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Sample records for annealing temperature dependence

  1. Annealing and Test Temperature Dependence of Tensile Properties of UNS N04400 Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzal, Naveed; Ahmad, R.; Akhtar, Tanveer; Ayub, R.; Ghauri, I. M.

    2013-07-01

    Effects of annealing and test temperatures on the tensile behavior of UNS N04400 alloy have been examined. The specimens were annealed at 800, 1000, and 1200 °C for 4 h under vacuum in a muffle furnace. Stress-strain curves of the specimens were obtained in the temperature range 25-300 °C using a universal testing machine fitted with a thermostatic chamber. The results indicate that the yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and percentage elongation of the specimens decrease with increase of annealing temperature. By increasing the test temperature, the YS and UTS decrease, whereas the percentage elongation initially decreases with increase of test temperature from 25 to 100 °C and then increases with further increasing the temperature up to 300 °C. The changes in the tensile properties of the alloy are associated with the post-annealing microstructure and modes of fracture.

  2. Temperature- and roughness- dependent permittivity of annealed/unannealed gold films.

    PubMed

    Shen, Po-Ting; Sivan, Yonatan; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Liu, Hsiang-Lin; Chang, Chih-Wei; Chu, Shi-Wei

    2016-08-22

    Intrinsic absorption and subsequent heat generation have long been issues for metal-based plasmonics. Recently, thermo-plasmonics, which takes the advantage of such a thermal effect, is emerging as an important branch of plasmonics. However, although significant temperature increase is involved, characterization of metal permittivity at different temperatures and corresponding thermo-derivative are lacking. Here we measure gold permittivity from 300K to 570K, which the latter is enough for gold annealing. More than one order difference in thermo-derivative is revealed between annealed and unannealed films, resulting in a large variation of plasmonic properties. In addition, an unusual increase of imaginary permittivity after annealing is found. Both these effects can be attributed to the increased surface roughness incurred by annealing. Our results are valuable for characterizing extensively used unannealed nanoparticles, or annealed nanostructures, as building blocks in future thermo-nano-plasmonic systems. PMID:27557205

  3. Annealing temperature dependency of ZnO thin films memristive behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaari, N. A. A.; Kasim, S. M. M.; Rusop, M.; Herman, S. H.

    2016-07-01

    The work focuses on the effect of different annealing temperature on the ZnO-based memristive device. Zinc oxide was deposited on the ITO substrate by sol-gel spincoating technique. The deposited ZnO thin films were then annealed from 50°C to 450°C in a furnace for 60 minutes each. The electrodes Platinum (Pt) were sputtered by using JEOL JFC-1600 Auto Fine Coater. The thin film thicknesses were measured by Veeco Dektak 150 Surface Profiler. The thickness of the thin film annealed at 350°C is the thinnest, which is 54.78nm and from the electrical characterization it also shown the switching characteristic behavior. The surface morphology and topology to examine the existence of nanoparticles

  4. Microstructural dependence of annealing temperature in magnetron-sputtered Al-Si-Cu films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ming-Kaan; Ling, Yong-Chien

    1993-09-01

    The effect of sputtering temperature, sputtering bias, and annealing temperature upon the sheet resistance, WO3 formation at the Al-Si-Cu/Ti-W interface, and diffraction intensity of the Al2Cu precipitates of magnetron-sputtered Al-Si-Cu films were investigated. Statistical methods and microcharacterization techniques were applied to study these effects. Statistical analysis verifies the effect of annealing temperature on the measured sheet resistance. Annealing temperature alone is the dominant factor upon the WO3 formation at the Al-Si-Cu/Ti-W interface and the Al2Cu (211) plane diffraction intensity. Annealed samples are of higher sheet resistance. Increase in sheet resistance is ascribed to the formation of interfacial WO3. Reduced electromigration is related to the formation of Al2Cu precipitates. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis of the as-deposited sample depicts the presence of an excess amount of oxygen atoms at the surface and the Al-Si-Cu/Ti-W and Ti-W/Ti interfaces. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and SIMS analyses reveal the outdiffusion of W from the Ti-W layer toward the Al-Si-Cu layer, the presence of Si nodules at the Al-Si-Cu/Ti-W interface, and the formation of Ti silicides at the Ti/Si interface. These phenomena are confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and scanning electron microscopy analyses. It is concluded that interfacial oxygen, which reacts with W to form WO3 upon annealing, warrants further reduction to yield films of better sheet resistance.

  5. Temperature- and -roughness dependent permittivity of annealed/unannealed gold films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Po-Ting; Sivan, Yonatan; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Liu, Hsiang-Lin; Chang, Chih-Wei; Chu, Shi-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Due to local field enhancement and subwavelength confinements, nano-plasmonics provide numerous novel applications. Simultaneously, as an efficient nanoscale heat generator from inherent absorption, thermo-plasmonics is emerging as an important branch. However, although significant temperature increase is involved in applications, detailed characterization of metal permittivity at different temperatures and corresponding thermo-derivative are lacking. In this work, we extract the permittivity of gold from 300K to the annealing temperature of 570K. By comparing annealed and unannealed films, more than one-order difference in thermo-derivative of permittivity is revealed, resulting in unexpectedly large variation of plasmonic properties. Our result is valuable not only for characterizing extensively used unannealed nanoparticles, but also for designing future thermo-nano-plasmonic systems.

  6. Temperature dependence and annealing effects of absorption edges for selenium quantum dots formed by ion implantation in silica glass

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, A.; Wu, M.; Mu, R.

    1998-12-31

    The authors have fabricated Se nanoparticles in silica substrates by ion implantation followed by thermal annealing up to 1000 C, and studied the Se nanoparticle formation by optical absorption spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The sample with the highest dose (1 {times} 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}) showed the nanoparticle formation during the ion implantation, while the lower dose samples (1 and 3 {times} 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}) required thermal treatment to obtain nano-sized particles. The Se nanoparticles in silica were found to be amorphous. After thermal annealing, the particle doses approached the value of bulk after thermal annealing. The temperature dependent absorption spectra were also measured for this system in a temperature range from 15 to 300 K.

  7. The annealing temperature dependences of microstructures and magnetic properties in electro-chemical deposited CoNiFe thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suharyadi, Edi; Riyanto, Agus; Abraha, Kamsul

    2016-04-01

    CoNiFe thin films with various compositions had been successfully fabricated using electro-chemical deposition method. The crystal structure of Co65Ni15Fe20, Co62Ni15Fe23, and Co55Ni15Fe30 thin films was fcc, bcc-fcc mix, and bcc, respectively. The difference crystal structure results the difference in magnetic properties. The saturation magnetic flux density (Bs) of Co65Ni15Fe20, Co62Ni15Fe23, and Co55Ni15Fe30 thin films was 1.89 T, 1.93 T, and 2.05 T, respectively. An optimal annealing temperature was determined for controlling the microstructure and magnetic properties of CoNiFe thin films. Depending on annealing temperature, the ratio of bcc and fcc structure varied without changing the film composition. By annealing at temperature of T ≥ 350°C, the intensity ratio of X-ray diffraction peaks for bcc(110) to fcc(111) increased. The increase of phase ratio of bcc(110) to fcc(111) caused the increase of Bs, from 1.89 T to 1.95 T. Coercivity (Hc) also increased after annealing, from 2.6 Oe to 18.6 Oe for fcc phase thin films, from 2.0 Oe to 12.0 Oe for fcc-bcc mix phase thin films, and 7.8 Oe to 8 Oe for bcc phase thin films. The changing crystal structures during annealing process indicated that the thermal treatment at high temperature cause the changing crystallinity and atomic displacement. The TEM bright-field images with corresponding selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns showed that there are strongly effects of thermal annealing on the size of fcc and bcc phase crystalline grain as described by size of individual spot and discontinuous rings. The size of crystalline grains increased by thermal annealing. The evolution of bcc and fcc structures of CoNiFe during annealing is though to be responsible for the change of magnetic properties.

  8. Dependence of the interlayer coupling on anneal temperature in Ni-Fe/Cu evaporated multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchers, J. A.; Gehring, P. M.; Majkrzak, C. F.; Zeltser, A. M.; Smith, N.; Ankner, J. F.

    1997-04-01

    Resistivity and magnetization studies of [Ni83Fe17(27 Å)|Cu(37 Å)]10 multilayers, grown by electron-beam evaporation, reveal that the magnetoresistance (ΔR/R) increases from <0.3% to 4.4% following a heat treatment at 325 °C. Polarized neutron reflectivity measurements on annealed samples show that the interlayer coupling changes from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic, confirming the conclusions of the bulk studies. Data for the 300 and 325 °C annealed samples in small fields show a magnetic peak at half-order that is absent for the as-deposited and 275 °C annealed multilayers. Some of the Ni-Fe spins in the annealed multilayers are thus ordered in large (>100 μm) in-plane domains aligned antiparallel across the Cu layers. An increase in the magnetic scattering at low angles indicates that some of the remaining Ni-Fe moments are randomly oriented from one layer to the next.

  9. The effects of incomplete annealing on the temperature dependence of sheet resistance and gage factor in aluminum and phosphorus implanted silicon on sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisciotta, B. P.; Gross, C.

    1976-01-01

    Partial annealing of damage to the crystal lattice during ion implantation reduces the temperature coefficient of resistivity of ion-implanted silicon, while facilitating controlled doping. Reliance on this method for temperature compensation of the resistivity and strain-gage factor is discussed. Implantation conditions and annealing conditions are detailed. The gage factor and its temperature variation are not drastically affected by crystal damage for some crystal orientations. A model is proposed to account for the effects of electron damage on the temperature dependence of resistivity and on silicon piezoresistance. The results are applicable to the design of silicon-on-sapphire strain gages with high gage factors.

  10. Post-deposition annealing temperature dependence TiO2-based EGFET pH sensor sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkefle, M. A.; Rahman, R. A.; Yusoff, K. A.; Abdullah, W. F. H.; Rusop, M.; Herman, S. H.

    2016-07-01

    EGFET pH sensor is one type of pH sensor that is used to measure and determine pH of a solution. The sensing membrane of EGFET pH sensor plays vital role in the overall performance of the sensor. This paper studies the effects of different annealing temperature of the TiO2 sensing membranes towards sensitivity of EGFET pH sensor. Sol-gel spin coating was chosen as TiO2 deposition techniques since it is cost-effective and produces thin film with uniform thickness. Deposited TiO2 thin films were then annealed at different annealing temperatures and then were connected to the gate of MOSFET as a part of the EGFET pH sensor structure. The thin films now act as sensing membranes of the EGFET pH sensor and sensitivity of each sensing membrane towards pH was measured. From the results it was determined that sensing membrane annealed at 300 °C gave the highest sensitivity followed by sample annealed at 400 °C and 500 °C.

  11. Effects of thermal annealing on photoluminescence spectra in π-conjugated polymer film: evidence for dual emission by temperature dependent measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R. Z.; Yang, X.; Wang, Y. C.; Sheng, C.-X.; Chen, Q.

    2014-09-01

    Various spectroscopy techniques such as absorption, photoluminescence and photoinduced absorption (PIA) spectroscopy, were used to study the photophysics in poly [2-methoxy-5-(20-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) films, which were dropped cast on glass substrates using its toluene solution and being annealed at various temperatures. With the analysis of temperature dependence PL intensities, we conclude that PL emission around 680 nm at low temperature is due to intertain excimers instead of intrachain excitons for 450 K annealed film. On the other hand, this relative intensity difference is much smaller in both unannealed and 500 K annealed films, in which the morphology is amorphous and microcrystalline, respectively. We conclude that the interchain photoexcitations play crucial roles in the photophysics of MEH-PPV films. The further measurements on PIA spectrum of MEH-PPV films suggest that the interchain photoexciation is also important for the generation of triplet excitons.

  12. Temperature dependent interfacial and electrical characteristics during atomic layer deposition and annealing of HfO2 films in p-GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liu; Yuming, Zhang; Yimen, Zhang; Hongliang, Lü; Bin, Lu

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the temperature dependent interfacial and electrical characteristics of p-GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors during atomic layer deposition (ALD) and annealing of HfO2 using the tetrakis (ethylmethyl) amino hafnium precursor. The leakage current decreases with the increase of the ALD temperature and the lowest current is obtained at 300 °C as a result of the Frenkel-Poole conduction induced leakage current being greatly weakened by the reduction of interfacial oxides at the higher temperature. Post deposition annealing (PDA) at 500 °C after ALD at 300 °C leads to the lowest leakage current compared with other annealing temperatures. A pronounced reduction in As oxides during PDA at 500 °C has been observed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at the interface resulting in a proportional increase in Ga2O3. The increment of Ga2O3 after PDA depends on the amount of residual As oxides after ALD. Thus, the ALD temperature plays an important role in determining the high-k/GaAs interface condition. Meanwhile, an optimum PDA temperature is essential for obtaining good dielectric properties. Project supported by the Advance Research Project of China (No. 5130803XXXX) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61176070).

  13. Temperature Dependence and High-Temperature Stability of the Annealed Ni/Au Ohmic Contact to p-Type GaN in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shirong; McFavilen, Heather; Wang, Shuo; Ponce, Fernando A.; Arena, Chantal; Goodnick, Stephen; Chowdhury, Srabanti

    2016-04-01

    We report on the temperature-dependent contact resistivity and high-temperature stability of the annealed Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN in air. As the measure temperature increases from 25°C to 390°C, both the specific contact resistivity (ρ c) and sheet resistance (R sh) decrease by factors ˜10, contributing to the 10-fold increase in current at 390°C compared with that at 25°C. It was also observed that the ρ c was further reduced by 36%, i.e., from 2.2 × 10-3 Ω cm2 to 1.4 × 10-3 Ω cm2, during the 48-h high-temperature stability test at 450°C in air, showing excellent stability of the contacts. An increase in ρ c was observed after the contacts were subjected to 500°C in air. Higher temperature stress led to a significant increase in ρ c. The contacts show rectifying I-V characteristics after being subjected to 700°C for 1 h. The degradation mechanics were analyzed with the assistance of transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy.

  14. Iron phthalocyanine on Cu(111): Coverage-dependent assembly and symmetry breaking, temperature-induced homocoupling, and modification of the adsorbate-surface interaction by annealing.

    PubMed

    Snezhkova, Olesia; Bischoff, Felix; He, Yuanqin; Wiengarten, Alissa; Chaudhary, Shilpi; Johansson, Niclas; Schulte, Karina; Knudsen, Jan; Barth, Johannes V; Seufert, Knud; Auwärter, Willi; Schnadt, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    We have examined the geometric and electronic structures of iron phthalocyanine assemblies on a Cu(111) surface at different sub- to mono-layer coverages and the changes induced by thermal annealing at temperatures between 250 and 320 °C by scanning tunneling microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The symmetry breaking observed in scanning tunneling microscopy images is found to be coverage dependent and to persist upon annealing. Further, we find that annealing to temperatures between 300 and 320 °C leads to both desorption of iron phthalocyanine molecules from the surface and their agglomeration. We see clear evidence of temperature-induced homocoupling reactions of the iron phthalocyanine molecules following dehydrogenation of their isoindole rings, similar to what has been observed for related tetrapyrroles on transition metal surfaces. Finally, spectroscopy indicates a modified substrate-adsorbate interaction upon annealing with a shortened bond distance. This finding could potentially explain a changed reactivity of Cu-supported iron phthalocyanine in comparison to that of the pristine compound. PMID:26957171

  15. Iron phthalocyanine on Cu(111): Coverage-dependent assembly and symmetry breaking, temperature-induced homocoupling, and modification of the adsorbate-surface interaction by annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snezhkova, Olesia; Bischoff, Felix; He, Yuanqin; Wiengarten, Alissa; Chaudhary, Shilpi; Johansson, Niclas; Schulte, Karina; Knudsen, Jan; Barth, Johannes V.; Seufert, Knud; Auwärter, Willi; Schnadt, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    We have examined the geometric and electronic structures of iron phthalocyanine assemblies on a Cu(111) surface at different sub- to mono-layer coverages and the changes induced by thermal annealing at temperatures between 250 and 320 °C by scanning tunneling microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The symmetry breaking observed in scanning tunneling microscopy images is found to be coverage dependent and to persist upon annealing. Further, we find that annealing to temperatures between 300 and 320 °C leads to both desorption of iron phthalocyanine molecules from the surface and their agglomeration. We see clear evidence of temperature-induced homocoupling reactions of the iron phthalocyanine molecules following dehydrogenation of their isoindole rings, similar to what has been observed for related tetrapyrroles on transition metal surfaces. Finally, spectroscopy indicates a modified substrate-adsorbate interaction upon annealing with a shortened bond distance. This finding could potentially explain a changed reactivity of Cu-supported iron phthalocyanine in comparison to that of the pristine compound.

  16. Temperature-dependent phase separation during annealing of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Jisheng; Fang, Lina Wei-Wei; Yeo, Yee-Chia; Foo, Yong Lim; Zhao, Rong; Shi, Luping; Tok, Eng Soon

    2012-06-01

    Thermal stability of 100 nm Ge2Sb2Te5 thin film during annealing from room temperature to 240 °C inside a UHV chamber was studied in situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ex situ by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Ge species are found to diffuse preferentially to the surface when GST film is annealed from 25 °C to 100 °C. This process is accompanied by a change of phase whereby the amorphous film completely becomes face-center-cubic (FCC) phase at 100 °C. From 100 °C to 200 °C, both Sb and Te species are observed to diffuse more to the surface. The FCC phase is partially changed into hexagonal-close-pack (HCP) phase at 200 °C. At 220 °C, FCC phase is completely transformed into HCP phase. Loss of Sb and Te are also detected from the surface and this is attributed to desorption due to their high vapor pressures. At 240 °C, Sb and Te species are found to have desorbed completely from the surface, and leave behind Ge-rich 3D droplets on the surface. The separation of Ge2Sb2Te5 into Sb,Te-rich phase and Ge-rich phase is thus the main mechanism to account for the failure of Ge2Sb2Te5-based phase change memory devices under thermal stress.

  17. Analytic modeling of temperature dependence of 2D carrier mobility in as-grown and annealed GaInNAs/GaAs quantum well structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donmez, O.; Sarcan, F.; Lisesivdin, S. B.; Vaughan, M. P.; Erol, A.; Gunes, M.; Arikan, M. C.; Puustinen, J.; Guina, M.

    2014-12-01

    Temperature and nitrogen dependence of 2D carrier mobility in as-grown and annealed Ga1-xInxNyAs1-y/GaAs quantum well (QW) structures (x = 0.32 y = 0, 0.009, and 0.012) are investigated. An analytical model that accounts for the most prominent scattering mechanisms is used to explain the characteristic of temperature dependence of the carrier mobility. An expression for alloy scattering-limited mobility in N-related alloys is developed to explain the behavior of hole mobility for N-containing p-type samples. Analytical modeling of temperature dependence of the electron mobility indicates that N-related alloy scattering and interface roughness scattering are the dominant mechanism at the entire temperature range of interest. The temperature insensitivity of the electron mobility is explained in terms of the overriding effect of N-related alloy scattering and high 2D electron density. A deviation between theoretical and experimental electron mobility at low temperatures is observed not to have any dependency on N concentration. We, therefore, suggest that CNM interaction parameter of the band anti-crossing (BAC) model must be defined as temperature dependent in order to explain the observed low temperature characteristics of electron mobility. The hole mobility is mainly restricted by interface roughness and alloy scatterings at temperatures lower than 100 K, whilst high temperature hole mobility is drastically affected from optical phonon scattering. Moreover, the hole mobility at high temperatures exhibits an N-independent characteristic and hole density starts to increase at temperatures above 70 K, which is explained using the concept of parallel conduction. Extraction of the hole density in each transport channel (QW and barrier) by using a simple parallel conduction extraction method (SPCEM) shows that, in p-type samples, low temperature hole mobility takes place in quantum well, while as temperature increases barrier channel also contribute to the hole

  18. Effect of Intercritical Annealing Temperature on Martensite and Bainite Start Temperatures After Partial Austenitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erişir, Ersoy; Bilir, Oğuz Gürkan

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure evolution of dual-phase steel during partial austenitization was investigated for different intercritical annealing temperatures between Ac1 and Ac3 temperatures. Partial austenitization may result in different austenite volume fraction, chemical composition, and grain size of austenite depending on the intercritical annealing temperature. This study examines the effect of intercritical annealing temperature on M s and B s temperatures for dual-phase steels. M s and B s were measured experimentally for different intercritical annealing temperatures by using dilatometry and were compared with calculated values from empirical formulas. The grain sizes of the final microstructures were also quantitatively analyzed. It was shown that M s depends on the intercritical annealing temperature and austenite grain size. It was concluded that this double effect is attributed to the intercritical annealing temperature, which is responsible for both austenite chemical composition and grain size.

  19. Temperature dependent formation of ZnO and Zn2SiO4 nanoparticles by ion implantation and thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, B.; Weathers, D. L.

    2014-08-01

    ZnO and Zn2SiO4 nanoparticles have been synthesized by dual beam implantation of 45 keV ZnO- molecular ions and 15 keV O- ions into Si (100) substrates at room temperature to fluences of 1 × 1017 and 2 × 1017 ions/cm2, respectively. Implanted samples were annealed at different temperatures in a mixture of Ar and H2 for 1 h. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to confirm the implanted ion fluences. The diffusion of Zn and O ions due to annealing was studied by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was observed that at 700 °C annealing temperature, oxygen diffused into the substrate whereas Zn diffused in both directions; at 900 °C, oxygen diffused more into the substrate but the Zn diffused outward toward the surface. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to investigate the phase formation and particle sizes. At 700 °C annealing temperature, ZnO phase with an average nanoparticle size of ∼17.5 nm was observed whereas at 900 °C annealing temperature, Zn2SiO4 phase with an average nanoparticle size of ∼19 nm was observed.

  20. Annealing temperature and O2 partial pressure dependence of T(sub c) in HgBa2CuO(4+delta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Q.; Cao, Y.; Chen, F.; Xue, Y. Y.; Chu, C. W.

    1994-01-01

    Samples of HgBa2CuO(4+delta) (Hg-1201) were annealed under various conditions. After carefully controlling annealing time, annealing temperature (T(sub a)) and O2 partial pressure (P(sub 0)), we were able to find the reversible annealing conditions for Hg-1201. Under 1 atm O2 at 260 C less than or equal to T(sub a) less than or equal to 400 C, the obtained T(sub c) is nearly the same (approximately 97 K). However, it decreases quickly with T(sub a) greater than 300 C in high vacuum (P(sub 0) approximately 10(exp -8) atm), and reaches zero at T(sub a) = 400 C. On the other hand, T(sub c) decreases with the decrease of T(sub a) in high-pressure O2 (approximately 500 atm) and reaches approximately 20 K at about 240 C. In the entire annealing region, the oxygen surplus varies significantly from 0.03 to 0.4, and a wide range of T(sub c) variation (0 goes to 97 K goes to 20 K) was obtained with anion doping alone.

  1. High temperature annealing of ion irradiated tungsten

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ferroni, Francesco; Yi, Xiaoou; Arakawa, Kazuto; Fitzgerald, Steven P.; Edmondson, Philip D.; Roberts, Steve G.

    2015-03-21

    In this study, transmission electron microscopy of high temperature annealing of pure tungsten irradiated by self-ions was conducted to elucidate microstructural and defect evolution in temperature ranges relevant to fusion reactor applications (500–1200°C). Bulk isochronal and isothermal annealing of ion irradiated pure tungsten (2 MeV W+ ions, 500°C, 1014 W+/cm2) with temperatures of 800, 950, 1100 and 1400°C, from 0.5 to 8 h, was followed by ex situ characterization of defect size, number density, Burgers vector and nature. Loops with diameters larger than 2–3 nm were considered for detailed analysis, among which all loops had View the MathML source andmore » were predominantly of interstitial nature. In situ annealing experiments from 300 up to 1200°C were also carried out, including dynamic temperature ramp-ups. These confirmed an acceleration of loop loss above 900°C. At different temperatures within this range, dislocations exhibited behaviour such as initial isolated loop hopping followed by large-scale rearrangements into loop chains, coalescence and finally line–loop interactions and widespread absorption by free-surfaces at increasing temperatures. An activation energy for the annealing of dislocation length was obtained, finding Ea=1.34±0.2 eV for the 700–1100°C range.« less

  2. High temperature annealing of ion irradiated tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Ferroni, Francesco; Yi, Xiaoou; Fitzgerald, Steven P.; Edmondson, Philip D.; Roberts, Steve G.

    2015-03-21

    In this study, transmission electron microscopy of high temperature annealing of pure tungsten irradiated by self-ions was conducted to elucidate microstructural and defect evolution in temperature ranges relevant to fusion reactor applications (500–1200°C). Bulk isochronal and isothermal annealing of ion irradiated pure tungsten (2 MeV W+ ions, 500°C, 1014 W+/cm2) with temperatures of 800, 950, 1100 and 1400°C, from 0.5 to 8 h, was followed by ex situ characterization of defect size, number density, Burgers vector and nature. Loops with diameters larger than 2–3 nm were considered for detailed analysis, among which all loops had View the MathML source and were predominantly of interstitial nature. In situ annealing experiments from 300 up to 1200°C were also carried out, including dynamic temperature ramp-ups. These confirmed an acceleration of loop loss above 900°C. At different temperatures within this range, dislocations exhibited behaviour such as initial isolated loop hopping followed by large-scale rearrangements into loop chains, coalescence and finally line–loop interactions and widespread absorption by free-surfaces at increasing temperatures. An activation energy for the annealing of dislocation length was obtained, finding Ea=1.34±0.2 eV for the 700–1100°C range.

  3. Effect of annealing on the temperature dependence of inelastic tunneling contributions vis-à-vis tunneling magnetoresistance and barrier parameters in CoFe/MgO/NiFe magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Bhusan Singh, Braj; Chaudhary, Sujeet

    2014-02-28

    The effect of annealing on the changes in the inelastic tunneling contributions in tunneling conductance of ion beam sputtered CoFe/MgO/NiFe magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) is investigated. The inelastic contributions are evaluated using hopping conduction model of Glazman and Matveev in the temperature range of 25–300 K. The hopping through number of series of localized states present in the barrier due to structural defects increases from 9 (in as deposited MTJ) to 18 after annealing (at 200 °C/1 h); although no changes in the interface roughness of CoFe-MgO and MgO-NiFe interfaces are observed as revealed by the x-ray reflectance studies on planar MTJs. The bias dependence of tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) at 25 K is found to get improved after annealing as revealed by the value V{sub 1/2} (the bias value at which the TMR reaches to half of its value at nearly zero bias); which is 78 mV (in MTJ annealed at 200 °C/1 h) 2.5 times the value of 33 mV (in as deposited MTJ). At 25 K the inelastic tunneling spectra revealed the presence of zero bias anomaly and magnon excitations in the range of 10–15 mV. While the barrier height exhibited a strong temperature dependence with nearly 100% increase from the value at 300 K to 25 K, the temperature dependence of TMR becomes steep after annealing.

  4. Thermoelectric properties by high temperature annealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ren, Zhifeng (Inventor); Chen, Gang (Inventor); Kumar, Shankar (Inventor); Lee, Hohyun (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention generally provides methods of improving thermoelectric properties of alloys by subjecting them to one or more high temperature annealing steps, performed at temperatures at which the alloys exhibit a mixed solid/liquid phase, followed by cooling steps. For example, in one aspect, such a method of the invention can include subjecting an alloy sample to a temperature that is sufficiently elevated to cause partial melting of at least some of the grains. The sample can then be cooled so as to solidify the melted grain portions such that each solidified grain portion exhibits an average chemical composition, characterized by a relative concentration of elements forming the alloy, that is different than that of the remainder of the grain.

  5. Annealing temperature and thickness dependence of magnetic properties in epitaxial L1{sub 0}-Mn{sub 1.4}Ga films

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Y. H. Lu, H.; Teo, K. L.; Han, G. C.

    2014-01-28

    Mn{sub 1.4}Ga films with high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and high crystalline quality were grown on MgO substrates with Cr buffer layer using molecular beam epitaxy. The crystalline structure and the surface morphology of the films have been systematically investigated as functions of in-situ annealing temperature (T{sub a}) and film thickness. It is found that the magnetic properties can be largely tuned by adjusting T{sub a}. As T{sub a} increases, both saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) and uniaxial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy constant (K{sub u}) increase to the maximum values of 612 emu/cc and 18 Merg/cc at 300 °C, respectively, and then decrease. The morphology also changes with T{sub a}, showing a minimum roughness of 2.2 Å at T{sub a} = 450 °C. On the other hand, as the thickness increases, M{sub s} and K{sub u} increase while coercivity decreases, which indicates there is a magnetic dead layer with a thickness of about 1.5 nm at the interfaces. The detailed examination on the surface morphology of the films with various thicknesses shows a complicated film growth process, which can be understood from the relaxation mechanism of the interfacial strain.

  6. Selective aspect ratio of CNTs based on annealing temperature by TCVD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefi, Amin Termeh; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop; Ikeda, Shoichiro

    2016-07-01

    Various aspect ratios of CNTs reported based on alteration of annealing temperature using thermal-chemical vapor deposition (TCVD) method. Also the growth dependent and independent parameters of the carbon nanotube (CNTs) array were studied as a function of synthesis method. The FESEM images indicate that the nanotubes are approximately perpendicular to the surface of the silicon substrate and form carbon nanotubes in different aspect ratios according to the applied annealing temperature. Furthermore, due to the optimized results it can be observed that, the mechanism of the CNTs growth is still present in the annealing step as well as deposition process and the most CNTs with crystalline aspect, produced in the annealing temperature, which was optimized at 700 - 900 ˚C. This result demonstrates that the growth rate, mass production, diameter, density, and crystallinity of CNT can be controlled by the annealing temperature.

  7. Correlation between microstructure and temperature dependent electrical behavior of annealed Ti/Al/Ni/Au Ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iucolano, Ferdinando; Greco, Giuseppe; Roccaforte, Fabrizio

    2013-11-01

    This letter reports on the temperature behavior of the structural and electrical properties of Ti/Al/Ni/Au contacts to AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. While Ohmic contacts formed at 750 °C showed a decreasing temperature behavior of the specific contact resistance ρC, which was explained by a thermionic field emission mechanism, an increasing trend is observed in the contacts formed at 850 °C. In this case, ρC exhibits a "metal-like" behavior, i.e., describable by a T1.8 dependence. The microstructural analysis of the interfacial region allowed to explain the results with the formation of metallic intrusions contacting directly the two dimensional electron gas.

  8. Temperature, stress, and annealing effects on the luminescence from electron-irradiated silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. E.; Johnson, E. S.; Compton, W. D.; Noonan, J. R.; Streetman, B. G.

    1973-01-01

    Low-temperature photoluminescence spectra are presented for Si crystals which have been irradiated with high-energy electrons. Studies of isochronal annealing, stress effects, and the temperature dependences of the luminescence are used to discuss the nature of the luminescent transitions and the properties of defects. Two dominant bands present after room-temperature anneal of irradiated material are discussed, and correlations of the properties of these bands are made with known Si defects. A band between 0.8 and 1.0 eV has properties which are related to those of the divacancy, and a band between 0.6 and 0.8 eV has properties related to those of the Si-G15(K) center. Additional peaks appear in the luminescence after high-temperature anneal; the influence of impurities and the effects of annealing of these lines are discussed.

  9. Experimental evidence regarding the pressure dependence of fission track annealing in apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. S.; Lelarge, M. L. M. V.; Conceicao, R. V.; Balzaretti, N. M.

    2014-03-01

    The main purposes of fission track thermochronology are unravelling the thermal histories of sedimentary basins, determining uplift and denudation rates, identifying the structural evolution of orogenic belts, determining sedimentary provenance, and dating volcanic rocks. The effect of temperature on fission tracks is well known and is used to determine the thermal history; however, the effect of pressure on the stability of tracks is still under debate. The present work aims to understand the role of pressure on the annealing kinetics of apatite fission tracks. The samples of Durango apatite used in our experiments were chosen for their international recognition as a calibration standard for geological dating. Neutron irradiation of the samples, after total annealing of their spontaneous tracks, produced induced tracks with homogeneous densities and lengths. The effect of pressure associated with temperature on fission track annealing was verified by experimental procedures using a hydraulic press of 1000 t with a toroidal chamber profile. The experiments consisted of a combination of applying 2 and 4 GPa with 20,150,190,235, and 290 °C for 1 and 10 h. The annealing rate was analysed by measuring the lengths of the fission tracks after each experiment using optical microscopy. The results demonstrate that the annealing of apatite fission tracks has a pressure dependence for samples subjected to 2 and 4 GPa. However, when extrapolated to pressures of ⩽150 MPa, compatible with the normal geological context in which apatite fission track methodology is broadly used, this dependence becomes insignificant compared to the temperature effect.

  10. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Structural and Optical Properties of Zn1-xMnxO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, A. R. Abd; Menon, P. S.; Shaari, S.

    2010-10-01

    Mn doped ZnO films with different annealing temperatures were synthesized by sol gel method using a spin coating technique. The annealing temperature was varied from 500° C, 550° C, and 700° C. The atomic force microscopy images show the surface morphologies change greatly with an increase in annealing temperature and it also depends on the type of substrate used. The XRD analysis show the films exhibiting hexagonal wurtzite structure with increasing crystalline size at higher temperatures. The optical properties were characterized using UV-Vis where the transmittance decreases due to ionization at higher temperatures which affect the material band gap.

  11. Effect of annealing temperature on titania nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, K.; Arumugam, S.; Chandrasekaran, G.

    2014-04-01

    Titania polycrystalline samples are prepared by using sol-gel route hydrolyzing a alkoxide titanium precursor under acidic conditions. The as prepared samples are treated with different calcination temperatures. The anatase phase of titania forms when treated below 600°C, above that temperature the anatase phase tends to transform into the rutile phase of titania. The experimental determination of average grain size, phase formation, lattice parameters and the crystal structures of titania samples at different calcinations is done using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Analysis X-ray are used to characterize the samples to bring impact on the respective properties.

  12. Effect of annealing temperature on titania nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Manikandan, K. Arumugam, S.; Chandrasekaran, G.

    2014-04-24

    Titania polycrystalline samples are prepared by using sol-gel route hydrolyzing a alkoxide titanium precursor under acidic conditions. The as prepared samples are treated with different calcination temperatures. The anatase phase of titania forms when treated below 600°C, above that temperature the anatase phase tends to transform into the rutile phase of titania. The experimental determination of average grain size, phase formation, lattice parameters and the crystal structures of titania samples at different calcinations is done using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Analysis X-ray are used to characterize the samples to bring impact on the respective properties.

  13. Temperature effects on the mechanical properties of annealed and HERF 304L stainless steel.

    SciTech Connect

    Antoun, Bonnie R.

    2004-11-01

    The effect of temperature on the tensile properties of annealed 304L stainless steel and HERF 304L stainless steel forgings was determined by completing experiments over the moderate range of -40 F to 160 F. Temperature effects were more significant in the annealed material than the HERF material. The tensile yield strength of the annealed material at -40 F averaged twenty two percent above the room temperature value and at 160 F averaged thirteen percent below. The tensile yield strength for the three different geometry HERF forgings at -40 F and 160 F changed less than ten percent from room temperature. The ultimate tensile strength was more temperature dependent than the yield strength. The annealed material averaged thirty six percent above and fourteen percent below the room temperature ultimate strength at -40 F and 160 F, respectively. The HERF forgings exhibited similar, slightly lower changes in ultimate strength with temperature. For completeness and illustrative purposes, the stress-strain curves are included for each of the tensile experiments conducted. The results of this study prompted a continuation study to determine tensile property changes of welded 304L stainless steel material with temperature, documented separately.

  14. Sign change in the tunnel magnetoresistance of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MgO/Co-Fe-B magnetic tunnel junctions depending on the annealing temperature and the interface treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Marnitz, L. Rott, K.; Niehörster, S.; Klewe, C.; Meier, D.; Fabretti, S.; Thomas, A.; Reiss, G.; Kuschel, T.; Witziok, M.; Krampf, A.; Kuschel, O.; Schemme, T.; Kuepper, K.; Wollschläger, J.

    2015-04-15

    Magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) is an eligible candidate for magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) since it shows a high spin polarization at the Fermi level as well as a high Curie temperature of 585°C. In this study, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MgO/Co-Fe-B MTJs were manufactured. A sign change in the TMR is observed after annealing the MTJs at temperatures between 200°C and 280°C. Our findings suggest an Mg interdiffusion from the MgO barrier into the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} as the reason for the change of the TMR. Additionally, different treatments of the magnetite interface (argon bombardment, annealing at 200°C in oxygen atmosphere) during the preparation of the MTJs have been studied regarding their effect on the performance of the MTJs. A maximum TMR of up to -12% could be observed using both argon bombardment and annealing in oxygen atmosphere, despite exposing the magnetite surface to atmospheric conditions before the deposition of the MgO barrier.

  15. Temperature-dependent minority carrier lifetime of crystalline silicon wafers passivated by high quality amorphous silicon oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Masahiro; Todoroki, Soichiro; Nakada, Kazuyoshi; Miyajima, Shinsuke

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the effects of annealing on the temperature-dependent minority carrier lifetime of a crystalline silicon wafer passivated by hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide. The annealing significantly affects the lifetime and its temperature dependence. Our device simulations clearly indicate that valence band offset significantly affects the temperature dependence. We also found a slight increase in the interface defect density after annealing.

  16. Influence of post-annealing temperature on properties of ZnO:Li thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L. L.; He, H. P.; Ye, Z. Z.; Zeng, Y. J.; Lu, J. G.; Zhao, B. H.; Zhu, L. P.

    2006-03-01

    Li-doped ZnO thin films were prepared on glass substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The influence of post-annealing temperature on the electrical, structural, and optical properties of the films was investigated. A conversion from p-type conduction to n-type in a range of temperature was confirmed by Hall measurement. The optimal p-type conduction is achieved at the annealing temperature of 500 °C with a resistivity of 57 Ω cm, carrier concentration of 1.07 × 10 17 cm -3 and Hall mobility of 1.03 cm 2 V -1 s -1. From the temperature-dependent PL analysis, the energy level of Li Zn acceptor was determined to be ˜140 meV above the valence band.

  17. Power change in amorphous silicon technology by low temperature annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Ankit; Rennhofer, Marcus; Dangel, Angelika; Duman, Bogdan; Schlosser, Victor

    2015-07-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) is one of the best established thin-film solar-cell technologies. Despite its long history of research, it still has many critical issues because of its defect rich material and its susceptibility to degrade under light also called as Staebler-Wronski effect (SWE). This leads to an increase in the defect density of a-Si, but as a metastable effect it can be completely healed at temperatures above 170 °C. Our study is focused on investigating the behavior of annealing of different a-Si modules under low temperature conditions below 80 °C indicated by successive change of module power. These conditions reflect the environmental temperature impact of the modules in the field, or integrated in buildings as well. The power changes were followed by STC power rating and investigation of module-power evolution under low irradiance conditions at 50 W/m2. Our samples were recovered close to their initial state of power, reaching as high as 99% from its degraded value. This shows the influence of low temperature annealing and light on metastable module behavior in a-Si thin-film modules.

  18. Low temperature annealing of cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Bech, J. I.; Hansen, N.

    2015-08-01

    Cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires are nanostructured and the flow stress at room temperature can reach values above 6 GPa. A typical characteristic of the nanostructured metals, is the low ductility and thermal stability. In order to optimize both the processing and application of the wires, the thermal behaviour is of interest. This has been studied by annealing the wires for 1h at temperatures from ambient temperature to 300 °C (573 K). It is expected that a raising temperature may lead to structural changes and a reduction in strength. The change in strength is however not expected to be large. For this reason we have applied a very precise technique to measure the tensile properties of the wires from a strain of 10-4 to the maximum strain of about 1-2%. The structural changes have also been followed to estimate and relate strength changes to changes in structural parameters and morphology.

  19. Surface self-diffusion of silicon during high temperature annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Acosta-Alba, Pablo E.; Kononchuk, Oleg; Gourdel, Christophe; Claverie, Alain

    2014-04-07

    The atomic-scale mechanisms driving thermally activated self-diffusion on silicon surfaces are investigated by atomic force microscopy. The evolution of surface topography is quantified over a large spatial bandwidth by means of the Power Spectral Density functions. We propose a parametric model, based on the Mullins-Herring (M-H) diffusion equation, to describe the evolution of the surface topography of silicon during thermal annealing. Usually, a stochastic term is introduced into the M-H model in order to describe intrinsic random fluctuations of the system. In this work, we add two stochastic terms describing the surface thermal fluctuations and the oxidation-evaporation phenomenon. Using this extended model, surface evolution during thermal annealing in reducing atmosphere can be predicted for temperatures above the roughening transition. A very good agreement between experimental and theoretical data describing roughness evolution and self-diffusion phenomenon is obtained. The physical origin and time-evolution of these stochastic terms are discussed. Finally, using this model, we explore the limitations of the smoothening of the silicon surfaces by rapid thermal annealing.

  20. Surface self-diffusion of silicon during high temperature annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta-Alba, Pablo E.; Kononchuk, Oleg; Gourdel, Christophe; Claverie, Alain

    2014-04-01

    The atomic-scale mechanisms driving thermally activated self-diffusion on silicon surfaces are investigated by atomic force microscopy. The evolution of surface topography is quantified over a large spatial bandwidth by means of the Power Spectral Density functions. We propose a parametric model, based on the Mullins-Herring (M-H) diffusion equation, to describe the evolution of the surface topography of silicon during thermal annealing. Usually, a stochastic term is introduced into the M-H model in order to describe intrinsic random fluctuations of the system. In this work, we add two stochastic terms describing the surface thermal fluctuations and the oxidation-evaporation phenomenon. Using this extended model, surface evolution during thermal annealing in reducing atmosphere can be predicted for temperatures above the roughening transition. A very good agreement between experimental and theoretical data describing roughness evolution and self-diffusion phenomenon is obtained. The physical origin and time-evolution of these stochastic terms are discussed. Finally, using this model, we explore the limitations of the smoothening of the silicon surfaces by rapid thermal annealing.

  1. Visible Photoluminescence of Non-Stoichiometric Silicon Nitride Films: The Effect of Annealing Temperature and Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasukova, L. A.; Komarov, F. F.; Parkhomenko, I. N.; Milchanin, O. V.; Makhavikou, M. A.; Mudryi, A. V.; Żuk, J.; Kopychiński, P.; Togambayeva, A. K.

    2015-07-01

    The radiative properties of non-stoichiometric silicon nitride SiNx fi lms produced by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition were studied. Intense room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) in the visible region was recorded after annealing for both Si-rich (x = 1.13) and N-rich (x = 1.5) silicon nitride fi lms. The position of the PL band maximum depended signifi cantly on the fi lm composition. The PL band maxima for Si-rich and N-rich SiNx fi lms were detected in the red (660 nm) and blue (450 nm) spectral regions, respectively. The effect of the annealing atmosphere on PL of the SiNx fi lms was studied. It was shown that the PL intensity depended not only on the annealing temperature but also on the annealing atmosphere. The observed features of the non-stoichiometric SiNx PL spectra were explained in terms of defect states in the SiNx band gap.

  2. Photoluminescence of new Tb3+-intercalated octosilicates depending on phase transition caused by annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yufeng; Yan, Yudong; Bao, Yao; Zou, Yan

    2016-08-01

    A new Tb3+-intercalated layered octosilicate (Tb-Oct) was prepared through protonation, exfoliation and intercalation processing. Photoluminescence of the Tb-Oct silicates dependant of phase transition has been investigated in detail. The emissions attributed to 5D4-7FJ (J = 3, 4, 5, 6) transition of Tb3+were observed from the emission spectra of the as-prepared Tb-Oct silicates. After the as-prepared Tb-Oct silicates thermal treatment at 200 °C, all diffraction peaks disappeared, suggesting the collapse of layered structure. With the increase in the annealing temperature from 200 to 1000 °C, no diffraction peaks appeared in all the annealed samples. Photoluminescence spectra show that the green emission ascribed to 5D4-7F5 transition of Tb3+ markedly increased as the sample was annealed at 800 °C. However, this green emission disappeared while the sample was annealed at 400, 600, and 1000 °C, which may relate to actual surroundings of Tb3+ ions. That is, the amorphous phase formed at 800 °C is more favorable for the green emission of Tb3+.

  3. Ferromagnetism in Semiconductor C-Ni Films at Different Annealing Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalouji, Vali; Elahi, Smohammad

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the microstructure and magnetic properties of carbon-nickel (C-Ni) composite films annealed at different temperatures (300-1000∘C) were investigated. The films were grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on quartz substrates at room temperature. The nickel concentration in the films are affected by changing of the value of evaporation nickel atoms and measured by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). Values of coercive field were measured under both increasing and decreasing applied magnetic field. It is shown that the coercive field of films strongly dependent on the annealing temperature and at 500∘C films has maximum value of 93.67Oe. The difference in the coercive fields increased for films annealed from 300 to 500∘C and then decreased from 500 to 1000∘C. The ID/IG ratio of Raman spectra would indicate the presence of higher sp2 bonded carbon in the films annealed at 800∘C.

  4. The effect of annealing temperature on the electrical characterization of Co/n type GaP Schottky diode

    SciTech Connect

    Orak, İ.; Ejderha, K.; Sönmez, E.; Alanyalıoğlu, M.; Turut, A.

    2015-01-15

    The Co/n-GaP nano-Schottky diodes have been fabricated to investigate effect of annealing temperature on the characteristics of the device. DC Magnetron sputtering technique has been used for Co metallic contact. The samples have been annealed for three minutes at 400 °C and 600 °C. XRD analyzes of the devices subjected to thermal annealing process have been investigated. Surface images have been taken with atomic force microscopy (AFM) in order to examine the morphology of the surface of the metal layer before and after the annealing the sample. The current–voltage (I–V) measurements taken at room temperature have shown that the ideality factor and series resistance decrease with the increasing annealing temperature. The ideality factor was found to be 1.02 for sample annealed at 400 °C. Before and after annealing, depending on the temperature measurement, the capacitance–frequency (C–f), and conductance–frequency (G–f) have been measured, and graphs have been plotted.

  5. Growth of Ge/Si(100) Nanostructures by Radio-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering: the Role of Annealing Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alireza, Samavati; K. Ghoshal, S.; Othaman, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Surface morphologies of Ge islands deposited on Si(100) substrates are characterized and their optical properties determined. Samples are prepared by rf magnetron sputtering in a high-vacuum chamber and are annealed at 600°C, 700°C and 800°C for 2 min at nitrogen ambient pressure. Atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, visible photoluminescence (PL) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy are employed. The results for the annealing temperature-dependent sample morphology and the optical properties are presented. The density, size and roughness are found to be strongly influenced by the annealing temperature. A red shift of ~0.29 eV in the PL peak is observed with increasing annealing temperature.

  6. Composition dependent thermal annealing behaviour of ion tracks in apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadzri, A.; Schauries, D.; Mota-Santiago, P.; Muradoglu, S.; Trautmann, C.; Gleadow, A. J. W.; Hawley, A.; Kluth, P.

    2016-07-01

    Natural apatite samples with different F/Cl content from a variety of geological locations (Durango, Mexico; Mud Tank, Australia; and Snarum, Norway) were irradiated with swift heavy ions to simulate fission tracks. The annealing kinetics of the resulting ion tracks was investigated using synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) combined with ex situ annealing. The activation energies for track recrystallization were extracted and consistent with previous studies using track-etching, tracks in the chlorine-rich Snarum apatite are more resistant to annealing than in the other compositions.

  7. Low-temperature electron irradiation and annealing in pure magnesium

    SciTech Connect

    Simester, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    In this study of magnesium after 1.0 MeV electron irradiations at 1.55/sup 0/K, it has been observed that the damage production rate in Mg is (3.57 +- 0.03) x 10/sup -26/ ..cap omega..cm/(e/sup -/ cm/sup 2/). There is no evidence for thermal annealing up to 4/sup 0/K. The low temperature recovery in magnesium is found to consist of two broad substages between 4 to 14/sup 0/K, both of which exhibit evidence for correlated and uncorrelated recovery processes. The two substages are found to have very different frequency factors for annealing, and there is evidence that the recovery processes in the second substage are influenced by those in the first. A model for recovery is proposed using the split configuration in the plane which explains the first substage as being due to interstitial migration in the basal plane and the second to migration perpendicular to the plane.

  8. Magnetic properties of hexagonal barium ferrite films on Pt/MgO(111) substrates annealed at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hui; Han, Mangui; Zheng, Liang; Deng, Jiangxia; Zheng, Peng; Wu, Qiong; Deng, Longjiang; Qin, Huibin

    2016-09-01

    In this work, hexagonal barium ferrite thin films have been deposited on Pt/MgO(111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The anneal temperature dependence of crystal structures, extents of diffusion and magnetic properties have been studied. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the crystal structure changes from the hexagonal to the spinel when the anneal temperature increases. The texture with c-axis perpendicular to the film plane and the small c-axis dispersion angles (△ɵc) have been obtained in the film annealed at 950 °C for 10 h. Both the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy profiles and energy dispersive spectrometer show that the diffusions of Mg2+and Fe3+cations are more obvious when the annealing temperature is higher than 950 °C. The film annealed at 950 °C show anisotropic and hard magnetic properties. The magnetic properties of film annealed at 1050 °C are soft. In order to study the cation diffusions between thin film and substrate, the concentration profiles of cations (Ba2+, Fe3+, Mg2+) have been measured by XPS for a thin film with a thickness of 130 nm annealed at 950°C and 1050°C, as shown in Fig. 3. When Ta is 950°C, as shown in Fig. 3(a), diffusions between the film and the substrate are scarcely detected. However, obvious inter-diffusions have been found for Mg2+ cation and Fe3+ cation when it is annealed at 1050°C. An obvious diffusion has not been found for Ba2+ cation at both annealing temperatures.

  9. Effect of Intercritical Annealing Temperature on Phase Transformations in Medium Carbon Dual Phase Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erişir, Ersoy; Bilir, Oğuz Gürkan

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a study concerning phase transformations during quenching of a medium carbon dual phase steel using thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and dilatometry. Medium carbon steel was subjected to the intermediate quenching to produce a fine grained ferrite/martensite dual phase steel. 4 samples quenched after intercritical annealing at 725, 730, 740, and 750 °C. Martensite-start and bainite-start temperatures were calculated from dilatometric curves using plastodilotemeter. Experimental findings are supported by calculated phase diagrams and equilibrium phase compositions using ThermoCalc® and calculations from different empirical formulas. It is concluded that martensite-start temperature depend on chemical composition and grain size of austenite.

  10. Dependence of buried CoSi{sub 2} resistivity on ion implantation and annealing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Namavar, F.; Kalkhoran, N.M.; Manke, J.M.; Luo, L.; McGinn, J.T.

    1992-04-01

    We have investigated the dependence of electrical and material properties of buried CoSi{sub 2} layers on Co+ implantation and annealing conditions. The results indicated that the electrical resistivity and crystalline quality of the implanted buried CoSi{sub 2} layers depend strongly on the implantation temperature. CoSi{sub 2} layers with the lowest resistivity and best crystalline quality ({chi}{sub min} as low as 3.6%) were obtained from samples implanted at 300{degrees}C--400{degrees}C. Implantation at higher temperatures (e.g., 580{degrees}C) produced cobalt disilicide layers with significantly higher electrical resistivity and a {chi}{sub min} of about 10.7%.

  11. Coupled annealing temperature and layer thickness effect on strengthening mechanisms of Ti/Ni multilayer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhou; Wang, Junlan

    2016-03-01

    A systematic study was performed on mechanical and microstructural properties of Ti/Ni multilayers with layer thickness from 200 nm to 6 nm and annealing temperature from room temperature to 500 °C. Based on the observed hardness evolution, a coupled layer-thickness and annealing-temperature dependent strengthening mechanism map is proposed. For as-deposited films, the deformation behavior follows the traditional trend of dislocation mediated strengthening to grain boundary mediated softening with decreasing layer thickness. For annealed films, grain boundary relaxation is considered to be the initial strengthening mechanism with higher activation temperature required for thicker layers. Under further annealing, solid solution hardening, intermetallic precipitation hardening, and fully intermixed alloy structure continue to strengthen the thin layered films, while recrystallization and grain-growth lead to the eventual softening of thick layered films. For the films with intermediate layer thickness, a strong orientation dependent hardness behavior is exhibited under high temperature annealing due to mechanism switch from grain growth softening to intermetallic precipitation hardening when changing the loading orientation from perpendicular to parallel to the layer interfaces.

  12. Surface Morphology Transformation Under High-Temperature Annealing of Ge Layers Deposited on Si(100).

    PubMed

    Shklyaev, A A; Latyshev, A V

    2016-12-01

    We study the surface morphology and chemical composition of SiGe layers after their formation under high-temperature annealing at 800-1100 °C of 30-150 nm Ge layers deposited on Si(100) at 400-500 °C. It is found that the annealing leads to the appearance of the SiGe layers of two types, i.e., porous and continuous. The continuous layers have a smoothened surface morphology and a high concentration of threading dislocations. The porous and continuous layers can coexist. Their formation conditions and the ratio between their areas on the surface depend on the thickness of deposited Ge layers, as well as on the temperature and the annealing time. The data obtained suggest that the porous SiGe layers are formed due to melting of the strained Ge layers and their solidification in the conditions of SiGe dewetting on Si. The porous and dislocation-rich SiGe layers may have properties interesting for applications. PMID:27541814

  13. Room-temperature annealing of Si implantation damage in InP

    SciTech Connect

    Akano, U.G.; Mitchell, I.V. . Dept. of Physics); Shepherd, F.R. )

    1991-11-11

    Spontaneous recovery at 295 K of Si implant damage in InP is reported. InP(Zn) and InP(S) wafers of (100) orientation have been implanted at room temperature with 600 keV Si{sup +} ions to doses ranging from 3.6{times}10{sup 11} to 2{times}10{sup 14} cm{sup {minus}2}. Room-temperature annealing of the resultant damage has been monitored by the Rutherford backscattering/channeling technique. For Si doses {le}4{times}10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}2}, up to 70% of the initial damage (displaced atoms) annealed out over a period of {approx}85 days. The degree of recovery was found to depend on the initial level of damage. Recovery is characterized by at least two time constants {ital t}{sub 1}{lt}5 days and a longer {ital t}{sub 2}{approx}100 days. Anneal rates observed between 295 and 375 K are consistent with an activation energy of 1.2 eV, suggesting that the migration of implant-induced vacancies is associated with the reordering of the InP lattice.

  14. Lateral Temperature-Gradient Method for High-Throughput Characterization of Material Processing by Millisecond Laser Annealing.

    PubMed

    Bell, Robert T; Jacobs, Alan G; Sorg, Victoria C; Jung, Byungki; Hill, Megan O; Treml, Benjamin E; Thompson, Michael O

    2016-09-12

    A high-throughput method for characterizing the temperature dependence of material properties following microsecond to millisecond thermal annealing, exploiting the temperature gradients created by a lateral gradient laser spike anneal (lgLSA), is presented. Laser scans generate spatial thermal gradients of up to 5 °C/μm with peak temperatures ranging from ambient to in excess of 1400 °C, limited only by laser power and materials thermal limits. Discrete spatial property measurements across the temperature gradient are then equivalent to independent measurements after varying temperature anneals. Accurate temperature calibrations, essential to quantitative analysis, are critical and methods for both peak temperature and spatial/temporal temperature profile characterization are presented. These include absolute temperature calibrations based on melting and thermal decomposition, and time-resolved profiles measured using platinum thermistors. A variety of spatially resolved measurement probes, ranging from point-like continuous profiling to large area sampling, are discussed. Examples from annealing of III-V semiconductors, CdSe quantum dots, low-κ dielectrics, and block copolymers are included to demonstrate the flexibility, high throughput, and precision of this technique. PMID:27385487

  15. Thermal annealing of radiation damage in CMOS ICs in the temperature range -140 C to +375 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchenko, V.; Fang, P. H.; Brashears, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    Annealing of radiation damage was investigated in the commercial, Z- and J-processes of the RCA CD4007A ICs in the temperature range from -140 C to +375 C. Tempering curves were analyzed for activation energies of thermal annealing, following irradiation at -140 C. It was found that at -140 C, the radiation-induced shifts in the threshold potentials were similar for all three processes. The radiation hardness of the Z- and J-process is primarily due to rapid annealing of radiation damage at room temperature. In the region -140 to 20 C, no dopant-dependent charge trapping is seen, similar to that observed at higher temperatures. In the unbiased Z-process n-channels, after 1 MeV electron irradiation, considerable negative charge remains in the gate oxide.

  16. Effect of temperature annealing on capacitive and structural properties of hydrous ruthenium oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Wei-Chuan; Huang, Jin-Hua; Chen, Li-Chyong; Su, Yuh-Long Oliver; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    The structure-property relationships of hydrous ruthenium oxides, fabricated by electro deposition on Ti foil, were investigated with different annealing conditions. The annealing temperature was found to play an important role in affecting the electrochemical performance of the annealed hydrous ruthenium oxides. The results indicate that annealing hydrous ruthenium oxide at its crystallization threshold temperature, ∼200 °C, may help to create suitable nanostructure in the oxide that supports the establishment of interpenetrating percolation paths for balanced electron and proton conduction, thereby improving the capacitive response of the oxide dramatically. This finding is useful for fabrication of electrodes with enhanced electrochemical performance for application in microsupercapacitor.

  17. Structure and stress studies of low temperature annealed W/Si multilayers for the X-ray telescope.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiushi; Zhang, Jinshuai; Qi, Runze; Yang, Yang; Wang, Fengli; Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Zhong; Wang, Zhanshan

    2016-07-11

    Low stress W/Si multilayer mirrors are demanded in the hard X-ray telescopes to achieve the high angular resolution. To reduce the stress of the as-deposited multilayer and maintain a high reflectivity, two groups of low-temperature annealing experiments were performed on the periodic multilayers with a d-spacing of ~3.8 nm. The temperature-dependent experiments show that the 150 °C annealing can slightly increase the reflectivity while the stress reduced only by 24%. Higher temperature annealing induced a larger reduction of the stress and the multilayer reached an almost zero stress state at 250 °C. The stress relaxation was accompanied by a small drop of reflectivity of ≤5% and a period compaction of <0.02 nm. The time-dependent experiments indicate that most of the stress changes occurred within the first 10 minutes while a prolonged annealing is not useful. The X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy were further used to study the microstructure changes of the multilayers. It is found that the W/Si multilayer exhibits an amorphous structure before and after annealing, while an enhanced diffusion and intermixing is the main reason for the stress relaxation and structure changes. PMID:27410835

  18. Estimation of effective temperatures in a quantum annealer: Towards deep learning applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Realpe-Gómez, John; Benedetti, Marcello; Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro

    Sampling is at the core of deep learning and more general machine learning applications; an increase in its efficiency would have a significant impact across several domains. Recently, quantum annealers have been proposed as a potential candidate to speed up these tasks, but several limitations still bar them from being used effectively. One of the main limitations, and the focus of this work, is that using the device's experimentally accessible temperature as a reference for sampling purposes leads to very poor correlation with the Boltzmann distribution it is programmed to sample from. Based on quantum dynamical arguments, one can expect that if the device indeed happens to be sampling from a Boltzmann-like distribution, it will correspond to one with an instance-dependent effective temperature. Unless this unknown temperature can be unveiled, it might not be possible to effectively use a quantum annealer for Boltzmann sampling processes. In this work, we propose a strategy to overcome this challenge with a simple effective-temperature estimation algorithm. We provide a systematic study assessing the impact of the effective temperatures in the quantum-assisted training of Boltzmann machines, which can serve as a building block for deep learning architectures. This work was supported by NASA Ames Research Center.

  19. Implantation activation annealing of Si-implanted gallium nitride at temperatures > 1,100 C

    SciTech Connect

    Zolper, J.C.; Han, J.; Biefeld, R.M.

    1997-06-01

    The activation annealing of Si-implanted GaN is reported for temperatures from 1,100 to 1,400 C. Although previous work has shown that Si-implanted GaN can be activated by a rapid thermal annealing at {approximately}1,100 C, it was also shown that significant damage remained in the crystal. Therefore, both AlN-encapsulated and uncapped Si-implanted GaN samples were annealed in a metal organic chemical vapor deposition system in a N{sub 2}/NH{sub 3} ambient to further assess the annealing process. Electrical Hall characterization shows increases in carrier density and mobility for annealing up to 1,300 C before degrading at 1,400 C due to decomposition of the GaN epilayer. Rutherford backscattering spectra show that the high annealing temperatures reduce the implantation induced damage profile but do not completely restore the as-grown crystallinity.

  20. Temperature dependent BRDF facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airola, Marc B.; Brown, Andrea M.; Hahn, Daniel V.; Thomas, Michael E.; Congdon, Elizabeth A.; Mehoke, Douglas S.

    2014-09-01

    Applications involving space based instrumentation and aerodynamically heated surfaces often require knowledge of the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of an exposed surface at high temperature. Addressing this need, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) developed a BRDF facility that features a multiple-port vacuum chamber, multiple laser sources covering the spectral range from the longwave infrared to the ultraviolet, imaging pyrometry and laser heated samples. Laser heating eliminates stray light that would otherwise be seen from a furnace and requires minimal sample support structure, allowing low thermal conduction loss to be obtained, which is especially important at high temperatures. The goal is to measure the BRDF of ceramic-coated surfaces at temperatures in excess of 1000°C in a low background environment. Most ceramic samples are near blackbody in the longwave infrared, thus pyrometry using a LWIR camera can be very effective and accurate.

  1. Effect of annealing temperature on magnetic phase transition in Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, A.; Farjami Shayesteh, S.; Salouti, M.; Boustani, K.

    2015-04-01

    Fe3O4 (magnetite) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using a co-precipitation method, and then annealed at various temperatures between 50 and 850 °C for 1 h in air. After annealing, the NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The FTIR and XRD results indicated that Fe3O4 NPs were converted to γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite) by annealing at 250 °C for 1 h and then to α-Fe2O3 (hematite) on annealing in the range of 550-650 °C. The average crystallite size of the NPs estimated by the Debye-Scherrer equation increased from 6.6 to 37.6 nm by increasing annealing temperature from 50 to 850 °C. According to VSM results, the magnetite NPs were superparamagnetic and converted to the maghemite with superparamagnetic phase by annealing up to 550 °C. A phase transition from soft to hard ferromagnetic was occurred at annealing temperature 650 and 850 °C, respectively °C. This phase transition was attributed to the conversion of magnetite to hematite. The VSM analysis confirmed the XRD and FTIR results. The saturation magnetization (Ms) of Fe3O4 NPs was increased from 41.69 to 53.61 emu/g by increasing annealing temperature from 50 to 550 °C, and then decreased intensively to 0.49 emu/g after annealing at 850 °C. By increasing annealing temperature from 50 to 550, the crystallite size of NPs was increased from 6.6 to 12.7 and the coercive force (Hc) was reached to 4.20 Oe after annealing at 550 °C and then intensively increased to 1459.02 Oe for any further increasing of particle size up to 850 °C.

  2. Temperature Driven Annealing of Perforations in Bicellar Model Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Nieh, Mu-Ping; Raghunathan, V.A.; Pabst, Georg; Harroun, Thad; Nagashima, K; Morales, H; Katsaras, John; Macdonald, P

    2011-01-01

    Bicellar model membranes composed of 1,2-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and 1,2-dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC), with a DMPC/DHPC molar ratio of 5, and doped with the negatively charged lipid 1,2-dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG), at DMPG/DMPC molar ratios of 0.02 or 0.1, were examined using small angle neutron scattering (SANS), {sup 31}P NMR, and {sup 1}H pulsed field gradient (PFG) diffusion NMR with the goal of understanding temperature effects on the DHPC-dependent perforations in these self-assembled membrane mimetics. Over the temperature range studied via SANS (300-330 K), these bicellar lipid mixtures exhibited a well-ordered lamellar phase. The interlamellar spacing d increased with increasing temperature, in direct contrast to the decrease in d observed upon increasing temperature with otherwise identical lipid mixtures lacking DHPC. {sup 31}P NMR measurements on magnetically aligned bicellar mixtures of identical composition indicated a progressive migration of DHPC from regions of high curvature into planar regions with increasing temperature, and in accord with the 'mixed bicelle model' (Triba, M. N.; Warschawski, D. E.; Devaux, P. E. Biophys. J.2005, 88, 1887-1901). Parallel PFG diffusion NMR measurements of transbilayer water diffusion, where the observed diffusion is dependent on the fractional surface area of lamellar perforations, showed that transbilayer water diffusion decreased with increasing temperature. A model is proposed consistent with the SANS, {sup 31}P NMR, and PFG diffusion NMR data, wherein increasing temperature drives the progressive migration of DHPC out of high-curvature regions, consequently decreasing the fractional volume of lamellar perforations, so that water occupying these perforations redistributes into the interlamellar volume, thereby increasing the interlamellar spacing.

  3. Germanium nanoislands grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering: Annealing time dependent surface morphology and photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alireza, Samavati; Othaman, Z.; K. Ghoshal, S.; J. Amjad, R.

    2013-09-01

    Structural and optical properties of ~ 20 nm Ge nanoislands grown on Si(100) by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering under varying annealing conditions are reported. Rapid thermal annealing at a temperature of 600°C for 30 s, 90 s, and 120 s are performed to examine the influence of annealing time on the surface morphology and photoluminescence properties. X-ray diffraction spectra reveal prominent Ge and GeO2 peaks highly sensitive to the annealing time. Atomic force microscope micrographs of the as-grown sample show pyramidal nanoislands with relatively high-density 1011 cm-2)). The nanoislands become dome-shaped upon annealing through a coarsening process mediated by Oswald ripening. The room temperature photoluminescence peaks for both as-grown 3.29 eV) and annealed 3.19 eV) samples consist of high intensity and broad emission, attributed to the effect of quantum confinement. The red shift (~0.10 eV) of the emission peak is attributed to the change in the size of the Ge nanoislands caused by annealing. Our easy fabrication method may contribute to the development of Ge nanostructure-based optoelectronics.

  4. Effect of low and high temperature anneal on process-induced damage of gate oxide

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.C.; Hu, C. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences)

    1994-11-01

    The authors have investigated the ability of high and low temperature anneals to repair the gate oxide damage due to simulated electrical stress caused by wafer charging resulting from plasma etching, etc. Even 800 C anneal cannot restore the stability in interface trap generation. Even 900 C anneal cannot repair the deteriorated charge-to-breakdown and oxide charge trapping. As a small consolation, the ineffectiveness of anneal in repairing the process-induced damage allows them to monitor the damages even at the end of the fabrication process.

  5. Effect of Solution Annealing Temperatures on the Crevice Corrosion Mode of Alloy 22

    SciTech Connect

    El-Dasher, B S; Etien, R; Torres, S G

    2005-10-31

    The effect of solution annealing temperature on the observed corrosion attack mode in Alloy 22 welds was assessed. Three types of specimens were examined, including the as-welded state, solution annealed for 20 minutes at 1121 C, and solution annealed for 20 minutes at 1200 C. The microstructures of the specimens were first mapped using electron backscatter diffraction to determine the grain structure evolution due to solution annealing. The specimens were then subjected to electrochemical testing in a 6 molal NaCl + 0.9 molal KNO{sub 3} environment to initiate crevice corrosion. Examination of the specimen surfaces after corrosion testing showed that in the as-welded specimen, corrosion was present in both the weld dendrites as well as around the secondary phases. However, the specimen solution annealed at 1121 C showed corrosion only at secondary phases and the specimen annealed at 1200 C showed pitting corrosion only in a handful of grains.

  6. Ion implantation doping and high temperature annealing of GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Zolper, J.C.; Crawford, M.H.; Howard, A.J. |

    1995-12-31

    The III-V nitride-containing semiconductors InN, GaN, and AIN and their ternary alloys are the focus of extensive research for application to visible light emitters and as the basis for high temperature electronics. Recent advances in ion implantation doping of GaN and studies of the effect of rapid thermal annealing up to 1100{degrees}C are making new device structures possible. Both p- and n-type implantation doping of GaN has been achieved using Mg co-implanted with P for p-type and Si-implantation for n-type. Electrical activation was achieved by rapid thermal anneals in excess of 1000{degrees}C. Atomic force microscopy studies of the surface of GaN after a series of anneals from 750 to 1100{degrees}C shows that the surface morphology gets smoother following anneals in Ar or N{sub 2}. The photoluminescence of the annealed samples also shows enhanced bandedge emission for both annealing ambients. For the deep level emission near 2.2 eV, the sample annealed in N{sub 2} shows slightly reduced emission while the sample annealed in Ar shows increased emission. These annealing results suggest a combination of defect interactions occur during the high temperature processing.

  7. Arsenic ambient conditions preventing surface degradation of GaAs during capless annealing at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, C. H.; Kondo, K.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in surface morphology and composition caused by capless annealing of GaAs were studied as a function of annealing temperature, T(GaAs), and the ambient arsenic pressure controlled by the temperature, T(As), of an arsenic source in the annealing ampul. It was established that any degradation of the GaAs surface morphology could be completely prevented, providing that T(As) was more than about 0.315T(GaAs) + 227 C. This empirical relationship is valid up to the melting point temperature of GaAs (1238 C), and it may be useful in some device-processing steps.

  8. Temperature-dependent μ-Raman investigation of struvite crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prywer, Jolanta; Kasprowicz, D.; Runka, T.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of temperature on the vibrational properties of struvite crystals grown from silica gels was systematically studied by μ-Raman spectroscopy. The time-dependent Raman spectra recorded in the process of long time annealing of struvite crystal at 353 K do not indicate structural changes in the struvite crystal with the time of annealing. The temperature-dependent Raman spectra recorded in the range 298-423 K reveal a phase transition in struvite at about 368 K. Above this characteristic temperature, some of bands assigned to vibrations of the PO4 and NH4 tetrahedra and water molecules observed in the Raman spectra in low temperatures (orthorhombic phase) change their spectral parameters or disappear, which indicates a transition to a higher symmetry structure of struvite in the range of high temperatures.

  9. Influence of annealing temperature on photoluminescence properties and optical constants of N-doped ZnO thin films grown on muscovite mica substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Younggyu; Leem, Jae-Young

    2015-11-01

    A sol-gel spin-coating method was used to synthesize N-doped ZnO (NZO) thin films on muscovite mica substrates; the films were then annealed at 200, 300, 400, and 500 °C. The effects of the annealing temperature on their photoluminescence properties and optical constants were investigated. All the films had strong UV emissions in their photoluminescence spectra, but the green emissions at ~2.4 eV were observed only for the annealed films. The average transmittance of all the films was about 80% in the visible range and the absorption edges in the UV range at 375 nm depended strongly on the annealing temperature. The optical band gap of the films decreased gradually as the annealing temperature was increased up to 400 °C, and the Urbach energy decreased significantly as the annealing temperature increased. Finally, the various optical constants, the dielectric constant, and the optical conductivity were measured for the un-annealed film and the film annealed at 500 °C.

  10. High temperature annealing of fission tracks in fluorapatite, Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naeser, Nancy D.; Crowley, Kevin D.; McCulloh, Thane H.; Reaves, Chris M.

    1990-01-01

    Annealing of fission tracks is a kinetic process dependent primarily on temperature and to a laser extent on time. Several kinetic models of apatite annealing have been proposed. The predictive capabilities of these models for long-term geologic annealing have been limited to qualitative or semiquantitative at best, because of uncertainties associated with (1) the extrapolation of laboratory observations to geologic conditions, (2) the thermal histories of field samples, and (3) to some extent, the effect of apatite composition on reported annealing temperatures. Thermal history in the Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California, is constrained by an exceptionally well known burial history and present-day temperature gradient. Sediment burial histories are continuous and tightly constrained from about 9 Ma to present, with an important tie at 3.4 Ma. No surface erosion and virtually no uplift were recorded during or since deposition of these sediments, so the burial history is simple and uniquely defined. Temperature gradient (???40??C km-1) is well established from oil-field operations. Fission-track data from the Santa Fe Springs area should thus provide one critical field test of kinetic annealing models for apatite. Fission-track analysis has been performed on apatites from sandstones of Pliocene to Miocene age from a deep drill hole at Santa Fe Springs. Apatite composition, determined by electron microprobe, is fluorapatite [average composition (F1.78Cl0.01OH0.21)] with very low chlorine content [less than Durango apatite; sample means range from 0.0 to 0.04 Cl atoms, calculated on the basis of 26(O, F, Cl, OH)], suggesting that the apatite is not unusually resistant to annealing. Fission tracks are preserved in these apatites at exceptionally high present-day temperatures. Track loss is not complete until temperatures reach the extreme of 167-178??C (at 3795-4090 m depth). The temperature-time annealing relationships indicated by the new data

  11. Laser Annealing to Form High-Temperature Phase of FeS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umehara, Mitsutaro; Takeda, Yasuhiko; Azuma, Hirozumi; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi

    2012-02-01

    We fabricated single-phase pyrite thin films of FeS2 by laser annealing of multi-phase FeS2 films. Sputter-deposited FeS films followed by sulfurization in sulfur vapor at high temperatures were mainly composed of the high-temperature phase (pyrite) but contained a small amount of the low-temperature phase (marcasite) that likely grew when the samples were naturally cooled after the sulfurization. We applied the rapid cooling feature of laser annealing to preventing the marcasite phase formation. No trace of marcasite phase was observed in Raman spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns of the laser-annealed samples. We analyzed temporal evolution of the sample temperature during the laser-annealing processes to confirm that the laser heating induced phase change of the small amount of marcasite to pyrite and the rapid cooling prevented marcasite regrowth.

  12. Effects of Solution Annealing Temperature on the Galvanic Corrosion Behavior of the Super Duplex Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jun-Seob; Jeon, Soon-Hyeok; Park, Yong-Soo

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the active dissolution of super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) at various solution annealing temperatures. The active dissolutions of the α-phase and γ-phase were compared, and the effects of the surface area ratio on the active dissolutions of both phases were investigated. There were two peaks in the active-passive transition region in the potentiodynamic test in the modified green-death solution. The two peaks changed as the solution annealing temperature was increased from 1050 to 1150 °C. The solution annealing temperature difference affected the critical anodic current densities. This provides useful information for determining the appropriate solution annealing temperature in the modified green-death solution for SDSS.

  13. The influence of the annealing temperature on deuterium retention in self-damaged tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Založnik, Anže; Markelj, Sabina; Schwarz-Selinger, Thomas; Ciupiński, Łukasz; Grzonka, Justyna; Vavpetič, Primož; Pelicon, Primož

    2016-02-01

    The influence of the annealing temperature on deuterium retention was studied for self-ion damaged tungsten in the range from 600-1200 K. Samples were damaged by 20 MeV W ions at room temperature to the peak damage level of 0.5 dpa. Samples were then annealed at the desired temperature for 1 h and exposed to deuterium atom beam with the flux of 2.6× {10}19 {{D}}/{{{m}}}2 {{s}} for 144 h to populate the remaining defects. An unannealed sample was also used as a reference. Nuclear reaction analysis technique was used for deuterium depth profile analysis and thermal desorption was performed on the same samples to measure the amount of total retained D. Scanning transmission electron microscopy was used for the calculation of dislocation densities in the samples. After annealing at 1200 K approximately 66% of those initial defects which retain deuterium were annealed.

  14. Electrochromic performance, wettability and optical study of copper manganese oxide thin films: Effect of annealing temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falahatgar, S. S.; Ghodsi, F. E.; Tepehan, F. Z.; Tepehan, G. G.; Turhan, İ.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the nanostructured copper manganese oxide (CMO) thin films were prepared from acetate based sol-gel precursors and deposited on glass and indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates by dip-coating technique. The films were annealed at 300, 400 and 500 °C in ambient atmosphere. The effects of annealing temperature on structural, morphological, wettability, electrochromic and optical properties of CMO thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), water contact angle measurement (WCA), cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometery. The presence of mixed oxide phases comprising of copper manganese oxide (CuMn2O4) and manganese oxide at different annealing temperature was confirmed by XRD patterns. The results showed that the Mn3O4 phase has been changed to Mn2O3 when the annealing temperature is increased from 300 to 500 °C. The FESEM images indicated that the granular surface morphology was sensitive to annealing temperature. EDX studies indicated that the thin films contained O, Mn and Cu species. Wettability studies showed that the water contact angle of the nanostructured CMO thin films coated on glass substrates was influenced by the variation of annealing temperature and the surface nature of thin films was changed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. The results of CVs measurement indicated that the anodic and cathodic charge density and capacitance of all CMO samples decreased with increasing scan rate in potential range of -1-1 eV. Also, the annealed CMO thin film at 500 °C showed better electrochromic performance with respect to other samples at lower scan rate. The thickness, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical band gap of thin films coated on glass substrates were calculated from reflectance and transmittance spectra using an iterative numerical method. The optical band gap of

  15. Rapid thermal annealing and modulation-doping effects on InAs/GaAs quantum dots photoluminescence dependence on excitation power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaâbani, W.; Melliti, A.; Maaref, M. A.; Testelin, C.; Lemaître, A.

    2016-07-01

    The optical properties of p-doped and annealed InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) was investigated by photoluminescence (PL) as a function of temperature and excitation power density (Pexc). At low-T, PL spectra of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and p-modulation doped QDs show an energy blueshift and redshift, respectively. A superlinear dependence of integrated PL intensity on Pexc at high-T was found only for undoped QD. The superlinearity was suppressed by modulation-doping and RTA effects. A linear dependence of IPL at all temperatures and a decrease of the carrier-carrier Coulomb interaction at high-T was found after RTA.

  16. Effect of the annealing temperature on dynamic and structural properties of Co2FeAl thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmeguenai, M.; Tuzcuoglu, H.; Gabor, M.; Petrisor, T.; Tiusan, C.; Zighem, F.; Chérif, S. M.; Moch, P.

    2014-07-01

    10 nm and 50 nm thick Co2FeAl (CFA) thin films have been deposited on thermally oxidized Si(001) substrates by magnetron sputtering using a Tantalum cap layer and were then ex-situ annealed at 415°C, 515°C and 615°C during 15 minutes in vacuum. X-rays diffraction indicates that films CFA are polycrystalline and exhibit an in-plane isotropy growth. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements, using a microstrip line (MS-FMR), reveal a huge interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and small in-plane uniaxial anisotropy both annealing temperature-dependent. The MS-FMR data also allow concluding that the gyromagnetic factor remains constant and that the exchange stiffness constant increases with annealing temperature. Finally, the FMR linewidth decreases with increasing annealing temperature due to the enhancement of the chemical order, and allow deriving a very low intrinsic damping parameter (1.3×10-3 at 615°C).

  17. High-temperature annealing of optical centers in type-I diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Alan T.; Connor, Alex; Ly, C.-H.; Shareef, Abdulla; Spear, Paul M.

    2005-04-15

    Diamonds previously subjected to radiation damage have been annealed at temperatures up to 1750 deg. C at ambient pressure, and at 2300 deg. C using a stabilizing pressure of 5 GPa. The results have been compared with those from similar measurements using natural brown diamonds. The investigation has led to an improved understanding of the commercial process for enhancing the color of brown diamonds by high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) annealing. The study has confirmed that the H4 center is less stable than the H3 center, and shown that the destruction of the H4 center in irradiated type-IaB diamonds coincides with the formation of a number of optical centers found to occur naturally in brown diamonds. In type-IaA diamonds the annealing out of the H1b absorption coincides with the production of H2 centers. Annealing measurements on brown diamonds indicate that the plastic deformation, associated with the brown color, occurred at a late stage in the diamonds' history. Optical centers, such as H3 and (N-V){sup -}, that are produced in brown diamonds by HPHT annealing, are destroyed by this process in irradiated dislocation-free diamonds. Formation of these centers during the HPHT annealing of brown diamonds occurs as a result of the release of vacancies from the dislocations, and the present results therefore indicate that the production of these centers is a dynamic process with the generation and annealing in competition.

  18. Tailoring the magnetic properties and magnetorheological behavior of spinel nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite by varying annealing temperature.

    PubMed

    Sedlacik, Michal; Pavlinek, Vladimir; Peer, Petra; Filip, Petr

    2014-05-14

    Magnetic nanoparticles of spinel nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite were synthesized via the sol-gel method and subsequent annealing. The influence of the annealing temperature on the structure, magnetic properties, and magnetorheological effect was investigated. The finite crystallite size of the particles, determined by X-ray diffraction and the particle size observed via transmission electron microscopy, increased with the annealing temperature. The magnetic properties observed via a vibrating sample magnetometer showed that an increase in the annealing temperature leads to the increase in the magnetization saturation and, in contrast, a decrease in the coercivity. The effect of annealing on the magnetic properties of ferrite particles has been explained by the recrystallization process at high temperatures. This resulted in grain size growth and a decrease in an imposed stress relating to defects in the crystal lattice structure of the nanoparticles. The magnetorheological characteristics of suspensions of ferrite particles in silicone oil were measured using a rotational rheometer equipped with a magnetic field generator in both steady shear and small-strain oscillatory regimes. The magnetorheological performance expressed as a relative increase in the magnetoviscosity appeared to be significantly higher for suspensions of particles annealed at 1000 °C. PMID:24668306

  19. Effect of annealing temperature on the pitting corrosion resistance of super duplex stainless steel UNS S32750

    SciTech Connect

    Tan Hua; Jiang Yiming; Deng Bo; Sun Tao; Xu Juliang; Li Jin

    2009-09-15

    The pitting corrosion resistance of commercial super duplex stainless steels SAF2507 (UNS S32750) annealed at seven different temperatures ranging from 1030 deg. C to 1200 deg. C for 2 h has been investigated by means of potentiostatic critical pitting temperature. The microstructural evolution and pit morphologies of the specimens were studied through optical/scanning electron microscope. Increasing annealing temperature from 1030 deg. C to 1080 deg. C elevates the critical pitting temperature, whereas continuing to increase the annealing temperature to 1200 deg. C decreases the critical pitting temperature. The specimens annealed at 1080 deg. C for 2 h exhibit the best pitting corrosion resistance with the highest critical pitting temperature. The pit morphologies show that the pit initiation sites transfer from austenite phase to ferrite phase as the annealing temperature increases. The aforementioned results can be explained by the variation of pitting resistance equivalent number of ferrite and austenite phase as the annealing temperature changes.

  20. The evolution of microstructure and photoluminescence of SiCN films with annealing temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Du Xiwen; Fu Yang; Sun Jing; Yao Pei

    2006-05-01

    Silicon carbonitride (SiCN) films were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and then annealed at different temperatures from 1100 to 1300 deg. C in hydrogen atmosphere. The as-deposited films and films annealed at 1100 deg. C did not show photoluminescence (PL), whereas strong PL peaks appeared at 355 and 469 nm after annealing at 1200 and 1300 deg. C. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer results show that the enhancement of PL properties is due to the change of microstructure and composition.

  1. Low-temperature illumination and annealing of ultrahigh quality quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samani, M.; Rossokhaty, A. V.; Sajadi, E.; Lüscher, S.; Folk, J. A.; Watson, J. D.; Gardner, G. C.; Manfra, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    The effects of low-temperature illumination and annealing on fractional quantum Hall (FQH) characteristics of a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well are investigated. Illumination alone, below 1 K, decreases the density of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) electrons by more than an order of magnitude and resets the sample to a repeatable initial state. Subsequent thermal annealing at a few Kelvin restores the original density and dramatically improves FQH characteristics. A reliable illumination and annealing recipe is developed that yields an energy gap of 600 mK for the 5/2 state.

  2. Surface Superstructure of Carbon Nanotubes on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite Annealed at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Bai; Fukuyama, Seiji; Yokogawa, Kiyoshi; Yoshimura, Masamichi

    1998-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) are annealed in ultra high vacuum. The effect of annealing temperature on the surface morphology of the carbon nanotubes on HOPG is examined by scanning tunneling microscopy. The ring-like surface superstructure of (\\sqrt {3}× \\sqrt {3})R30° of graphite is found on the carbon nanotubes annealed above 1593 K. The tips of the carbon nanotubes are destroyed and the stacking misarrangement between the upper and the lower walls of the tube join with HOPG resulting in the superstructure.

  3. The optical functions of silicon at elevated temperatures and their application to pulsed laser annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Jellison, G.E. Jr.; Lowndes, D.H.; Wood, R.F.

    1993-06-01

    The results of measurements of the optical functions of silicon at elevated temperatures are reviewed and the results applied to pulsed laser annealing of silicon. Several optical experiments which were performed to understand the physics of pulsed laser annealing are described, and related to detailed thermal modeling. The fabrication of silicon solar cells using both thermal and laser processing is described, both of which give very goods results.

  4. Effect of annealing temperature on the structure and optical parameters of Ge{sub 20}Se{sub 50}Te{sub 30} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Mansour

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The amorphous nature of as prepared Ge{sub 20}Se{sub 50}Te{sub 30} films was confirmed by XRD. • The thermal annealing was found to affect the structure and optical parameter. • Thermal annealing resulted in an appearance of crystalline phases in studied films. • The average particle size increased with increasing the annealing temperature. • The indirect band gap was found to decrease with increasing annealing temperature. - Abstract: Bulk glasses and thin films of Ge{sub 20}Se{sub 50}Te{sub 30} were prepared by melt-quenching and thermal evaporation technique, respectively. The stoichiometry of the composition was checked by energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDX), whereas the crystallization was investigated using differential scanning calorimetery (DSC). The effect of heat treatment on the structure transformation of Ge{sub 20}Se{sub 50}Te{sub 30} films was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results reveal that the as-prepared films are amorphous in nature while the annealed ones show crystalline phases. Further, the average crystallite size, strain, and dislocation density were found to depend on the annealing temperature. The optical transmittance and reflectance of the studied films at different annealing temperatures were measured using spectrophotometer. The optical parameters were calculated as a function of annealing temperature. The optical transition was found to be allowed indirect transition with optical band gap decreases from 1.69 to 1.41 eV with increasing the annealing temperature from 553 to 633 K.

  5. Enhancement of saturation magnetization in Cr-ion implanted silicon by high temperature annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuang; Zhang, Wenyong; Chen, Jihong; Zhou, Zhongpo; Ai, Zhiwei; Guo, Liping; Liu, Congxiao; Du, Honglin

    2011-08-01

    Magnetic properties and microstructure of Cr-implanted Si have been investigated by alternating gradient magnetometer (AGM), superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). p-Type (1 0 0) Si wafers were implanted at 200 keV at room temperature with a dosage of 1 × 10 16 cm -2 Cr ions and then annealed at 600-900 °C for 5 min. The effect of annealing on the structure and magnetic properties of Cr-implanted Si is studied. The as-implanted sample shows a square M-H loop at low temperature. Magnetic signal becomes weaker after short time annealing of the as-implanted sample at 600 °C, 700 °C, and 800 °C. However, the 900 °C annealed sample exhibits large saturation magnetization at room temperature. TEM images reveal that the implanting process caused amorphization of Si, while annealing at 900 °C led to partial recovery of the crystal. The enhancement of saturation magnetization can be explained by the redistribution and accumulation of Cr atoms in the vacancy-rich region of Si during annealing.

  6. The effects of annealing temperature on the photoluminescence from silicon nitride multilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scardera, G.; Puzzer, T.; Perez-Wurfl, I.; Conibeer, G.

    2008-07-01

    The room temperature photoluminescence from silicon nitride multilayer structures, grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition, is monitored for different annealing temperatures and is correlated to structural and molecular changes in the film. Use of various annealing temperatures from 600 °C to 1150 °C results in films which vary from being completely amorphous to an amorphous matrix containing silicon nanocrystals, and finally to a fully crystallized composite containing silicon, α-Si 3N 4 and β-Si 3N 4 nanocrystals. Coupled with the observed trends seen with grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and infra-red absorbance with annealing temperature, the photoluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in amorphous silicon nitride is attributed to the presence of the nanocrystals in the film and not to transitions between band tails of the remaining amorphous matrix.

  7. Effect of Long Term, High Temperature Annealing on the Strength of Beta''-Alumina Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, James R.; Williams, Roger M.; Kisor, Adam K.

    2003-01-01

    It has been recently reported that subjecting beta''-alumina ceramics to a long term, high temperature anneal for the purpose of reducing the residual sodium aluminate content within the ceramic results in an apparent increase in the strength of the ceramic as well. In order to examine this hypothesis, a carefully controlled experiment was conducted. Ten tubes were cut into 100 rings 1.5 mm long. A third of the rings (randomly selected) were broken in diametral ring fracture tests, while the remaining rings were packaged and shipped to Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) where half of them were annealed, and the other half were unpacked and stored under appropriate dry conditions to act a shipping and handling control group. Once the annealing was completed, both groups of rings were repackaged and returned to Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) and broken in diametral ring tests. The annealed group had the lowest strength as indicated by the Weibull characteristic strengths. Weibull characteristic strengths for the unannealed, control, and annealed groups were 376 MPa, 326 MPa, and 294 MPa, respectively. The Weibull moduli of the unannealed and annealed groups were nominally the same at 9.0 and 8.6, respectively. That for the handling control group was lower at 6.8. The lower strength of the annealed ceramics is consistent with earlier work showing a decrease in ceramic strength with increasing grain size.

  8. Effects of Annealing Temperature on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian-Ping; Shi, Shao-Bo; Li, Lan; Zhang, Xiao-Song; Wang, Ya-Xin; Chen, Xi-Ming

    2010-04-01

    The effects of annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of ZnO films grown on Si (100) substrates by sol-gel spin-coating are investigated. The structural and optical properties are characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectra. X-ray diffraction analysis shows the crystal quality of ZnO films becomes better after annealing at high temperature. The grain size increases with the temperature increasing. It is found that the tensile stress in the plane of ZnO films first increases and then decreases with the annealing temperature increasing, reaching the maximum value of 1.8 GPa at 700°C. PL spectra of ZnO films annealed at various temperatures consists of a near band edge emission around 380 nm and visible emissions due to the electronic defects, which are related to deep level emissions, such as oxide antisite (OZn), interstitial oxygen (Oi), interstitial zinc (Zni) and zinc vacancy (V-Zn), which are generated during annealing process. The evolution of defects is analyzed by PL spectra based on the energy of the electronic transitions.

  9. Ultraviolet stimulated emission from high-temperature-annealed MgO microcrystals at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soma, Haruka; Uenaka, Yuki; Asahara, Akifumi; Suemoto, Tohru; Uchino, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Research on semiconductor nanowires underlies the development of the miniaturization of laser devices with low cost and low energy consumption. In general, nanowire lasers are made of direct band gap semiconductors, e.g., GaN, ZnO and CdS, and their band-edge emissions are used to achieve optically pumped laser emission. In addition to the existing class of nanowire lasers, we here show that air-annealed micrometer-sized MgO cubic crystals with well-defined facets exhibit room-temperature stimulated emission at 394 nm under pulsed laser pumping at ˜350 nm. Surface midgap states are assumed to be responsible for the excitation and emission processes. The present findings will not only provide opportunities for the development of miniaturized lasers composed of insulating oxides, but will also open up functionality in various families of cubic crystalline materials.

  10. High Temperature Annealing Studies on the Piezoelectric Properties of Thin Aluminum Nitride Films

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, R.; Pagan, V.R.; Kabulski, A.; Kuchibhatla, S.; Harman, J.; Kasarla, K.R.; Rodak, L.E.; Hensel, J.P.; Famouri, P.; Korakakis, D.

    2008-01-01

    A Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) system was used to anneal sputtered and MOVPE-grown Aluminum Nitride (AlN) thin films at temperatures up to 1000°C in ambient and controlled environments. According to Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX), the films annealed in an ambient environment rapidly oxidize after five minutes at 1000°C. Below 1000°C the films oxidized linearly as a function of annealing temperature which is consistent with what has been reported in literature [1]. Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) was used to measure the piezoelectric coefficient, d33, of these films. Films annealed in an ambient environment had a weak piezoelectric response indicating that oxidation on the surface of the film reduces the value of d33. A high temperature furnace has been built that is capable of taking in-situ measurements of the piezoelectric response of AlN films. In-situ d33 measurements are recorded up to 300°C for both sputtered and MOVPE-grown AlN thin films. The measured piezoelectric response appears to increase with temperature up to 300°C possibly due to stress in the film.

  11. Influence of annealing temperature on the phase transformation of Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahat, Annie Maria; Mastuli, Mohd Sufri; Kamarulzaman, Norlida

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, Al2O3 powders were prepared via a self-propagating combustion method using citric acid as a combustion agent. Effects of annealing temperature on the phase transformation of the prepared powders were studied on samples annealed at 800 °C and 1000 °C. The Al2O3 samples were characterized using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements. The XRD results showed that pure η-phase and pure α-phase of Al2O3 were obtained at 800 °C and 1000 °C, respectively. Their crystallite sizes are totally different as can be seen clearly from the FESEM micrographs. The η-Al2O3 sample annealed at low temperature has crystallite size smaller than 10 nm compared to the α-Al2O3 sample annealed at higher temperature which has crystallites from few microns to hundreds microns in size. From the BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) method, the specific surface area for both samples are 59.4 m2g-1 and 3.1 m2g-1, respectively. It is proposed that the annealing temperature less pronounced for the morphology, but, it is significant for the phase transitions as well as the size and the specific surface area of the Al2O3 samples.

  12. Investigation the cause of plasma treatment for low temperature annealed dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zen, Shungo; Komatsu, Yuta; Ono, Ryo

    2015-09-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) require annealing of TiO2photoelectrodes at 450 C to 550 C. However, such high-temperature annealing is unfavorable because it limits the use of materials that cannot withstand high temperatures, such as plastic substrates. In our previous paper, a low temperature annealing technique of TiO2 photoelectrodes using ultraviolet light and dielectric barrier discharge treatments was proposed to reduce the annealing temperature from 450 C to 150 C for a TiO2 paste containing an organic binder. Here, we investigated the cause of plasma treatment via the Nyquist diagram (Cole-Cole plot) of DSSCs. The Nyquist diagram was masured with a frequency response analyzer (NF Corporation, FRA5022) under 100 mW/cm2 illumination of a calibrated xenon lamp (Hamamatsu L2274, 150W). The lifetime of the electrons, the effective electron diffusion coefficient, and the electron diffusion length of TiO2 photoelectrodes were determined by analyzing the Nyquist diagrams. As a result of analyzing the Nyquist diagrams, it was shown that plasma treatment can reduce the electron transport resistance and promote the necking of Hot UV annealed TiO2 nanoparticles. This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows.

  13. High Temperature Annealing Studies on the Piezoelectric Properties of Thin Aluminum Nitride Films

    SciTech Connect

    R. Farrell; V. R. Pagan; A. Kabulski; Sridhar Kuchibhatl; J. Harman; K. R. Kasarla; L. E. Rodak; P. Famouri; J. Peter Hensel; D. Korakakis

    2008-05-01

    A Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) system was used to anneal sputtered and MOVPE grown Aluminum Nitride (AlN) thin films at temperatures up to 1000°C in ambient and controlled environments. According to Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX), the films annealed in an ambient environment rapidly oxidize after five minutes at 1000°C. Below 1000°C the films oxidized linearly as a function of annealing temperature which is consistent with what has been reported in literature [1]. Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) was used to measure the piezoelectric coefficient, d33, of these films. Films annealed in an ambient environment had a weak piezoelectric response indicating that oxidation on the surface of the film reduces the value of d33. A high temperature furnace has been built that is capable of taking in-situ measurements of the piezoelectric response of AlN films. In-situ d33 measurements are recorded up to 300°C for both sputtered and MOVPE-grown AlN thin films. The measured piezoelectric response appears to increase with temperature up to 300°C possibly due to stress in the film.

  14. Effects of Annealing Temperature on Thermomechanical Properties of Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canbay, C. Aksu; Karagoz, Z.

    2013-07-01

    The effects of the annealing temperature on structural properties and the phase transformation of a Cu-14.1Al-3.9Ni (mass %) shape memory alloy (SMA) have been investigated. The annealing process was carried out at temperatures in the range of to . The structural changes of the as-quenched and annealed samples were studied by optical microscope and X-ray diffraction measurements. The evolution of the transformation temperatures was studied by differential scanning calorimetry with different heating and cooling rates. The activation energy and thermodynamic parameters of the samples were determined. It was found that the heat treatment has an effect on the characteristic transformation temperatures and on thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy, entropy, and activation energy. The crystallite size of the as-quenched and annealed samples were determined. Vickers hardness measurements of the as-quenched and annealed samples were also carried out. It is evaluated that the transformation parameters of a CuAlNi SMA can be controlled by heat treatment.

  15. Estimation of effective temperatures in quantum annealers for sampling applications: A case study with possible applications in deep learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Marcello; Realpe-Gómez, John; Biswas, Rupak; Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    An increase in the efficiency of sampling from Boltzmann distributions would have a significant impact on deep learning and other machine-learning applications. Recently, quantum annealers have been proposed as a potential candidate to speed up this task, but several limitations still bar these state-of-the-art technologies from being used effectively. One of the main limitations is that, while the device may indeed sample from a Boltzmann-like distribution, quantum dynamical arguments suggest it will do so with an instance-dependent effective temperature, different from its physical temperature. Unless this unknown temperature can be unveiled, it might not be possible to effectively use a quantum annealer for Boltzmann sampling. In this work, we propose a strategy to overcome this challenge with a simple effective-temperature estimation algorithm. We provide a systematic study assessing the impact of the effective temperatures in the learning of a special class of a restricted Boltzmann machine embedded on quantum hardware, which can serve as a building block for deep-learning architectures. We also provide a comparison to k -step contrastive divergence (CD-k ) with k up to 100. Although assuming a suitable fixed effective temperature also allows us to outperform one-step contrastive divergence (CD-1), only when using an instance-dependent effective temperature do we find a performance close to that of CD-100 for the case studied here.

  16. Temperature-dependent Luttinger surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ito, T; Chainani, A; Haruna, T; Kanai, K; Yokoya, T; Shin, S; Kato, R

    2005-12-01

    The Luttinger surface of an organic metal (TTF-TCNQ), possessing charge order and spin-charge separated band dispersions, is investigated using temperature-dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The Luttinger surface topology, obtained from momentum distribution curves, changes from quasi-2D (dimensional) to quasi-1D with temperature. The high temperature quasi-2D surface exhibits 4kF charge-density-wave (CDW) superstructure in the TCNQ derived holon band, in the absence of 2kF order. Decreasing temperature results in quasi-1D nested 2kF CDW order in the TCNQ spinon band and in the TTF surface. The results establish the link in momentum space between charge order and spin-charge separation in a Luttinger liquid. PMID:16384402

  17. Structural phase transition of as-synthesized Sr-Mn nanoferrites by annealing temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amer, M. A.; Meaz, T. M.; Attalah, S. S.; Ghoneim, A. I.

    2015-11-01

    The Sr0.2Mn0.8Fe2O4 nanoparticle ferrites were synthesized by the co-precipitation method and annealed at different temperatures T. XRD, TEM, FT-IR, VSM and Mössbauer techniques were used to characterize the samples. This study proved that the structural phase of nanoferrites was transformed from cubic spinel for T≤500 °C to Z-type hexagonal for T≥700 °C. The structural transformation was attributed to Jahn-Teller effect of the Mn3+ ions and/or atomic disorder existed in the crystal lattice. The obtained spectra and parameters for the samples were affected by the transformation process. The lattice constant a showed a splitting to a and c for T>500 °C. The lattice constant c, grain and crystallite size R, strain, octahedral B-site band position and force constant, Debye temperature, coercivity Hc, remnant magnetization, squareness and magnetic moment, spontaneous magnetization and hyperfine magnetic fields showed increase against T. The lattice constant a, distortion and dislocation parameters, specific surface area, tetrahedral A-site band position and force constant, threshold frequency, Young's and bulk moduli, saturation magnetization Ms, area ratio of B-/A-sites, A-site line width were decreased with T. Experimental and theoretical densities, porosity, Poison ratio, stiffness constants, rigidity modulus, B-site line width and spontaneous magnetization showed dependence on T, whereas Ms and Hc proved dependence on R.

  18. Effect of annealing temperature on wettability of TiO2 nanotube array films

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube array (TN) films were prepared by anodization of titanium foil in a mixed electrolyte solution of glycerin and NH4F and then annealed at 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, and 800°C, respectively. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water contact angle (WCA), and photoluminescence (PL). It was found that low temperature (below 600°C) has no significant influence on surface morphology, but the diameter of the nanotube increases from 40 to 50 nm with increasing temperature. At 800°C, the nanotube arrays are completely destroyed and only dense rutile film is observed. Samples unannealed and annealed at 200°C are amorphous. At 400°C, anatase phase appears. At 600°C, rutile phase appears. At 800°C, anatase phase changes into rutile phase completely. The wettability of the TN films shows that the WCAs for all samples freshly annealed at different temperatures are about 0°. After the annealed samples have been stored in air for 1 month, the WCAs increase to 130°, 133°, 135°, 141°, and 77°, respectively. Upon ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, they exhibit a significant transition from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity. Especially, samples unannealed and annealed at 400°C show high photoinduced hydrophilicity. PMID:25426006

  19. High-temperature annealing of proton irradiated beryllium - A dilatometry-based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simos, Nikolaos; Elbakhshwan, Mohamed; Zhong, Zhong; Ghose, Sanjit; Savkliyildiz, Ilyas

    2016-08-01

    Ssbnd 200 F grade beryllium has been irradiated with 160 MeV protons up to 1.2 1020 cm-2 peak fluence and irradiation temperatures in the range of 100-200 °C. To address the effect of proton irradiation on dimensional stability, an important parameter in its consideration in fusion reactor applications, and to simulate high temperature irradiation conditions, multi-stage annealing using high precision dilatometry to temperatures up to 740 °C were conducted in air. X-ray diffraction studies were also performed to compliment the macroscopic thermal study and offer a microscopic view of the irradiation effects on the crystal lattice. The primary objective was to qualify the competing dimensional change processes occurring at elevated temperatures namely manufacturing defect annealing, lattice parameter recovery, transmutation 4He and 3H diffusion and swelling and oxidation kinetics. Further, quantification of the effect of irradiation dose and annealing temperature and duration on dimensional changes is sought. The study revealed the presence of manufacturing porosity in the beryllium grade, the oxidation acceleration effect of irradiation including the discontinuous character of oxidation advancement, the effect of annealing duration on the recovery of lattice parameters recovery and the triggering temperature for transmutation gas diffusion leading to swelling.

  20. Size dependent magnetization and high-vacuum annealing enhanced ferromagnetism in Zn(1-x)Co(x)O nanowires.

    PubMed

    Jian, Wen-Bin; Chen, I-Jan; Liao, Tai-Ching; Ou, Yi-Ching; Nien, Cheng-Hsun; Wu, Zhong-Yi; Chen, Fu-Rong; Kai, Ji-Jung; Lin, Juhn-Jong

    2008-01-01

    Diameter controllable ZnO nanowires have been fabricated by thermal evaporation (vapor transport) with various sizes of gold nanoparticles as catalysts. Diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) Zn(1-x)Co(x)O nanowires were then made by high energy Co ion implantation. The as-implanted and the argon-annealed Zn(1-x)Co(x)O nanowires displayed weak ferromagnetism while the high-vacuum annealed nanowires exhibited strong ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature. Size dependent behavior has been observed in the magnetic field and temperature dependences of magnetization. The shrinkage of the nanowire diameter reduced the spontaneous magnetization as well as the hysteresis loops. Field cooled and zero-field cooled magnetization and coercivity measurements were performed between 2 and 300 K to study the evolution of magnetism from the weak to the strong ferromagnetic states. In particular, superparamagnetic features were observed and shown to be intrinsic characteristics of the DMS Zn(1-x)Co(x)O nanowires. The room-temperature spontaneous magnetization of individual Zn(1-x)Co(x)O nanowires was also established by using magnetic force microscope measurements. PMID:18468061

  1. Near interface oxide degradation in high temperature annealed Si/SiO{sub 2}/Si structures

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, R.A.B.; Mathiot, D.; Warren, W.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.

    1993-12-31

    Degradation of 430 nm thick SiO{sub 2} layers in Si/SiO{sub 2}/Si structures which results from high temperature annealing (1320 C) has been studied using electron spin resonance, infra-red and refractive index measurements. Large numbers of oxygen vacancies are found in a region {le}100 nm from each Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. Two types of paramagnetic defects are observed following {gamma} or x-irradiation or hole injection. The 1106 cm{sup {minus}1} infra-red absorption associated with O interstitials in the Si substrate is found to increase with annealing time. The infra-red and spin resonance observations can be explained qualitatively and quantitatively in terms of a model in which oxygen atoms are gettered from the oxide into the under or overlying Si, the driving force being the increased O solubility limit associated with the anneal temperature.

  2. Temperature dependence of FMR and magnetization in nanocrystalline zinc ferrite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, B. N.; Doshi, Akash S.; Prabhu, R.; Venkataramani, N.; Prasad, Shiva; Krishnan, R.

    2016-05-01

    Single phase nano-crystalline zinc ferrite thin films were deposited by RF-magnetron sputtering on quartz substrate at room temperature (RT) in pure Argon environment and annealed (in air) at different temperatures. Temperature dependence of magnetization was studied on these films using both VSM and by observing FMR (in X band). Value of exchange stiffness constant (D) was obtained by fitting Bloch's law to the low temperature magnetization data. The value of D decreased monotonously with the annealing temperature (TA) of the samples. A film annealed at TA = 523 K, exhibited the highest magnetization value. The FMR line width of the films decreased with increase in measurement temperature. At RT (˜293 K), the lowest value of line width (ΔH) was 15 kA/m and 13 kA/m in parallel and perpendicular configuration respectively for the sample annealed at TA = 623 K.

  3. The influence of annealing temperature on the strength of TRISO coated particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooyen, I. J.; Neethling, J. H.; van Rooyen, P. M.

    2010-07-01

    The integrity of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) fuel, and specifically the SiC layer system of the Tristructural Isotropic (TRISO) coated particle (CP), namely inner pyrolytic carbon, silicon carbide and outer pyrolytic carbon (I-PyC-SiC-O-PyC), determines the containment of fission products. The PBMR fuel consists of TRISO coated particles (CPs) embedded in a graphite matrix. One of the characterization techniques investigated by PBMR is the determination of strength of CPs. It is a well known metallurgical fact that temperature, amongst many other parameters, may influence the strength of a material. A recently developed method for measuring the strength of the TRISO coated particles was used and is briefly described in this article. The advantages of this method are demonstrated by the comparison of strength measurements of five experimental PBMR CP batches as a function of annealing temperature. Significant modification of strength after annealing was measured with increased temperature within the range 1000-2100 °C. The interesting feature of decreasing standard deviation of the strength with increasing temperature will also be discussed with a possible explanation. A significant difference in coated particle strength is also demonstrated for two CP batches with layer thickness on the extremities of the SiC layer thickness specification. The effect of long duration annealing on these strength values will also be demonstrated by comparing results from 1 h to 100 h annealing periods of coated particles at a temperature of 1600 °C.

  4. Effects of Co layer thickness and annealing temperature on the magnetic properties of inverted [Pt/Co] multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae Young; Chan Won, Young; Su Son, Dong; Lee, Seong-Rae; Ho Lim, Sang

    2013-11-07

    The effects of Co layer thickness and annealing temperature on the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) properties of inverted [Pt (0.2 nm)/Co (t{sub Co})]{sub 6} multilayers (where t{sub Co} indicates the thickness of the Co layer) have been investigated. The cross-sectional microstructure, as observed from the high-resolution transmission electron microscope images, shows a clear layered structure with atomically flat interfaces both in the as-deposited state as well as after annealing, indicating the interface effects for PMA. The effective PMA energy density (K{sub eff}) increases significantly with an increase in t{sub Co} from 0.2 to 0.28 nm and then becomes almost saturated with further increases in t{sub Co}, followed by a slight reduction at the highest Co thickness, t{sub Co} = 0.6 nm. In order to explain the t{sub Co} dependence on K{sub eff}, the intrinsic PMA energy density (K{sub i}) is calculated by additionally measuring a similar set of results for the saturation magnetization. The K{sub i} value increases nearly linearly with the increase in t{sub Co} from 0.2 to 0.5 nm, followed by saturation at a higher t{sub Co} value of 0.6 nm. Owing to a close relationship between K{sub i} and the quality of the interfaces, these results indicate a similar t{sub Co} dependence on the quality of the interfaces. This is further supported from the magnetic measurements of the samples annealed at the highest temperature of 500 °C, where a second phase is formed, which show a similar t{sub Co} dependence on the amount of the second phase. The K{sub i} value is nearly independent of the annealing temperature at t{sub Co} ≤ 0.4 nm, above which a substantial reduction is observed, when the annealing temperature exceeds 500 °C.

  5. Effect of annealing temperature on morphological, structural and optical properties of nanostructured CuO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgul, Unal; Yildiz, Koksal; Atici, Yusuf

    2016-04-01

    CuO thin film was grown on a glass substrate by reactive radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering. The deposited film was annealed in air at various temperatures for 2h. The SEM images showed that the grain size increased with rising annealing temperature. The EDX and XRD results revealed that the chemical composition and phase of the polycrystalline film were not affected by the annealing conditions. The optical band gap increased from 2.244eV to 2.261eV and then decreased from 2.261eV to 2.145eV by the effect of annealing temperature.

  6. Temperature dependence of basalt weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gaojun; Hartmann, Jens; Derry, Louis A.; West, A. Joshua; You, Chen-Feng; Long, Xiaoyong; Zhan, Tao; Li, Laifeng; Li, Gen; Qiu, Wenhong; Li, Tao; Liu, Lianwen; Chen, Yang; Ji, Junfeng; Zhao, Liang; Chen, Jun

    2016-06-01

    The homeostatic balance of Earth's long-term carbon cycle and the equable state of Earth's climate are maintained by negative feedbacks between the levels of atmospheric CO2 and the chemical weathering rate of silicate rocks. Though clearly demonstrated by well-controlled laboratory dissolution experiments, the temperature dependence of silicate weathering rates, hypothesized to play a central role in these weathering feedbacks, has been difficult to quantify clearly in natural settings at landscape scale. By compiling data from basaltic catchments worldwide and considering only inactive volcanic fields (IVFs), here we show that the rate of CO2 consumption associated with the weathering of basaltic rocks is strongly correlated with mean annual temperature (MAT) as predicted by chemical kinetics. Relations between temperature and CO2 consumption rate for active volcanic fields (AVFs) are complicated by other factors such as eruption age, hydrothermal activity, and hydrological complexities. On the basis of this updated data compilation we are not able to distinguish whether or not there is a significant runoff control on basalt weathering rates. Nonetheless, the simple temperature control as observed in this global dataset implies that basalt weathering could be an effective mechanism for Earth to modulate long-term carbon cycle perturbations.

  7. Effect of post-annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films grown on mica substrates using sol-gel spin-coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Younggyu; Leem, Jae-Young

    2015-09-01

    ZnO thin films were grown on flexible muscovite mica substrates using sol-gel spin-coating. The structural and optical properties of the sol-gel-derived ZnO thin films annealed at temperatures between 300 - 600 °C were investigated. The surface morphology of the ZnO thin films was found to depend slightly on the annealing temperature. In the photoluminescence spectra, the position of the near-band-edge (NBE) peak was shifted towards a lower energy by the post-annealing process, and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of the NBE peaks for the annealed ZnO thin films were significantly lower than those for the as-grown film. Defect-related deep-level peaks exhibiting green and red emissions were observed only for the annealed ZnO thin films. The Urbach energy and optical band gap of the films decreased with an increase in annealing temperatures up to 500 °C.

  8. Structure and infrared photoluminescence of GeSi nanocrystals formed by high temperature annealing of GeOx/SiO2 multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volodin, V. A.; Gambaryan, M. P.; Cherkov, A. G.; Stoffel, M.; Rinnert, H.; Vergnat, M.

    2016-08-01

    Germanium and GeSi nanocrystals were synthesized in SiGeO2 glass by high temperature annealings of GeOx(5 nm)/SiO2(5 nm) multilayers. According to electron microscopy data, the size distribution and stoichiometry of the nanocrystals depend on the annealing temperature (700, 800, or 900 °C). Spatial redistribution of Ge with the formation of large faceted nanocrystals located near the Si substrate and GeSi intermixing at the substrate/film interface were observed. In the case of the 900 °C annealed sample, we note that some nanocrystals have a pyramid-like shape. Infrared absorption spectroscopy demonstrates that intermixing takes place between the GeOx and SiO2 layers leading to the formation of SiGeO2 glass. Raman spectroscopy confirms the formation of Ge nanocrystals after annealing at 700 °C and GeSi nanocrystals after annealing at 800 and 900 °C. For all annealed samples, we report the observation of infrared photoluminescence (PL) at low temperatures in the spectral range 1300–2100 nm. The observation of PL at wavelengths close to 2000 nm may be due to defect-induced radiative transitions in the nanocrystals.

  9. Carrier capture efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs: Role of high temperature annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Vinattieri, A.; Batignani, F.; Bogani, F.; Meneghini, M.; Meneghesso, G.; Zanoni, E.; Zhu, D.; Humphreys, C. J.

    2014-02-21

    By means of time integrated (TI), time-resolved (TR) photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation spectra, we investigate the role of an high temperature post-growth thermal annealing (TA) on a set of InGaN/GaN LED structures with different dislocation densities. We provide evidence of the nature of the radiative recombination from a wide distribution of non-interacting localised states and we show the beneficial effect of thermal annealing in reducing the contribution of non-radiative recombination in the well region.

  10. Impact of annealing temperature on the mechanical and electrical properties of sputtered aluminum nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Gillinger, M.; Schneider, M.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U.; Nicolay, P.

    2015-02-14

    Aluminium nitride (AlN) is a promising material for challenging sensor applications such as process monitoring in harsh environments (e.g., turbine exhaust), due to its piezoelectric properties, its high temperature stability and good thermal match to silicon. Basically, the operational temperature of piezoelectric materials is limited by the increase of the leakage current as well as by enhanced diffusion effects in the material at elevated temperatures. This work focuses on the characterization of aluminum nitride thin films after post deposition annealings up to temperatures of 1000 °C in harsh environments. For this purpose, thin film samples were temperature loaded for 2 h in pure nitrogen and oxygen gas atmospheres and characterized with respect to the film stress and the leakage current behaviour. The X-ray diffraction results show that AlN thin films are chemically stable in oxygen atmospheres for 2 h at annealing temperatures of up to 900 °C. At 1000 °C, a 100 nm thick AlN layer oxidizes completely. For nitrogen, the layer is stable up to 1000 °C. The activation energy of the samples was determined from leakage current measurements at different sample temperatures, in the range between 25 and 300 °C. Up to an annealing temperature of 700 °C, the leakage current in the thin film is dominated by Poole-Frenkel behavior, while at higher annealing temperatures, a mixture of different leakage current mechanisms is observed.

  11. Enhanced photocurrent density of hematite thin films on FTO substrates: effect of post-annealing temperature.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Soo; Kang, Myung Jong; Kang, Young Soo

    2015-06-28

    Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) is widely used as a substrate in the synthesis of a photo-reactive semiconductor electrode for solar water splitting. The hematite film on the surface of the FTO substrate annealed at 700 °C showed an enhanced photocurrent value with a maximum photocurrent of 0.39 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V vs. RHE under 1 sun illumination. This is a much enhanced photocurrent value of the hematite films than that of those annealed at temperatures lower than 700 °C. This is a promising approach for the enhancement of the photoelectrochemical properties of metal oxide thin films. This work reports on the mechanism of the annealing process of the synthesized hematite film to enhance the photocurrent value. Furthermore, this can be used for the enhanced efficiency of the solar water splitting reaction. PMID:26032403

  12. Microstructure of V-based ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN heterostructures at a reduced annealing temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, A. Schroeter, Ch.; Otto, R.; Heitmann, J.; Schuster, M.; Klemm, V.; Rafaja, D.

    2015-02-02

    Ohmic contacts with V/Al/Ni/Au and V/Ni/Au metalization schemes were deposited on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. The dependence of the specific contact resistance on the annealing conditions and the V:Al thickness ratio was shown. For an optimized electrode stack, a low specific contact resistance of 8.9 × 10{sup −6} Ω cm{sup 2} was achieved at an annealing temperature of 650 °C. Compared to the conventional Ti/Al/Ni/Au contact, this is a reduction of 150 K. The microstructure and contact formation at the AlGaN/metal interface were investigated by transmission electron microscopy including high-resolution micrographs and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. It was shown that for low-resistive contacts, the resistivity of the metalization has to be taken into account. The V:Al thickness ratio has an impact on the formation of different intermetallic phases and thus is crucial for establishing ohmic contacts at reduced annealing temperatures.

  13. Post-growth annealing of Bridgman-grown CdZnTe and CdMnTe crystals for room-temperature nuclear radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egarievwe, Stephen U.; Yang, Ge; Egarievwe, Alexander A.; Okwechime, Ifechukwude O.; Gray, Justin; Hales, Zaveon M.; Hossain, Anwar; Camarda, Giuseppe S.; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; James, Ralph B.

    2015-06-01

    Bridgman-grown cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) and cadmium manganese telluride (CdMnTe or CMT) crystals often have Te inclusions that limit their performances as X-ray- and gamma-ray-detectors. We present here the results of post-growth thermal annealing aimed at reducing and eliminating Te inclusions in them. In a 2D analysis, we observed that the sizes of the Te inclusions declined to 92% during a 60-h annealing of CZT at 510 °C under Cd vapor. Further, tellurium inclusions were eliminated completely in CMT samples annealed at 570 °C in Cd vapor for 26 h, whilst their electrical resistivity fell by an order of 102. During the temperature-gradient annealing of CMT at 730 °C and an 18 °C/cm temperature gradient for 18 h in a vacuum of 10-5 mbar, we observed the diffusion of Te from the sample, so causing a reduction in size of the Te inclusions. For CZT samples annealed at 700 °C in a 10 °C/cm temperature gradient, we observed the migration of Te inclusions from a low-temperature region to a high one at 0.022 μm/s. During the temperature-gradient annealing of CZT in a vacuum of 10-5 mbar at 570 °C and 30 °C/cm for 18 h, some Te inclusions moved toward the high-temperature side of the wafer, while other inclusions of the same size, i.e., 10 μm in diameter, remained in the same position. These results show that the migration, diffusion, and reaction of Te with Cd in the matrix of CZT- and CMT-wafers are complex phenomena that depend on the conditions in local regions, such as composition and structure, as well as on the annealing conditions.

  14. Effect of annealing temperature on the structural reorganization of Eu3+ optical centers in Al2O3-Eu2O3-BiOF gel films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malashkevich, G. E.; Kornienko, A. A.; Dunina, E. B.; Prusova, I. V.; Shevchenko, G. P.; Bokshits, Yu. V.

    2007-06-01

    The dependence of the structural reorganization of Eu3+ optical centers in Al2O3-Eu2O3-BiOF films on the annealing temperature has been investigated. It is shown by the methods of crystal field theory and computer simulation that the increase in the annealing temperature from 700 to 1100 °C leads to removal of bismuth from Eu-O-Bi complex centers with the C 3V symmetry in the Al2O3 structure and the change in symmetry from D 3 to O h for a large fraction of EuAlO3 centers.

  15. Thermal stress modification in regenerated fiber Bragg grating via manipulation of glass transition temperature based on CO₂-laser annealing.

    PubMed

    Lai, Man-Hong; Lim, Kok-Sing; Gunawardena, Dinusha S; Yang, Hang-Zhou; Chong, Wu-Yi; Ahmad, Harith

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we have demonstrated thermal stress relaxation in regenerated fiber Bragg gratings (RFBGs) by using direct CO₂-laser annealing technique. After the isothermal annealing and slow cooling process, the Bragg wavelength of the RFBG has been red-shifted. This modification is reversible by re-annealing and rapid cooling. It is repeatable with different cooling process in the subsequent annealing treatments. This phenomenon can be attributed to the thermal stress modification in the fiber core by means of manipulation of glass transition temperature with different cooling rates. This finding in this investigation is important for accurate temperature measurement of RFBG in dynamic environment. PMID:25723423

  16. In Situ Observation of High Temperature Creep Behavior During Annealing of Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. F.; Terasaki, H.; Komizo, Y.; Murakami, Y.; Yasuda, K.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies on creep suggested a close relationship between polycrystal grain size, substructure, and creep rate. At present, however, our understanding of the influence of polycrystal grain size, substructure, and thermal stress on creep deformation behavior seems rather insufficient, especially as there is a general lack of in situ data on structural changes during creep. In this study, the effects of thermal stress, austenite grain size, and cooling rate on slip deformations in C-Mn-Al steel during annealing were investigated systematically on the basis of in situ observations using high temperature laser scanning confocal microscopy. Finally, a kinetics model based on thermal expansion anisotropy and temperature difference was developed to explain these interesting experimental results. The in situ investigation of slip deformation during annealing greatly contributes to the understanding of high temperature creep behavior.

  17. Effect of low temperature anneals and nonthermal treatments on the properties of gap fill oxides used in SiGe and III-V devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, E. Todd; Morin, Pierre; Madan, Anita; Mehta, Sanjay

    2016-07-01

    Silicon dioxide is used to electrically isolate CMOS devices such as fin field effect transistors by filling gaps between the devices (also known as shallow trench isolation). The gap fill oxide typically requires a high temperature anneal in excess of 1000 °C to achieve adequate electrical properties and oxide densification to make the oxide compatible with subsequent fabrication steps such as fin reveal etch. However, the transition from Si-based devices to high mobility channel materials such as SiGe and III-V semiconductors imposes more severe thermal limitations on the processes used for device fabrication, including gap fill oxide annealing. This study provides a framework to quantify and model the effect of anneal temperature and time on the densification of a flowable silicon dioxide as measured by wet etch rate. The experimental wet etch rates allowed the determination of the activation energy and anneal time dependence for oxide densification. Dopant and self-diffusion can degrade the channel material above a critical temperature. We present a model of self-diffusion of Ge and Si in SiGe materials. Together these data allowed us to map the thermal process space for acceptable oxide wet etch rate and self-diffusion. The methodology is also applicable to III-V devices, which require even lower thermal budget. The results highlight the need for nonthermal oxide densification methods such as ultraviolet (UV) and plasma treatments. We demonstrate that several plasma treatments, in place of high temperature annealing, improved the properties of flowable oxide. In addition, UV curing prior to thermal annealing enables acceptable densification with dramatically reduced anneal temperature.

  18. Low Temperature, Rapid Thermal Cycle Annealing of HgCdTe Grown on CdTe/Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simingalam, Sina; Brill, Gregory; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal; Rao, Mulpuri V.

    2015-05-01

    The HgCdTe(MCT) grown on CdTe/Si substrate has a high dislocation density due to lattice mismatch. Thermal cycle annealing (TCA) is effective in reducing the dislocation density. The TCA at high temperatures results in inter-diffusion of the constituent elements across the MCT/CdTe interface. In this study, we observed a reduction in dislocation density with good surface morphology due to proper design of the TCA system, low annealing temperature, and large number of annealing cycles. The ampoule containing the samples is placed in direct contact with the graphite heating tube which helps in increasing the heating and cooling rates of the annealing cycle. To maintain Hg overpressure, Hg is placed in the sample holder, instead of in the ampoule to avoid Hg condensation. The best results were obtained by cycling the annealing temperature between 290°C and 350°C. Anneals were performed by using 32, 64, 128 and 256 cycles. We obtained an etch pit density (EPD) as low as 1 × 106 cm-2. Lower EPD was not achieved either by increasing annealing temperature or number of annealing cycles. Through secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis, we observed very little inter-diffusion of Cd across the MCT/CdTe interface for the 128 cycle annealing. These results show promise in bridging the gap in the device performance between the MCT material grown on CdTe/Si and CdZnTe substrates.

  19. An investigation of temperature measurement methods in nuclear power plant reactor pressure vessel annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Acton, R.U.; Gill, W.; Sais, D.J.; Schulze, D.H.; Nakos, J.T.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this project was to provide an assessment of several methods by which the temperature of a commercial nuclear power plant reactor pressure vessel (RPV) could be measured during an annealing process. This project was a coordinated effort between DOE`s Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology; DOE`s Light Water Reactor Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories; and the Electric Power Research Institute`s Non- Destructive Evaluation Center. Ball- thermocouple probes similar to those described in NUREG/CR-5760, spring-loaded, metal- sheathed thermocouple probes, and 1778 air- suspended thermocouples were investigated in experiments that heated a section of an RPV wall to simulate a thermal annealing treatment. A parametric study of ball material, emissivity, thermal conductivity, and thermocouple function locations was conducted. Also investigated was a sheathed thermocouple failure mode known as shunting (electrical breakdown of insulation separating the thermocouple wires). Large errors were found between the temperature as measured by the probes and the true RPV wall temperature during heat-up and cool-down. At the annealing soak temperature, in this case 454{degrees}C [850`F], all sensors measured the same temperature within about {plus_minus}5% (23.6{degrees}C [42.5{degrees}F]). Because of these errors, actual RPV wall heating and cooling rates differed from those prescribed (by up to 29%). Shunting does not appear to be a problem under these conditions. The large temperature measurement errors led to the development of a thermal model that predicts the RPV wall temperature from the temperature of a ball- probe. Comparisons between the model and the experimental data for ball-probes indicate that the model could be a useful tool in predicting the actual RPV temperature based on the indicated ball- probe temperature. The model does not predict the temperature as well for the spring-loaded and air suspended probes.

  20. Effect of annealing temperature on structure and electrical properties of topological insulator Bi2Te3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urkude, R. R.; Palikundwar, U. A.

    2016-05-01

    Bi2Te3 samples were prepared by precipitation method. The samples were annealed in evacuated quartz tubes and were treated at different temperature for different duration of time. Effects of annealing temperature and time on the structure of Bi2Te3 were studied in detail. The Bi2Te3 samples annealed at temperature 300°C and 450°C for 48Hrs, 72Hrs and 96Hrs were selected for the present study. The structure of Bi2Te3 and related phases were investigated by the X-ray powder diffraction technique. Morphology and chemical compositions of the samples were investigated by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy respectively. All the samples were indexed in rhombohedral crystal structure, with a space group R-3m. The structure consists of repeated quintuple layers of atoms, Te2-Bi-Te1-Bi-Te2 stacking along the z-axis of the unit cell. Electrical properties of the sample annealed at 300°C for 96Hrs was evaluated by measurements of the electrical resistivity and magnetoresistance. The magnetoresistance data at low temperature (1.5 to 50 K) were analyzed to investigate weak antilocalization (WAL) effect. MR data followed the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka (HLN) equation with a fit parameter α close to -1 as expected for topological surface states at 1.5 K, but for other temperatures the small oscillations were observed which may be due to the phenomena like Shubnikov-de Hass effect.

  1. Surface Temperature of Protoplanetary Disks Probed by Annealing Experiments Reflecting Spitzer Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roskosz, Mathieu; Gillot, Jessy; Capet, Frédéric; Roussel, Pascal; Leroux, Hugues

    2009-12-01

    Pyroxenes and olivines are the dominant crystalline silicates observed in protoplanetary disks. Recent spectral observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope indicate that the abundance of olivine, generally associated with silica polymorphs, relative to pyroxene is higher in the outer cold part of the disk than in the inner warmer part. The interpretation of these unexpected results requires a comprehensive knowledge of the thermal processing of Mg-rich silicate dust. In this respect, amorphous analogs were thermally annealed to identify microscopic crystallization mechanisms. We show that pyroxenes are not produced in significant proportions below the glass transition temperature of the amorphous precursor. The annealing of amorphous enstatite leads to a mineralogical assemblage dominated by forsterite, with only minute amounts of pyroxenes at temperatures as high as the glass transition temperature of enstatite (1050 K). The decoupling of cation mobility in amorphous silicates, favors the crystallization of the most Mg-enriched silicates. These results are consistent with Spitzer observations of silicate dust and also with the documented mineralogy of presolar silicates, making the low-temperature annealing a likely formation process for these objects. Based on these laboratory experiments and Spitzer observations, it appears that the reported zoned mineralogy may directly records and calibrates the thermal gradient at the scale of protoplanetary disks.

  2. SURFACE TEMPERATURE OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS PROBED BY ANNEALING EXPERIMENTS REFLECTING SPITZER OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Roskosz, Mathieu; Gillot, Jessy; Leroux, Hugues; Capet, Frederic; Roussel, Pascal

    2009-12-20

    Pyroxenes and olivines are the dominant crystalline silicates observed in protoplanetary disks. Recent spectral observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope indicate that the abundance of olivine, generally associated with silica polymorphs, relative to pyroxene is higher in the outer cold part of the disk than in the inner warmer part. The interpretation of these unexpected results requires a comprehensive knowledge of the thermal processing of Mg-rich silicate dust. In this respect, amorphous analogs were thermally annealed to identify microscopic crystallization mechanisms. We show that pyroxenes are not produced in significant proportions below the glass transition temperature of the amorphous precursor. The annealing of amorphous enstatite leads to a mineralogical assemblage dominated by forsterite, with only minute amounts of pyroxenes at temperatures as high as the glass transition temperature of enstatite (1050 K). The decoupling of cation mobility in amorphous silicates, favors the crystallization of the most Mg-enriched silicates. These results are consistent with Spitzer observations of silicate dust and also with the documented mineralogy of presolar silicates, making the low-temperature annealing a likely formation process for these objects. Based on these laboratory experiments and Spitzer observations, it appears that the reported zoned mineralogy may directly records and calibrates the thermal gradient at the scale of protoplanetary disks.

  3. Tuning phase transition temperature of VO2 thin films by annealing atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingxing; Wang, Shao-Wei; Chen, Feiliang; Yu, Liming; Chen, Xiaoshuang

    2015-07-01

    A simple new way to tune the optical phase transition temperature of VO2 films was proposed by only controlling the pressure of oxygen during the annealing process. Vanadium films were deposited on glass by a large-scale magnetron sputtering coating system and then annealed in appropriate oxygen atmosphere to form the VO2 films. The infrared transmission change (at 2400 nm) is as high as 58% for the VO2 thin film on the glass substrate, which is very good for tuning infrared radiation and energy saving as smart windows. The phase transition temperature of the films can be easily tuned from an intrinsic temperature to 44.7 °C and 40.2 °C on glass and sapphire by annealing oxygen pressure, respectively. The mechanism is: V3+ ions form in the film when under anaerobic conditions, which can interrupt the V4+ chain and reduce the phase transition temperature. The existence of V3+ ions has been observed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experiments as proof.

  4. Dielectric relaxation and conduction mechanisms in sprayed TiO2 thin films as a function of the annealing temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juma, Albert; Acik, Ilona Oja; Mere, Arvo; Krunks, Malle

    2016-04-01

    The electrical properties of TiO2 thin films deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis onto Si substrates were investigated in the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) configuration using current-voltage characteristics and impedance spectroscopy. The electrical properties were analyzed in relation to the changes in microstructure induced during annealing in air up to a temperature of 950 °C. Anatase to rutile transformation started after annealing at 800 °C, and at 950 °C, only the rutile phase was present. The dielectric relaxation strongly depended upon the microstructure of TiO2 with the dielectric constant for the anatase phase between 45 and 50 and that for the rutile phase 123. Leakage current was reduced by three orders of magnitude after annealing at 700 °C due to the densification of the TiO2 film. A double-logarithmic plot of the current-voltage characteristics showed a linear relationship below 0.12 V consistent with Ohmic conduction, while space-charge-limited conduction mechanism as described by Child's law dominated for bias voltages above 0.12 V.

  5. A model to non-uniform Ni Schottky contact on SiC annealed at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pristavu, G.; Brezeanu, G.; Badila, M.; Pascu, R.; Danila, M.; Godignon, P.

    2015-06-01

    Ni Schottky contacts on SiC have a nonideal behavior, with strong temperature dependence of the electrical parameters, caused by a mixed barrier on the contact area and interface states. A simple analytical model that establishes a quantitative correlation between Schottky contact parameter variation with temperature and barrier height non-uniformity is proposed. A Schottky contact surface with double Schottky barrier is considered. The main model parameters are the lower barrier (ΦBn,l) and a p factor which quantitatively evaluates the barrier non-uniformity on the Schottky contact area. The model is validated on Ni/4H-SiC Schottky contacts, post metallization sintered at high temperatures. The measured IF-VF-T characteristics, selected so as not to be affected by interface states, were used for model correlation. An inhomogeneous double Schottky barrier (with both nickel silicide and Ni droplets at the interface) is formed by a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 750 °C. High values of the p parameter are obtained from samples annealed at this temperature, using the proposed model. A significant improvement in the electrical properties occurs following RTA at 800 °C. The expansion of the Ni2Si phase on the whole contact area is evinced by an X-Ray diffraction investigation. In this case, the p factor is much lower, attesting the uniformity of the contact. The model makes it possible to evaluate the real Schottky barrier, for a homogenous Schottky contact. Using data measured on samples annealed at 800 °C, a true barrier height of around 1.73 V has been obtained for Ni2Si/4H-SiC Schottky contacts.

  6. A model to non-uniform Ni Schottky contact on SiC annealed at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Pristavu, G.; Brezeanu, G.; Badila, M.; Pascu, R.; Danila, M.; Godignon, P.

    2015-06-29

    Ni Schottky contacts on SiC have a nonideal behavior, with strong temperature dependence of the electrical parameters, caused by a mixed barrier on the contact area and interface states. A simple analytical model that establishes a quantitative correlation between Schottky contact parameter variation with temperature and barrier height non-uniformity is proposed. A Schottky contact surface with double Schottky barrier is considered. The main model parameters are the lower barrier (Φ{sub Bn,l}) and a p factor which quantitatively evaluates the barrier non-uniformity on the Schottky contact area. The model is validated on Ni/4H-SiC Schottky contacts, post metallization sintered at high temperatures. The measured I{sub F}–V{sub F}–T characteristics, selected so as not to be affected by interface states, were used for model correlation. An inhomogeneous double Schottky barrier (with both nickel silicide and Ni droplets at the interface) is formed by a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 750 °C. High values of the p parameter are obtained from samples annealed at this temperature, using the proposed model. A significant improvement in the electrical properties occurs following RTA at 800 °C. The expansion of the Ni{sub 2}Si phase on the whole contact area is evinced by an X-Ray diffraction investigation. In this case, the p factor is much lower, attesting the uniformity of the contact. The model makes it possible to evaluate the real Schottky barrier, for a homogenous Schottky contact. Using data measured on samples annealed at 800 °C, a true barrier height of around 1.73 V has been obtained for Ni{sub 2}Si/4H-SiC Schottky contacts.

  7. Effect of solution annealing temperature on precipitation in 2205 duplex stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwar, A.; Vennela, N. Phani; Kamath, S.L.; Khatirkar, R.K.

    2012-12-15

    In the present study, effect of solution annealing temperature (1050 Degree-Sign C and 1100 Degree-Sign C) and isothermal ageing (700 Degree-Sign C: 15 min to 6 h) on the microstructural changes in 2205 duplex stainless steel has been investigated systematically. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were adopted to follow the microstructural evolution, while an energy dispersive spectrometer attached to scanning electron microscope was used to obtain localised chemical information of various phases. The ferritic matrix of the two phase 2205 duplex stainless steel ({approx} 45% ferrite and {approx} 55% austenite) undergoes a series of metallurgical transformations during ageing-formation of secondary austenite ({gamma}{sub 2}) and precipitation of Cr and Mo rich intermetallic (chi-{chi} and sigma-{sigma}) phases. For solution annealing at 1050 Degree-Sign C, significant amount of carbides were observed in the ferrite grains after 1 h of ageing at 700 Degree-Sign C. {chi} Phase precipitated after the precipitation of carbides-preferentially at the ferrite-ferrite and also at the ferrite-austenite boundaries. {sigma} Phase was not observed in significant quantity even after 6 h of ageing. The sequence of precipitation in samples solution annealed at 1050 Degree-Sign C was found to be carbides {yields} {chi} {yields} {sigma}. On the contrary, for samples solution annealed at 1100 Degree-Sign C, the precipitation of {chi} phase was negligible. {chi} Phase precipitated before {sigma} phase, preferentially along the ferrite-ferrite grain boundaries and was later consumed in the {sigma} phase precipitation. The {sigma} phase precipitated via the eutectoid transformation of ferrite to yield secondary austenite {gamma}{sub 2} and {sigma} phase in the ferrite and along the ferrite-austenite grain boundaries. An increase in the volume fraction of {gamma}{sub 2} and {sigma} phase with simultaneous decrease in the ferrite was evidenced with ageing. - Highlights

  8. The influence of temperature on fatigue-crack growth in a mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, R. P.; Ritter, D. L.

    1971-01-01

    To understand the influence of temperature on the rate of fatigue crack growth in high strength metal alloys, constant load amplitude fatigue crack growth experiments were carried out using a 1/4 inch thick (6.35 mm) mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V alloy plate as a model material. The rates of fatigue crack growth were determined as a function of temperature, ranging from room temperature to about 290 C and as a function of the crack tip, stress intensity factor K, in dehumidified high purity argon environment. The dependence of the rate of fatigue crack growth on K appears to be separable into two regions. The transition correlates with changes in both the microscopic and macroscopic appearances of the fracture surfaces, and suggests a change in the mechanism and the influence of microstructure on fatigue crack growth.

  9. Annealing temperature effect on microstructure, magnetic and microwave properties of Fe-based amorphous alloy powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jinghua; Wang, Wei; Wang, Aimin; Guan, Jianguo

    2012-09-01

    Fe74Ni3Si13Cr6W4 amorphous alloy powders were annealed at different temperature (T) for 1.5 h to fabricate the corresponding amorphous and nanocrystalline powders. The influences of T on the crystalline structure, morphology, magnetic and microwave electromagnetic properties of the resultant samples were investigated via X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and vector network analyzer. The results show that the powder samples obtained at T of 650 °C or more are composed of lots of ultra-fine α-Fe(Si) grains embedded in an amorphous matrix. When T increases from 350 to 750 °C, the saturated magnetization and coercivity of the as-annealed powder samples both increase monotonously whereas the relative real permittivity shows a minimal value and the relative real permeability shows a maximal value at T of 650 °C. Thus the powder samples annealed at 650 °C show optimal reflection loss under -10 dB in the whole C-band. These results here suggest that the annealing heat treatment of Fe-based amorphous alloy is an effective approach to fabricate high performance microwave absorber with reasonable permittivity and large permeability simultaneously via adjusting T.

  10. Post-Growth Annealing of Bridgman-grown CdZnTe and CdMnTe Crystals for Room-temperature Nuclear Radiation Detectors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Egarievwe, Stephen U.; Yang, Ge; Egarievwe, Alexander; Okwechime, Ifechukwude O.; Gray, Justin; Hales, Zaveon M.; Hossain, Anwar; Camarda, Guiseppe S.; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; James, Ralph B.

    2015-02-11

    Bridgman-grown cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) and cadmium manganese telluride (CdMnTe or CMT) crystals often have Te inclusions that limit their performances as X-ray- and gamma-ray-detectors. We present here the results of post-growth thermal annealing aimed at reducing and eliminating Te inclusions in them. In a 2D analysis, we observed that the sizes of the Te inclusions declined to 92% during a 60-h annealing of CZT at 510 °C under Cd vapor. Further, tellurium inclusions were eliminated completely in CMT samples annealed at 570 °C in Cd vapor for 26 h, whilst their electrical resistivity fell by an ordermore » of 102. During the temperature-gradient annealing of CMT at 730 °C and an 18 °C/cm temperature gradient for 18 h in a vacuum of 10-5 mbar, we observed the diffusion of Te from the sample, causing a reduction in size of the Te inclusions. For CZT samples annealed at 700 °C in a 10 °C/cm temperature gradient, we observed the migration of Te inclusions from a low-temperature region to a high one at 0.022 μm/s. During the temperature-gradient annealing of CZT in a vacuum of 10-5 mbar at 570 °C and 30 °C/cm for 18 h, some Te inclusions moved toward the high-temperature side of the wafer, while other inclusions of the same size, i.e., 10 µm in diameter, remained in the same position. These results show that the migration, diffusion, and reaction of Te with Cd in the matrix of CZT- and CMT-wafers are complex phenomena that depend on certain conditions.« less

  11. Post-Growth Annealing of Bridgman-grown CdZnTe and CdMnTe Crystals for Room-temperature Nuclear Radiation Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Egarievwe, Stephen U.; Yang, Ge; Egarievwe, Alexander; Okwechime, Ifechukwude O.; Gray, Justin; Hales, Zaveon M.; Hossain, Anwar; Camarda, Guiseppe S.; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; James, Ralph B.

    2015-02-11

    Bridgman-grown cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) and cadmium manganese telluride (CdMnTe or CMT) crystals often have Te inclusions that limit their performances as X-ray- and gamma-ray-detectors. We present here the results of post-growth thermal annealing aimed at reducing and eliminating Te inclusions in them. In a 2D analysis, we observed that the sizes of the Te inclusions declined to 92% during a 60-h annealing of CZT at 510 °C under Cd vapor. Further, tellurium inclusions were eliminated completely in CMT samples annealed at 570 °C in Cd vapor for 26 h, whilst their electrical resistivity fell by an order of 102. During the temperature-gradient annealing of CMT at 730 °C and an 18 °C/cm temperature gradient for 18 h in a vacuum of 10-5 mbar, we observed the diffusion of Te from the sample, causing a reduction in size of the Te inclusions. For CZT samples annealed at 700 °C in a 10 °C/cm temperature gradient, we observed the migration of Te inclusions from a low-temperature region to a high one at 0.022 μm/s. During the temperature-gradient annealing of CZT in a vacuum of 10-5 mbar at 570 °C and 30 °C/cm for 18 h, some Te inclusions moved toward the high-temperature side of the wafer, while other inclusions of the same size, i.e., 10 µm in diameter, remained in the same position. These results show that the migration, diffusion, and reaction of Te with Cd in the matrix of CZT- and CMT-wafers are complex phenomena that depend on certain conditions.

  12. Reliability implications of defects in high temperature annealed Si/SiO{sub 2}/Si structures

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, W.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Devine, R.A.B.; Mathiot, D.

    1994-08-01

    High-temperature post-oxidation annealing of poly-Si/SiO{sub 2}/Si structures such as metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors and metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors is known to result in enhanced radiation sensitivity, increased 1/f noise, and low field breakdown. The authors have studied the origins of these effects from a spectroscopic standpoint using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and atomic force microscopy. One result of high temperature annealing is the generation of three types of paramagnetic defect centers, two of which are associated with the oxide close to the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface (oxygen-vacancy centers) and the third with the bulk Si substrate (oxygen-related donors). In all three cases, the origin of the defects may be attributed to out-diffusion of O from the SiO{sub 2} network into the Si substrate with associated reduction of the oxide. The authors present a straightforward model for the interfacial region which assumes the driving force for O out-diffusion is the chemical potential difference of the O in the two phases (SiO{sub 2} and the Si substrate). Experimental evidence is provided to show that enhanced hole trapping and interface-trap and border-trap generation in irradiated high-temperature annealed Si/SiO{sub 2}/Si systems are all related either directly, or indirectly, to the presence of oxygen vacancies.

  13. Preparation of nickel oxide thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel spin coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, M. A. R.; Mamat, M. H.; Ismail, A. S.; Malek, M. F.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    Preparation of NiO thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel method was conducted to synthesize the quality of the surface thin films. The effects of annealing temperature on the surface topology were systematically investigated. Our studies confirmed that the surface roughness of the thin films was increased whenever annealing temperature was increase. NiO thin films morphology structure analysis was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope. Surface roughness of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy.

  14. Effect of annealing temperature on the optical property of high Cd content CdZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Teren; Wang, Dongbo; Guo, Fengyun; Jiao, Shujie; Wang, Jinzhong; Liu, Yuhang; Luan, Chunyang; Cao, Wenwu; Zhao, Liancheng

    2016-09-01

    CdZnO films with high Cd contents (59%) have been deposited on quartz substrate by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The as-deposited CdZnO films can hardly show detectable photoluminescence (PL). However, once subjected to suitable annealing temperature, the CdZnO films exhibit pronounced PL. Furthermore, when the annealing temperature at 300 °C and above, that the CdZnO are changed from the single phase of the rs structure to involving w, zb, and rs phases. Consequently, reliable formation and optical property improvement of the CdZnO layers are achieved through annealing temperature at 300 °C.

  15. Evolution of Self-Assembled Au NPs by Controlling Annealing Temperature and Dwelling Time on Sapphire (0001).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihoon; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Li, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Quanzhen; Kunwar, Sundar

    2015-12-01

    Au nanoparticles (NPs) have been utilized in a wide range of device applications as well as catalysts for the fabrication of nanopores and nanowires, in which the performance of the associated devices and morphology of nanopores and nanowires are strongly dependent on the size, density, and configuration of the Au NPs. In this paper, the evolution of the self-assembled Au nanostructures and NPs on sapphire (0001) is systematically investigated with the variation of annealing temperature (AT) and dwelling time (DT). At the low-temperature range between 300 and 600 °C, three distinct regimes of the Au nanostructure configuration are observed, i.e., the vermiform-like Au piles, irregular Au nano-mounds, and Au islands. Subsequently, being provided with relatively high thermal energy between 700 and 900 °C, the round dome-shaped Au NPs are fabricated based on the Volmer-Weber growth model. With the increased AT, the size of the Au NPs is gradually increased due to a more favorable surface diffusion while the density is gradually decreased as a compensation. On the other hand, with the increased DT, the size and density of Au NPs decrease due to the evaporation of Au at relatively high annealing temperature at 950 °C. PMID:26704710

  16. Evolution of Self-Assembled Au NPs by Controlling Annealing Temperature and Dwelling Time on Sapphire (0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jihoon; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Li, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Quanzhen; Kunwar, Sundar

    2015-12-01

    Au nanoparticles (NPs) have been utilized in a wide range of device applications as well as catalysts for the fabrication of nanopores and nanowires, in which the performance of the associated devices and morphology of nanopores and nanowires are strongly dependent on the size, density, and configuration of the Au NPs. In this paper, the evolution of the self-assembled Au nanostructures and NPs on sapphire (0001) is systematically investigated with the variation of annealing temperature (AT) and dwelling time (DT). At the low-temperature range between 300 and 600 °C, three distinct regimes of the Au nanostructure configuration are observed, i.e., the vermiform-like Au piles, irregular Au nano-mounds, and Au islands. Subsequently, being provided with relatively high thermal energy between 700 and 900 °C, the round dome-shaped Au NPs are fabricated based on the Volmer-Weber growth model. With the increased AT, the size of the Au NPs is gradually increased due to a more favorable surface diffusion while the density is gradually decreased as a compensation. On the other hand, with the increased DT, the size and density of Au NPs decrease due to the evaporation of Au at relatively high annealing temperature at 950 °C.

  17. The role of annealing temperature on the structural and magnetic consequences of Ta/PrFeB/Ta thin films processed by rapid thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Ta/PrFeB/Ta thin films were deposited on CORNING 7059 by sputtering technique followed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The thickness of PrFeB was kept constant at 50 nm. The role of annealing temperature from 450 to 700 °C in a step of 50 °C for constant heating time of 60 s on the structural and magnetic consequences of thin films was studied by means of X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The (00l) texture was almost fully developed at temperature of 650 °C and with an increase in temperature up to 700 °C the (105) peaks was also appeared in the patterns. The grains size and surface roughness of PrFeB films were increased by an increase in temperature. It was found that with an increase in temperature up to 500 °C the coercivity was developed and enhanced to 0.75 MA/m by further increasing of temperature to 650 °C. The maximum remanent-magnetization ratio and coercivity were obtained at temperature of 650 °C. The magnetization reversal process is accompanied by the combination of domain wall motion (DWM) and Stoner-Wohlfarth (S-W) rotation. However, for PrFeB films annealed at 550-700 °C it is closer to the S-W model than DWM modes.

  18. Effects of annealing temperature on shape transformation and optical properties of germanium quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alireza, Samavati; Othaman, Z.; K. Ghoshal, S.; K. Mustafa, M.

    2015-02-01

    The influences of thermal annealing on the structural and optical features of radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtered self-assembled Ge quantum dots (QDs) on Si (100) are investigated. Preferentially oriented structures of Ge along the (220) and (111) directions together with peak shift and reduced strain (4.9% to 2.7%) due to post-annealing at 650 °C are discerned from x-ray differaction (XRD) measurement. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images for both pre-annealed and post-annealed (650 °C) samples reveal pyramidal-shaped QDs (density ˜ 0.26× 1011 cm-2) and dome-shape morphologies with relatively high density ˜ 0.92 × 1011 cm-2, respectively. This shape transformation is attributed to the mechanism of inter-diffusion of Si in Ge interfacial intermixing and strain non-uniformity. The annealing temperature assisted QDs structural evolution is explained using the theory of nucleation and growth kinetics where free energy minimization plays a pivotal role. The observed red-shift ˜ 0.05 eV in addition to the narrowing of the photoluminescence peaks results from thermal annealing, and is related to the effect of quantum confinement. Furthermore, the appearance of a blue-violet emission peak is ascribed to the recombination of the localized electrons in the Ge-QDs/SiO2 or GeOx and holes in the ground state of Ge dots. Raman spectra of both samples exhibit an intense Ge-Ge optical phonon mode which shifts towards higher frequency compared with those of the bulk counterpart. An experimental Raman profile is fitted to the models of phonon confinement and size distribution combined with phonon confinement to estimate the mean dot sizes. A correlation between thermal annealing and modifications of the structural and optical behavior of Ge QDs is established. Tunable growth of Ge QDs with superior properties suitable for optoelectronic applications is demonstrated. Project supported by Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Study, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

  19. Effects of Low Temperature Anneal on the Interface Properties of Thermal Silicon Oxide for Silicon Surface Passivation.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Nagarajan; Park, Cheolmin; Chung, Sungyoun; Ju, Minkyu; Raja, Jayapal; Yi, Junsin

    2016-05-01

    High quality surface passivation has gained a significant importance in photovoltaic industry for reducing the surface recombination and hence fabricating low cost and high efficiency solar cells using thinner wafers. The formation of good-quality SiO2 films and SiO2/Si interfaces at low processing temperatures is a prerequisite for improving the conversion efficiency of industrial solar cells with better passivation. High-temperature annealing in inert ambient is promising to improve the SiO2/Si interface. However, annealing treatments could cause negative effects on SiO2/Si interfaces due to its chemical at high temperatures. Low temperature post oxidation annealing has been carried out to investigate the structural and interface properties of Si-SiO2 system. Quasi Steady State Photo Conductance measurements shows a promising effective carrier lifetime of 420 μs, surface recombination velocity of 22 cm/s and a low interface trap density (D(it)) of 4 x 10(11) states/cm2/eV after annealing. The fixed oxide charge density was reduced to 1 x 10(11)/cm2 due to the annealing at 500 degrees C. The FWHM and the Si-O peak wavenumber corresponding to the samples annealed at 500 degrees C reveals that the Si dangling bonds in the SiO2 films due to the oxygen defects was reduced by the low temperature post oxidation annealing. PMID:27483822

  20. Excitation intensity dependent photoluminescence of annealed two-dimensional MoS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, D.; Mills, K.; Lee, J.; Torrel, S.; Swaminathan, V.

    2016-06-01

    Here, we present detailed results of Raman and photoluminescence (PL) characterization of monolayers of MoS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on SiO2/Si substrates after thermal annealing at 150 °C, 200 °C, and 250 °C in an argon atmosphere. In comparison to the as-grown monolayers, annealing in the temperature range of 150-250 °C brings about significant changes in the band edge luminescence. It is observed that annealing at 150 °C gives rise to a 100-fold increase in the PL intensity and produces a strong band at 1.852 eV attributed to a free-to-bound transition that dominates over the band edge excitonic luminescence. This band disappears for the higher annealing temperatures. The improvement in PL after the 200 °C anneal is reduced in comparison to that obtained after the 150 °C anneal; this is suggested to arise from a decrease in the non-radiative lifetime caused by the creation of sulfur di-vacancies. Annealing at 250 °C degrades the PL in comparison to the as-grown sample because of the onset of disorder/decomposition of the sample. It is clear that the PL features of the CVD-grown MoS2 monolayer are profoundly affected by thermal annealing in Ar atmosphere. However, further detailed studies are needed to identify, unambiguously, the role of native defects and/or adsorbed species in defining the radiative channels in annealed samples so that the beneficial effect of improvement in the optical efficiency of the MoS2 monolayers can be leveraged for various device applications.

  1. Thermally activated decomposition of (Ga,Mn)As thin layer at medium temperature post growth annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melikhov, Y.; Konstantynov, P.; Domagala, J.; Sadowski, J.; Chernyshova, M.; Wojciechowski, T.; Syryanyy, Y.; Demchenko, I. N.

    2016-05-01

    The redistribution of Mn atoms in Ga1-xMnxAs layer during medium-temperature annealing, 250-450 oC, by Mn K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) recorded at ALBA facility, was studied. For this purpose Ga1-xMnxAs thin layer with x=0.01 was grown on AlAs buffer layer deposited on GaAs(100) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) followed by annealing. The examined layer was detached from the substrate using a “lift-off” procedure in order to eliminate elastic scattering in XAFS spectra. Fourier transform analysis of experimentally obtained EXAFS spectra allowed to propose a model which describes a redistribution/diffusion of Mn atoms in the host matrix. Theoretical XANES spectra, simulated using multiple scattering formalism (FEFF code) with the support of density functional theory (WIEN2k code), qualitatively describe the features observed in the experimental fine structure.

  2. Twinned Si nanowires grown by high temperature annealing of Au/Si system in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffino, F.; Torrisi, V.; Grimaldi, M. G.

    2015-09-01

    Periodically twinned Si nanowires were fabricated on Si surface by high-temperature annealing, in vacuum, of deposited colloidal Au nanoparticles. While performing the annealing process in a gas carrier with trace amounts of oxygen almost-cylindrical silica nanowires are obtained thanks to the stabilizing effect of the oxygen, faceted nanowires are obtained in vacuum condition. In this last case, nanowires with diameter in the 70-150 nm range and length of some microns are obtained. They present an arrangement of periodically twinned segments with a rather uniform thickness along the entire growth length. A minimum surface energy and strain energy argument is used to explain the formation of periodic twins in the Si nanowires. The thickness of the periodic twinned segments is found to be linearly proportional to the nanowire diameter, and a constant volume model is used to explain the relation. By the fit of the experimental data, in particular, an estimation of the twin energy formation is obtained.

  3. Effect of Annealing Temperature on Structural and Optical Parameters of Sol-Gel Routed Molybdenum Oxide Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arasu, P. Adal; Williams, R. Victor

    2015-05-01

    The influence of annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of sol-gel routed spin-coated molybdenum tri oxide (MoO3) thin films are studied. The higher annealing temperatures improve the crystalline nature of the film. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) study reveals the formation of α-orthorhombic phase at higher annealing temperature and amorphous nature at lower annealing temperature. The optical bandgap of molybdenum tri oxide (MoO3) film is found to be 3.3-3.8 eV, and the refractive index of the film is found to be 2.2-2.9. The dispersion curve of the refractive index shows that an abnormal dispersion in the absorption region and normal dispersion in the transparent region are observed. The optical polarizability, optical conductivity, dielectric constant, volume and surface energy loss parameters are evaluated.

  4. Temperature dependence of the deformation behavior of type 316 stainless steel after low temperature neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.P.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Ioka, Ikuo; Jitsukawa, Shiro

    1996-12-31

    A single heat of solution annealed 316 ss was irradiated to 7 and 18 dpa at 60, 200, 330, and 400 C. Tensile properties were studied vs dose and temperature. Large changes in yield strength, deformation mode, strain to necking (STN), and strain hardening capacity were seen. Magnitude of the changes are dependent on both irradiation temperature and neutron dose. Irradiation can more than triple the yield strength and decrease STN to <0.5% under certain conditions. A maximum increase in yield strength and a minimum in STN occur after irradiation at 330 C but failure mode remains ductile.

  5. Study of the Temperature Dependence of Coercivity in MnBi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curcio, C.; Olivetti, E. S.; Martino, L.; Küpferling, M.; Basso, V.

    Two set of polycrystalline MnBi bulk samples, as-annealed and compacted powders, with different grain size, were prepared through powder metallurgy. Coercivity mechanisms were investigated by Kronmüller plot analysis, evaluating α and Neff parameters, which take into account the effect of microstructure. The temperature dependence of coercivity of the as-annealed sample (α= 0.31) is compatible with pinning-type mechanisms, while that of the compacted powders (α= 0.41) indicates nucleation-type processes. Irreversible effects of temperature dependence of coercivity have been investigated.

  6. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Performance of SnO2 Thin Film Transistors Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, XinAn; Zhai, JunXia; Yu, XianKun; Zhu, RuiJuan; Zhang, WeiFeng

    2015-08-01

    We fabricated SnO2 thin film transistors on thermally oxidized p-type silicon substrates by low-cost spray pyrolysis. The effect of annealing temperatures on electrical characteristics of SnO2 thin film transistors were investigated. Thermal annealing at higher temperatures induced a negative shift of the threshold voltage (VT) and an increase in the saturation mobility. It was found that the device annealed at 450 °C exhibited a good electrical performance with the field-effect mobility of 0.19 cm2/Vs, the threshold voltage of 2.5 V, and the on/off current ratio of 10(3). PMID:26369222

  7. Effect of annealing temperature on structural, morphological and electrical properties of nanoparticles TiO2 thin films by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muaz, A. K. M.; Hashim, U.; Arshad, M. K. Md.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Ayub, R. M.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Voon, C. H.; Liu, Wei-Wen; Foo, K. L.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the sol-gel method is used to prepare nanoparticles titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films at different annealing temperature. The prepared sol was deposited on the p-SiO2 substrates by spin coating technique under room temperature. The nanoparticles TiO2 solution was synthesized using Ti{OCH(CH3)2}4 as a precursor with an methanol solution at a molar ratio 1:10. The prepared TiO2 sols will further validate through structural, morphological and electrical properties. From the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, as-deposited films was found to be amorphous in nature and tend to transform into tetragonal anatase and rutile phase as the films annealed at 573 and 773 K, respectively. The diversification of the surface roughness was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated the roughness and thickness very dependent on the annealing temperature. The two-point probe electrical resistance and conductance of nanoparticles TiO2 thin films were determined by the DC current-voltage (IV) analysis. From the I-V measurement, the electrical conductance increased as the films annealed at higher temperature.

  8. Structural, Morphological, and Electron Transport Studies of Annealing Dependent In2O3 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, S.; Abdullah, H.; Shaari, S.; Muchtar, A.; Asshari, I.

    2015-01-01

    Indium oxide (In2O3) thin films annealed at various annealing temperatures were prepared by using spin-coating method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The objective of this research is to enhance the photovoltaic conversion efficiency in In2O3 thin films by finding the optimum annealing temperature and also to study the reason for high and low performance in the annealed In2O3 thin films. The structural and morphological characteristics of In2O3 thin films were studied via XRD patterns, atomic force microscopy (AFM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), EDX sampling, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The annealing treatment modified the nanostructures of the In2O3 thin films viewed through FESEM images. The In2O3-450°C-based DSSC exhibited better photovoltaic performance than the other annealed thin films of 1.54%. The electron properties were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) unit. The In2O3-450°C thin films provide larger diffusion rate, low recombination effect, and longer electron lifetime, thus enhancing the performance of DSSC. PMID:26146652

  9. Structural, Morphological, and Electron Transport Studies of Annealing Dependent In2O3 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell.

    PubMed

    Mahalingam, S; Abdullah, H; Shaari, S; Muchtar, A; Asshari, I

    2015-01-01

    Indium oxide (In2O3) thin films annealed at various annealing temperatures were prepared by using spin-coating method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The objective of this research is to enhance the photovoltaic conversion efficiency in In2O3 thin films by finding the optimum annealing temperature and also to study the reason for high and low performance in the annealed In2O3 thin films. The structural and morphological characteristics of In2O3 thin films were studied via XRD patterns, atomic force microscopy (AFM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), EDX sampling, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The annealing treatment modified the nanostructures of the In2O3 thin films viewed through FESEM images. The In2O3-450 °C-based DSSC exhibited better photovoltaic performance than the other annealed thin films of 1.54%. The electron properties were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) unit. The In2O3-450 °C thin films provide larger diffusion rate, low recombination effect, and longer electron lifetime, thus enhancing the performance of DSSC. PMID:26146652

  10. Effect of annealing on the nonequilibrium carrier lifetime in GaAs grown at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Pastor, A. A.; Prokhorova, U. V.; Serdobintsev, P. Yu.; Chaldyshev, V. V. Yagovkina, M. A.

    2013-08-15

    GaAs samples grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at low (230 Degree-Sign C) temperatures are investigated. One of the samples is subjected to aftergrowth annealing at 600 Degree-Sign C. Using an unconventional pump-probe scheme for measuring the dynamic variation in the light refractive index, the nonequilibrium charge-carrier lifetime (275 {+-} 30 fs before annealing) is determined. Such a short carrier lifetime in the unannealed material is due to the high concentration of point defects, mainly As{sub Ga} antisite defects. According to X-ray diffraction and steady-state optical absorption data, the As{sub Ga} concentration in the samples is 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, which corresponds to an arsenic excess of 0.26 at %. Upon annealing at 600 Degree-Sign C, the superstoichiometric As defects self-organize and form As nanoinclusions in the GaAs crystal matrix. It is shown that in this case the nonequilibrium charge-carrier lifetime increases to 452 {+-} 5 fs. This lifetime is apparently ensured by the capture of non-equilibrium charge carriers at metal As nanoinclusions.

  11. Crystallization, metastable phases, and demixing in a hafnia-titania nanolaminate annealed at high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Cisneros-Morales, Massiel Cristina; Rubin Aita, Carolyn

    2010-09-15

    Nanolaminate films with a nominal 5 nm HfO{sub 2}-4 nm TiO{sub 2} bilayer architecture are sputter deposited on unheated fused silica and Au-coated glass substrates. Films on fused silica are postdeposition annealed from 573 to 1273 K and characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman microscopy, and UV-visible-near IR spectrophotometry. The films show weak but progressive crystallization into orthorhombic (o) HfTiO{sub 4} when annealed up to 973 K. o-HfTiO{sub 4} is expected to form under bulk thermodynamic equilibrium conditions in the case of complete mixing of the bilayer components. Annealing above 973 K produces a crystallization sequence that is not predicted by bulk thermodynamics, ultimately involving o-HfTiO{sub 4} demixing to form monoclinic HfO{sub 2} doped with Ti and rutile TiO{sub 2} doped with Hf. These phases have a higher atomic density than o-HfTiO{sub 4} and segregate into discrete mesoscopic features. The authors propose that o-HfTiO{sub 4} demixing into higher density phases is a mechanism for thermal stress relief at high temperature. Demixing results in a major loss of optical transparency in the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions.

  12. Production of native donors in ZnO by annealing at high temperature in Zn vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliburton, L. E.; Giles, N. C.; Garces, N. Y.; Luo, Ming; Xu, Chunchuan; Bai, Lihai; Boatner, L. A.

    2005-10-01

    Zinc oxide crystals grown by the seeded chemical vapor transport method have been annealed in zinc vapor at 1100 °C for 30 min. These thermochemical reduction treatments produce a deep red coloration in the crystals and increase their n-type electrical conductivity. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), optical absorption, and Hall measurements were used to monitor changes in the crystals. After an anneal, an intense optical absorption band is present that extends from the band edge out to approximately 550 nm, and the EPR signal near g =1.96 (due to shallow donors and/or conduction-band electrons), the free-carrier absorption, and the Hall electron concentration are all larger. Hydrogen was not present during these anneals, thus leaving oxygen vacancies and zinc interstitials as candidates for the added donors. Neutral oxygen vacancies are produced at high temperature by the additive-coloration mechanism, and are responsible for the broad near-edge absorption band. The observed increase in the number of free carriers is a result of either (1) the formation of zinc interstitials or (2) having the ground state of the neutral oxygen vacancy near the conduction band.

  13. Temperature-dependent Structural Relaxation in As40Se60 Glass

    SciTech Connect

    R Golovchak; A Kozdras; O Shpotyuk; C Gorecki; A Kovalskkiy; H Jain

    2011-12-31

    The origin of structural relaxation in As{sub 40}Se{sub 60} glass at different annealing temperatures is studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and in situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) methods. Strong physical aging effect, expressed through the increase of endothermic peak area in the vicinity of Tg, is recorded by DSC technique at the annealing temperatures T{sub a} > 90 C. EXAFS data show that the observed structural relaxation is not associated with significant changes in the short-range order of this glass. An explanation is proposed for this relaxation behavior assuming temperature-dependent constraints.

  14. Influence of annealing temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of amorphous Zinc Sulfide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göde, F.; Güneri, E.; Kariper, A.; Ulutaş, C.; Kirmizigül, F.; Gümüş, C.

    2011-11-01

    Zinc sulfide films have been deposited on glass substrates at room temperature by the chemical bath deposition technique. The growth mechanism is studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical absorption spectra and electrical measurements. The as-deposited film was given thermal annealing treatment in air atmosphere at various temperatures (100, 200, 300 400 and 500 °C) for 1 h. The annealed film was also characterized by structural, optical and electrical studies. The structural analyses revealed that the as-deposited film was amorphous, but after being annealed at 500 °C, it changed to polycrystalline. The optical band gap is direct with a value of 4.01 eV, but this value decreased to 3.74 eV with annealing temperature, except for the 500 °C anneal where it only decreased to 3.82 eV. The refractive index (n), extinction coefficient (k), and real (ɛ1) and imaginary (ɛ2) parts of the dielectric constant are evaluated. Raman peaks appearing at ~478 cm-1, ~546 cm-1, ~778 cm-1 and ~1082 cm-1 for the annealed film (500 °C) were attributed to [TOl+LAΣ, 2TOΓ, 2LO, 3LO phonons of ZnS. The electrical conductivities of both as-deposited and annealed films have been calculated to be of the order of ~10-10 (Ω cm)-1 .

  15. Effect of annealing temperature on the contact properties of Ni/V/4H-SiC structure

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Chong-Chong; Zhou, Tian-Yu; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 ; Liu, Xue-Chao Zhuo, Shi-Yi; Kong, Hai-Kuan; Yang, Jian-Hua; Shi, Er-Wei

    2014-04-15

    A sandwich structure of Ni/V/4H-SiC was prepared and annealed at different temperatures from 650 °C to 1050 °C. The electrical properties and microstructures were characterized by transmission line method, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A low specific contact resistance of 3.3 × 10{sup -5} Ω·cm{sup 2} was obtained when the Ni/V contact was annealed at 1050 °C for 2 min. It was found that the silicide changed from Ni{sub 3}Si to Ni{sub 2}Si with increasing annealing temperature, while the vanadium compounds appeared at 950 °C and their concentration increased at higher annealing temperature. A schematic diagram was proposed to explain the ohmic contact mechanism of Ni/V/4H-SiC structure.

  16. Effect of annealing temperature on the morphology and optical properties of PMMA films by spin-coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aadila, A.; Afaah, A. N.; Asib, N. A. M.; Mohamed, R.; Rusop, M.; Khusaimi, Z.

    2016-07-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films were deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel spin-coating method. The films were annealed for 10 minutes in furnace at different annealing temperature of room temperature, 50, 100, 150 and 200 °C. The effect of annealing temperatures to the surface and optical properties of PMMA films spin-coated on the substrate were investigated by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy. It was observed in AFM analysis all the annealed films show excellent smooth surface with zero roughness. All the samples demonstrate a high transmittance of 80% in UV region as shown in UV-Vis measurement. Highly transparent films indicate the films are good optical properties and could be applied in various optical applications and also in non-linear optics.

  17. The effect of annealing temperature on the stability of gallium tin zinc oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Ngoc; McCall, Briana; Alston, Robert; Collis, Ward; Iyer, Shanthi

    2015-10-01

    With the growing need for large area display technology and the push for a faster and cheaper alternative to the current amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) as the active channel layer for pixel-driven thin film transistors (TFTs) display applications, gallium tin zinc oxide (GSZO) has shown to be a promising candidate due to the similar electronic configuration of Sn4+ and In3+. In this work TFTs of GSZO sputtered films with only a few atomic % of Ga and Sn have been fabricated. A systematic and detailed comparison has been made of the properties of the GSZO films annealed at two temperatures: 140 °C and 450 °C. The electrical and optical stabilities of the respective devices have been studied to gain more insight into the degradation mechanism and are correlated with the initial TFT performance prior to the application of stress. Post deposition annealing at 450 °C of the films in air was found to lead to a higher atomic concentration of Sn4+ in these films and a superior quality of the film, as attested by the higher film density and less surface and interface roughness in comparison to the lower annealed temperature device. These result in significantly reduced shallow and deep interface traps with improved performance of the device exhibiting VON of -3.5 V, ION/IOFF of 108, field-effect mobility (μFE) of 4.46 cm2 V-1s-1, and sub-threshold swing of 0.38 V dec-1. The device is stable under both electrical and optical bias for wavelengths of 550 nm and above. Thus, this work demonstrates GSZO-based TFTs as a promising viable option to the IGZO TFTs by further tailoring the film composition and relevant processing temperatures.

  18. Role of annealing temperatures on structure polymorphism, linear and nonlinear optical properties of nanostructure lead dioxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyada, H. M.; Makhlouf, M. M.

    2016-04-01

    The powder of as synthesized lead dioxide (PbO2) has polycrystalline structure β-PbO2 phase of tetragonal crystal system. It becomes nanocrystallites α-PbO2 phase with orthorhombic crystal system upon thermal deposition to form thin films. Annealing temperatures increase nanocrystallites size from 28 to 46 nm. The optical properties of α-PbO2 phase were calculated from absolute values of transmittance and reflectance at nearly normal incidence of light by spectrophotometer measurements. The refractive and extinction indices were determined and showed a response to annealing temperatures. The absorption coefficient of α-PbO2 films is >106 cm-1 in UV region of spectra. Analysis of the absorption coefficient spectra near optical edge showed indirect allowed transition. Annealing temperature decreases the value of indirect energy gap for α-PbO2 films. The dispersion parameters such as single oscillator energy, dispersion energy, dielectric constant at high frequency and lattice dielectric constant were calculated and its variations with annealing temperatures are reported. The nonlinear refractive index (n2), third-order nonlinear susceptibility (χ(3)) and nonlinear absorption coefficient (βc) were determined. It was found that χ(3), n2 and β increase with increasing photon energy and decrease with increasing annealing temperature. The pristine film of α-PbO2 has higher values of nonlinear optical constants than for annealed films; therefore it is suitable for applications in manufacturing nonlinear optical devices.

  19. Sample temperature profile during the excimer laser annealing of silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caninenberg, M.; Verheyen, E.; Kiesler, D.; Stoib, B.; Brandt, M. S.; Benson, N.; Schmechel, R.

    2015-11-01

    Based on the heat diffusion equation we describe the temperature profile of a silicon nanoparticle thin film on silicon during excimer laser annealing using COMSOL Multiphysics. For this purpose system specific material parameters are determined such as the silicon nanoparticle melting point at 1683 K, the surface reflectivity at 248 nm of 20% and the nanoparticle thermal conductivity between 0.3 and 1.2 W/m K. To validate our model, the simulation results are compared to experimental data obtained by Raman spectroscopy, SEM microscopy and electrochemical capacitance-voltage measurements (ECV). The experimental data are in good agreement with our theoretical findings and support the validity of the model.

  20. Damage annealing in low temperature Fe/Mn implanted ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Johnston, K.; Langouche, G.; Mantovan, R.; Mølholt, T. E.; Naidoo, D.; Ólafsson, O.; Weyer, G.

    2015-04-01

    57Fe Emission Mössbauer spectra obtained after low fluence (<1012 cm -2) implantation of 57Mn ( T 1/2= 1.5 min.) into ZnO single crystal held at temperatures below room temperature (RT) are presented. The spectra can be analysed in terms of four components due to Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ on Zn sites, interstitial Fe and Fe in damage regions (Fe D ). The Fe D component is found to be indistinguishable from similar component observed in emission Mössbauer spectra of higher fluence (˜1015 cm -2)57Fe/ 57Co implanted ZnO and 57Fe implanted ZnO, demonstrating that the nature of the damage regions in the two types of experiments is similar. The defect component observed in the low temperature regime was found to anneal below RT.

  1. Damage formation and annealing at low temperatures in ion implanted ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, K.; Alves, E.; Wendler, E.; Bilani, O.; Wesch, W.; Hayes, M.

    2005-11-07

    N, Ar, and Er ions were implanted into ZnO at 15 K within a large fluence range. The Rutherford backscattering technique in the channeling mode was used to study in situ the damage built-up in the Zn sublattice at 15 K. Several stages in the damage formation were observed. From the linear increase of the damage for low implantation fluences, an upper limit of the Zn displacement energy of 65 eV could be estimated for [0001] oriented ZnO. Annealing measurements below room temperature show a significant recovery of the lattice starting at temperatures between 80 and 130 K for a sample implanted with low Er fluence. Samples with higher damage levels do not reveal any damage recovery up to room temperature, pointing to the formation of stable defect complexes.

  2. Fabrication of highly L10-ordered FePt thin films by low-temperature rapid thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuguchi, M.; Sakurada, T.; Tashiro, T. Y.; Sato, K.; Konno, T. J.; Takanashi, K.

    2013-09-01

    Highly L10-ordered FePt thin films with a strong (001) texture were successfully fabricated on amorphous substrates simply by co-sputtering and rapid thermal annealing at a low temperature of 400 °C. The morphology of FePt thin films depended strongly on the heating rate, changing from a continuous structure with an atomically flat surface to an island-like structure. The change of the morphology resulted in a drastic increase of coercivity, indicating that the magnetization process could be controlled by the heating condition. This fabrication method of ordered FePt thin films is favorable in view of the compatibility for a practical device fabrication process.

  3. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Corrosion Resistance of Electroless Ni-B-Mo Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serin, Ihsan Gökhan; Göksenli, Ali; Yüksel, Behiye; Yildiz, Rasid Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    The Ni-B-Mo coating on steel by electroless plating and the evaluation of the morphology and corrosion performance after applying heat treatments at different temperatures for 1 h were investigated in this study. The 25-μm-thick coating was uniform and adhesion between the substrate and the coating was good. The coating consisted of an amorphous-like structure in their as-plated condition, and after annealing at 400 °C for 1 h, crystallized nickel, nickel borides, and molybdenum carbide were formed. Immersion tests in 10% HCl solution and potentiodynamic polarization measurements in 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution were applied to investigate corrosion resistance. The corrosion performance of heat-treated coatings was compared with steel and the as-plated coating. By increasing the annealing temperature, corrosion potential shifted toward a noble direction, corrosion current density decreased and the weight loss of specimens decreased, demonstrating an increase in corrosion resistance. Best corrosion performance was achieved by the coating heat treated at 550 °C.

  4. Photoluminescence of monocrystalline and stain-etched porous silicon doped with high temperature annealed europium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero-Lemus, R.; Montesdeoca-Santana, A.; González-Díaz, B.; Díaz-Herrera, B.; Velázquez, J. J.; Hernández-Rodríguez, C.; Jiménez-Rodríguez, E.

    2011-08-01

    In this work, for the first time, the photoluminescent emission and excitation spectra of non-textured layers and stain-etched porous silicon layers (PSLs) doped with high temperature annealed europium (Eu) are evaluated. The PSLs are evaluated as a host for rare earth ions and as an antireflection coating. The applied doping process, which consists in a simple impregnation method followed by a high-temperature annealing step, is compatible with the standard processes in the fabrication of solar cells. The results show down-shifting processes with a maximum photoluminescent intensity at 615 nm, related to the transition 5D0 → 7F2. Different initial concentrations of Eu(NO3)3 are evaluated to study the influence of the rare earth concentration on the photoluminescent intensity. The chemical composition and the morphology of Eu-doped PSLs are examined by means of x-ray dispersion spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. These Eu-doped layers are considered to be applied as energy converters in silicon-based third generation solar cells.

  5. Field emission behavior of carbon nanotube field emitters after high temperature thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yuning; Shin, Dong Hoon; Yun, Ki Nam; Leti, Guillaume; Hwang, Yeon Mo; Song, Yenan; Saito, Yahachi; Lee, Cheol Jin

    2014-07-15

    The carbon nanotube (CNT) field emitters have been fabricated by attaching a CNT film on a graphite rod using graphite adhesive material. The CNT field emitters showed much improved field emission properties due to increasing crystallinity and decreasing defects in CNTs after the high temperature thermal annealing at 900 °C in vacuum ambient. The CNT field emitters showed the low turn-on electric field of 1.15 V/μm, the low threshold electric field of 1.62 V/μm, and the high emission current of 5.9 mA which corresponds to a current density of 8.5 A/cm{sup 2}. In addition, the CNT field emitters indicated the enhanced field emission properties due to the multi-stage effect when the length of the graphite rod increases. The CNT field emitter showed good field emission stability after the high temperature thermal annealing. The CNT field emitter revealed a focused electron beam spot without any focusing electrodes and also showed good field emission repeatability.

  6. Hydrogen termination of CVD diamond films by high-temperature annealing at atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Seshan, V; Ullien, D; Castellanos-Gomez, A; Sachdeva, S; Murthy, D H K; Savenije, T J; Ahmad, H A; Nunney, T S; Janssens, S D; Haenen, K; Nesládek, M; van der Zant, H S J; Sudhölter, E J R; de Smet, L C P M

    2013-06-21

    A high-temperature procedure to hydrogenate diamond films using molecular hydrogen at atmospheric pressure was explored. Undoped and doped chemical vapour deposited (CVD) polycrystalline diamond films were treated according to our annealing method using a H2 gas flow down to ~50 ml∕min (STP) at ~850 °C. The films were extensively evaluated by surface wettability, electron affinity, elemental composition, photoconductivity, and redox studies. In addition, electrografting experiments were performed. The surface characteristics as well as the optoelectronic and redox properties of the annealed films were found to be very similar to hydrogen plasma-treated films. Moreover, the presented method is compatible with atmospheric pressure and provides a low-cost solution to hydrogenate CVD diamond, which makes it interesting for industrial applications. The plausible mechanism for the hydrogen termination of CVD diamond films is based on the formation of surface carbon dangling bonds and carbon-carbon unsaturated bonds at the applied tempera-ture, which react with molecular hydrogen to produce a hydrogen-terminated surface. PMID:23802976

  7. Hydrogen termination of CVD diamond films by high-temperature annealing at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshan, V.; Ullien, D.; Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Sachdeva, S.; Murthy, D. H. K.; Savenije, T. J.; Ahmad, H. A.; Nunney, T. S.; Janssens, S. D.; Haenen, K.; Nesládek, M.; van der Zant, H. S. J.; Sudhölter, E. J. R.; de Smet, L. C. P. M.

    2013-06-01

    A high-temperature procedure to hydrogenate diamond films using molecular hydrogen at atmospheric pressure was explored. Undoped and doped chemical vapour deposited (CVD) polycrystalline diamond films were treated according to our annealing method using a H2 gas flow down to ˜50 ml/min (STP) at ˜850 °C. The films were extensively evaluated by surface wettability, electron affinity, elemental composition, photoconductivity, and redox studies. In addition, electrografting experiments were performed. The surface characteristics as well as the optoelectronic and redox properties of the annealed films were found to be very similar to hydrogen plasma-treated films. Moreover, the presented method is compatible with atmospheric pressure and provides a low-cost solution to hydrogenate CVD diamond, which makes it interesting for industrial applications. The plausible mechanism for the hydrogen termination of CVD diamond films is based on the formation of surface carbon dangling bonds and carbon-carbon unsaturated bonds at the applied tempera-ture, which react with molecular hydrogen to produce a hydrogen-terminated surface.

  8. Temperature dependence of thermopower in molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngsang; Lenert, Andrej; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2016-07-01

    The thermoelectric properties of molecular junctions are of considerable interest due to their promise for efficient energy conversion. While the dependence of thermoelectric properties of junctions on molecular structure has been recently studied, their temperature dependence remains unexplored. Using a custom built variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope, we measured the thermopower and electrical conductance of individual benzenedithiol junctions over a range of temperatures (100 K-300 K). We find that while the electrical conductance is independent of temperature, the thermopower increases linearly with temperature, confirming the predictions of the Landauer theory.

  9. Influence of annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline Platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abuelwafa, A. A.; El-Denglawey, A.; Dongol, M.; El-Nahass, M. M.; Soga, T.

    2015-11-01

    Thermal evaporation technique was used to prepare the Platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) thin films at room temperature. The deposited films were studied before and after thermal annealing at 373 and 473 K for 3 h under vacuum (10-3 Pa). The film structure, surface morphologies and molecular structure were investigated as a function of annealing temperature by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier-transform infrared techniques (FT-IR) respectively. The results confirmed that the as-deposited and annealed films have nanostructural features. Optical constants of the as-deposited and annealed films have been obtained in the wavelength range 200-1100 nm by using spectrophotometric measurements. Analysis of the spectra of absorption coefficient showed indirect allowed transition and optical energy gap found to decrease with increase in annealing temperature. The dispersion of refractive index at the normal dispersion (λ > 600 nm) was discussed in terms of single oscillator model of Wemple-Didomenico. Based on generalized Miller's rule the third order non-linear susceptibility, χ(3) and nonlinear refractive index, n2 were estimated and studied at lower photon energy and showing lower value for the annealed film.

  10. Overcoming Zn segregation in CdZnTe with the temperature gradient annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Bolotnikov, A. E.; Camarda, G. S.; Hossain, A.; James, R. B.

    2016-05-01

    The availability of large volume crystals with the same energy gap in melt-grown CdZnTe (CZT) is restricted due to the Zn segregation in CdTe hosts. We observed the migration of Zn in the solid phase along the positive temperature gradient direction both in situ and post-growth temperature gradient annealing (TGA) of CZT. Diffusivity of Zn obtained from the in situ TGA was approximately 10-5 cm2/s order and completely different mechanism with that of post-growth. The CZT ingots obtained through in situ TGA have uniform Zn and resistivity of 1010 Ω cm orders. The CZT detectors fabricated from in situ TGA applied ingots exhibit 10% of energy resolution for 59.5 keV peak of 241Am.

  11. Effects of high-temperature annealing on ESR properties of solid solutions of garnet minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundu Rao, T. K.; Cano, Nilo F.; Chubaci, Jose F. D.; Watanabe, S.

    2016-04-01

    A garnet (G7) silicate mineral belonging to pyralspite subgroup was studied using the technique of electron spin resonance (ESR). This study shows that iron is present in G7 as isolated species as well as species coupled by dipolar interactions. The ESR data shows a gradual increase of cluster of Fe3+ ions accompanied by decrease of dipolar interactions and increase of possible exchange interactions at high temperature. The Fe2+→Fe3+ oxidation process occurs in the garnets as a function of annealing temperature. Thermoluminescence (TL) peaks at approximately 190 and 340 °C are observed in the irradiated G7 garnet. Investigations using the technique of ESR were carried out to identify the centers involved in the TL process.

  12. Effects of annealed temperature on the properties of TiO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Avesh

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the structural, morphological and electrical properties of TiO2 thin films are studied. The phase transformation of TiO2 from anatase to rutile is occurred at a certain temperature. This transformation increases defects concentration onthe surface of the film which acts as trapping sites for carriers, thereby affecting the Fermi level of TiO2 film.Quantitative estimation of Fermi level shifting is measured in terms of work function measurement using scanning Kelvin probe measurement. Work function of TiO2 was found to decrease with increasing annealed temperature indicating shifting of Fermi level towards conduction band. Position of Fermi level plays an important role in phase transformation and electronic properties of TiO2.

  13. Temperature dependence of resistive switching behaviors in resistive random access memory based on graphene oxide film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Mingdong; Cao, Yong; Ling, Haifeng; Du, Zhuzhu; Wang, Laiyuan; Yang, Tao; Fan, Quli; Xie, Linghai; Huang, Wei

    2014-05-01

    We reported resistive switching behaviors in the resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices based on the different annealing temperatures of graphene oxide (GO) film as active layers. It was found that the resistive switching characteristics of an indium tin oxide (ITO)/GO/Ag structure have a strong dependence on the annealing temperature of GO film. When the annealing temperature of the GO film was 20 °C, the devices showed typical write-once-read-many-times (WORM) type memory behaviors, which have good memory performance with a higher ON/OFF current ratio (˜104), the higher the high resistance state (HRS)/low resistance state (LRS) ratio (˜105) and stable retention characteristics (>103 s) under lower programming voltage (-1 V and -0.5 V). With the increasing annealing temperature of GO film, the resistive switching behavior of RRAM devices gradually weakened and eventually disappeared. This phenomenon could be understood by the different energy level distributions of the charge traps in GO film, and the different charge injection ability from the Ag electrode to GO film, which is caused by the different annealing temperatures of the GO film.

  14. Temperature dependence of resistive switching behaviors in resistive random access memory based on graphene oxide film.

    PubMed

    Yi, Mingdong; Cao, Yong; Ling, Haifeng; Du, Zhuzhu; Wang, Laiyuan; Yang, Tao; Fan, Quli; Xie, Linghai; Huang, Wei

    2014-05-01

    We reported resistive switching behaviors in the resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices based on the different annealing temperatures of graphene oxide (GO) film as active layers. It was found that the resistive switching characteristics of an indium tin oxide (ITO)/GO/Ag structure have a strong dependence on the annealing temperature of GO film. When the annealing temperature of the GO film was 20 °C, the devices showed typical write-once-read-many-times (WORM) type memory behaviors, which have good memory performance with a higher ON/OFF current ratio (∼10(4)), the higher the high resistance state (HRS)/low resistance state (LRS) ratio (∼10(5)) and stable retention characteristics (>10(3) s) under lower programming voltage (-1 V and -0.5 V). With the increasing annealing temperature of GO film, the resistive switching behavior of RRAM devices gradually weakened and eventually disappeared. This phenomenon could be understood by the different energy level distributions of the charge traps in GO film, and the different charge injection ability from the Ag electrode to GO film, which is caused by the different annealing temperatures of the GO film. PMID:24739543

  15. Temperature dependence of the electrical properties of hydrogen titanate nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Diego C. B.; Brandão, Frederico D.; Krambrock, Klaus; Ferlauto, Andre S.; Fonseca, Fabio C.

    2014-11-14

    The temperature dependence of the electrical properties of hydrogen-rich titanate nanotubes (H-TNTs) in the 90–270 °C range was investigated by impedance spectroscopy. Three types of dominant conduction were found which depend on the previous thermal treatment of the samples. For untreated samples, at low temperatures (T < 100 °C), electrical conductivity is relatively high (>10{sup −4} S/cm at T ≈ 90 °C) and is dominated by protonic transport within structural water molecules. For thermal annealing in inert atmosphere up to 150 °C, water molecules are released from the nanotube structure resulting in a dehydrated H{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} phase. Such phase has a low, thermally-dependent, electrical conductivity (10{sup −8} S/cm at T ≈ 90 °C) with activation energy of 0.68 eV. For samples annealed up to 260 °C, loss of OH groups, and consequent generation of oxygen vacancies, occurs that result in the non-stoichiometric H{sub 2(1−z)}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7−z} phase. This phase has much higher conductivity (10{sup −5} S/cm at T ≈ 90 °C) and lower associated activation energy (0.40 eV). The generation of oxygen vacancies is confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance measurements at room temperature, which revealed the presence of single-electron-trapped oxygen vacancies. The activation energy value found is consistent with the thermal ionization energy of the oxygen vacancies. Such defect formation represents the initial stage of the phase transformation from titanate to TiO{sub 2} (B). X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements also support such interpretation.

  16. The stress corrosion resistance and the cryogenic temperature mechanical properties of annealed Nitronic 60 bar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montano, J. W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Ambient and cryogenic temperature mechanical properties and the ambient temperature stress corrosion properties of annealed, straightened, and centerless ground Nitronic 60 stainless steel alloy bar material are presented. The mechanical properties of longitudinal specimens were evaluated at test temperatures from ambient to liquid hydrogen. The tensile test data indicated increasing strength with decreasing temperature to -196 C. Below liquid nitrogen temperature the smooth tensile and notched tensile strengths decreased slightly while the elongation and reduction of area decreased drastically. The Charpy V-notched impact energy decreased steadily with decreasing test temperature. Stress corrosion tests were performed on longitudinal tensile specimens and transverse C-ring specimens exposed to: alternate immersion in a 3.5% NaCl bath; humidity cabinet; and a 5% salt spray atmosphere. The longitudinal tensile specimens experienced no corrosive attack. Approximately 3/4 of the transverse C-rings exposed to alternate immersion and to salt spray experienced a pitting attack on the top and bottom ends. Additional stress corrosion tests were performed on transverse tensile specimens. No failures occurred in the 90% stressed specimens exposed for 90 days in the alternate immersion and salt spray environments

  17. Temperature dependent localized surface plasmon resonance properties of supported gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, Ranjit; Ranjan, Pranay

    2016-05-01

    The well known localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) supported on a dielectric substrate depends on the particle shape, size and type of dielectric material. The particle size and shape mainly vary with the method of preparation and the parameters involved there in. In this report, we show preparation of AuNPs supported on quartz substrate by direct current sputtering followed by thermal annealing at an optimized temperature of 400 °C. The samples were characterized using optical absorption spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the energy dispersive x-ray spectrum. The LSPR position could be tuned by varying annealing temperature. The LSPR was found to be blue shifted up to 10 nm with annealing temperature varying from 400 °C to 800 °C. The change in LSPR was ascribed to the morphology of AuNPs over quartz.

  18. Energy dependence of defects in a-Si:H solar cells during degradation and annealing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Caputo, D.; Lemmi, F.; Palma, F.

    1997-07-01

    In this work the authors report on the effect of current-induced degradation and annealing on p-i-n amorphous silicon solar cells. Current-voltage curves and capacitance measurements under forward bias have been used to monitor the current-induced changes as a function of time. They found that the recovery rate increases with the annealing current, while the stabilized value of efficiency decreases. Comparison of short circuit current and capacitance evolution suggests that defect kinetics in the electronic gap occurs in a different way during degradation and annealing. This behavior can be modeled assuming a faster annealing of defects closest to the extended band and a slower annealing of mid-gap defects.

  19. Effects of rolling temperature and subsequent annealing on mechanical properties of ultrafine-grained Cu–Zn–Si alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiangkai; Yang, Xuyue; Chen, Wei; Qin, Jia; Fouse, Jiaping

    2015-08-15

    The effects of rolling temperature and subsequent annealing on mechanical properties of Cu–Zn–Si alloy were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, electron back scattered diffraction and tensile tests. The Cu–Zn–Si alloy has been processed at cryogenic temperature (approximately 77 K) and room temperature up to different rolling strains. It has been identified that the cryorolled Cu–Zn–Si alloy samples show a higher strength compared with those room temperature rolled samples. The improved strength of cryorolled samples is resulted from grain size effect and higher densities of dislocations and deformation twins. And subsequent annealing, as a post-heat treatment, enhanced the ductility. An obvious increase in uniform elongation appears when the volume fraction of static recrystallization grains exceeds 25%. The strength–ductility combination of the annealed cryorolled samples is superior to that of annealed room temperature rolled samples, owing to the finer grains, high fractions of high angle grain boundaries and twins. - Highlights: • An increase in hardness of Cu–Zn–Si alloy is noticed during annealing process. • Thermal stability is reduced in Cu–Zn–Si alloy by cryorolling. • An obvious enhancement in UE is noticed when fraction of SRX grains exceeds 25%. • A superior strength–ductility combination is achieved in the cryorolling samples.

  20. Effect of high-temperature annealing for single-Ni-layer gate in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanjo, Takuma; Imai, Akifumi; Kurahashi, Kenichiro; Matsuda, Takashi; Suita, Muneyoshi; Yagyu, Eiji

    2016-05-01

    AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) with Schottky gate contacts are strong candidates for high-power applications with high-frequency operation. The existence of interfacial traps between Schottky gate contacts and an AlGaN surface is one of the issues causing relatively high gate leakage current in these HEMTs. High-temperature gate annealing, which reduces the density of traps owing to the interfacial reaction between Schottky gate contacts and an AlGaN surface, was investigated using a single-Ni-layer gate structure to prevent the alloying of conventional stacked metal layers such as Ni/Au and Pt/Au. As a result, a strong gate annealing temperature dependence of Schottky characteristics was observed and this dependence also caused drain current collapse. In addition, it was confirmed that 700 °C is the optimal gate annealing temperature for improving both the Schottky characteristics and drain current collapse. These results are attributed to the change in the density of interfacial trap states.

  1. Annealing dependence of residual stress and optical properties of TiO2 thin film deposited by different deposition methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Lee, Kuan-Shiang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2008-05-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO(2)) thin films were prepared by different deposition methods. The methods were E-gun evaporation with ion-assisted deposition (IAD), radio-frequency (RF) ion-beam sputtering, and direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering. Residual stress was released after annealing the films deposited by RF ion-beam or DC magnetron sputtering but not evaporation, and the extinction coefficient varied significantly. The surface roughness of the evaporated films exceeded that of both sputtered films. At the annealing temperature of 300 degrees C, anatase crystallization occurred in evaporated film but not in the RF ion-beam or DC magnetron-sputtered films. TiO(2) films deposited by sputtering were generally more stable during annealing than those deposited by evaporation. PMID:18449260

  2. Ultrahigh-temperature microwave annealing of Al{sup +}- and P{sup +}-implanted 4H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaresan, Siddarth G.; Rao, Mulpuri V.; Tian, Yong-lai; Ridgway, Mark C.; Schreifels, John A.; Kopanski, Joseph J.

    2007-04-01

    In this work, an ultrafast solid-state microwave annealing has been performed, in the temperature range of 1700-2120 degree sign C on Al{sup +}- and P{sup +}-implanted 4H-SiC. The solid-state microwave system used in this study is capable of raising the SiC sample temperatures to extremely high values, at heating rates of {approx}600 degree sign C/s. The samples were annealed for 5-60 s in a pure nitrogen ambient. Atomic force microscopy performed on the annealed samples indicated a smooth surface with a rms roughness of 1.4 nm for 5x5 {mu}m{sup 2} scans even for microwave annealing at 2050 degree sign C for 30 s. Auger sputter profiling revealed a <7 nm thick surface layer composed primarily of silicon, oxygen, and nitrogen for the samples annealed in N{sub 2}, at annealing temperatures up to 2100 degree sign C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that this surface layer is mainly composed of silicon oxide and silicon nitride. Secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling confirmed almost no dopant in diffusion after microwave annealing at 2100 degree sign C for 15 s. However, a sublimation of {approx}100 nm of the surface SiC layer was observed for 15 s annealing at 2100 degree sign C. Rutherford backscattering spectra revealed a lattice damage-free SiC material after microwave annealing at 2050 degree sign C for 15 s, with scattering yields near the virgin SiC material. Van der Pauw-Hall measurements have revealed sheet resistance values as low as 2.4 k{omega}/{open_square} for Al{sup +}-implanted material annealed at 2100 degree sign C for 15 s and 14 {omega}/{open_square} for the P{sup +}-implanted material annealed at 1950 degree sign C for 30 s. The highest electron and hole mobilities measured in this work were 100 and 6.8 cm{sup 2}/V s, respectively, for the P{sup +}- and Al{sup +}-implanted materials.

  3. Suppression of phase coarsening in immiscible, co-continuous polymer blends under high temperature quiescent annealing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi-Qiang; Li, Ruo-Han; Bao, Rui-Ying; Jiang, Wen-Rou; Yang, Wei; Xie, Bang-Hu; Yang, Ming-Bo

    2014-05-28

    The properties of polymer blends greatly depend on the morphologies formed during processing, and the thermodynamic non-equilibrium nature of most polymer blends makes it important to maintain the morphology stability to ensure the performance stability of structural materials. Herein, the phase coarsening of co-continuous, immiscible polyamide 6 (PA6)-acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) blends in the melt state was studied and the effect of introduction of nano-silica particles on the stability of the phase morphology was examined. It was found that the PA6-ABS (50/50 w) blend maintained the co-continuous morphology but coarsened severely upon annealing at 230 °C. The coarsening process could be divided into two stages: a fast coarsening process at the initial stage of annealing and a second coarsening process with a relatively slow coarsening rate later. The reduction of the coarsening rate can be explained from the reduction of the global curvature of the interface. With the introduction of nano-silica, the composites also showed two stages of coarsening. However, the coarsening rate was significantly decreased and the phase morphology was stabilized. Rheological measurements indicated that a particle network structure was formed when the concentration of nano-silica particles was beyond 2 wt%. The particle network inhibited the movement of molecular chains and thus suppressed the coarsening process. PMID:24663286

  4. Dependence of the electronic transport on the microstructure in annealed Bi thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Thanh; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Malet, Loic; Godet, Stephane; Rodrigues Martins, Frederico; Faniel, Sebastien; Gonze, Xavier; Cabosart, Damien; Hackens, Benoit

    2013-03-01

    Bi thin films, with a thickness ranging from 10 to 100 nm, are deposited by electron-beam evaporation on a thermally oxidized Si(100) substrate. The deposition parameters are optimized in order to maximize the grain size of the polycrystalline films. The evolution of the crystal orientation is examined as a function of the deposition and annealing parameters, by electron back scattering diffraction. Low temperature (21 mK - 150 K) magnetoresistance measurements (up to 15 T) on polycrystalline films reveal weak anti-localization, superimposed by the classical magnetoresistance. The analysis of the weak anti-localization allows us to extract quantum transport parameters, such as the phase coherence and the spin orbit coupling time. From the evolution of the broad magnetoresistance background, we infer the evolution of electronic transport parameters: the mobility, the charge carrier concentration and the mean free path. Magneto-transport and ab initio calculations are combined in order to investigate on the controversial existence of the semimetal-semiconductor transition.

  5. Photoluminescenceof magnetron sputtered CdTe films: dependence on target purity, substrate, and annealing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinko, Kathleen

    2002-03-01

    We have altered several parameters relating to the CdTe layer in CdTe-based solar cells and have analyzed the effects of these changes on low-temperature photoluminescence (PL). Polycrystalline CdTe films were grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering from two targets purchased from commercial vendors and one pressed at the University of Toledo (UT). We observed substantial differences related to the targets and to the soda lime and borosilicate glass substrates. Parts of each film were annealed at 387 C and 400 C in the presence of CdCl2. The intensity and the spectrum of the PL suggest that films grown from the homemade UT target were of comparable quality to those grown from the commercial target. We found much weaker PL for films grown on borosilicate glass than for soda-lime glass. This may indicate that sodium from the soda-lime glass may leach into the films producing a shallow donor and enhancing the donor-acceptor pair luminescence. Work supported by NREL and NSF.

  6. High-temperature measurement with Brillouin optical time domain analysis of an annealed fused-silica single-mode fiber.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yi; Chen, Genda

    2016-07-15

    The effect of annealing is experimentally studied for a fused silica, fully distributed fiber optic sensor based on the pulse pre-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis (PPP-BOTDA). Within a heating rate of 4.3°C/min and 30.6°C/min, and a sustained peak temperature for 120 and 240 min, annealing extended the sensor's upper operation temperature from 800°C to 1000°C and reduced the sensor's measurement variability over a temperature range of 22°C to 1000°C with a maximum Brillouin frequency variation of 1%. The annealed sensor had a linearly decreasing Brillouin frequency sensitivity from 1.349×10-3  GHz/°C at 22°C to 0.419×10-3  GHz/°C at 1000°C. The time required to achieve a stable annealing effect decayed exponentially with annealing temperature. PMID:27420489

  7. Detection of nitrogen dioxide down to ppb levels using flower-like tungsten oxide nanostructures under different annealing temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Ding, Mengdi; Kou, Xueying; Guo, Lanlan; Feng, Changhao; Li, Xin; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Peng; Sun, Yanfeng; Lu, Geyu

    2016-12-01

    3D hierarchical flower-like WO3·0.33H2O nanostructures were synthesized via a facile solvothermal method without using any template or surfactant. After annealed at high temperature, the as-prepared WO3·0.33H2O would partly or fully transform into monoclinic WO3 with the morphology almost unchanged. Gas sensing properties of the sensor based on these flower-like nanostructures with the relationship of annealing temperature were also investigated systematically. The experiment results indicate the sensor shows highest response to NO2 when the annealing temperature is 500°C. At the same time, the detection limit can be as low as ∼5ppb level. Thus, the novel flower-like nanostructures might be a promising material for designing NO2 gas sensor with high performance. PMID:27565963

  8. Proton irradiation of a swept charge device at cryogenic temperature and the subsequent annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gow, J. P. D.; Smith, P. H.; Pool, P.; Hall, D. J.; Holland, A. D.; Murray, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that a room temperature proton irradiation may not be sufficient to provide an accurate estimation of the impact of the space radiation environment on detector performance. This is a result of the relationship between defect mobility and temperature, causing the performance to vary subject to the temperature history of the device from the point at which it was irradiated. Results measured using Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) irradiated at room temperature therefore tend to differ from those taken when the device was irradiated at a cryogenic temperature, more appropriate considering the operating conditions in space, impacting the prediction of in-flight performance. This paper describes the cryogenic irradiation, and subsequent annealing of an e2v technologies Swept Charge Device (SCD) CCD236 irradiated at -35.4°C with a 10 MeV equivalent proton fluence of 5.0 × 108 protons · cm-2. The CCD236 is a large area (4.4 cm2) X-ray detector that will be flown on-board the Chandrayaan-2 and Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope spacecraft, in the Chandrayaan-2 Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer and the Soft X-ray Detector respectively. The SCD is readout continually in order to benefit from intrinsic dither mode clocking, leading to suppression of the surface component of the dark current and allowing the detector to be operated at warmer temperatures than a conventional CCD. The SCD is therefore an excellent choice to test and demonstrate the variation in the impact of irradiation at cryogenic temperatures in comparison to a more typical room temperature irradiation.

  9. Temperature Dependence of Factors Controlling Isoprene Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Damon, Megan R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of variability in the formaldehyde (HCHO) columns measured by the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to isoprene emissions in the southeastern United States for 2005-2007. The data show that the inferred, regional-average isoprene emissions varied by about 22% during summer and are well correlated with temperature, which is known to influence emissions. Part of the correlation with temperature is likely associated with other causal factors that are temperature-dependent. We show that the variations in HCHO are convolved with the temperature dependence of surface ozone, which influences isoprene emissions, and the dependence of the HCHO column to mixed layer height as OMI's sensitivity to HCHO increases with altitude. Furthermore, we show that while there is an association of drought with the variation in HCHO, drought in the southeastern U.S. is convolved with temperature.

  10. Sintering Characteristics of Multilayered Thermal Barrier Coatings Under Thermal Gradient and Isothermal High Temperature Annealing Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Amarendra K.; Schmitt, Michael P.; Bhattacharya, Rabi; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Pyrochlore oxides have most of the relevant attributes for use as next generation thermal barrier coatings such as phase stability, low sintering kinetics and low thermal conductivity. One of the issues with the pyrochlore oxides is their lower toughness and therefore higher erosion rate compared to the current state-of-the-art TBC material, yttria (6 to 8 wt%) stabilized zirconia (YSZ). In this work, sintering characteristics were investigated for novel multilayered coating consisted of alternating layers of pyrochlore oxide viz Gd2Zr2O7 and t' low k (rare earth oxide doped YSZ). Thermal gradient and isothermal high temperature (1316 C) annealing conditions were used to investigate sintering and cracking in these coatings. The results are then compared with that of relevant monolayered coatings and a baseline YSZ coating.

  11. Temperature dependence of the deformation behavior of 316 stainless steel after low temperature neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel-Robertson, J.E.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Grossbeck, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    The effects of low temperature neutron irradiation on the tensile behavior of 316 stainless steel have been investigated. A single heat of solution annealed 316 was irradiated to 7 and 18 dpa at 60, 200, 330, and 400{degrees}C. The tensile properties as a function of dose and as a function of temperature were examined. Large changes in yield strength, deformation mode, strain to necking, and strain hardening capacity were seen in this irradiation experiment. The magnitudes of the changes are dependent on both irradiation temperature and neutron dose. Irradiation can more than triple the yield strength over the unirradiated value and decrease the strain to necking (STN) to less than 0.5% under certain conditions. A maximum increase in yield strength and a minimum in the STN occur after irradiation at 330{degrees}C but the failure mode remains ductile.

  12. Time-dependent annealing and deposition on substrates with repulsive interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venables, J. A.; Degraffenreid, J.; Kay, D.; Yang, P.

    2006-08-01

    In models of nucleation and growth of crystals on surfaces, it is often assumed that the energy surface of the substrate is flat, that diffusion is isotropic, and that capture numbers can be calculated in the diffusion-controlled limit. We lift these restrictions and formulate the general time-dependent problem in a two-dimensional (2D) potential field. We utilize the master equation discretization (MED) method to solve the 2D time-dependent diffusion field of adparticles on general nonuniform (rectangular grid) substrates, and compare it against competing algorithms, including the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and hybrid-FFT methods previously introduced, for periodic boundary conditions. The physical context is set by the importance of repulsive interactions in the nucleation and growth of many nanostructures, e.g., metal nanoclusters, hut clusters, and nanowires. The programs, realized in MATLAB®6.5 , are used to obtain quantitative capture numbers, aspect and direct impingement ratios, and other island growth quantities in the presence of potential fields, when particular surface processes are included. The case of no corner rounding is studied in detail. Strongly anisotropic potentials favor wire growth, which can be considerably influenced by alternate deposition and annealing, and the location of neighboring islands. Physical examples are given based on Ge/Si(001) material parameters. Essentially similar programs, differing only in outputs, are used to visualize the diffusion field and to produce realistic movies of crystal growth. Examples given here are linear deterministic calculations, but the framework allows for inclusion of nonlinear and statistical effects for particular applications.

  13. Wide Temperature Core Loss Characteristics of Transverse Magnetically Annealed Amorphous Tapes for High Frequency Aerospace Magnetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.; Schwarze, Gene E.

    1999-01-01

    100 kHz core loss properties of sample transverse magnetically annealed, cobalt-based amorphous and iron-based nanocrystalline tape wound magnetic cores are presented over the temperature range of -150 C to 150 C, at selected values of B(sub peak). For B-fields not close to saturation, the core loss is not sensitive to temperature in this range and is as low as seen in the best MnZn power ferrites at their optimum temperatures. Frequency resolved characteristics are given over the range of 50 kHz to 1 MHz, but at B(sub peak) = 0.1 T and 50 C only. For example, the 100 kHz specific core loss ranged from 50 - 70 mW/cubic cm for the 3 materials, when measured at 0.1 T and 50 C. This very low high frequency core loss, together with near zero saturation magnetostriction and insensitivity to rough handling, makes these amorphous ribbons strong candidates for power magnetics applications in wide temperature aerospace environments.

  14. Distribution functions for internal interface energy as a characteristic of submicrocrystalline copper structure evolution under low-temperature annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, P.; Rakhmatulina, T.; Koznikov, A.; Belyaeva, I.

    2015-10-01

    Submicrocrystalline structure of 99.99% pure copper produced by equal channel angular pressing was under investigation. After deformation the samples were subjected to low-temperature annealing. Grain and subgrain structure was studied by scanning tunnel microscopy. Internal interface energy was estimated using the method based on measurement of dihedral angles (ψ) of the boundary grooves formed by electrochemical etching. Analysis of the differential and cumulative distribution functions for relative grain boundary energy enabled to qualitatively evaluate energy redistribution between the boundaries of different types and internal bulk crystallites and to study evolution of submicrocrystalline structure under low-temperature annealing.

  15. Escherichia coli survival in waters: Temperature dependence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q10 mo...

  16. E. coli survival in waters: temperature dependence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important for evaluating microbial contamination and in making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature; this dependency is routinely expressed using an analog of the Q10 model. This suggestion...

  17. Structure, optical, and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films prepared by sputtering at room temperature and annealed in air or nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Guillen, C.; Herrero, J.

    2007-04-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films have been grown onto soda-lime glass substrates by sputtering at room temperature with various oxygen to argon partial pressure ratios. After deposition, the samples have been annealed at temperatures ranging from 100 to 500 degree sign C in nitrogen or in air. The structure, optical, and electrical characteristics of the ITO coatings have been analyzed as a function of the deposition and the annealing parameters by x-ray diffraction, spectrophotometry, and Hall effect measurements. It has been found that the as-grown amorphous layers crystallize in the cubic structure by heating above 200 degree sign C. Simultaneously, the visible optical transmittance increases and the electrical resistance decreases, in proportions that depend mainly on the sputtering conditions. The lowest resistivity values have been obtained by annealing at 400 degree sign C in nitrogen, where the highest carrier concentrations are achieved, related to oxygen vacancy creation. Some relationships between the analyzed properties have been established, showing the dependence of the cubic lattice distortion and the infrared optical characteristics on the carrier concentration.

  18. Wide Temperature Characteristics of Transverse Magnetically Annealed Amorphous Tapes for High Frequency Aerospace Magnetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    1999-01-01

    100 kHz core loss and magnetization properties of sample transverse magnetically annealed, cobalt-based amorphous and iron-based nanocrystalline tape wound magnetic cores are presented over the temperature range of -150 to 150 C, at selected values of B(sub peak). For B-fields not close to saturation, the core loss is not sensitive to temperature in this range and is as low as seen in the best MnZn power ferrites at their optimum temperatures. Frequency resolved characteristics are given over the range of 50 kHz to 1 MHz, at B(sub peak) = 0.1 T and 50 C only. A linear permeability model is used to interpret and present the magnetization characteristics and several figures of merit applicable to inductor materials arc reviewed. This linear modeling shows that, due to their high permeabilities, these cores must he gapped in order to make up high Q or high current inductors. However, they should serve well, as is, for high frequency, anti ratcheting transformer applications.

  19. Transformation of Ba-Al-Si precursors to celsian by high-temperature oxidation and annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmutzler, Hans J.; Sandhage, Kenneth H.

    1995-02-01

    Celsian (monoclinic BaO · A12O3 · 2SiO2) is being considered as a matrix material for ceramic composites used in high-temperature structural applications. The present article describes the synthesis of celsian by the oxidation and annealing of solid, malleable, metallic Ba-Al-Si precursors. The phase and microstructural evolution after various stages of oxidation at 300 °C to 1260 °C in pure oxygen at 1 atm pressure have been examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron microprobe analyses (EPMA). Barium peroxide, BaO2, formed rapidly during oxidation at 300 °C, with aluminum and silicon remaining largely as unoxidized particles in a BaO2 matrix. Between 300 °C and 500 °C, barium orthosilicate, Ba2Si04, formed by a solid-state reaction between barium peroxide and unoxidized silicon. Further exposure to temperatures between 500 °C and 1200 °C resulted in the oxidation of aluminum and of residual silicon. The oxidized silicon reacted with the barium orthosilicate matrix to yield higher silica-containing barium silicates that, in turn, reacted with alumina or mullite to form metastable hexacelsian (hexagonal BaO-A12O3 · 2SiO2). Celsian was then obtained by further exposure to peak temperatures ≤1260°C.

  20. Structural transformations and hardness of electrodeposited Ni-P and Co-P coatings subjected to low-temperature annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukareko, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    The structural state and durometric properties of electrodeposited Ni-P and Co-P coatings subjected to low-temperature annealing at 520-540 K have been investigated. It has been shown that the low-temperature annealing of crystalline Ni-P and Co-P coatings is accompanied by a substantial increase in the parameters of crystal lattices of the solid solutions of phosphorus in nickel and cobalt, and also by an increase in the hardness of coatings. The conclusion has been drawn that an increase in the hardness and in the lattice parameters of Ni-P and Co-P solid solutions upon annealing is connected with the passage of phosphorus atoms from the substitutional into interstitial positions by the Frank-Turnbull dissociative mechanism.

  1. Influences of annealing temperature on microstructure and properties for TiO2 films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Jie-Ting; Chen, Chih-Ming; Cheng, Ta-Chih; Lee, Ying-Chieh

    2015-12-01

    Titanium dioxide films were deposited at 100 °C of substrate temperature with a DC magnetron sputtering system. The crystalline structures, morphological features, and photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 films were systematically studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and ultraviolet spectrophotometry. To obtain the crystalline structure of TiO2 film at a low annealing temperature, high-level DC power (600 W) was applied. The effect of the annealing treatments on the microstructure of the TiO2 films was investigated. The results indicated that the annealing process at 200 °C clearly caused the formation of a nanocrystalline anatase phase that directly affected photocatalytic activity. The dye removal efficiency of the nanostructured anatase attained 53 and 31% for UV and visible light radiation, respectively.

  2. 454-Pyrosequencing Analysis of Bacterial Communities from Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal Bioreactors Utilizing Universal Primers: Effect of Annealing Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Rodelas, Belén; Abbas, Ben A.; Martinez-Toledo, Maria Victoria; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Osorio, F.; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Identification of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria by molecular tools aimed at the evaluation of bacterial diversity in autotrophic nitrogen removal systems is limited by the difficulty to design universal primers for the Bacteria domain able to amplify the anammox 16S rRNA genes. A metagenomic analysis (pyrosequencing) of total bacterial diversity including anammox population in five autotrophic nitrogen removal technologies, two bench-scale models (MBR and Low Temperature CANON) and three full-scale bioreactors (anammox, CANON, and DEMON), was successfully carried out by optimization of primer selection and PCR conditions (annealing temperature). The universal primer 530F was identified as the best candidate for total bacteria and anammox bacteria diversity coverage. Salt-adjusted optimum annealing temperature of primer 530F was calculated (47°C) and hence a range of annealing temperatures of 44–49°C was tested. Pyrosequencing data showed that annealing temperature of 45°C yielded the best results in terms of species richness and diversity for all bioreactors analyzed. PMID:26421306

  3. Catalyst-free growth of ZnO nanowires on ITO seed layer/glass by thermal evaporation method: Effects of ITO seed layer laser annealing temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsultany, Forat H.; Hassan, Z.; Ahmed, Naser M.

    2016-04-01

    Novel catalyst-free growth of ZnO nanowires (ZnO-NWs) on ITO seeds/glass substrate by thermal evaporation method, and effects of continuous wave CO2 laser thermal annealed seed layer on the morphology and properties of ZnO-NWs growth were investigated. The effects of sputtered ITO seed layer laser annealing temperature on the morphological, structural, and optical properties of ZnO-NWs was systematically investigated at temperatures 250, 350, and 450 °C, respectively. The surface morphology and structure of the seeds and the products of ZnO-NWs were characterized in detail by using field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Optical properties were further examined through photoluminescence, and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. A growth mechanism was proposed on the basis of obtained results. The results showed that the nanowires were strongly dependent on the seed layer annealing temperatures, which played an important role in nucleation and dissimilar growth of the nanowires with varying sizes and geometric shapes.

  4. Effects of High-Temperature Annealing in Air on Hi-Nicalon Fiber-Reinforced Celsian Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    2008-01-01

    BN/SiC-coated Hi-Nicalon fiber-reinforced celsian matrix composites (CMC) were annealed for 100 h in air at various temperatures to 1200 C, followed by flexural strength measurements at room temperature. Values of yield stress and strain, ultimate strength, and composite modulus remain almost unchanged for samples annealed up to 1100 C. A thin porous layer formed on the surface of the 1100 C annealed sample and its density decreased from 3.09 to 2.90 g/cu cm. The specimen annealed at 1200 C gained 0.43 wt%, was severely deformed, and was covered with a porous layer of thick shiny glaze which could be easily peeled off. Some gas bubbles were also present on the surface. This surface layer consisted of elongated crystals of monoclinic celsian and some amorphous phase(s). The fibers in this surface ply of the CMC had broken into small pieces. The fiber-matrix interface strength was characterized through fiber push-in technique. Values of debond stress, alpha(sub d), and frictional sliding stress, tau(sub f), for the as-fabricated CMC were 0.31+/-0.14 GPa and 10.4+/-3.1 MPa, respectively. These values compared with 0.53+/-0.47 GPa and 8.33+/-1.72 MPa for the fibers in the interior of the 1200 C annealed sample, indicating hardly any change in fiber-matrix interface strength. The effects of thermal aging on microstructure were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Only the surface ply of the 1200 C annealed specimens had degraded from oxidation whereas the bulk interior part of the CMC was unaffected. A mechanism is proposed explaining the various steps involved during the degradation of the CMC on annealing in air at 1200 C.

  5. Temperature dependence of sapphire fiber Raman scattering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Bo; Yu, Zhihao; Tian, Zhipeng; Homa, Daniel; Hill, Cary; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary

    2015-04-27

    Anti-Stokes Raman scattering in sapphire fiber has been observed for the first time. Temperature dependence of Raman peaks’ intensity, frequency shift, and linewidth were also measured. Three anti-Stokes Raman peaks were observed at temperatures higher than 300°C in a 0.72-m-long sapphire fiber excited by a second-harmonic Nd YAG laser. The intensity of anti-Stokes peaks are comparable to that of Stokes peaks when the temperature increases to 1033°C. We foresee the combination of sapphire fiber Stokes and anti-Stokes measurement in use as a mechanism for ultrahigh temperature sensing.

  6. Enhanced Optical Properties of Chemical Vapor Deposited Single Crystal Diamond by Low-Pressure/High-Temperature Annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Y.; Yan, C; Lai, Y; Krasnicki, S; Shu, H; Yu, T; Liang, Q; Mao, H; Hemley, R

    2008-01-01

    Single crystal diamond produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at very high growth rates (up to 150 em/h) has been successfully annealed without graphitization at temperatures up to 2200 C and pressures <300 torr. Crystals were annealed in a hydrogen environment by using microwave plasma techniques for periods of time ranging from a fraction of minute to a few hours. This low-pressure/high-temperature (LPHT) annealing enhances the optical properties of this high-growth rate CVD single crystal diamond. Significant decreases are observed in UV, visible, and infrared absorption and photoluminescence spectra. The decrease in optical absorption after the LPHT annealing arises from the changes in defect structure associated with hydrogen incorporation during CVD growth. There is a decrease in sharp line spectral features indicating a reduction in nitrogen-vacancy-hydrogen (NVH-) defects. These measurements indicate an increase in relative concentration of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in nitrogen-containing LPHT-annealed diamond as compared with as-grown CVD material. The large overall changes in optical properties and the specific types of alterations in defect structure induced by this facile LPHT processing of high-growth rate single-crystal CVD diamond will be useful in the creation of diamond for a variety of scientific and technological applications.

  7. Scaling temperature dependent rheology of magnetorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Stephen G.; Powell, Louise A.; Becnel, Andrew C.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluids are suspensions of micron-scale magnetizable particles suspended in a carrier fluid. When field is applied, MR fluids develop a field controllable yield stress and a field independent post-yield viscosity. However, this viscosity has substantial temperature dependence, varying by up to an order of magnitude over the operating temperature range of MR fluid devices. We apply non-Brownian suspension theory to explain this result and find that the majority of this effect should be caused by the temperature dependent behavior of the carrier fluid. Thus, if two fluids share the same carrier fluid, then their fluid properties should scale in temperature similarly. This result is first validated by measuring viscosity across temperature for custom model fluids designed to conform to theory, showing temperature scaling within 5% for both the MR fluids and their carrier fluid. Then, on a series of related commercially available fluids with unknown additive content, we show that the MR fluids exhibit common scaling to within 4%. We also investigate the effects of magnetic hysteresis and find that it induces a negligible increase in yield stress and no measurable change in viscosity. We conclude that our non-dimensional analysis enables the temperature dependence of novel MR fluids to be characterized with fewer experiments.

  8. Influence of annealing temperature on electronic and dielectric properties of ZrO{sub 2} thin films on Si

    SciTech Connect

    Uthanna, S.; Kondaiah, P.; Madhavi, V.; Rao, G. Mohan

    2012-06-25

    Zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) films were deposited on (100) silicon substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering of zirconium target at an oxygen partial pressure of 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} Pa. The as-deposited films were annealed in air for 1 hour at different temperatures in the range 773 - 1173 K. The influence of annealing temperature on the structural properties of ZrO{sub 2} films and the electrical properties like Capacitance-Voltage and Current-Voltage of the capacitors of the type Al/ZrO{sub 2}/p-Si were studied. The capacitance and dielectric constant of the capacitors were found to increase with increase in annealing temperature from 773 to 973 K, however, with further increase in annealing temperature to 1173 K they were found to decrease. In addition, the leakage current density was decreased from 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} to 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} A/cm{sup 2} at 1V gate bias voltage and the electrical conduction mechanism was dominated by Schottky emission for all the films in lower electric fields.

  9. Rapid low-temperature processing of metal-oxide thin film transistors with combined far ultraviolet and thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Leppäniemi, J. Ojanperä, K.; Kololuoma, T.; Huttunen, O.-H.; Majumdar, H.; Alastalo, A.; Dahl, J.; Tuominen, M.; Laukkanen, P.

    2014-09-15

    We propose a combined far ultraviolet (FUV) and thermal annealing method of metal-nitrate-based precursor solutions that allows efficient conversion of the precursor to metal-oxide semiconductor (indium zinc oxide, IZO, and indium oxide, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) both at low-temperature and in short processing time. The combined annealing method enables a reduction of more than 100 °C in annealing temperature when compared to thermally annealed reference thin-film transistor (TFT) devices of similar performance. Amorphous IZO films annealed at 250 °C with FUV for 5 min yield enhancement-mode TFTs with saturation mobility of ∼1 cm{sup 2}/(V·s). Amorphous In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films annealed for 15 min with FUV at temperatures of 180 °C and 200 °C yield TFTs with low-hysteresis and saturation mobility of 3.2 cm{sup 2}/(V·s) and 7.5 cm{sup 2}/(V·s), respectively. The precursor condensation process is clarified with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Introducing the FUV irradiation at 160 nm expedites the condensation process via in situ hydroxyl radical generation that results in the rapid formation of a continuous metal-oxygen-metal structure in the film. The results of this paper are relevant in order to upscale printed electronics fabrication to production-scale roll-to-roll environments.

  10. Temperature dependence of standard model CP violation.

    PubMed

    Brauner, Tomáš; Taanila, Olli; Tranberg, Anders; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2012-01-27

    We analyze the temperature dependence of CP violation effects in the standard model by determining the effective action of its bosonic fields, obtained after integrating out the fermions from the theory and performing a covariant gradient expansion. We find nonvanishing CP violating terms starting at the sixth order of the expansion, albeit only in the C-odd-P-even sector, with coefficients that depend on quark masses, Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements, temperature and the magnitude of the Higgs field. The CP violating effects are observed to decrease rapidly with temperature, which has important implications for the generation of a matter-antimatter asymmetry in the early Universe. Our results suggest that the cold electroweak baryogenesis scenario may be viable within the standard model, provided the electroweak transition temperature is at most of order 1 GeV. PMID:22400822

  11. Investigations of Low Temperature Time Dependent Cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Sluys, W A; Robitz, E S; Young, B A; Bloom, J

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to investigate metallurgical and mechanical phenomena associated with time dependent cracking of cold bent carbon steel piping at temperatures between 327 C and 360 C. Boiler piping failures have demonstrated that understanding the fundamental metallurgical and mechanical parameters controlling these failures is insufficient to eliminate it from the field. The results of the project consisted of the development of a testing methodology to reproduce low temperature time dependent cracking in laboratory specimens. This methodology was used to evaluate the cracking resistance of candidate heats in order to identify the factors that enhance cracking sensitivity. The resultant data was integrated into current available life prediction tools.

  12. Temperature dependence of polymer photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Yuko

    One of many steps to develop a sustainable society is to reduce the use of fossil fuels by replacing them with renewable energy sources, such as solar energy. This dissertation concerns one of the most contemporary methods to harvest solar radiation and covert it to electricity, using thin polymer films. The photovoltaic devices in this study consisted of a thin layer of p-phenylenevinylene (PPV) based semiconducting polymer sandwiched between two metals (semi-transparent ITO and evaporated metal electrode). Two modified device structures were studied, an interfacial heterojunction device, which includes an additional layer of inorganic n-type semiconductor (Ti-oxides) and a bulk heterojunction device, which is formed by blending electron-attracting materials. Both modifications resulted in higher device performances under ambient conditions due to an increased number of dissociation sites. From studies of inorganic solar cells, it is well known that temperature has a large effect on device performance. However, there are only a few studies on organic Solar cells, concerning the temperature dependence. This thesis focuses on understanding the temperature dependent behaviors of polymer photovoltaic devices. Temperature dependence study allows us to examine how the device parameters such as short circuit current (Isc) and open circuit voltage (Voc) are affected by the material properties and the device architectures. The current-voltage relationships were measured in a temperature controlled OXFORD cryostat operating between 150K and 404K. From the dark current-voltage measurements, the field-independent hole mobility (mu0) was extracted, using a space charge limited current analysis. From the photocurrent-voltage measurements, the temperature dependence on Isc, Voc, and fill factor were studied. The temperature characteristics of Isc (T) were compared to that of mu0(T), and two different dependencies were obtained for different device architectures. The temperature

  13. Effect of high temperature annealing on ion-irradiation induced magnetization in FeRh thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohki, A.; Aikoh, K.; Iwase, A.; Yoneda, K.; Kosugi, S.; Kume, K.; Batchuluun, T.; Ishigami, R.; Matsui, T.

    2012-04-01

    Low temperature ferromagnetic FeRh with B2-type crystal structure was successfully synthesized by annealing of the excessively irradiated FeRh thin film samples having nonmagnetic A1-type crystal structure. The B2 phase transformed from the A1 phase by this process contained some amount of lattice defects, such as anti-site defects and vacancies, which made the magnetic spins of the sample aligned. These results imply that the combination of the process of the ion-beam irradiation and annealing of the film samples makes the magnetic state systematically controlled.

  14. Temperature dependence of fluid transport in nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Baoxing; Wang, Binglei; Park, Taehyo; Qiao, Yu; Zhou, Qulan; Chen, Xi

    2012-05-01

    Understanding the temperature-dependent nanofluidic transport behavior is critical for developing thermomechanical nanodevices. By using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, the thermally responsive transport resistance of liquids in model carbon nanotubes is explored as a function of the nanopore size, the transport rate, and the liquid properties. Both the effective shear stress and the nominal viscosity decrease with the increase of temperature, and the temperature effect is coupled with other non-thermal factors. The molecular-level mechanisms are revealed through the study of the radial density profile and hydrogen bonding of confined liquid molecules. The findings are verified qualitatively with an experiment on nanoporous carbon.

  15. Low-temperature post-deposition annealing investigation for 3D charge trap flash memory by Kelvin probe force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Zongliang; Jin, Lei; Han, Yulong; Li, Xinkai; Ye, Tianchun; Liu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The influence of post-deposition annealing (PDA) temperature condition on charge distribution behavior of HfO2 thin films was systematically investigated by various-temperature Kelvin probe force microscopy technology. Contact potential difference profiles demonstrated that charge storage capability shrinks with decreasing annealing temperature from 1,000 to 500 °C and lower. Compared to 1,000 °C PDA, it was found that 500 °C PDA causes deeper effective trap energy level, suppresses lateral charge spreading, and improves the retention characteristics. It is concluded that low-temperature PDA can be adopted in 3D HfO2-based charge trap flash memory to improve the thermal treatment compatibility of the bottom peripheral logic and upper memory arrays.

  16. Mixed field peronnel dosimetry: Part 1, High temperature peak characteristics of the reader-annealed TLD-600

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.C. ); Sims, C.S. )

    1991-02-01

    The high temperature peaks (TL peaks 6--7) of TLD-600 are known to have higher responses to high LET radiation than to low LET radiation. These high temperature peak characteristics were studied for the automatic reader-annealed Harshaw albedo neutron TLD. The high temperature peaks response is linear for neutrons over the dose equivalent range tested (0.05--3 mSv of a {sup 252}Cf source moderated by a 15 cm radius polyethylene sphere), but is supralinear above 20 mSv of {sup 137}Cs photons. The peaks ratio (peaks 6--7/peaks 3--5) of TLD-600 is 0.15 for neutrons of any incident energy, 0.01 for {sup 137}Cs gammas, and 0.02 for M-150 x-rays. Based on the high temperature peak characteristics, a mixed field neutron-photon personnel dosimetry methodology using a single TLD-600 element was developed. The dosimetric method was evaluated in mixed {sup 238}PuBe + {sup 137}Cs fields with four neutron-gamma dose equivalent ratios, and the neutron, photon and total dose equivalent estimations are better than 20% except in one case. However, it was found that the neutron and photon dose equivalent estimations are sensitive to the neutron and photon peaks ratios, depending on the neutron-photon dose equivalent ratio and the neutron source in the mixed field. Therefore, a successful use of this method requires knowledge of the photon and neutron energies in the mixed field. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Temperature dependence of BCF plastic scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootton, Landon; Beddar, Sam

    2013-05-01

    We examined temperature dependence in plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) made of BCF-60 or BCF-12 scintillating fiber coupled to optical fiber with cyanoacrylate. PSDs were subjected to a range of temperatures using a temperature-controlled water bath and irradiated at each temperature while either the dose was measured using a CCD camera or the spectral output was measured using a spectrometer. The spectrometer was used to examine the intensity and spectral distribution of scintillation light emitted by the PSDs, Cerenkov light generated within the PSD, and light transmitted through an isolated optical coupling. BCF-60 PSDs exhibited a 0.50% decrease and BCF-12 PSDs a 0.09% decrease in measured dose per °C increase, relative to dose measured at 22 °C. Spectrometry revealed that the total intensity of the light generated by BCF-60 and BCF-12 PSDs decreased by 0.32% and 0.13%, respectively, per °C increase. The spectral distribution of the light changed slightly with temperature for both PSDs, accounting for the disparity between the change in measured dose and total light output. The generation of Cerenkov light was temperature independent. However, light transmitted through optical coupling between the scintillator and the optical fiber also exhibited temperature dependence.

  18. Temperature dependence of optically induced cell deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, Anatol; Kiessling, Tobias R.; Stange, Roland; Kaes, Josef A.

    2012-02-01

    The mechanical properties of any material change with temperature, hence this must be true for cellular material. In biology many functions are known to undergo modulations with temperature, like myosin motor activity, mechanical properties of actin filament solutions, CO2 uptake of cultured cells or sex determination of several species. As mechanical properties of living cells are considered to play an important role in many cell functions it is surprising that only little is known on how the rheology of single cells is affected by temperature. We report the systematic temperature dependence of single cell deformations in Optical Stretcher (OS) measurements. The temperature is changed on a scale of about 20 minutes up to hours and compared to defined temperature shocks in the range of milliseconds. Thereby, a strong temperature dependence of the mechanics of single suspended cells is revealed. We conclude that the observable differences arise rather from viscosity changes of the cytosol than from structural changes of the cytoskeleton. These findings have implications for the interpretation of many rheological measurements, especially for laser based approaches in biological studies.

  19. Effect of annealing temperature on the supercapacitor behaviour of β-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Jeyalakshmi, K.; Vijayakumar, S.; Nagamuthu, S.; Muralidharan, G.

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Structural, optical, supercapacitor properties of β-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films are reported. ► Influence of annealing temperature on β-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films have been studied. ► Film annealed at 300 °C exhibit lower charge transfer resistance. -- Abstract: Vanadium pentoxide thin films are prepared via sol–gel spin coating method. The films coated on FTO and glass substrates are treated at different temperatures ranging from 250 °C to 400 °C. The structural, optical and electrochemical investigations are made. X-ray diffraction analysis shows the film to be composed of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} in β-phase up to annealing temperature of 350 °C and at 400 °C the structural transformation to α-phase is observed. FTIR spectrum shows the formation of V-O bond. The SEM images reveal the formation of nanopores. Optical absorption studies indicate a band gap of 2.2–2.4 eV. The supercapacitor behaviour is studied using cyclic voltammetery technique and electrochemical impedance analysis. The vanadium pentoxide films annealed at 300 °C for an hour exhibits a maximum specific capacitance of 346 F g{sup −1} at a scan rate of 5 mV s{sup −1}.

  20. Effects of high-temperature anneals and {sup 60}Co gamma-ray irradiation on strained silicon on insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Park, K.; Canonico, M.; Celler, G. K.; Seacrist, M.; Chan, J.; Gelpey, J.; Holbert, K. E.; Nakagawa, S.; Tajima, M.; Schroder, D. K.

    2007-10-01

    Strained silicon on insulator was exposed to high-temperature annealing and high-dose {sup 60}Co gamma ({gamma})-ray irradiation to study the tenacity of the bond between the strained Si film and the underlying buried oxide. During the high-temperature anneals, the samples were ramped at a rate of 150 deg. C/s to 850 deg. C then ramped to 1200, 1250, and 1300 deg. C at a rate of approximately 5x10{sup 5} deg. C/s for millisecond duration anneals. For the irradiation experiments, the samples were irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays to a dose of 51.5 kGy. All samples were characterized by ultraviolet (UV) Raman, pseudo metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor ({psi}-MOSFET) current voltage, Hall mobility, and photoluminescence (PL) to verify changes in strain. UV Raman, PL, and {psi}-MOSFET measurements show no strain relaxation for the high-temperature annealed samples and only very slight relaxation for the {gamma}-ray irradiated samples.

  1. Effect of annealing temperature on microstructure, hardness and adhesion properties of TiSi xN y superhard coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y. H.; Wang, J. P.; Tao, S. L.; Zhou, Z. F.

    2011-05-01

    A series of TiSi xN y superhard coatings with different Si contents were prepared on M42 steel substrates using two Ti and two Si targets by reactive magnetron sputtering at 500 °C. These samples were subsequently vacuum-annealed at 500, 600, 700, 800 and 900 °C, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), microindenter, Rockwell hardness tester and scratch tester were applied to investigate the microstructure, phase configuration, hardness and adhesion properties of as-deposited and annealed samples. The results indicated that there were two bonds, TiN and Si 3N 4, in all presently deposited TiSi xN y thin films, that structure was nanocomposite of nanocrystalline (nc-) TiN embedded into amorphous Si 3N 4 matrices. Annealing treatment below 900 °C played a little role in microstructure and hardness of the coatings although it greatly affected those of steel substrates. The film-substrate adhesion strength was slightly increased, followed by an abrupt decrease with increasing annealing temperature. Its value got to the maximum at 600 °C. Annealing had little effect on the friction coefficient with its value varying in the range of 0.39-0.40.

  2. Post-annealing effect on the room-temperature ferromagnetism in Cu-doped ZnO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Yu-Min Kuang, Chein-Hsiun; Han, Tai-Chun; Yu, Chin-Chung; Li, Sih-Sian

    2015-05-07

    In this work, we investigated the structural and magnetic properties of both as-deposited and post-annealed Cu-doped ZnO thin films for better understanding the possible mechanisms of room-temperature ferromagnetism (RT-FM) in ZnO-based diluted magnetic oxides. All of the films have a c-axis-oriented wurtzite structure and display RT-FM. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that the incorporated Cu ions in as-deposited films are in 1+ valence state merely, while an additional 2+ valence state occurs in post-annealed films. The presence of Cu{sup 2+} state in post-annealed film accompanies a higher magnetization value than that of as-deposited film and, in particular, the magnetization curves at 10 K and 300 K of the post-annealed film separate distinctly. Since Cu{sup 1+} ion has a filled 3d band, the RT-FM in as-deposited Cu-doped ZnO thin films may stem solely from intrinsic defects, while that in post-annealed films is enhanced due to the presence of CuO crystallites.

  3. Wide Temperature Magnetization Characteristics of Transverse Magnetically Annealed Amorphous Tapes for High Frequency Aerospace Magnetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.; Schwarze, Gene E.

    1999-01-01

    100 kHz magnetization properties of sample transverse magnetically annealed, cobalt-based amorphous and iron-based nanocrystalline tape wound magnetic cores are presented over the temperature range of -150 C to 150 C, at selected values of B(sub peak). Frequency resolved characteristics are given over the range of 50 kHz to 1 MHz, but at B(sub peak) = 0.1 T and 50 C only. Basic exciting winding current and induced voltage data were taken on bare toroidal cores, in a standard type measurement setup. A linear permeability model, which represents the core by a parallel L-R circuit, is used to interpret and present the magnetization characteristics and several figures of merit applicable to inductor materials are reviewed. The 100 kHz permeability thus derived decreases with increasing temperature for the Fe-based, nanocrystalline material, but increases roughly linearly with temperature for the two Co-based materials, as long as B(sub peak) is sufficiently low to avoid saturation effects. Due to the high permeabilities, rather low values of the 'quality factor' Q, from about 20 to below unity, were obtained over the frequency range of 50 kHz to 1 MHz (50 C, B(sub peak) = 0.1 T). Therefore these cores must be gapped in order to make up high Q or high current inductors. However, being rugged, low core loss materials with flat B-H loop characteristics, they may provide new solutions to specialty inductor applications.

  4. A re-evaluation of geological timescale benchmarks and temperature sensitivity of fission-track annealing in apatites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luijendijk, Elco; Andriessen, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Current models of the temperature sensitivity of fission track annealing in apatites have been calibrated using fission track data from boreholes, with the assumption that these samples are currently at maximum burial depth and temperatures. The most detailed data-set comes from boreholes located in the Otway basin, Australia. However, several lines of evidence suggest that these samples are not at their maximum burial depth and temperature and consequently the cooling temperature of the apatite fission track thermochronometer would then be higher than previously assumed. Significant late Cenozoic exhumation in the Otway Basin was suggested by earlier studies that document a major late-Miocene erosional unconformity, folding and trusting of underlying sediments and elevated strandlines along the coast. In addition, anomalously young apatite (U-Th)/He ages in several boreholes in the basin suggest that the basin's sediments have been exhumed and cooled in the late Cenozoic. We explore the effects of late Cenozoic exhumation on fission track data in the Otway basin using a 1D model of burial and thermal history. We show that simulating several 100s of meters of exhumation in the basin results in significant misfit between current annealing models and observed fission track data. The additional exhumation reconciles the Otway basin data with a second detailed fission track dataset from boreholes in Southern Texas with a well-constrained thermal and burial history. We combine vitrinite reflectance data and U-Th/He data from the Otway basin to recalibrate the burial history of the Otway basin. Subsequently we combine the new thermal history of the Otway basin with the Southern Texas dataset to recalibrate the fission track annealing algorithm. The results suggest that fission-track annealing in apatites is underestimated by approximately 20°C by current annealing models, with significant implications for studies that use apatite fission track thermochronology to

  5. Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature Dependent Thermophysical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czél, Balázs; Gróf, Gyula; Kiss, László

    2011-11-01

    A new evaluation method for a transient measurement of thermophysical properties is presented in this paper. The aim of the research was to couple a new automatic evaluation procedure to the BICOND thermophysical property measurement method to enhance the simultaneous determination of the temperature dependent thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity. The thermophysical properties of two different polymers were measured and compared with the literature data and with the measurement results that were done by well-known, traditional methods. The BICOND method involves a step-down cooling, recording the temperature histories of the inner and the outer surfaces of a hollow cylindrical sample and the thermophysical properties are evaluated from the solution of the corresponding inverse heat conduction using a genetic algorithm-based method (BIGEN) developed by the authors. The BIGEN is able to find the material properties with any kind of temperature dependency, that is illustrated through the measurement results of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and polyamide (PA) samples.

  6. Electrical properties of undoped zinc oxide nanostructures at different annealing temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, M. F.; Zainol, M. N.; Hannas, M.; Mamat, M. H.; Rahman, S. A.; Rusop, Mohamad

    2016-07-01

    This project has been focused on the electrical and optical properties respectively on the effect of Undoped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films at different annealing temperature which is varied 400 °C, 450 °C, 500 °C, and 550 °C.Undoped ZnO solutions were deposited onto the glass substrates using sol-gel spin coating method. This project was involved with three phases, which are thin films preparation, deposition and characterization. The thin films were characterized using Current Voltage (I-V) measurement and UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer for electrical properties and optical properties. The electrical properties show that the resistivity is the lowest at 500 °C which its resistivity is 5.36 × 104 Ωcm-1. The absorption coefficient spectrum obtained from UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer measurement shows all films exhibit very low absorption in the visible (400-800nm) and near infrared (NIR) (>800nm) range but exhibit high absorption in the UV range.

  7. Effect of post oxidation annealing in nitric oxide on interface properties of 4H-SiC/SiO2 after high temperature oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanyue, Li; Xiaochuan, Deng; Yunfeng, Liu; Yanli, Zhao; Chengzhan, Li; Xixi, Chen; Bo, Zhang

    2015-09-01

    The interface properties of 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with post-oxidation annealing (POA) in nitric oxide (NO) ambient after high temperature (1300 °C) oxidation have been investigated using capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The experimental results show that the interface states density (Dit) can be obviously decreased by the POA in NO ambient (NO-POA) and further reduced with increasing POA temperature and time. In the meantime significant reduction of the interface states density and oxidation time can be achieved at the higher thermal oxidation temperature, which results in the better oxide MOS characteristics and lower production costs. The dependence of Dit on POA temperature and time has been also discussed in detail. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61234006) and the State Grid of China (No. sgri-wd-71-14-003).

  8. Influence of Step Annealing Temperature on the Microstructure and Pitting Corrosion Resistance of SDSS UNS S32760 Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefieh, M.; Shamanian, M.; Saatchi, A.

    2011-12-01

    In the present work, the influence of step annealing heat treatment on the microstructure and pitting corrosion resistance of super duplex stainless steel UNS S32760 welds have been investigated. The pitting corrosion resistance in chloride solution was evaluated by potentiostatic measurements. The results showed that step annealing treatments in the temperature ranging from 550 to 1000 °C resulted in a precipitation of sigma phase and Cr2N along the ferrite/austenite and ferrite/ferrite boundaries. At this temperature range, the metastable pits mainly nucleated around the precipitates formed in the grain boundary and ferrite phase. Above 1050 °C, the microstructure contains only austenite and ferrite phases. At this condition, the critical pitting temperature of samples successfully arrived to the highest value obtained in this study.

  9. X-ray diffraction analysis of the effect of annealing temperature on the microstructure of magnesium oxide nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleimanian, V.; Aghdaee, S. R.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, nanocrystalline MgO powders were prepared using the sol-gel method and annealed in air over a temperature range of [400-700] °C. Various microstructural characteristics were determined using three different X-ray diffraction analysis approaches, i.e., modified Williamson-Hall, modified Warren-Averbach, and variance methods. The transmission electron microscopy micrographs were used to measure the size distributions of the MgO samples. The results obtained using the three different methods were in good agreement. At all temperatures, the main source of dislocation was edge type but as the annealing temperature increased, the crystallite size and dislocation density increased and decreased, respectively, thereby indicating that the crystal quality of the nanopowders was improved.

  10. Effect of annealing temperature on structural and magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roohani, Ebrahim; Arabi, Hadi; Sarhaddi, Reza; Sudkhah, Saeedeh; Shabani, Ameneh

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel auto-combustion method. Effect of annealing temperature on crystal structure, morphology and magnetic properties of nanoparticles was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Also, the thermal decomposition of as-synthesized powdered samples has been studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD patterns confirmed the formation of single phase M-type hexagonal crystal structure for powders annealed above 950∘C, whereas the presence of hematite (α-Fe2O3) as secondary phase was also observed for sample annealed at 900∘C. Furthermore, the crystallinity along with the crystallite size were augmented with annealing temperature. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the samples before and after annealing treatment showed the existence of metal-oxygen stretching modes after annealing. The thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the thermal decomposition of as-burnt powders happened in three-stage degradation process. The TEM images showed the nanoparticles like hexagonal-shaped platelets as the size of nanoparticles increases by increasing the annealing temperature. With increasing annealing temperature, the magnetic saturation and the coercivity were increased to the maximum value of 74.26 emu/g and 5.67 kOe for sample annealed at 1000∘C and then decreased.

  11. 300 W XeCl excimer laser annealing and sequential lateral solidification in low temperature poly silicon technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Ludolf; Kahlert, Hans-Juergen; Fechner, Burkhard; Rebhan, Ulrich; Osmanow, Rustem

    2003-05-01

    Industrial production of low temperature p-Si back plates for LCDs by high power excimer laser annealing was introduced several years ago. Regarding the economy of the process, one of the major advantages of excimer laser annealing is the opportunity to make use of low cost glass substrates due to the low temperature of the annealing process. The Lambda Physik high power excimer laser series are operated with the MicroLas 370 mm line beam optics, integrated by Japan Steel Works into industrial systems. The MicroLas line beam optics for conventional excimer laser annealing (ELA) process converts the raw laser beam profile into a stable and homogeneous rectangular illumination field with high aspect ratio. The excimer laser light source, the LAMBDA STEEL 1000, delivers stabilized pulse energies up to 1 Joule at repetition rates up to 300Hz. The crystallization using excimer lasers allows to produce films with electron mobility of 100-150 cm2/Vsec with the Line beam technique. The new SLS-method, which is currently under industrial investigation, even allows to obtain electron mobility between 200-400 cm2/Vsec.

  12. Dose and doping dependence of damage annealing in Fe MeV implanted InP

    SciTech Connect

    Carnera, A.; Fraboni, B.; Gasparotto, A. |; Priolo, F. |; Camporese, A.; Rossetto, G.; Frigeri, C.; Cassa, A.

    1996-12-31

    High energy (2 MeV) ion implantation of Fe in InP has been investigated by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and secondary ions mass spectrometry (SIMS). The implanted doses ranged between 5 {times} 10{sup 13} and 5 {times} 10{sup 14} at/cm{sup 2}. Annealing in the 650--800 C range was performed and the primary as well as secondary damage evolution has been studied. The correlations between defect structure and Fe redistribution properties have been carefully analyzed. The results show the role of the primary defect structure in determining the annealing properties, both for damage recovery and Fe redistribution. The latter is also influenced by the doping of the substrate.

  13. Temperature dependence of hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cell performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesen, Y.; Stuckelberger, M.; Haug, F.-J.; Ballif, C.; Wyrsch, N.

    2016-01-01

    Thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar (a-Si:H) cells are known to have better temperature coefficients than crystalline silicon cells. To investigate whether a-Si:H cells that are optimized for standard conditions (STC) also have the highest energy yield, we measured the temperature and irradiance dependence of the maximum power output (Pmpp), the fill factor (FF), the short-circuit current density (Jsc), and the open-circuit voltage (Voc) for four series of cells fabricated with different deposition conditions. The parameters varied during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD) were the power and frequency of the PE-CVD generator, the hydrogen-to-silane dilution during deposition of the intrinsic absorber layer (i-layer), and the thicknesses of the a-Si:H i-layer and p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide layer. The results show that the temperature coefficient of the Voc generally varies linearly with the Voc value. The Jsc increases linearly with temperature mainly due to temperature-induced bandgap reduction and reduced recombination. The FF temperature dependence is not linear and reaches a maximum at temperatures between 15 °C and 80 °C. Numerical simulations show that this behavior is due to a more positive space-charge induced by the photogenerated holes in the p-layer and to a recombination decrease with temperature. Due to the FF(T) behavior, the Pmpp (T) curves also have a maximum, but at a lower temperature. Moreover, for most series, the cells with the highest power output at STC also have the best energy yield. However, the Pmpp (T) curves of two cells with different i-layer thicknesses cross each other in the operating cell temperature range, indicating that the cell with the highest power output could, for instance, have a lower energy yield than the other cell. A simple energy-yield simulation for the light-soaked and annealed states shows that for Neuchâtel (Switzerland) the best cell at STC also has the best energy

  14. Investigation of thermal annealing by gamma irradiation at room temperature in LiNbO3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajor, Andrzej L.; Kaczmarek, Slawomir M.; Pracka, Izabella; Swirkowicz, Marek; Wronska, Teresa

    2001-08-01

    An interesting phenomenon of thermal annealing in gamma irradiated undoped, and photorefractive Cu- and Fe-doped, Z- oriented LiNbO3 crystal has been observed. Prior and after each gamma irradiation the crystals were thermally annealed in the air at 800 degrees C for a couple of hours. Optical homogeneity was investigated on the entire area of LiNbO3 wafers by measuring distributions of birefringence, the principal azimuth, transmission, and parameters associated with birefringence dispersion, and also by measurements of additional absorption in a few wafers' points. It has been rather unexpectedly observed that the classical thermal annealing can lead to a decease in optical homogeneity in the majority of cases. It is attributed to generation of an internal electric field by the pyroelectric effect, and to the electrooptic effect involved thereafter. On the other hand, the secondary electrons generated by gamma irradiation are believed to increase the optical homogeneity by increasing the crystal's conductivity and dissipating this field. A uniform temperature heating across the wafer generated by this irradiation is also a helpful factor in this gamma- annealing. It has been found that this effect at room temperature by this irradiation is also a helpful factor in this gamma-annealing. It has been found that this effect at room temperature is small for gamma irradiation of 105 Gy, while increasing the doses to 106 Gy and 107 Gy can profile in a considerable reduction of the optical inhomogeneity. A certain influence of Cu-doping on this effect has also been observed.

  15. Temperature dependent phonon properties of thermoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellman, Olle; Broido, David; Fultz, Brent

    2015-03-01

    We present recent developments using the temperature dependent effective potential technique (TDEP) to model thermoelectric materials. We use ab initio molecular dynamics to generate an effective Hamiltonian that reproduce neutron scattering spectra, thermal conductivity, phonon self energies, and heat capacities. Results are presented for (among others) SnSe, Bi2Te3, and Cu2Se proving the necessity of careful modelling of finite temperature properties for strongly anharmonic materials. Supported by the Swedish Research Council (VR) Project Number 637-2013-7296.

  16. Annealing temperature and barrier thickness effect on the structural and optical properties of silicon nanocrystals/SiO₂ superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    López-Vidrier, J. Hernández, S.; López-Conesa, L.; Peiró, F.; Garrido, B.; Hiller, D.; Gutsch, S.; Zacharias, M.; Estradé, S.

    2014-10-07

    The effect of the annealing temperature and the SiO₂ barrier thickness of silicon nanocrystal (NC)/SiO₂ superlattices (SLs) on their structural and optical properties is investigated. Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the SL structure is maintained for annealing temperatures up to 1150 °C, with no variation on the nanostructure morphology for different SiO₂ barrier thicknesses. Nevertheless, annealing temperatures as high as 1250 °C promote diffusion of Si atoms into the SiO₂ barrier layers, which produces larger Si NCs and the loss of the NC size control expected from the SL approach. Complementary Raman scattering measurements corroborated these results for all the SiO₂ and Si-rich oxynitride layer thicknesses. In addition, we observed an increasing crystalline fraction up to 1250 °C, which is related to a decreasing contribution of the suboxide transition layer between Si NCs and the SiO₂ matrix due to the formation of larger NCs. Finally, photoluminescence measurements revealed that the emission of the superlattices exhibits a Gaussian-like lineshape with a maximum intensity after annealing at 1150 °C, indicating a high crystalline degree in good agreement with Raman results. Samples submitted to higher annealing temperatures display a progressive emission broadening, together with an increase in the central emission wavelength. Both effects are related to a progressive broadening of the size distribution with a larger mean size, in agreement with TEM observations. On the other hand, whereas the morphology of the Si NCs is unaffected by the SiO₂ barrier thickness, the emission properties are slightly modified. These observed modifications in the emission lineshape allow monitoring the precipitation process of Si NCs in a direct non-destructive way. All these experimental results evidence that an annealing temperature of 1150 °C and 1-nm SiO₂ barrier can be reached whilst preserving the SL structure, being

  17. Effect of annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of CeO2:Ni thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, R.; Vijayaprasath, G.; Sakthivel, P.; Mahalingam, T.; Ravi, G.

    2016-05-01

    High quality Ni-doped CeO2 (CeO2:Ni) thin films were deposited on glass substrates at room temperature by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The effect of annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of the CeO2:Ni films was investigated. The structural, optical and vibrational properties of the films were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence spectrometer (PL) and Raman spectrometer. It was found that the as-deposited film has a fluorite cubic structure. By increasing annealing temperature from 100°C to 300°C, the crystalline quality of the thin films could be improved. The UV and visible band emissions were observed in the photoluminescence spectra, due to exciton, defect related emissions respectively. The micro-Raman results show the characteristic peak of CeO2 F2g at 465 cm-1 and 2L0 at 1142 cm-1. Defect peaks like D and 0 bands were observed at 641 cm-1 and 548 cm-1 respectively. It is found from the spectra that the peak intensity of the films increased with increase of annealing temperature.

  18. The effect of high-temperature annealing on the structure and electrical properties of well-aligned carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Qianming . E-mail: gongqianming@mail.tsinghua.org.cn; Li Zhi; Wang Ye; Wu Bin; Zhang Zhengyi; Liang Ji

    2007-03-22

    Systematic work has been performed on the effect of high-temperature annealing on structural defects and impurities of well-aligned carbon nanotubes (ACNTs) in this paper. ACNTs had been prepared by CVD process with ferrocene as catalyst and then the as-grown samples were experienced heat treatment (HT) from 1800 to 3000 deg. C. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), etc., have been used to analyze the effect of annealing. Results indicate that some impurities can be removed once annealing temperature exceeds vaporization point of corresponding metal or non-metal. Desorption of O should be attributed to reduced active sites of dangling covalent bonds after heat treatment. Specious discrepancy about interlayer spacing resulted from XRD and Raman tests show that although high-temperature heat treatment can remove in-plane defects of carbon nanotubes greatly, interlayer spacing between graphene shells could not be reduced effectively because of the special concentric cylindrical structure of nanotubes. Electrical resistivity of ACNTs block is about three orders higher than that of copper even after HT at 3000 deg. C, and the anisotropy of electrical properties increased once experienced heat treatment at increased temperature.

  19. Temperature-dependent reflectivity of silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    The spectral reflectivity of a commercial silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic surface was measured at wavelengths from 2.5 to 14.5 microns and at temperatures ranging from 358 to 520 K using a NASA-developed multiwavelength pyrometer. The SiC surface reflectivity was low at the short wavelengths, decreasing to almost zero at 10 microns, then increasing rapidly to a maximum at approximately 12.5 microns, and decreasing gradually thereafter. The reflectivity maximum increased in magnitude with increasing surface temperature. The wavelength and temperature dependence can be explained in terms of the classical dispersion theory of crystals and the Lorentz electron theory. Electronic transitions between the donor state and the conduction band states were responsible for the dispersion. The concentration of the donor state in SiC was determined to be approximately 4 x 10 exp 18 and its ionization energy was determined to be approximately 71 meV.

  20. Effect of oxygen partial pressure and anneal temperature on BaTiO3 thin film crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Sun, De-gui; Fu, Xiuhua; Liu, Dong-mei; Pan, Yong-gang; Yang, Fei

    2015-08-01

    BaTiO3 film is deposited on single crystal MgO substrate with pulsed laser deposition, and its crystal structure and surface roughness are characterized by X-ray diffraction instrument and atomic force microscope. BaTiO3 film crystal quality is analyzed under three different oxygen partial pressure and three different annealing temperatures. The result shows that when the oxygen partial pressure is 15Pa, crystal surface (001) and (002) diffraction peak of BaTiO3 thin films have higher intensity. It indicated that the film has a good c-axis orientation. When the annealing temperature is 800°C, the intensity of diffraction peak is the maximum, and peak shape is sharper. BaTiO3 crystal film is obtained with highly preferred orientation, and film density is improved. Thus the film has less surface roughness and good crystalline state.

  1. Analyses of residual iron in carbon nanotubes produced by camphor/ferrocene pyrolysis and purified by high temperature annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, E. F.; de Resende, V. G.; Mengui, U. A.; Cunha, J. B. M.; Corat, E. J.; Massi, M.

    2011-07-01

    A detailed analysis of iron-containing phases in multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) powder was carried out. The MWCNTs were produced by camphor/ferrocene and purified by high temperature annealing in an oxygen-free atmosphere (N2 or VC). Thermogravimetric analysis, Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy enabled the evaluation of the residual iron in MWCNTs after purification. The VC treatments provided MWCNTs with a purity degree higher than 99%. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy revealed a significant improvement in graphitic ordering after thermal annealing. A brief description of the mechanism of iron removal was included. We highlight the mobility of iron atoms through graphitic sheets and the large contact angle of iron clusters formed on MWCNT surfaces at high temperatures.

  2. The effect of substrate on high-temperature annealing of GaN epilayers: Si versus sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Pastor, D.; Cusco, R.; Artus, L.; Gonzalez-Diaz, G.; Iborra, E.; Jimenez, J.; Peiro, F.; Calleja, E.

    2006-08-15

    We have studied the effects of rapid thermal annealing at 1300 deg.C on GaN epilayers grown on AlN buffered Si(111) and on sapphire substrates. After annealing, the epilayers grown on Si display visible alterations with craterlike morphology scattered over the surface. The annealed GaN/Si layers were characterized by a range of experimental techniques: scanning electron microscopy, optical confocal imaging, energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis, Raman scattering, and cathodoluminescence. A substantial Si migration to the GaN epilayer was observed in the crater regions, where decomposition of GaN and formation of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} crystallites as well as metallic Ga droplets and Si nanocrystals have occurred. The average diameter of the Si nanocrystals was estimated from Raman scattering to be around 3 nm. Such annealing effects, which are not observed in GaN grown on sapphire, are a significant issue for applications of GaN grown on Si(111) substrates when subsequent high-temperature processing is required.

  3. Effect of low-temperature annealing on the electronic- and band-structures of (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yastrubchak, O.; Wosinski, T.; Gluba, L.; Andrearczyk, T.; Domagala, J. Z.; Żuk, J.; Sadowski, J.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of outdiffusion of Mn interstitials from (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers, caused by post-growth low-temperature annealing, on their electronic- and band-structure properties has been investigated by modulation photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy. The annealing-induced changes in structural and magnetic properties of the layers were examined with high-resolution X-ray diffractometry and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, respectively. They confirmed an outdiffusion of Mn interstitials from the layers and an enhancement in their hole concentration, which were more efficient for the layer covered with a Sb cap acting as a sink for diffusing Mn interstitials. The PR results demonstrating a decrease in the band-gap-transition energy in the as-grown (Ga,Mn)As layers, with respect to that in the reference GaAs one, are interpreted by assuming a merging of the Mn-related impurity band with the GaAs valence band. Whereas an increase in the band-gap-transition energy caused by the annealing treatment of the (Ga,Mn)As layers is interpreted as a result of annealing-induced enhancement of the free-hole concentration and the Fermi level location within the valence band. The experimental results are consistent with the valence-band origin of itinerant holes mediating ferromagnetic ordering in (Ga,Mn)As, in agreement with the Zener model for ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  4. Effect of low-temperature annealing on the electronic- and band-structures of (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers

    SciTech Connect

    Yastrubchak, O. Gluba, L.; Żuk, J.; Wosinski, T. Andrearczyk, T.; Domagala, J. Z.; Sadowski, J.

    2014-01-07

    The effect of outdiffusion of Mn interstitials from (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers, caused by post-growth low-temperature annealing, on their electronic- and band-structure properties has been investigated by modulation photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy. The annealing-induced changes in structural and magnetic properties of the layers were examined with high-resolution X-ray diffractometry and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, respectively. They confirmed an outdiffusion of Mn interstitials from the layers and an enhancement in their hole concentration, which were more efficient for the layer covered with a Sb cap acting as a sink for diffusing Mn interstitials. The PR results demonstrating a decrease in the band-gap-transition energy in the as-grown (Ga,Mn)As layers, with respect to that in the reference GaAs one, are interpreted by assuming a merging of the Mn-related impurity band with the GaAs valence band. Whereas an increase in the band-gap-transition energy caused by the annealing treatment of the (Ga,Mn)As layers is interpreted as a result of annealing-induced enhancement of the free-hole concentration and the Fermi level location within the valence band. The experimental results are consistent with the valence-band origin of itinerant holes mediating ferromagnetic ordering in (Ga,Mn)As, in agreement with the Zener model for ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  5. Annealing prion protein amyloid fibrils at high temperature results in extension of a proteinase K-resistant core.

    PubMed

    Bocharova, Olga V; Makarava, Natallia; Breydo, Leonid; Anderson, Maighdlin; Salnikov, Vadim V; Baskakov, Ilia V

    2006-01-27

    Amyloids are highly ordered, rigid beta-sheet-rich structures that appear to have minimal dynamic flexibility in individual polypeptide chains. Here, we demonstrate that substantial conformational rearrangements occur within mature amyloid fibrils produced from full-length mammalian prion protein. The rearrangement results in a substantial extension of a proteinase K-resistant core and is accompanied by an increase in the beta-sheet-rich conformation. The conformational rearrangement was induced in the presence of low concentrations of Triton X-100 either by brief exposure to 80 degrees C or, with less efficacy, by prolonged incubation at 37 degrees C at pH 7.5 and is referred to here as "annealing." Upon annealing, amyloid fibrils acquired a proteinase K-resistant core identical to that found in bovine spongiform encephalopathy-specific scrapie-associated prion protein. Annealing was also observed when amyloid fibrils were exposed to high temperatures in the absence of detergent but in the presence of brain homogenate. These findings suggest that the amyloid fibrils exist in two conformationally distinct states that are separated by a high energy barrier and that yet unknown cellular cofactors may facilitate transition of the fibrils into thermodynamically more stable state. Our studies provide new insight into the complex behavior of prion polymerization and highlight the annealing process, a previously unknown step in the evolution of amyloid structures. PMID:16314415

  6. Highest transmittance and high-mobility amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide films on flexible substrate by room-temperature deposition and post-deposition anneals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadre, Mandar J.; Alford, T. L.

    2011-08-01

    Amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin films of the highest transmittance reported in literature were initially deposited onto flexible polymer substrates at room temperature. The films were annealed in vacuum, air, and oxygen to enhance their electrical and optical performances. Electrical and optical characterizations were done before and after anneals. A partial reversal of the degradation in electrical properties upon annealing in oxygen was achieved by subjecting the films to subsequent vacuum anneals. A model was developed based on film texture and structural defects which showed close agreement between the measured and calculated carrier mobility values at low carrier concentrations (2-6 × 1019 cm-3).

  7. Temperature dependent light transmission in ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brojabasi, Surajit; Mahendran, V.; Lahiri, B. B.; Philip, John

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the influence of temperature on the magnetic field induced light transmission in a kerosene based ferrofluid containing oleic acid coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles, where the direction of propagation of light is parallel to the direction of the external magnetic field. At a fixed temperature the transmitted light intensity is found to monotonically increase with incident wavelength due to reduced extinction efficiency at higher wavelength. The transmitted intensity decreases with external magnetic field due to enhanced scattering from the field induced linear chain like structures along the direction of the external magnetic field and due to the build-up of standing waves inside the scattering medium. The extinction of the field induced transmitted light intensity is found to occur at a lower external field as the sample temperature is lowered. The rate of extinction of normalized transmitted light intensity decreased linearly with increasing sample temperature due to slower field induced aggregation kinetics because of an increased Brownian motion of the suspended nanoparticles and a reduced coupling constant. The observed temperature dependent magneto-optical properties of magnetic nanofluids can be exploited for applications in optical devices.

  8. Effect of rapid thermal annealing temperature on the dispersion of Si nanocrystals in SiO{sub 2} matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Nupur Kumar, Pragati; Gupta, Vinay

    2015-05-15

    Effect of rapid thermal annealing temperature on the dispersion of silicon nanocrystals (Si-NC’s) embedded in SiO{sub 2} matrix grown by atom beam sputtering (ABS) method is reported. The dispersion of Si NCs in SiO{sub 2} is an important issue to fabricate high efficiency devices based on Si-NC’s. The transmission electron microscopy studies reveal that the precipitation of excess silicon is almost uniform and the particles grow in almost uniform size upto 850 °C. The size distribution of the particles broadens and becomes bimodal as the temperature is increased to 950 °C. This suggests that by controlling the annealing temperature, the dispersion of Si-NC’s can be controlled. The results are supported by selected area diffraction (SAED) studies and micro photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The discussion of effect of particle size distribution on PL spectrum is presented based on tight binding approximation (TBA) method using Gaussian and log-normal distribution of particles. The study suggests that the dispersion and consequently emission energy varies as a function of particle size distribution and that can be controlled by annealing parameters.

  9. Selective synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes by self-propagation high-temperature synthesis and annealing process

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jilin; Zhang Laiping; Zhao Guowei; Gu Yunle; Zhang Zhanhui; Zhang Fang; Wang Weimin

    2011-09-15

    Four types of BN nanotubes are selectively synthesized by annealing porous precursor in flowing NH{sub 3} and NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2} atmosphere at temperature ranging from 1000 to 1200 deg. C in a vertical furnace. The as-synthesized BN nanotubes, including cylinder, wave-like, bamboo-like and bubble-chain, are characterized by XRD, FTIR, Raman, SEM, TEM and HRTEM. Three phenomenological growth models are proposed to interpret growth scenario and structure features of the four types of BN nanotubes. Selectivity of nanotubes formation is estimated as approximately 80-95%. The precursor containing B, Mg, Fe and O prepared by self-propagation high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method plays a key role in selective synthesis of the as-synthesized BN nanotubes. Chemical reactions are also discussed. - Graphical Abstract: Four types of BN nanotubes are selectively synthesized by annealing porous precursor prepared by self-propagation high-temperature synthesis. Three phenomenological growth models are proposed to reveal growth scenario and characteristics of the as-synthesized BN nanotubes. Highlights: > Four types of BN nanotubes are selectively synthesized by annealing porous precursor. > Selectivity of BN nanotubes formation is estimated as approximately 80-95 wt%. > Three growth models are proposed to interpret growth of the as-synthesized BN nanotubes. > The precursor prepared by SHS method plays a key role in selective synthesis process.

  10. Effect of rapid thermal annealing temperature on the dispersion of Si nanocrystals in SiO2 matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Nupur; Kumar, Pragati; Gupta, Vinay

    2015-05-01

    Effect of rapid thermal annealing temperature on the dispersion of silicon nanocrystals (Si-NC's) embedded in SiO2 matrix grown by atom beam sputtering (ABS) method is reported. The dispersion of Si NCs in SiO2 is an important issue to fabricate high efficiency devices based on Si-NC's. The transmission electron microscopy studies reveal that the precipitation of excess silicon is almost uniform and the particles grow in almost uniform size upto 850 °C. The size distribution of the particles broadens and becomes bimodal as the temperature is increased to 950 °C. This suggests that by controlling the annealing temperature, the dispersion of Si-NC's can be controlled. The results are supported by selected area diffraction (SAED) studies and micro photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The discussion of effect of particle size distribution on PL spectrum is presented based on tight binding approximation (TBA) method using Gaussian and log-normal distribution of particles. The study suggests that the dispersion and consequently emission energy varies as a function of particle size distribution and that can be controlled by annealing parameters.