Science.gov

Sample records for annealing optimization algorithm

  1. Stochastic search in structural optimization - Genetic algorithms and simulated annealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajela, Prabhat

    1993-01-01

    An account is given of illustrative applications of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing methods in structural optimization. The advantages of such stochastic search methods over traditional mathematical programming strategies are emphasized; it is noted that these methods offer a significantly higher probability of locating the global optimum in a multimodal design space. Both genetic-search and simulated annealing can be effectively used in problems with a mix of continuous, discrete, and integer design variables.

  2. Multiobjective optimization with a modified simulated annealing algorithm for external beam radiotherapy treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Aubry, Jean-Francois; Beaulieu, Frederic; Sevigny, Caroline; Beaulieu, Luc; Tremblay, Daniel

    2006-12-15

    Inverse planning in external beam radiotherapy often requires a scalar objective function that incorporates importance factors to mimic the planner's preferences between conflicting objectives. Defining those importance factors is not straightforward, and frequently leads to an iterative process in which the importance factors become variables of the optimization problem. In order to avoid this drawback of inverse planning, optimization using algorithms more suited to multiobjective optimization, such as evolutionary algorithms, has been suggested. However, much inverse planning software, including one based on simulated annealing developed at our institution, does not include multiobjective-oriented algorithms. This work investigates the performance of a modified simulated annealing algorithm used to drive aperture-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy inverse planning software in a multiobjective optimization framework. For a few test cases involving gastric cancer patients, the use of this new algorithm leads to an increase in optimization speed of a little more than a factor of 2 over a conventional simulated annealing algorithm, while giving a close approximation of the solutions produced by a standard simulated annealing. A simple graphical user interface designed to facilitate the decision-making process that follows an optimization is also presented.

  3. A Simulated Annealing Algorithm for the Optimization of Multistage Depressed Collector Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaden, Karl R.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Bulson, Brian A.

    2002-01-01

    The microwave traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA) is widely used as a high-power transmitting source for space and airborne communications. One critical factor in designing a TWTA is the overall efficiency. However, overall efficiency is highly dependent upon collector efficiency; so collector design is critical to the performance of a TWTA. Therefore, NASA Glenn Research Center has developed an optimization algorithm based on Simulated Annealing to quickly design highly efficient multi-stage depressed collectors (MDC).

  4. Humanoid robot gait optimization: Stretched simulated annealing and genetic algorithm a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Ana I.; Lima, José; Costa, Paulo

    2013-10-01

    There are several approaches to create the Humanoid robot gait planning. This problem presents a large number of unknown parameters that should be found to make the humanoid robot to walk. Optimization in simulation models can be used to find the gait based on several criteria such as energy minimization, acceleration, step length among the others. The presented paper addresses a comparison between two optimization methods, the Stretched Simulated Annealing and the Genetic Algorithm, that runs in an accurate and stable simulation model. Final results show the comparative study and demonstrate that optimization is a valid gait planning technique.

  5. Optimal annealing schedules for two-, three-, and four-level systems using a genetic algorithm approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Ronald P.; Mayne, Howard R.

    2000-05-01

    An annealing schedule, T(t), is the temperature as function of time whose goal is to bring a system from some initial low-order state to a final high-order state. We use the probability in the lowest energy level as the order parameter, so that an ideally annealed system would have all its population in its ground-state. We consider a model system comprised of discrete energy levels separated by activation barriers. We have carried out annealing calculations on this system for a range of system parameters. In particular, we considered the schedule as a function of the energy level spacing, of the height of the activation barriers, and, in some cases, as a function of degeneracies of the levels. For a given set of physical parameters, and maximum available time, tm, we were able to obtain the optimal schedule by using a genetic algorithm (GA) approach. For the two-level system, analytic solutions are available, and were compared with the GA-optimized results. The agreement was essentially exact. We were able to identify systematic behaviors of the schedules and trends in final probabilities as a function of parameters. We have also carried out Metropolis Monte Carlo (MMC) calculations on simple potential energy functions using the optimal schedules available from the model calculations. Agreement between the model and MMC calculations was excellent.

  6. Broadband diffusion metasurface based on a single anisotropic element and optimized by the Simulated Annealing algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi; Cao, Xiangyu; Gao, Jun; Sun, Yu; Yang, Huanhuan; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Yulong; Han, Tong; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new strategy to design broadband and wide angle diffusion metasurfaces. An anisotropic structure which has opposite phases under x- and y-polarized incidence is employed as the "0" and "1" elements base on the concept of coding metamaterial. To obtain a uniform backward scattering under normal incidence, Simulated Annealing algorithm is utilized in this paper to calculate the optimal layout. The proposed method provides an efficient way to design diffusion metasurface with a simple structure, which has been proved by both simulations and measurements. PMID:27034110

  7. Broadband diffusion metasurface based on a single anisotropic element and optimized by the Simulated Annealing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yi; Cao, Xiangyu; Gao, Jun; Sun, Yu; Yang, Huanhuan; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Yulong; Han, Tong; Chen, Wei

    2016-04-01

    We propose a new strategy to design broadband and wide angle diffusion metasurfaces. An anisotropic structure which has opposite phases under x- and y-polarized incidence is employed as the “0” and “1” elements base on the concept of coding metamaterial. To obtain a uniform backward scattering under normal incidence, Simulated Annealing algorithm is utilized in this paper to calculate the optimal layout. The proposed method provides an efficient way to design diffusion metasurface with a simple structure, which has been proved by both simulations and measurements.

  8. Broadband diffusion metasurface based on a single anisotropic element and optimized by the Simulated Annealing algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yi; Cao, Xiangyu; Gao, Jun; Sun, Yu; Yang, Huanhuan; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Yulong; Han, Tong; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new strategy to design broadband and wide angle diffusion metasurfaces. An anisotropic structure which has opposite phases under x- and y-polarized incidence is employed as the “0” and “1” elements base on the concept of coding metamaterial. To obtain a uniform backward scattering under normal incidence, Simulated Annealing algorithm is utilized in this paper to calculate the optimal layout. The proposed method provides an efficient way to design diffusion metasurface with a simple structure, which has been proved by both simulations and measurements. PMID:27034110

  9. [The utility boiler low NOx combustion optimization based on ANN and simulated annealing algorithm].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Qian, Xinping; Zheng, Ligang; Weng, Anxin; Cen, Kefa

    2003-11-01

    With the developing restrict environmental protection demand, more attention was paid on the low NOx combustion optimizing technology for its cheap and easy property. In this work, field experiments on the NOx emissions characteristics of a 600 MW coal-fired boiler were carried out, on the base of the artificial neural network (ANN) modeling, the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm was employed to optimize the boiler combustion to achieve a low NOx emissions concentration, and the combustion scheme was obtained. Two sets of SA parameters were adopted to find a better SA scheme, the result show that the parameters of T0 = 50 K, alpha = 0.6 can lead to a better optimizing process. This work can give the foundation of the boiler low NOx combustion on-line control technology. PMID:14768567

  10. Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew; Smith, J. Scott; Aronstein, David

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is a variation of a simulated-annealing optimization algorithm that uses a recursive-branching structure to parallelize the search of a parameter space for the globally optimal solution to an objective. The algorithm has been demonstrated to be more effective at searching a parameter space than traditional simulated-annealing methods for a particular problem of interest, and it can readily be applied to a wide variety of optimization problems, including those with a parameter space having both discrete-value parameters (combinatorial) and continuous-variable parameters. It can take the place of a conventional simulated- annealing, Monte-Carlo, or random- walk algorithm. In a conventional simulated-annealing (SA) algorithm, a starting configuration is randomly selected within the parameter space. The algorithm randomly selects another configuration from the parameter space and evaluates the objective function for that configuration. If the objective function value is better than the previous value, the new configuration is adopted as the new point of interest in the parameter space. If the objective function value is worse than the previous value, the new configuration may be adopted, with a probability determined by a temperature parameter, used in analogy to annealing in metals. As the optimization continues, the region of the parameter space from which new configurations can be selected shrinks, and in conjunction with lowering the annealing temperature (and thus lowering the probability for adopting configurations in parameter space with worse objective functions), the algorithm can converge on the globally optimal configuration. The Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing (RBSA) algorithm shares some features with the SA algorithm, notably including the basic principles that a starting configuration is randomly selected from within the parameter space, the algorithm tests other configurations with the goal of finding the globally optimal

  11. Handling time-expensive global optimization problems through the surrogate-enhanced evolutionary annealing-simplex algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoukalas, Ioannis; Kossieris, Panagiotis; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Makropoulos, Christos

    2015-04-01

    In water resources optimization problems, the calculation of the objective function usually presumes to first run a simulation model and then evaluate its outputs. In several cases, however, long simulation times may pose significant barriers to the optimization procedure. Often, to obtain a solution within a reasonable time, the user has to substantially restrict the allowable number of function evaluations, thus terminating the search much earlier than required by the problem's complexity. A promising novel strategy to address these shortcomings is the use of surrogate modelling techniques within global optimization algorithms. Here we introduce the Surrogate-Enhanced Evolutionary Annealing-Simplex (SE-EAS) algorithm that couples the strengths of surrogate modelling with the effectiveness and efficiency of the EAS method. The algorithm combines three different optimization approaches (evolutionary search, simulated annealing and the downhill simplex search scheme), in which key decisions are partially guided by numerical approximations of the objective function. The performance of the proposed algorithm is benchmarked against other surrogate-assisted algorithms, in both theoretical and practical applications (i.e. test functions and hydrological calibration problems, respectively), within a limited budget of trials (from 100 to 1000). Results reveal the significant potential of using SE-EAS in challenging optimization problems, involving time-consuming simulations.

  12. Structural optimization and segregation behavior of quaternary alloy nanoparticles based on simulated annealing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin-Ze, Lu; Gui-Fang, Shao; Liang-You, Xu; Tun-Dong, Liu; Yu-Hua, Wen

    2016-05-01

    Alloy nanoparticles exhibit higher catalytic activity than monometallic nanoparticles, and their stable structures are of importance to their applications. We employ the simulated annealing algorithm to systematically explore the stable structure and segregation behavior of tetrahexahedral Pt–Pd–Cu–Au quaternary alloy nanoparticles. Three alloy nanoparticles consisting of 443 atoms, 1417 atoms, and 3285 atoms are considered and compared. The preferred positions of atoms in the nanoparticles are analyzed. The simulation results reveal that Cu and Au atoms tend to occupy the surface, Pt atoms preferentially occupy the middle layers, and Pd atoms tend to segregate to the inner layers. Furthermore, Au atoms present stronger surface segregation than Cu ones. This study provides a fundamental understanding on the structural features and segregation phenomena of multi-metallic nanoparticles. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51271156, 11474234, and 61403318) and the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province of China (Grant Nos. 2013J01255 and 2013J06002).

  13. Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coatings for metal-backed solar cells optimized using simulated annealing algorithm incorporated with solar spectrum.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yin-Jung; Chen, Yu-Ting

    2011-07-01

    Broadband omnidirectional antireflection (AR) coatings for solar cells optimized using simulated annealing (SA) algorithm incorporated with the solar (irradiance) spectrum at Earth's surface (AM1.57 radiation) are described. Material dispersions and reflections from the planar backside metal are considered in the rigorous electromagnetic calculations. Optimized AR coatings for bulk crystalline Si and thin-film CuIn(1-x)GaxSe(2) (CIGS) solar cells as two representative cases are presented and the effect of solar spectrum in the AR coating designs is investigated. In general, the angle-averaged reflectance of a solar-spectrum-incorporated AR design is shown to be smaller and more uniform in the spectral range with relatively stronger solar irradiance. By incorporating the transparent conductive and buffer layers as part of the AR coating in CIGS solar cells (2μm-thick CIGS layer), a single MgF(2) layer could provide an average reflectance of 8.46% for wavelengths ranging from 350 nm to 1200 nm and incident angles from 0° to 80°. PMID:21747557

  14. Fast combinatorial optimization using generalized deterministic annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, Scott T.; Ghosh, Joydeep; Bovik, Alan C.

    1993-08-01

    Generalized Deterministic Annealing (GDA) is a useful new tool for computing fast multi-state combinatorial optimization of difficult non-convex problems. By estimating the stationary distribution of simulated annealing (SA), GDA yields equivalent solutions to practical SA algorithms while providing a significant speed improvement. Using the standard GDA, the computational time of SA may be reduced by an order of magnitude, and, with a new implementation improvement, Windowed GDA, the time improvements reach two orders of magnitude with a trivial compromise in solution quality. The fast optimization of GDA has enabled expeditious computation of complex nonlinear image enhancement paradigms, such as the Piecewise Constant (PICO) regression examples used in this paper. To validate our analytical results, we apply GDA to the PICO regression problem and compare the results to other optimization methods. Several full image examples are provided that show successful PICO image enhancement using GDA in the presence of both Laplacian and Gaussian additive noise.

  15. Quantum Annealing for Constrained Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hen, Itay; Spedalieri, Federico M.

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in quantum technology have led to the development and manufacturing of experimental programmable quantum annealers that promise to solve certain combinatorial optimization problems of practical relevance faster than their classical analogues. The applicability of such devices for many theoretical and real-world optimization problems, which are often constrained, is severely limited by the sparse, rigid layout of the devices' quantum bits. Traditionally, constraints are addressed by the addition of penalty terms to the Hamiltonian of the problem, which, in turn, requires prohibitively increasing physical resources while also restricting the dynamical range of the interactions. Here, we propose a method for encoding constrained optimization problems on quantum annealers that eliminates the need for penalty terms and thereby reduces the number of required couplers and removes the need for minor embedding, greatly reducing the number of required physical qubits. We argue the advantages of the proposed technique and illustrate its effectiveness. We conclude by discussing the experimental feasibility of the suggested method as well as its potential to appreciably reduce the resource requirements for implementing optimization problems on quantum annealers and its significance in the field of quantum computing.

  16. The annealing robust backpropagation (ARBP) learning algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chuang, C C; Su, S F; Hsiao, C C

    2000-01-01

    Multilayer feedforward neural networks are often referred to as universal approximators. Nevertheless, if the used training data are corrupted by large noise, such as outliers, traditional backpropagation learning schemes may not always come up with acceptable performance. Even though various robust learning algorithms have been proposed in the literature, those approaches still suffer from the initialization problem. In those robust learning algorithms, the so-called M-estimator is employed. For the M-estimation type of learning algorithms, the loss function is used to play the role in discriminating against outliers from the majority by degrading the effects of those outliers in learning. However, the loss function used in those algorithms may not correctly discriminate against those outliers. In this paper, the annealing robust backpropagation learning algorithm (ARBP) that adopts the annealing concept into the robust learning algorithms is proposed to deal with the problem of modeling under the existence of outliers. The proposed algorithm has been employed in various examples. Those results all demonstrated the superiority over other robust learning algorithms independent of outliers. In the paper, not only is the annealing concept adopted into the robust learning algorithms but also the annealing schedule k/t was found experimentally to achieve the best performance among other annealing schedules, where k is a constant and is the epoch number. PMID:18249835

  17. Quantum Annealing for Constrained Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hen, Itay; Spedalieri, Federico

    Recent advances in quantum technology have led to the development and manufacturing of experimental programmable quantum annealers that could potentially solve certain quadratic unconstrained binary optimization problems faster than their classical analogues. The applicability of such devices for many theoretical and practical optimization problems, which are often constrained, is severely limited by the sparse, rigid layout of the devices' quantum bits. Traditionally, constraints are addressed by the addition of penalty terms to the Hamiltonian of the problem, which in turn requires prohibitively increasing physical resources while also restricting the dynamical range of the interactions. Here we propose a method for encoding constrained optimization problems on quantum annealers that eliminates the need for penalty terms and thereby removes many of the obstacles associated with the implementation of these. We argue the advantages of the proposed technique and illustrate its effectiveness. We then conclude by discussing the experimental feasibility of the suggested method as well as its potential to boost the encodability of other optimization problems.

  18. Remediation tradeoffs addressed with simulated annealing optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, L. L., LLNL

    1998-02-01

    Escalation of groundwater remediation costs has encouraged both advances in optimization techniques to balance remediation objectives and economics and development of innovative technologies to expedite source region clean-ups. We present an optimization application building on a pump-and-treat model, yet assuming a prior removal of different portions of the source area to address the evolving management issue of more aggressive source remediation. Separate economic estimates of in-situ thermal remediation are combined with the economic estimates of the subsequent optimal pump-and-treat remediation to observe tradeoff relationships of cost vs. highest remaining contamination levels (hot spot). The simulated annealing algorithm calls the flow and transport model to evaluate the success of a proposed remediation scenario at a U.S.A. Superfund site contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

  19. Hybridisations Of Simulated Annealing And Modified Simplex Algorithms On A Path Of Steepest Ascent With Multi-Response For Optimal Parameter Settings Of ACO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luangpaiboon, P.

    2009-10-01

    Many entrepreneurs face to extreme conditions for instances; costs, quality, sales and services. Moreover, technology has always been intertwined with our demands. Then almost manufacturers or assembling lines adopt it and come out with more complicated process inevitably. At this stage, products and service improvement need to be shifted from competitors with sustainability. So, a simulated process optimisation is an alternative way for solving huge and complex problems. Metaheuristics are sequential processes that perform exploration and exploitation in the solution space aiming to efficiently find near optimal solutions with natural intelligence as a source of inspiration. One of the most well-known metaheuristics is called Ant Colony Optimisation, ACO. This paper is conducted to give an aid in complicatedness of using ACO in terms of its parameters: number of iterations, ants and moves. Proper levels of these parameters are analysed on eight noisy continuous non-linear continuous response surfaces. Considering the solution space in a specified region, some surfaces contain global optimum and multiple local optimums and some are with a curved ridge. ACO parameters are determined through hybridisations of Modified Simplex and Simulated Annealing methods on the path of Steepest Ascent, SAM. SAM was introduced to recommend preferable levels of ACO parameters via statistically significant regression analysis and Taguchi's signal to noise ratio. Other performance achievements include minimax and mean squared error measures. A series of computational experiments using each algorithm were conducted. Experimental results were analysed in terms of mean, design points and best so far solutions. It was found that results obtained from a hybridisation with stochastic procedures of Simulated Annealing method were better than that using Modified Simplex algorithm. However, the average execution time of experimental runs and number of design points using hybridisations were

  20. Annealed Importance Sampling Reversible Jump MCMC algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiannis, Georgios; Andrieu, Christophe

    2013-03-20

    It will soon be 20 years since reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (RJ-MCMC) algorithms have been proposed. They have significantly extended the scope of Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation methods, offering the promise to be able to routinely tackle transdimensional sampling problems, as encountered in Bayesian model selection problems for example, in a principled and flexible fashion. Their practical efficient implementation, however, still remains a challenge. A particular difficulty encountered in practice is in the choice of the dimension matching variables (both their nature and their distribution) and the reversible transformations which allow one to define the one-to-one mappings underpinning the design of these algorithms. Indeed, even seemingly sensible choices can lead to algorithms with very poor performance. The focus of this paper is the development and performance evaluation of a method, annealed importance sampling RJ-MCMC (aisRJ), which addresses this problem by mitigating the sensitivity of RJ-MCMC algorithms to the aforementioned poor design. As we shall see the algorithm can be understood as being an “exact approximation” of an idealized MCMC algorithm that would sample from the model probabilities directly in a model selection set-up. Such an idealized algorithm may have good theoretical convergence properties, but typically cannot be implemented, and our algorithms can approximate the performance of such idealized algorithms to an arbitrary degree while not introducing any bias for any degree of approximation. Our approach combines the dimension matching ideas of RJ-MCMC with annealed importance sampling and its Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation. We illustrate the performance of the algorithm with numerical simulations which indicate that, although the approach may at first appear computationally involved, it is in fact competitive.

  1. Evolutionary algorithms, simulated annealing, and Tabu search: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Habib; Sait, Sadiq M.; Adiche, Hakim

    1998-10-01

    Evolutionary algorithms, simulated annealing (SA), and Tabu Search (TS) are general iterative algorithms for combinatorial optimization. The term evolutionary algorithm is used to refer to any probabilistic algorithm whose design is inspired by evolutionary mechanisms found in biological species. Most widely known algorithms of this category are Genetic Algorithms (GA). GA, SA, and TS have been found to be very effective and robust in solving numerous problems from a wide range of application domains.Furthermore, they are even suitable for ill-posed problems where some of the parameters are not known before hand. These properties are lacking in all traditional optimization techniques. In this paper we perform a comparative study among GA, SA, and TS. These algorithms have many similarities, but they also possess distinctive features, mainly in their strategies for searching the solution state space. the three heuristics are applied on the same optimization problem and compared with respect to (1) quality of the best solution identified by each heuristic, (2) progress of the search from initial solution(s) until stopping criteria are met, (3) the progress of the cost of the best solution as a function of time, and (4) the number of solutions found at successive intervals of the cost function. The benchmark problem was is the floorplanning of very large scale integrated circuits. This is a hard multi-criteria optimization problem. Fuzzy logic is used to combine all objective criteria into a single fuzzy evaluation function, which is then used to rate competing solutions.

  2. List-Based Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Shi-hua; Lin, Juan; Zhang, Ze-jun

    2016-01-01

    Simulated annealing (SA) algorithm is a popular intelligent optimization algorithm which has been successfully applied in many fields. Parameters' setting is a key factor for its performance, but it is also a tedious work. To simplify parameters setting, we present a list-based simulated annealing (LBSA) algorithm to solve traveling salesman problem (TSP). LBSA algorithm uses a novel list-based cooling schedule to control the decrease of temperature. Specifically, a list of temperatures is created first, and then the maximum temperature in list is used by Metropolis acceptance criterion to decide whether to accept a candidate solution. The temperature list is adapted iteratively according to the topology of the solution space of the problem. The effectiveness and the parameter sensitivity of the list-based cooling schedule are illustrated through benchmark TSP problems. The LBSA algorithm, whose performance is robust on a wide range of parameter values, shows competitive performance compared with some other state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:27034650

  3. List-Based Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Shi-hua; Lin, Juan; Zhang, Ze-jun; Zhong, Yi-wen

    2016-01-01

    Simulated annealing (SA) algorithm is a popular intelligent optimization algorithm which has been successfully applied in many fields. Parameters' setting is a key factor for its performance, but it is also a tedious work. To simplify parameters setting, we present a list-based simulated annealing (LBSA) algorithm to solve traveling salesman problem (TSP). LBSA algorithm uses a novel list-based cooling schedule to control the decrease of temperature. Specifically, a list of temperatures is created first, and then the maximum temperature in list is used by Metropolis acceptance criterion to decide whether to accept a candidate solution. The temperature list is adapted iteratively according to the topology of the solution space of the problem. The effectiveness and the parameter sensitivity of the list-based cooling schedule are illustrated through benchmark TSP problems. The LBSA algorithm, whose performance is robust on a wide range of parameter values, shows competitive performance compared with some other state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:27034650

  4. Parameter estimation for chaotic systems using a hybrid adaptive cuckoo search with simulated annealing algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Bihua; Zhou, Shudao

    2014-03-15

    This paper introduces a novel hybrid optimization algorithm to establish the parameters of chaotic systems. In order to deal with the weaknesses of the traditional cuckoo search algorithm, the proposed adaptive cuckoo search with simulated annealing algorithm is presented, which incorporates the adaptive parameters adjusting operation and the simulated annealing operation in the cuckoo search algorithm. Normally, the parameters of the cuckoo search algorithm are kept constant that may result in decreasing the efficiency of the algorithm. For the purpose of balancing and enhancing the accuracy and convergence rate of the cuckoo search algorithm, the adaptive operation is presented to tune the parameters properly. Besides, the local search capability of cuckoo search algorithm is relatively weak that may decrease the quality of optimization. So the simulated annealing operation is merged into the cuckoo search algorithm to enhance the local search ability and improve the accuracy and reliability of the results. The functionality of the proposed hybrid algorithm is investigated through the Lorenz chaotic system under the noiseless and noise condition, respectively. The numerical results demonstrate that the method can estimate parameters efficiently and accurately in the noiseless and noise condition. Finally, the results are compared with the traditional cuckoo search algorithm, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and superior performance of the proposed algorithm.

  5. Parameter estimation for chaotic systems using a hybrid adaptive cuckoo search with simulated annealing algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Shudao; Zhou, Bihua

    2014-03-01

    This paper introduces a novel hybrid optimization algorithm to establish the parameters of chaotic systems. In order to deal with the weaknesses of the traditional cuckoo search algorithm, the proposed adaptive cuckoo search with simulated annealing algorithm is presented, which incorporates the adaptive parameters adjusting operation and the simulated annealing operation in the cuckoo search algorithm. Normally, the parameters of the cuckoo search algorithm are kept constant that may result in decreasing the efficiency of the algorithm. For the purpose of balancing and enhancing the accuracy and convergence rate of the cuckoo search algorithm, the adaptive operation is presented to tune the parameters properly. Besides, the local search capability of cuckoo search algorithm is relatively weak that may decrease the quality of optimization. So the simulated annealing operation is merged into the cuckoo search algorithm to enhance the local search ability and improve the accuracy and reliability of the results. The functionality of the proposed hybrid algorithm is investigated through the Lorenz chaotic system under the noiseless and noise condition, respectively. The numerical results demonstrate that the method can estimate parameters efficiently and accurately in the noiseless and noise condition. Finally, the results are compared with the traditional cuckoo search algorithm, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and superior performance of the proposed algorithm. PMID:24697395

  6. Parameter estimation for chaotic systems using a hybrid adaptive cuckoo search with simulated annealing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Shudao; Zhou, Bihua

    2014-03-01

    This paper introduces a novel hybrid optimization algorithm to establish the parameters of chaotic systems. In order to deal with the weaknesses of the traditional cuckoo search algorithm, the proposed adaptive cuckoo search with simulated annealing algorithm is presented, which incorporates the adaptive parameters adjusting operation and the simulated annealing operation in the cuckoo search algorithm. Normally, the parameters of the cuckoo search algorithm are kept constant that may result in decreasing the efficiency of the algorithm. For the purpose of balancing and enhancing the accuracy and convergence rate of the cuckoo search algorithm, the adaptive operation is presented to tune the parameters properly. Besides, the local search capability of cuckoo search algorithm is relatively weak that may decrease the quality of optimization. So the simulated annealing operation is merged into the cuckoo search algorithm to enhance the local search ability and improve the accuracy and reliability of the results. The functionality of the proposed hybrid algorithm is investigated through the Lorenz chaotic system under the noiseless and noise condition, respectively. The numerical results demonstrate that the method can estimate parameters efficiently and accurately in the noiseless and noise condition. Finally, the results are compared with the traditional cuckoo search algorithm, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and superior performance of the proposed algorithm.

  7. First application of quantum annealing to IMRT beamlet intensity optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazareth, Daryl P.; Spaans, Jason D.

    2015-05-01

    Optimization methods are critical to radiation therapy. A new technology, quantum annealing (QA), employs novel hardware and software techniques to address various discrete optimization problems in many fields. We report on the first application of quantum annealing to the process of beamlet intensity optimization for IMRT. We apply recently-developed hardware which natively exploits quantum mechanical effects for improved optimization. The new algorithm, called QA, is most similar to simulated annealing, but relies on natural processes to directly minimize a system’s free energy. A simple quantum system is slowly evolved into a classical system representing the objective function. If the evolution is sufficiently slow, there are probabilistic guarantees that a global minimum will be located. To apply QA to IMRT-type optimization, two prostate cases were considered. A reduced number of beamlets were employed, due to the current QA hardware limitations. The beamlet dose matrices were computed using CERR and an objective function was defined based on typical clinical constraints, including dose-volume objectives, which result in a complex non-convex search space. The objective function was discretized and the QA method was compared to two standard optimization methods, simulated annealing and Tabu search, run on a conventional computing cluster. Based on several runs, the average final objective function value achieved by the QA was 16.9 for the first patient, compared with 10.0 for Tabu and 6.7 for the simulated annealing (SA) method. For the second patient, the values were 70.7 for the QA, 120.0 for Tabu and 22.9 for the SA. The QA algorithm required 27-38% of the time required by the other two methods. In this first application of hardware-enabled QA to IMRT optimization, its performance is comparable to Tabu search, but less effective than the SA in terms of final objective function values. However, its speed was 3-4 times faster than the other two methods

  8. First application of quantum annealing to IMRT beamlet intensity optimization.

    PubMed

    Nazareth, Daryl P; Spaans, Jason D

    2015-05-21

    Optimization methods are critical to radiation therapy. A new technology, quantum annealing (QA), employs novel hardware and software techniques to address various discrete optimization problems in many fields. We report on the first application of quantum annealing to the process of beamlet intensity optimization for IMRT. We apply recently-developed hardware which natively exploits quantum mechanical effects for improved optimization. The new algorithm, called QA, is most similar to simulated annealing, but relies on natural processes to directly minimize a system's free energy. A simple quantum system is slowly evolved into a classical system representing the objective function. If the evolution is sufficiently slow, there are probabilistic guarantees that a global minimum will be located. To apply QA to IMRT-type optimization, two prostate cases were considered. A reduced number of beamlets were employed, due to the current QA hardware limitations. The beamlet dose matrices were computed using CERR and an objective function was defined based on typical clinical constraints, including dose-volume objectives, which result in a complex non-convex search space. The objective function was discretized and the QA method was compared to two standard optimization methods, simulated annealing and Tabu search, run on a conventional computing cluster. Based on several runs, the average final objective function value achieved by the QA was 16.9 for the first patient, compared with 10.0 for Tabu and 6.7 for the simulated annealing (SA) method. For the second patient, the values were 70.7 for the QA, 120.0 for Tabu and 22.9 for the SA. The QA algorithm required 27-38% of the time required by the other two methods. In this first application of hardware-enabled QA to IMRT optimization, its performance is comparable to Tabu search, but less effective than the SA in terms of final objective function values. However, its speed was 3-4 times faster than the other two methods. This

  9. A novel stochastic optimization algorithm.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Jiang, W

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a new stochastic approach SAGACIA based on proper integration of simulated annealing algorithm (SAA), genetic algorithm (GA), and chemotaxis algorithm (CA) for solving complex optimization problems. SAGACIA combines the advantages of SAA, GA, and CA together. It has the following features: (1) it is not the simple mix of SAA, GA, and CA; (2) it works from a population; (3) it can be easily used to solve optimization problems either with continuous variables or with discrete variables, and it does not need coding and decoding,; and (4) it can easily escape from local minima and converge quickly. Good solutions can be obtained in a very short time. The search process of SAGACIA can be explained with Markov chains. In this paper, it is proved that SAGACIA has the property of global asymptotical convergence. SAGACIA has been applied to solve such problems as scheduling, the training of artificial neural networks, and the optimizing of complex functions. In all the test cases, the performance of SAGACIA is better than that of SAA, GA, and CA. PMID:18244742

  10. Performance of quantum annealing in solving optimization problems: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, S.

    2015-02-01

    Quantum annealing is one of the optimization method for generic optimization problems. It uses quantum mechanics and is implemented by a quantum computer ideally. At the earlier stage, several numerical experiments using conventional computers have provided results showing that quantum annealing produces an answer faster than simulated annealing, a classical counterpart of quantum annealing. Later, theoretical and numerical studies have shown that there are drawbacks in quantum annealing. The power of quantum annealing is still an open problem. What makes quantum annealing a hot topic now is that a quantum computer based on quantum annealing is manufactured and commercialized by a Canadian company named D-Wave Systems. In the present article, we review the study of quantum annealing, focusing mainly on its power.

  11. Application of Simulated Annealing and Related Algorithms to TWTA Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radke, Eric M.

    2004-01-01

    Simulated Annealing (SA) is a stochastic optimization algorithm used to search for global minima in complex design surfaces where exhaustive searches are not computationally feasible. The algorithm is derived by simulating the annealing process, whereby a solid is heated to a liquid state and then cooled slowly to reach thermodynamic equilibrium at each temperature. The idea is that atoms in the solid continually bond and re-bond at various quantum energy levels, and with sufficient cooling time they will rearrange at the minimum energy state to form a perfect crystal. The distribution of energy levels is given by the Boltzmann distribution: as temperature drops, the probability of the presence of high-energy bonds decreases. In searching for an optimal design, local minima and discontinuities are often present in a design surface. SA presents a distinct advantage over other optimization algorithms in its ability to escape from these local minima. Just as high-energy atomic configurations are visited in the actual annealing process in order to eventually reach the minimum energy state, in SA highly non-optimal configurations are visited in order to find otherwise inaccessible global minima. The SA algorithm produces a Markov chain of points in the design space at each temperature, with a monotonically decreasing temperature. A random point is started upon, and the objective function is evaluated at that point. A stochastic perturbation is then made to the parameters of the point to arrive at a proposed new point in the design space, at which the objection function is evaluated as well. If the change in objective function values (Delta)E is negative, the proposed new point is accepted. If (Delta)E is positive, the proposed new point is accepted according to the Metropolis criterion: rho((Delta)f) = exp((-Delta)E/T), where T is the temperature for the current Markov chain. The process then repeats for the remainder of the Markov chain, after which the temperature is

  12. Optimization through quantum annealing: theory and some applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, D. A.; Stella, L.

    2006-08-01

    Quantum annealing is a promising tool for solving optimization problems, similar in some ways to the traditional (classical) simulated annealing of Kirkpatrick et al. Simulated annealing takes advantage of thermal fluctuations in order to explore the optimization landscape of the problem at hand, whereas quantum annealing employs quantum fluctuations. Intriguingly, quantum annealing has been proved to be more effective than its classical counterpart in many applications. We illustrate the theory and the practical implementation of both classical and quantum annealing highlighting the crucial differences between these two methods by means of results recently obtained in experiments, in simple toy-models, and more challenging combinatorial optimization problems (namely, Random Ising model and Travelling Salesman Problem). The techniques used to implement quantum and classical annealing are either deterministic evolutions, for the simplest models, or Monte Carlo approaches, for harder optimization tasks. We discuss the pro and cons of these approaches and their possible connections to the landscape of the problem addressed.

  13. Simulated Stochastic Approximation Annealing for Global Optimization with a Square-Root Cooling Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Faming; Cheng, Yichen; Lin, Guang

    2014-06-13

    Simulated annealing has been widely used in the solution of optimization problems. As known by many researchers, the global optima cannot be guaranteed to be located by simulated annealing unless a logarithmic cooling schedule is used. However, the logarithmic cooling schedule is so slow that no one can afford to have such a long CPU time. This paper proposes a new stochastic optimization algorithm, the so-called simulated stochastic approximation annealing algorithm, which is a combination of simulated annealing and the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm. Under the framework of stochastic approximation Markov chain Monte Carlo, it is shown that the new algorithm can work with a cooling schedule in which the temperature can decrease much faster than in the logarithmic cooling schedule, e.g., a square-root cooling schedule, while guaranteeing the global optima to be reached when the temperature tends to zero. The new algorithm has been tested on a few benchmark optimization problems, including feed-forward neural network training and protein-folding. The numerical results indicate that the new algorithm can significantly outperform simulated annealing and other competitors.

  14. spsann - optimization of sample patterns using spatial simulated annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel-Rosa, Alessandro; Heuvelink, Gerard; Vasques, Gustavo; Anjos, Lúcia

    2015-04-01

    There are many algorithms and computer programs to optimize sample patterns, some private and others publicly available. A few have only been presented in scientific articles and text books. This dispersion and somewhat poor availability is holds back to their wider adoption and further development. We introduce spsann, a new R-package for the optimization of sample patterns using spatial simulated annealing. R is the most popular environment for data processing and analysis. Spatial simulated annealing is a well known method with widespread use to solve optimization problems in the soil and geo-sciences. This is mainly due to its robustness against local optima and easiness of implementation. spsann offers many optimizing criteria for sampling for variogram estimation (number of points or point-pairs per lag distance class - PPL), trend estimation (association/correlation and marginal distribution of the covariates - ACDC), and spatial interpolation (mean squared shortest distance - MSSD). spsann also includes the mean or maximum universal kriging variance (MUKV) as an optimizing criterion, which is used when the model of spatial variation is known. PPL, ACDC and MSSD were combined (PAN) for sampling when we are ignorant about the model of spatial variation. spsann solves this multi-objective optimization problem scaling the objective function values using their maximum absolute value or the mean value computed over 1000 random samples. Scaled values are aggregated using the weighted sum method. A graphical display allows to follow how the sample pattern is being perturbed during the optimization, as well as the evolution of its energy state. It is possible to start perturbing many points and exponentially reduce the number of perturbed points. The maximum perturbation distance reduces linearly with the number of iterations. The acceptance probability also reduces exponentially with the number of iterations. R is memory hungry and spatial simulated annealing is a

  15. Sampling design for classifying contaminant level using annealing search algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christakos, George; Killam, Bart R.

    1993-12-01

    A stochastic method for sampling spatially distributed contaminant level is presented. The purpose of sampling is to partition the contaminated region into zones of high and low pollutant concentration levels. In particular, given an initial set of observations of a contaminant within a site, it is desired to find a set of additional sampling locations in a way that takes into consideration the spatial variability characteristics of the site and optimizes certain objective functions emerging from the physical, regulatory and monetary considerations of the specific site cleanup process. Since the interest is in classifying the domain into zones above and below a pollutant threshold level, a natural criterion is the cost of misclassification. The resulting objective function is the expected value of a spatial loss function associated with sampling. Stochastic expectation involves the joint probability distribution of the pollutant level and its estimate, where the latter is calculated by means of spatial estimation techniques. Actual computation requires the discretization of the contaminated domain. As a consequence, any reasonably sized problem results in combinatorics precluding an exhaustive search. The use of an annealing algorithm, although suboptimal, can find a good set of future sampling locations quickly and efficiently. In order to obtain insight about the parameters and the computational requirements of the method, an example is discussed in detail. The implementation of spatial sampling design in practice will provide the model inputs necessary for waste site remediation, groundwater management, and environmental decision making.

  16. Experiences with serial and parallel algorithms for channel routing using simulated annealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwer, Randall Jay

    1988-01-01

    Two algorithms for channel routing using simulated annealing are presented. Simulated annealing is an optimization methodology which allows the solution process to back up out of local minima that may be encountered by inappropriate selections. By properly controlling the annealing process, it is very likely that the optimal solution to an NP-complete problem such as channel routing may be found. The algorithm presented proposes very relaxed restrictions on the types of allowable transformations, including overlapping nets. By freeing that restriction and controlling overlap situations with an appropriate cost function, the algorithm becomes very flexible and can be applied to many extensions of channel routing. The selection of the transformation utilizes a number of heuristics, still retaining the pseudorandom nature of simulated annealing. The algorithm was implemented as a serial program for a workstation, and a parallel program designed for a hypercube computer. The details of the serial implementation are presented, including many of the heuristics used and some of the resulting solutions.

  17. Registration of range data using a hybrid simulated annealing and iterative closest point algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    LUCK,JASON; LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; HOFF,WILLIAM

    2000-04-17

    The need to register data is abundant in applications such as: world modeling, part inspection and manufacturing, object recognition, pose estimation, robotic navigation, and reverse engineering. Registration occurs by aligning the regions that are common to multiple images. The largest difficulty in performing this registration is dealing with outliers and local minima while remaining efficient. A commonly used technique, iterative closest point, is efficient but is unable to deal with outliers or avoid local minima. Another commonly used optimization algorithm, simulated annealing, is effective at dealing with local minima but is very slow. Therefore, the algorithm developed in this paper is a hybrid algorithm that combines the speed of iterative closest point with the robustness of simulated annealing. Additionally, a robust error function is incorporated to deal with outliers. This algorithm is incorporated into a complete modeling system that inputs two sets of range data, registers the sets, and outputs a composite model.

  18. An Efficient Chemical Reaction Optimization Algorithm for Multiobjective Optimization.

    PubMed

    Bechikh, Slim; Chaabani, Abir; Ben Said, Lamjed

    2015-10-01

    Recently, a new metaheuristic called chemical reaction optimization was proposed. This search algorithm, inspired by chemical reactions launched during collisions, inherits several features from other metaheuristics such as simulated annealing and particle swarm optimization. This fact has made it, nowadays, one of the most powerful search algorithms in solving mono-objective optimization problems. In this paper, we propose a multiobjective variant of chemical reaction optimization, called nondominated sorting chemical reaction optimization, in an attempt to exploit chemical reaction optimization features in tackling problems involving multiple conflicting criteria. Since our approach is based on nondominated sorting, one of the main contributions of this paper is the proposal of a new quasi-linear average time complexity quick nondominated sorting algorithm; thereby making our multiobjective algorithm efficient from a computational cost viewpoint. The experimental comparisons against several other multiobjective algorithms on a variety of benchmark problems involving various difficulties show the effectiveness and the efficiency of this multiobjective version in providing a well-converged and well-diversified approximation of the Pareto front. PMID:25373137

  19. Genetic-Annealing Algorithm in Grid Environment for Scheduling Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Chávez, Marco Antonio; Rodríguez-León, Abelardo; Ávila-Melgar, Erika Yesenia; Juárez-Pérez, Fredy; Cruz-Rosales, Martín H.; Rivera-López, Rafael

    This paper presents a parallel hybrid evolutionary algorithm executed in a grid environment. The algorithm executes local searches using simulated annealing within a Genetic Algorithm to solve the job shop scheduling problem. Experimental results of the algorithm obtained in the "Tarantula MiniGrid" are shown. Tarantula was implemented by linking two clusters from different geographic locations in Mexico (Morelos-Veracruz). The technique used to link the two clusters and configure the Tarantula MiniGrid is described. The effects of latency in communication between the two clusters are discussed. It is shown that the evolutionary algorithm presented is more efficient working in Grid environments because it can carry out major exploration and exploitation of the solution space.

  20. Neutronic optimization in high conversion Th-{sup 233}U fuel assembly with simulated annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Kotlyar, D.; Shwageraus, E.

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports on fuel design optimization of a PWR operating in a self sustainable Th-{sup 233}U fuel cycle. Monte Carlo simulated annealing method was used in order to identify the fuel assembly configuration with the most attractive breeding performance. In previous studies, it was shown that breeding may be achieved by employing heterogeneous Seed-Blanket fuel geometry. The arrangement of seed and blanket pins within the assemblies may be determined by varying the designed parameters based on basic reactor physics phenomena which affect breeding. However, the amount of free parameters may still prove to be prohibitively large in order to systematically explore the design space for optimal solution. Therefore, the Monte Carlo annealing algorithm for neutronic optimization is applied in order to identify the most favorable design. The objective of simulated annealing optimization is to find a set of design parameters, which maximizes some given performance function (such as relative period of net breeding) under specified constraints (such as fuel cycle length). The first objective of the study was to demonstrate that the simulated annealing optimization algorithm will lead to the same fuel pins arrangement as was obtained in the previous studies which used only basic physics phenomena as guidance for optimization. In the second part of this work, the simulated annealing method was used to optimize fuel pins arrangement in much larger fuel assembly, where the basic physics intuition does not yield clearly optimal configuration. The simulated annealing method was found to be very efficient in selecting the optimal design in both cases. In the future, this method will be used for optimization of fuel assembly design with larger number of free parameters in order to determine the most favorable trade-off between the breeding performance and core average power density. (authors)

  1. A novel metaheuristic for continuous optimization problems: Virus optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yun-Chia; Rodolfo Cuevas Juarez, Josue

    2016-01-01

    A novel metaheuristic for continuous optimization problems, named the virus optimization algorithm (VOA), is introduced and investigated. VOA is an iteratively population-based method that imitates the behaviour of viruses attacking a living cell. The number of viruses grows at each replication and is controlled by an immune system (a so-called 'antivirus') to prevent the explosive growth of the virus population. The viruses are divided into two classes (strong and common) to balance the exploitation and exploration effects. The performance of the VOA is validated through a set of eight benchmark functions, which are also subject to rotation and shifting effects to test its robustness. Extensive comparisons were conducted with over 40 well-known metaheuristic algorithms and their variations, such as artificial bee colony, artificial immune system, differential evolution, evolutionary programming, evolutionary strategy, genetic algorithm, harmony search, invasive weed optimization, memetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization and simulated annealing. The results showed that the VOA is a viable solution for continuous optimization.

  2. Algorithms for bilevel optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia; Dennis, J. E., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    General multilevel nonlinear optimization problems arise in design of complex systems and can be used as a means of regularization for multi-criteria optimization problems. Here, for clarity in displaying our ideas, we restrict ourselves to general bi-level optimization problems, and we present two solution approaches. Both approaches use a trust-region globalization strategy, and they can be easily extended to handle the general multilevel problem. We make no convexity assumptions, but we do assume that the problem has a nondegenerate feasible set. We consider necessary optimality conditions for the bi-level problem formulations and discuss results that can be extended to obtain multilevel optimization formulations with constraints at each level.

  3. GPU-Accelerated Population Annealing Algorithm: Frustrated Ising Antiferromagnet on the Stacked Triangular Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovský, Michal; Weigel, Martin; Barash, Lev Yu.; Žukovič, Milan

    2016-02-01

    The population annealing algorithm is a novel approach to study systems with rough free-energy landscapes, such as spin glasses. It combines the power of simulated annealing, Boltzmann weighted differential reproduction and sequential Monte Carlo process to bring the population of replicas to the equilibrium even in the low-temperature region. Moreover, it provides a very good estimate of the free energy. The fact that population annealing algorithm is performed over a large number of replicas with many spin updates, makes it a good candidate for massive parallelism. We chose the GPU programming using a CUDA implementation to create a highly optimized simulation. It has been previously shown for the frustrated Ising antiferromagnet on the stacked triangular lattice with a ferromagnetic interlayer coupling, that standard Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations fail to equilibrate at low temperatures due to the effect of kinetic freezing of the ferromagnetically ordered chains. We applied the population annealing to study the case with the isotropic intra- and interlayer antiferromagnetic coupling (J2/|J1| = -1). The reached ground states correspond to non-magnetic degenerate states, where chains are antiferromagnetically ordered, but there is no long-range ordering between them, which is analogical with Wannier phase of the 2D triangular Ising antiferromagnet.

  4. Solving the Optimal Trading Trajectory Problem Using a Quantum Annealer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Gili; Haghnegahdar, Poya; Goddard, Phil; Carr, Peter; Wu, Kesheng; de Prado, Marcos Lopez

    2016-09-01

    We solve a multi-period portfolio optimization problem using D-Wave Systems' quantum annealer. We derive a formulation of the problem, discuss several possible integer encoding schemes, and present numerical examples that show high success rates. The formulation incorporates transaction costs (including permanent and temporary market impact), and, significantly, the solution does not require the inversion of a covariance matrix. The discrete multi-period portfolio optimization problem we solve is significantly harder than the continuous variable problem. We present insight into how results may be improved using suitable software enhancements, and why current quantum annealing technology limits the size of problem that can be successfully solved today. The formulation presented is specifically designed to be scalable, with the expectation that as quantum annealing technology improves, larger problems will be solvable using the same techniques.

  5. The Research on Web-Based Testing Environment Using Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The computerized evaluation is now one of the most important methods to diagnose learning; with the application of artificial intelligence techniques in the field of evaluation, the computerized adaptive testing gradually becomes one of the most important evaluation methods. In this test, the computer dynamic updates the learner's ability level and selects tailored items from the item pool. In order to meet the needs of the test it requires that the system has a relatively high efficiency of the implementation. To solve this problem, we proposed a novel method of web-based testing environment based on simulated annealing algorithm. In the development of the system, through a series of experiments, we compared the simulated annealing method and other methods of the efficiency and efficacy. The experimental results show that this method ensures choosing nearly optimal items from the item bank for learners, meeting a variety of assessment needs, being reliable, and having valid judgment in the ability of learners. In addition, using simulated annealing algorithm to solve the computing complexity of the system greatly improves the efficiency of select items from system and near-optimal solutions. PMID:24959600

  6. Quantum versus simulated annealing in wireless interference network optimization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi; Chen, Huo; Jonckheere, Edmond

    2016-01-01

    Quantum annealing (QA) serves as a specialized optimizer that is able to solve many NP-hard problems and that is believed to have a theoretical advantage over simulated annealing (SA) via quantum tunneling. With the introduction of the D-Wave programmable quantum annealer, a considerable amount of effort has been devoted to detect and quantify quantum speedup. While the debate over speedup remains inconclusive as of now, instead of attempting to show general quantum advantage, here, we focus on a novel real-world application of D-Wave in wireless networking-more specifically, the scheduling of the activation of the air-links for maximum throughput subject to interference avoidance near network nodes. In addition, D-Wave implementation is made error insensitive by a novel Hamiltonian extra penalty weight adjustment that enlarges the gap and substantially reduces the occurrence of interference violations resulting from inevitable spin bias and coupling errors. The major result of this paper is that quantum annealing benefits more than simulated annealing from this gap expansion process, both in terms of ST99 speedup and network queue occupancy. It is the hope that this could become a real-word application niche where potential benefits of quantum annealing could be objectively assessed. PMID:27181056

  7. Quantum versus simulated annealing in wireless interference network optimization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chi; Chen, Huo; Jonckheere, Edmond

    2016-01-01

    Quantum annealing (QA) serves as a specialized optimizer that is able to solve many NP-hard problems and that is believed to have a theoretical advantage over simulated annealing (SA) via quantum tunneling. With the introduction of the D-Wave programmable quantum annealer, a considerable amount of effort has been devoted to detect and quantify quantum speedup. While the debate over speedup remains inconclusive as of now, instead of attempting to show general quantum advantage, here, we focus on a novel real-world application of D-Wave in wireless networking—more specifically, the scheduling of the activation of the air-links for maximum throughput subject to interference avoidance near network nodes. In addition, D-Wave implementation is made error insensitive by a novel Hamiltonian extra penalty weight adjustment that enlarges the gap and substantially reduces the occurrence of interference violations resulting from inevitable spin bias and coupling errors. The major result of this paper is that quantum annealing benefits more than simulated annealing from this gap expansion process, both in terms of ST99 speedup and network queue occupancy. It is the hope that this could become a real-word application niche where potential benefits of quantum annealing could be objectively assessed. PMID:27181056

  8. Quantum versus simulated annealing in wireless interference network optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chi; Chen, Huo; Jonckheere, Edmond

    2016-05-01

    Quantum annealing (QA) serves as a specialized optimizer that is able to solve many NP-hard problems and that is believed to have a theoretical advantage over simulated annealing (SA) via quantum tunneling. With the introduction of the D-Wave programmable quantum annealer, a considerable amount of effort has been devoted to detect and quantify quantum speedup. While the debate over speedup remains inconclusive as of now, instead of attempting to show general quantum advantage, here, we focus on a novel real-world application of D-Wave in wireless networking—more specifically, the scheduling of the activation of the air-links for maximum throughput subject to interference avoidance near network nodes. In addition, D-Wave implementation is made error insensitive by a novel Hamiltonian extra penalty weight adjustment that enlarges the gap and substantially reduces the occurrence of interference violations resulting from inevitable spin bias and coupling errors. The major result of this paper is that quantum annealing benefits more than simulated annealing from this gap expansion process, both in terms of ST99 speedup and network queue occupancy. It is the hope that this could become a real-word application niche where potential benefits of quantum annealing could be objectively assessed.

  9. Optimization of a Stochastically Simulated Gene Network Model via Simulated Annealing

    PubMed Central

    Tomshine, Jonathan; Kaznessis, Yiannis N.

    2006-01-01

    By rearranging naturally occurring genetic components, gene networks can be created that display novel functions. When designing these networks, the kinetic parameters describing DNA/protein binding are of great importance, as these parameters strongly influence the behavior of the resulting gene network. This article presents an optimization method based on simulated annealing to locate combinations of kinetic parameters that produce a desired behavior in a genetic network. Since gene expression is an inherently stochastic process, the simulation component of simulated annealing optimization is conducted using an accurate multiscale simulation algorithm to calculate an ensemble of network trajectories at each iteration of the simulated annealing algorithm. Using the three-gene repressilator of Elowitz and Leibler as an example, we show that gene network optimizations can be conducted using a mechanistically realistic model integrated stochastically. The repressilator is optimized to give oscillations of an arbitrary specified period. These optimized designs may then provide a starting-point for the selection of genetic components needed to realize an in vivo system. PMID:16920827

  10. Discrete-State Simulated Annealing For Traveling-Wave Tube Slow-Wave Circuit Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Bulson, Brian A.; Kory, Carol L.; Williams, W. Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Algorithms based on the global optimization technique of simulated annealing (SA) have proven useful in designing traveling-wave tube (TWT) slow-wave circuits for high RF power efficiency. The characteristic of SA that enables it to determine a globally optimized solution is its ability to accept non-improving moves in a controlled manner. In the initial stages of the optimization, the algorithm moves freely through configuration space, accepting most of the proposed designs. This freedom of movement allows non-intuitive designs to be explored rather than restricting the optimization to local improvement upon the initial configuration. As the optimization proceeds, the rate of acceptance of non-improving moves is gradually reduced until the algorithm converges to the optimized solution. The rate at which the freedom of movement is decreased is known as the annealing or cooling schedule of the SA algorithm. The main disadvantage of SA is that there is not a rigorous theoretical foundation for determining the parameters of the cooling schedule. The choice of these parameters is highly problem dependent and the designer needs to experiment in order to determine values that will provide a good optimization in a reasonable amount of computational time. This experimentation can absorb a large amount of time especially when the algorithm is being applied to a new type of design. In order to eliminate this disadvantage, a variation of SA known as discrete-state simulated annealing (DSSA), was recently developed. DSSA provides the theoretical foundation for a generic cooling schedule which is problem independent, Results of similar quality to SA can be obtained, but without the extra computational time required to tune the cooling parameters. Two algorithm variations based on DSSA were developed and programmed into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet graphical user interface (GUI) to the two-dimensional nonlinear multisignal helix traveling-wave amplifier analysis program TWA3

  11. Constrained Multiobjective Biogeography Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Hongwei; Xu, Zhidan; Xu, Lifang; Wu, Zhou; Ma, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    Multiobjective optimization involves minimizing or maximizing multiple objective functions subject to a set of constraints. In this study, a novel constrained multiobjective biogeography optimization algorithm (CMBOA) is proposed. It is the first biogeography optimization algorithm for constrained multiobjective optimization. In CMBOA, a disturbance migration operator is designed to generate diverse feasible individuals in order to promote the diversity of individuals on Pareto front. Infeasible individuals nearby feasible region are evolved to feasibility by recombining with their nearest nondominated feasible individuals. The convergence of CMBOA is proved by using probability theory. The performance of CMBOA is evaluated on a set of 6 benchmark problems and experimental results show that the CMBOA performs better than or similar to the classical NSGA-II and IS-MOEA. PMID:25006591

  12. Constrained multiobjective biogeography optimization algorithm.

    PubMed

    Mo, Hongwei; Xu, Zhidan; Xu, Lifang; Wu, Zhou; Ma, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    Multiobjective optimization involves minimizing or maximizing multiple objective functions subject to a set of constraints. In this study, a novel constrained multiobjective biogeography optimization algorithm (CMBOA) is proposed. It is the first biogeography optimization algorithm for constrained multiobjective optimization. In CMBOA, a disturbance migration operator is designed to generate diverse feasible individuals in order to promote the diversity of individuals on Pareto front. Infeasible individuals nearby feasible region are evolved to feasibility by recombining with their nearest nondominated feasible individuals. The convergence of CMBOA is proved by using probability theory. The performance of CMBOA is evaluated on a set of 6 benchmark problems and experimental results show that the CMBOA performs better than or similar to the classical NSGA-II and IS-MOEA. PMID:25006591

  13. Use of a simulated annealing algorithm to fit compartmental models with an application to fractal pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Rebeccah E; Riauka, Terence A; McQuarrie, Steve A

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, fractals are being incorporated into pharmacokinetic models to describe transport and chemical kinetic processes occurring in confined and heterogeneous spaces. However, fractal compartmental models lead to differential equations with power-law time-dependent kinetic rate coefficients that currently are not accommodated by common commercial software programs. This paper describes a parameter optimization method for fitting individual pharmacokinetic curves based on a simulated annealing (SA) algorithm, which always converged towards the global minimum and was independent of the initial parameter values and parameter bounds. In a comparison using a classical compartmental model, similar fits by the Gauss-Newton and Nelder-Mead simplex algorithms required stringent initial estimates and ranges for the model parameters. The SA algorithm is ideal for fitting a wide variety of pharmacokinetic models to clinical data, especially those for which there is weak prior knowledge of the parameter values, such as the fractal models. PMID:17706176

  14. Multilevel algorithms for nonlinear optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia; Dennis, J. E., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) gives rise to nonlinear optimization problems characterized by a large number of constraints that naturally occur in blocks. We propose a class of multilevel optimization methods motivated by the structure and number of constraints and by the expense of the derivative computations for MDO. The algorithms are an extension to the nonlinear programming problem of the successful class of local Brown-Brent algorithms for nonlinear equations. Our extensions allow the user to partition constraints into arbitrary blocks to fit the application, and they separately process each block and the objective function, restricted to certain subspaces. The methods use trust regions as a globalization strategy, and they have been shown to be globally convergent under reasonable assumptions. The multilevel algorithms can be applied to all classes of MDO formulations. Multilevel algorithms for solving nonlinear systems of equations are a special case of the multilevel optimization methods. In this case, they can be viewed as a trust-region globalization of the Brown-Brent class.

  15. Shape optimization of road tunnel cross-section by simulated annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobótka, Maciej; Pachnicz, Michał

    2016-06-01

    The paper concerns shape optimization of a tunnel excavation cross-section. The study incorporates optimization procedure of the simulated annealing (SA). The form of a cost function derives from the energetic optimality condition, formulated in the authors' previous papers. The utilized algorithm takes advantage of the optimization procedure already published by the authors. Unlike other approaches presented in literature, the one introduced in this paper takes into consideration a practical requirement of preserving fixed clearance gauge. Itasca Flac software is utilized in numerical examples. The optimal excavation shapes are determined for five different in situ stress ratios. This factor significantly affects the optimal topology of excavation. The resulting shapes are elongated in the direction of a principal stress greater value. Moreover, the obtained optimal shapes have smooth contours circumscribing the gauge.

  16. Intervals in evolutionary algorithms for global optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    Optimization is of central concern to a number of disciplines. Interval Arithmetic methods for global optimization provide us with (guaranteed) verified results. These methods are mainly restricted to the classes of objective functions that are twice differentiable and use a simple strategy of eliminating a splitting larger regions of search space in the global optimization process. An efficient approach that combines the efficient strategy from Interval Global Optimization Methods and robustness of the Evolutionary Algorithms is proposed. In the proposed approach, search begins with randomly created interval vectors with interval widths equal to the whole domain. Before the beginning of the evolutionary process, fitness of these interval parameter vectors is defined by evaluating the objective function at the center of the initial interval vectors. In the subsequent evolutionary process the local optimization process returns an estimate of the bounds of the objective function over the interval vectors. Though these bounds may not be correct at the beginning due to large interval widths and complicated function properties, the process of reducing interval widths over time and a selection approach similar to simulated annealing helps in estimating reasonably correct bounds as the population evolves. The interval parameter vectors at these estimated bounds (local optima) are then subjected to crossover and mutation operators. This evolutionary process continues for predetermined number of generations in the search of the global optimum.

  17. SU-F-BRD-13: Quantum Annealing Applied to IMRT Beamlet Intensity Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Nazareth, D; Spaans, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: We report on the first application of quantum annealing (QA) to the process of beamlet intensity optimization for IMRT. QA is a new technology, which employs novel hardware and software techniques to address various discrete optimization problems in many fields. Methods: We apply the D-Wave Inc. proprietary hardware, which natively exploits quantum mechanical effects for improved optimization. The new QA algorithm, running on this hardware, is most similar to simulated annealing, but relies on natural processes to directly minimize the free energy of a system. A simple quantum system is slowly evolved into a classical system, representing the objective function. To apply QA to IMRT-type optimization, two prostate cases were considered. A reduced number of beamlets were employed, due to the current QA hardware limitation of ∼500 binary variables. The beamlet dose matrices were computed using CERR, and an objective function was defined based on typical clinical constraints, including dose-volume objectives. The objective function was discretized, and the QA method was compared to two standard optimization Methods: simulated annealing and Tabu search, run on a conventional computing cluster. Results: Based on several runs, the average final objective function value achieved by the QA was 16.9 for the first patient, compared with 10.0 for Tabu and 6.7 for the SA. For the second patient, the values were 70.7 for the QA, 120.0 for Tabu, and 22.9 for the SA. The QA algorithm required 27–38% of the time required by the other two methods. Conclusion: In terms of objective function value, the QA performance was similar to Tabu but less effective than the SA. However, its speed was 3–4 times faster than the other two methods. This initial experiment suggests that QA-based heuristics may offer significant speedup over conventional clinical optimization methods, as quantum annealing hardware scales to larger sizes.

  18. A deterministic annealing algorithm for approximating a solution of the min-bisection problem.

    PubMed

    Dang, Chuangyin; Ma, Wei; Liang, Jiye

    2009-01-01

    The min-bisection problem is an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem. In this paper an equivalent linearly constrained continuous optimization problem is formulated and an algorithm is proposed for approximating its solution. The algorithm is derived from the introduction of a logarithmic-cosine barrier function, where the barrier parameter behaves as temperature in an annealing procedure and decreases from a sufficiently large positive number to zero. The algorithm searches for a better solution in a feasible descent direction, which has a desired property that lower and upper bounds are always satisfied automatically if the step length is a number between zero and one. We prove that the algorithm converges to at least a local minimum point of the problem if a local minimum point of the barrier problem is generated for a sequence of descending values of the barrier parameter with a limit of zero. Numerical results show that the algorithm is much more efficient than two of the best existing heuristic methods for the min-bisection problem, Kernighan-Lin method with multiple starting points (MSKL) and multilevel graph partitioning scheme (MLGP). PMID:18995985

  19. Genetic Algorithm for Optimization: Preprocessor and Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S. K.; Shaykhian, Gholam A.

    2006-01-01

    Genetic algorithm (GA) inspired by Darwin's theory of evolution and employed to solve optimization problems - unconstrained or constrained - uses an evolutionary process. A GA has several parameters such the population size, search space, crossover and mutation probabilities, and fitness criterion. These parameters are not universally known/determined a priori for all problems. Depending on the problem at hand, these parameters need to be decided such that the resulting GA performs the best. We present here a preprocessor that achieves just that, i.e., it determines, for a specified problem, the foregoing parameters so that the consequent GA is a best for the problem. We stress also the need for such a preprocessor both for quality (error) and for cost (complexity) to produce the solution. The preprocessor includes, as its first step, making use of all the information such as that of nature/character of the function/system, search space, physical/laboratory experimentation (if already done/available), and the physical environment. It also includes the information that can be generated through any means - deterministic/nondeterministic/graphics. Instead of attempting a solution of the problem straightway through a GA without having/using the information/knowledge of the character of the system, we would do consciously a much better job of producing a solution by using the information generated/created in the very first step of the preprocessor. We, therefore, unstintingly advocate the use of a preprocessor to solve a real-world optimization problem including NP-complete ones before using the statistically most appropriate GA. We also include such a GA for unconstrained function optimization problems.

  20. Simulated annealing algorithm for solving chambering student-case assignment problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Saadiah; Abdul-Rahman, Syariza

    2015-12-01

    The problem related to project assignment problem is one of popular practical problem that appear nowadays. The challenge of solving the problem raise whenever the complexity related to preferences, the existence of real-world constraints and problem size increased. This study focuses on solving a chambering student-case assignment problem by using a simulated annealing algorithm where this problem is classified under project assignment problem. The project assignment problem is considered as hard combinatorial optimization problem and solving it using a metaheuristic approach is an advantage because it could return a good solution in a reasonable time. The problem of assigning chambering students to cases has never been addressed in the literature before. For the proposed problem, it is essential for law graduates to peruse in chambers before they are qualified to become legal counselor. Thus, assigning the chambering students to cases is a critically needed especially when involving many preferences. Hence, this study presents a preliminary study of the proposed project assignment problem. The objective of the study is to minimize the total completion time for all students in solving the given cases. This study employed a minimum cost greedy heuristic in order to construct a feasible initial solution. The search then is preceded with a simulated annealing algorithm for further improvement of solution quality. The analysis of the obtained result has shown that the proposed simulated annealing algorithm has greatly improved the solution constructed by the minimum cost greedy heuristic. Hence, this research has demonstrated the advantages of solving project assignment problem by using metaheuristic techniques.

  1. Dynamically optimizing experiment schedules of a laboratory robot system with simulated annealing.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Cristina; Fine-Morris, Morgan; Pokross, Matthew; Kish, Kevin; Michalczyk, Stephen; Cahn, Matthew; Klei, Herbert; Russo, Mark F

    2014-12-01

    A scheduler has been developed for an integrated laboratory robot system that operates in an always-on mode. The integrated system is designed for imaging plates containing protein crystallization experiments, and it allows crystallographers to enter plates at any time and request that they be imaged at multiple time points in the future. The scheduler must rearrange tasks within the time it takes to image one plate, trading off the quality of the schedule for the speed of the computation. For this reason, the scheduler was based on a simulated annealing algorithm with an objective function that makes use of a linear programming solver. To optimize the scheduler, extensive computational simulations were performed involving a difficult but representative scheduling problem. The simulations explore multiple configurations of the simulated annealing algorithm, including both geometric and adaptive annealing schedules, 3 neighborhood functions, and 20 neighborhood diameters. An optimal configuration was found that produced the best results in less than 60 seconds, well within the window necessary to dynamically reschedule imaging tasks as new plates are entered into the system. PMID:25117530

  2. Precision and the approach to optimality in quantum annealing processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Mark W.

    The last few years have seen both a significant technological advance towards the practical application of, and a growing scientific interest in the underlying behaviour of quantum annealing (QA) algorithms. A series of commercially available QA processors, most recently the D-Wave 2XTM 1000 qubit processor, have provided a valuable platform for empirical study of QA at a non-trivial scale. From this it has become clear that misspecification of Hamiltonian parameters is an important performance consideration, both for the goal of studying the underlying physics of QA, as well as that of building a practical and useful QA processor. The empirical study of the physics of QA requires a way to look beyond Hamiltonian misspecification.Recently, a solver metric called 'time-to-target' was proposed as a way to compare quantum annealing processors to classical heuristic algorithms. This approach puts emphasis on analyzing a solver's short time approach to the ground state. In this presentation I will review the processor technology, based on superconducting flux qubits, and some of the known sources of error in Hamiltonian specification. I will then discuss recent advances in reducing Hamiltonian specification error, as well as review the time-to-target metric and empirical results analyzed in this way.

  3. An efficient algorithm for function optimization: modified stem cells algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taherdangkoo, Mohammad; Paziresh, Mahsa; Yazdi, Mehran; Bagheri, Mohammad

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we propose an optimization algorithm based on the intelligent behavior of stem cell swarms in reproduction and self-organization. Optimization algorithms, such as the Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm, can give solutions to linear and non-linear problems near to the optimum for many applications; however, in some case, they can suffer from becoming trapped in local optima. The Stem Cells Algorithm (SCA) is an optimization algorithm inspired by the natural behavior of stem cells in evolving themselves into new and improved cells. The SCA avoids the local optima problem successfully. In this paper, we have made small changes in the implementation of this algorithm to obtain improved performance over previous versions. Using a series of benchmark functions, we assess the performance of the proposed algorithm and compare it with that of the other aforementioned optimization algorithms. The obtained results prove the superiority of the Modified Stem Cells Algorithm (MSCA).

  4. PedMine – A simulated annealing algorithm to identify maximally unrelated individuals in population isolates

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Julie A.; Sandefur, Conner I.

    2010-01-01

    Summary In family-based genetic studies, it is often useful to identify a subset of unrelated individuals. When such studies are conducted in population isolates, however, most if not all individuals are often detectably related to each other. To identify a set of maximally unrelated (or equivalently, minimally related) individuals, we have implemented simulated annealing, a general-purpose algorithm for solving difficult combinatorial optimization problems. We illustrate our method on data from a genetic study in the Old Order Amish of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, a population isolate derived from a modest number of founders. Given one or more pedigrees, our program automatically and rapidly extracts a fixed number of maximally unrelated individuals. PMID:18321883

  5. Evaluation of a Particle Swarm Algorithm For Biomechanical Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Schutte, Jaco F.; Koh, Byung; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A.; Haftka, Raphael T.; George, Alan D.; Fregly, Benjamin J.

    2006-01-01

    Optimization is frequently employed in biomechanics research to solve system identification problems, predict human movement, or estimate muscle or other internal forces that cannot be measured directly. Unfortunately, biomechanical optimization problems often possess multiple local minima, making it difficult to find the best solution. Furthermore, convergence in gradient-based algorithms can be affected by scaling to account for design variables with different length scales or units. In this study we evaluate a recently-developed version of the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to address these problems. The algorithm’s global search capabilities were investigated using a suite of difficult analytical test problems, while its scale-independent nature was proven mathematically and verified using a biomechanical test problem. For comparison, all test problems were also solved with three off-the-shelf optimization algorithms—a global genetic algorithm (GA) and multistart gradient-based sequential quadratic programming (SQP) and quasi-Newton (BFGS) algorithms. For the analytical test problems, only the PSO algorithm was successful on the majority of the problems. When compared to previously published results for the same problems, PSO was more robust than a global simulated annealing algorithm but less robust than a different, more complex genetic algorithm. For the biomechanical test problem, only the PSO algorithm was insensitive to design variable scaling, with the GA algorithm being mildly sensitive and the SQP and BFGS algorithms being highly sensitive. The proposed PSO algorithm provides a new off-the-shelf global optimization option for difficult biomechanical problems, especially those utilizing design variables with different length scales or units. PMID:16060353

  6. Driver Hamiltonians for constrained optimization in quantum annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hen, Itay; Sarandy, Marcelo S.

    2016-06-01

    One of the current major challenges surrounding the use of quantum annealers for solving practical optimization problems is their inability to encode even moderately sized problems, the main reason for this being the rigid layout of their quantum bits as well as their sparse connectivity. In particular, the implementation of constraints has become a major bottleneck in the embedding of practical problems, because the latter is typically achieved by adding harmful penalty terms to the problem Hamiltonian, a technique that often requires an all-to-all connectivity between the qubits. Recently, a novel technique designed to obviate the need for penalty terms was suggested; it is based on the construction of driver Hamiltonians that commute with the constraints of the problem, rendering the latter constants of motion. In this work we propose general guidelines for the construction of such driver Hamiltonians given an arbitrary set of constraints. We illustrate the broad applicability of our method by analyzing several diverse examples, namely, graph isomorphism, not-all-equal three-satisfiability, and the so-called Lechner-Hauke-Zoller constraints. We also discuss the significance of our approach in the context of current and future experimental quantum annealers.

  7. Prediction of Flood Warning in Taiwan Using Nonlinear SVM with Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.

    2013-12-01

    The issue of the floods is important in Taiwan. It is because the narrow and high topography of the island make lots of rivers steep in Taiwan. The tropical depression likes typhoon always causes rivers to flood. Prediction of river flow under the extreme rainfall circumstances is important for government to announce the warning of flood. Every time typhoon passed through Taiwan, there were always floods along some rivers. The warning is classified to three levels according to the warning water levels in Taiwan. The propose of this study is to predict the level of floods warning from the information of precipitation, rainfall duration and slope of riverbed. To classify the level of floods warning by the above-mentioned information and modeling the problems, a machine learning model, nonlinear Support vector machine (SVM), is formulated to classify the level of floods warning. In addition, simulated annealing (SA), a probabilistic heuristic algorithm, is used to determine the optimal parameter of the SVM model. A case study of flooding-trend rivers of different gradients in Taiwan is conducted. The contribution of this SVM model with simulated annealing is capable of making efficient announcement for flood warning and keeping the danger of flood from residents along the rivers.

  8. Parallel algorithms for unconstrained optimizations by multisplitting

    SciTech Connect

    He, Qing

    1994-12-31

    In this paper a new parallel iterative algorithm for unconstrained optimization using the idea of multisplitting is proposed. This algorithm uses the existing sequential algorithms without any parallelization. Some convergence and numerical results for this algorithm are presented. The experiments are performed on an Intel iPSC/860 Hyper Cube with 64 nodes. It is interesting that the sequential implementation on one node shows that if the problem is split properly, the algorithm converges much faster than one without splitting.

  9. Obstacle Bypassing in Optimal Ship Routing Using Simulated Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmas, O. T.; Vlachos, D. S.; Simos, T. E.

    2008-11-01

    In this paper we are going to discuss a variation on the problem of finding the shortest path between two points in optimal ship routing problems consisting of obstacles that are not allowed to be crossed by the path. Our main goal are going to be the construction of an appropriate algorithm, based in an earlier work [16] by computing the shortest path between two points in the plane that avoids a set of polygonal obstacles.

  10. Obstacle Bypassing in Optimal Ship Routing Using Simulated Annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Kosmas, O. T.; Vlachos, D. S.; Simos, T. E.

    2008-11-06

    In this paper we are going to discuss a variation on the problem of finding the shortest path between two points in optimal ship routing problems consisting of obstacles that are not allowed to be crossed by the path. Our main goal are going to be the construction of an appropriate algorithm, based in an earlier work by computing the shortest path between two points in the plane that avoids a set of polygonal obstacles.

  11. Design of SLM-constrained MACE filters using simulated annealing optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Ajmal; Rajan, P. Karivaratha

    1993-10-01

    Among the available filters for pattern recognition, the MACE filter produces the sharpest peak with very small sidelobes. However, when these filters are implemented using practical spatial light modulators (SLMs), because of the constrained nature of the amplitude and phase modulation characteristics of the SLM, the implementation is no longer optimal. The resulting filter response does not produce high accuracy in the recognition of the test images. In this paper, this deterioration in response is overcome by designing constrained MACE filters such that the filter is allowed to have only those values of phase-amplitude combination that can be implemented on a specified SLM. The design is carried out using simulated annealing optimization technique. The algorithm developed and the results obtained on computer simulations of the designed filters are presented.

  12. Intelligent perturbation algorithms for space scheduling optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtzman, Clifford R.

    1991-01-01

    Intelligent perturbation algorithms for space scheduling optimization are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: optimization of planning, scheduling, and manifesting; searching a discrete configuration space; heuristic algorithms used for optimization; use of heuristic methods on a sample scheduling problem; intelligent perturbation algorithms are iterative refinement techniques; properties of a good iterative search operator; dispatching examples of intelligent perturbation algorithm and perturbation operator attributes; scheduling implementations using intelligent perturbation algorithms; major advances in scheduling capabilities; the prototype ISF (industrial Space Facility) experiment scheduler; optimized schedule (max revenue); multi-variable optimization; Space Station design reference mission scheduling; ISF-TDRSS command scheduling demonstration; and example task - communications check.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Simulated Annealing (SA) and Simplified Generalized SA (SGSA) for Estimation Optimal of Parametric Functional in CATIVIC

    SciTech Connect

    Freitez, Juan A.; Sanchez, Morella; Ruette, Fernando

    2009-08-13

    Application of simulated annealing (SA) and simplified GSA (SGSA) techniques for parameter optimization of parametric quantum chemistry method (CATIVIC) was performed. A set of organic molecules were selected for test these techniques. Comparison of the algorithms was carried out for error function minimization with respect to experimental values. Results show that SGSA is more efficient than SA with respect to computer time. Accuracy is similar in both methods; however, there are important differences in the final set of parameters.

  14. Intelligent perturbation algorithms to space scheduling optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtzman, Clifford R.

    1991-01-01

    The limited availability and high cost of crew time and scarce resources make optimization of space operations critical. Advances in computer technology coupled with new iterative search techniques permit the near optimization of complex scheduling problems that were previously considered computationally intractable. Described here is a class of search techniques called Intelligent Perturbation Algorithms. Several scheduling systems which use these algorithms to optimize the scheduling of space crew, payload, and resource operations are also discussed.

  15. A Annealing Algorithm for Designing Ligands from Receptor Structures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Peter J.

    DEenspace NOVO, a simulated annealing method for designing ligands is described. At a given temperature, ligand fragments are randomly selected and randomly placed within the given receptor cavity, often replacing existing ligand fragments. For each new ligand fragment combination, bonded, nonbonded, polarization and solvation energies of the new ligand-receptor system are compared to the previous system. Acceptance or rejection of the new system is decided using the Boltzmann distribution. Thus, energetically unfavorable fragment switches are sometimes accepted, sacrificing immediate energy gains in the interest of finding the system with the globally minimum energy. By lowering the temperature, the rate of unfavorable switches decreases and energetically favorable combinations become difficult to change. The process is halted when the frequency of switches becomes too small. As a test of the method, DEenspace NOVO predicted the positions of important ligand fragments for neuraminidase that are in accord with the natural ligand, sialic acid.

  16. An optimal structural design algorithm using optimality criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. E.; Rossow, M. P.

    1976-01-01

    An algorithm for optimal design is given which incorporates several of the desirable features of both mathematical programming and optimality criteria, while avoiding some of the undesirable features. The algorithm proceeds by approaching the optimal solution through the solutions of an associated set of constrained optimal design problems. The solutions of the constrained problems are recognized at each stage through the application of optimality criteria based on energy concepts. Two examples are described in which the optimal member size and layout of a truss is predicted, given the joint locations and loads.

  17. Comparison of optimization algorithms in intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, Rachel

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy is used to better conform the radiation dose to the target, which includes avoiding healthy tissue. Planning programs employ optimization methods to search for the best fluence of each photon beam, and therefore to create the best treatment plan. The Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR), a program written in MATLAB, was used to examine some commonly-used algorithms for one 5-beam plan. Algorithms include the genetic algorithm, quadratic programming, pattern search, constrained nonlinear optimization, simulated annealing, the optimization method used in Varian EclipseTM, and some hybrids of these. Quadratic programing, simulated annealing, and a quadratic/simulated annealing hybrid were also separately compared using different prescription doses. The results of each dose-volume histogram as well as the visual dose color wash were used to compare the plans. CERR's built-in quadratic programming provided the best overall plan, but avoidance of the organ-at-risk was rivaled by other programs. Hybrids of quadratic programming with some of these algorithms seems to suggest the possibility of better planning programs, as shown by the improved quadratic/simulated annealing plan when compared to the simulated annealing algorithm alone. Further experimentation will be done to improve cost functions and computational time.

  18. Global and Local Optimization Algorithms for Optimal Signal Set Design

    PubMed Central

    Kearsley, Anthony J.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of choosing an optimal signal set for non-Gaussian detection was reduced to a smooth inequality constrained mini-max nonlinear programming problem by Gockenbach and Kearsley. Here we consider the application of several optimization algorithms, both global and local, to this problem. The most promising results are obtained when special-purpose sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithms are embedded into stochastic global algorithms.

  19. An Algorithmic Framework for Multiobjective Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, T.; Elamvazuthi, I.; Shaari, Ku Zilati Ku; Vasant, P.

    2013-01-01

    Multiobjective (MO) optimization is an emerging field which is increasingly being encountered in many fields globally. Various metaheuristic techniques such as differential evolution (DE), genetic algorithm (GA), gravitational search algorithm (GSA), and particle swarm optimization (PSO) have been used in conjunction with scalarization techniques such as weighted sum approach and the normal-boundary intersection (NBI) method to solve MO problems. Nevertheless, many challenges still arise especially when dealing with problems with multiple objectives (especially in cases more than two). In addition, problems with extensive computational overhead emerge when dealing with hybrid algorithms. This paper discusses these issues by proposing an alternative framework that utilizes algorithmic concepts related to the problem structure for generating efficient and effective algorithms. This paper proposes a framework to generate new high-performance algorithms with minimal computational overhead for MO optimization. PMID:24470795

  20. An algorithmic framework for multiobjective optimization.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, T; Elamvazuthi, I; Shaari, Ku Zilati Ku; Vasant, P

    2013-01-01

    Multiobjective (MO) optimization is an emerging field which is increasingly being encountered in many fields globally. Various metaheuristic techniques such as differential evolution (DE), genetic algorithm (GA), gravitational search algorithm (GSA), and particle swarm optimization (PSO) have been used in conjunction with scalarization techniques such as weighted sum approach and the normal-boundary intersection (NBI) method to solve MO problems. Nevertheless, many challenges still arise especially when dealing with problems with multiple objectives (especially in cases more than two). In addition, problems with extensive computational overhead emerge when dealing with hybrid algorithms. This paper discusses these issues by proposing an alternative framework that utilizes algorithmic concepts related to the problem structure for generating efficient and effective algorithms. This paper proposes a framework to generate new high-performance algorithms with minimal computational overhead for MO optimization. PMID:24470795

  1. Automatic tuning of liver tissue model using simulated annealing and genetic algorithm heuristic approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, Salina; Bade, Abdullah; Lee, Rechard; Tanalol, Siti Hasnah

    2014-07-01

    Mass Spring Model (MSM) is a highly efficient model in terms of calculations and easy implementation. Mass, spring stiffness coefficient and damping constant are three major components of MSM. This paper focuses on identifying the coefficients of spring stiffness and damping constant using automated tuning method by optimization in generating human liver model capable of responding quickly. To achieve the objective two heuristic approaches are used, namely Simulated Annealing (SA) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) on the human liver model data set. The properties of the mechanical heart, which are taken into consideration, are anisotropy and viscoelasticity. Optimization results from SA and GA are then implemented into the MSM to model two human hearts, each with its SA or GA construction parameters. These techniques are implemented while making FEM construction parameters as benchmark. Step size response of both models are obtained after MSMs were solved using Fourth Order Runge-Kutta (RK4) to compare the elasticity response of both models. Remodelled time using manual calculation methods was compared against heuristic optimization methods of SA and GA in showing that model with automatic construction is more realistic in terms of realtime interaction response time. Liver models generated using SA and GA optimization techniques are compared with liver model from manual calculation. It shows that the reconstruction time required for 1000 repetitions of SA and GA is faster than the manual method. Meanwhile comparison between construction time of SA and GA model indicates that model SA is faster than GA with varying rates of time 0.110635 seconds/1000 repetitions. Real-time interaction of mechanical properties is dependent on rate of time and speed of remodelling process. Thus, the SA and GA have proven to be suitable in enhancing realism of simulated real-time interaction in liver remodelling.

  2. A comprehensive review of swarm optimization algorithms.

    PubMed

    Ab Wahab, Mohd Nadhir; Nefti-Meziani, Samia; Atyabi, Adham

    2015-01-01

    Many swarm optimization algorithms have been introduced since the early 60's, Evolutionary Programming to the most recent, Grey Wolf Optimization. All of these algorithms have demonstrated their potential to solve many optimization problems. This paper provides an in-depth survey of well-known optimization algorithms. Selected algorithms are briefly explained and compared with each other comprehensively through experiments conducted using thirty well-known benchmark functions. Their advantages and disadvantages are also discussed. A number of statistical tests are then carried out to determine the significant performances. The results indicate the overall advantage of Differential Evolution (DE) and is closely followed by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), compared with other considered approaches. PMID:25992655

  3. A Comprehensive Review of Swarm Optimization Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many swarm optimization algorithms have been introduced since the early 60’s, Evolutionary Programming to the most recent, Grey Wolf Optimization. All of these algorithms have demonstrated their potential to solve many optimization problems. This paper provides an in-depth survey of well-known optimization algorithms. Selected algorithms are briefly explained and compared with each other comprehensively through experiments conducted using thirty well-known benchmark functions. Their advantages and disadvantages are also discussed. A number of statistical tests are then carried out to determine the significant performances. The results indicate the overall advantage of Differential Evolution (DE) and is closely followed by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), compared with other considered approaches. PMID:25992655

  4. Simulated annealing versus quantum annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troyer, Matthias

    Based on simulated classical annealing and simulated quantum annealing using quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations I will explore the question where physical or simulated quantum annealers may outperform classical optimization algorithms. Although the stochastic dynamics of QMC simulations is not the same as the unitary dynamics of a quantum system, I will first show that for the problem of quantum tunneling between two local minima both QMC simulations and a physical system exhibit the same scaling of tunneling times with barrier height. The scaling in both cases is O (Δ2) , where Δ is the tunneling splitting. An important consequence is that QMC simulations can be used to predict the performance of a quantum annealer for tunneling through a barrier. Furthermore, by using open instead of periodic boundary conditions in imaginary time, equivalent to a projector QMC algorithm, one obtains a quadratic speedup for QMC, and achieve linear scaling in Δ. I will then address the apparent contradiction between experiments on a D-Wave 2 system that failed to see evidence of quantum speedup and previous QMC results that indicated an advantage of quantum annealing over classical annealing for spin glasses. We find that this contradiction is resolved by taking the continuous time limit in the QMC simulations which then agree with the experimentally observed behavior and show no speedup for 2D spin glasses. However, QMC simulations with large time steps gain further advantage: they ``cheat'' by ignoring what happens during a (large) time step, and can thus outperform both simulated quantum annealers and classical annealers. I will then address the question how to optimally run a simulated or physical quantum annealer. Investigating the behavior of the tails of the distribution of runtimes for very hard instances we find that adiabatically slow annealing is far from optimal. On the contrary, many repeated relatively fast annealing runs can be orders of magnitude faster for

  5. A Novel Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Global Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun-Feng; Liu, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a recently developed optimization method, which has attracted interest of researchers in various areas due to its simplicity and effectiveness, and many variants have been proposed. In this paper, a novel Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm is presented, in which the information of the best neighbor of each particle and the best particle of the entire population in the current iteration is considered. Meanwhile, to avoid premature, an abandoned mechanism is used. Furthermore, for improving the global convergence speed of our algorithm, a chaotic search is adopted in the best solution of the current iteration. To verify the performance of our algorithm, standard test functions have been employed. The experimental results show that the algorithm is much more robust and efficient than some existing Particle Swarm Optimization algorithms. PMID:26955387

  6. A Novel Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Global Optimization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Feng; Liu, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a recently developed optimization method, which has attracted interest of researchers in various areas due to its simplicity and effectiveness, and many variants have been proposed. In this paper, a novel Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm is presented, in which the information of the best neighbor of each particle and the best particle of the entire population in the current iteration is considered. Meanwhile, to avoid premature, an abandoned mechanism is used. Furthermore, for improving the global convergence speed of our algorithm, a chaotic search is adopted in the best solution of the current iteration. To verify the performance of our algorithm, standard test functions have been employed. The experimental results show that the algorithm is much more robust and efficient than some existing Particle Swarm Optimization algorithms. PMID:26955387

  7. A parallel simulated annealing algorithm for standard cell placement on a hypercube computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Mark Howard

    1987-01-01

    A parallel version of a simulated annealing algorithm is presented which is targeted to run on a hypercube computer. A strategy for mapping the cells in a two dimensional area of a chip onto processors in an n-dimensional hypercube is proposed such that both small and large distance moves can be applied. Two types of moves are allowed: cell exchanges and cell displacements. The computation of the cost function in parallel among all the processors in the hypercube is described along with a distributed data structure that needs to be stored in the hypercube to support parallel cost evaluation. A novel tree broadcasting strategy is used extensively in the algorithm for updating cell locations in the parallel environment. Studies on the performance of the algorithm on example industrial circuits show that it is faster and gives better final placement results than the uniprocessor simulated annealing algorithms. An improved uniprocessor algorithm is proposed which is based on the improved results obtained from parallelization of the simulated annealing algorithm.

  8. Spaceborne SAR Imaging Algorithm for Coherence Optimized

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhiwei; Yue, Jianping; Wang, Xueqin; Yue, Shun

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes SAR imaging algorithm with largest coherence based on the existing SAR imaging algorithm. The basic idea of SAR imaging algorithm in imaging processing is that output signal can have maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by using the optimal imaging parameters. Traditional imaging algorithm can acquire the best focusing effect, but would bring the decoherence phenomenon in subsequent interference process. Algorithm proposed in this paper is that SAR echo adopts consistent imaging parameters in focusing processing. Although the SNR of the output signal is reduced slightly, their coherence is ensured greatly, and finally the interferogram with high quality is obtained. In this paper, two scenes of Envisat ASAR data in Zhangbei are employed to conduct experiment for this algorithm. Compared with the interferogram from the traditional algorithm, the results show that this algorithm is more suitable for SAR interferometry (InSAR) research and application. PMID:26871446

  9. Acoustic Radiation Optimization Using the Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Jin-Young; Okuma, Masaaki

    The present paper describes a fundamental study on structural bending design to reduce noise using a new evolutionary population-based heuristic algorithm called the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSOA). The particle swarm optimization algorithm is a parallel evolutionary computation technique proposed by Kennedy and Eberhart in 1995. This algorithm is based on the social behavior models for bird flocking, fish schooling and other models investigated by zoologists. Optimal structural design problems to reduce noise are highly nonlinear, so that most conventional methods are difficult to apply. The present paper investigates the applicability of PSOA to such problems. Optimal bending design of a vibrating plate using PSOA is performed in order to minimize noise radiation. PSOA can be effectively applied to such nonlinear acoustic radiation optimization.

  10. Algorithmic Differentiation for Calculus-based Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Andrea

    2010-10-01

    For numerous applications, the computation and provision of exact derivative information plays an important role for optimizing the considered system but quite often also for its simulation. This presentation introduces the technique of Algorithmic Differentiation (AD), a method to compute derivatives of arbitrary order within working precision. Quite often an additional structure exploitation is indispensable for a successful coupling of these derivatives with state-of-the-art optimization algorithms. The talk will discuss two important situations where the problem-inherent structure allows a calculus-based optimization. Examples from aerodynamics and nano optics illustrate these advanced optimization approaches.

  11. Adaptive Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Unconstrained Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Modification of the intensification and diversification approaches in the recently developed cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) is performed. The alteration involves the implementation of adaptive step size adjustment strategy, and thus enabling faster convergence to the global optimal solutions. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm is validated against benchmark optimization functions, where the obtained results demonstrate a marked improvement over the standard CSA, in all the cases. PMID:25298971

  12. Adaptive cuckoo search algorithm for unconstrained optimization.

    PubMed

    Ong, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Modification of the intensification and diversification approaches in the recently developed cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) is performed. The alteration involves the implementation of adaptive step size adjustment strategy, and thus enabling faster convergence to the global optimal solutions. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm is validated against benchmark optimization functions, where the obtained results demonstrate a marked improvement over the standard CSA, in all the cases. PMID:25298971

  13. Evolutionary Algorithm for Optimal Vaccination Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parousis-Orthodoxou, K. J.; Vlachos, D. S.

    2014-03-01

    The following work uses the dynamic capabilities of an evolutionary algorithm in order to obtain an optimal immunization strategy in a user specified network. The produced algorithm uses a basic genetic algorithm with crossover and mutation techniques, in order to locate certain nodes in the inputted network. These nodes will be immunized in an SIR epidemic spreading process, and the performance of each immunization scheme, will be evaluated by the level of containment that provides for the spreading of the disease.

  14. Global Optimality of the Successive Maxbet Algorithm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanafi, Mohamed; ten Berge, Jos M. F.

    2003-01-01

    It is known that the Maxbet algorithm, which is an alternative to the method of generalized canonical correlation analysis and Procrustes analysis, may converge to local maxima. Discusses an eigenvalue criterion that is sufficient, but not necessary, for global optimality of the successive Maxbet algorithm. (SLD)

  15. Combined Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithm Approach to Bus Network Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Olszewski, Piotr; Goh, Pong-Chai

    A new method - combined simulated annealing (SA) and genetic algorithm (GA) approach is proposed to solve the problem of bus route design and frequency setting for a given road network with fixed bus stop locations and fixed travel demand. The method involves two steps: a set of candidate routes is generated first and then the best subset of these routes is selected by the combined SA and GA procedure. SA is the main process to search for a better solution to minimize the total system cost, comprising user and operator costs. GA is used as a sub-process to generate new solutions. Bus demand assignment on two alternative paths is performed at the solution evaluation stage. The method was implemented on four theoretical grid networks of different size and a benchmark network. Several GA operators (crossover and mutation) were utilized and tested for their effectiveness. The results show that the proposed method can efficiently converge to the optimal solution on a small network but computation time increases significantly with network size. The method can also be used for other transport operation management problems.

  16. Using Heuristic Algorithms to Optimize Observing Target Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnowska, D.; Ouadahi, A.; Buchschacher, N.; Weber, L.; Pepe, F.

    2014-05-01

    The preparation of observations is normally carried out at the telescope by the visiting observer. In order to help the observer, we propose several algorithms to automatically optimize the sequence of targets. The optimization consists of assuring that all the chosen targets are observable within the given time interval, and to find their best execution order in terms of the observation quality and the shortest telescope displacement time. Since an exhaustive search is too expensive in time, we researched heuristic algorithms, specifically: Min-Conflict, Non-Sorting Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing. Multiple metaheuristics are used in parallel to swiftly give an approximation of the best solution, with all the constraints satisfied and the total execution time minimized. The optimization process has a duration on the order of tens of seconds, allowing for quick re-adaptation in case of changing atmospheric conditions. The graphical user interface allows the user to control the parameters of the optimization process. Therefore, the search can be adjusted in real time. The module was coded in a way to allow easily the addition of new constraints, and thus ensure its compatibility with different instruments. For now, the application runs as a plug-in to the observation preparation tool called New Short Term Scheduler, which is used on three spectrographs dedicated to the exoplanets search: HARPS at the La Silla observatory, HARPS North at the La Palma observatory and SOPHIE at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence.

  17. Algorithms for optimal dyadic decision trees

    SciTech Connect

    Hush, Don; Porter, Reid

    2009-01-01

    A new algorithm for constructing optimal dyadic decision trees was recently introduced, analyzed, and shown to be very effective for low dimensional data sets. This paper enhances and extends this algorithm by: introducing an adaptive grid search for the regularization parameter that guarantees optimal solutions for all relevant trees sizes, revising the core tree-building algorithm so that its run time is substantially smaller for most regularization parameter values on the grid, and incorporating new data structures and data pre-processing steps that provide significant run time enhancement in practice.

  18. Joint Optimization of Vertical Component Gravity and Seismic P-wave First Arrivals by Simulated Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, J. N.; Basler-Reeder, K.; Kent, G. M.; Pullammanappallil, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Simultaneous joint seismic-gravity optimization improves P-wave velocity models in areas with sharp lateral velocity contrasts. Optimization is achieved using simulated annealing, a metaheuristic global optimization algorithm that does not require an accurate initial model. Balancing the seismic-gravity objective function is accomplished by a novel approach based on analysis of Pareto charts. Gravity modeling uses a newly developed convolution algorithm, while seismic modeling utilizes the highly efficient Vidale eikonal equation traveltime generation technique. Synthetic tests show that joint optimization improves velocity model accuracy and provides velocity control below the deepest headwave raypath. Detailed first arrival picking followed by trial velocity modeling remediates inconsistent data. We use a set of highly refined first arrival picks to compare results of a convergent joint seismic-gravity optimization to the Plotrefa™ and SeisOpt® Pro™ velocity modeling packages. Plotrefa™ uses a nonlinear least squares approach that is initial model dependent and produces shallow velocity artifacts. SeisOpt® Pro™ utilizes the simulated annealing algorithm and is limited to depths above the deepest raypath. Joint optimization increases the depth of constrained velocities, improving reflector coherency at depth. Kirchoff prestack depth migrations reveal that joint optimization ameliorates shallow velocity artifacts caused by limitations in refraction ray coverage. Seismic and gravity data from the San Emidio Geothermal field of the northwest Basin and Range province demonstrate that joint optimization changes interpretation outcomes. The prior shallow-valley interpretation gives way to a deep valley model, while shallow antiformal reflectors that could have been interpreted as antiformal folds are flattened. Furthermore, joint optimization provides a clearer image of the rangefront fault. This technique can readily be applied to existing datasets and could

  19. Social Emotional Optimization Algorithm for Nonlinear Constrained Optimization Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuechun; Cui, Zhihua; Zeng, Jianchao

    Nonlinear programming problem is one important branch in operational research, and has been successfully applied to various real-life problems. In this paper, a new approach called Social emotional optimization algorithm (SEOA) is used to solve this problem which is a new swarm intelligent technique by simulating the human behavior guided by emotion. Simulation results show that the social emotional optimization algorithm proposed in this paper is effective and efficiency for the nonlinear constrained programming problems.

  20. An Improved Cuckoo Search Optimization Algorithm for the Problem of Chaotic Systems Parameter Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Zhou, Bihua; Zhou, Shudao

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an improved cuckoo search (ICS) algorithm to establish the parameters of chaotic systems. In order to improve the optimization capability of the basic cuckoo search (CS) algorithm, the orthogonal design and simulated annealing operation are incorporated in the CS algorithm to enhance the exploitation search ability. Then the proposed algorithm is used to establish parameters of the Lorenz chaotic system and Chen chaotic system under the noiseless and noise condition, respectively. The numerical results demonstrate that the algorithm can estimate parameters with high accuracy and reliability. Finally, the results are compared with the CS algorithm, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization algorithm, and the compared results demonstrate the method is energy-efficient and superior. PMID:26880874

  1. An Improved Cuckoo Search Optimization Algorithm for the Problem of Chaotic Systems Parameter Estimation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Zhou, Bihua; Zhou, Shudao

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an improved cuckoo search (ICS) algorithm to establish the parameters of chaotic systems. In order to improve the optimization capability of the basic cuckoo search (CS) algorithm, the orthogonal design and simulated annealing operation are incorporated in the CS algorithm to enhance the exploitation search ability. Then the proposed algorithm is used to establish parameters of the Lorenz chaotic system and Chen chaotic system under the noiseless and noise condition, respectively. The numerical results demonstrate that the algorithm can estimate parameters with high accuracy and reliability. Finally, the results are compared with the CS algorithm, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization algorithm, and the compared results demonstrate the method is energy-efficient and superior. PMID:26880874

  2. Feature Selection via Modified Gravitational Optimization Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabizadeh, Nooshin; John, Nigel

    2015-03-01

    Feature selection is the process of selecting a subset of relevant and most informative features, which efficiently represents the input data. We proposed a feature selection algorithm based on n-dimensional gravitational optimization algorithm (NGOA), which is based on the principle of gravitational fields. The objective function of optimization algorithm is a non-linear function of variables, which are called masses and defined based on extracted features. The forces between the masses as well as their new locations are calculated using the value of the objective function and the values of masses. We extracted variety of features applying different wavelet transforms and statistical methods on FLAIR and T1-weighted MR brain images. There are two classes of normal and abnormal tissues. Extracted features are divided into groups of five features. The best feature is selected in each group using N-dimensional gravitational optimization algorithm and support vector machine classifier. Then the selected features from each group make several groups of five features again and so on till desired number of features is selected. The advantage of NGOA algorithm is that the possibility of being drawn into a local optimal solution is very low. The experimental results show that our method outperforms some standard feature selection algorithms on both real-data and simulated brain tumor data.

  3. A Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Multimodal Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Interest in multimodal optimization is expanding rapidly, since many practical engineering problems demand the localization of multiple optima within a search space. On the other hand, the cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is a simple and effective global optimization algorithm which can not be directly applied to solve multimodal optimization problems. This paper proposes a new multimodal optimization algorithm called the multimodal cuckoo search (MCS). Under MCS, the original CS is enhanced with multimodal capacities by means of (1) the incorporation of a memory mechanism to efficiently register potential local optima according to their fitness value and the distance to other potential solutions, (2) the modification of the original CS individual selection strategy to accelerate the detection process of new local minima, and (3) the inclusion of a depuration procedure to cyclically eliminate duplicated memory elements. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to several state-of-the-art multimodal optimization algorithms considering a benchmark suite of fourteen multimodal problems. Experimental results indicate that the proposed strategy is capable of providing better and even a more consistent performance over existing well-known multimodal algorithms for the majority of test problems yet avoiding any serious computational deterioration. PMID:25147850

  4. A cuckoo search algorithm for multimodal optimization.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Erik; Reyna-Orta, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Interest in multimodal optimization is expanding rapidly, since many practical engineering problems demand the localization of multiple optima within a search space. On the other hand, the cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is a simple and effective global optimization algorithm which can not be directly applied to solve multimodal optimization problems. This paper proposes a new multimodal optimization algorithm called the multimodal cuckoo search (MCS). Under MCS, the original CS is enhanced with multimodal capacities by means of (1) the incorporation of a memory mechanism to efficiently register potential local optima according to their fitness value and the distance to other potential solutions, (2) the modification of the original CS individual selection strategy to accelerate the detection process of new local minima, and (3) the inclusion of a depuration procedure to cyclically eliminate duplicated memory elements. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to several state-of-the-art multimodal optimization algorithms considering a benchmark suite of fourteen multimodal problems. Experimental results indicate that the proposed strategy is capable of providing better and even a more consistent performance over existing well-known multimodal algorithms for the majority of test problems yet avoiding any serious computational deterioration. PMID:25147850

  5. A novel bee swarm optimization algorithm for numerical function optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Reza; Mohammadi, Alireza; Ziarati, Koorush

    2010-10-01

    The optimization algorithms which are inspired from intelligent behavior of honey bees are among the most recently introduced population based techniques. In this paper, a novel algorithm called bee swarm optimization, or BSO, and its two extensions for improving its performance are presented. The BSO is a population based optimization technique which is inspired from foraging behavior of honey bees. The proposed approach provides different patterns which are used by the bees to adjust their flying trajectories. As the first extension, the BSO algorithm introduces different approaches such as repulsion factor and penalizing fitness (RP) to mitigate the stagnation problem. Second, to maintain efficiently the balance between exploration and exploitation, time-varying weights (TVW) are introduced into the BSO algorithm. The proposed algorithm (BSO) and its two extensions (BSO-RP and BSO-RPTVW) are compared with existing algorithms which are based on intelligent behavior of honey bees, on a set of well known numerical test functions. The experimental results show that the BSO algorithms are effective and robust; produce excellent results, and outperform other algorithms investigated in this consideration.

  6. Algorithm Optimally Allocates Actuation of a Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motaghedi, Shi

    2007-01-01

    A report presents an algorithm that solves the following problem: Allocate the force and/or torque to be exerted by each thruster and reaction-wheel assembly on a spacecraft for best performance, defined as minimizing the error between (1) the total force and torque commanded by the spacecraft control system and (2) the total of forces and torques actually exerted by all the thrusters and reaction wheels. The algorithm incorporates the matrix vector relationship between (1) the total applied force and torque and (2) the individual actuator force and torque values. It takes account of such constraints as lower and upper limits on the force or torque that can be applied by a given actuator. The algorithm divides the aforementioned problem into two optimization problems that it solves sequentially. These problems are of a type, known in the art as semi-definite programming problems, that involve linear matrix inequalities. The algorithm incorporates, as sub-algorithms, prior algorithms that solve such optimization problems very efficiently. The algorithm affords the additional advantage that the solution requires the minimum rate of consumption of fuel for the given best performance.

  7. Protein structure optimization with a "Lamarckian" ant colony algorithm.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Mark T; Richardson, E Grace; Carr, Harriet; Johnston, Roy L

    2013-01-01

    We describe the LamarckiAnt algorithm: a search algorithm that combines the features of a "Lamarckian" genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization. We have implemented this algorithm for the optimization of BLN model proteins, which have frustrated energy landscapes and represent a challenge for global optimization algorithms. We demonstrate that LamarckiAnt performs competitively with other state-of-the-art optimization algorithms. PMID:24407312

  8. Combinatorial Multiobjective Optimization Using Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossley, William A.; Martin. Eric T.

    2002-01-01

    The research proposed in this document investigated multiobjective optimization approaches based upon the Genetic Algorithm (GA). Several versions of the GA have been adopted for multiobjective design, but, prior to this research, there had not been significant comparisons of the most popular strategies. The research effort first generalized the two-branch tournament genetic algorithm in to an N-branch genetic algorithm, then the N-branch GA was compared with a version of the popular Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA). Because the genetic algorithm is well suited to combinatorial (mixed discrete / continuous) optimization problems, the GA can be used in the conceptual phase of design to combine selection (discrete variable) and sizing (continuous variable) tasks. Using a multiobjective formulation for the design of a 50-passenger aircraft to meet the competing objectives of minimizing takeoff gross weight and minimizing trip time, the GA generated a range of tradeoff designs that illustrate which aircraft features change from a low-weight, slow trip-time aircraft design to a heavy-weight, short trip-time aircraft design. Given the objective formulation and analysis methods used, the results of this study identify where turboprop-powered aircraft and turbofan-powered aircraft become more desirable for the 50 seat passenger application. This aircraft design application also begins to suggest how a combinatorial multiobjective optimization technique could be used to assist in the design of morphing aircraft.

  9. A permutation based simulated annealing algorithm to predict pseudoknotted RNA secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Herbert H; Wiese, Kay C

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoknots are RNA tertiary structures which perform essential biological functions. This paper discusses SARNA-Predict-pk, a RNA pseudoknotted secondary structure prediction algorithm based on Simulated Annealing (SA). The research presented here extends previous work of SARNA-Predict and further examines the effect of the new algorithm to include prediction of RNA secondary structure with pseudoknots. An evaluation of the performance of SARNA-Predict-pk in terms of prediction accuracy is made via comparison with several state-of-the-art prediction algorithms using 20 individual known structures from seven RNA classes. We measured the sensitivity and specificity of nine prediction algorithms. Three of these are dynamic programming algorithms: Pseudoknot (pknotsRE), NUPACK, and pknotsRG-mfe. One is using the statistical clustering approach: Sfold and the other five are heuristic algorithms: SARNA-Predict-pk, ILM, STAR, IPknot and HotKnots algorithms. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that SARNA-Predict-pk can out-perform other state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of prediction accuracy. This supports the use of the proposed method on pseudoknotted RNA secondary structure prediction of other known structures. PMID:26558299

  10. Optimization of a chemical identification algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyba, Thomas H.; Fisk, Brian; Gunning, Christin; Farley, Kevin; Polizzi, Amber; Baughman, David; Simpson, Steven; Slamani, Mohamed-Adel; Almassy, Robert; Da Re, Ryan; Li, Eunice; MacDonald, Steve; Slamani, Ahmed; Mitchell, Scott A.; Pendell-Jones, Jay; Reed, Timothy L.; Emge, Darren

    2010-04-01

    A procedure to evaluate and optimize the performance of a chemical identification algorithm is presented. The Joint Contaminated Surface Detector (JCSD) employs Raman spectroscopy to detect and identify surface chemical contamination. JCSD measurements of chemical warfare agents, simulants, toxic industrial chemicals, interferents and bare surface backgrounds were made in the laboratory and under realistic field conditions. A test data suite, developed from these measurements, is used to benchmark algorithm performance throughout the improvement process. In any one measurement, one of many possible targets can be present along with interferents and surfaces. The detection results are expressed as a 2-category classification problem so that Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) techniques can be applied. The limitations of applying this framework to chemical detection problems are discussed along with means to mitigate them. Algorithmic performance is optimized globally using robust Design of Experiments and Taguchi techniques. These methods require figures of merit to trade off between false alarms and detection probability. Several figures of merit, including the Matthews Correlation Coefficient and the Taguchi Signal-to-Noise Ratio are compared. Following the optimization of global parameters which govern the algorithm behavior across all target chemicals, ROC techniques are employed to optimize chemical-specific parameters to further improve performance.

  11. Nonlinear Global Optimization Using Curdling Algorithm

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-03-01

    An algorithm for performing curdling optimization which is a derivative-free, grid-refinement approach to nonlinear optimization was developed and implemented in software. This approach overcomes a number of deficiencies in existing approaches. Most notably, it finds extremal regions rather than only single external extremal points. The program is interactive and collects information on control parameters and constraints using menus. For up to four dimensions, function convergence is displayed graphically. Because the algorithm does not compute derivatives,more » gradients or vectors, it is numerically stable. It can find all the roots of a polynomial in one pass. It is an inherently parallel algorithm. Constraints are handled as being initially fuzzy, but become tighter with each iteration.« less

  12. Optimized TRIAD Algorithm for Attitude Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.; Harman, Richard R.

    1996-01-01

    TRIAD is a well known simple algorithm that generates the attitude matrix between two coordinate systems when the components of two abstract vectors are given in the two systems. TRIAD however, is sensitive to the order in which the algorithm handles the vectors, such that the resulting attitude matrix is influenced more by the vector processed first. In this work we present a new algorithm, which we call Optimized TRIAD, that blends in a specified manner the two matrices generated by TRIAD when processing one vector first, and then when processing the other vector first. On the average, Optimized TRIAD yields a matrix which is better than either one of the two matrices in that is ti the closest to the correct matrix. This result is demonstrated through simulation.

  13. Optimal configuration algorithm of a satellite transponder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhodoev, M. S.; Savenko, I. I.; Martynov, Y. A.; Savina, N. I.; Asmolovskiy, V. V.

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the algorithm of determining the optimal transponder configuration of the communication satellite while in service. This method uses a mathematical model of the pay load scheme based on the finite-state machine. The repeater scheme is shown as a weighted oriented graph that is represented as plexus in the program view. This paper considers an algorithm example for application with a typical transparent repeater scheme. In addition, the complexity of the current algorithm has been calculated. The main peculiarity of this algorithm is that it takes into account the functionality and state of devices, reserved equipment and input-output ports ranged in accordance with their priority. All described limitations allow a significant decrease in possible payload commutation variants and enable a satellite operator to make reconfiguration solutions operatively.

  14. Reactive power optimization by genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Iba, Kenji )

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents a new approach to optimal reactive power planning based on a genetic algorithm. Many outstanding methods to this problem have been proposed in the past. However, most of these approaches have the common defect of being caught to a local minimum solution. The integer problem which yields integer value solutions for discrete controllers/banks still remains as a difficult one. The genetic algorithm is a kind of search algorithm based on the mechanics of natural selection and genetics. This algorithm can search for a global solution using multiple paths and treat integer problems naturally. The proposed method was applied to practical 51-bus and 224-bus systems to show its feasibility and capabilities. Although this method is not as fast as sophisticated traditional methods, the concept is quite promising and useful.

  15. The genetic algorithms for trajectory optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janin, G.; Gomez-Tierno, M. A.

    1985-10-01

    Possible difficulties encountered when solving space flight trajectory optimization problems are recalled. The need of a global optimization scheme is realized. Nondeterministic methods, called here stochastic methods, seem to be good candidates for solving these types of problems. A particular class of such methods, modelled upon search strategies employed in natural adaptation, is proposed here: the genetic algorithms. Two models, the mutation-selection and the crossover-selection, are discussed and remarks resulting from applications to test problems and space flight problems are made. It is concluded that a considerable effort is still needed for developing efficient schemes using genetic algorithms. However, they appear to offer an entirely original way for solving a large class of global optimization problems and they are particularly well-suited for parallel processing to be used in the fifth generation computers.

  16. Optimization Algorithms in Optimal Predictions of Atomistic Properties by Kriging.

    PubMed

    Di Pasquale, Nicodemo; Davie, Stuart J; Popelier, Paul L A

    2016-04-12

    The machine learning method kriging is an attractive tool to construct next-generation force fields. Kriging can accurately predict atomistic properties, which involves optimization of the so-called concentrated log-likelihood function (i.e., fitness function). The difficulty of this optimization problem quickly escalates in response to an increase in either the number of dimensions of the system considered or the size of the training set. In this article, we demonstrate and compare the use of two search algorithms, namely, particle swarm optimization (PSO) and differential evolution (DE), to rapidly obtain the maximum of this fitness function. The ability of these two algorithms to find a stationary point is assessed by using the first derivative of the fitness function. Finally, the converged position obtained by PSO and DE is refined through the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno bounded (L-BFGS-B) algorithm, which belongs to the class of quasi-Newton algorithms. We show that both PSO and DE are able to come close to the stationary point, even in high-dimensional problems. They do so in a reasonable amount of time, compared to that with the Newton and quasi-Newton algorithms, regardless of the starting position in the search space of kriging hyperparameters. The refinement through L-BFGS-B is able to give the position of the maximum with whichever precision is desired. PMID:26930135

  17. Optimization of pressurized water reactor shuffling by simulated annealing with heuristics

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.G.; Smith, K.S.; Rempe, K.R.; Downar, T.J.

    1995-09-01

    Simulated-annealing optimization of reactor core loading patterns is implemented with support for design heuristics during candidate pattern generation. The SIMAN optimization module uses the advanced nodal method of SIMULATE-3 and the full cross-section detail of CASMO-3 to evaluate accurately the neutronic performance of each candidate, resulting in high-quality patterns. The use of heuristics within simulated annealing is explored. Heuristics improve the consistency of optimization results for both fast- and slow-annealing runs with no penalty from the exclusion of unusual candidates. Thus, the heuristic application of designer judgment during automated pattern generation is shown to be effective. The capability of the SIMAN module to find and evaluate families of loading patterns that satisfy design constraints and have good objective performance within practical run times is demonstrated. The use of automated evaluations of successive cycles to explore multicycle effects of design decisions is discussed.

  18. A reliable algorithm for optimal control synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vansteenwyk, Brett; Ly, Uy-Loi

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, powerful design tools for linear time-invariant multivariable control systems have been developed based on direct parameter optimization. In this report, an algorithm for reliable optimal control synthesis using parameter optimization is presented. Specifically, a robust numerical algorithm is developed for the evaluation of the H(sup 2)-like cost functional and its gradients with respect to the controller design parameters. The method is specifically designed to handle defective degenerate systems and is based on the well-known Pade series approximation of the matrix exponential. Numerical test problems in control synthesis for simple mechanical systems and for a flexible structure with densely packed modes illustrate positively the reliability of this method when compared to a method based on diagonalization. Several types of cost functions have been considered: a cost function for robust control consisting of a linear combination of quadratic objectives for deterministic and random disturbances, and one representing an upper bound on the quadratic objective for worst case initial conditions. Finally, a framework for multivariable control synthesis has been developed combining the concept of closed-loop transfer recovery with numerical parameter optimization. The procedure enables designers to synthesize not only observer-based controllers but also controllers of arbitrary order and structure. Numerical design solutions rely heavily on the robust algorithm due to the high order of the synthesis model and the presence of near-overlapping modes. The design approach is successfully applied to the design of a high-bandwidth control system for a rotorcraft.

  19. Wind farm optimization using evolutionary algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ituarte-Villarreal, Carlos M.

    In recent years, the wind power industry has focused its efforts on solving the Wind Farm Layout Optimization (WFLO) problem. Wind resource assessment is a pivotal step in optimizing the wind-farm design and siting and, in determining whether a project is economically feasible or not. In the present work, three (3) different optimization methods are proposed for the solution of the WFLO: (i) A modified Viral System Algorithm applied to the optimization of the proper location of the components in a wind-farm to maximize the energy output given a stated wind environment of the site. The optimization problem is formulated as the minimization of energy cost per unit produced and applies a penalization for the lack of system reliability. The viral system algorithm utilized in this research solves three (3) well-known problems in the wind-energy literature; (ii) a new multiple objective evolutionary algorithm to obtain optimal placement of wind turbines while considering the power output, cost, and reliability of the system. The algorithm presented is based on evolutionary computation and the objective functions considered are the maximization of power output, the minimization of wind farm cost and the maximization of system reliability. The final solution to this multiple objective problem is presented as a set of Pareto solutions and, (iii) A hybrid viral-based optimization algorithm adapted to find the proper component configuration for a wind farm with the introduction of the universal generating function (UGF) analytical approach to discretize the different operating or mechanical levels of the wind turbines in addition to the various wind speed states. The proposed methodology considers the specific probability functions of the wind resource to describe their proper behaviors to account for the stochastic comportment of the renewable energy components, aiming to increase their power output and the reliability of these systems. The developed heuristic considers a

  20. Stroke volume optimization: the new hemodynamic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Alexander; Ahrens, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Critical care practices have evolved to rely more on physical assessments for monitoring cardiac output and evaluating fluid volume status because these assessments are less invasive and more convenient to use than is a pulmonary artery catheter. Despite this trend, level of consciousness, central venous pressure, urine output, heart rate, and blood pressure remain assessments that are slow to be changed, potentially misleading, and often manifested as late indications of decreased cardiac output. The hemodynamic optimization strategy called stroke volume optimization might provide a proactive guide for clinicians to optimize a patient's status before late indications of a worsening condition occur. The evidence supporting use of the stroke volume optimization algorithm to treat hypovolemia is increasing. Many of the cardiac output monitor technologies today measure stroke volume, as well as the parameters that comprise stroke volume: preload, afterload, and contractility. PMID:25639574

  1. Algorithm For Optimal Control Of Large Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Moktar A.; Garba, John A..; Utku, Senol

    1989-01-01

    Cost of computation appears competitive with other methods. Problem to compute optimal control of forced response of structure with n degrees of freedom identified in terms of smaller number, r, of vibrational modes. Article begins with Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of mechanics and use of quadratic cost functional. Complexity reduced by alternative approach in which quadratic cost functional expressed in terms of control variables only. Leads to iterative solution of second-order time-integral matrix Volterra equation of second kind containing optimal control vector. Cost of algorithm, measured in terms of number of computations required, is of order of, or less than, cost of prior algoritms applied to similar problems.

  2. Genetic algorithm optimization of atomic clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.R.; Deaven, D.M.; Ho, K.M.; Wang, C.Z.; Pan, B.C.; Wacker, J.G.; Turner, D.E. |

    1996-12-31

    The authors have been using genetic algorithms to study the structures of atomic clusters and related problems. This is a problem where local minima are easy to locate, but barriers between the many minima are large, and the number of minima prohibit a systematic search. They use a novel mating algorithm that preserves some of the geometrical relationship between atoms, in order to ensure that the resultant structures are likely to inherit the best features of the parent clusters. Using this approach, they have been able to find lower energy structures than had been previously obtained. Most recently, they have been able to turn around the building block idea, using optimized structures from the GA to learn about systematic structural trends. They believe that an effective GA can help provide such heuristic information, and (conversely) that such information can be introduced back into the algorithm to assist in the search process.

  3. Multidisciplinary design optimization using genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, Resit

    1994-12-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an important step in the conceptual design and evaluation of launch vehicles since it can have a significant impact on performance and life cycle cost. The objective is to search the system design space to determine values of design variables that optimize the performance characteristic subject to system constraints. Gradient-based optimization routines have been used extensively for aerospace design optimization. However, one limitation of gradient based optimizers is their need for gradient information. Therefore, design problems which include discrete variables can not be studied. Such problems are common in launch vehicle design. For example, the number of engines and material choices must be integer values or assume only a few discrete values. In this study, genetic algorithms are investigated as an approach to MDO problems involving discrete variables and discontinuous domains. Optimization by genetic algorithms (GA) uses a search procedure which is fundamentally different from those gradient based methods. Genetic algorithms seek to find good solutions in an efficient and timely manner rather than finding the best solution. GA are designed to mimic evolutionary selection. A population of candidate designs is evaluated at each iteration, and each individual's probability of reproduction (existence in the next generation) depends on its fitness value (related to the value of the objective function). Progress toward the optimum is achieved by the crossover and mutation operations. GA is attractive since it uses only objective function values in the search process, so gradient calculations are avoided. Hence, GA are able to deal with discrete variables. Studies report success in the use of GA for aircraft design optimization studies, trajectory analysis, space structure design and control systems design. In these studies reliable convergence was achieved, but the number of function evaluations was large compared

  4. Multidisciplinary design optimization using genetic algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit

    1994-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an important step in the conceptual design and evaluation of launch vehicles since it can have a significant impact on performance and life cycle cost. The objective is to search the system design space to determine values of design variables that optimize the performance characteristic subject to system constraints. Gradient-based optimization routines have been used extensively for aerospace design optimization. However, one limitation of gradient based optimizers is their need for gradient information. Therefore, design problems which include discrete variables can not be studied. Such problems are common in launch vehicle design. For example, the number of engines and material choices must be integer values or assume only a few discrete values. In this study, genetic algorithms are investigated as an approach to MDO problems involving discrete variables and discontinuous domains. Optimization by genetic algorithms (GA) uses a search procedure which is fundamentally different from those gradient based methods. Genetic algorithms seek to find good solutions in an efficient and timely manner rather than finding the best solution. GA are designed to mimic evolutionary selection. A population of candidate designs is evaluated at each iteration, and each individual's probability of reproduction (existence in the next generation) depends on its fitness value (related to the value of the objective function). Progress toward the optimum is achieved by the crossover and mutation operations. GA is attractive since it uses only objective function values in the search process, so gradient calculations are avoided. Hence, GA are able to deal with discrete variables. Studies report success in the use of GA for aircraft design optimization studies, trajectory analysis, space structure design and control systems design. In these studies reliable convergence was achieved, but the number of function evaluations was large compared

  5. Optimization effect of annealing treatment on oxygen-implanted Nd:CNGG waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun-Xiao; Fu, Li-Li; Cheng, Liang-Liang; Zhu, Xu-Feng; Lin, She-Bao; Zheng, Rui-Lin; Zhou, Zhi-Guang; Guo, Hai-Tao; Li, Wei-Nan; Wei, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Neodymium-doped calcium niobium gallium garnet (Nd:CNGG) waveguide operated at 632.8 nm is demonstrated by the 3.0-MeV oxygen-ion implantation with a fluence of 6.0 × 1014 ions/cm2. The annealing treatment at 300∘C for 45 min is carried out to optimize the waveguide quality. The dark-mode spectra are measured by the m-line technique. The refractive index profiles are calculated from the effective refractive indices of the waveguide modes. The near-field intensity distributions are simulated based on the reconstructed refractive index profiles. The annealing treatment process could effectively remove unwanted defects and optimize the waveguide quality. The optical properties of the annealed waveguide are better than that of the as-implanted waveguide.

  6. Optimal caching algorithm based on dynamic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Changjie; Xiang, Zhe; Zhong, Yuzhuo; Long, Jidong

    2001-07-01

    With the dramatic growth of multimedia streams, the efficient distribution of stored videos has become a major concern. There are two basic caching strategies: the whole caching strategy and the caching strategy based on layered encoded video, the latter can satisfy the requirement of the highly heterogeneous access to the Internet. Conventional caching strategies assign each object a cache gain by calculating popularity or density popularity, and determine which videos and which layers should be cached. In this paper, we first investigate the delivery model of stored video based on proxy, and propose two novel caching algorithms, DPLayer (for layered encoded caching scheme) and DPWhole (for whole caching scheme) for multimedia proxy caching. The two algorithms are based on the resource allocation model of dynamic programming to select the optimal subset of objects to be cached in proxy. Simulation proved that our algorithms achieve better performance than other existing schemes. We also analyze the computational complexity and space complexity of the algorithms, and introduce a regulative parameter to compress the states space of the dynamic programming problem and reduce the complexity of algorithms.

  7. Bell-Curve Based Evolutionary Optimization Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Laba, K.; Kincaid, R.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents an optimization algorithm that falls in the category of genetic, or evolutionary algorithms. While the bit exchange is the basis of most of the Genetic Algorithms (GA) in research and applications in America, some alternatives, also in the category of evolutionary algorithms, but use a direct, geometrical approach have gained popularity in Europe and Asia. The Bell-Curve Based Evolutionary Algorithm (BCB) is in this alternative category and is distinguished by the use of a combination of n-dimensional geometry and the normal distribution, the bell-curve, in the generation of the offspring. The tool for creating a child is a geometrical construct comprising a line connecting two parents and a weighted point on that line. The point that defines the child deviates from the weighted point in two directions: parallel and orthogonal to the connecting line, the deviation in each direction obeying a probabilistic distribution. Tests showed satisfactory performance of BCB. The principal advantage of BCB is its controllability via the normal distribution parameters and the geometrical construct variables.

  8. Algorithms for optimizing CT fluence control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to customize the incident x-ray fluence in CT via beam-shaping filters or mA modulation is known to improve image quality and/or reduce radiation dose. Previous work has shown that complete control of x-ray fluence (ray-by-ray fluence modulation) would further improve dose efficiency. While complete control of fluence is not currently possible, emerging concepts such as dynamic attenuators and inverse-geometry CT allow nearly complete control to be realized. Optimally using ray-by-ray fluence modulation requires solving a very high-dimensional optimization problem. Most optimization techniques fail or only provide approximate solutions. We present efficient algorithms for minimizing mean or peak variance given a fixed dose limit. The reductions in variance can easily be translated to reduction in dose, if the original variance met image quality requirements. For mean variance, a closed form solution is derived. The peak variance problem is recast as iterated, weighted mean variance minimization, and at each iteration it is possible to bound the distance to the optimal solution. We apply our algorithms in simulations of scans of the thorax and abdomen. Peak variance reductions of 45% and 65% are demonstrated in the abdomen and thorax, respectively, compared to a bowtie filter alone. Mean variance shows smaller gains (about 15%).

  9. Reconstruction of the vertical electron density profile based on vertical TEC using the simulated annealing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chunhua; Yang, Guobin; Zhu, Peng; Nishioka, Michi; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Zhou, Chen; Song, Huan; Lan, Ting; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yuannong

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a new method to reconstruct the vertical electron density profile based on vertical Total Electron Content (TEC) using the simulated annealing algorithm. The present technique used the Quasi-parabolic segments (QPS) to model the bottomside ionosphere. The initial parameters of the ionosphere model were determined from both International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) (Bilitza et al., 2014) and vertical TEC (vTEC). Then, the simulated annealing algorithm was used to search the best-fit parameters of the ionosphere model by comparing with the GPS-TEC. The performance and robust of this technique were verified by ionosonde data. The critical frequency (foF2) and peak height (hmF2) of the F2 layer obtained from ionograms recorded at different locations and on different days were compared with those calculated by the proposed method. The analysis of results shows that the present method is inspiring for obtaining foF2 from vTEC. However, the accuracy of hmF2 needs to be improved in the future work.

  10. Comparison between simulated annealing algorithms and rapid chain delineation in the construction of genetic maps.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Moysés; Cruz, Cosme Damião; Peternelli, Luiz Alexandre; Campana, Ana Carolina Mota

    2010-04-01

    The efficiency of simulated annealing algorithms and rapid chain delineation in establishing the best linkage order, when constructing genetic maps, was evaluated. Linkage refers to the phenomenon by which two or more genes, or even more molecular markers, can be present in the same chromosome or linkage group. In order to evaluate the capacity of algorithms, four F(2) co-dominant populations, 50, 100, 200 and 1000 in size, were simulated. For each population, a genome with four linkage groups (100 cM) was generated. The linkage groups possessed 51, 21, 11 and 6 marks, respectively, and a corresponding distance of 2, 5, 10 and 20 cM between adjacent marks, thereby causing various degrees of saturation. For very saturated groups, with an adjacent distance between marks of 2 cM and in greater number, i.e., 51, the method based upon stochastic simulation by simulated annealing presented orders with distances equivalent to or lower than rapid chain delineation. Otherwise, the two methods were commensurate through presenting the same SARF distance. PMID:21637501

  11. Comparison between simulated annealing algorithms and rapid chain delineation in the construction of genetic maps

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of simulated annealing algorithms and rapid chain delineation in establishing the best linkage order, when constructing genetic maps, was evaluated. Linkage refers to the phenomenon by which two or more genes, or even more molecular markers, can be present in the same chromosome or linkage group. In order to evaluate the capacity of algorithms, four F2 co-dominant populations, 50, 100, 200 and 1000 in size, were simulated. For each population, a genome with four linkage groups (100 cM) was generated. The linkage groups possessed 51, 21, 11 and 6 marks, respectively, and a corresponding distance of 2, 5, 10 and 20 cM between adjacent marks, thereby causing various degrees of saturation. For very saturated groups, with an adjacent distance between marks of 2 cM and in greater number, i.e., 51, the method based upon stochastic simulation by simulated annealing presented orders with distances equivalent to or lower than rapid chain delineation. Otherwise, the two methods were commensurate through presenting the same SARF distance. PMID:21637501

  12. Material design using surrogate optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadke, Kunal R.

    Nanocomposite ceramics have been widely studied in order to tailor desired properties at high temperatures. Methodologies for development of material design are still under effect . While finite element modeling (FEM) provides significant insight on material behavior, few design researchers have addressed the design paradox that accompanies this rapid design space expansion. A surrogate optimization model management framework has been proposed to make this design process tractable. In the surrogate optimization material design tool, the analysis cost is reduced by performing simulations on the surrogate model instead of high density finite element model. The methodology is incorporated to find the optimal number of silicon carbide (SiC) particles, in a silicon-nitride Si3N 4 composite with maximum fracture energy [2]. Along with a deterministic optimization algorithm, model uncertainties have also been considered with the use of robust design optimization (RDO) method ensuring a design of minimum sensitivity to changes in the parameters. These methodologies applied to nanocomposites design have a signicant impact on cost and design cycle time reduced.

  13. Global optimization algorithm for heat exchanger networks

    SciTech Connect

    Quesada, I.; Grossmann, I.E. )

    1993-03-01

    This paper deals with the global optimization of heat exchanger networks with fixed topology. It is shown that if linear area cost functions are assumed, as well as arithmetic mean driving force temperature differences in networks with isothermal mixing, the corresponding nonlinear programming (NLP) optimization problem involves linear constraints and a sum of linear fractional functions in the objective which are nonconvex. A rigorous algorithm is proposed that is based on a convex NLP underestimator that involves linear and nonlinear estimators for fractional and bilinear terms which provide a tight lower bound to the global optimum. This NLP problem is used within a spatial branch and bound method for which branching rules are given. Basic properties of the proposed method are presented, and its application is illustrated with several example problems. The results show that the proposed method only requires few nodes in the branch and bound search.

  14. Application of fast simulated annealing to optimization of conformal radiation treatments.

    PubMed

    Mageras, G S; Mohan, R

    1993-01-01

    Applications of simulated annealing to the optimization of radiation treatment plans, in which a set of beam weights are iteratively adjusted so as to minimize a cost function, have been motivated by its potential for finding the global or near-global minimum among multiple minima. However, the method has been found to be slow, requiring several tens of thousands of iterations to optimize 50 to 100 variables. A technique to improve the efficiency for finding a solution is reported, which is generally applicable to the optimization of continuous variables. In previous applications of simulated annealing to treatment planning optimization, only one or two weights are varied each iteration. This approach is to change all weights simultaneously, using random changes that are initially large to coarsely sample the cost function, then are reduced with iteration to probe finer structure. The performance of different methods are compared in optimizing a plan for treatment of the prostate, in which the search space consists of 54 noncoplanar beams and the cost function is based on tumor control and normal tissue complication probabilities. The proposed method yields solutions with similar values of the cost function in only a fraction of the iterations compared either to a fixed single weight adjustment technique, or to a method which combines the Nelder and Mead downhill simplex simulated annealing. PMID:8350815

  15. Lunar Habitat Optimization Using Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanScoucie, M. P.; Hull, P. V.; Tinker, M. L.; Dozier, G. V.

    2007-01-01

    Long-duration surface missions to the Moon and Mars will require bases to accommodate habitats for the astronauts. Transporting the materials and equipment required to build the necessary habitats is costly and difficult. The materials chosen for the habitat walls play a direct role in protection against each of the mentioned hazards. Choosing the best materials, their configuration, and the amount required is extremely difficult due to the immense size of the design region. Clearly, an optimization method is warranted for habitat wall design. Standard optimization techniques are not suitable for problems with such large search spaces; therefore, a habitat wall design tool utilizing genetic algorithms (GAs) has been developed. GAs use a "survival of the fittest" philosophy where the most fit individuals are more likely to survive and reproduce. This habitat design optimization tool is a multiobjective formulation of up-mass, heat loss, structural analysis, meteoroid impact protection, and radiation protection. This Technical Publication presents the research and development of this tool as well as a technique for finding the optimal GA search parameters.

  16. Optimization Algorithm for Designing Diffractive Optical Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agudelo, Viviana A.; Orozco, Ricardo Amézquita

    2008-04-01

    Diffractive Optical Elements (DOEs) are commonly used in many applications such as laser beam shaping, recording of micro reliefs, wave front analysis, metrology and many others where they can replace single or multiple conventional optical elements (diffractive or refractive). One of the most versatile way to produce them, is to use computer assisted techniques for their design and optimization, as well as optical or electron beam micro-lithography techniques for the final fabrication. The fundamental figures of merit involved in the optimization of such devices are both the diffraction efficiency and the signal to noise ratio evaluated in the reconstructed wave front at the image plane. A design and optimization algorithm based on the error—reduction method (Gerchberg and Saxton) is proposed to obtain binary discrete phase-only Fresnel DOEs that will be used to produce specific intensity patterns. Some experimental results were obtained using a spatial light modulator acting as a binary programmable diffractive phase element. Although the DOEs optimized here are discrete in phase, they present an acceptable signal noise relation and diffraction efficiency.

  17. Enhanced magnetic refrigeration properties in Mn-rich Ni-Mn-Sn ribbons by optimal annealing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Linlin; Zheng, Qiang; Zheng, Xinqi; Li, Ming; Du, Juan; Yan, Aru

    2015-01-01

    The influence of annealing time on temperature range of martensitic phase transition (ΔTA-M), thermal hysteresis (ΔThys), magnetic hysteresis loss (ΔMhys), magnetic entropy change (ΔSM) and relative refrigeration capacity (RC) of the Mn-rich Ni43Mn46Sn11 melt spun ribbons have been systematically studied. By optimal annealing, an extremely large ΔSM of 43.2 J.kg−1K−1 and a maximum RC of 221.0 J.kg−1 could be obtained respectively in a field change of 5 T. Both ΔTA-M and ΔThys decreases after annealing, while ΔMhys and ΔSM first dramatically increase to a maximum then degenerates as increase of annealing time. A large effective cooling capacity (RCeff) of 115.4 J.kg−1 was achieved in 60 min annealed ribbons, which increased 75% compared with that unannealed ribbons. The evolution of magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect has been discussed and proved by atomic ordering degree, microstructure and composition analysis. PMID:26055884

  18. Instrument design and optimization using genetic algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelzel, Robert; Bentley, Phillip M.; Fouquet, Peter

    2006-10-15

    This article describes the design of highly complex physical instruments by using a canonical genetic algorithm (GA). The procedure can be applied to all instrument designs where performance goals can be quantified. It is particularly suited to the optimization of instrument design where local optima in the performance figure of merit are prevalent. Here, a GA is used to evolve the design of the neutron spin-echo spectrometer WASP which is presently being constructed at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France. A comparison is made between this artificial intelligence approach and the traditional manual design methods. We demonstrate that the search of parameter space is more efficient when applying the genetic algorithm, and the GA produces a significantly better instrument design. Furthermore, it is found that the GA increases flexibility, by facilitating the reoptimization of the design after changes in boundary conditions during the design phase. The GA also allows the exploration of 'nonstandard' magnet coil geometries. We conclude that this technique constitutes a powerful complementary tool for the design and optimization of complex scientific apparatus, without replacing the careful thought processes employed in traditional design methods.

  19. Design and Optimization of Low-thrust Orbit Transfers Using Q-law and Evolutionary Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon; vonAllmen, Paul; Fink, Wolfgang; Petropoulos, Anastassios; Terrile, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Future space missions will depend more on low-thrust propulsion (such as ion engines) thanks to its high specific impulse. Yet, the design of low-thrust trajectories is complex and challenging. Third-body perturbations often dominate the thrust, and a significant change to the orbit requires a long duration of thrust. In order to guide the early design phases, we have developed an efficient and efficacious method to obtain approximate propellant and flight-time requirements (i.e., the Pareto front) for orbit transfers. A search for the Pareto-optimal trajectories is done in two levels: optimal thrust angles and locations are determined by Q-law, while the Q-law is optimized with two evolutionary algorithms: a genetic algorithm and a simulated-annealing-related algorithm. The examples considered are several types of orbit transfers around the Earth and the asteroid Vesta.

  20. Anatomy-Based Inverse Planning Simulated Annealing Optimization in High-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy: Significant Dosimetric Advantage Over Other Optimization Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Dayee Raben, Adam; Sarkar, Abhirup; Grimm, Jimm; Simpson, Larry

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To perform an independent validation of an anatomy-based inverse planning simulated annealing (IPSA) algorithm in obtaining superior target coverage and reducing the dose to the organs at risk. Method and Materials: In a recent prostate high-dose-rate brachytherapy protocol study by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (0321), our institution treated 20 patients between June 1, 2005 and November 30, 2006. These patients had received a high-dose-rate boost dose of 19 Gy to the prostate, in addition to an external beam radiotherapy dose of 45 Gy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Three-dimensional dosimetry was obtained for the following optimization schemes in the Plato Brachytherapy Planning System, version 14.3.2, using the same dose constraints for all the patients treated during this period: anatomy-based IPSA optimization, geometric optimization, and dose point optimization. Dose-volume histograms were generated for the planning target volume and organs at risk for each optimization method, from which the volume receiving at least 75% of the dose (V{sub 75%}) for the rectum and bladder, volume receiving at least 125% of the dose (V{sub 125%}) for the urethra, and total volume receiving the reference dose (V{sub 100%}) and volume receiving 150% of the dose (V{sub 150%}) for the planning target volume were determined. The dose homogeneity index and conformal index for the planning target volume for each optimization technique were compared. Results: Despite suboptimal needle position in some implants, the IPSA algorithm was able to comply with the tight Radiation Therapy Oncology Group dose constraints for 90% of the patients in this study. In contrast, the compliance was only 30% for dose point optimization and only 5% for geometric optimization. Conclusions: Anatomy-based IPSA optimization proved to be the superior technique and also the fastest for reducing the dose to the organs at risk without compromising the target coverage.

  1. Modeling and Simulation of Water Allocation System Based on Simulated Annealing Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiulong; Wang, Shijun

    Presently water resource in most watersheds in China is distributed in terms of administrative instructions. This kind of allocation method has many disadvantages and hampers the instructional effect of market mechanism on water allocation. The paper studies South-to-North Water Transfer Project and discusses water allocation of the node lakes along the Project. Firstly, it advanced four assumptions. Secondly, it analyzed constraint conditions of water allocation in terms of present state of water allocation in China. Thirdly, it established a goal model of water allocation and set up a systematic model from the angle of comprehensive profits of water utilization and profits of the node lakes. Fourthly, it discussed calculation method of the model by means of Simulated Annealing Hybrid Genetic Algorithm (SHGA). Finally, it validated the rationality and validity of the model by a simulation testing.

  2. A quadratic weight selection algorithm. [for optimal flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    A new numerical algorithm is presented which determines a positive semi-definite state weighting matrix in the linear-quadratic optimal control design problem. The algorithm chooses the weighting matrix by placing closed-loop eigenvalues and eigenvectors near desired locations using optimal feedback gains. A simplified flight control design example is used to illustrate the algorithms capabilities.

  3. Assessment of a fuzzy based flood forecasting system optimized by simulated annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyhani Masouleh, Aida; Pakosch, Sabine; Disse, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Flood forecasting is an important tool to mitigate harmful effects of floods. Among the many different approaches for forecasting, Fuzzy Logic (FL) is one that has been increasingly applied over the last decade. This method is principally based on the linguistic description of Rule Systems (RS). A RS is a specific combination of membership functions of input and output variables. Setting up the RS can be implemented either automatically or manually, the choice of which can strongly influence the resulting rule systems. It is therefore the objective of this study to assess the influence that the parameters of an automated rule generation based on Simulated Annealing (SA) have on the resulting RS. The study area is the upper Main River area, located in the northern part of Bavaria, Germany. The data of Mainleus gauge with area of 1165 km2 was investigated in the whole period of 1984 and 2004. The highest observed discharge of 357 m3/s was recorded in 1995. The input arguments of the FL model were daily precipitation, forecasted precipitation, antecedent precipitation index, temperature and melting rate. The FL model of this study has one output variable, daily discharge and was independently set up for three different forecast lead times, namely one-, two- and three-days ahead. In total, each RS comprised 55 rules and all input and output variables were represented by five sets of trapezoidal and triangular fuzzy numbers. Simulated Annealing, which is a converging optimum solution algorithm, was applied for optimizing the RSs in this study. In order to assess the influence of its parameters (number of iterations, temperature decrease rate, initial value for generating random numbers, initial temperature and two other parameters), they were individually varied while keeping the others fixed. With each of the resulting parameter sets, a full-automatic SA was applied to gain optimized fuzzy rule systems for flood forecasting. Evaluation of the performance of the

  4. PDE Nozzle Optimization Using a Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Dana; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Genetic algorithms, which simulate evolution in natural systems, have been used to find solutions to optimization problems that seem intractable to standard approaches. In this study, the feasibility of using a GA to find an optimum, fixed profile nozzle for a pulse detonation engine (PDE) is demonstrated. The objective was to maximize impulse during the detonation wave passage and blow-down phases of operation. Impulse of each profile variant was obtained by using the CFD code Mozart/2.0 to simulate the transient flow. After 7 generations, the method has identified a nozzle profile that certainly is a candidate for optimum solution. The constraints on the generality of this possible solution remain to be clarified.

  5. Using and comparing metaheuristic algorithms for optimizing bidding strategy viewpoint of profit maximization of generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Seyed Hosein; Nazemi, Ali; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan

    2015-12-01

    With the formation of the competitive electricity markets in the world, optimization of bidding strategies has become one of the main discussions in studies related to market designing. Market design is challenged by multiple objectives that need to be satisfied. The solution of those multi-objective problems is searched often over the combined strategy space, and thus requires the simultaneous optimization of multiple parameters. The problem is formulated analytically using the Nash equilibrium concept for games composed of large numbers of players having discrete and large strategy spaces. The solution methodology is based on a characterization of Nash equilibrium in terms of minima of a function and relies on a metaheuristic optimization approach to find these minima. This paper presents some metaheuristic algorithms to simulate how generators bid in the spot electricity market viewpoint of their profit maximization according to the other generators' strategies, such as genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing (SA) and hybrid simulated annealing genetic algorithm (HSAGA) and compares their results. As both GA and SA are generic search methods, HSAGA is also a generic search method. The model based on the actual data is implemented in a peak hour of Tehran's wholesale spot market in 2012. The results of the simulations show that GA outperforms SA and HSAGA on computing time, number of function evaluation and computing stability, as well as the results of calculated Nash equilibriums by GA are less various and different from each other than the other algorithms.

  6. A memory structure adapted simulated annealing algorithm for a green vehicle routing problem.

    PubMed

    Küçükoğlu, İlker; Ene, Seval; Aksoy, Aslı; Öztürk, Nursel

    2015-03-01

    Currently, reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and fuel consumption has become a critical environmental problem and has attracted the attention of both academia and the industrial sector. Government regulations and customer demands are making environmental responsibility an increasingly important factor in overall supply chain operations. Within these operations, transportation has the most hazardous effects on the environment, i.e., CO2 emissions, fuel consumption, noise and toxic effects on the ecosystem. This study aims to construct vehicle routes with time windows that minimize the total fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The green vehicle routing problem with time windows (G-VRPTW) is formulated using a mixed integer linear programming model. A memory structure adapted simulated annealing (MSA-SA) meta-heuristic algorithm is constructed due to the high complexity of the proposed problem and long solution times for practical applications. The proposed models are integrated with a fuel consumption and CO2 emissions calculation algorithm that considers the vehicle technical specifications, vehicle load, and transportation distance in a green supply chain environment. The proposed models are validated using well-known instances with different numbers of customers. The computational results indicate that the MSA-SA heuristic is capable of obtaining good G-VRPTW solutions within a reasonable amount of time by providing reductions in fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. PMID:25056743

  7. A cross-layer optimization algorithm for wireless sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Le Qing

    2010-07-01

    Energy is critical for typical wireless sensor networks (WSN) and how to energy consumption and maximize network lifetime are big challenges for Wireless sensor networks; cross layer algorithm is main method to solve this problem. In this paper, firstly, we analyze current layer-based optimal methods in wireless sensor network and summarize the physical, link and routing optimization techniques. Secondly we compare some strategies in cross-layer optimization algorithms. According to the analysis and summary of the current lifetime algorithms in wireless sensor network A cross layer optimization algorithm is proposed,. Then this optimization algorithm proposed in the paper is adopted to improve the traditional Leach routing protocol. Simulation results show that this algorithm is an excellent cross layer algorithm for reducing energy consumption.

  8. Modified artificial bee colony algorithm for reactive power optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, Noorazliza; Mohamad-Saleh, Junita; Abro, Abdul Ghani

    2015-05-01

    Bio-inspired algorithms (BIAs) implemented to solve various optimization problems have shown promising results which are very important in this severely complex real-world. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm, a kind of BIAs has demonstrated tremendous results as compared to other optimization algorithms. This paper presents a new modified ABC algorithm referred to as JA-ABC3 with the aim to enhance convergence speed and avoid premature convergence. The proposed algorithm has been simulated on ten commonly used benchmarks functions. Its performance has also been compared with other existing ABC variants. To justify its robust applicability, the proposed algorithm has been tested to solve Reactive Power Optimization problem. The results have shown that the proposed algorithm has superior performance to other existing ABC variants e.g. GABC, BABC1, BABC2, BsfABC dan IABC in terms of convergence speed. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm has also demonstrated excellence performance in solving Reactive Power Optimization problem.

  9. Genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization combined with Powell method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bento, David; Pinho, Diana; Pereira, Ana I.; Lima, Rui

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, the population algorithms are becoming increasingly robust and easy to use, based on Darwin's Theory of Evolution, perform a search for the best solution around a population that will progress according to several generations. This paper present variants of hybrid genetic algorithm - Genetic Algorithm and a bio-inspired hybrid algorithm - Particle Swarm Optimization, both combined with the local method - Powell Method. The developed methods were tested with twelve test functions from unconstrained optimization context.

  10. Optimal Pid Controller Design Using Adaptive Vurpso Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirkohi, Majid Moradi

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to improve theVelocity Update Relaxation Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (VURPSO). The improved algorithm is called Adaptive VURPSO (AVURPSO) algorithm. Then, an optimal design of a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller is obtained using the AVURPSO algorithm. An adaptive momentum factor is used to regulate a trade-off between the global and the local exploration abilities in the proposed algorithm. This operation helps the system to reach the optimal solution quickly and saves the computation time. Comparisons on the optimal PID controller design confirm the superiority of AVURPSO algorithm to the optimization algorithms mentioned in this paper namely the VURPSO algorithm, the Ant Colony algorithm, and the conventional approach. Comparisons on the speed of convergence confirm that the proposed algorithm has a faster convergence in a less computation time to yield a global optimum value. The proposed AVURPSO can be used in the diverse areas of optimization problems such as industrial planning, resource allocation, scheduling, decision making, pattern recognition and machine learning. The proposed AVURPSO algorithm is efficiently used to design an optimal PID controller.

  11. Improved hybrid optimization algorithm for 3D protein structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changjun; Hou, Caixia; Wei, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-07-01

    A new improved hybrid optimization algorithm - PGATS algorithm, which is based on toy off-lattice model, is presented for dealing with three-dimensional protein structure prediction problems. The algorithm combines the particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA), and tabu search (TS) algorithms. Otherwise, we also take some different improved strategies. The factor of stochastic disturbance is joined in the particle swarm optimization to improve the search ability; the operations of crossover and mutation that are in the genetic algorithm are changed to a kind of random liner method; at last tabu search algorithm is improved by appending a mutation operator. Through the combination of a variety of strategies and algorithms, the protein structure prediction (PSP) in a 3D off-lattice model is achieved. The PSP problem is an NP-hard problem, but the problem can be attributed to a global optimization problem of multi-extremum and multi-parameters. This is the theoretical principle of the hybrid optimization algorithm that is proposed in this paper. The algorithm combines local search and global search, which overcomes the shortcoming of a single algorithm, giving full play to the advantage of each algorithm. In the current universal standard sequences, Fibonacci sequences and real protein sequences are certified. Experiments show that the proposed new method outperforms single algorithms on the accuracy of calculating the protein sequence energy value, which is proved to be an effective way to predict the structure of proteins. PMID:25069136

  12. Optimizing the natural connectivity of scale-free networks using simulated annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Boping; Liu, Jing; Tang, Xianglong

    2016-09-01

    In real-world networks, the path between two nodes always plays a significant role in the fields of communication or transportation. In some cases, when one path fails, the two nodes cannot communicate any more. Thus, it is necessary to increase alternative paths between nodes. In the recent work (Wu et al., 2011), Wu et al. proposed the natural connectivity as a novel robustness measure of complex networks. The natural connectivity considers the redundancy of alternative paths in a network by computing the number of closed paths of all lengths. To enhance the robustness of networks in terms of the natural connectivity, in this paper, we propose a simulated annealing method to optimize the natural connectivity of scale-free networks without changing the degree distribution. The experimental results show that the simulated annealing method clearly outperforms other local search methods.

  13. Honey Bees Inspired Optimization Method: The Bees Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yuce, Baris; Packianather, Michael S; Mastrocinque, Ernesto; Pham, Duc Truong; Lambiase, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Optimization algorithms are search methods where the goal is to find an optimal solution to a problem, in order to satisfy one or more objective functions, possibly subject to a set of constraints. Studies of social animals and social insects have resulted in a number of computational models of swarm intelligence. Within these swarms their collective behavior is usually very complex. The collective behavior of a swarm of social organisms emerges from the behaviors of the individuals of that swarm. Researchers have developed computational optimization methods based on biology such as Genetic Algorithms, Particle Swarm Optimization, and Ant Colony. The aim of this paper is to describe an optimization algorithm called the Bees Algorithm, inspired from the natural foraging behavior of honey bees, to find the optimal solution. The algorithm performs both an exploitative neighborhood search combined with random explorative search. In this paper, after an explanation of the natural foraging behavior of honey bees, the basic Bees Algorithm and its improved versions are described and are implemented in order to optimize several benchmark functions, and the results are compared with those obtained with different optimization algorithms. The results show that the Bees Algorithm offering some advantage over other optimization methods according to the nature of the problem. PMID:26462528

  14. Analysis of an Optimized MLOS Tomographic Reconstruction Algorithm and Comparison to the MART Reconstruction Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Foy, Roderick; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2011-11-01

    An optimally designed MLOS tomographic reconstruction algorithm for use in 3D PIV and PTV applications is analyzed. Using a set of optimized reconstruction parameters, the reconstructions produced by the MLOS algorithm are shown to be comparable to reconstructions produced by the MART algorithm for a range of camera geometries, camera numbers, and particle seeding densities. The resultant velocity field error calculated using PIV and PTV algorithms is further minimized by applying both pre and post processing to the reconstructed data sets.

  15. Linear antenna array optimization using flower pollination algorithm.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Prerna; Kothari, Ashwin

    2016-01-01

    Flower pollination algorithm (FPA) is a new nature-inspired evolutionary algorithm used to solve multi-objective optimization problems. The aim of this paper is to introduce FPA to the electromagnetics and antenna community for the optimization of linear antenna arrays. FPA is applied for the first time to linear array so as to obtain optimized antenna positions in order to achieve an array pattern with minimum side lobe level along with placement of deep nulls in desired directions. Various design examples are presented that illustrate the use of FPA for linear antenna array optimization, and subsequently the results are validated by benchmarking along with results obtained using other state-of-the-art, nature-inspired evolutionary algorithms such as particle swarm optimization, ant colony optimization and cat swarm optimization. The results suggest that in most cases, FPA outperforms the other evolutionary algorithms and at times it yields a similar performance. PMID:27066339

  16. Specific optimization of genetic algorithm on special algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habiballa, Hashim; Novak, Vilem; Dyba, Martin; Schenk, Jiri

    2016-06-01

    Searching for complex finite algebras can be succesfully done by the means of genetic algorithm as we showed in former works. This genetic algorithm needs specific optimization of crossover and mutation. We present details about these optimizations which are already implemented in software application for this task - EQCreator.

  17. Optimization algorithm in adaptive PMD compensation in 10Gb/s optical communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, Cao; Li, Tangjun; Wang, Muguang; Gong, Xiangfeng

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, the optimization algorithms are introduced in adaptive PMD compensation in 10Gb/s optical communication system. The PMD monitoring technique based on degree of polarization (DOP) is adopted. DOP can be a good indicator of PMD with monotonically deceasing of DOP as differential group delay (DGD) increasing. In order to use DOP as PMD monitoring feedback signal, it is required to emulate the state of DGD in the transmission circuitry. A PMD emulator is designed. A polarization controller (PC) is used in fiber multiplexer to adjust the polarization state of optical signal, and at the output of the fiber multiplexer a polarizer is used. After the feedback signal reach the control computer, the optimization program run to search the global optimization spot and through the PC to control the PMD. Several popular modern nonlinear optimization algorithms (Tabu Search, Simulated Annealing, Genetic Algorithm, Artificial Neural Networks, Ant Colony Optimization etc.) are discussed and the comparisons among them are made to choose the best optimization algorithm. Every algorithm has its advantage and disadvantage, but in this circs the Genetic Algorithm (GA) may be the best. It eliminates the worsen spots constantly and lets them have no chance to enter the circulation. So it has the quicker convergence velocity and less time. The PMD can be compensated in very few steps by using this algorithm. As a result, the maximum compensation ability of the one-stage PMD and two-stage PMD can be made in very short time, and the dynamic compensation time is no more than 10ms.

  18. HEURISTIC OPTIMIZATION AND ALGORITHM TUNING APPLIED TO SORPTIVE BARRIER DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    While heuristic optimization is applied in environmental applications, ad-hoc algorithm configuration is typical. We use a multi-layer sorptive barrier design problem as a benchmark for an algorithm-tuning procedure, as applied to three heuristics (genetic algorithms, simulated ...

  19. Genetic Algorithms Applied to Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Shape Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.

    2004-01-01

    A genetic algorithm approach suitable for solving multi-objective optimization problems is described and evaluated using a series of aerodynamic shape optimization problems. Several new features including two variations of a binning selection algorithm and a gene-space transformation procedure are included. The genetic algorithm is suitable for finding pareto optimal solutions in search spaces that are defined by any number of genes and that contain any number of local extrema. A new masking array capability is included allowing any gene or gene subset to be eliminated as decision variables from the design space. This allows determination of the effect of a single gene or gene subset on the pareto optimal solution. Results indicate that the genetic algorithm optimization approach is flexible in application and reliable. The binning selection algorithms generally provide pareto front quality enhancements and moderate convergence efficiency improvements for most of the problems solved.

  20. Optimization of silver nanowire-based transparent electrodes: effects of density, size and thermal annealing.

    PubMed

    Lagrange, M; Langley, D P; Giusti, G; Jiménez, C; Bréchet, Y; Bellet, D

    2015-11-01

    Silver nanowire (AgNW) networks are efficient as flexible transparent electrodes, and are cheaper to fabricate than ITO (Indium Tin Oxide). Hence they are a serious competitor as an alternative to ITO in many applications such as solar cells, OLEDs, transparent heaters. Electrical and optical properties of AgNW networks deposited on glass are investigated in this study and an efficient method to optimize them is proposed. This paper relates network density, nanowire dimensions and thermal annealing directly to the physical properties of the nanowire networksusing original physical models. A fair agreement is found between experimental data and the proposed models. Moreover thermal stability of the nanowires is a key issue in thermal optimization of such networks and needs to be studied. In this work the impact of these four parameters on the networks physical properties are thoroughly investigated via in situ measurements and modelling, such a method being also applicable to other metallic nanowire networks. We demonstrate that this approach enables the optimization of both optical and electrical properties through modification of the junction resistance by thermal annealing, and a suitable choice of nanowire dimensions and network density. This work reports excellent optical and electrical properties of electrodes fabricated from AgNW networks with a transmittance T = 89.2% (at 550 nm) and a sheet resistance of Rs = 2.9 Ω □(-1), leading to the highest reported figure of merit. PMID:26437607

  1. Pharmacokinetic modeling of dynamic MR images using a simulated annealing-based optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, Amit R.; Reece, John H.; Reddick, Wilburn E.

    2000-04-01

    The aim of this work was to use dynamic contrast enhanced MR image (DEMRI) data to generate 'parameter images' which provide functional information about contrast agent access, in bone sarcoma. A simulated annealing based technique was applied to optimize the parameters of a pharmacokinetic model used to describe the kinetics of the tissue response during and after intravenous infusion of a paramagnetic contrast medium, Gd-DTPA. Optimization was performed on a pixel by pixel basis so as to minimize the sum of square deviations of the calculated values from the values obtained experimentally during dynamic contrast enhanced MR imaging. A cost function based on a priori information was introduced during the annealing procedure to ensure that the values obtained were within the expected ranges. The optimized parameters were used in the model to generate parameter images, which reveal functional information that is normally not visible in conventional Gd-DTPA enhanced MR images. This functional information, during and upon completion of pre-operative chemotherapy, is useful in predicting the probability of disease free survival.

  2. Transonic Wing Shape Optimization Using a Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.; Pulliam, Thomas H.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A method for aerodynamic shape optimization based on a genetic algorithm approach is demonstrated. The algorithm is coupled with a transonic full potential flow solver and is used to optimize the flow about transonic wings including multi-objective solutions that lead to the generation of pareto fronts. The results indicate that the genetic algorithm is easy to implement, flexible in application and extremely reliable.

  3. A new algorithm for L2 optimal model reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanos, J. T.; Milman, M. H.; Mingori, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the quadratically optimal model reduction problem for single-input, single-output systems is considered. The reduced order model is determined by minimizing the integral of the magnitude-squared of the transfer function error. It is shown that the numerator coefficients of the optimal approximant satisfy a weighted least squares problem and, on this basis, a two-step iterative algorithm is developed combining a least squares solver with a gradient minimizer. Convergence of the proposed algorithm to stationary values of the quadratic cost function is proved. The formulation is extended to handle the frequency-weighted optimal model reduction problem. Three examples demonstrate the optimization algorithm.

  4. Optimization of aeroelastic composite structures using evolutionary algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manan, A.; Vio, G. A.; Harmin, M. Y.; Cooper, J. E.

    2010-02-01

    The flutter/divergence speed of a simple rectangular composite wing is maximized through the use of different ply orientations. Four different biologically inspired optimization algorithms (binary genetic algorithm, continuous genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, and ant colony optimization) and a simple meta-modeling approach are employed statistically on the same problem set. In terms of the best flutter speed, it was found that similar results were obtained using all of the methods, although the continuous methods gave better answers than the discrete methods. When the results were considered in terms of the statistical variation between different solutions, ant colony optimization gave estimates with much less scatter.

  5. Simulated annealing and metaheuristic for randomized priority search algorithms for the aerial refuelling parallel machine scheduling problem with due date-to-deadline windows and release times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Sezgin; Rabadi, Ghaith

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the aerial refuelling scheduling problem (ARSP), where a set of fighter jets (jobs) with certain ready times must be refuelled from tankers (machines) by their due dates; otherwise, they reach a low fuel level (deadline) incurring a high cost. ARSP is an identical parallel machine scheduling problem with release times and due date-to-deadline windows to minimize the total weighted tardiness. A simulated annealing (SA) and metaheuristic for randomized priority search (Meta-RaPS) with the newly introduced composite dispatching rule, apparent piecewise tardiness cost with ready times (APTCR), are applied to the problem. Computational experiments compared the algorithms' solutions to optimal solutions for small problems and to each other for larger problems. To obtain optimal solutions, a mixed integer program with a piecewise weighted tardiness objective function was solved for up to 12 jobs. The results show that Meta-RaPS performs better in terms of average relative error but SA is more efficient.

  6. Abstract models for the synthesis of optimization algorithms.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, G. G. L.; Polak, E.

    1971-01-01

    Systematic approach to the problem of synthesis of optimization algorithms. Abstract models for algorithms are developed which guide the inventive process toward ?conceptual' algorithms which may consist of operations that are inadmissible in a practical method. Once the abstract models are established a set of methods for converting ?conceptual' algorithms falling into the class defined by the abstract models into ?implementable' iterative procedures is presented.

  7. Genetic-Algorithm Tool For Search And Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven

    1995-01-01

    SPLICER computer program used to solve search and optimization problems. Genetic algorithms adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem-solving methods) based loosely on processes of natural selection and Darwinian "survival of fittest." Algorithms apply genetically inspired operators to populations of potential solutions in iterative fashion, creating new populations while searching for optimal or nearly optimal solution to problem at hand. Written in Think C.

  8. A tabu search evalutionary algorithm for multiobjective optimization: Application to a bi-criterion aircraft structural reliability problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Kim Chenming

    Real-world engineering optimization problems often require the consideration of multiple conflicting and noncommensurate objectives, subject to nonconvex constraint regions in a high-dimensional decision space. Further challenges occur for combinatorial multiobjective problems in which the decision variables are not continuous. Traditional multiobjective optimization methods of operations research, such as weighting and epsilon constraint methods, are ill-suited to solving these complex, multiobjective problems. This has given rise to the application of a wide range of metaheuristic optimization algorithms, such as evolutionary, particle swarm, simulated annealing, and ant colony methods, to multiobjective optimization. Several multiobjective evolutionary algorithms have been developed, including the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA) and the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA), for determining the Pareto-optimal set of non-dominated solutions. Although numerous researchers have developed a wide range of multiobjective optimization algorithms, there is a continuing need to construct computationally efficient algorithms with an improved ability to converge to globally non-dominated solutions along the Pareto-optimal front for complex, large-scale, multiobjective engineering optimization problems. This is particularly important when the multiple objective functions and constraints of the real-world system cannot be expressed in explicit mathematical representations. This research presents a novel metaheuristic evolutionary algorithm for complex multiobjective optimization problems, which combines the metaheuristic tabu search algorithm with the evolutionary algorithm (TSEA), as embodied in genetic algorithms. TSEA is successfully applied to bicriteria (i.e., structural reliability and retrofit cost) optimization of the aircraft tail structure fatigue life, which increases its reliability by prolonging fatigue life. A comparison for this

  9. Genetic Algorithm Based Simulated Annealing Method for Solving Unit Commitment Problem in Utility System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, C. Christober Asir

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to find the generation scheduling such that the total operating cost can be minimized, when subjected to a variety of constraints. This also means that it is desirable to find the optimal generating unit commitment in the power system for the next H hours. Genetic Algorithms (GA's) are general-purpose optimization techniques based on principles inspired from the biological evolution using metaphors of mechanisms such as neural section, genetic recombination and survival of the fittest. In this, the unit commitment schedule is coded as a string of symbols. An initial population of parent solutions is generated at random. Here, each schedule is formed by committing all the units according to their initial status ("flat start"). Here the parents are obtained from a pre-defined set of solution's i.e. each and every solution is adjusted to meet the requirements. Then, a random recommitment is carried out with respect to the unit's minimum down times. And SA improves the status. A 66-bus utility power system with twelve generating units in India demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Numerical results are shown comparing the cost solutions and computation time obtained by using the Genetic Algorithm method and other conventional methods.

  10. Iterative phase retrieval algorithms. I: optimization.

    PubMed

    Guo, Changliang; Liu, Shi; Sheridan, John T

    2015-05-20

    Two modified Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) iterative phase retrieval algorithms are proposed. The first we refer to as the spatial phase perturbation GS algorithm (SPP GSA). The second is a combined GS hybrid input-output algorithm (GS/HIOA). In this paper (Part I), it is demonstrated that the SPP GS and GS/HIO algorithms are both much better at avoiding stagnation during phase retrieval, allowing them to successfully locate superior solutions compared with either the GS or the HIO algorithms. The performances of the SPP GS and GS/HIO algorithms are also compared. Then, the error reduction (ER) algorithm is combined with the HIO algorithm (ER/HIOA) to retrieve the input object image and the phase, given only some knowledge of its extent and the amplitude in the Fourier domain. In Part II, the algorithms developed here are applied to carry out known plaintext and ciphertext attacks on amplitude encoding and phase encoding double random phase encryption systems. Significantly, ER/HIOA is then used to carry out a ciphertext-only attack on AE DRPE systems. PMID:26192504

  11. An Improved Marriage in Honey Bees Optimization Algorithm for Single Objective Unconstrained Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Yuksel; Ulker, Erkan

    2013-01-01

    Marriage in honey bees optimization (MBO) is a metaheuristic optimization algorithm developed by inspiration of the mating and fertilization process of honey bees and is a kind of swarm intelligence optimizations. In this study we propose improved marriage in honey bees optimization (IMBO) by adding Levy flight algorithm for queen mating flight and neighboring for worker drone improving. The IMBO algorithm's performance and its success are tested on the well-known six unconstrained test functions and compared with other metaheuristic optimization algorithms. PMID:23935416

  12. An improved marriage in honey bees optimization algorithm for single objective unconstrained optimization.

    PubMed

    Celik, Yuksel; Ulker, Erkan

    2013-01-01

    Marriage in honey bees optimization (MBO) is a metaheuristic optimization algorithm developed by inspiration of the mating and fertilization process of honey bees and is a kind of swarm intelligence optimizations. In this study we propose improved marriage in honey bees optimization (IMBO) by adding Levy flight algorithm for queen mating flight and neighboring for worker drone improving. The IMBO algorithm's performance and its success are tested on the well-known six unconstrained test functions and compared with other metaheuristic optimization algorithms. PMID:23935416

  13. Optimization of air monitoring networks using chemical transport model and search algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Shin; Iwahashi, Koki; Shimadera, Hikari; Yamamoto, Kouhei; Kondo, Akira

    2015-12-01

    Air monitoring network design is a critical issue because monitoring stations should be allocated properly so that they adequately represent the concentrations in the domain of interest. Although the optimization methods using observations from existing monitoring networks are often applied to a network with a considerable number of stations, they are difficult to be applied to a sparse network or a network under development: there are too few observations to define an optimization criterion and the high number of potential monitor location combinations cannot be tested exhaustively. This paper develops a hybrid of genetic algorithm and simulated annealing to combine their power to search a big space and to find local optima. The hybrid algorithm as well as the two single algorithms are applied to optimize an air monitoring network of PM2.5, NO2 and O3 respectively, by minimization of the mean kriging variance derived from simulated values of a chemical transport model instead of observations. The hybrid algorithm performs best among the algorithms: kriging variance is on average about 4% better than for GA and variability between trials is less than 30% compared to SA. The optimized networks for the three pollutants are similar and maps interpolated from the simulated values at these locations are close to the original simulations (RMSE below 9% relative to the range of the field). This also holds for hourly and daily values although the networks are optimized for annual values. It is demonstrated that the method using the hybrid algorithm and the model simulated values for the calculation of the mean kriging variance is of benefit to the optimization of air monitoring networks.

  14. Coupling ant colony optimization and the extended great deluge algorithm for the discrete facility layout problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourelfath, M.; Nahas, N.; Montreuil, B.

    2007-12-01

    This article uses a hybrid optimization approach to solve the discrete facility layout problem (FLP), modelled as a quadratic assignment problem (QAP). The idea of this approach design is inspired by the ant colony meta-heuristic optimization method, combined with the extended great deluge (EGD) local search technique. Comparative computational experiments are carried out on benchmarks taken from the QAP-library and from real life problems. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared to construction and improvement heuristics such as H63, HC63-66, CRAFT and Bubble Search, as well as other existing meta-heuristics developed in the literature based on simulated annealing (SA), tabu search and genetic algorithms (GAs). This algorithm is compared also to other ant colony implementations for QAP. The experimental results show that the proposed ant colony optimization/extended great deluge (ACO/EGD) performs significantly better than the existing construction and improvement algorithms. The experimental results indicate also that the ACO/EGD heuristic methodology offers advantages over other algorithms based on meta-heuristics in terms of solution quality.

  15. Time optimal route planning algorithm of LBS online navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Bao, Shitai; Su, Kui; Fang, Qiushui; Yang, Jingfeng

    2011-02-01

    This paper proposes a time optimal route planning optimization algorithm in the mode of LBS online navigation based on the improved Dijkstra algorithms. Combined with the returning real-time location information by on-line users' handheld terminals, the algorithm can satisfy requirement of the optimal time in the mode of LBS online navigation. A navigation system is developed and applied in actual navigation operations. Operating results show that the algorithm could form a reasonable coordination on the basis of shortest route and fastest velocity in the requirement of optimal time. The algorithm could also store the calculated real-time route information in the cache to improve the efficiency of route planning and to reduce the planning time-consuming.

  16. Genetic Algorithms Applied to Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Shape Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.

    2005-01-01

    A genetic algorithm approach suitable for solving multi-objective problems is described and evaluated using a series of aerodynamic shape optimization problems. Several new features including two variations of a binning selection algorithm and a gene-space transformation procedure are included. The genetic algorithm is suitable for finding Pareto optimal solutions in search spaces that are defined by any number of genes and that contain any number of local extrema. A new masking array capability is included allowing any gene or gene subset to be eliminated as decision variables from the design space. This allows determination of the effect of a single gene or gene subset on the Pareto optimal solution. Results indicate that the genetic algorithm optimization approach is flexible in application and reliable. The binning selection algorithms generally provide Pareto front quality enhancements and moderate convergence efficiency improvements for most of the problems solved.

  17. Genetic optimization of the HSTAMIDS landmine detection algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konduri, Ravi K.; Solomon, Geoff Z.; DeJong, Keith; Duvoisin, Herbert A.; Bartosz, Elizabeth E.

    2004-09-01

    CyTerra's dual sensor HSTAMIDS system has demonstrated exceptional landmine detection capabilities in extensive government-run field tests. Further optimization of the highly successful PentAD-class algorithms for Humanitarian Demining (HD) use (to enhance detection (Pd) and to lower the false alarm rate (FAR)) may be possible. PentAD contains several input parameters, making such optimization computationally intensive. Genetic algorithm techniques, which formerly provided substantial improvement in the detection performance of the metal detector sensor algorithm alone, have been applied to optimize the numerical values of the dual-sensor algorithm parameters. Genetic algorithm techniques have also been applied to choose among several sub-models and fusion techniques to potentially train the HSTAMIDS HD system in new ways. In this presentation we discuss the performance of the resulting algorithm as applied to field data.

  18. A Danger-Theory-Based Immune Network Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Xiao, Xin; Shi, Yuanquan

    2013-01-01

    Existing artificial immune optimization algorithms reflect a number of shortcomings, such as premature convergence and poor local search ability. This paper proposes a danger-theory-based immune network optimization algorithm, named dt-aiNet. The danger theory emphasizes that danger signals generated from changes of environments will guide different levels of immune responses, and the areas around danger signals are called danger zones. By defining the danger zone to calculate danger signals for each antibody, the algorithm adjusts antibodies' concentrations through its own danger signals and then triggers immune responses of self-regulation. So the population diversity can be maintained. Experimental results show that the algorithm has more advantages in the solution quality and diversity of the population. Compared with influential optimization algorithms, CLONALG, opt-aiNet, and dopt-aiNet, the algorithm has smaller error values and higher success rates and can find solutions to meet the accuracies within the specified function evaluation times. PMID:23483853

  19. Simulation of the post-implantation anneal for emitter profile optimization in high efficiency c-Si solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florakis, A.; Vandervorst, W.; Janssens, T.; Rosseel, E.; Douhard, B.; Delmotte, J.; Cornagliotti, E.; Baert, K.; Posthuma, N.; Poortmans, J.

    2012-11-01

    The use of ion implantation to form local doping profiles in solar cells has regained interest, as it simplifies the manufacturing process, is litho-free, and high efficiency levels can be obtained [1]. However, residual damage after post annealing can lead to increased saturation current values (J0e), so optimization of the annealing process is required. A full simulation of the anneal treatment and its impact on profile and oxide formation was developed, based on the Synopsys Process TCAD software, for the boron doping case. The validity of the models and parameter set was experimentally verified through SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy) profiles, sheet resistance and ellipsometry measurements.

  20. Genetic algorithms - What fitness scaling is optimal?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreinovich, Vladik; Quintana, Chris; Fuentes, Olac

    1993-01-01

    A problem of choosing the best scaling function as a mathematical optimization problem is formulated and solved under different optimality criteria. A list of functions which are optimal under different criteria is presented which includes both the best functions empirically proved and new functions that may be worth trying.

  1. Two New PRP Conjugate Gradient Algorithms for Minimization Optimization Models

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Gonglin; Duan, Xiabin; Liu, Wenjie; Wang, Xiaoliang; Cui, Zengru; Sheng, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Two new PRP conjugate Algorithms are proposed in this paper based on two modified PRP conjugate gradient methods: the first algorithm is proposed for solving unconstrained optimization problems, and the second algorithm is proposed for solving nonlinear equations. The first method contains two aspects of information: function value and gradient value. The two methods both possess some good properties, as follows: 1)βk ≥ 0 2) the search direction has the trust region property without the use of any line search method 3) the search direction has sufficient descent property without the use of any line search method. Under some suitable conditions, we establish the global convergence of the two algorithms. We conduct numerical experiments to evaluate our algorithms. The numerical results indicate that the first algorithm is effective and competitive for solving unconstrained optimization problems and that the second algorithm is effective for solving large-scale nonlinear equations. PMID:26502409

  2. An Adaptive Unified Differential Evolution Algorithm for Global Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Mitchell, Chad

    2014-11-03

    In this paper, we propose a new adaptive unified differential evolution algorithm for single-objective global optimization. Instead of the multiple mutation strate- gies proposed in conventional differential evolution algorithms, this algorithm employs a single equation unifying multiple strategies into one expression. It has the virtue of mathematical simplicity and also provides users the flexibility for broader exploration of the space of mutation operators. By making all control parameters in the proposed algorithm self-adaptively evolve during the process of optimization, it frees the application users from the burden of choosing appro- priate control parameters and also improves the performance of the algorithm. In numerical tests using thirteen basic unimodal and multimodal functions, the proposed adaptive unified algorithm shows promising performance in compari- son to several conventional differential evolution algorithms.

  3. A hybrid artificial bee colony algorithm for numerical function optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqattan, Zakaria N.; Abdullah, Rosni

    2015-02-01

    Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is one of the swarm intelligence algorithms; it has been introduced by Karaboga in 2005. It is a meta-heuristic optimization search algorithm inspired from the intelligent foraging behavior of the honey bees in nature. Its unique search process made it as one of the most competitive algorithm with some other search algorithms in the area of optimization, such as Genetic algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). However, the ABC performance of the local search process and the bee movement or the solution improvement equation still has some weaknesses. The ABC is good in avoiding trapping at the local optimum but it spends its time searching around unpromising random selected solutions. Inspired by the PSO, we propose a Hybrid Particle-movement ABC algorithm called HPABC, which adapts the particle movement process to improve the exploration of the original ABC algorithm. Numerical benchmark functions were used in order to experimentally test the HPABC algorithm. The results illustrate that the HPABC algorithm can outperform the ABC algorithm in most of the experiments (75% better in accuracy and over 3 times faster).

  4. A parallel Jacobson-Oksman optimization algorithm. [parallel processing (computers)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straeter, T. A.; Markos, A. T.

    1975-01-01

    A gradient-dependent optimization technique which exploits the vector-streaming or parallel-computing capabilities of some modern computers is presented. The algorithm, derived by assuming that the function to be minimized is homogeneous, is a modification of the Jacobson-Oksman serial minimization method. In addition to describing the algorithm, conditions insuring the convergence of the iterates of the algorithm and the results of numerical experiments on a group of sample test functions are presented. The results of these experiments indicate that this algorithm will solve optimization problems in less computing time than conventional serial methods on machines having vector-streaming or parallel-computing capabilities.

  5. An active set algorithm for nonlinear optimization with polyhedral constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, William W.; Zhang, Hongchao

    2016-08-01

    A polyhedral active set algorithm PASA is developed for solving a nonlinear optimization problem whose feasible set is a polyhedron. Phase one of the algorithm is the gradient projection method, while phase two is any algorithm for solving a linearly constrained optimization problem. Rules are provided for branching between the two phases. Global convergence to a stationary point is established, while asymptotically PASA performs only phase two when either a nondegeneracy assumption holds, or the active constraints are linearly independent and a strong second-order sufficient optimality condition holds.

  6. Flower pollination algorithm: A novel approach for multiobjective optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xin-She; Karamanoglu, Mehmet; He, Xingshi

    2014-09-01

    Multiobjective design optimization problems require multiobjective optimization techniques to solve, and it is often very challenging to obtain high-quality Pareto fronts accurately. In this article, the recently developed flower pollination algorithm (FPA) is extended to solve multiobjective optimization problems. The proposed method is used to solve a set of multiobjective test functions and two bi-objective design benchmarks, and a comparison of the proposed algorithm with other algorithms has been made, which shows that the FPA is efficient with a good convergence rate. Finally, the importance for further parametric studies and theoretical analysis is highlighted and discussed.

  7. Genetic Algorithm Based Neural Networks for Nonlinear Optimization

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-09-28

    This software develops a novel approach to nonlinear optimization using genetic algorithm based neural networks. To our best knowledge, this approach represents the first attempt at applying both neural network and genetic algorithm techniques to solve a nonlinear optimization problem. The approach constructs a neural network structure and an appropriately shaped energy surface whose minima correspond to optimal solutions of the problem. A genetic algorithm is employed to perform a parallel and powerful search ofmore » the energy surface.« less

  8. Multiobjective inverse planning for intensity modulated radiotherapy with constraint-free gradient-based optimization algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahanas, Michael; Schreibmann, Eduard; Baltas, Dimos

    2003-09-01

    We consider the behaviour of the limited memory L-BFGS algorithm as a representative constraint-free gradient-based algorithm which is used for multiobjective (MO) dose optimization for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Using a parameter transformation, the positivity constraint problem of negative beam fluences is entirely eliminated: a feature which to date has not been fully understood by all investigators. We analyse the global convergence properties of L-BFGS by searching for the existence and the influence of possible local minima. With a fast simulated annealing (FSA) algorithm we examine whether the L-BFGS solutions are globally Pareto optimal. The three examples used in our analysis are a brain tumour, a prostate tumour and a test case with a C-shaped PTV. In 1% of the optimizations global convergence is violated. A simple mechanism practically eliminates the influence of this failure and the obtained solutions are globally optimal. A single-objective dose optimization requires less than 4 s for 5400 parameters and 40 000 sampling points. The elimination of the problem of negative beam fluences and the high computational speed permit constraint-free gradient-based optimization algorithms to be used for MO dose optimization. In this situation, a representative spectrum of possible solutions is obtained which contains information such as the trade-off between the objectives and range of dose values. Using simple decision making tools the best of all the possible solutions can be chosen. We perform an MO dose optimization for the three examples and compare the spectra of solutions, firstly using recommended critical dose values for the organs at risk and secondly, setting these dose values to zero.

  9. A parallel variable metric optimization algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straeter, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    An algorithm, designed to exploit the parallel computing or vector streaming (pipeline) capabilities of computers is presented. When p is the degree of parallelism, then one cycle of the parallel variable metric algorithm is defined as follows: first, the function and its gradient are computed in parallel at p different values of the independent variable; then the metric is modified by p rank-one corrections; and finally, a single univariant minimization is carried out in the Newton-like direction. Several properties of this algorithm are established. The convergence of the iterates to the solution is proved for a quadratic functional on a real separable Hilbert space. For a finite-dimensional space the convergence is in one cycle when p equals the dimension of the space. Results of numerical experiments indicate that the new algorithm will exploit parallel or pipeline computing capabilities to effect faster convergence than serial techniques.

  10. a New Multimodal Multi-Criteria Route Planning Model by Integrating a Fuzzy-Ahp Weighting Method and a Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaderi, F.; Pahlavani, P.

    2015-12-01

    A multimodal multi-criteria route planning (MMRP) system provides an optimal multimodal route from an origin point to a destination point considering two or more criteria in a way this route can be a combination of public and private transportation modes. In this paper, the simulate annealing (SA) and the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (fuzzy AHP) were combined in order to find this route. In this regard, firstly, the effective criteria that are significant for users in their trip were determined. Then the weight of each criterion was calculated using the fuzzy AHP weighting method. The most important characteristic of this weighting method is the use of fuzzy numbers that aids the users to consider their uncertainty in pairwise comparison of criteria. After determining the criteria weights, the proposed SA algorithm were used for determining an optimal route from an origin to a destination. One of the most important problems in a meta-heuristic algorithm is trapping in local minima. In this study, five transportation modes, including subway, bus rapid transit (BRT), taxi, walking, and bus were considered for moving between nodes. Also, the fare, the time, the user's bother, and the length of the path were considered as effective criteria for solving the problem. The proposed model was implemented in an area in centre of Tehran in a GUI MATLAB programming language. The results showed a high efficiency and speed of the proposed algorithm that support our analyses.

  11. A Unified Differential Evolution Algorithm for Global Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Mitchell, Chad

    2014-06-24

    Abstract?In this paper, we propose a new unified differential evolution (uDE) algorithm for single objective global optimization. Instead of selecting among multiple mutation strategies as in the conventional differential evolution algorithm, this algorithm employs a single equation as the mutation strategy. It has the virtue of mathematical simplicity and also provides users the flexbility for broader exploration of different mutation strategies. Numerical tests using twelve basic unimodal and multimodal functions show promising performance of the proposed algorithm in comparison to convential differential evolution algorithms.

  12. Artificial bee colony algorithm for constrained possibilistic portfolio optimization problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss the portfolio optimization problem with real-world constraints under the assumption that the returns of risky assets are fuzzy numbers. A new possibilistic mean-semiabsolute deviation model is proposed, in which transaction costs, cardinality and quantity constraints are considered. Due to such constraints the proposed model becomes a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem and traditional optimization methods fail to find the optimal solution efficiently. Thus, a modified artificial bee colony (MABC) algorithm is developed to solve the corresponding optimization problem. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model and the corresponding algorithm.

  13. An algorithm for the systematic disturbance of optimal rotational solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Kaiser, Mary K.

    1989-01-01

    An algorithm for introducing a systematic rotational disturbance into an optimal (i.e., single axis) rotational trajectory is described. This disturbance introduces a motion vector orthogonal to the quaternion-defined optimal rotation axis. By altering the magnitude of this vector, the degree of non-optimality can be controlled. The metric properties of the distortion parameter are described, with analogies to two-dimensional translational motion. This algorithm was implemented in a motion-control program on a three-dimensional graphic workstation. It supports a series of human performance studies on the detectability of rotational trajectory optimality by naive observers.

  14. PCB Drill Path Optimization by Combinatorial Cuckoo Search Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Wei Chen Esmonde; Kanagaraj, G.; Ponnambalam, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of drill path can lead to significant reduction in machining time which directly improves productivity of manufacturing systems. In a batch production of a large number of items to be drilled such as printed circuit boards (PCB), the travel time of the drilling device is a significant portion of the overall manufacturing process. To increase PCB manufacturing productivity and to reduce production costs, a good option is to minimize the drill path route using an optimization algorithm. This paper reports a combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm for solving drill path optimization problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested and verified with three case studies from the literature. The computational experience conducted in this research indicates that the proposed algorithm is capable of efficiently finding the optimal path for PCB holes drilling process. PMID:24707198

  15. PCB drill path optimization by combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wei Chen Esmonde; Kanagaraj, G; Ponnambalam, S G

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of drill path can lead to significant reduction in machining time which directly improves productivity of manufacturing systems. In a batch production of a large number of items to be drilled such as printed circuit boards (PCB), the travel time of the drilling device is a significant portion of the overall manufacturing process. To increase PCB manufacturing productivity and to reduce production costs, a good option is to minimize the drill path route using an optimization algorithm. This paper reports a combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm for solving drill path optimization problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested and verified with three case studies from the literature. The computational experience conducted in this research indicates that the proposed algorithm is capable of efficiently finding the optimal path for PCB holes drilling process. PMID:24707198

  16. The Coral Reefs Optimization Algorithm: A Novel Metaheuristic for Efficiently Solving Optimization Problems

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo-Sanz, S.; Del Ser, J.; Landa-Torres, I.; Gil-López, S.; Portilla-Figueras, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel bioinspired algorithm to tackle complex optimization problems: the coral reefs optimization (CRO) algorithm. The CRO algorithm artificially simulates a coral reef, where different corals (namely, solutions to the optimization problem considered) grow and reproduce in coral colonies, fighting by choking out other corals for space in the reef. This fight for space, along with the specific characteristics of the corals' reproduction, produces a robust metaheuristic algorithm shown to be powerful for solving hard optimization problems. In this research the CRO algorithm is tested in several continuous and discrete benchmark problems, as well as in practical application scenarios (i.e., optimum mobile network deployment and off-shore wind farm design). The obtained results confirm the excellent performance of the proposed algorithm and open line of research for further application of the algorithm to real-world problems. PMID:25147860

  17. The coral reefs optimization algorithm: a novel metaheuristic for efficiently solving optimization problems.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Sanz, S; Del Ser, J; Landa-Torres, I; Gil-López, S; Portilla-Figueras, J A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel bioinspired algorithm to tackle complex optimization problems: the coral reefs optimization (CRO) algorithm. The CRO algorithm artificially simulates a coral reef, where different corals (namely, solutions to the optimization problem considered) grow and reproduce in coral colonies, fighting by choking out other corals for space in the reef. This fight for space, along with the specific characteristics of the corals' reproduction, produces a robust metaheuristic algorithm shown to be powerful for solving hard optimization problems. In this research the CRO algorithm is tested in several continuous and discrete benchmark problems, as well as in practical application scenarios (i.e., optimum mobile network deployment and off-shore wind farm design). The obtained results confirm the excellent performance of the proposed algorithm and open line of research for further application of the algorithm to real-world problems. PMID:25147860

  18. Multi-objective optimization of combined Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles using advanced optimization algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkata Rao, R.; Patel, Vivek

    2012-08-01

    This study explores the use of teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) and artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithms for determining the optimum operating conditions of combined Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles. Maximization of thermal efficiency and specific work of the system are considered as the objective functions and are treated simultaneously for multi-objective optimization. Upper cycle pressure ratio and bottom cycle expansion pressure of the system are considered as design variables for the multi-objective optimization. An application example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithms. The results of optimization using the proposed algorithms are validated by comparing with those obtained by using the genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) on the same example. Improvement in the results is obtained by the proposed algorithms. The results of effect of variation of the algorithm parameters on the convergence and fitness values of the objective functions are reported.

  19. Superscattering of light optimized by a genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzaei, Ali Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2014-07-07

    We analyse scattering of light from multi-layer plasmonic nanowires and employ a genetic algorithm for optimizing the scattering cross section. We apply the mode-expansion method using experimental data for material parameters to demonstrate that our genetic algorithm allows designing realistic core-shell nanostructures with the superscattering effect achieved at any desired wavelength. This approach can be employed for optimizing both superscattering and cloaking at different wavelengths in the visible spectral range.

  20. Integration of electromagnetic induction sensor data in soil sampling scheme optimization using simulated annealing.

    PubMed

    Barca, E; Castrignanò, A; Buttafuoco, G; De Benedetto, D; Passarella, G

    2015-07-01

    Soil survey is generally time-consuming, labor-intensive, and costly. Optimization of sampling scheme allows one to reduce the number of sampling points without decreasing or even increasing the accuracy of investigated attribute. Maps of bulk soil electrical conductivity (EC a ) recorded with electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors could be effectively used to direct soil sampling design for assessing spatial variability of soil moisture. A protocol, using a field-scale bulk EC a survey, has been applied in an agricultural field in Apulia region (southeastern Italy). Spatial simulated annealing was used as a method to optimize spatial soil sampling scheme taking into account sampling constraints, field boundaries, and preliminary observations. Three optimization criteria were used. the first criterion (minimization of mean of the shortest distances, MMSD) optimizes the spreading of the point observations over the entire field by minimizing the expectation of the distance between an arbitrarily chosen point and its nearest observation; the second criterion (minimization of weighted mean of the shortest distances, MWMSD) is a weighted version of the MMSD, which uses the digital gradient of the grid EC a data as weighting function; and the third criterion (mean of average ordinary kriging variance, MAOKV) minimizes mean kriging estimation variance of the target variable. The last criterion utilizes the variogram model of soil water content estimated in a previous trial. The procedures, or a combination of them, were tested and compared in a real case. Simulated annealing was implemented by the software MSANOS able to define or redesign any sampling scheme by increasing or decreasing the original sampling locations. The output consists of the computed sampling scheme, the convergence time, and the cooling law, which can be an invaluable support to the process of sampling design. The proposed approach has found the optimal solution in a reasonable computation time. The

  1. Advanced optimization of permanent magnet wigglers using a genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Hajima, Ryoichi

    1995-12-31

    In permanent magnet wigglers, magnetic imperfection of each magnet piece causes field error. This field error can be reduced or compensated by sorting magnet pieces in proper order. We showed a genetic algorithm has good property for this sorting scheme. In this paper, this optimization scheme is applied to the case of permanent magnets which have errors in the direction of field. The result shows the genetic algorithm is superior to other algorithms.

  2. Designing Stochastic Optimization Algorithms for Real-world Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Someya, Hiroshi; Handa, Hisashi; Koakutsu, Seiichi

    This article presents a review of recent advances in stochastic optimization algorithms. Novel algorithms achieving highly adaptive and efficient searches, theoretical analyses to deepen our understanding of search behavior, successful implementation on parallel computers, attempts to build benchmark suites for industrial use, and techniques applied to real-world problems are included. A list of resources is provided.

  3. Parallel optimization algorithms and their implementation in VLSI design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, G.; Feeley, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    Two new parallel optimization algorithms based on the simplex method are described. They may be executed by a SIMD parallel processor architecture and be implemented in VLSI design. Several VLSI design implementations are introduced. An application example is reported to demonstrate that the algorithms are effective.

  4. Nonlinear Global Optimization Using Curdling Algorithm in Mathematica Environmet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1997-08-05

    An algorithm for performing optimization which is a derivative-free, grid-refinement approach to nonlinear optimization was developed and implemented in software as OPTIMIZE. This approach overcomes a number of deficiencies in existing approaches. Most notably, it finds extremal regions rather than only single extremal points. the program is interactive and collects information on control parameters and constraints using menus. For up to two (and potentially three) dimensions, function convergence is displayed graphically. Because the algorithm doesmore » not compute derivatives, gradients, or vectors, it is numerically stable. It can find all the roots of a polynomial in one pass. It is an inherently parallel algorithm. OPTIMIZE-M is a modification of OPTIMIZE designed for use within the Mathematica environment created by Wolfram Research.« less

  5. Applying new optimization algorithms to more predictive control

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, S.J.

    1996-03-01

    The connections between optimization and control theory have been explored by many researchers and optimization algorithms have been applied with success to optimal control. The rapid pace of developments in model predictive control has given rise to a host of new problems to which optimization has yet to be applied. Concurrently, developments in optimization, and especially in interior-point methods, have produced a new set of algorithms that may be especially helpful in this context. In this paper, we reexamine the relatively simple problem of control of linear processes subject to quadratic objectives and general linear constraints. We show how new algorithms for quadratic programming can be applied efficiently to this problem. The approach extends to several more general problems in straightforward ways.

  6. An Introduction to Simulated Annealing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Brian

    2007-01-01

    An attempt to model the physical process of annealing lead to the development of a type of combinatorial optimization algorithm that takes on the problem of getting trapped in a local minimum. The author presents a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet that illustrates how this works.

  7. Global search algorithm for optimal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brocker, D. H.; Kavanaugh, W. P.; Stewart, E. C.

    1970-01-01

    Random-search algorithm employs local and global properties to solve two-point boundary value problem in Pontryagin maximum principle for either fixed or variable end-time problems. Mixed boundary value problem is transformed to an initial value problem. Mapping between initial and terminal values utilizes hybrid computer.

  8. Optimization of composite structures by estimation of distribution algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosset, Laurent

    The design of high performance composite laminates, such as those used in aerospace structures, leads to complex combinatorial optimization problems that cannot be addressed by conventional methods. These problems are typically solved by stochastic algorithms, such as evolutionary algorithms. This dissertation proposes a new evolutionary algorithm for composite laminate optimization, named Double-Distribution Optimization Algorithm (DDOA). DDOA belongs to the family of estimation of distributions algorithms (EDA) that build a statistical model of promising regions of the design space based on sets of good points, and use it to guide the search. A generic framework for introducing statistical variable dependencies by making use of the physics of the problem is proposed. The algorithm uses two distributions simultaneously: the marginal distributions of the design variables, complemented by the distribution of auxiliary variables. The combination of the two generates complex distributions at a low computational cost. The dissertation demonstrates the efficiency of DDOA for several laminate optimization problems where the design variables are the fiber angles and the auxiliary variables are the lamination parameters. The results show that its reliability in finding the optima is greater than that of a simple EDA and of a standard genetic algorithm, and that its advantage increases with the problem dimension. A continuous version of the algorithm is presented and applied to a constrained quadratic problem. Finally, a modification of the algorithm incorporating probabilistic and directional search mechanisms is proposed. The algorithm exhibits a faster convergence to the optimum and opens the way for a unified framework for stochastic and directional optimization.

  9. A hybrid genetic-simulated annealing algorithm for the location-inventory-routing problem considering returns under e-supply chain environment.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhui; Guo, Hao; Wang, Lin; Fu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Facility location, inventory control, and vehicle routes scheduling are critical and highly related problems in the design of logistics system for e-business. Meanwhile, the return ratio in Internet sales was significantly higher than in the traditional business. Many of returned merchandise have no quality defects, which can reenter sales channels just after a simple repackaging process. Focusing on the existing problem in e-commerce logistics system, we formulate a location-inventory-routing problem model with no quality defects returns. To solve this NP-hard problem, an effective hybrid genetic simulated annealing algorithm (HGSAA) is proposed. Results of numerical examples show that HGSAA outperforms GA on computing time, optimal solution, and computing stability. The proposed model is very useful to help managers make the right decisions under e-supply chain environment. PMID:24489489

  10. A Hybrid Genetic-Simulated Annealing Algorithm for the Location-Inventory-Routing Problem Considering Returns under E-Supply Chain Environment

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hao; Fu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Facility location, inventory control, and vehicle routes scheduling are critical and highly related problems in the design of logistics system for e-business. Meanwhile, the return ratio in Internet sales was significantly higher than in the traditional business. Many of returned merchandise have no quality defects, which can reenter sales channels just after a simple repackaging process. Focusing on the existing problem in e-commerce logistics system, we formulate a location-inventory-routing problem model with no quality defects returns. To solve this NP-hard problem, an effective hybrid genetic simulated annealing algorithm (HGSAA) is proposed. Results of numerical examples show that HGSAA outperforms GA on computing time, optimal solution, and computing stability. The proposed model is very useful to help managers make the right decisions under e-supply chain environment. PMID:24489489

  11. Piloted simulation of an on-board trajectory optimization algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, D. B.; Calise, A. J.; Moerder, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper will describe a real time piloted simulation of algorithms designed for on-board computation of time-optimal intercept trajectories for an F-8 aircraft. The algorithms, which were derived using singular perturbation theory, generate commands that are displayed to the pilot on flight director needles on the 8-ball. By flying the airplane so as to zero the horizontal and vertical needles, the pilot flies an approximation to a time-optimal intercept trajectory. The various display and computation modes that are available will be described and results will be presented illustrating the performance of the algorithms with a pilot in the loop.

  12. Imperialist competitive algorithm combined with chaos for global optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talatahari, S.; Farahmand Azar, B.; Sheikholeslami, R.; Gandomi, A. H.

    2012-03-01

    A novel chaotic improved imperialist competitive algorithm (CICA) is presented for global optimization. The ICA is a new meta-heuristic optimization developed based on a socio-politically motivated strategy and contains two main steps: the movement of the colonies and the imperialistic competition. Here different chaotic maps are utilized to improve the movement step of the algorithm. Seven different chaotic maps are investigated and the Logistic and Sinusoidal maps are found as the best choices. Comparing the new algorithm with the other ICA-based methods demonstrates the superiority of the CICA for the benchmark functions.

  13. Optimal fractional order PID design via Tabu Search based algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ateş, Abdullah; Yeroglu, Celaleddin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization method based on the Tabu Search Algorithm (TSA) to design a Fractional-Order Proportional-Integral-Derivative (FOPID) controller. All parameter computations of the FOPID employ random initial conditions, using the proposed optimization method. Illustrative examples demonstrate the performance of the proposed FOPID controller design method. PMID:26652128

  14. Model Specification Searches Using Ant Colony Optimization Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcoulides, George A.; Drezner, Zvi

    2003-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is a recently proposed heuristic procedure inspired by the behavior of real ants. This article applies the procedure to model specification searches in structural equation modeling and reports the results. The results demonstrate the capabilities of ant colony optimization algorithms for conducting automated searches.

  15. A simulated annealing approach to schedule optimization for the SES facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahon, Mary Beth; Dean, Jack

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Engineering Simulator (SES) is a facility which houses the software and hardware for a variety of simulation systems. The simulators include the Autonomous Remote Manipulator, the Manned Maneuvering Unit, Orbiter/Space Station docking, and shuttle entry and landing. The SES simulators are used by various groups throughout NASA. For example, astronauts use the SES to practice maneuvers with the shuttle equipment; programmers use the SES to test flight software; and engineers use the SES for design and analysis studies. Due to its high demand, the SES is busy twenty-four hours a day and seven days a week. Scheduling the facility is a problem that is constantly growing and changing with the addition of new equipment. Currently a number of small independent programs have been developed to help solve the problem, but the long-term answer lies in finding a flexible, integrated system that provides the user with the ability to create, optimize, and edit the schedule. COMPASS is an interactive and highly flexible scheduling system. However, until recently COMPASS did not provide any optimization features. This paper describes the simulated annealing extension to COMPASS. It now allows the user to interweave schedule creation, revision, and optimization. This practical approach was necessary in order to satisfy the operational requirements of the SES.

  16. Optimal pumping from Palmela water supply wells (Portugal) using simulated annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Teresa; Cunha, Maria Da Conceição; Lobo-Ferreira, João P.

    2009-12-01

    Aquifer systems are an important part of an integrated water resources management plan as foreseen in the European Union’s Water Framework Directive (2000). The sustainable development of these systems demands the use of all available techniques capable of handling the multidisciplinary features of the problems involved. The formulation and resolution of an optimization model is described for a planning and management problem based on the Palmela aquifer (Portugal), developed to supply a given number of demand centres. This problem is solved using one of the latest optimization techniques, the simulated annealing heuristic method, designed to find the optimal solutions while avoiding falling into local optimums. The solution obtained, providing the wells location and the corresponding pumped flows to supply each centre, are analysed taking into account the objective function components and the constraints. It was found that the operation cost is the biggest share of the final cost, and the choice of wells is greatly affected by this fact. Another conclusion is that the solution takes advantage of the economies of scale, that is, it points toward drilling a large capacity well even if this increases the investment cost, rather than drilling several wells, which together will increase the operation costs.

  17. Diffusion Limited Aggregation: Algorithm optimization revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, F. L.; Ribeiro, M. S.

    2011-08-01

    The Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA) model developed by Witten and Sander in 1978 is useful in modeling a large class of growth phenomena with local dependence. Besides its simplicity this aggregation model has a complex behavior that can be observed at the patterns generated. We propose on this work a brief review of some important proprieties of this model and present an algorithm to simulate a DLA aggregates that simpler and efficient compared to others found in the literature.

  18. Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Solving Optimal Power Flow Problem

    PubMed Central

    Le Dinh, Luong; Vo Ngoc, Dieu

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm for solving optimal power flow (OPF) problem. The objective of the OPF problem is to minimize total cost of thermal units while satisfying the unit and system constraints such as generator capacity limits, power balance, line flow limits, bus voltages limits, and transformer tap settings limits. The ABC algorithm is an optimization method inspired from the foraging behavior of honey bees. The proposed algorithm has been tested on the IEEE 30-bus, 57-bus, and 118-bus systems. The numerical results have indicated that the proposed algorithm can find high quality solution for the problem in a fast manner via the result comparisons with other methods in the literature. Therefore, the proposed ABC algorithm can be a favorable method for solving the OPF problem. PMID:24470790

  19. Artificial bee colony algorithm for solving optimal power flow problem.

    PubMed

    Le Dinh, Luong; Vo Ngoc, Dieu; Vasant, Pandian

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm for solving optimal power flow (OPF) problem. The objective of the OPF problem is to minimize total cost of thermal units while satisfying the unit and system constraints such as generator capacity limits, power balance, line flow limits, bus voltages limits, and transformer tap settings limits. The ABC algorithm is an optimization method inspired from the foraging behavior of honey bees. The proposed algorithm has been tested on the IEEE 30-bus, 57-bus, and 118-bus systems. The numerical results have indicated that the proposed algorithm can find high quality solution for the problem in a fast manner via the result comparisons with other methods in the literature. Therefore, the proposed ABC algorithm can be a favorable method for solving the OPF problem. PMID:24470790

  20. Exploratory Analysis of Stochastic Local Search Algorithms in Biobjective Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Ibáñez, Manuel; Paquete, Luís; Stützle, Thomas

    This chapter introduces two Perl programs that implement graphical tools for exploring the performance of stochastic local search algorithms for biobjective optimization problems. These tools are based on the concept of the empirical attainment function (EAF), which describes the probabilistic distribution of the outcomes obtained by a stochastic algorithm in the objective space. In particular, we consider the visualization of attainment surfaces and differences between the first-order EAFs of the outcomes of two algorithms. This visualization allows us to identify certain algorithmic behaviors in a graphical way. We explain the use of these visualization tools and illustrate them with examples arising from practice.

  1. A Discrete Lagrangian Algorithm for Optimal Routing Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kosmas, O. T.; Vlachos, D. S.; Simos, T. E.

    2008-11-06

    The ideas of discrete Lagrangian methods for conservative systems are exploited for the construction of algorithms applicable in optimal ship routing problems. The algorithm presented here is based on the discretisation of Hamilton's principle of stationary action Lagrangian and specifically on the direct discretization of the Lagrange-Hamilton principle for a conservative system. Since, in contrast to the differential equations, the discrete Euler-Lagrange equations serve as constrains for the optimization of a given cost functional, in the present work we utilize this feature in order to minimize the cost function for optimal ship routing.

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF LONG RURAL FEEDERS USING A GENETIC ALGORITHM

    SciTech Connect

    Wishart, Michael; Ledwich, Gerard; Ghosh, Arindam; Ivanovich, Grujica

    2010-06-15

    This paper describes the optimization of conductor size and the voltage regulator location and magnitude of long rural distribution lines. The optimization minimizes the lifetime cost of the lines, including capital costs and losses while observing voltage drop and operational constraints using a Genetic Algorithm (GA). The GA optimization is applied to a real Single Wire Earth Return (SWER) network in regional Queensland and results are presented.

  3. A Hybrid Ant Colony Algorithm for Loading Pattern Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoareau, F.

    2014-06-01

    Electricité de France (EDF) operates 58 nuclear power plant (NPP), of the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) type. The loading pattern (LP) optimization of these NPP is currently done by EDF expert engineers. Within this framework, EDF R&D has developed automatic optimization tools that assist the experts. The latter can resort, for instance, to a loading pattern optimization software based on ant colony algorithm. This paper presents an analysis of the search space of a few realistic loading pattern optimization problems. This analysis leads us to introduce a hybrid algorithm based on ant colony and a local search method. We then show that this new algorithm is able to generate loading patterns of good quality.

  4. An algorithm for computationally expensive engineering optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoel, Tenne

    2013-07-01

    Modern engineering design often relies on computer simulations to evaluate candidate designs, a scenario which results in an optimization of a computationally expensive black-box function. In these settings, there will often exist candidate designs which cause the simulation to fail, and can therefore degrade the search effectiveness. To address this issue, this paper proposes a new metamodel-assisted computational intelligence optimization algorithm which incorporates classifiers into the optimization search. The classifiers predict which candidate designs are expected to cause the simulation to fail, and this prediction is used to bias the search towards designs predicted to be valid. To enhance the search effectiveness, the proposed algorithm uses an ensemble approach which concurrently employs several metamodels and classifiers. A rigorous performance analysis based on a set of simulation-driven design optimization problems shows the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  5. Optimization algorithm based characterization scheme for tunable semiconductor lasers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quanan; Liu, Gonghai; Lu, Qiaoyin; Guo, Weihua

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an optimization algorithm based characterization scheme for tunable semiconductor lasers is proposed and demonstrated. In the process of optimization, the ratio between the power of the desired frequency and the power except of the desired frequency is used as the figure of merit, which approximately represents the side-mode suppression ratio. In practice, we use tunable optical band-pass and band-stop filters to obtain the power of the desired frequency and the power except of the desired frequency separately. With the assistance of optimization algorithms, such as the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, we can get stable operation conditions for tunable lasers at designated frequencies directly and efficiently. PMID:27607701

  6. A superlinear interior points algorithm for engineering design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herskovits, J.; Asquier, J.

    1990-01-01

    We present a quasi-Newton interior points algorithm for nonlinear constrained optimization. It is based on a general approach consisting of the iterative solution in the primal and dual spaces of the equalities in Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions. This is done in such a way to have primal and dual feasibility at each iteration, which ensures satisfaction of those optimality conditions at the limit points. This approach is very strong and efficient, since at each iteration it only requires the solution of two linear systems with the same matrix, instead of quadratic programming subproblems. It is also particularly appropriate for engineering design optimization inasmuch at each iteration a feasible design is obtained. The present algorithm uses a quasi-Newton approximation of the second derivative of the Lagrangian function in order to have superlinear asymptotic convergence. We discuss theoretical aspects of the algorithm and its computer implementation.

  7. Multicycle rapid thermal annealing optimization of Mg-implanted GaN: Evolution of surface, optical, and structural properties

    SciTech Connect

    Greenlee, Jordan D.; Feigelson, Boris N.; Anderson, Travis J.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Mastro, Michael A.; Eddy, Charles R.; Hobart, Karl D.; Kub, Francis J.; Tadjer, Marko J.

    2014-08-14

    The first step of a multi-cycle rapid thermal annealing process was systematically studied. The surface, structure, and optical properties of Mg implanted GaN thin films annealed at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1200 °C were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Nomarski microscopy. The GaN thin films are capped with two layers of in-situ metal organic chemical vapor deposition -grown AlN and annealed in 24 bar of N{sub 2} overpressure to avoid GaN decomposition. The crystal quality of the GaN improves with increasing annealing temperature as confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy and the full widths at half maximums of the E{sub 2} and A{sub 1} (LO) Raman modes. The crystal quality of films annealed above 1100 °C exceeds the quality of the as-grown films. At 1200 °C, Mg is optically activated, which is determined by photoluminescence measurements. However, at 1200 °C, the GaN begins to decompose as evidenced by pit formation on the surface of the samples. Therefore, it was determined that the optimal temperature for the first step in a multi-cycle rapid thermal anneal process should be conducted at 1150 °C due to crystal quality and surface morphology considerations.

  8. A Monte Carlo/Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Sequential Resonance Assignment in Solid State NMR of Uniformly Labeled Proteins with Magic-Angle Spinning

    PubMed Central

    Tycko, Robert; Hu, Kan-Nian

    2010-01-01

    We describe a computational approach to sequential resonance assignment in solid state NMR studies of uniformly 15N,13C-labeled proteins with magic-angle spinning. As input, the algorithm uses only the protein sequence and lists of 15N/13Cα crosspeaks from 2D NCACX and NCOCX spectra that include possible residue-type assignments of each crosspeak. Assignment of crosspeaks to specific residues is carried out by a Monte Carlo/simulated annealing algorithm, implemented in the program MC_ASSIGN1. The algorithm tolerates substantial ambiguity in residue-type assignments and coexistence of visible and invisible segments in the protein sequence. We use MC_ASSIGN1 and our own 2D spectra to replicate and extend the sequential assignments for uniformly labeled HET-s(218-289) fibrils previously determined manually by Siemer et al. (J. Biomolec. NMR, vol. 34, pp. 75-87, 2006) from a more extensive set of 2D and 3D spectra. Accurate assignments by MC_ASSIGN1 do not require data that are of exceptionally high quality. Use of MC_ASSIGN1 (and its extensions to other types of 2D and 3D data) is likely to alleviate many of the difficulties and uncertainties associated with manual resonance assignments in solid state NMR studies of uniformly labeled proteins, where spectral resolution and signal-to-noise are often sub-optimal. PMID:20547467

  9. A solution quality assessment method for swarm intelligence optimization algorithms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaojun; Wang, Gai-Ge; Zou, Kuansheng; Zhang, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, swarm intelligence optimization has become an important optimization tool and wildly used in many fields of application. In contrast to many successful applications, the theoretical foundation is rather weak. Therefore, there are still many problems to be solved. One problem is how to quantify the performance of algorithm in finite time, that is, how to evaluate the solution quality got by algorithm for practical problems. It greatly limits the application in practical problems. A solution quality assessment method for intelligent optimization is proposed in this paper. It is an experimental analysis method based on the analysis of search space and characteristic of algorithm itself. Instead of "value performance," the "ordinal performance" is used as evaluation criteria in this method. The feasible solutions were clustered according to distance to divide solution samples into several parts. Then, solution space and "good enough" set can be decomposed based on the clustering results. Last, using relative knowledge of statistics, the evaluation result can be got. To validate the proposed method, some intelligent algorithms such as ant colony optimization (ACO), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFS) were taken to solve traveling salesman problem. Computational results indicate the feasibility of proposed method. PMID:25013845

  10. Restarted local search algorithms for continuous black box optimization.

    PubMed

    Pošík, Petr; Huyer, Waltraud

    2012-01-01

    Several local search algorithms for real-valued domains (axis parallel line search, Nelder-Mead simplex search, Rosenbrock's algorithm, quasi-Newton method, NEWUOA, and VXQR) are described and thoroughly compared in this article, embedding them in a multi-start method. Their comparison aims (1) to help the researchers from the evolutionary community to choose the right opponent for their algorithm (to choose an opponent that would constitute a hard-to-beat baseline algorithm), (2) to describe individual features of these algorithms and show how they influence the algorithm on different problems, and (3) to provide inspiration for the hybridization of evolutionary algorithms with these local optimizers. The recently proposed Comparing Continuous Optimizers (COCO) methodology was adopted as the basis for the comparison. The results show that in low dimensional spaces, the old method of Nelder and Mead is still the most successful among those compared, while in spaces of higher dimensions, it is better to choose an algorithm based on quadratic modeling, such as NEWUOA or a quasi-Newton method. PMID:22779407

  11. Optimization of reliability allocation strategies through use of genetic algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.E.; Painton, L.A.

    1996-08-01

    This paper examines a novel optimization technique called genetic algorithms and its application to the optimization of reliability allocation strategies. Reliability allocation should occur in the initial stages of design, when the objective is to determine an optimal breakdown or allocation of reliability to certain components or subassemblies in order to meet system specifications. The reliability allocation optimization is applied to the design of a cluster tool, a highly complex piece of equipment used in semiconductor manufacturing. The problem formulation is presented, including decision variables, performance measures and constraints, and genetic algorithm parameters. Piecewise ``effort curves`` specifying the amount of effort required to achieve a certain level of reliability for each component of subassembly are defined. The genetic algorithm evolves or picks those combinations of ``effort`` or reliability levels for each component which optimize the objective of maximizing Mean Time Between Failures while staying within a budget. The results show that the genetic algorithm is very efficient at finding a set of robust solutions. A time history of the optimization is presented, along with histograms or the solution space fitness, MTBF, and cost for comparative purposes.

  12. Teaching-learning-based optimization algorithm for unconstrained and constrained real-parameter optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, R. V.; Savsani, V. J.; Balic, J.

    2012-12-01

    An efficient optimization algorithm called teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) is proposed in this article to solve continuous unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. The proposed method is based on the effect of the influence of a teacher on the output of learners in a class. The basic philosophy of the method is explained in detail. The algorithm is tested on 25 different unconstrained benchmark functions and 35 constrained benchmark functions with different characteristics. For the constrained benchmark functions, TLBO is tested with different constraint handling techniques such as superiority of feasible solutions, self-adaptive penalty, ɛ-constraint, stochastic ranking and ensemble of constraints. The performance of the TLBO algorithm is compared with that of other optimization algorithms and the results show the better performance of the proposed algorithm.

  13. Benchmarking derivative-free optimization algorithms.

    SciTech Connect

    More', J. J.; Wild, S. M.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Cornell Univ.

    2009-01-01

    We propose data profiles as a tool for analyzing the performance of derivative-free optimization solvers when there are constraints on the computational budget. We use performance and data profiles, together with a convergence test that measures the decrease in function value, to analyze the performance of three solvers on sets of smooth, noisy, and piecewise-smooth problems. Our results provide estimates for the performance difference between these solvers, and show that on these problems, the model-based solver tested performs better than the two direct search solvers tested.

  14. Performance Trend of Different Algorithms for Structural Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Guptill, James D.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1996-01-01

    Nonlinear programming algorithms play an important role in structural design optimization. Fortunately, several algorithms with computer codes are available. At NASA Lewis Research Center, a project was initiated to assess performance of different optimizers through the development of a computer code CometBoards. This paper summarizes the conclusions of that research. CometBoards was employed to solve sets of small, medium and large structural problems, using different optimizers on a Cray-YMP8E/8128 computer. The reliability and efficiency of the optimizers were determined from the performance of these problems. For small problems, the performance of most of the optimizers could be considered adequate. For large problems however, three optimizers (two sequential quadratic programming routines, DNCONG of IMSL and SQP of IDESIGN, along with the sequential unconstrained minimizations technique SUMT) outperformed others. At optimum, most optimizers captured an identical number of active displacement and frequency constraints but the number of active stress constraints differed among the optimizers. This discrepancy can be attributed to singularity conditions in the optimization and the alleviation of this discrepancy can improve the efficiency of optimizers.

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Different Optimization Algorithms for Structural Design Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Guptill, James D.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1996-01-01

    Non-linear programming algorithms play an important role in structural design optimization. Fortunately, several algorithms with computer codes are available. At NASA Lewis Research Centre, a project was initiated to assess the performance of eight different optimizers through the development of a computer code CometBoards. This paper summarizes the conclusions of that research. CometBoards was employed to solve sets of small, medium and large structural problems, using the eight different optimizers on a Cray-YMP8E/8128 computer. The reliability and efficiency of the optimizers were determined from the performance of these problems. For small problems, the performance of most of the optimizers could be considered adequate. For large problems, however, three optimizers (two sequential quadratic programming routines, DNCONG of IMSL and SQP of IDESIGN, along with Sequential Unconstrained Minimizations Technique SUMT) outperformed others. At optimum, most optimizers captured an identical number of active displacement and frequency constraints but the number of active stress constraints differed among the optimizers. This discrepancy can be attributed to singularity conditions in the optimization and the alleviation of this discrepancy can improve the efficiency of optimizers.

  16. Improved Clonal Selection Algorithm Combined with Ant Colony Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shangce; Wang, Wei; Dai, Hongwei; Li, Fangjia; Tang, Zheng

    Both the clonal selection algorithm (CSA) and the ant colony optimization (ACO) are inspired by natural phenomena and are effective tools for solving complex problems. CSA can exploit and explore the solution space parallely and effectively. However, it can not use enough environment feedback information and thus has to do a large redundancy repeat during search. On the other hand, ACO is based on the concept of indirect cooperative foraging process via secreting pheromones. Its positive feedback ability is nice but its convergence speed is slow because of the little initial pheromones. In this paper, we propose a pheromone-linker to combine these two algorithms. The proposed hybrid clonal selection and ant colony optimization (CSA-ACO) reasonably utilizes the superiorities of both algorithms and also overcomes their inherent disadvantages. Simulation results based on the traveling salesman problems have demonstrated the merit of the proposed algorithm over some traditional techniques.

  17. Optimization of computer-generated binary holograms using genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cojoc, Dan; Alexandrescu, Adrian

    1999-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare genetic algorithms against direct point oriented coding in the design of binary phase Fourier holograms, computer generated. These are used as fan-out elements for free space optical interconnection. Genetic algorithms are optimization methods which model the natural process of genetic evolution. The configuration of the hologram is encoded to form a chromosome. To start the optimization, a population of different chromosomes randomly generated is considered. The chromosomes compete, mate and mutate until the best chromosome is obtained according to a cost function. After explaining the operators that are used by genetic algorithms, this paper presents two examples with 32 X 32 genes in a chromosome. The crossover type and the number of mutations are shown to be important factors which influence the convergence of the algorithm. GA is demonstrated to be a useful tool to design namely binary phase holograms of complicate structures.

  18. Optimized Algorithms for Prediction within Robotic Tele-Operative Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Rodney A.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; SunSpiral, Vytas; Allan, Mark B.

    2006-01-01

    Robonaut, the humanoid robot developed at the Dexterous Robotics Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center serves as a testbed for human-robot collaboration research and development efforts. One of the primary efforts investigates how adjustable autonomy can provide for a safe and more effective completion of manipulation-based tasks. A predictive algorithm developed in previous work was deployed as part of a software interface that can be used for long-distance tele-operation. In this paper we provide the details of this algorithm, how to improve upon the methods via optimization, and also present viable alternatives to the original algorithmic approach. We show that all of the algorithms presented can be optimized to meet the specifications of the metrics shown as being useful for measuring the performance of the predictive methods. Judicious feature selection also plays a significant role in the conclusions drawn.

  19. Optimizing the Shunting Schedule of Electric Multiple Units Depot Using an Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Junchen

    2016-01-01

    The shunting schedule of electric multiple units depot (SSED) is one of the essential plans for high-speed train maintenance activities. This paper presents a 0-1 programming model to address the problem of determining an optimal SSED through automatic computing. The objective of the model is to minimize the number of shunting movements and the constraints include track occupation conflicts, shunting routes conflicts, time durations of maintenance processes, and shunting running time. An enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO) algorithm is proposed to solve the optimization problem. Finally, an empirical study from Shanghai South EMU Depot is carried out to illustrate the model and EPSO algorithm. The optimization results indicate that the proposed method is valid for the SSED problem and that the EPSO algorithm outperforms the traditional PSO algorithm on the aspect of optimality. PMID:27436998

  20. Optimizing the Shunting Schedule of Electric Multiple Units Depot Using an Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaxi; Lin, Boliang; Jin, Junchen

    2016-01-01

    The shunting schedule of electric multiple units depot (SSED) is one of the essential plans for high-speed train maintenance activities. This paper presents a 0-1 programming model to address the problem of determining an optimal SSED through automatic computing. The objective of the model is to minimize the number of shunting movements and the constraints include track occupation conflicts, shunting routes conflicts, time durations of maintenance processes, and shunting running time. An enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO) algorithm is proposed to solve the optimization problem. Finally, an empirical study from Shanghai South EMU Depot is carried out to illustrate the model and EPSO algorithm. The optimization results indicate that the proposed method is valid for the SSED problem and that the EPSO algorithm outperforms the traditional PSO algorithm on the aspect of optimality. PMID:27436998

  1. Study of genetic direct search algorithms for function optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to determine the performance of genetic direct search algorithms in solving function optimization problems arising in the optimal and adaptive control areas. The findings indicate that: (1) genetic algorithms can outperform standard algorithms in multimodal and/or noisy optimization situations, but suffer from lack of gradient exploitation facilities when gradient information can be utilized to guide the search. (2) For large populations, or low dimensional function spaces, mutation is a sufficient operator. However for small populations or high dimensional functions, crossover applied in about equal frequency with mutation is an optimum combination. (3) Complexity, in terms of storage space and running time, is significantly increased when population size is increased or the inversion operator, or the second level adaptation routine is added to the basic structure.

  2. Comparing a Coevolutionary Genetic Algorithm for Multiobjective Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohn, Jason D.; Kraus, William F.; Haith, Gary L.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present results from a study comparing a recently developed coevolutionary genetic algorithm (CGA) against a set of evolutionary algorithms using a suite of multiobjective optimization benchmarks. The CGA embodies competitive coevolution and employs a simple, straightforward target population representation and fitness calculation based on developmental theory of learning. Because of these properties, setting up the additional population is trivial making implementation no more difficult than using a standard GA. Empirical results using a suite of two-objective test functions indicate that this CGA performs well at finding solutions on convex, nonconvex, discrete, and deceptive Pareto-optimal fronts, while giving respectable results on a nonuniform optimization. On a multimodal Pareto front, the CGA finds a solution that dominates solutions produced by eight other algorithms, yet the CGA has poor coverage across the Pareto front.

  3. Optimal Design of RF Energy Harvesting Device Using Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, T.; Sato, Y.; Adriano, R.; Igarashi, H.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents optimal design of an RF energy harvesting device using genetic algorithm (GA). In the present RF harvester, a planar spiral antenna (PSA) is loaded with matching and rectifying circuits. On the first stage of the optimal design, the shape parameters of PSA are optimized using . Then, the equivalent circuit of the optimized PSA is derived for optimization of the circuits. Finally, the parameters of RF energy harvesting circuit are optimized to maximize the output power using GA. It is shown that the present optimization increases the output power by a factor of five. The manufactured energy harvester starts working when the input electric field is greater than 0.5 V/m.

  4. SamACO: variable sampling ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous optimization.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Jun; Chung, Henry Shu-Hung; Li, Yun; Liu, Ou

    2010-12-01

    An ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm offers algorithmic techniques for optimization by simulating the foraging behavior of a group of ants to perform incremental solution constructions and to realize a pheromone laying-and-following mechanism. Although ACO is first designed for solving discrete (combinatorial) optimization problems, the ACO procedure is also applicable to continuous optimization. This paper presents a new way of extending ACO to solving continuous optimization problems by focusing on continuous variable sampling as a key to transforming ACO from discrete optimization to continuous optimization. The proposed SamACO algorithm consists of three major steps, i.e., the generation of candidate variable values for selection, the ants' solution construction, and the pheromone update process. The distinct characteristics of SamACO are the cooperation of a novel sampling method for discretizing the continuous search space and an efficient incremental solution construction method based on the sampled values. The performance of SamACO is tested using continuous numerical functions with unimodal and multimodal features. Compared with some state-of-the-art algorithms, including traditional ant-based algorithms and representative computational intelligence algorithms for continuous optimization, the performance of SamACO is seen competitive and promising. PMID:20371409

  5. A limited-memory algorithm for bound-constrained optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, R.H.; Peihuang, L.; Nocedal, J. |

    1996-03-01

    An algorithm for solving large nonlinear optimization problems with simple bounds is described. It is based on the gradient projection method and uses a limited-memory BFGS matrix to approximate the Hessian of the objective function. We show how to take advantage of the form of the limited-memory approximation to implement the algorithm efficiently. The results of numerical tests on a set of large problems are reported.

  6. Bayesian Optimization Algorithm, Population Sizing, and Time to Convergence

    SciTech Connect

    Pelikan, M.; Goldberg, D.E.; Cantu-Paz, E.

    2000-01-19

    This paper analyzes convergence properties of the Bayesian optimization algorithm (BOA). It settles the BOA into the framework of problem decomposition used frequently in order to model and understand the behavior of simple genetic algorithms. The growth of the population size and the number of generations until convergence with respect to the size of a problem is theoretically analyzed. The theoretical results are supported by a number of experiments.

  7. Optimization algorithms and weighting factors for analysis of dynamic PET studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaqub, Maqsood; Boellaard, Ronald; Kropholler, Marc A.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.

    2006-09-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) pharmacokinetic analysis involves fitting of measured PET data to a PET pharmacokinetic model. The fitted parameters may, however, suffer from bias or be unrealistic, especially in the case of noisy data. There are many optimization algorithms, each having different characteristics. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate (1) the performance of different optimization algorithms and (2) the effects of using incorrect weighting factors during optimization in terms of both accuracy and reproducibility of fitted PET pharmacokinetic parameters. In this study, the performance of commonly used optimization algorithms (i.e. interior-reflective Newton methods) and a simulated annealing (SA) method was evaluated. This SA algorithm, known as basin hopping, was modified for the present application. In addition, optimization was performed using various weighting factors. Algorithms and effects of using incorrect weighting factors were studied using both simulated and clinical time-activity curves (TACs). Input data, taken from [15O]H2O, [11C]flumazenil and [11C](R)-PK11195 studies, were used to simulate time-activity curves at various variance levels (0-15% COV). Clinical evaluation was based on studies with the same three tracers. SA was able to produce accurate results without the need for selecting appropriate starting values for (kinetic) parameters, in contrast to the interior-reflective Newton method. The latter gave biased results unless it was modified to allow for a range of starting values for the different parameters. For patient studies, where large variability is expected, both SA and the extended Newton method provided accurate results. Simulations and clinical assessment showed similar results for the evaluation of different weighting models in that small to intermediate mismatches between data variance and weighting factors did not significantly affect the outcome of the fits. Large errors were observed only when the

  8. Genetic Algorithm Optimizes Q-LAW Control Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon; von Allmen, Paul; Petropoulos, Anastassios; Terrile, Richard

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses a multi-objective, genetic algorithm designed to optimize Lyapunov feedback control law (Q-law) parameters in order to efficiently find Pareto-optimal solutions for low-thrust trajectories for electronic propulsion systems. These would be propellant-optimal solutions for a given flight time, or flight time optimal solutions for a given propellant requirement. The approximate solutions are used as good initial solutions for high-fidelity optimization tools. When the good initial solutions are used, the high-fidelity optimization tools quickly converge to a locally optimal solution near the initial solution. Q-law control parameters are represented as real-valued genes in the genetic algorithm. The performances of the Q-law control parameters are evaluated in the multi-objective space (flight time vs. propellant mass) and sorted by the non-dominated sorting method that assigns a better fitness value to the solutions that are dominated by a fewer number of other solutions. With the ranking result, the genetic algorithm encourages the solutions with higher fitness values to participate in the reproduction process, improving the solutions in the evolution process. The population of solutions converges to the Pareto front that is permitted within the Q-law control parameter space.

  9. Seven-spot ladybird optimization: a novel and efficient metaheuristic algorithm for numerical optimization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Zhu, Zhouquan; Huang, Shuai

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel biologically inspired metaheuristic algorithm called seven-spot ladybird optimization (SLO). The SLO is inspired by recent discoveries on the foraging behavior of a seven-spot ladybird. In this paper, the performance of the SLO is compared with that of the genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, and artificial bee colony algorithms by using five numerical benchmark functions with multimodality. The results show that SLO has the ability to find the best solution with a comparatively small population size and is suitable for solving optimization problems with lower dimensions. PMID:24385879

  10. Seven-Spot Ladybird Optimization: A Novel and Efficient Metaheuristic Algorithm for Numerical Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhouquan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel biologically inspired metaheuristic algorithm called seven-spot ladybird optimization (SLO). The SLO is inspired by recent discoveries on the foraging behavior of a seven-spot ladybird. In this paper, the performance of the SLO is compared with that of the genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, and artificial bee colony algorithms by using five numerical benchmark functions with multimodality. The results show that SLO has the ability to find the best solution with a comparatively small population size and is suitable for solving optimization problems with lower dimensions. PMID:24385879