Phosphorus and Mineral Concentrations in Bran and Abraded Kernel Fractions of a Normal Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Cultivar versus Four Low Phytic Acid Isolines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytic acid consists of 65-80% of the total phosphorus (P) in cereal grains. Its salts are concentrated in the germ and aleurone layers, which are typically removed during milling. We hypothesize that concentrations of different types of P and minerals in milled products will be greatly altered in ...

  13. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Oat (Avena sativa L.), Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and Highland Barley (Hordeum vulgare trifurcatum (L.) Trofim) Proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Yu, Guoyong; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2015-11-01

    Peptides released from oat, buckwheat, and highland barley proteins were examined for their in vitro inhibitory effects on dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), an enzyme that deactivates incretin hormones involved in insulin secretion. All of the hydrolysates exhibited DPP4 inhibitory activities, with IC50 values ranging from 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin alcalase digestion) to 8.15 mg/mL (highland barley albumin tryptic digestion). The lowest IC50 values in gastrointestinal, alcalase, and tryptic digestions were 0.99 mg/mL (oat flour), 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin), and 1.83 mg/mL (highland barley glutelin). In all, 35 peptides of more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Peptides LQAFEPLR and EFLLAGNNK were synthesized and their DPP4 inhibitory activities determined. LQAFEPLR showed high in vitro DPP4 inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 103.5 μM. PMID:26468909

  14. Identification and characterization of a partially functional mutation of the cellulose-synthase-like (CslF6) gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemical induced barley mutant m351 was first selected for its low level of mixed-linkage (1,3), (1,4) beta-D-glucan (MLG) in an effort to find barley lines with varied grain MLG contents. The MLG decrease in m351 was associated with thinned endosperm cell walls and increased levels of fructans ...

  15. Development of the terrestrial biotic ligand model for predicting nickel toxicity to barley (Hordeum vulgare): ion effects at low pH.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Paula M C; Kreager, Nancy J

    2009-08-01

    The focus of the present study was to investigate the potential for Al3+, Mg2+, and H+ to influence Ni2+ toxicity for barley seedlings grown in acidic aqueous solutions and to assess the capacity of a two-site terrestrial biotic ligand model (tBLM) to accurately predict 50% effect activities (EA50s). To accomplish these objectives, 48-h EA50Ni2+ values were obtained for three sets of exposures in which the pH and activity of Al3+ and Mg2+ were varied. Exposures contained both Al alone and in combination with Mg so that compound ion effects could be investigated. A tBLM was then constructed to predict EA50Ni2+ values from the exposure solution chemistry. The results show a slight protective effect of H+ against Ni2+ toxicity and a strong protective effect of Mg2+, as indicated by a 4.6- and 8.0-fold increase in the measured EA50Ni2+ values corresponding to changes in pH from 6.0 to 4.5 and {Mg2+} from 0 to 1.40 mM, respectively. Increasing solution {Al3+} from 0 to 0.5 microM had no effect on Ni2+ toxicity, although Al itself negatively affected root elongation. Comparison of EA50 values calculated as both Ni2+ and measured concentration of total Ni in the root ([Root-Ni]T) showed [Root-Ni]T to be a more normalized measure of Ni bioavailability. The strong correlation between root growth inhibition and tBLM-predicted root-Ni accumulation suggests that toxicity was influenced by Ni2+ binding to low-affinity ligands within the cell wall, in addition to Ni2+ uptake through Mg2+ transporters. Predicted EA50Ni2+ values generated with the model were all within a factor of +/-1.5 from measured values--a result that emphasizes the advantage of using the tBLM for risk assessment. PMID:19374472

  16. Efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus utilization in progenies of factorial crosses between European and exotic cultivars of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Górny, Andrzej G; Ratajczak, Dominika

    2008-01-01

    Previous observations suggested that some landraces, primitive cultivars and other barleys originating from the harsh conditions of the Middle East, North Africa and Tibet might serve as interesting sources of adaptation to low-input agriculture. This opportunity was verified in field experiments performed under reduced rates of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization. Genetic variation in major components of the efficiency of N and P utilization was examined among F2 and F3 generations of crosses between four European female and seven exotic male lines of spring barley. Preponderance of general combining ability effects was found for most efficiency components, suggesting that the characters are mainly controlled by additive gene action. Non-additive effects appeared to be less or non-significant. Under reduced fertilization, hybrid progenies of the Syrian cv. M.Dingo/D.Alla 106 and the Moroccan cv. Moroc 9-75 exhibit an enhanced yielding and the highest capacity to utilize N and P efficiently in grain mass formation. The results proved that the exotic barleys appear to be particularly useful for breeding programs aiming at improved barley adaptation to less favourable fertilization regimes. PMID:19029682

  17. Effects of extraction solvent mixtures on antioxidant activity evaluation and their extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haifeng; Dong, Jianjun; Lu, Jian; Chen, Jian; Li, Yin; Shan, Lianju; Lin, Yan; Fan, Wei; Gu, Guoxian

    2006-09-20

    Four kinds of solvent extracts from three Chinese barley varieties (Ken-3, KA4B, and Gan-3) were used to examine the effects of extraction solvent mixtures on antioxidant activity evaluation and their extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley through free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and metal chelating activity, and individual and total phenolic contents. Results showed that extraction solvent mixtures had significant impacts on antioxidant activity estimation, as well as different extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley. The highest DPPH* and ABTS*+ scavenging activities and reducing power were found in 80% acetone extracts, whereas the strongest *OH scavenging activity, O2*- scavenging activity, and metal chelating activity were found in 80% ethanol, 80% methanol, and water extracts, respectively. Additionally, 80% acetone showed the highest extraction capacity for (+)-catechin and ferulic, caffeic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acids, 80% methanol for (-)-epicatechin and syringic acid, and water for protocatechuic and gallic acids. Furthermore, correlations analysis revealed that TPC, reducing power, DPPH* and ABTS*+ scavenging activities were well positively correlated with each other (p < 0.01). Thus, for routine screening of barley varieties with higher antioxidant activity, 80% acetone was recommended to extract free phenolic compounds from barley. DPPH* scavenging activity and ABTS*+ scavenging activity or reducing power could be used to assess barley antioxidant activity. PMID:16968094

  18. Effect of Oregano Essential Oil (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) on the Storage Stability and Quality Parameters of Ground Chicken Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of oregano essential oil on the oxidative stability and color of raw and cooked chicken breast meats. Five treatments, including (1) control (none added); (2) 100 ppm oregano essential oil; (3) 300 ppm oregano essential oil; (4) 400 ppm oregano essential oil; and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), were prepared with ground boneless, skinless chicken breast meat and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For raw meat study, samples were individually packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored in a cold room (4 °C) for 7 days. For cooked meat study, the raw meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags and then cooked in-bag to an internal temperature of 75 °C. After cooling to room temperature, the cooked meats were repackaged in new oxygen-permeable bags and then stored at 4 °C for 7 days. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, volatiles, and color at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Oregano essential oil significantly reduced (p < 0.05) lipid and protein oxidation, and improved color stability of raw and cooked meat. However, oregano oil at 400 ppm showed the strongest effect for all these parameters. Hexanal was the major aldehyde, which was decreased significantly (p < 0.05) by oregano oil treatment, in cooked meat. Overall, oregano essential oil at 100-400 ppm levels could be a good preservative that can replace the synthetic antioxidant in chicken meat. PMID:27338486

  19. What are the implications of variation in root hair length on tolerance to phosphorus deficiency in combination with water stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare)?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, L.K.; George, T.S.; Thompson, J.A.; Wright, G.; Lyon, J.; Dupuy, L.; Hubbard, S.F.; White, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Phosphorus commonly limits crop yield and is frequently applied as fertilizer; however, supplies of quality rock phosphate for fertilizer production are diminishing. Plants have evolved many mechanisms to increase their P-fertilizer use efficiency, and an understanding of these traits could result in improved long-term sustainability of agriculture. Here a mutant population is utilized to assess the impact of root hair length on P acquisition and yield under P-deficient conditions alone or when combined with drought. Methods Mutants with various root hair phenotypes were grown in the glasshouse in pots filled with soil representing sufficient and deficient P treatments and, in one experiment, a range of water availability was also imposed. Plants were variously harvested at 7 d, 8 weeks and 14 weeks, and variables including root hair length, rhizosheath weight, biomass, P accumulation and yield were measured. Key Results The results confirmed the robustness of the root hair phenotypes in soils and their relationship to rhizosheath production. The data demonstrated that root hair length is important for shoot P accumulation and biomass, while only the presence of root hairs is critical for yield. Root hair presence was also critical for tolerance to extreme combined P deficit and drought stress, with genotypes with no root hairs suffering extreme growth retardation in comparison with those with root hairs. Conclusions The results suggest that although root hair length is not important for maintaining yield, the presence of root hairs is implicit to sustainable yield of barley under P-deficient conditions and when combined with extreme drought. Root hairs are a trait that should be maintained in future germplasm. PMID:22539540

  20. Effect of Oregano Essential Oil (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) on the Storage Stability and Quality Parameters of Ground Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of oregano essential oil on the oxidative stability and color of raw and cooked chicken breast meats. Five treatments, including (1) control (none added); (2) 100 ppm oregano essential oil; (3) 300 ppm oregano essential oil; (4) 400 ppm oregano essential oil; and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), were prepared with ground boneless, skinless chicken breast meat and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For raw meat study, samples were individually packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored in a cold room (4 °C) for 7 days. For cooked meat study, the raw meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags and then cooked in-bag to an internal temperature of 75 °C. After cooling to room temperature, the cooked meats were repackaged in new oxygen-permeable bags and then stored at 4 °C for 7 days. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, volatiles, and color at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Oregano essential oil significantly reduced (p < 0.05) lipid and protein oxidation, and improved color stability of raw and cooked meat. However, oregano oil at 400 ppm showed the strongest effect for all these parameters. Hexanal was the major aldehyde, which was decreased significantly (p < 0.05) by oregano oil treatment, in cooked meat. Overall, oregano essential oil at 100–400 ppm levels could be a good preservative that can replace the synthetic antioxidant in chicken meat. PMID:27338486