Science.gov

Sample records for annealing time effect

  1. The Effect of Argon Ambient Pressure and Annealing Time on Bulk MgB2 Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, Murat; Ozturk, Ozgur; Asikuzun, Elif; Kaya, Seydanur; Safran, Serap; Kilic, Ahmet; Terzioglu, Cabir

    2015-03-01

    The effects of Ar ambient pressure (vacuum, 0B, 10B and 20B) and annealing times (0.5 h and 1 h) on microstructural, superconducting and mechanical properties of bulk superconducting MgB2 are investigated. The samples are produced using the solid state reaction method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements were performed for determination of the crystal structure, and surface morphology of MgB2 samples, respectively. The superconducting properties were studied by AC magnetic susceptibility and DC resistivity measurements. Increasing the Ar pressure decreased the lattice parameters and hence the average grain size. Increasing the annealing time results in larger lattice parameters and larger grain formation. The susceptibility measurements revealed two step transition which is reminiscent of granular superconductors. The intra-grain transition temperature is determined to be 38.4 K for all samples. The inter-grain transition temperatures of 37.2 K is obtained for samples produced under Ar ambient. The samples produced under Ar ambient have better superconducting properties than the ones produced in vacuum. Increasing the annealing time under vacuum further decreases the superconducting properties probably due to Mg loss. This research is supported by Kastamonu University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Department under the Grant No. KUBAP-03/2012-03.

  2. Annealing Time Effect on Nanostructured n-ZnO/p-Si Heterojunction Photodetector Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habubi, Nadir. F.; Ismail, Raid. A.; Hamoudi, Walid K.; Abid, Hassam. R.

    2015-02-01

    In this work, n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction photodetectors were prepared by drop casting of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) on single crystal p-type silicon substrates, followed by (15-60) min; step-annealing at 600∘C. Structural, electrical, and optical properties of the ZnO NPs films deposited on quartz substrates were studied as a function of annealing time. X-ray diffraction studies showed a polycrystalline, hexagonal wurtizte nanostructured ZnO with preferential orientation along the (100) plane. Atomic force microscopy measurements showed an average ZnO grain size within the range of 75.9 nm-99.9 nm with a corresponding root mean square (RMS) surface roughness between 0.51 nm-2.16 nm. Dark and under illumination current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction photodetectors showed an improving rectification ratio and a decreasing saturation current at longer annealing time with an ideality factor of 3 obtained at 60 min annealing time. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of heterojunctions were investigated in order to estimate the built-in-voltage and junction type. The photodetectors, fabricated at optimum annealing time, exhibited good linearity characteristics. Maximum sensitivity was obtained when ZnO/Si heterojunctions were annealed at 60 min. Two peaks of response, located at 650 nm and 850 nm, were observed with sensitivities of 0.12-0.19 A/W and 0.18-0.39 A/W, respectively. Detectivity of the photodetectors as function of annealing time was estimated.

  3. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium: Kinetics, long-time annealing and effect or crack formation

    SciTech Connect

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H.

    1995-09-01

    Since beryllium is considered as one of the best neutron multiplier materials in the blanket of the next generation fusion reactors, several studies have been started to evaluate its behaviour under irradiation during both operating and accidental conditions. Based on safety considerations, tritium produced in beryllium during neutron irradiation represents one important issue, therefore it is necessary to investigate tritium transport processes by using a comprehensive mathematical model and comparing its predictions with well characterized experimental tests. Because of the difficulties in extrapolating the short-time tritium release tests to a longer time scale, also long-time annealing experiments with beryllium samples from the SIBELIUS irradiation. have been carried out at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Samples were annealed up to 12 months at temperatures up to 650{degrees}C. The inventory after annealing was determined by heating the samples up to 1050{degrees}C with a He+0.1 vo1% H{sub 2} purge gas. Furthermore, in order to investigate the likely effects of cracks formation eventually causing a faster tritium release from beryllium, the behaviour of samples irradiated at low temperature (40-50{degrees}C) but up to very high fast neutron fluences (0.8-3.9{center_dot}10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}, E{sub n}{ge}1 MeV) in the BR2 reactor has been investigated. Tritium was released by heating the beryllium samples up to 1050{degrees}C and purging them with He+0.1 vo1% H{sub 2}. Tritium release from high-irradiated beryllium samples showed a much faster kinetics than from the low-irradiated ones, probably because of crack formation caused by thermal stresses in the brittle material and/or by helium bubbles migration. The obtained experimental data have been compared with predictions of the code ANFIBE with the goal to better understand the physical mechanisms governing tritium behaviour in beryllium and to assess the prediction capabilities of the code.

  4. A universal value of effective annealing time for rapid oxide nucleation and growth under pulsed ultraviolet laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Tomohiko; Shinoda, Kentaro; Tsuchiya, Tetsuo

    2013-09-14

    The effective annealing times (t(eff)) for nucleating various oxides from an amorphous matrix under nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation have been determined. The oxides, which had perovskite, bixbyite, anatase, and pyrochlore structures, showed similar t(eff) values for crystal nucleation of around 60 ns. This indicates that the effective annealing time is a good universal value for evaluating pulsed laser-induced oxide nucleation. Time-resolved resistance measurements of tin-doped In2O3 thin films under pulsed laser irradiation showed that crystal nucleation and rapid growth proceeded spontaneously with an instantaneous temperature rise. PMID:23881113

  5. Effects of copolymer composition, film thickness, and solvent vapor annealing time on dewetting of ultrathin block copolymer films.

    PubMed

    Huang, Changchun; Wen, Gangyao; Li, Jingdan; Wu, Tao; Wang, Lina; Xue, Feifei; Li, Hongfei; Shi, Tongfei

    2016-09-15

    Effects of copolymer composition, film thickness, and solvent vapor annealing time on dewetting of spin-coated polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) films (<20nm thick) were mainly investigated by atomic force microscopy. Surface chemical analysis of the ultrathin films annealed for different times were performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurement. With the annealing of acetone vapor, dewetting of the films with different thicknesses occur via the spinodal dewetting and the nucleation and growth mechanisms, respectively. The PS-b-PMMA films rupture into droplets which first coalesce into large ones to reduce the surface free energy. Then the large droplets rupture into small ones to increase the contact area between PMMA blocks and acetone molecules resulting from ultimate migration of PMMA blocks to droplet surface, which is a novel dewetting process observed in spin-coated films for the first time. PMID:27309943

  6. Effect of annealing time on the physical properties of ultrasonically sprayed CdS:In thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakaya, S.; Gencyılmaz, O.; Ozbas, O.

    2012-09-01

    In this work, CdS and In doped CdS films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) technique and were annealed at 450 °C in an air atmoshpere. The optical constants (n and k) and thicknesses of the films were determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Transmission and absorbance spectra were taken by UV spectrophotometer. Optical method was used to determine the band gap value of the films. Atomic force microscope (AFM) images were taken to see the effect of annealing time on surface topography and roughness of the films. Electrical resistivities of the films were analyzed by four probe technique. As a result, the application potential of annealed CdS:In films for photovoltaic solar cells and optoelectronic applications were investigated.

  7. Effect of Annealing Time on Microstructural Evolution and Deformation Characteristics in 10Mn1.5Al TRIP Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qihang; Zhang, Yulong; Wang, Li

    2015-05-01

    To investigate microstructural evolution and its effects on the deformation behaviors of cold-rolled 10Mn1.5Al TRIP steel, a series of intercritical annealing treatments with various holding times from 3 minutes to 48 hours were conducted. With the increase of the holding time from 3 minutes to 12 hours, the elongation was improved from 15 to 42 pct, while the tensile strength was only reduced from 1210 to 1095 MPa; the strength-ductility combination thus exceeded 45 GPa pct. Austenite was found to coexist with martensite within deformed grains, which reduced the strain concentration at the interface. The austenite transformation fraction, as measured from the {220} peaks, after 3 minutes annealing was half that after 12 hours annealing. This is an indication that the slip systems were more easily activated in the micro-scaled grains compared with nano-scaled grains. Therefore, although the stability of austenite would have increased during annealing, size-induced slip suppression was reduced. Thus, more strain was accommodated in the austenite, facilitating a greater strain-induced transformation and better ductility.

  8. Effect of Annealing Time Process on the pH Sensitivity of Spin-coated TiO2/ ZnO Bilayer Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, R. A.; Zulkefle, M. A.; Yusof, K. A.; Abdullah, W. F. H.; Rusop, M.; Herman, S. H.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation on titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) bilayer film, which is used as sensing membrane for extended-gate field effect transistor (EGFET) for pH sensing application. TiO2/ZnO thin films were deposited using sol-gel spin coating method on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. After the deposition, the bilayer films were annealed at constant temperatures which is 400 °C for 15, 30, 40 and 60 minutes. The sensitivity of the TiO2 thin film towards pH buffer solution was measured by dipping the sensing membrane in pH4, pH7 and pH10 buffer solution. By varying the annealing time, we found that the TiO2/ZnO thin film annealed at 400°C for 15 minutes gave the highest sensitivity compared to other annealing conditions, with the value of 64.87 mV/pH.

  9. TiO2 photoanode sensitized with nanocrystalline Bi2S3: the effect of sensitization time and annealing on its photovoltaic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Anil N.; Rajendra Prasad, M. B.; Pathan, Habib M.; Patil, Rajendra S.

    2016-04-01

    This work deals with the sensitization of the porous TiO2 films of thickness about 4 µm deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide with nanocrystalline Bi2S3 for photovoltaic application. The sensitization was achieved for four different sensitization times employing chemical solution deposition with bismuth nitrate and sodium thiosulphate as precursors for Bi3+ and S2-, respectively. The unsensitized and sensitized photoelectrodes were characterized using X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and diffused reflectance spectroscopy. XRD patterns show the signatures of both anatase TiO2 and orthorhombic Bi2S3 in the sensitized photoanodes. However, crystallinity of Bi2S3 increased with increase in sensitization time from 10 to 40 min. The temporal effect of sensitization and annealing on the photovoltaic performance of the solar cells fabricated using four different photoelectrodes was studied using the photocurrent density versus photovoltage curves. Annealing apparently improved the photovoltaic performance of photoanodes. The best performance was obtained for cell fabricated using annealed TiO2/Bi2S3 photoanode after 30 min sensitization time showing V oc ~ 0.37 mV, J sc ~ 0.52 mA/cm2, FF ~ 68 and 0.43 %.

  10. Origin of reverse annealing effect in hydrogen-implanted silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Di, Zengfeng; Nastasi, Michael A; Wang, Yongqiang

    2009-01-01

    In contradiction to conventional damage annealing, thermally annealed H-implanted Si exhibits an increase in damage or reverse annealing behavior, whose mechanism has remained elusive. On the basis of quantitative high resolution transmission electron microscopy combined with channeling Rutherford backscattering analysis, we conclusively elucidate that the reverse annealing effect is due to the nucleation and growth of hydrogen-induce platelets. Platelets are responsible for an increase in the height and width the channeling damage peak following increased isochronal anneals.

  11. Origin of reverse annealing effect in hydrogen-implanted silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Di, Z. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Nastasi, M.; Theodore, N. David

    2010-04-12

    In contradiction to conventional damage annealing, thermally annealed H-implanted Si exhibits an increase in damage or reverse annealing behavior, whose mechanism has remained elusive. In this work, we conclusively elucidate that the reverse annealing effect is due to the nucleation and growth of hydrogen-induced platelets. Platelets are responsible for an increase in the height and width of the channeling damage peak following increased isochronal anneals.

  12. Reduction of Annealing Times for Energy Conservation in Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony D. Rollett; Hasso Weiland; Mohammed Alvi; Abhijit Brahme

    2005-08-31

    Carnegie Mellon University was teamed with the Alcoa Technical Center with support from the US Dept. of Energy (Office of Industrial Technology) and the Pennsylvania Technology Investment Authority (PTIA) to make processing of aluminum less costly and more energy efficient. Researchers in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering have investigated how annealing processes in the early stages of aluminum processing affect the structure and properties of the material. Annealing at high temperatures consumes significant amounts of time and energy. By making detailed measurements of the crystallography and morphology of internal structural changes they have generated new information that will provide a scientific basis for shortening processing times and consuming less energy during annealing.

  13. Annealing effects on optical properties of natural alexandrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes Scalvi, Rosa M.; Li, Máximo Siu; Scalvi, Luis V. A.

    2003-11-01

    Natural alexandrite (BeAl2O4:Cr3+) crystals are investigated as regards the effects of annealing on their optical properties. Optical absorption spectra are measured from the ultraviolet (190 nm) to the near infrared (900 nm), for a sample subjected to consecutive annealing processes, where time and temperature are varied. Besides this, luminescence spectra are simultaneously obtained for this sample, excited with a Kr+ laser source, tuned on an ultraviolet multi-line mode (337.5, 350.7 and 356.4 nm). We observe from absorption as well as from emission data that annealing mainly influences the distribution of Cr3+ and Fe3+ ions, located on sites of a mirror plane (Cs symmetry), which are responsible for the optical properties of alexandrite. The results obtained lead to the conclusion that annealing induces a modification of the population of Cr3+ on Cs sites as well as on sites located on an inversion plane (Ci). Annealing could improve the optical properties of this material, as regards its application as a tunable laser.

  14. Germanium nanoislands grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering: Annealing time dependent surface morphology and photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alireza, Samavati; Othaman, Z.; K. Ghoshal, S.; J. Amjad, R.

    2013-09-01

    Structural and optical properties of ~ 20 nm Ge nanoislands grown on Si(100) by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering under varying annealing conditions are reported. Rapid thermal annealing at a temperature of 600°C for 30 s, 90 s, and 120 s are performed to examine the influence of annealing time on the surface morphology and photoluminescence properties. X-ray diffraction spectra reveal prominent Ge and GeO2 peaks highly sensitive to the annealing time. Atomic force microscope micrographs of the as-grown sample show pyramidal nanoislands with relatively high-density 1011 cm-2)). The nanoislands become dome-shaped upon annealing through a coarsening process mediated by Oswald ripening. The room temperature photoluminescence peaks for both as-grown 3.29 eV) and annealed 3.19 eV) samples consist of high intensity and broad emission, attributed to the effect of quantum confinement. The red shift (~0.10 eV) of the emission peak is attributed to the change in the size of the Ge nanoislands caused by annealing. Our easy fabrication method may contribute to the development of Ge nanostructure-based optoelectronics.

  15. Effect of Secondary Annealing Process on Critical Current Density in Highly Textured Bi-2212 Superconducting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksan, M. A.; Madre, M. A.; Rasekh, Sh.; Constantinescu, G.; Torres, M. A.; Diez, J. C.; Sotelo, A.; Yakinci, M. E.

    2015-09-01

    Bi-2212 samples prepared by a solid-state reaction technique have been grown from the melt using the laser floating zone method. After annealing the as-grown bars, the samples showed a good grain alignment and a high transport critical current density. Secondary annealing processes were performed on the annealed samples with the aim of producing Bi-2212 phase controlled decomposition. Hence, the Bi-2201 phase and the secondary phases, which act as effective pinning centers, were obtained with the secondary annealing process. After these thermal treatments, the transport critical current densities of samples significantly increased, when compared to the annealed ones. The maximum critical current density was achieved when the samples were subjected to secondary annealing at 680°C for 168 h with an improvement of ~80%, compared to the annealed ones. Moreover, it was found that magnetization of the secondarily annealed samples was also increased. The magnetic critical current densities in these secondary annealed samples were about 3 times higher than the values obtained for the annealed ones. These results clearly indicate that the secondary annealing processes lead to the formation of effective pinning centers in the bulk material.

  16. Effect of annealing history on free volume in thermoplastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; St.clair, T. L.

    1986-01-01

    Two different types of thermoplastic glassy polymers have been investigated for the effects of thermal annealing on their free volumes. It has been observed that free volumes in glassy polymers decrease asymptotically to a steady level after about four thermal anneals lasting for 24 hours at a temperature about 50 C below their glass transition temperatures. These results indicate that composites incorporating properly annealed thermoplastic matrices may not experience any additional internal stresses due to subsequent thermal excursions experienced while in service.

  17. Annealing Polymer Nanocomposite Fibers and Films Via Photothermal Heating: Effects On Overall Crystallinity and Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanath, Vidya

    Metal nanoparticles embedded within polymeric systems can act as localized heat sources, facilitating in situ polymer processing. When irradiated with light resonant with the nanoparticle's surface plasmon resonance (SPR), a non-equilibrium electron distribution is generated which rapidly transfers energy into the surrounding medium, resulting in a temperature increase in the immediate region around the particle. This work compares the utility of such photothermal heating versus traditional heating in two different polymeric media i.e. gold nanospheres/poly (ethylene oxide) (AuNP:PEO) nanocomposite films and electrospun nanofibers. Subsequently, a brief study on the usage of gold nanorods (AuNR) to anneal polymeric nanofibers and films has also been presented. Effect of annealing by conventional and photothermal methods has been studied for AuNP:PEO films crystallized from solution and the melt, which have been annealed at average sample temperatures above the glass transition and below the melting point. For all temperatures, photothermally annealed samples reached maximum crystallinity and maximum spherulite size at shorter annealing times. Percentage crystallinity change under conventional annealing was analyzed using time-temperature superposition (TTS). Comparison of the TTS data with results from photothermal experiments enabled determination of an "effective dynamic temperature" achieved under photothermal heating which is significantly higher than the average sample temperature. Thus, the heterogeneous temperature distribution created when annealing with the plasmon-mediated photothermal effect represents a unique tool to achieve processing outcomes that are not accessible via traditional annealing. In addition, the effect of annealing AuNP:PEO electrospun nanofibrous composites via conventional and photothermal annealing has also been studied. From the studies, it was observed that not only is the maximum crystallinity achieved more quickly when the

  18. Effects of annealing process on magnetic properties and structures of Nd-Pr-Ce-Fe-B melt-spun powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Kun; Lin, Min; Yan, Aru; Zhang, Xing

    2016-05-01

    The effects of annealing process on magnetic properties and structures of Nd-Pr-Ce-Fe-B melt-spun powders have been investigated. The magnetic properties improve a lot when the annealing temperature is 590-650 °C and the annealing time exceeds 1 min. The magnetic properties is stable when the annealing time is 590-650 °C. The powders contains obvious grains when the annealing time is only 1 min, while the grains grow up obviously, leading to the decrease of Br and (BH)max, when the annealing time is more than 9 min. The Hcj changes little for different annealing time. The cooling rate also affects the magnetic properties of powders with different Ce-content. Faster cooling rate is favorable to improve magnetic properties with low Ce-content powders, while high Ce-content powders need slower cooling rate.

  19. Facile Synthesis of Calcium Borate Nanoparticles and the Annealing Effect on Their Structure and Size

    PubMed Central

    Erfani, Maryam; Saion, Elias; Soltani, Nayereh; Hashim, Mansor; Wan Abdullah, Wan Saffiey B.; Navasery, Manizheh

    2012-01-01

    Calcium borate nanoparticles have been synthesized by a thermal treatment method via facile co-precipitation. Differences of annealing temperature and annealing time and their effects on crystal structure, particle size, size distribution and thermal stability of nanoparticles were investigated. The formation of calcium borate compound was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Thermogravimetry (TGA). The XRD patterns revealed that the co-precipitated samples annealed at 700 °C for 3 h annealing time formed an amorphous structure and the transformation into a crystalline structure only occurred after 5 h annealing time. It was found that the samples annealed at 900 °C are mostly metaborate (CaB2O4) nanoparticles and tetraborate (CaB4O7) nanoparticles only observed at 970 °C, which was confirmed by FTIR. The TEM images indicated that with increasing the annealing time and temperature, the average particle size increases. TGA analysis confirmed the thermal stability of the annealed samples at higher temperatures. PMID:23203073

  20. Heavy Tails in the Distribution of Time to Solution for Classical and Quantum Annealing.

    PubMed

    Steiger, Damian S; Rønnow, Troels F; Troyer, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    For many optimization algorithms the time to solution depends not only on the problem size but also on the specific problem instance and may vary by many orders of magnitude. It is then necessary to investigate the full distribution and especially its tail. Here, we analyze the distributions of annealing times for simulated annealing and simulated quantum annealing (by path integral quantum Monte Carlo simulation) for random Ising spin glass instances. We find power-law distributions with very heavy tails, corresponding to extremely hard instances, but far broader distributions-and thus worse performance for hard instances-for simulated quantum annealing than for simulated annealing. Fast, nonadiabatic, annealing schedules can improve the performance of simulated quantum annealing for very hard instances by many orders of magnitude. PMID:26684103

  1. Effective dopant activation by susceptor-assisted microwave annealing of low energy boron implanted and phosphorus implanted silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Zhao; Vemuri, Rajitha N. P.; Alford, T. L.; David Theodore, N.; Lu, Wei; Lau, S. S.; Lanz, A.

    2013-12-28

    Rapid processing and reduced end-of-range diffusion result from susceptor-assisted microwave (MW) annealing, making this technique an efficient processing alternative for electrically activating dopants within ion-implanted semiconductors. Sheet resistance and Hall measurements provide evidence of electrical activation. Susceptor-assisted MW annealing, of ion-implanted Si, enables more effective dopant activation and at lower temperatures than required for rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Raman spectroscopy and ion channeling analyses are used to monitor the extent of ion implantation damage and recrystallization. The presence and behavior of extended defects are monitored by cross-section transmission electron microscopy. Phosphorus implanted Si samples experience effective electrical activation upon MW annealing. On the other hand, when boron implanted Si is MW annealed, the growth of extended defects results in reduced crystalline quality that hinders the electrical activation process. Further comparison of dopant diffusion resulting from MW annealing and rapid thermal annealing is performed using secondary ion mass spectroscopy. MW annealed ion implanted samples show less end-of-range diffusion when compared to RTA samples. In particular, MW annealed P{sup +} implanted samples achieve no visible diffusion and equivalent electrical activation at a lower temperature and with a shorter time-duration of annealing compared to RTA. In this study, the peak temperature attained during annealing does not depend on the dopant species or dose, for susceptor-assisted MW annealing of ion-implanted Si.

  2. Annealing effects on microstrain of cobalt oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Deotale, Anjali Jain Nandedkar, R. V.; Sinha, A. K.; Singh, M. N.; Upadhyay, Anuj

    2014-04-24

    Cobalt oxide nanoparticles in different phases have been synthesized using ash supported method. The effect of isochronal annealing on micro-strain of cobalt oxide nanoparticles has been studied. The lattice strain contribution to the x-ray diffraction line broadening in the nanoparticles was analyzed using Williamson Hall (W-H) plot. It is observed that micro-strain was released at higher annealing temperature.

  3. Annealing effects in low upper-shelf welds (series 9)

    SciTech Connect

    Iskander, S.K.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of the Ninth Irradiation Series is to evaluate the correlation between fracture toughness and CVN impact energy during irradiation, annealing, and reirradiation (IAR). Results of annealing CVN specimens from the low-USE welds from the Midland beltline and nozzle course welds, as well as HSST plate 02 and HSSI weld 73W are given. Also presented is the effect of annealing on the initiation fracture toughness of annealed material from Midland beltline weld and HSST plate 02. The results from capsule 10-5 specimens of weld 73W confirm those previously obtained on the so-called undersize specimens that were irradiated in the Fifth Irradiation Series, namely that the recovery due to annealing at 343{degrees}C (650{degrees}F) for 1 week is insignificant. The fabrication of major components for the IAR facility for two positions on the east side of the FNR at the University of Michigan has begun. Fabrication of two reusable capsules (one for temperature verification and the other for dosimetry verification), as well as two capsules for IAR, studies is also under way. The design of a reusable capsule capable of reirradiating previously irradiated and annealed CVN and 1T C(T) specimens is also progressing. The data acquisition and control (DAC) instrumentation for the first two IAR facilities is essentially complete and awaiting completion of the IAR facilities and temperature test capsule for checkout and control algorithm development.

  4. CW Laser Annealing of Polycrystalline Silicon on SiO2 and Effects of Successive Furnace Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugimiya, Koichi; Fuse, Genshu; Inoue, Kaoru

    1982-01-01

    CW Ar laser annealing was carried out to reduce the resistivity of polycrystalline silicon implanted with light doses of 1× 1012-5× 1014B+/cm2. Laser annealing, actually laser melting, and successive furnace annealing effectively reduced the resistivity to almost that of single crystal silicon. TEM, OM and stress observations revealed that the reduction was due primarily to the grain growth of polycrystalline silicon and secondarily to stress relief, from 9× 109 dyne/cm2 to 5× 109 dyne/cm2, caused by annealing. Grain growth of up to about 3× 100 μm and bamboo-joint-like growth were observed.

  5. Effect of Annealing on Thermal & Optical Properties of Polypyrrole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Rashmi; Dixit, Manasvi; Sharma, Kananbala; Saxena, Narendra S.; Sharma, Thaneshwar P.

    2008-04-01

    Pure polypyrrole sample (S1) was synthesized by chemical oxidation method using NaOH as reducing agent in aqueous HCl medium. The polypyrrole pellet sample (S2) was then annealed at 200 °C for 4 hrs. The amorphous nature of both annealed and as- prepared polypyrrole samples was confirmed by XRD. FTIR spectra of both samples were taken, which indicate the significant change in annealed sample (S2) compared to as prepared sample. Temperature dependence of effective thermal conductivity of both samples (S1, S2) was studied by Transient plane source (TPS) technique. The effective thermal conductivity (λe) obtained for S1 & S2 exhibits a variation with temperature and a peak was observed for the two samples at 150 °C & 120 °C with a value 0.17 W/mK & 0.18 W/mK respectively. The shift of thermal conductivity peak of annealed sample towards the lower temperature side is explained on the basis of removal of voids and defects on annealing. The absorption spectra of these samples were recorded by USB-2000 spectrophotometer at room temperature in the wavelength range 300-800 nm. From the analysis of absorption spectra, optical band gap of S1 & S2 were determined. It was found that the values of optical band gap for sample S1 & S2 are 2.39 eV&2.24 eV respectively.

  6. The Effect of Solution Annealing on Alloy 22 Weld Properties

    SciTech Connect

    El-Dasher, B S; Torres, S G

    2005-11-08

    The effect of solution annealing temperature on the microstructure and observed corrosion attack mode in Alloy 22 welds was assessed. Specimens were examined in the as-welded state as well as solution annealed for 20 minutes at temperatures ranging from 1075 C to 1300 C. The microstructures of the specimens were first mapped using electron backscatter diffraction to determine the grain structure evolution due to solution annealing. Full recrystallization of the fusion zone was only observed in the 1200 C and 1300 C specimens, although the 1300 C specimen showed abnormal grain growth. As-welded, 1121 C and 1200 C specimens were also subjected to electrochemical testing in a 6 molal NaCl + 0.9 molal KNO{sub 3} environment to initiate crevice corrosion. Examination of the specimen surfaces after corrosion testing showed that in the as-welded specimen, corrosion was present in both the weld dendrites as well as around the secondary phases. However, the specimen solution annealed at 1121 C showed corrosion only at secondary phases and the specimen annealed at 1200 C showed pitting corrosion only in a handful of grains.

  7. Annealing time dependence of the physical, electrical and pH response characteristics of spin coated TiO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkefle, M. A.; Rahman, R. A.; Yusoff, K. A.; Abdullah, W. F. H.; Rusop, M.; Herman, S. H.

    2015-11-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin film was deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate and used as sensing membrane of EGFET pH sensor. The thin film was fabricated using sol- gel spin coating method. All samples were annealed at 400 °C but the annealing time was varied. This is done to study the effects of annealing time on physical and electrical properties of titanium dioxide thin film. The sensitivity of each sample towards H+ ion was measured and result shows that sample annealed for 45 minutes has the highest sensitivity (52.6 mV/pH). It is found that increasing annealing duration will increase the pH sensitivity but a limit will be reached at certain point. Longer annealing processes done beyond this point will results in lower pH sensitivity.

  8. Effect of annealing on microstructure and mechanical properties of laser deposited Co-285+WC coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, G. F.; Wang, K.; Zhou, R.; Tong, Z. P.; Fang, X. Y.

    2015-03-01

    Laser deposited Co-285+WC coating was heat treated at 500 °C (stress relief annealing) for 60 min and cooled to room temperature in a furnace. Optical, scanning microscopy and X-ray diffractometer were used to investigate the microstructure and phases in the coating. An X-ray stress analyzer was used to study the effect of heat treatment on the residual stress in the coating. A microhardness tester and wear tester were used to test the microhardness distribution and friction and wear behavior. A lot of precipitates formed in the annealed Co-285+WC coating. Residual stress and FWHM (full width at half-maximum) of the coating were decreased by annealing. Residual stress values and microhardness decreased by 22-88% and 39%, respectively. Friction coefficient seldom changed by annealing, but circulation of oxide films was brought forward. Relative wear resistance of the annealed Co-285+WC coating was 6.8 times that of the as-deposited coating. Mechanism of the effect of annealing on microstructure, FWHM, residual stress and wear properties were discussed.

  9. High-temperature measurement with Brillouin optical time domain analysis of an annealed fused-silica single-mode fiber.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yi; Chen, Genda

    2016-07-15

    The effect of annealing is experimentally studied for a fused silica, fully distributed fiber optic sensor based on the pulse pre-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis (PPP-BOTDA). Within a heating rate of 4.3°C/min and 30.6°C/min, and a sustained peak temperature for 120 and 240 min, annealing extended the sensor's upper operation temperature from 800°C to 1000°C and reduced the sensor's measurement variability over a temperature range of 22°C to 1000°C with a maximum Brillouin frequency variation of 1%. The annealed sensor had a linearly decreasing Brillouin frequency sensitivity from 1.349×10-3  GHz/°C at 22°C to 0.419×10-3  GHz/°C at 1000°C. The time required to achieve a stable annealing effect decayed exponentially with annealing temperature. PMID:27420489

  10. Electrochemical capacitance of iron oxide nanotube (Fe-NT): effect of annealing atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Biplab; Jurovitzki, Abraham L.; Ray, Rupashree S.; Smith, York R.; Mohanty, Swomitra K.; Misra, Mano

    2015-07-01

    The effect of annealing atmosphere on the supercapacitance behavior of iron oxide nanotube (Fe-NT) electrodes has been explored and reported here. Iron oxide nanotubes were synthesized on a pure iron substrate through an electrochemical anodization process in an ethylene glycol solution containing 3% H2O and 0.5 wt.% NH4F. Subsequently, the annealing of the nanotubes was carried out at 500 °C for 2 h in various gas atmospheres such as air, oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), and argon (Ar). The morphology and crystal phases evolved after the annealing processes were examined via field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrochemical capacitance properties of the annealed Fe-NT electrodes were evaluated by conducting cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests in the Li2SO4 electrolyte. Based on these experiments, it was found that the capacitance of the Fe-NT electrodes annealed in air and O2 atmospheres shows mixed behavior comprising both the electric double layer and pseudocapacitance. However, annealing in N2 and Ar environments resulted in well-defined redox peaks in the CV profiles of the Fe-NT electrodes, which are therefore attributed to the relatively higher pseudonature of the capacitance in these electrodes. Based on the galvanostatic charge-discharge studies, the specific capacitance achieved in the Fe-NT electrode after annealing in Ar was about 300 mF cm-2, which was about twice the value obtained for N2-annealed Fe-NTs and three times higher than those annealed in air and O2. The experiments also demonstrated excellent cycle stability for the Fe-NT electrodes with 83%-85% capacitance retention, even after many charge-discharge cycles, irrespective of the gas atmospheres used during annealing. The increase in the specific capacitance was discussed in terms of increased oxygen vacancies as a result of the

  11. Effect of dopants on annealing performance of silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Monck, J. A.; Anspaugh, B. E.

    1979-01-01

    The optimum annealing parameters of time and temperature for producing cell output recovery were established. Devices made from gallium doped and boron doped silicon were investigated. The cells ranged in resistivity from 0.1 to 20 ohm-cm and in thickness from 50 to 250 micrometers. The observations can be explained in a qualitative manner by postulating a pair of competing mechanisms to account for the low temperature reverse annealing seen in most boron and gallium doped silicon solar cells. Still another mechanism dominates at higher temperatures (350 C and greater) to complete this model. One of the mechanisms, defined as B, allows migrators to couple with radiation induced recombination sites thus increasing or enhancing their capture cross sections. This would tend to reduce minority carrier diffusion length. The new recombination complex is postulated to be thermally stable up to temperatures of approximately 350 C.

  12. Interrogating the Effects of Radiation Damage Annealing on Helium Diffusion Kinetics in Apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, C. D.; Fox, M.; Shuster, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology is commonly used to study landscape evolution and potential links between climate, erosion and tectonics. The technique relies on a quantitative understanding of (i) helium diffusion kinetics in apatite, (ii) an evolving 4He concentration, (iii) accumulating damage to the crystal lattice caused by radioactive decay[1], and (iv) the thermal annealing of such damage[2],[3], which are each functions of both time and temperature. Uncertainty in existing models of helium diffusion kinetics has resulted in conflicting conclusions, especially in settings involving burial heating through geologic time. The effects of alpha recoil damage annealing are currently assumed to follow the kinetics of fission track annealing (e.g., reference [3]), although this assumption is difficult to fully validate. Here, we present results of modeling exercises and a suite of experiments designed to interrogate the effects of damage annealing on He diffusivity in apatite that are independent of empirical calibrations of fission track annealing. We use the existing experimental results for Durango apatite[2] to develop and calibrate a new function that predicts the effects of annealing temperature and duration on measured diffusivity. We also present a suite of experiments conducted on apatite from Sierra Nevada, CA granite to establish whether apatites with different chemical compositions have the same behavior as Durango apatite. Crystals were heated under vacuum to temperatures between 250 and 500°C for 1, 10, or 100 hours. The samples were then irradiated with ~220 MeV protons to produce spallogenic 3He, the diffusant then used in step-heating diffusion experiments. We compare the results of these experiments and model calibrations to existing models. Citations: [1]Shuster, D., Flowers R., and Farley K., (2006), EPSL 249(3-4), 148-161; [2]Shuster, D. and Farley, K., (2009), GCA 73 (1), 6183-6196; [3]Flowers, R., Ketcham, R., Shuster, D. and Farley, K

  13. Quality improvement of CdMnTe:In single crystals by an effective post-growth annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Pengfei; Xu, Yadong; Luan, Lijun; Du, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Jiahong; Li, Hui; Jie, Wanqi

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, an effective annealing method in which CdMnTe:In (CMT:In) single crystals were coated with CMT powders of the same composition was used to improve the crystal quality of CMT:In crystals. The results indicated that the density of Te inclusions decreased as the annealing time increased. The resistivity and IR transmittance of annealed CMT:In crystals were enhanced obviously. The resistivity of 120 h annealed crystal increased even two orders of magnitude. The reduction of full-width at-half-maximum (FWHM) and the increase of the intensity of X-ray rocking curve indicated an improvement of the crystal quality. PL measurements also showed the crystal quality improved after annealing. No characteristic peak of 241Am γ-ray could be observed in the detector fabricated with as-grown crystal. Remarkably, for the detector fabricated with annealed crystals, the peak of 241Am γ-ray appeared. And the energy resolution and μτ value were improved as the annealing time increased. Specially, 120 h annealed CMT:In crystal with 10.11% energy resolution and 1.20×10-3 cm2/V μτ value has the best detector performance.

  14. Effect of Post-HALT Annealing on Leakage Currents in Solid Tantalum Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Degradation of leakage currents is often observed during life testing of tantalum capacitors and is sometimes attributed to the field-induced crystallization in amorphous anodic tantalum pentoxide dielectrics. However, degradation of leakage currents and the possibility of annealing of degraded capacitors have not been investigated yet. In this work the effect of annealing after highly accelerated life testing (HALT) on leakage currents in various types of solid tantalum capacitors was analyzed. Variations of leakage currents with time during annealing at temperatures from 125 oC to 180 oC, thermally stimulated depolarization (TSD) currents, and I-V characteristics were measured to understand the conduction mechanism and the reason for current degradation. Annealing resulted in a gradual decrease of leakage currents and restored their initial values. Repeat HALT after annealing resulted in reproducible degradation of leakage currents. The observed results are explained based on ionic charge instability (drift/diffusion of oxygen vacancies) in the tantalum pentoxide dielectrics using a modified Schottky conduction mechanism.

  15. Annealing polymer nanofibrous nanocomposite mats via photothermal heating: effects on overall crystallinity, morphology, and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorga, Russell; Clarke, Laura; Bochinski, Jason; Viswanath, Vidya; Maity, Somsubhra

    2014-03-01

    Metal nanoparticles embedded within polymeric systems can be made to act as localized heat sources thereby aiding in-situ polymer processing. This is made possible by the surface plasmon resonance mediated photothermal effect of metal nanoparticles, wherein incident light absorbed by the nanoparticle generates a non-equilibrium electron distribution which subsequently transfers this energy into the surrounding medium, resulting in a temperature increase in the immediate region around the particle. Here we demonstrate this effect in polyethylene oxide-gold nanoparticle electrospun nanofibrous mats, which have been annealed at temperatures above the glass transition. A non-contact temperature measurement technique utilizing embedded fluorophores (perylene) has been used to monitor the average temperature within samples. The effect of annealing methods (conventional and photothermal) and annealing conditions (temperature and time) on the fiber morphology, overall crystallinity, and mechanical properties is discussed. In conclusion we demonstrate that the specificity of plasmonic heating coupled with the inside-outside approach of annealing presents a unique tool to improve crystallinity, and therefore mechanical properties, of the polymer mats while maintaining the unique nanofibrous morphologies. Supported by the National Science Foundation (CMMI-1069108).

  16. Effects of high magnetic field annealing on the initial recrystallized texture in pure copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Tong; Wang, Yan; Sun, Wei; Zhao, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    The cold-rolled pure copper sheets were annealed with and without a high magnetic field of 12 T. The results showed that the magnetic annealing could promote the formation of the initial recrystallized cube texture. The magnetic annealing did not dramatically change the final annealing textures, but the intensity of the recrystallized cube texture is obviously different. The differences of the recrystallized cube orientation intensity between the specimens with and without the field annealing may be attributed to the effects of the magnetic field on the mobility of grain boundaries.

  17. Effects of Annealing on Microstructure and Microstrength of Metallurgical Coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xing; Zhang, Guangqing; Rogers, Harold; Zulli, Paul; Ostrovski, Oleg

    2013-12-01

    Two metallurgical cokes were heat treated at 1673 K to 2273 K (1400 °C to 2000 °C) in a nitrogen atmosphere. The effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and microstrength of metallurgical cokes was characterized using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and ultra-microindentation. In the process of heat treatment, the microstructure of the metallurgical cokes transformed toward the graphite structure. Raman spectroscopy of reactive maceral-derived component (RMDC) and inert maceral-derived component (IMDC) indicated that the graphitisation degree of the RMDC was slightly lower than that of the IMDC in the original cokes; however graphitisation of the RMDC progressed faster than that of the IMDC during annealing, and became significantly higher after annealing at 2273 K (2000 °C). The microstrength of cokes was significantly degraded in the process of heat treatment. The microstrength of the RMDC was lower, and of its deterioration caused by heat treatment was more severe than IMDC. The degradation of the microstrength of cokes was attributed to their increased graphitisation degree during the heat treatment.

  18. INVESTIGATING ANNEALING EFFECT ON OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF Cd0.8Zn0.2S THIN FILMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, Somayeh; Dizaji, Hamid Rezagholipour; Ehsani, Mohammad Hossein; Mirmahalle, Seyed Feyzolah Ghavami

    2014-08-01

    Cd0.8Zn0.2S thin films deposited on glass substrates by thermal evaporation method were annealed at different temperatures for the first time in order to investigate annealing effect on optical properties. The compositional, structural of nanoparticles precursor synthesized using microwave irradiation method and optical properties of the films were studied using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-visible spectrophotometer techniques. The annealed films were found to have hexagonal Wurtzite structure with strong preferential orientation along the (002) diffraction peak. Important optical parameters such as extinction coefficient and refractive index revealed the effect of heat treatment on the deposited thin layers. A reduction in the band gap energy from 2.41 eV to 2.29 eV was observed for the annealed samples.

  19. Effect of thermal annealing on the optical properties of CdGeAs2 wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Zhao, Beijun; Zhu, Shifu; He, Zhiyu; Chen, Baojun; Li, Jiawei; Yu, You; Tang, Jingjing; Liu, Weijia

    2013-01-01

    A crack-free CdGeAs2 single crystal 15 mm in diameter and 50 mm in length was grown in a three-zone tubular furnace by the modified vertical Bridgman method. During the annealing processes, the effects of treatments with different atmosphere, different temperatures and time were investigated. The as-grown and annealed wafers were characterized using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and IR microscope. Conclusively, the results confirm annealing could improve the optical qualities of as-grown CdGeAs2 crystal. The best result was obtained under cover-up with CdGeAs2 polycrystalline powder at 450 °C for 150 h and the IR transmittance of the wafer measured by FTIR was up to 48.65% nearby 5.5 μm and exceeded 50% in the range of 8-12 μm. Additionally, the monolithic homogeneity of the crystal has also been greatly improved after annealing under cover-up with polycrystalline powder.

  20. Delay Times From Clustered Multi-Channel Cross Correlation and Simulated Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creager, K. C.; Sambridge, M. S.

    2004-12-01

    Several techniques exist to estimate relative delay times of seismic phases based on the assumption that the waveforms observed at several stations can be expressed as a common waveform that has been time shifted and distorted by random uncorrelated noise. We explore the more general problem of estimating the relative delay times for regional or even global distributions of seismometers in cases where waveforms vary systematically across the array. The estimation of relative delay times is formulated as a global optimization of the weighted sum of squares of cross correlations of each seismogram pair evaluated at the corresponding difference in their relative delay times. As there are many local minima in this penalty function, a simulated annealing algorithm is used to obtain a solution. The weights depend strongly on the separation distance among seismogram pairs as well as a measure of the similarity of waveforms. Thus, seismograph pairs that are physically close to each other and have similar waveforms are expected to be well aligned while those with dissimilar waveforms or large separation distances are severely down-weighted and thus need not be well aligned. As a result noisy seismograms, which are not similar to other seismograms, are down-weighted so they do not adversely effect the relative delay times of other seismograms. Finally, natural clusters of seismograms are determined from the weight matrix. Examples of aligning a few hundred P and PKP waveforms from a broadband global array and from a mixed broadband and short-period continental-scale array will be shown. While this method has applications in many situations, it may be especially useful for arrays such as the EarthScope Bigfoot Array.

  1. Effect of annealing temperature on structure and electrical properties of topological insulator Bi2Te3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urkude, R. R.; Palikundwar, U. A.

    2016-05-01

    Bi2Te3 samples were prepared by precipitation method. The samples were annealed in evacuated quartz tubes and were treated at different temperature for different duration of time. Effects of annealing temperature and time on the structure of Bi2Te3 were studied in detail. The Bi2Te3 samples annealed at temperature 300°C and 450°C for 48Hrs, 72Hrs and 96Hrs were selected for the present study. The structure of Bi2Te3 and related phases were investigated by the X-ray powder diffraction technique. Morphology and chemical compositions of the samples were investigated by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy respectively. All the samples were indexed in rhombohedral crystal structure, with a space group R-3m. The structure consists of repeated quintuple layers of atoms, Te2-Bi-Te1-Bi-Te2 stacking along the z-axis of the unit cell. Electrical properties of the sample annealed at 300°C for 96Hrs was evaluated by measurements of the electrical resistivity and magnetoresistance. The magnetoresistance data at low temperature (1.5 to 50 K) were analyzed to investigate weak antilocalization (WAL) effect. MR data followed the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka (HLN) equation with a fit parameter α close to -1 as expected for topological surface states at 1.5 K, but for other temperatures the small oscillations were observed which may be due to the phenomena like Shubnikov-de Hass effect.

  2. Effect of Intercritical Annealing Temperature on Martensite and Bainite Start Temperatures After Partial Austenitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erişir, Ersoy; Bilir, Oğuz Gürkan

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure evolution of dual-phase steel during partial austenitization was investigated for different intercritical annealing temperatures between Ac1 and Ac3 temperatures. Partial austenitization may result in different austenite volume fraction, chemical composition, and grain size of austenite depending on the intercritical annealing temperature. This study examines the effect of intercritical annealing temperature on M s and B s temperatures for dual-phase steels. M s and B s were measured experimentally for different intercritical annealing temperatures by using dilatometry and were compared with calculated values from empirical formulas. The grain sizes of the final microstructures were also quantitatively analyzed. It was shown that M s depends on the intercritical annealing temperature and austenite grain size. It was concluded that this double effect is attributed to the intercritical annealing temperature, which is responsible for both austenite chemical composition and grain size.

  3. Effect of annealing in hydrogen atmosphere on ZnO films for field emission display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli, Zurita; Sharma, Subash; Shinde, Sachin; Kalita, Golap; Tanemura, M.

    2015-11-01

    Surface morphology, crystallinity, conductivity and optical transmittance of ZnO films can be modified by annealing process. Hydrogen is one of the popular annealing gases as well as nitrogen, argon, oxygen and air which are commonly used for thin film cleaning or the removal of native oxide. In general, annealing is done at high temperatures (> 600degC) to improve the film properties. From a view point of environment, however, lower annealing temperature is preferable. In this work, low annealing process was challenged to understand the effect of annealing temperature on properties of ZnO thin films and nanostructured film grown on glass substrates for transparent field emission device applications. The annealing temperature employed was 100, 200 and 450°C at 100 sccm hydrogen flow rate. ZnO thin films were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. The ZnO thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), UV-VIS and Raman spectroscopy. The sheet resistances reduced about 15 kohm/sq at low annealing temperature. By contrast, the optical transmittance did not show any significant changes after annealing. The FE current density increased after the ZnO nanostructures film was annealed in 100°C. The results obtained could motivate a surface treatment for flexible ZnO thin film since the substrate is always suffered by heat.

  4. Effects of prior deformation and annealing process on microstructure and annealing twin density in a nickel based alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhigang; Zhang, Lanting; Sun, Nairong; Sun, Yanle; Shan, Aidang

    2014-09-15

    The nickel based alloys with different Σ3 boundary density were achieved by cold-rolling and subsequent annealing treatment. Electron backscattered diffraction analysis showed that the grain size distribution changed with the processing parameters, and the discontinuous Σ3 boundary became continuous with the increase of prior deformation level. Furthermore, the Σ3 boundary density was found to be manipulated by both grain size distribution and Σ3 boundary density per grain which showed an increasing trend with prior deformation level and annealing temperature. - Highlights: • The prior deformation amount influenced the morphology of Σ3 boundary. • The grain size was not the only factor influencing Σ3 boundary density. • The fact that grain size distribution had an important effect on Σ3 boundary density was confirmed. • The nature of grain size distribution on Σ3 boundary density was revealed. • There was a great deviation in Σ3 boundary density between experimental results and predictions.

  5. Effect of annealing on the laser induced damage of polished and CO2 laser-processed fused silica surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doualle, T.; Gallais, L.; Cormont, P.; Donval, T.; Lamaignère, L.; Rullier, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the effect of different heat treatments on the laser-induced damage probabilities of fused silica samples. Isothermal annealing in a furnace is applied, with different temperatures in the range 700-1100 °C and 12 h annealing time, to super-polished fused silica samples. The surface flatness and laser damage probabilities at 3 ns, 351 nm are measured before and after the different annealing procedures. We have found a significant improvement of the initial laser damage probabilities of the silica surface after annealing at 1050 °C for 12 h. A similar study has been conducted on CO2 laser-processed sites on the surface of the samples. Before and after annealing, we have studied the morphology of the sites, the evolution of residual stress, and the laser-induced damage threshold measured at 351 nm, 3 ns. In this case, we observe that the laser damage resistance of the laser created craters can reach the damage level of the bare fused silica surface after the annealing process, with a complete stress relieve. The obtained results are then compared to the case of local annealing process by CO2 laser irradiation during 1 s, and we found similar improvements in both cases. The different results obtained in the study are compared to numerical simulations made with a thermo-mechanical model based on finite-element method that allows the simulation of the isothermal or the local annealing process, the evolution of stress and fictive temperature. The simulation results were found to be very consistent with experimental observations for the stresses evolution after annealing and estimation of the heat affected area during laser-processing based on the density dependence with fictive temperature. Following this work, the temperature for local annealing should reach 1330-1470 °C for an optimized reduction of damage probability and be below the threshold for material removal, whereas furnace annealing should be kept below the annealing point to avoid sample

  6. Annealing effects on the optical properties of semiconducting boron carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Billa, R. B.; Robertson, B. W.; Hofmann, T.; Schubert, M.

    2009-08-01

    Infrared vibrations of as-deposited and annealed semiconducting boron carbide thin films were investigated by midinfrared spectroscopic ellipsometry. The strong boron-hydrogen resonance at approx2560 cm{sup -1} in as-deposited films reveals considerable hydrogen incorporation during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Extended annealing at 600 deg. C caused significant reduction in film thickness, substantial reduction of boron-hydrogen bond resonance absorption, and development of distinct blue-shifted boron-carbon and icosahedral vibration mode resonances. Our findings suggest that annealing results in substantial loss of hydrogen and in development of icosahedral structure, accompanied by strain relaxation and densification.

  7. Effect of Solution Annealing Temperatures on the Crevice Corrosion Mode of Alloy 22

    SciTech Connect

    El-Dasher, B S; Etien, R; Torres, S G

    2005-10-31

    The effect of solution annealing temperature on the observed corrosion attack mode in Alloy 22 welds was assessed. Three types of specimens were examined, including the as-welded state, solution annealed for 20 minutes at 1121 C, and solution annealed for 20 minutes at 1200 C. The microstructures of the specimens were first mapped using electron backscatter diffraction to determine the grain structure evolution due to solution annealing. The specimens were then subjected to electrochemical testing in a 6 molal NaCl + 0.9 molal KNO{sub 3} environment to initiate crevice corrosion. Examination of the specimen surfaces after corrosion testing showed that in the as-welded specimen, corrosion was present in both the weld dendrites as well as around the secondary phases. However, the specimen solution annealed at 1121 C showed corrosion only at secondary phases and the specimen annealed at 1200 C showed pitting corrosion only in a handful of grains.

  8. Effects of annealing on texture evolution of cross shear rolled high-purity Al foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Liu, Y.; Song, X.; He, J.; Zuo, L.

    2015-04-01

    The effects of annealing on recrystallization texture of cross shear rolled high-purity Al foil were investigated by orientation distribution functions (ODFs) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The results show that the intermediate annealing is beneficial to the development of the cube texture. The cube texture can be promoted by annealing, and the critical annealing temperature is about 280 °C. The cubic orientation grains firstly nucleate, and then expand into other grains with a high growth speed, and large angle grain boundary ratio increases, finally can swallow up most of the original grains, which results in the cube texture

  9. The effects of post-growth annealing on the structural and magnetic properties of BaFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, T. R.; Valdivia, P. N.; Rotundu, C. R.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.; Birgeneau, R. J.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the effects of post-growth annealing on the structural and magnetic properties of BaFe2As2. Magnetic susceptibility measurements, which exhibit a signal corresponding to the magnetic phase transition, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction measurements, which directly probe the structural order parameter, show that annealing causes the ordering temperatures of both the phase transitions to increase, sharpen and converge. In the as grown sample, our measurements show two distinct transitions corresponding to structural and magnetic ordering, which are separated in temperature by approximately 1 K. After 46 days (d) of annealing at 700 °C, the two become concurrent in temperature. These measurements demonstrate that the structural phase transition is second-order like when the magnetic and structural phase transitions are separated in temperature, and first-order like when the two phase transition temperatures coincide. This observation indicates that annealing causes the system to cross a hitherto undiscovered tricritical point. In addition, x-ray diffraction measurements show that the c-axis lattice parameter increases with annealing up to 30 d, but remains constant for longer annealing times. Comparisons of BaFe2As2 to SrFe2As2 are made when possible.

  10. Effects of low temperature anneals on the photovoltage in Si nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotchenkov, O.; Podolian, A.; Kuryliuk, V.; Romanyuk, B.; Melnik, V.; Khatsevich, I.

    2012-03-01

    We report on the time decays of surface photovoltage (SPV) and SPV spectra for Si nanocrystals (nc-Si) embedded into a SiO2 matrix. After precipitation at 1150 °C anneal in Ar the SPV increases by a factor of ≈30 compared with the value observed in an oxidized Si substrate. An increase in the signal is accompanied by longer time decays in the SPV transients (roughly from tens to hundreds of microseconds). The separation of photoexcited electrons and holes at the nc-Si/SiO2 interface is expected to play a major role in increasing the SPV signal. We emphasize that annealing of nc-Si at 450 °C in either N2 + O2 or H2 results in a remarkable increase (up to 10-fold) in photoluminescence intensity, which is accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the SPV signal and modification of the SPV decay transients. Anneal in N2 + O2 ambient slightly accelerates the SPV decay, whereas anneal in H2 dramatically speeds it up. Employment of Fourier transform infrared absorption and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques allows us to gain insight about the nature of chemical bonds into the oxidized matrix. A hypothesis is suggested that the observed effects are attributable to different passivating abilities of H2 and N2 + O2 ambients. A simple model, which takes into account the capture of photoexcited carriers at the nc-Si/SiO2 interface and the varying passivation ability of the interface traps, is capable of explaining the observed changes in the SPV transients, even quantitatively. The results may be of interest for studying the passivation of dangling bonds at the nc-Si/SiO2 interface by SPV techniques and can be used in advancing the development of silicon based photovoltaic materials with high efficiency.

  11. Time-dependent annealing and deposition on substrates with repulsive interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venables, J. A.; Degraffenreid, J.; Kay, D.; Yang, P.

    2006-08-01

    In models of nucleation and growth of crystals on surfaces, it is often assumed that the energy surface of the substrate is flat, that diffusion is isotropic, and that capture numbers can be calculated in the diffusion-controlled limit. We lift these restrictions and formulate the general time-dependent problem in a two-dimensional (2D) potential field. We utilize the master equation discretization (MED) method to solve the 2D time-dependent diffusion field of adparticles on general nonuniform (rectangular grid) substrates, and compare it against competing algorithms, including the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and hybrid-FFT methods previously introduced, for periodic boundary conditions. The physical context is set by the importance of repulsive interactions in the nucleation and growth of many nanostructures, e.g., metal nanoclusters, hut clusters, and nanowires. The programs, realized in MATLAB®6.5 , are used to obtain quantitative capture numbers, aspect and direct impingement ratios, and other island growth quantities in the presence of potential fields, when particular surface processes are included. The case of no corner rounding is studied in detail. Strongly anisotropic potentials favor wire growth, which can be considerably influenced by alternate deposition and annealing, and the location of neighboring islands. Physical examples are given based on Ge/Si(001) material parameters. Essentially similar programs, differing only in outputs, are used to visualize the diffusion field and to produce realistic movies of crystal growth. Examples given here are linear deterministic calculations, but the framework allows for inclusion of nonlinear and statistical effects for particular applications.

  12. Effects of different annealing atmospheres on the properties of cadmium sulfide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Yücel, E.; Kahraman, S.; Güder, H.S.

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: The effects of different annealing atmospheres (air and sulfur) on the structural, morphological and optical properties of CdS thin films were studied at three different pH values. - Highlights: • Compactness and smoothness of the films were enhanced after sulfur annealing. • Micro-strain values of some films were improved after sulfur annealing. • Dislocation density values of some films were improved after sulfur annealing. • Band gap values of the films were improved after sulfur annealing. - Abstract: Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by using chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The effects of different annealing atmospheres (air and sulfur) on the structural, morphological and optical properties of CdS thin films were studied at three different pH values. Compactness and smoothness of the films (especially for pH 10.5 and 11) enhanced after sulfur annealing. pH value of the precursor solution remarkably affected the roughness, uniformity and particle sizes of the films. Based on the analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the films, micro-strain and dislocation density values of the sulfur-annealed films (pH 10.5 and 11) were found to be lower than those of air-annealed films. Air-annealed films (pH 10.5, 11 and 11.5) exhibited higher transmittance than sulfur-annealed films in the wavelength region of 550–800 nm. Optical band gap values of the films were found between 2.31 eV and 2.36 eV.

  13. Pressure Gradients and Annealing Effects in Solid Helium-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhel, Md. Abdul Halim

    The Kim and Chan experiment in 2004 gave the first experimental evidence of a possible supersolid state. Even though the origin of this state is not clear yet, several experimental and theoretical investigations suggest defects are responsible for this curious phase. We have used heat pulses and thermal quenching to study pressure gradients and annealing mechanisms in solid 4He crystals. Large pressure gradients exist in crystals grown at constant volume. These can be enhanced by phase transitions, thermal quenching or by partial melting. Annealing reduces defect densities and hence pressure gradients in crystals. Our measurements show that the pressure at different points in a crystal can behave differently, even if there is little change in the crystal's average pressure. We measured the activation energy that is associated with the annealing process.

  14. Annealing Effect for Supersolid Fraction in 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penzev, Andrey; Yasuta, Yoshinori; Kubota, Minoru

    2007-09-01

    We report on experimental confirmation of the non-classical rotational inertia (NCRI) in solid helium samples originally reported by Kim and Chan. The onset of NCRI was observed at temperatures below ≈400 mK. The ac velocity for initiation of the NCRI suppression is estimated to be ≈10 μm/sec. After an additional annealing of the sample at T=1.8 K for 12 hours, ˜10% relative increase of NCRI fraction was observed. Then after repeated annealing with the same conditions, the NCRI fraction was saturated. It differs from Reppy’s observation on a low pressure solid sample.

  15. The effects of annealing a 2-dimensional array of ion-irradiated Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, E. Y.; Kouperine, K.; Zhuo, Y.; Dynes, R. C.; Cybart, S. A.

    2016-09-01

    We have fabricated the two-dimensional arrays of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) using YBa2Cu3O7-δ ion-irradiated Josephson junctions, and we have studied the effects of post-annealing the arrays at 100 ◦C in oxygen. The maximum voltage modulation, V B, in a magnetic field for DC biased arrays at 50 K is initially 1.2 mV, but increases to 3 mV after annealing. Furthermore, the temperature where the largest V B occurs increases from 45 K to 48.5 K after annealing. We present and simulate a model where annealing causes diffusion and recombination of the low-energy oxygen defects that narrows the barrier, resulting in an increase in the Josephson binding energy. We show that this process stabilizes after 40 minutes of annealing and leads to a significant improvement in the properties of the array.

  16. Effect of Annealing Treatment on Mechanical Properties of Nanocrystalline α-iron: an Atomistic Study

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xuhang; Zhang, Hao; Li, D. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Claims are often found in the literature that metallic materials can be nanocrystallized by severe plastic deformation (SPD). However, SPD does not generate a well-defined nanocrystalline (NC) material, which can be achieved by subsequent annealing/recovery treatment. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is employed to study the effect of annealing on structure and mechanical properties of cyclic deformed NC α-iron, which simulates SPD-processed α-iron. It is demonstrated that grain boundaries in the deformed NC α-iron evolve to a more equilibrium state during annealing, eliminating or minimizing the residual stress. The annealing treatment increases the system's strength by reducing dislocation emission sources, and improves material ductility through strengthening grain boundaries' resistance to intergranular cracks. The results indicate that the annealing treatment is an essential process for obtaining a well-defined NC structure with superior mechanical properties. PMID:25675978

  17. Simulated annealing versus quantum annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troyer, Matthias

    Based on simulated classical annealing and simulated quantum annealing using quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations I will explore the question where physical or simulated quantum annealers may outperform classical optimization algorithms. Although the stochastic dynamics of QMC simulations is not the same as the unitary dynamics of a quantum system, I will first show that for the problem of quantum tunneling between two local minima both QMC simulations and a physical system exhibit the same scaling of tunneling times with barrier height. The scaling in both cases is O (Δ2) , where Δ is the tunneling splitting. An important consequence is that QMC simulations can be used to predict the performance of a quantum annealer for tunneling through a barrier. Furthermore, by using open instead of periodic boundary conditions in imaginary time, equivalent to a projector QMC algorithm, one obtains a quadratic speedup for QMC, and achieve linear scaling in Δ. I will then address the apparent contradiction between experiments on a D-Wave 2 system that failed to see evidence of quantum speedup and previous QMC results that indicated an advantage of quantum annealing over classical annealing for spin glasses. We find that this contradiction is resolved by taking the continuous time limit in the QMC simulations which then agree with the experimentally observed behavior and show no speedup for 2D spin glasses. However, QMC simulations with large time steps gain further advantage: they ``cheat'' by ignoring what happens during a (large) time step, and can thus outperform both simulated quantum annealers and classical annealers. I will then address the question how to optimally run a simulated or physical quantum annealer. Investigating the behavior of the tails of the distribution of runtimes for very hard instances we find that adiabatically slow annealing is far from optimal. On the contrary, many repeated relatively fast annealing runs can be orders of magnitude faster for

  18. Handling time-expensive global optimization problems through the surrogate-enhanced evolutionary annealing-simplex algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoukalas, Ioannis; Kossieris, Panagiotis; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Makropoulos, Christos

    2015-04-01

    In water resources optimization problems, the calculation of the objective function usually presumes to first run a simulation model and then evaluate its outputs. In several cases, however, long simulation times may pose significant barriers to the optimization procedure. Often, to obtain a solution within a reasonable time, the user has to substantially restrict the allowable number of function evaluations, thus terminating the search much earlier than required by the problem's complexity. A promising novel strategy to address these shortcomings is the use of surrogate modelling techniques within global optimization algorithms. Here we introduce the Surrogate-Enhanced Evolutionary Annealing-Simplex (SE-EAS) algorithm that couples the strengths of surrogate modelling with the effectiveness and efficiency of the EAS method. The algorithm combines three different optimization approaches (evolutionary search, simulated annealing and the downhill simplex search scheme), in which key decisions are partially guided by numerical approximations of the objective function. The performance of the proposed algorithm is benchmarked against other surrogate-assisted algorithms, in both theoretical and practical applications (i.e. test functions and hydrological calibration problems, respectively), within a limited budget of trials (from 100 to 1000). Results reveal the significant potential of using SE-EAS in challenging optimization problems, involving time-consuming simulations.

  19. Annealing of paramagnetic centres in electron- and ion-irradiated yttria-stabilized zirconia: effect of yttria content

    SciTech Connect

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Beuneu, Francois; Weber, William J

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the effect of the yttria content on the recovery of paramagnetic centres in electron-irradiated yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2: Y3+). Single crystals with 9.5 mol% or 18 mol% Y2O3 were irradiated with electrons of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 MeV. Paramagnetic centre thermal annealing was studied by X-band EPR spectroscopy. Hole-centres are found to be annealed more quickly, or at a lower temperature, for 18 mol% than for 9.5 mol% Y2O3. At long annealing times, a non-zero asymptotic behaviour is observed in the isothermal annealing curves of hole-centres and F+-type centres between 300 and 500 K. The normalized asymptotic concentration of both defects has a maximum value of about 0.5 for annealing temperatures near 375 K, below the onset of the (isochronal) recovery stage, regardless of the yttria content. Such an uncommon behaviour is analyzed on the basis of either kinetic rate equations of charge transfer or equilibria between point defects with different charge states.

  20. Buffer layer annealing effects on the magnetization reversal process in Pd/Co/Pd systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassatoui, A.; Belhi, R.; Vogel, J.; Abdelmoula, K.

    2016-12-01

    We have investigated the effect of annealing the buffer layer on the magnetization reversal behavior in Pd/Co/Pd thin films using magneto-optical Kerr microscopy. It was found that annealing the buffer layer at 150 °C for 1 h decreases the coercivity and increases the saturation magnetization and the effective magnetic anisotropy constant. This study also shows that the annealing induces a change of the magnetization reversal from a mixed nucleation and domain wall propagation process to one dominated by domain wall propagation. This result demonstrates that the main effect of annealing the buffer layer is to decrease the domain wall pinning in the Co layer, favoring the domain wall propagation mode.

  1. Effects of rapid thermal annealing on nucleation, growth, and properties of lead zirconate titanate films.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian; Zhang, Yi; Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Mihara, Takashi; Maeda, Ryutaro

    2007-12-01

    The nucleation and growth behavior of solgel-derived lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films was investigated at different rapid thermal annealing (RTA) processes. The effects of RTA on PZT film surface morphology, crystal orientation, residual stress, and properties were also studied and are discussed. PZT nucleation and growth behavior were found to be more sensitive to heating rate than to hold time during RTA. Higher heating rates were preferred for uniform PZT nucleation and grain growth, which resulted in dense microstructures, smooth surfaces, and better film ferroelectric properties. Lower heating rates led to strong PZT (100) orientation, better film piezoelectric properties, and low residual stress, but at the risk of film cracks caused by arbitrarily distributed large crystallites with diameters of approximately 300 nm among crystallites with diameters of approximately 30 nm. Furthermore, the residual stress of the PZT film was found to be effectively reduced by extending the hold time. PMID:18276553

  2. Effect of Interim Annealing on Mechanical Strength of TFA-MOD Derived YBCO Coated Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Y.; Nakaoka, K.; Nakamura, T.; Yoshizumi, M.; Kiss, T.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    TFA-MOD derived YBCO tapes are expected for many applications due to cost-efficiency. In some applications, uniformity and mechanical strength are required for tapes. A 205 m-long YBCO tape was fabricated with high and uniform Ic performance throughout the tape by adopting the interim annealing before the conversion process. The effect of the interim annealing on the crystal growth mechanism of YBCO has been studied focusing on the relationship between the interim annealing conditions and delamination, in this work. Delamination strength was evaluated in the samples prepared with and without interim annealing by the stud pull method. Measurements were carried out on 50 different points for each sample and the results were analyzed statistically. The difference between the two samples was remarkably seen in the delamination strength below 60 MPa. The conventionally annealed sample had more points with low delamination strength below 60 MPa than the interim annealed one. The cross sectional images of both samples observed by SEM showed that there were few pores within the interim annealed superconducting layer, although conventional superconducting layer had many pores. These results suggest that the pores within YBCO layer might be origins to be propagated for delamination at low strength.

  3. Annealing effect in structural and electrical properties of sputtered Mo thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelvanathan, P.; Zakaria, Z.; Yusoff, Y.; Akhtaruzzaman, M.; Alam, M. M.; Alghoul, M. A.; Sopian, K.; Amin, N.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the effects of vacuum annealing on the structural and electrical properties of DC-sputtered molybdenum (Mo) thin films have been investigated. Mo thin films were deposited by DC sputtering and subsequently subjected to vacuum annealing in a tube furnace from 350 to 500 °C. Films that were deposited with different temperatures showed good adhesion with soda lime glass substrate after "tape testing". X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra have indicated existence of (1 1 0) and (2 1 1) orientations. However, I(1 1 0)/I(2 1 1) peak intensity ratio decreased for all vacuum annealed Mo films compared to as-sputtered films indicating change of preferential orientation. This suggests vacuum annealing can be employed to tailor the Mo thin film atomic packing density of the plane parallel to the substrate. SEM images of surface morphology clearly show compact and dense triangular like grains for as-sputtered film, while annealed films at 350 °C, 400 °C and 450 °C indicate rice-like grains. Stony grains with less uniformity were detected for films annealed for 500 °C. Meanwhile, electrical resistivity is insensitive to the vacuum annealing condition as all films showed more or less same resistivity in the range of 3 × 10-5-6 × 10-5 Ω cm.

  4. The Effect of Ion Damage and Annealing on Superconducting Transition-Metal - Nitride Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, John Thomas

    Thin films of the B1 phase superconducting compounds vanadium nitride and titanium nitride have been formed. This was accomplished by heating the previously evaporated pure metal films in high purity nitrogen gas. The resistivity at room and low temperature, the superconducting transition temperature T(,C), and the upper critical field of these films were measured using a four probe d.c. resistive technique and found to be similar to those measured on bulk samples of the same compound. The films were then irradiated with nitrogen ions and the effect of lattice damage on these parameters was determined. It was found that the dependence on ion fluence of the residual resistivity and the transition temperature obeyed saturating exponential functions that could be derived from a simple defect production and annealing model. The renormalized electronic density of states N*(O) was calculated as a function of ion fluence, while the band density of states N('b)(O) was calculated using the electron lifetime model. The electron-phonon coupling constant was determined from these densities of states and from the McMillan equation for T(,C). The results do not agree and it is shown that spin fluctuations cannot be used to explain the discrepancy. It is argued that some mechanism, other than lifetime reduction of the band density of states, is responsible for the observed effects. This is in contrast to the high temperature A15 superconductors in which the electron lifetime model yields large reductions in N('b)(O). It is thought that any other mechanism present in these materials would be overshadowed by this large reduction. Subsequent annealing studies were performed on these samples. The results indicate that the radiation damage effects are, to a large extent, reversible. It is also found that annealing in vacuum at high temperatures results in loss of nitrogen and thus degradation of the properties of the material. From the ion damage and annealing results and from

  5. Temperature, stress, and annealing effects on the luminescence from electron-irradiated silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. E.; Johnson, E. S.; Compton, W. D.; Noonan, J. R.; Streetman, B. G.

    1973-01-01

    Low-temperature photoluminescence spectra are presented for Si crystals which have been irradiated with high-energy electrons. Studies of isochronal annealing, stress effects, and the temperature dependences of the luminescence are used to discuss the nature of the luminescent transitions and the properties of defects. Two dominant bands present after room-temperature anneal of irradiated material are discussed, and correlations of the properties of these bands are made with known Si defects. A band between 0.8 and 1.0 eV has properties which are related to those of the divacancy, and a band between 0.6 and 0.8 eV has properties related to those of the Si-G15(K) center. Additional peaks appear in the luminescence after high-temperature anneal; the influence of impurities and the effects of annealing of these lines are discussed.

  6. Thermal annealing effect on FeCoB soft underlayer for perpendicular magnetic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jun; Chang, Chunghee; Karns, Duane; Ju, Ganping; Kubota, Yukiko; Eppler, Walter; Brucker, Charles; Weller, Dieter

    2002-05-01

    We study the noise performance of amorphous FeCoB soft underlayers (SULs) with radial magnetic anisotropy. 200 nm thick FeCoB films are sputter deposited and optionally postannealed for 8 s at different annealing powers. The correlation of SUL read-back noise with the magnetic and structural properties is studied using spin stand testing, in-plane magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements, magnetic force microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The effects of annealing to achieve low read-back noise are examined. It is found that as-prepared films show large dc noise associated with stripe domains due to stress-induced perpendicular anisotropy. Thermal annealing reduces the internal stress and the films become magnetically anisotropic in the radial direction. The SUL-induced dc noise drops to the electronic noise floor. dc noise is found to decrease with an increase in annealing power until the films start to crystallize.

  7. Annealing Effects on Creep and Rupture of Polycrystalline Alumina-Based Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, J. C.; Yun, H. M.; Morscher, G. N.; DiCarlo, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Continuous-length polycrystalline aluminum-oxide-based fibers are being considered as reinforcements for advanced high-temperature composite materials. For these fine-grained fibers, basic issues arise concerning grain growth and microstructural instability during composite fabrication and the resulting effects on the fiber's thermo-mechanical properties. To examine these issues, commercially available Nextel 610 (alumina) and Altex (alumina-silica) fibers were annealed at 1100 and 1300 C for up to 100 hr in air. Changes in fiber microstructure, fiber tensile creep, stress rupture, and bend stress relaxation (BSR) that occurred with annealing were then determined. BSR tests were also used to compare as-received and annealed fibers to other polycrystalline oxide fibers. Annealing was shown to have a significant effect, particularly on the Altex fiber, and caused it to have increased creep resistance.

  8. Annealing effect on structural and optical properties of chemical bath deposited MnS thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulutas, Cemal; Gumus, Cebrail

    2016-03-01

    MnS thin film was prepared by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method on commercial microscope glass substrate deposited at 30 °C. The as-deposited film was given thermal annealing treatment in air atmosphere at various temperatures (150, 300 and 450 °C) for 1 h. The MnS thin film was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectrophotometer and Hall effect measurement system. The effect of annealing temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties such as optical constants of refractive index (n) and energy band gap (Eg) of the film was determined. XRD measurements reveal that the film is crystallized in the wurtzite phase and changed to tetragonal Mn3O4 phase after being annealed at 300 °C. The energy band gap of film decreased from 3.69 eV to 3.21 eV based on the annealing temperature.

  9. Annealing Effect of PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, J.; Jeong, S.; Semonin, O. E.; Ellingson, R. J.; Nozik, A. J.; Beard, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    We recently reported an NREL certified {approx}3% efficient device with structure of ITO/ZnO/PbS QD/Au. The device is remarkably stable in air without encapsulation for more than 1000 hours. Therefore, in this study we focus on devices with structure of ITO/ZnO/PbS QD/metal fabricated in air. By annealing PbS QD film at low temperature up to 140C, the solar cell efficiency can be achieved to more than 4%.

  10. Annealing effect of ultrathin Ag films on Ni /Pt(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, C. W.; Yo, H. Y.; Chen, Y. J.; Shern, C. S.

    2005-06-01

    The epitaxial growth and alloy formation of Ag-capped layer on Ni /Pt(111) surface were investigated using Auger electron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, and low-energy electron diffraction. The growth of Ag on one ML Ni /Pt(111) transforms from layer-by-layer mode into three-dimensional island mode after the growth of one atomic monolayer of Ag. The starting temperature for the alloy formation of Ni-Pt is dependent of the thickness of Ni films. The interface compositions after the high-temperature annealing were studied with the depth-profile analysis of Ar ion sputtering.

  11. Effects of Solution Annealing Temperature on the Galvanic Corrosion Behavior of the Super Duplex Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jun-Seob; Jeon, Soon-Hyeok; Park, Yong-Soo

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the active dissolution of super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) at various solution annealing temperatures. The active dissolutions of the α-phase and γ-phase were compared, and the effects of the surface area ratio on the active dissolutions of both phases were investigated. There were two peaks in the active-passive transition region in the potentiodynamic test in the modified green-death solution. The two peaks changed as the solution annealing temperature was increased from 1050 to 1150 °C. The solution annealing temperature difference affected the critical anodic current densities. This provides useful information for determining the appropriate solution annealing temperature in the modified green-death solution for SDSS.

  12. Post-annealing effects on ZnS thin films grown by using the CBD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Heejin; Um, Youngho

    2015-09-01

    Herein, the structural, morphological, and optical properties of zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films deposited via the chemical bath deposition method are reported. These films were deposited on soda-lime glass (SLG) substrates by using ZnSO4, thiourea, and 25% ammonia at 90 °C. The effect of changing the annealing temperature from 100 °C to 300 °C on the properties of the ZnS thin films was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the ZnS thin film annealed at 100 °C had an amorphous structure; however, as the annealing temperature was increased, the crystalline quality of the thin film was enhanced. Moreover, transmission measurements showed that the optical transmittance was about 80% for wavelengths above 500 nm. The band gap energy (E g ) value of the film annealed at 300 °C was decreased to about 3.82 eV.

  13. The effect of annealed au thin film on the Surface Plasmon Resonance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL Luhaybi, Waseem Abdullah

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is an optical phenomenon which detects the change of the refractive index in the dielectric/metal interface. When a p-polarized light strikes a thin-film metal under the condition of total internal reflection, plasmons propagate through a dielectric/metal interface. As a result, there is a sharp dip in the curve that indicates the minimum reflectance of the light. In this thesis, the SPR measurement of distilled water solution is investigated experimentally using the NanoSPR6 device. The Win Spall 3.2 software is used to do the theoretical simulation. The SPR angle of distilled water was observed at 63.6823°. The Surface Plasmon Resonance of sugar solutions was measured with various concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%). It shows that the SPR angle has a linear relationship with the refractive index. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the effect of the annealing of the Au thin film on Surface Plasmon Resonance. The samples were annealed at 200C, 300°C, 400°C, and 500°C for various times. At 500°C, the gold film evaporated from the glass slide. The value of the dielectric functions of Au thin film changes with annealing due to the change of the morphology of the Au thing film. Therefore, the Surface Plasmon Resonance will change. The values of the dielectric functions of the Au thin films annealed at different temperatures were estimated by curve fittings. Finally, the Surface Plasmon Resonance of Au-PCBM polymer was studied with various sugar solutions. The Surface Plasmon Resonance measurement was done for the sample before and after 24 hours. It is shown that the Surface Plasmon Resonance was shifted slightly when the sample left for 24 hours. The refractive index of PCBM was estimated by curve fitting and found to be 2.12. The Surface Plasmon Resonance angle difference of PCBM-distilled water before and after 24 hours was 0.6 degree.

  14. The Effect of Grain Size and Dislocation Density on the Tensile Properties of Ni-SiCNP Composites During Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Huang, Hefei; Thorogood, Gordon James; Jiang, Li; Ye, Xiangxi; Li, Zhijun; Zhou, Xingtai

    2016-03-01

    The grain size refinement, enhancement of mechanical properties, and static recrystallization behavior of metallic nickel-silicon carbide nano-particle (Ni-3wt.%SiCNP) composites, milled for times ranging from 8 to 48 h have been examined. One set of Ni-SiCNP composite samples were annealed at 300 °C for 250 h, while the other set of samples were maintained at room temperature for control purposes (reference). The electron backscatter diffraction results indicate that the grain size of the annealed Ni-SiCNP composite was refined due to grain restructuring during static recrystallization. The x-ray diffraction results indicate that low-temperature annealing effectively reduced the density of dislocations; this can be explained by the dislocation pile-up model. Additionally, the tensile tests indicated that the annealed Ni-SiCNP composite had a significant increase in strength due to an increase of the Hall-Petch strengthening effect with a slight increase in the total elongation. The decrease of dislocation pile-up in the grain interiors and the increase in grain boundary sliding are assumed to be the main mechanisms at play. The relationship between the microstructural evolution and the variation of tensile properties is examined in this study.

  15. Electrochromic performance, wettability and optical study of copper manganese oxide thin films: Effect of annealing temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falahatgar, S. S.; Ghodsi, F. E.; Tepehan, F. Z.; Tepehan, G. G.; Turhan, İ.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the nanostructured copper manganese oxide (CMO) thin films were prepared from acetate based sol-gel precursors and deposited on glass and indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates by dip-coating technique. The films were annealed at 300, 400 and 500 °C in ambient atmosphere. The effects of annealing temperature on structural, morphological, wettability, electrochromic and optical properties of CMO thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), water contact angle measurement (WCA), cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometery. The presence of mixed oxide phases comprising of copper manganese oxide (CuMn2O4) and manganese oxide at different annealing temperature was confirmed by XRD patterns. The results showed that the Mn3O4 phase has been changed to Mn2O3 when the annealing temperature is increased from 300 to 500 °C. The FESEM images indicated that the granular surface morphology was sensitive to annealing temperature. EDX studies indicated that the thin films contained O, Mn and Cu species. Wettability studies showed that the water contact angle of the nanostructured CMO thin films coated on glass substrates was influenced by the variation of annealing temperature and the surface nature of thin films was changed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. The results of CVs measurement indicated that the anodic and cathodic charge density and capacitance of all CMO samples decreased with increasing scan rate in potential range of -1-1 eV. Also, the annealed CMO thin film at 500 °C showed better electrochromic performance with respect to other samples at lower scan rate. The thickness, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical band gap of thin films coated on glass substrates were calculated from reflectance and transmittance spectra using an iterative numerical method. The optical band gap of

  16. Effect of Metallic Au Seed Layer Annealing on the Properties of Electrodeposited ZnO Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Park, Youngbin; Nam, Giwoong; Kim, Byunggu; Leem, Jae-Young

    2015-11-01

    This study focuses on the effect of annealing the Au seed layer (ASL) on the structural and optical properties of electrodeposited ZnO nanorods. ZnO nanorods were fabricated in a three-step approach. In the first step, ASLs were deposited using an ion sputter technique. In the second step, layers were annealed in air at various temperatures ranging from 400 degrees C to 600 degrees C. Finally, ZnO nanorods were grown using an electrodeposition method. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that better aligned ZnO nanorods are fabricated on the annealed ASL compared with non-annealed ASL The X-ray diffraction analysis showed a notable improvement in directional growth along the (002) crystallographic plane when ZnO nanorods were grown on the annealed ASL. The photoluminescence analysis showed that the UV emission peak of ZnO nanorods on the annealed ASL at 400 degrees C was blue-shifted and increased. PMID:26726551

  17. Annealing effects on the microwave linewidth broadening of FeCuNbSiB ferromagnetic films

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, M. J. P.; Gonzalez-Chavez, D. E.; Sommer, R. L.; Bohn, F.

    2015-03-28

    We systematically investigate the annealing effects on the microwave linewidth broadening of FeCuNbSiB ferromagnetic films with thickness of 100 nm. We correlate the non-uniform residual stress obtained from grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements with the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) linewidth due to effective field inhomogeneities measured from broadband ferromagnetic resonance absorption measurements. We also estimate the annealing temperature effect on the Gilbert and two-magnon scattering contributions to the total ferromagnetic resonance FMR linewidth. We show that the effective field inhomogeneities constitute the main contribution to the microwave linewidth, while this contribution is related to the non-uniform residual stress in the films which is reduced by thermal annealing.

  18. Thermal annealing effect on photoexcited carrier dynamics in GaBixAs1-x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čechavičius, B.; Adomavičius, R.; Koroliov, A.; Krotkus, A.

    2011-08-01

    Carrier dynamics in MBE-grown GaBixAs1-x layers was investigated by the optical pump--THz probe technique. Rapid thermal annealing at temperatures up to 700 °C has a dual effect on the electron decay characteristics. For the GaBi0.04As0.96 layer it led only to a small change of the decay time, whereas for the layer with x = 0.06 this parameter decreased by two orders of magnitude and became shorter than 1 ps. It can be assumed that the recombination centers in GaBiAs are more likely to occur in the layers with a larger Bi composition, a bigger lattice mismatch with the substrate.

  19. Combined current-modulation annealing induced enhancement of giant magnetoimpedance effect of Co-rich amorphous microwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingshun; Qin, Faxiang; Chen, Dongming; Shen, Hongxian; Wang, Huan; Xing, Dawei; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Jianfei

    2014-05-01

    We report on a combined current-modulation annealing (CCMA) method, which integrates the optimized pulsed current (PC) and DC annealing techniques, for improving the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect and its field sensitivity of Co-rich amorphous microwires. Relative to an as-prepared Co68.2Fe4.3B15Si12.5 wire, CCMA is shown to remarkably improve the GMI response of the wire. At 10 MHz, the maximum GMI ratio and its field sensitivity of the as-prepared wire were, respectively, increased by 3.5 and 2.28 times when subjected to CCMA. CCMA increased atomic order orientation and circumferential permeability of the wire by the co-action of high-density pulsed magnetic field energy and thermal activation energy at a PC annealing stage, as well as the formation of uniform circular magnetic domains by a stable DC magnetic field at a DC annealing stage. The magnetic moment can overcome eddy-current damping or nail-sticked action in rotational magnetization, giving rise to a double-peak feature and wider working field range (up to ±2 Oe) at relatively higher frequency (f ≥ 1 MHz).

  20. Combined current-modulation annealing induced enhancement of giant magnetoimpedance effect of Co-rich amorphous microwires

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jingshun E-mail: faxiang.qin@gmail.com; Qin, Faxiang E-mail: faxiang.qin@gmail.com; Chen, Dongming; Shen, Hongxian; Wang, Huan; Xing, Dawei; Sun, Jianfei; Phan, Manh-Huong

    2014-05-07

    We report on a combined current-modulation annealing (CCMA) method, which integrates the optimized pulsed current (PC) and DC annealing techniques, for improving the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect and its field sensitivity of Co-rich amorphous microwires. Relative to an as-prepared Co{sub 68.2}Fe{sub 4.3}B{sub 15}Si{sub 12.5} wire, CCMA is shown to remarkably improve the GMI response of the wire. At 10 MHz, the maximum GMI ratio and its field sensitivity of the as-prepared wire were, respectively, increased by 3.5 and 2.28 times when subjected to CCMA. CCMA increased atomic order orientation and circumferential permeability of the wire by the co-action of high-density pulsed magnetic field energy and thermal activation energy at a PC annealing stage, as well as the formation of uniform circular magnetic domains by a stable DC magnetic field at a DC annealing stage. The magnetic moment can overcome eddy-current damping or nail-sticked action in rotational magnetization, giving rise to a double-peak feature and wider working field range (up to ±2 Oe) at relatively higher frequency (f ≥ 1 MHz)

  1. Mosaic Structure Evolution in GaN Films with Annealing Time Grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapour Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Tao; Xu, Ke; Guo, Li-Ping; Yang, Zhi-Jian; Pan, Yao-Bo; Su, Yue-Yong; Zhang, Han; Shen, Bo; Zhang, Guo-Yi

    2006-05-01

    We investigate mosaic structure evolution of GaN films annealed for a long time at 800°C grown on sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition by high-resolution x-ray diffraction. The result show that residual stress in GaN films is relaxed by generating edge-type threading dislocations (TDs) instead of screw-type TDs. Compared to as-grown GaN films, the annealed ones have larger mean twist angles corresponding to higher density of edge-type TDs but smaller mean tilt angles corresponding to lower density of screw-type TDs films. Due to the increased edge-type TD density, the lateral coherence lengths of the annealed GaN films also decrease. The results obtained from chemical etching experiment and grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) also support the proposed structure evolution.

  2. Effects of stress annealing in nitrogen on the effective contact-potential difference, charges, and traps at the Si/SiO2 interface of metal-oxide-semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przewlocki, Henryk M.; Massoud, Hisham Z.

    2002-08-01

    In this article, we report the results of a study of the effects of high-temperature stress annealing in nitrogen on the electrical properties of metal/oxide/semiconductor devices. In this study, we have experimentally characterized the dependence of the reduced effective contact-potential difference, the effective oxide charge (Neff), and the midgap interface trap density (Dit) on the annealing conditions in nitrogen. We have correlated such properties with the dependence of the index of refraction and oxide stress on the annealing conditions and oxide thickness in a companion article. We consider the contributions of the thermal-relaxation and nitrogen-incorporation processes in determining changes in the electrical properties with annealing time. This model description is consistent with other annealing studies carried out in argon where only the thermal-relaxation process is present.

  3. Annealing Effects on Structure and Optical Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Films Containing Silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meškinis, Šarūnas; Čiegis, Arvydas; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Šlapikas, Kęstutis; Gudaitis, Rimantas; Yaremchuk, Iryna; Fitio, Volodymyr; Bobitski, Yaroslav; Tamulevičius, Sigitas

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, diamond-like carbon films with embedded Ag nanoparticles (DLC:Ag) were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. Structure of the films was investigated by Raman scattering spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy was used to define thickness of DLC:Ag films as well as to study the surface morphology and size distribution of Ag nanoparticles. Optical absorbance and reflectance spectra of the films were studied in the 180-1100-nm range. Air annealing effects on structure and optical properties of the DLC:Ag were investigated. Annealing temperatures were varied in the 180-400 °C range. Changes of size and shape of the Ag nanoclusters took place due to agglomeration. It was found that air annealing of DLC:Ag films can result in graphitization following destruction of the DLC matrix. Additional activation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect in DLC:Ag films can be achieved by properly selecting annealing conditions. Annealing resulted in blueshift as well as significant narrowing of the plasmonic absorbance and reflectance peaks. Moreover, quadrupole surface plasmon resonance peaks appeared. Modeling of absorption spectra of the nanoclusters depending on the shape and surrounding media has been carried out.

  4. Annealing Effects on Structure and Optical Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Films Containing Silver.

    PubMed

    Meškinis, Šarūnas; Čiegis, Arvydas; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Šlapikas, Kęstutis; Gudaitis, Rimantas; Yaremchuk, Iryna; Fitio, Volodymyr; Bobitski, Yaroslav; Tamulevičius, Sigitas

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, diamond-like carbon films with embedded Ag nanoparticles (DLC:Ag) were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. Structure of the films was investigated by Raman scattering spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy was used to define thickness of DLC:Ag films as well as to study the surface morphology and size distribution of Ag nanoparticles. Optical absorbance and reflectance spectra of the films were studied in the 180-1100-nm range. Air annealing effects on structure and optical properties of the DLC:Ag were investigated. Annealing temperatures were varied in the 180-400 °C range. Changes of size and shape of the Ag nanoclusters took place due to agglomeration. It was found that air annealing of DLC:Ag films can result in graphitization following destruction of the DLC matrix. Additional activation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect in DLC:Ag films can be achieved by properly selecting annealing conditions. Annealing resulted in blueshift as well as significant narrowing of the plasmonic absorbance and reflectance peaks. Moreover, quadrupole surface plasmon resonance peaks appeared. Modeling of absorption spectra of the nanoclusters depending on the shape and surrounding media has been carried out. PMID:26979724

  5. Effects of Vacuum Annealing on the Conduction Characteristics of ZnO Nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Chris J.; Smith, Nathan A.; Jones, Daniel R.; Maffeis, Thierry G. G.; Cobley, Richard J.

    2015-09-01

    ZnO nanosheets are a relatively new form of nanostructure and have demonstrated potential as gas-sensing devices and dye sensitised solar cells. For integration into other devices, and when used as gas sensors, the nanosheets are often heated. Here we study the effect of vacuum annealing on the electrical transport properties of ZnO nanosheets in order to understand the role of heating in device fabrication. A low cost, mass production method has been used for synthesis and characterisation is achieved using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL), auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and nanoscale two-point probe. Before annealing, the measured nanosheet resistance displayed a non-linear increase with probe separation, attributed to surface contamination. Annealing to 300 °C removed this contamination giving a resistance drop, linear probe spacing dependence, increased grain size and a reduction in the number of n-type defects. Further annealing to 500 °C caused the n-type defect concentration to reduce further with a corresponding increase in nanosheet resistance not compensated by any further sintering. At 700 °C, the nanosheets partially disintegrated and the resistance increased and became less linear with probe separation. These effects need to be taken into account when using ZnO nanosheets in devices that require an annealing stage during fabrication or heating during use.

  6. Effect of annealing process on the phase formation in poly(vinylidene fluoride) thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Ibtisam Yahya; Yahaya, Muhammad; Jumali, Mohd Hafizuddin Haji; Shanshool, Haider Mohammed

    2014-09-03

    This work reports the initial study on the effect of annealing process on the crystalline phase of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) thin film. PVDF powder was dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide before spin-coated onto a glass substrate to form a film. The films were annealed at 30°C, 90°C and 110°C for 5 hrs. The crystalline phase of the powder PVDF as received was investigated by using XRD and FTIR techniques. Moreover, the crystalline phases of thin films after annealing were investigated by using the same techniques. XRD analysis showed that in powder form PVDF exists in α-phase. Each annealed PVDF thin films exhibited identical formation of three-phases material namely γ (as major phase) while α and β phases as the minor phases. The FTIR analysis showed that the powder form of PVDF exists in α and β phases. FTIR measurement further confirmed the XRD results implying that the annealing process has no significant effect on the phase formation in PVDF films.

  7. Effects of annealing on antiwear and antibacteria behaviors of TaN-Cu nanocomposite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, J. H.; Cheng, M. K.; Chang, Y. K.; Li, C.; Chang, C. L.; Liu, P. C.

    2008-07-15

    TaN-Cu nanocomposite films were deposited by reactive cosputtering on Si and tool steel substrates. The films were then annealed using rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 400 deg. C for 2, 4, and 8 min, respectively, to induce the nucleation and growth of Cu particles in TaN matrix and on film surface. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was applied to characterize Cu nanoparticles emerged on the surface of TaN-Cu thin films. The effects of annealing on the antiwear and antibacterial properties of these films were studied. The results reveal that annealing by RTA can cause Cu nanoparticles to form on the TaN surface. Consequently, the tribological behaviors, as well as the antibacterial behavior may vary depending on particle size, particle distribution, and total exposed Cu amount. For the samples with large Cu particles, the reduction of averaged friction and wear rate is obvious. Apparently, it is due to the smeared Cu particles adhered onto the wear tracks. This Cu layer may act as a solid lubricant. From the antibacterial testing results, it is found that both Cu particle size and total exposed Cu amount are critical in making short-term antibacterial effect. Overall, all the annealed TaN-Cu samples can reach >99% antibacterial efficiency in 24 h, with respect to uncoated Si substrate.

  8. Effects of Annealing Temperature on Thermomechanical Properties of Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canbay, C. Aksu; Karagoz, Z.

    2013-07-01

    The effects of the annealing temperature on structural properties and the phase transformation of a Cu-14.1Al-3.9Ni (mass %) shape memory alloy (SMA) have been investigated. The annealing process was carried out at temperatures in the range of to . The structural changes of the as-quenched and annealed samples were studied by optical microscope and X-ray diffraction measurements. The evolution of the transformation temperatures was studied by differential scanning calorimetry with different heating and cooling rates. The activation energy and thermodynamic parameters of the samples were determined. It was found that the heat treatment has an effect on the characteristic transformation temperatures and on thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy, entropy, and activation energy. The crystallite size of the as-quenched and annealed samples were determined. Vickers hardness measurements of the as-quenched and annealed samples were also carried out. It is evaluated that the transformation parameters of a CuAlNi SMA can be controlled by heat treatment.

  9. Effects of Vacuum Annealing on the Conduction Characteristics of ZnO Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Chris J; Smith, Nathan A; Jones, Daniel R; Maffeis, Thierry G G; Cobley, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    ZnO nanosheets are a relatively new form of nanostructure and have demonstrated potential as gas-sensing devices and dye sensitised solar cells. For integration into other devices, and when used as gas sensors, the nanosheets are often heated. Here we study the effect of vacuum annealing on the electrical transport properties of ZnO nanosheets in order to understand the role of heating in device fabrication. A low cost, mass production method has been used for synthesis and characterisation is achieved using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL), auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and nanoscale two-point probe. Before annealing, the measured nanosheet resistance displayed a non-linear increase with probe separation, attributed to surface contamination. Annealing to 300 °C removed this contamination giving a resistance drop, linear probe spacing dependence, increased grain size and a reduction in the number of n-type defects. Further annealing to 500 °C caused the n-type defect concentration to reduce further with a corresponding increase in nanosheet resistance not compensated by any further sintering. At 700 °C, the nanosheets partially disintegrated and the resistance increased and became less linear with probe separation. These effects need to be taken into account when using ZnO nanosheets in devices that require an annealing stage during fabrication or heating during use. PMID:26383543

  10. Annealing effects on polycrystalline GaN using nitrogen and ammonia ambients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariff, A.; Zainal, N.; Hassan, Z.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes effects of using post-annealing treatment in different conditions on the properties of polycrystalline GaN layer grown on m-plane sapphire substrate by electron beam (e-beam) evaporator. Without annealing, GaN surface was found to have a low RMS roughness with agglomeration of GaN grains in a specific direction and the sample consisted of gallium oxide (Ga2O3) material. When the post-annealing treatment was carried out in N2 ambient at 650 °C, initial re-crystallization of the GaN grains was observed while the evidence of Ga2O3 almost disappeared. As the NH3 annealing was conducted at 950 °C, more effect of re-crystallization occurred but with less grains coalescence. Three dominant XRD peaks of GaN in (10 1 bar 0) , (0002) and (10 1 bar 1) orientations were evident. Near band edge (NBE) related emission in GaN was also observed. The significant improvement was attributed to simultaneous recrystallization and effective reduction of N deficiency density. The post-annealing in a mixture of N2 and NH3 ambient at 950 °C was also conducted, but has limited the effectiveness of the N atoms to incorporate on the GaN layer due to 'clouding' effect by the inert N2 gas. Further increase in the annealing temperature at 980 °C and 1100 °C, respectively caused severe deteriorations of the structural and optical properties of the GaN layer. Overall, this work demonstrated initial potential in improving polycrystalline GaN material in simple and inexpensive manner.

  11. Optimization effect of annealing treatment on oxygen-implanted Nd:CNGG waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun-Xiao; Fu, Li-Li; Cheng, Liang-Liang; Zhu, Xu-Feng; Lin, She-Bao; Zheng, Rui-Lin; Zhou, Zhi-Guang; Guo, Hai-Tao; Li, Wei-Nan; Wei, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Neodymium-doped calcium niobium gallium garnet (Nd:CNGG) waveguide operated at 632.8 nm is demonstrated by the 3.0-MeV oxygen-ion implantation with a fluence of 6.0 × 1014 ions/cm2. The annealing treatment at 300∘C for 45 min is carried out to optimize the waveguide quality. The dark-mode spectra are measured by the m-line technique. The refractive index profiles are calculated from the effective refractive indices of the waveguide modes. The near-field intensity distributions are simulated based on the reconstructed refractive index profiles. The annealing treatment process could effectively remove unwanted defects and optimize the waveguide quality. The optical properties of the annealed waveguide are better than that of the as-implanted waveguide.

  12. The Effect of Hydrogen Annealing on the Impurity Content of Alumina-Forming Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2000-01-01

    Previously, the effect of hydrogen annealing on increasing the adhesion of Al2O3 scales had been related to the effective desulfurization that occurred during this process. The simultaneous reduction of other impurities has now been re-examined for up to 20 impurity elements in the case of five different alloys (NiCrAl, FeCrAl, PWA 1480, Rene'142, and Rene'N5). Hydrogen annealing produced measurable reductions in elemental concentration for B, C, Na, Mg, P, K, Sr, or Sn in varying degrees for at least one and up to three of these alloys. No single element was reduced by hydrogen annealing for all the alloys except sulfur. In many cases spalling occurred at low levels of these other impurities, while in other cases the scales were adherent at high levels of the impurities. No impurity besides sulfur was strongly correlated with adhesion.

  13. Thermal annealing effects on ultra-violet luminescence properties of Gd doped AlN

    SciTech Connect

    Kita, Takashi; Ishizu, Yuta; Tsuji, Kazuma; Harada, Yukihiro; Chigi, Yoshitaka; Nishimoto, Tetsuro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Mikihiro; Ishihara, Tsuguo; Izumi, Hirokazu

    2015-04-28

    We studied energy transfer from AlN to doped Gd{sup 3+} ions as a function of the post-thermal annealing temperature. Gd-doped AlN thin films were deposited on fused-silica substrates using a reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique. The film is a c-axis oriented polycrystal. The intra-orbital electron transition in Gd{sup 3+} showed an atomically sharp luminescence at 3.9 eV (318 nm). The photoluminescence (PL) excitation spectrum exhibited a resonant peak, indicating efficient energy transfer from the host AlN crystal to Gd{sup 3+} ions. The PL intensity increases approximately ten times by thermal annealing. The PL decay lifetime becomes long with annealing, and mid-gap luminescence relating to the crystal defects in AlN was also found to be reduced by annealing. These results suggest that energy dissipation of excited carriers in AlN was suppressed by annealing, and the efficiency of energy transfer into Gd{sup 3+} was improved.

  14. The annealing effect on structure, magnetoresistance and magnetic properties of Co/Bi/Co thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobiov, S. I.; Shutylieva, O. V.; Pazukha, I. M.; Chornous, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    Co/Bi/Co thin films were prepared by alternately sputtering at substrate temperature 460K. Their structure, magnetoresistance and magnetic properties were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), software-hardware complex with current-in-plane geometries, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The trilayer systems have been investigated as functions of the Bi layer thickness and temperature. The film structure in both as-deposited and annealed at 680K states is a granulated structure which consists of a Co magnetic matrix with embedded Bi granules. The film structure after annealing at 900K depends on Bi concentrations and changes from the fcc-Co+amorphous Bi to a fcc-Co+tetragonal phase of Bi2O3 of around 17 at.%. Magnetoresistance has demonstrated independence from annealing processes in the temperature range from 300 to 680K. Besides, the oscillation dependence of magnetoresistance with Bi thickness has been observed. The saturation and remanent magnetization are reduced with the increase of Bi thickness and increase with increasing the annealing temperature; the coercivity slightly depends on Bi thickness in as-deposited state and increases more than 10 times at t_{Bi}=30 nm after annealing at 680K.

  15. Effects of stress annealing in nitrogen on the index of refraction of silicon dioxide layers in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoud, Hisham Z.; Przewlocki, Henryk M.

    2002-08-01

    In this article, we report the results of a study of the effects of high-temperature stress annealing in nitrogen on the index of refraction of SiO2 layers in metal/oxide/semiconductor (MOS) devices. In this study, we have experimentally characterized the dependence of mechanical stress in the Si-SiO2 system on the oxidation and annealing conditions and correlated such properties with the dependence of the index of refraction on processing conditions and oxide thickness. We consider the contributions of the thermal-relaxation and nitrogen-incorporation processes in determining changes in the index of refraction with annealing time. This description is consistent with other annealing studies carried out in argon where only the thermal-relaxation process is present. Correlations of these experimental observations with the electrical properties of the same MOS devices are presented in a companion article.

  16. The Effect of Annealing on the Elastic Modulus of Orthodontic Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginbottom, Kyle

    Introduction: Nickel Titanium orthodontic wires are currently used in orthodontic treatment due to their heat activated properties and their delivery of constant force. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of annealing on the elastic modulus of Nickel Titanium, Stainless Steel and Beta-titanium (TMA) wires. Different points along the wire were tested in order to determine how far from the annealed ends the elastic modulus of the wires was affected. Methods: Eighty (80) orthodontic wires consisting of 4 equal groups (SS/TMA/Classic NitinolRTM/Super Elastic NitinolRTM) were used as the specimens for this study. All wires were measured and marked at 5mm measurements, and cut into 33.00mm sections. The wires were heated with a butane torch until the first 13.00mm of the wires were red hot. Load deflection tests using an InstronRTM universal testing machine were run at 5mm distances from the end of the wire that had been annealed. The change in elastic modulus was then determined. Results: There was a significant difference (F = 533.001, p = 0.0005) in the change in elastic modulus for the four distances. There was also a significant difference (F = 57.571, p = 0.0005) in the change in elastic modulus for the four wire types. There was a significant interaction (F = 19.601, p = 0.005) between wire type and distance, however this interaction negated the differences between the wires. Conclusion: 1) There are significant differences in the changes in elastic modulus between the areas of the wires within the annealed section and those areas 5mm and 10mm away from the annealed section. The change in elastic modulus within the annealed section was significantly greater at 8 mm than it was at 13mm, and this was significantly greater than 18mm and 23mm (5mm and 10mm beyond the annealed section). However, there was no statistical difference in the change in elastic modulus between 5mm and 10mm away from the annealed section (18mm and 23mm respectively). 2

  17. Effect of annealing on the properties of zinc oxide nanofiber thin films grown by spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadananda Kumar, N.; Bangera, Kasturi V.; Shivakumar, G. K.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanofiber thin films have been deposited on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis technique. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the films are polycrystalline with the hexagonal structure and a preferred orientation along (002) direction for films annealed for 1 h at 450 °C. Further increase in annealing time changes the preferred orientation to (100) direction. The scanning electron microscopic analysis showed the formation of ZnO nanofiber with an average diameter of approximately 800 nm for annealed films. The compositional analysis of nanofiber ZnO thin films were studied by time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy, which indicated oxygen deficiency in the films. The optical properties of annealed films have shown a variation in the band gap between 3.29 and 3.20 eV. The electrical conductivity of the as grown and annealed films showed an increase in the conductivity by two orders of magnitude with increase in annealing duration.

  18. Effect of Thermal Annealing in Ammonia on the Properties of InGaN Nanowires with Different Indium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Cristopher; Cordones, Amy; Andrews, Sean; Gao, Hanwei; Fu, Anthony; Leone, Stephen; Yang, Peidong

    2012-10-02

    The utility of an annealing procedure in ammonia ambient is investigated for improving the optical characteristics of InxGa1?xN nanowires (0.07 ≤ x ≤ 0.42) grown on c-Al2O3 using a halide chemical vapor deposition method. Morphological studies using scanning electron microscopy confirm that the nanowire morphology is retained after annealing in ammonia at temperatures up to 800 ?C. However, significant indium etching and composition inhomogeneities are observed for higher indium composition nanowires (x = 0.28, 0.42), as measured by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy. Structural analyses, using X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, indicate that this is a result of the greater thermal instability of higher indium composition nanowires. The effect of these structural changes on the optical quality of InGaN nanowires is examined using steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. Annealing in ammonia enhances the integrated photoluminescence intensity of InxGa1?xN nanowires by up to a factor of 4.11 ? 0.03 (for x = 0.42) by increasing the rate of radiative recombination. Fitting of photoluminescence decay curves to a Kohlrausch stretched exponential indicates that this increase is directly related to a larger distribution of recombination rates from composition inhomogeneities caused by annealing. The results demonstrate the role of thermal instability on the improved optical properties of InGaN nanowires annealed in ammonia.

  19. Effects of rapid thermal annealing conditions on GaInNAs band gap blueshift and photoluminescence intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Liverini, V.; Rutz, A.; Keller, U.; Schoen, S.

    2006-06-01

    We have studied the effects of various conditions of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on 10 nm GaInNAs/GaAs single quantum wells (SQWs) with fixed indium concentration and increasing nitrogen content to obtain photoluminescence (PL) in the telecom wavelength regime of 1.3 and 1.5 {mu}m. Specifically, we analyzed the results of annealing for a fixed short time but at different temperatures and for longer times at a fixed temperature. In all experiments, InGaAs SQWs with the same In concentration were used as references. For both RTA conditions, the well-known blueshift of the band gap energy and the PL intensity improvement show trends that reveal that these are unrelated effects. At high RTA temperatures the PL efficiency reaches a maximum and then drops independently of N content. On the contrary, the blueshift experiences a rapid increase up to 700 deg. C (strong blueshift regime) and it saturates above this temperature (weak blueshift regime). Both these blueshift regimes are related to the nitrogen content in the SQWs but in different ways. In the strong blueshift regime, we could obtain activation energy for the blueshift process in the range of 1.25 eV, which increases with N content. Analysis with high-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) shows that the blueshift experienced in this regime is not due to a stoichiometric change in the QW. In the weak blueshift regime, the blueshift, which is only partly due to In outdiffusion, saturates more slowly the higher the N content. Annealing at the same temperature (600 deg. C) for a longer time shows that the blueshift saturates earlier than the PL intensity and that samples with higher nitrogen experience a larger blueshift. Only a small In outdiffusion for annealing at high temperatures (>650 deg. C) and long duration was observed. However, this modest stoichiometric change does not explain the large blueshift experienced by the GaInNAs SQWs. We conclude that the mechanism responsible for the drastic blueshift after

  20. Effect of annealing on properties of hot-rolled electrical copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loginov, Yu. N.; Demakov, S. L.; Ivanova, M. A.; Illarionov, A. G.; Karabanalov, M. S.; Stepatov, S. I.

    2015-04-01

    Experiments on the annealing of hot-rolled oxygen-containing copper in the temperature range of 300-700°C have been performed and the properties and the structure of the metal after this treatment have been investigated. The mechanical properties were studied by constructing tensile stress-strain curves and by determining the ultimate tensile strength, offset yield stress, percentage elongation, reduction of the area, hardness, and modulus of elasticity. The structural studies were performed using optical and electron microscopy. It has been established that the most substantial decrease after annealing at temperatures above 500°C is characteristic of the offset stress (by 62% for copper annealed at 600°C). The spheroidization of pores around the particles of copper oxides at the annealing temperature of 600°C has been revealed. It has been established that the annealing of the hot-rolled copper at temperatures of 500-600°C leads to an increase in the plastic properties of the metal due to the development of the mechanism of the spheroidization of pores and a decrease in the effect of stress concentrators.

  1. Effect of Oxygen Annealing on the Electrical Properties of PBLZST Anti-ferroelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Jinqiao; Xiong, Xue; Liu, Sisi; Jiang, Shenglin

    2015-11-01

    The effect of oxygen annealing on the electrical properties of (Pb0.97- x Ba x La0.02)(Zr0.6Sn0.32Ti0.08)O3 (PBLZST) anti-ferroelectric (AFE) ceramics has been investigated through measuring its phase structure, electric field-induced polarization and dielectric properties. The oxygen annealing process can significantly improve the stability of the AFE phase and decrease the dielectric constant peaks. The saturation polarization of the PBLZST samples annealed in O2 increases gradually when x < 0.085, but it decreases when x > 0.085. Compared with the conventional sintering method, the hysteresis switch fields of samples annealed in O2 maintains the consistent stability, and the dielectric constant peaks drop drastically and are simultaneously broadened, except at x = 0.095. The Curie temperature decreases greatly after oxygen annealing when x is smaller than 0.08, but increases slightly when x is greater than 0.08. When x = 0.085, the difference of c/a ratios between the samples processed by the two methods reaches a maximum of about 0.00614, and the increment of the saturation polarization is 7 μC/cm2.

  2. Effect of Post Deposition Annealing Treatments on Properties of AZO Thin Films for Schottky Diode Applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shaivalini; Park, Si-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    High-quality aluminum (Al) doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were deposited on silicon substrates by RF sputtering at room temperature. The deposited films were annealed from the temperatures 350 °C to 650 °C in pure nitrogen (N₂) ambient. The effects of annealing on the microstructural, optical and electrical properties of the AZO films were investigated. A detailed analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Four Probe and Hall measurements was performed to study the properties of these AZO thin films. It was observed that all of the as-deposited and annealed AZO films have homogenous surfaces and hexagonal wurtzite structures with good crystalline quality. The study also suggested that there was an intermediate post annealing temperature (450 °C) at which the deposited ZnO film exhibit best surface characteristics. Pd/AZO Schottky devices were fabricated with 450 °C annealed AZO thin films and the parameters of Schottky devices were extracted from I-V characteristics. These results indicated that the Pd/AZO films were very much suitable for various optoelectronics applications particularly for metal semiconductor metal based UV detector application. PMID:27398537

  3. Effects of thermal annealing on the evolution of He bubbles in zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Shuyan; Velisa, Gihan; Debelle, Aurélien; Yang, Tengfei; Wang, Chenxu; Thomé, Lionel; Xue, Jianming; Yan, Sha; Wang, Yugang

    2014-05-01

    Single crystals of yttria-stabilized zirconia were implanted with 100 keV He ions at two fluences of 9 × 1016 and 3 × 1017 cm-2 (5 and 17 He at.%). In order to investigate the effect of thermal annealing on the evolution of both zirconia lattice and implanted He, the samples were annealed at several temperatures ranging from 500 °C to 1400 °C. Three complementary analysis techniques, RBS/C, AFM and TEM were used to study structural damage and surface morphology of the crystal before and after implantation. Results show different He evolution phenomena under the two implantation fluences. It is inferred that, at the lower fluence, the migration and agglomeration of He ions lead to bubble formation after annealing. These bubbles jack up sample surface causing the deformation of surface region and the damage level of surface region increase accordingly. As the temperature continues to increase, He gradually releases and the damage recovers. However, at the higher fluence, the He concentration is sufficient to induce bubble precipitation without annealing. He release and damage recovering is less efficient upon annealing.

  4. Effect of external electric field on morphology of copper phthalocyanine-fullerene blended films during annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parhi, Anukul Prasad; Iyer, S. Sundar Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The thin-film morphology and segregated phases of constituents in blends of organic semiconductors play an important role in determining the performance of devices fabricated with these constituents. In this study, we explored the effect of an external electric field applied during annealing on the morphology and phase of blended films of two popular organic semiconductors, copper pthalocyanine (CuPc) and buckminsterfullerene (C60). Films of different blend ratios annealed at various temperatures in both the presence and absence of an electric field were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. The characteristics of annealed pristine CuPc films were also included for comparison. The observed changes in the properties of the blended films following the annealing, including the abrupt phase segregation of the blended constituents in the films, are discussed. The polarizability of the molecules was calculated using density functional theory (DFT) to explain the interaction, stacking, and segregation of the molecules in the blend. The results showed that application of an electric field during annealing of the blended films is an additional control parameter that can help tune the properties of the blended film. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. The effect of annealing on the spin-transfer torques of MgO MTJ nanopillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Tseng, Hsin-Wei; Huang, Pinshane; Read, John; Ralph, Dan; Buhrman, Robert

    2011-03-01

    Thermal annealing is essential for enhancing the tunneling magnetoresistane (TMR) of magnetic tunnel junctions, and many studies have focused on the effect of annealing on MTJ chemical, structural, and electrical transport properties. Here, we report the magnetic, electronic properties and the in-plane and field-like spin-transfer torques (STT) in both as-grown and post-annealed FeCoB/MgO/FeCoB MTJs nanopillars. We find that the 350 °C vacuum annealing breaks the symmetry of the bias dependence of the TMR, conductivity, and switching phase diagram (SPD). Moreover STT-FMR measurements indicate that annealing substantially increases the in-plane torque asymmetry with bias voltage direction, as well as affecting the field-like torque magnitude, with the latter indicating a very significant enhancement of interlayer exchange coupling across the barrier. This STT change is consistent with the change in chemical composition and structural coherency of the MTJ interfaces and electrodes, indicated by XRD and analytical STEM analyzes.

  6. Effects of Annealing Temperature on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian-Ping; Shi, Shao-Bo; Li, Lan; Zhang, Xiao-Song; Wang, Ya-Xin; Chen, Xi-Ming

    2010-04-01

    The effects of annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of ZnO films grown on Si (100) substrates by sol-gel spin-coating are investigated. The structural and optical properties are characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectra. X-ray diffraction analysis shows the crystal quality of ZnO films becomes better after annealing at high temperature. The grain size increases with the temperature increasing. It is found that the tensile stress in the plane of ZnO films first increases and then decreases with the annealing temperature increasing, reaching the maximum value of 1.8 GPa at 700°C. PL spectra of ZnO films annealed at various temperatures consists of a near band edge emission around 380 nm and visible emissions due to the electronic defects, which are related to deep level emissions, such as oxide antisite (OZn), interstitial oxygen (Oi), interstitial zinc (Zni) and zinc vacancy (V-Zn), which are generated during annealing process. The evolution of defects is analyzed by PL spectra based on the energy of the electronic transitions.

  7. The annealing effects of V-doped GaN thin films grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souissi, M.; Bouzidi, M.; El Jani, B.

    2012-02-01

    We have investigated the annealing effect of V-doped GaN (GaN:V) epitaxial layers grown on sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The film was annealed at a temperature of 1075 °C for 30 min in N 2 ambient after growth. The structural, surface morphology and optical properties of GaN:V films were studied by high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), atomic force microscope (AFM) and photoluminescence (PL). The results show that the annealing makes for the destruction in the crystal quality and surface morphology. After thermal annealing, the photoluminescence (PL) measurement showed a reduction of the blue luminescence (BL) band observed in GaN:V at room temperature (RT). The phenomenon is attributed to vanadium diffusion or to the V-related complex dissociation. Near-band-edge (NBE) peak exhibited a red shift after 1075 °C anneal. This is due to the decrease in the level of strain. In the infrared region, we observed the emergence of the line 0.93 eV accompanied by a decrease in the intensity of the 0.82 eV emission. Their possible origins are discussed.

  8. High-fluence Ga-implanted silicon—The effect of annealing and cover layers

    SciTech Connect

    Fiedler, J. Heera, V.; Hübner, R.; Voelskow, M.; Germer, S.; Schmidt, B.; Skorupa, W.

    2014-07-14

    The influence of SiO{sub 2} and SiN{sub x} cover layers on the dopant distribution as well as microstructure of high fluence Ga implanted Si after thermal processing is investigated. The annealing temperature determines the layer microstructure and the cover layers influence the obtained Ga profile. Rapid thermal annealing at temperatures up to 750 °C leads to a polycrystalline layer structure containing amorphous Ga-rich precipitates. Already after a short 20 ms flash lamp annealing, a Ga-rich interface layer is observed for implantation through the cover layers. This effect can partly be suppressed by annealing temperatures of at least 900 °C. However, in this case, Ga accumulates in larger, cone-like precipitates without disturbing the surrounding Si lattice parameters. Such a Ga-rich crystalline Si phase does not exist in the equilibrium phase diagram according to which the Ga solubility in Si is less than 0.1 at. %. The Ga-rich areas are capped with SiO{sub x} grown during annealing which only can be avoided by the usage of SiN{sub x} cover layers.

  9. Relationship among grain size, annealing twins and shape memory effect in Fe–Mn–Si based shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaixia; Peng, Huabei; Zhang, Chengyan; Wang, Shanling; Wen, Yuhua

    2016-07-01

    In order to clarify the relationship among grain size, annealing twins and the shape memory effect in Fe–Mn–Si based shape memory alloys, the Fe–21.63Mn–5.60Si–9.32Cr–5.38Ni (weight %) alloy with a grain size ranging from 48.9 μm–253.6 μm was obtained by adjusting the heating temperature or heating time after 20% cold-rolling. The densities of grain boundaries and annealing twins increase with a decrease in grain size, whereas the volume fraction and width of stress-induced ε martensite after 9% deformation at Ms + 10 K decrease. This result indicates that grain refinement raises the constraint effects of grain boundaries and annealing twins upon martensitic transformation. In this case, the ability to suppress the plastic deformation and facilitate the stress-induced ε martensite transformation deteriorates after grain refinement owing to the enhancement of the constraint effects. It is demonstrated by the result that the difference at Ms + 10 K between the critical stress for plastic yielding and that for inducing martensitic transformation is smaller for the specimen with a grain size of 48.9 μm than for the specimen with a grain size of 253.6 μm. Therefore, the shape memory effect declined by decreasing the grain size.

  10. Effect of annealing on the superconducting properties of a-NbxSi1-x thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crauste, O.; Gentils, A.; Couëdo, F.; Dolgorouky, Y.; Bergé, L.; Collin, S.; Marrache-Kikuchi, C. A.; Dumoulin, L.

    2013-04-01

    a-NbxSi1-x thin films with thicknesses down to 25 Å have been structurally characterized by transmission electron microscopy measurements. As-deposited or annealed films are shown to be continuous and homogeneous in composition and thickness, up to an annealing temperature of 500 ∘C. We have carried out low-temperature transport measurements on these films close to the superconductor-to-insulator transition (SIT) and shown a qualitative difference between the effect of annealing or composition and a reduction of the film thickness on the superconducting properties of a-NbSi. These results question the pertinence of the sheet resistance R□ as the relevant parameter to describe the SIT.

  11. The effect of thermal annealing on pentacene thin film transistor with micro contact printing.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hong-Sik; Yun, Ho-Jin; Baek, Kyu-Ha; Ham, Yong-Hyun; Park, Kun-Sik; Kim, Dong-Pyo; Lee, Ga-Won; Lee, Hi-Deok; Lee, Kijun; Do, Lee-Mi

    2012-07-01

    We used micro contact printing (micro-CP) to fabricate inverted coplanar pentacene thin film transistors (TFTs) with 1-microm channels. The patterning of micro-scale source/drain electrodes without etch process was successfully achieved using Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer stamp. We used the Ag nano particle ink as an electrode material, and the sheet resistance and surface roughness of the Ag electrodes were effectively reduced with the 2-step thermal annealing on a hotplate, which improved the mobility, the on-off ratio, and the subthreshold slope (SS) of the pentacene TFTs. In addition, the device annealing on a hotplate in a N2 atmosphere for 30 sec can enhance the off-current and the mobility properties of OTFTs without damaging the pentacene thin films and increase the adhesion between pentacene and dielectric layer (SiO2), which was investigated with the pentacene films phase change of the XRD spectrum after device annealing. PMID:22966565

  12. Microwave annealing effects on ZnO films deposited by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirui, Zhao; Yabin, Dong; Mingyan, Yu; Xiaolong, Guo; Xinwei, Xu; Yupeng, Jing; Yang, Xia

    2014-11-01

    Zinc oxide thin films deposited on glass substrate at 150 °C by atomic layer deposition were annealed by the microwave method at temperatures below 500 °C. The microwave annealing effects on the structural and luminescent properties of ZnO films have been investigated by X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence. The results show that the MWA process can increase the crystal quality of ZnO thin films with a lower annealing temperature than RTA and relatively decrease the green luminescence of ZnO films. The observed changes have demonstrated that MWA is a viable technique for improving the crystalline quality of ZnO thin film on glass.

  13. Effect of annealing atmosphere on phase formation and electrical characteristics of bismuth ferrite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Simoes, A.Z.; Riccardi, C.S.; Dos Santos, M.L.; Garcia, F. Gonzalez; Longo, E.; Varela, J.A.

    2009-08-05

    Bismuth ferrite thin films were deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates by a soft chemical method and spin-coating technique. The effect of annealing atmosphere (air, N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}) on the structure and electrical properties of the films are reported. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the film annealed in air atmosphere is a single-phase perovskite structure. The films annealed in air showed better crystallinity and the presence of a single BFO phase leading to lower leakage current density and superior ferroelectric hysteresis loops at room temperature. In this way, we reveal that BFO film crystallized in air atmosphere by the soft chemical method can be useful for practical applications, including nonvolatile digital memories, spintronics and data-storage media.

  14. Effect of post-annealing on the plasma etching of graphene-coated-copper.

    PubMed

    Hui, L S; Whiteway, E; Hilke, M; Turak, A

    2014-01-01

    High temperature deposition of graphene on Cu by chemical vapor deposition can be used to produce high quality films. However, these films tend to have a non-equilibrium structure, with relatively low graphene adhesion. In this study, samples of graphene grown on copper foils by high temperature CVD were post-deposition annealed at temperatures well below the critical temperature of Cu. Resistance to etching under plasma was examined to assess the mechanical robustness of the graphene on the Cu surface, analyzed using optical and Raman microscopies. We found a correlation between the post-annealing time and etching time for the complete removal of graphene from Cu. Etching rates, minimum etch times, and surface appearance were observed to vary depending on the etching plasma (air, oxygen or nitrogen). Oxygen plasmas were found to be the least aggressive, emphasizing the improved adhesion with post-annealing treatments. Our results imply that the etching of graphene on Cu, and hence the adhesion of graphene, can be controlled by proper annealing and choice of plasma gas. PMID:25465275

  15. Effects of a modular two-step ozone-water and annealing process on silicon carbide graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Matthew J. Lundstedt, Anna; Grennberg, Helena; Polley, Craig; Niu, Yuran; Zakharov, Alexei A.; Balasubramanian, Thiagarajan; Dirscherl, Kai; Burwell, Gregory; Guy, Owen J.; Palmgren, Pål; Yakimova, Rositsa

    2014-08-25

    By combining ozone and water, the effect of exposing epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide to an aggressive wet-chemical process has been evaluated after high temperature annealing in ultra high vacuum. The decomposition of ozone in water produces a number of oxidizing species, however, despite long exposure times to the aqueous-ozone environment, no graphene oxide was observed after the two-step process. The systems were comprehensively characterized before and after processing using Raman spectroscopy, core level photoemission spectroscopy, and angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy together with low energy electron diffraction, low energy electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. In spite of the chemical potential of the aqueous-ozone reaction environment, the graphene domains were largely unaffected raising the prospect of employing such simple chemical and annealing protocols to clean or prepare epitaxial graphene surfaces.

  16. Photo annealing effect on p-doped inverted organic solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Lafalce, Evan; Toglia, Patrick; Lewis, Jason E.; Jiang, Xiaomei

    2014-06-28

    We report the transient positive photo annealing effect in which over 600% boost of power conversion efficiency was observed in inverted organic photovoltaic devices (OPV) made from P3HT/PCBM by spray method, after 2 hrs of constant solar AM 1.5 irradiation at low temperature. This is opposite to usual photodegradation of OPV, and cannot be explained by thermal activation alone since the mere temperature effect could only account for 30% of the enhancement. We have investigated the temperature dependence, cell geometry, oxygen influence, and conclude that, for p-doped active layer at room temperature, the predominant mechanism is photo-desorption of O{sub 2}, which eliminates electron traps and reduces space charge screening. As temperature decreases, thermal activation and deep trap-state filling start to show noticeable effect on the enhancement of photocurrent at intermediate low temperature (T = 125 K). At very low temperature, the dominant mechanism for photo annealing is trap-filling, which significantly reduces recombination between free and trapped carriers. At all temperature, photo annealing effect depends on illumination direction from cathode or anode. We also explained the large fluctuation of photocurrent by the capture/reemit of trapped electrons from shallow electron traps of O{sub 2}{sup -} generated by photo-doping. Our study has demonstrated the dynamic process of photo-doping and photo-desorption, and shown that photo annealing in vacuum can be an efficient method to improve OPV device efficiency.

  17. Dose rate effects on array CCDs exposed by Co-60 γ rays induce saturation output degradation and annealing tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zujun Chen, Wei; He, Baoping; Yao, Zhibin; Xiao, Zhigang; Sheng, Jiangkun; Liu, Minbo

    2015-10-15

    The experimental tests of dose rate and annealing effects on array charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are presented. The saturation output voltage (V{sub S}) versus the total dose at the dose rates of 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10.0 and 50 rad(Si)/s are compared. Annealing tests are performed to eliminate the time-dependent effects. The V{sub S} degradation levels depend on the dose rates. The V{sub S} degradation mechanism induced by dose rate and annealing effects is analyzed. The V{sub S} at 20 krad(Si) with the dose rate of 0.03 rad(Si)/s are supplemented to assure the degradation curves between the dose rates of 0.1 and 0.01 rad(Si)/s. The CCDs are divided into two groups, with one group biased and the other unbiased during {sup 60}Co γ radiation. The V{sub S} degradation levels of the biased CCDs during radiation are more severe than that of the unbiased CCDs.

  18. Effect of thermal annealing on the phase evolution of silver tungstate in Ag/WO₃ films.

    PubMed

    Bose, R Jolly; Sreedharan, R Sreeja; Krishnan, R Resmi; Reddy, V R; Gupta, Mukul; Ganesan, V; Sudheer, S K; Pillai, V P Mahadevan

    2015-06-15

    Silver/tungsten oxide multi-layer films are deposited over quartz substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technique and the films are annealed at temperatures 200, 400 and 600°C. The effect of thermal annealing on the phase evolution of silver tungstate phase in Ag/WO3 films is studied extensively using techniques like X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman analysis, atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence studies. The XRD pattern of the as-deposited film shows only the peaks of cubic phase of silver. The film annealed at 200°C shows the presence of XRD peaks corresponding to orthorhombic phase of Ag2WO4 and peaks corresponding to cubic phase of silver with reduced intensity. It is found that, as annealing temperature increases, the volume fraction of Ag decreases and that of Ag2WO4 phase increases and becomes highest at a temperature of 400°C. When the temperature increases beyond 400°C, the volume fraction of Ag2WO4 decreases, due to its decomposition into silver and oxygen deficient phase Ag2W4O13. The micro-Raman spectra of the annealed films show the characteristic bands of tungstate phase which is in agreement with XRD analysis. The surface morphology of the films studied by atomic force microscopy reveals that the particle size and r.m.s roughness are highest for the sample annealed at 400°C. In the photoluminescence study, the films with silver tungstate phase show an emission peak in blue region centered around the wavelength 441 nm (excitation wavelength 256 nm). PMID:25791880

  19. Effect of thermal annealing on the thermoluminescent properties of nano-calcium fluoride and its dose-response characteristics.

    PubMed

    Mundupuzhakal, J K; Biswas, R H; Chauhan, S; Varma, V; Acharya, Y B; Chakrabarty, B S

    2015-12-01

    Nano-CaF2, prepared by the co-precipitation method, was annealed under different annealing conditions to improve its thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics. Different annealing parameters, such as temperature (400-700°C), duration (1-4 h) and environment (vacuum and air), were explored. The effect on TL sensitivity, peak position (Tm) and full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) with respect to the different annealing conditions are discussed as they are the measure of crystallinity of the material. Annealing temperature of 500°C with annealing duration of two and a half hours in vacuum provided the highest luminescence response (i.e. maximum sensitivity, minimum peak temperature and FWHM). Wide detectable dose range (5 mGy to 2 kGy), absence of thermal quenching and sufficient activation energy (1.04 eV) of this phosphor make it suitable for dosimetric applications. PMID:25398396

  20. Effect of annealing temperature on morphological, structural and optical properties of nanostructured CuO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgul, Unal; Yildiz, Koksal; Atici, Yusuf

    2016-04-01

    CuO thin film was grown on a glass substrate by reactive radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering. The deposited film was annealed in air at various temperatures for 2h. The SEM images showed that the grain size increased with rising annealing temperature. The EDX and XRD results revealed that the chemical composition and phase of the polycrystalline film were not affected by the annealing conditions. The optical band gap increased from 2.244eV to 2.261eV and then decreased from 2.261eV to 2.145eV by the effect of annealing temperature.

  1. Effect of annealing on proton irradiated AlGaN/GaN based micro-Hall sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Abderrahmane, A.; Takahashi, H.; Tashiro, T.; Ko, P. J.; Okada, H.; Sandhu, A.; Sato, S.; Ohshima, T.

    2014-02-20

    The effect of annealing at 673 K on irradiated micro-Hall sensors irradiated with protons at 380keV and fluences of 10{sup 14}, 10{sup 15} and 10{sup 16} protons/cm{sup 2} is reported. Cathodoluminescence measurements were carried out at room temperature before and after annealing and showed improvement in the band edge band emission of the GaN layer. After annealing a sensor irradiated by 10{sup 15} protons/cm{sup 2} the device became operational with improvements in its magnetic sensitivity. All irradiated sensors showed improvement in their electrical characteristics after annealing.

  2. Annealing of Co-Cr dental alloy: effects on nanostructure and Rockwell hardness

    PubMed Central

    Soylu, Elif Hilal; İde, Semra; Kılıç, Selim; Sipahi, Cumhur; Pişkin, Bulent; Gökçe, Hasan Suat

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of annealing on the nanostructure and hardness of Co-Cr metal ceramic samples that were fabricated with a direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS Five groups of Co-Cr dental alloy samples were manufactured in a rectangular form measuring 4 × 2 × 2 mm. Samples fabricated by a conventional casting technique (Group I) and prefabricated milling blanks (Group II) were examined as conventional technique groups. The DMLS samples were randomly divided into three groups as not annealed (Group III), annealed in argon atmosphere (Group IV), or annealed in oxygen atmosphere (Group V). The nanostructure was examined with the small-angle X-ray scattering method. The Rockwell hardness test was used to measure the hardness changes in each group, and the means and standard deviations were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA for comparison of continuous variables and Tukey's HSD test was used for post hoc analysis. P values of <.05 were accepted as statistically significant. RESULTS The general nanostructures of the samples were composed of small spherical entities stacked atop one another in dendritic form. All groups also displayed different hardness values depending on the manufacturing technique. The annealing procedure and environment directly affected both the nanostructure and hardness of the Co-Cr alloy. Group III exhibited a non-homogeneous structure and increased hardness (48.16 ± 3.02 HRC) because the annealing process was incomplete and the inner stress was not relieved. Annealing in argon atmosphere of Group IV not only relieved the inner stresses but also decreased the hardness (27.40 ± 3.98 HRC). The results of fitting function presented that Group IV was the most homogeneous product as the minimum bilayer thickness was measured (7.11 Å). CONCLUSION After the manufacturing with DMLS technique, annealing in argon atmosphere is an essential process for Co-Cr metal ceramic

  3. Effect of Annealing Treatment on Erosion-Corrosion of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass in Saline-Sand Slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xiulin; Shan, Yiping; Chen, Yueyue; Wang, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Bulk metallic glass (BMG) may be a good candidate to solve the erosion-corrosion (E-C) problems of marine pumps in sand-containing seawater. Since annealing treatment is an effective way to improve plasticity of BMGs, the effect of annealing treatment on E-C wear of Zr-based BMG in saline-sand slurry was investigated. All of the annealed BMG samples were crystallized and the quantity of (Zr, Cu) phase increased but that of Al4Cu9 phase decreased with the increase of annealing temperature from 360 to 480 °C. Accordingly, annealing treatment enhances plasticity of the as-cast BMG at the cost of hardness and corrosion resistance. Moreover, 480 °C annealed BMG sample possesses the highest hardness and the lowest corrosion current density in all of the annealed BMG samples. Using a slurry pot erosion tester, the E-C wear of the as-cast and annealed BMG samples was studied under different impingement angles, impact velocities, and concentrations in saline-sand slurry. With the improvement of plasticity, 480 °C annealed BMG sample exhibits the best E-C wear resistance under high impingement angle, high impact velocity, and high sand concentration.

  4. Effect of Annealing Treatment on Erosion-Corrosion of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass in Saline-Sand Slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xiulin; Shan, Yiping; Chen, Yueyue; Wang, Hui

    2016-05-01

    Bulk metallic glass (BMG) may be a good candidate to solve the erosion-corrosion (E-C) problems of marine pumps in sand-containing seawater. Since annealing treatment is an effective way to improve plasticity of BMGs, the effect of annealing treatment on E-C wear of Zr-based BMG in saline-sand slurry was investigated. All of the annealed BMG samples were crystallized and the quantity of (Zr, Cu) phase increased but that of Al4Cu9 phase decreased with the increase of annealing temperature from 360 to 480 °C. Accordingly, annealing treatment enhances plasticity of the as-cast BMG at the cost of hardness and corrosion resistance. Moreover, 480 °C annealed BMG sample possesses the highest hardness and the lowest corrosion current density in all of the annealed BMG samples. Using a slurry pot erosion tester, the E-C wear of the as-cast and annealed BMG samples was studied under different impingement angles, impact velocities, and concentrations in saline-sand slurry. With the improvement of plasticity, 480 °C annealed BMG sample exhibits the best E-C wear resistance under high impingement angle, high impact velocity, and high sand concentration.

  5. Temperature effects on the mechanical properties of annealed and HERF 304L stainless steel.

    SciTech Connect

    Antoun, Bonnie R.

    2004-11-01

    The effect of temperature on the tensile properties of annealed 304L stainless steel and HERF 304L stainless steel forgings was determined by completing experiments over the moderate range of -40 F to 160 F. Temperature effects were more significant in the annealed material than the HERF material. The tensile yield strength of the annealed material at -40 F averaged twenty two percent above the room temperature value and at 160 F averaged thirteen percent below. The tensile yield strength for the three different geometry HERF forgings at -40 F and 160 F changed less than ten percent from room temperature. The ultimate tensile strength was more temperature dependent than the yield strength. The annealed material averaged thirty six percent above and fourteen percent below the room temperature ultimate strength at -40 F and 160 F, respectively. The HERF forgings exhibited similar, slightly lower changes in ultimate strength with temperature. For completeness and illustrative purposes, the stress-strain curves are included for each of the tensile experiments conducted. The results of this study prompted a continuation study to determine tensile property changes of welded 304L stainless steel material with temperature, documented separately.

  6. Effect of annealing atmosphere on the thermal coarsening of nanoporous gold films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A. Y.; Shi, S. S.; Liu, F.; Wang, Y.; Li, X.; Gu, J. F.; Xie, X. F.

    2015-11-01

    The coarsening of nanoporous gold (NPG) is significantly influenced by surface adsorbates at elevated temperature. In this paper, the effect of annealing atmosphere on the thermal growth of the porous structure was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The NPG films were annealed in oxidative (air), inert (Ar) and reductive (CO) atmospheres at 100-600 °C for 2 h, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the NPG films show the best stability in the reductive atmosphere and the worst thermal properties in oxidative air. The NPG films annealed in air exhibit a significant pore growth at 200 °C and lose the porous structure at 300 °C, while those annealed in CO gas at 600 °C still remain the porous network. The thermal-induced coarsening of NPG films in air can be attributed to the desorption of O2 from the NPG surface above 200 °C. In contrast, the stabilization of the NPG films in CO gas originates from the strong binding of CO with Au atoms to form a complex adsorption layer, which effectively inhibits the surface diffusion of Au atoms.

  7. Evaluation of the annealing effect of proton-exchanged LiTaO3 optical waveguides by the line-focus-beam ultrasonic material characterization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyashita, Masahito; Kushibiki, Jun-ichi

    2002-09-01

    We established an experimental procedure and collected basic data to evaluate the annealing process and effects for proton-exchanged LiTaO3 optical waveguides using the line-focus-beam ultrasonic material characterization (LFB-UMC) system in a frequency range of 100 to 300 MHz. Twelve Z-cut LiTaO3 substrates were proton-exchanged at 260 degC for 14 min in a pyrophosphoric acid solution and annealed at 420 degC for various periods from 10 sec to 24 h. The leaky surface acoustic wave (LSAW) velocities were decreased by the proton exchange, and were then increased and recovered by annealing in all propagation directions as the annealing time increased. The Y-axis propagation is most useful for an evaluation. The LSAW velocities decrease with an increase of the product fH, obtained from the frequency dependences and proton-diffused layer depths analyzed by secondary-ion mass spectrometry. Gradients of the fH dependences of the LSAW velocities become gentler with increases in the annealing time, corresponding to the concentrations and distributions of hydrogen and lithium ions in the proton-diffused layers. The relationships among the LSAW velocities, proton-diffused layer depths, relative concentrations of hydrogen ions at the specimen surfaces, and the annealing times were experimentally obtained. The measurement resolutions of the LFB-UMC system at 225 MHz to the proton-diffused layer depth, the relative concentration of hydrogen ions, and the typical annealing time for 1 min were estimated to be 4 nm, 0.2%, and 0.6 sec.

  8. Rapid Annealing Of Amorphous Hydrogenated Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Pouch, John J.; Warner, Joseph D.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes experiments to determine effects of rapid annealing on films of amorphous hydrogenated carbon. Study represents first efforts to provide information for applications of a-C:H films where rapid thermal processing required. Major finding, annealing causes abrupt increase in absorption and concomitant decrease in optical band gap. Most of change occurs during first 20 s, continues during longer annealing times. Extend of change increases with annealing temperature. Researchers hypothesize abrupt initial change caused by loss of hydrogen, while gradual subsequent change due to polymerization of remaining carbon into crystallites or sheets of graphite. Optical band gaps of unannealed specimens on silicon substrates lower than those of specimens on quartz substrates.

  9. Annealing temperature effect on microstructure, magnetic and microwave properties of Fe-based amorphous alloy powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jinghua; Wang, Wei; Wang, Aimin; Guan, Jianguo

    2012-09-01

    Fe74Ni3Si13Cr6W4 amorphous alloy powders were annealed at different temperature (T) for 1.5 h to fabricate the corresponding amorphous and nanocrystalline powders. The influences of T on the crystalline structure, morphology, magnetic and microwave electromagnetic properties of the resultant samples were investigated via X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and vector network analyzer. The results show that the powder samples obtained at T of 650 °C or more are composed of lots of ultra-fine α-Fe(Si) grains embedded in an amorphous matrix. When T increases from 350 to 750 °C, the saturated magnetization and coercivity of the as-annealed powder samples both increase monotonously whereas the relative real permittivity shows a minimal value and the relative real permeability shows a maximal value at T of 650 °C. Thus the powder samples annealed at 650 °C show optimal reflection loss under -10 dB in the whole C-band. These results here suggest that the annealing heat treatment of Fe-based amorphous alloy is an effective approach to fabricate high performance microwave absorber with reasonable permittivity and large permeability simultaneously via adjusting T.

  10. Tellurium precipitates in (Cd,Mn)Te:V crystals: Effects of annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Kochanowska,D.; Mycielski, A.; Witkowska-Baran, M.; Szadkowski, A.; Witkowska, B.; Kaliszek, W.; Cui, Y.; James, R. B.

    2008-10-19

    We suggest that (Cd,Mn)Te is a suitable material for fabricating gamma- and X-ray detectors. Our investigations, reported here, are focused on producing high-quality (Cd,Mn)Te crystals with high resistivity (10{sup 9} {Omega}-cm) by the Bridgman method. As-grown, undoped (Cd,Mn)Te crystals are typically p-type, signifying that they contain excess Cd vacancies (acting as acceptors), accumulated during growth. Doping with vanadium atoms, which function as compensating centers, results in a semi-insulating material (Cd,Mn)Te:V. Properly annealing the platelets in cadmium vapors at uniform temperature reduces the number of cadmium vacancies, and lowers the level of the vanadium doping required for compensation. We found that annealing in cadmium vapors not only decreases the concentration of the native cadmium vacancies but also improves the crystal's quality. Infrared observations of the interior of the samples show that annealing in a temperature gradient perpendicular to the platelet has an additional effect, viz., the tellurium precipitates migrate towards the side where the temperature is higher. We demonstrate, with IR pictures of monocrystalline (Cd,Mn)Te:V platelets cut parallel to the (111) crystal planes, the influence on tellurium inclusions and precipitates of various conditions of annealing in cadmium vapors.

  11. Visible Photoluminescence of Non-Stoichiometric Silicon Nitride Films: The Effect of Annealing Temperature and Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasukova, L. A.; Komarov, F. F.; Parkhomenko, I. N.; Milchanin, O. V.; Makhavikou, M. A.; Mudryi, A. V.; Żuk, J.; Kopychiński, P.; Togambayeva, A. K.

    2015-07-01

    The radiative properties of non-stoichiometric silicon nitride SiNx fi lms produced by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition were studied. Intense room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) in the visible region was recorded after annealing for both Si-rich (x = 1.13) and N-rich (x = 1.5) silicon nitride fi lms. The position of the PL band maximum depended signifi cantly on the fi lm composition. The PL band maxima for Si-rich and N-rich SiNx fi lms were detected in the red (660 nm) and blue (450 nm) spectral regions, respectively. The effect of the annealing atmosphere on PL of the SiNx fi lms was studied. It was shown that the PL intensity depended not only on the annealing temperature but also on the annealing atmosphere. The observed features of the non-stoichiometric SiNx PL spectra were explained in terms of defect states in the SiNx band gap.

  12. Effects of thermal annealing and reirradiation on toughness of reactor pressure vessel steels

    SciTech Connect

    Nanstad, R.K.; Iskander, S.K.; Sokolov, M.A.

    1997-02-01

    One of the options to mitigate the effects of irradiation on reactor pressure vessels (RPV) is to thermally anneal them to restore the toughness properties that have been degraded by neutron irradiation. This paper summarizes recent experimental results from work performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the annealing response, or {open_quotes}recovery,{close_quotes} of several irradiated RPV steels; it also includes recent results from both ORNL and the Russian Research Center-Kurchatov Institute (RRC-KI) on a cooperative program of irradiation, annealing and reirradiation of both U.S. and Russian RPV steels. The cooperative program was conducted under the auspices of Working Group 3, U.S./Russia Joint Coordinating Committee for Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety (JCCCNRS). The materials investigated are an RPV plate and various submerged-arc welds, with tensile, Charpy impact toughness, and fracture toughness results variously determined. Experimental results are compared with applicable prediction guidelines, while observed differences in annealing responses and reirradiation rates are discussed.

  13. Effect of annealing on photovoltaic performance of fabricated planar organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltakesmez, Ali; Biber, Mehmet; Tüzemen, Sebahattin

    2016-04-01

    We fabricated planar perovskite solar cells used CH3NH3PbI3-xClx for light harvesting to investigate effect of annealing on photovoltaic performance of fabricated device. The devices have an architecture of Glass/ITO/Pedot:PSS/Perovskite/PC61BM/Al. Layers of hole transport (Pedot:PSS), active and electron transport (PC61BM) were prepared from solution based one step deposition method by a spin coater and standard annealing procedure. The current‑voltage curves of devices were measured inside the glovebox using a Keithley 2400 sourcemeter. The cells were illuminated by a solar simulator have optical intensity value of 300 mW/cm2. For the best cells, while PCE value of 5.78% before the annealing, photovoltaic efficiency was improved average 13% delivered a short-circuit current density of 3.20 mA/cm2, open-circuit voltage of 0.82 V and fill factor of 0.74, leading to an efficiency of 6.54% with respect to prior to annealing.

  14. Effect of Intercritical Annealing on Microstructural Evolution and Properties of Quenched & Partitioned (Q&P) Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Riming; Jin, Xuejun; Wang, Chenglin; Wang, Li

    2016-04-01

    Transformation of metastable austenite into martensite in novel quenched & partitioned (Q&P) steels improves sheet formability, allowing this class of high-strength steels to be used for automotive structural components. The current work studies the microstructural evolution by varying intercritical annealing time ( t a), as well as its influence on the martensite-austenite constituent and mechanical properties of Q&P steels. As the t a was prolonged, the morphology of retained austenite progressively transformed from block to a mixture of block and film, and finally changed to totally film. Based on electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements and uniaxial tensile response, the holding time of 600 s at 760 °C was determined to produce the best results in terms of highest volume fraction of retained austenite ( f γ = 15.8%) and largest strain (26.8%) at the ultimate tensile strength (892 MPa). This difference in work-hardening behavior corresponds directly to the transformation rate of retained austenite with different morphology. The slower rate of transformation of filmy austenite allowed for work hardening to persist at high strains where the transformation effect had already been exhausted in the blocky one. There is great potential for properties improvement through adjustment of metastability of retained austenite.

  15. Characterization of zinc implanted silica: Effects of thermal annealing and picosecond laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Mu, R.; Ueda, A.; Wu, M.H.; Tung, Y.; Gu, Z.; Henderson, D.O.; White, C.W.; Budai, J.D.; Zuhr, R.A.

    1998-05-01

    Zinc ion implanted silica with controlled thermal treatments and pulsed laser radiation has been investigated. Optical spectra of the as-implanted silica at higher doses ({gt}3{times}10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}) and/or the samples annealed in a reducing atmosphere show both Zn clusters and Zn metal colloid formation. The absorption peak at {approximately}5.3 eV is attributed to the surface plasmon absorption of Zn metal colloids in silica. The oxidized samples with the ion dose {ge}3{times}10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} show an absorption peak in 4.3{endash}4.7 eV region implying ZnO quantum dot formation. It is expected that the average size of the ZnO nanoparticles becomes smaller for lower ion dose. Therefore, a blueshift of the absorption peak with lower ion dose can be attributed to the quantum confinement effects. Pulsed laser radiation at 266 nm with energy density of 30mJ/cm{sup 2} causes a brownish coloration in these optically transparent Zn implanted silica substrates. The color formation is an irreversible process. Therefore, it is believed that new chemical species may have formed through photochemical reactions. The results also show that the coloring process is photon energy dependent. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Vacuum Society.}

  16. RESIDENCE TIMES OF PARTICLES IN DIFFUSIVE PROTOPLANETARY DISK ENVIRONMENTS. II. RADIAL MOTIONS AND APPLICATIONS TO DUST ANNEALING

    SciTech Connect

    Ciesla, F. J.

    2011-10-10

    The origin of crystalline grains in comets and the outer regions of protoplanetary disks remains a mystery. It has been suggested that such grains form via annealing of amorphous precursors in the hot, inner region of a protoplanetary disk, where the temperatures needed for such transformations were found, and were then transported outward by some dynamical means. Here we develop a means of tracking the paths that dust grains would have taken through a diffusive protoplanetary disk and examine the types and ranges of environments that particles would have seen over a 10{sup 6} yr time period in the dynamic disk. We then combine this model with three annealing laws to examine how the dynamic evolution of amorphous grains would have led to their physical restructuring and their delivery to various regions of the disk. It is found that 'sibling particles' - those particles that reside at the same location at a given period of time-take a wide range of unique and independent paths through the disk to arrive there. While high temperatures can persist in the disk for very long time periods, we find that those grains that are delivered to the cold outer regions of the disk are largely annealed in the first few x10{sup 5} yr of disk history. This suggests that the crystallinity of grains in the outer disk would be determined early and remain unchanged for much of disk history, in agreement with recent astronomical observations.

  17. Effect of solution annealing temperature on precipitation in 2205 duplex stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwar, A.; Vennela, N. Phani; Kamath, S.L.; Khatirkar, R.K.

    2012-12-15

    In the present study, effect of solution annealing temperature (1050 Degree-Sign C and 1100 Degree-Sign C) and isothermal ageing (700 Degree-Sign C: 15 min to 6 h) on the microstructural changes in 2205 duplex stainless steel has been investigated systematically. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were adopted to follow the microstructural evolution, while an energy dispersive spectrometer attached to scanning electron microscope was used to obtain localised chemical information of various phases. The ferritic matrix of the two phase 2205 duplex stainless steel ({approx} 45% ferrite and {approx} 55% austenite) undergoes a series of metallurgical transformations during ageing-formation of secondary austenite ({gamma}{sub 2}) and precipitation of Cr and Mo rich intermetallic (chi-{chi} and sigma-{sigma}) phases. For solution annealing at 1050 Degree-Sign C, significant amount of carbides were observed in the ferrite grains after 1 h of ageing at 700 Degree-Sign C. {chi} Phase precipitated after the precipitation of carbides-preferentially at the ferrite-ferrite and also at the ferrite-austenite boundaries. {sigma} Phase was not observed in significant quantity even after 6 h of ageing. The sequence of precipitation in samples solution annealed at 1050 Degree-Sign C was found to be carbides {yields} {chi} {yields} {sigma}. On the contrary, for samples solution annealed at 1100 Degree-Sign C, the precipitation of {chi} phase was negligible. {chi} Phase precipitated before {sigma} phase, preferentially along the ferrite-ferrite grain boundaries and was later consumed in the {sigma} phase precipitation. The {sigma} phase precipitated via the eutectoid transformation of ferrite to yield secondary austenite {gamma}{sub 2} and {sigma} phase in the ferrite and along the ferrite-austenite grain boundaries. An increase in the volume fraction of {gamma}{sub 2} and {sigma} phase with simultaneous decrease in the ferrite was evidenced with ageing. - Highlights

  18. Effects of N2O Plasma Annealing on the Characteristics of Tantalum Oxide Thin Films Deposited on TaN/Ta Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tzu-Ping; Huang, Ya-Huang; Chang, Chich-Shang; Wu, Tai-Bor

    2002-12-01

    The effects of N2O plasma annealing on the structural and leakage current characteristics of amorphous and crystallized TaOx thin films deposited on a TaN/Ta bottom electrode by chemical vapor deposition at 350°C were investigated. An interfacial Ta(O,N) layer was formed following the oxidation of the TaN electrode after plasma annealing the TaOx films of ˜25 nm thickness, which decreased the effective capacitance of the thin film capacitors, and the Ta(O,N) layer grew with increasing annealing time or temperature. The growth of the Ta(O,N) layer up to a thickness of 38 nm followed a linear oxidation law with an activation energy of ˜0.74 eV for the annealing of the amorphous TaOx films in a temperature range of 300°C-450°C. However, an activation energy of ˜1.18 eV was found for the linear oxidation of TaN within an oxidation thickness of 22 nm, and then, the oxidation switched to a parabolic process with an activation energy of ˜0.8 eV for annealing the crystallized TaOx films. The current-voltage (I-V) relation of the TaOx films was asymmetric with respect to the biasing polarity, and the leakage current decreased with increasing annealing time or temperature due to the formation and growth of a Ta(ON) layer. Barrier heights of 1.08 and 0.74 eV were evaluated from the temperature dependence of the I-V characteristics for the Schottky emission in the amorphous and crystalline 50-nm-thick TaOx films annealed in N2O plasma at 350°C for 10 min, respectively.

  19. Effect of low temperature anneals and nonthermal treatments on the properties of gap fill oxides used in SiGe and III-V devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, E. Todd; Morin, Pierre; Madan, Anita; Mehta, Sanjay

    2016-07-01

    Silicon dioxide is used to electrically isolate CMOS devices such as fin field effect transistors by filling gaps between the devices (also known as shallow trench isolation). The gap fill oxide typically requires a high temperature anneal in excess of 1000 °C to achieve adequate electrical properties and oxide densification to make the oxide compatible with subsequent fabrication steps such as fin reveal etch. However, the transition from Si-based devices to high mobility channel materials such as SiGe and III-V semiconductors imposes more severe thermal limitations on the processes used for device fabrication, including gap fill oxide annealing. This study provides a framework to quantify and model the effect of anneal temperature and time on the densification of a flowable silicon dioxide as measured by wet etch rate. The experimental wet etch rates allowed the determination of the activation energy and anneal time dependence for oxide densification. Dopant and self-diffusion can degrade the channel material above a critical temperature. We present a model of self-diffusion of Ge and Si in SiGe materials. Together these data allowed us to map the thermal process space for acceptable oxide wet etch rate and self-diffusion. The methodology is also applicable to III-V devices, which require even lower thermal budget. The results highlight the need for nonthermal oxide densification methods such as ultraviolet (UV) and plasma treatments. We demonstrate that several plasma treatments, in place of high temperature annealing, improved the properties of flowable oxide. In addition, UV curing prior to thermal annealing enables acceptable densification with dramatically reduced anneal temperature.

  20. The Effect of Hydrogen Annealing and Sulfur Content on the Oxidation Resistance of PWA 1480

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    1997-01-01

    For many decades the dramatic effect of trace amounts of reactive elements on alumina and chromia scale adhesion has been recognized and widely studied. Although various theories have been used to account for such behavior, the connection between scale adhesion and sulfur segregation was initially reported by Smeggil et al. This study found strong surface segregation of sulfur from very low levels in the bulk which could then be curtailed by the addition of reactive elements. It was assumed that the reactive elements, which are strong sulfide formers, acted by getting sulfur in the bulk thus precluding sulfur segregation and weakening of the oxide-metal bond. Subsequent studies confirmed that adhesion could be produced by reducing the sulfur impurity level, without reactive elements. The understanding of this phenomenon has been applied to modern single crystal superalloys, where the addition of Y, although very effective, is problematic. Also problematic is definition of the level of sulfur that is acceptable and below which no further adhesion benefit is reached. Published works have indicated a broad transition defined by various materials and oxidation tests. The present study describes the oxidation behavior of one superalloy (PWA 1480) as a function of various sulfur contents produced by hydrogen annealing for various temperatures, times, and sample thicknesses. The purpose is to define more precisely a criterion for adhesion based on total sulfur reservoir and segregation potential.

  1. Thin porous indium tin oxide nanoparticle films: effects of annealing in vacuum and air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ederth, J.; Hultåker, A.; Niklasson, G. A.; Heszler, P.; van Doorn, A. R.; Jongerius, M. J.; Burgard, D.; Granqvist, C. G.

    2005-11-01

    Electrical and optical properties were investigated in porous thin films consisting of In2O3:Sn (indium tin oxide; ITO) nanoparticles. The temperature-dependent resistivity was successfully described by a fluctuation-induced tunneling model, indicating a sample morphology dominated by clusters of ITO nanoparticles separated by insulating barriers. An effective-medium model, including the effect of ionized impurity scattering, was successfully fitted to measured reflectance and transmittance. Post-deposition treatments were carried out at 773 K for 2 h in both air and vacuum. It is shown that vacuum annealing increases either the barrier width or the area between two conducting clusters in the samples and, furthermore, an extra optical absorption occurs close to the band gap. A subsequent air annealing then reduces the effect of the barriers on the electrical properties and diminishes the absorption close to the band gap.

  2. Enhanced memory characteristics in organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors through thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Sugano, Ryo; Tashiro, Tomoya; Sekine, Tomohito; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Kumaki, Daisuke; Tokito, Shizuo

    2015-11-15

    We report on the memory characteristics of organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FeFETs) using spin-coated poly(vinylidene difluoride/trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF/TrFE)) as a gate insulating layer. By thermal annealing the P(VDF/TrFE) layer at temperatures above its melting point, we could significantly improve the on/off current ratio to over 10{sup 4}. Considerable changes in the surface morphology and x-ray diffraction patterns were also observed in the P(VDF/TrFE) layer as a result of the annealing process. The enhanced memory effect is attributed to large polarization effects caused by rearranged ferroelectric polymer chains and improved crystallinity in the organic semiconductor layer of the FeFET devices.

  3. Neutron, gamma ray and post-irradiation thermal annealing effects on power semiconductor switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, G. E.; Frasca, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental data showing the effects of neutrons and gamma rays on the performance characteristics of power-type NPN bipolar junction transistors (BJTs), metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), and static induction transistors (SITs) are given. These three types of devices were tested at radiation levels which met or exceeded the SP-100 requirements. For the SP-100 radiation requirements, the BJTs were found to be most sensitive to neutrons, the MOSFETs were most sensitive to gamma rays, and the SITs were only slightly sensitive to neutrons. Postirradiation thermal anneals at 300 K and up to 425 K were done on these devices and the effectiveness of these anneals are also discussed.

  4. Enhanced memory characteristics in organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors through thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugano, Ryo; Tashiro, Tomoya; Sekine, Tomohito; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Kumaki, Daisuke; Tokito, Shizuo

    2015-11-01

    We report on the memory characteristics of organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FeFETs) using spin-coated poly(vinylidene difluoride/trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF/TrFE)) as a gate insulating layer. By thermal annealing the P(VDF/TrFE) layer at temperatures above its melting point, we could significantly improve the on/off current ratio to over 104. Considerable changes in the surface morphology and x-ray diffraction patterns were also observed in the P(VDF/TrFE) layer as a result of the annealing process. The enhanced memory effect is attributed to large polarization effects caused by rearranged ferroelectric polymer chains and improved crystallinity in the organic semiconductor layer of the FeFET devices.

  5. Effects of annealing temperature on shape transformation and optical properties of germanium quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alireza, Samavati; Othaman, Z.; K. Ghoshal, S.; K. Mustafa, M.

    2015-02-01

    The influences of thermal annealing on the structural and optical features of radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtered self-assembled Ge quantum dots (QDs) on Si (100) are investigated. Preferentially oriented structures of Ge along the (220) and (111) directions together with peak shift and reduced strain (4.9% to 2.7%) due to post-annealing at 650 °C are discerned from x-ray differaction (XRD) measurement. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images for both pre-annealed and post-annealed (650 °C) samples reveal pyramidal-shaped QDs (density ˜ 0.26× 1011 cm-2) and dome-shape morphologies with relatively high density ˜ 0.92 × 1011 cm-2, respectively. This shape transformation is attributed to the mechanism of inter-diffusion of Si in Ge interfacial intermixing and strain non-uniformity. The annealing temperature assisted QDs structural evolution is explained using the theory of nucleation and growth kinetics where free energy minimization plays a pivotal role. The observed red-shift ˜ 0.05 eV in addition to the narrowing of the photoluminescence peaks results from thermal annealing, and is related to the effect of quantum confinement. Furthermore, the appearance of a blue-violet emission peak is ascribed to the recombination of the localized electrons in the Ge-QDs/SiO2 or GeOx and holes in the ground state of Ge dots. Raman spectra of both samples exhibit an intense Ge-Ge optical phonon mode which shifts towards higher frequency compared with those of the bulk counterpart. An experimental Raman profile is fitted to the models of phonon confinement and size distribution combined with phonon confinement to estimate the mean dot sizes. A correlation between thermal annealing and modifications of the structural and optical behavior of Ge QDs is established. Tunable growth of Ge QDs with superior properties suitable for optoelectronic applications is demonstrated. Project supported by Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Study, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

  6. Annealing effects on the structural and magnetic properties of off-stoichiometric Fe-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Yan; Bei, Hongbin; Dela Cruz, Clarina R; Wang, Yandong; An, Ke

    2016-05-07

    Annealing plays an important role in modifying structures and properties of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMAs). The annealing effect on the structures and magnetic properties of off-stoichiometric Fe45Mn26Ga29 FSMA has been investigated at different elevated temperatures. Rietveld refinements of neutron diffraction patterns display that the formation of the γ phase in Fe45Mn26Ga29 annealed at 1073 K increases the martensitic transformation temperature and reduces the thermal hysteresis in comparison to the homogenized sample. The phase segregation of a Fe-rich cubic phase and a Ga-rich cubic phase occurs at the annealing temperature of 773 K. The atomic occupancies of the alloys aremore » determined thanks to the neutron's capability of differentiating transition metals. The annealing effects at different temperatures introduce a different magnetic characteristic that is associated with distinctive structural changes in the crystal.« less

  7. Effect of annealing over optoelectronic properties of graphene based transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Shriniwas; Kaur, Inderpreet

    2016-04-01

    Graphene, an atom-thick two dimensional graphitic material have led various fundamental breakthroughs in the field of science and technology. Due to their exceptional optical, physical and electrical properties, graphene based transparent electrodes have shown several applications in organic light emitting diodes, solar cells and thin film transistors. Here, we are presenting effect of annealing over optoelectronic properties of graphene based transparent electrodes. Graphene based transparent electrodes have been prepared by wet chemical approach over glass substrates. After fabrication, these electrodes tested for optical transmittance in visible region. Sheet resistance was measured using four probe method. Effect of thermal annealing at 200 °C was studied over optical and electrical performance of these electrodes. Optoelectronic performance was judged from ratio of direct current conductivity to optical conductivity (σdc/σopt) as a figure of merit for transparent conductors. The fabricated electrodes display good optical and electrical properties. Such electrodes can be alternatives for doped metal oxide based transparent electrodes.

  8. Effects of annealing and additions on dynamic mechanical properties of SnSb quenched alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bediwi, A. B.

    2004-08-01

    The elastic modulus, internal friction and stiffness values of quenched SnSb bearing alloy have been evaluated using the dynamic resonance technique. Annealing for 2 and 4 h at 120, 140 and 160degreesC caused variations in the elastic modulus. internal friction and stiffness values. This is due to structural changes in the SnSb matrix during isothermal annealing such as coarsening in the phases (Sn, Sb or intermetallic compounds), recrystallization and stress relief. In addition, adding a small amount (1 wt.%) of Cu or Ag improved the bearing mechanical properties of the SnSb bearing alloy. The SnSbCu1 alloy has the best bearing mechanical properties with thermo-mechanical stability for long time at high temperature.

  9. Radiation Induced Optical Absorption of Cubic Lead Fluoride Crystals and the Effect of Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Guo-Hao; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Li, Huan-Ying; Wu, Yun-Tao; Shi, Hong-Sheng; Qin, Lai-Shun

    2014-08-01

    Transparent and colorless lead fluoride crystals with sizes of 20 × 20 × 20 (mm3) are irradiated with several doses of γ-rays from a 60 Co source. Their transmittance spectra before and after irradiation are measured, and a new parameter ΔT = Tb - Ta is defined to evaluate the irradiation damage. Three optical absorption bands peaking at 270 nm, 370 nm and 500 nm are found in the plots of ΔT versus wavelength, and their intensities increase with the irradiation dose. These optical absorption bands, except the one at 270 nm, can recover spontaneously with time. Thermal annealing treatment can enhance this recovery of the transmittance, while the optimum annealing temperature for different samples depends on the irradiation dose.

  10. Effects of Post-Deposition Annealing on the Properties of Calcium Manganese Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrone, Natalie; Chaudhry, Adeel; Hart, Cacie; Lawson, Bridget; Houston, David; Neubauer, Samuel; Johnson, Anthony; Schaefer, David; Kolagani, Rajeswari

    We will present our results on the effects of post-deposition annealing on the structural and electrical properties of CaMnO3-d thin films grown by Pulsed Laser deposition. The thin films are epitaxially grown on (100) LaAlO3 which has larger in-plane lattice parameters than that of bulk CaMnO3, which leads to bi-axial tensile strain in the thin films. Results from our laboratory show that bi-axial tensile strain leads to low resistivity in thinner films, the resistivity increasing with increasing thickness. These results are suggestive of a coupling between strain and oxygen stoichiometry in the thin films. We have investigated the effects of post-deposition annealing in various gas ambients towards the goal of understanding the effects of relaxation and oxygen stoichiometric changes. We will present a comparison of the structural and electrical properties of as-grown and post-annealed films over a range of thicknesses. Support from Towson University Office of Undergraduate Research, Fisher Endowment Grant & Undergraduate Research Grant from the Fisher College of Science & Mathematics, Seed Funding Grant from the School of Emerging technologies, & NSF Grant ECCS 112856.

  11. Effects of pre-annealing on the uni- and bi-axial stretching behavior of poly(ethylene naphthalate) films

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, T. Takarada, W. Kikutani, T.

    2014-05-15

    Effect of pre-annealing on stress and birefringence behavior of poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN) films during stretching and relaxation processes was investigated. Amorphous and non-oriented PEN films were pre-annealed under the conditions of different temperatures and periods. The pre-annealed films were stretched uniaxially or equi-biaxially and then relaxed at fixed length. It was found that pre-annealing did not cause any notable change for the initial behavior of refractive indices variation, whereas the behaviors after necking were significantly affected. Through the comparison between in-plane and out-of-plane birefringence and the analysis of wide-angle x-ray diffraction patterns of drawn films of both stretching modes, it was confirmed that the orientation of naphthalene ring in the film plane was enhanced by pre-annealing.

  12. Annealing effects on the microstructure and magnetic domain structures of duplex stainless steel studied by in situ technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, L. Q.; Zhao, X. M.; Li, M.; Zhang, W. J.; Bai, Y.; Qiao, L. J.

    2012-10-01

    The effects of annealing temperature on the microstructure and the magnetic domain structures of duplex stainless steel 2507 were investigated by the magnetic force microscopy (MFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The MFM and XRD results indicated that the volume fraction of ferrite phase increased with increasing annealing temperature, but the lattice constants kept constant. Moreover, with the rise of annealing temperature, the magnetic domain structure in the ferrite phase varied gradually, where the magnetic domain became thinner and the distribution turned more homogeneous. These results gave a direct evidence for the changes of microstructure and magnetic domain structure induced by the annealing treatment. EBSD analysis showed that the orientation of ferrite grains changed after annealing treatments, which coincided with the changes of the microstructure and the magnetic domain structures.

  13. The effect of post-annealing on the critical current recovery of bending-deformed (Bi,Pb)-2223/Ag tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Xie, L.; Li, P.; Qu, T.-M.; Song, Y.; Wang, X.-C.; Han, Z.

    2007-10-01

    (Bi,Pb)-2223/Ag tape fabricated by PIT methods is a promising candidate for electrical power application. In these applications, the tape often undergoes a winding process, which leads to the degradation of the critical current. In this paper, we report the effect of post-annealing on the critical current (Ic) recovery of bent-deformed (Bi,Pb)-2223/Ag multi-filamentary tapes. The tapes were bent at room temperature with different curvatures, then straightened and post-annealed with different processing parameters, including post-annealing temperature, dwelling time and oxygen partial pressure. The experiment results show that rather high Ic value could be obtained by post-annealing even for the tapes whose bending strain was 0.8%. SEM observation shows that the decreasing in Ic value is caused by the formation and propagation of transverse micro-cracks in the (Bi,Pb)-2223 filaments and the effect of post-annealing could be related to the healing of micro-cracks caused by bending strain as well as the improving of grain connectivity.

  14. Effects of post-annealing and temperature/humidity treatments on the interfacial adhesion energy of the Cu/SiN x interface for Cu interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Minsu; Bae, Byung-Hyun; Lee, Hyeonchul; Kang, Hee-Oh; Hwang, Wook-Jung; Yang, Jun-Mo; Park, Young-Bae

    2016-06-01

    The effects of 200 °C post-annealing and 85 °C and 85% relative humidity temperature and humidity (T/H) treatments on the interfacial adhesion energy of a Cu/SiN x interface were systematically investigated. The results of a four-point bending test, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that the interfacial adhesion energy during T/H treatment decreased with time faster than during annealing treatment, which is closely related to the faster Cu oxidation of SiN x /Cu interfaces.

  15. Annealing effect on the optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin film grown on inp substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, K.; Majumdar, S.; Bhunia, S.

    2012-06-01

    ZnO thin films have been fabricated by sublimation process on indium phosphide (InP) (111) substrates. These films were annealed at various temperatures in order to study the annealing effect on the optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin film grown on InP substrate. From photoluminescence study it was observed that the near band edge peak, i.e., excitonic peak, decreases drastically with the increase of annealing temperature. This indicates that at higher annealing temperature the recombinations are taking place in non-radiative way. It was also observed that the defect related broad peak around 500 nm, i.e., green luminescence peak for ZnO, increases at higher annealing temperatures. As O vacancy is responsible for the green luminescence, so more oxygen vacancies have been introduced at higher annealing temperatures. The electrical characterization of ZnO film revealed that the resistivity of the film increases with the increasing annealing temperatures. Ionised Zn interstitials contribute to carrier concentration in ZnO. Evaporation of Zn interstitials at higher annealing temperatures may have decreased the carrier concentration which in tern had increased the resistivity.

  16. The effect of post oxide deposition annealing on the effective work function in metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs gate stack

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, R.; Krylov, I.; Eizenberg, M.; Ahn, J.; McIntyre, P. C.

    2014-05-19

    The effect of post oxide deposition annealing on the effective work function in metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ InGaAs gate stacks was investigated. Using a systematic method for effective work function extraction, a shift of 0.3 ± 0.1 eV was found between the effective work function of forming gas annealed samples and vacuum annealed samples. The electrical measurements enabled us to obtain the band alignment of the metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs gate stack. This band alignment was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The measured shift in the effective work function between different annealing ambient may be attributed to indium out-diffusion during post oxide deposition annealing that is observed in forming gas anneal to a much larger extent than in vacuum.

  17. Effect of annealing on the structure and properties of hot-pressed boron carbide base cermets

    SciTech Connect

    Koval'chenko, M.S.; Laptev, A.V.; Zhidov, A.B.

    1986-02-01

    This paper studies the effect of annealing conditions on the structure and some physicomechanical properties of boron carbidealuminum cermets produced by hot pressing under high pressures. The paper also explores the possibility of regulating the properties of such cermets by heat treatment. Cermets were produced using boron carbide powders of particle sizes up to 100 ..mu..m. As metallic binders, PA-3 aluminum powder and powders of aluminum alloys with improving wetting and adhesional interaction were employed. The microstructures of specimens were studied under an MIM-8 optical microscope. X-ray phase analysis was carried out in a URS-501M diffractometer in Cu K-alpha radiation. The authors found that to obtain boron carbidealuminum materials of maximum strength, it is necessary to perform their liquid-phase pressing under high pressures and dispense with subsequent annealing.

  18. Radiation effects on MOS devices - dosimetry, annealing, irradiation sequence, and sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Brucker, G. J.; Van Gunten, O.; Knudson, A. R.; Jordan, T. M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on some investigations of dosimetry, annealing, irradiation sequences, and radioactive sources, involved in the determination of radiation effects on MOS devices. Results show that agreement in the experimental and theoretical surface to average doses support the use of thermo-luminescent dosimeters (manganese activated calcium fluoride) in specifying the surface dose delivered to thin gate insulators of MOS devices. Annealing measurements indicate the existence of at least two energy levels,,s or a activation energies, for recovery of soft oxide MOS devices after irradiation by electrons, protons, and gammas. Damage sensitivities of MOS devices were found to be independent of combinations and sequences of radiation type or energies. Comparison of various gamma sources indicated a small dependence of damage sensitivity on the Cobalt facility, but a more significant dependence in the case of the Cesium source. These results were attributed to differences in the spectral content of the several sources.

  19. Ozone-exposure and annealing effects on graphene-on-SiO2 transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, E. X.; Newaz, A. K. M.; Wang, B.; Zhang, C. X.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Bolotin, K. I.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Pantelides, S. T.; Alles, M. L.

    2012-09-01

    We employ resistance measurements and Raman spectroscopy to investigate the effects of UV ozone (UVO) exposure and Ar annealing on graphene-on-SiO2 transistors. Shorter UVO exposures lead to oxygen adsorption and doping; longer exposures lead to significant defect generation and then to etching. Elevated-temperature Ar annealing following UVO exposure leads to local defect healing, as shown by the evolution of the characteristic Raman D- and G-peaks. In striking contrast, the overall graphene transistor resistance increases significantly due to void formation. Density functional calculations show that carbon-oxygen reactions lead to efficient consumption and release of C atoms (as CO or CO2) under conditions of high surface oxygen concentration.

  20. Effects of annealing on structure and composition of LSMO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Haipeng; Huang, Han; Cao, Ningtong; Zhou, Conghua; Niu, Dongmei; Gao, Yongli

    2015-11-01

    The effects of annealing on structure and composition of LSMO thin films grown by the means of DC magnetron sputtering have been investigated with the assistance of X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The first LSMO-related diffraction peak (A) appears on the sample prepared at 1023 K and shifts toward low-angle direction at higher temperature. A new diffraction peak (B) related to LaMnOx is observed on the sample prepared at 1073 K that becomes stronger with increasing annealing temperature. AFM images display the corresponding morphology evolutions. XPS results reveal that LaMnOx is formed due to strontium segregation on the LSMO surface at a temperature higher than 1023 K. Meanwhile, we find that a new ingredient appears from 973 to 1023 K and disappears from 1073 K to 1123 K, which is predicted to exist as semiconductor or insulator on the surface.

  1. Effects of oxygen-reducing atmosphere annealing on LaMnO3 epitaxial thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, W. S.; Marton, Zsolt; Jang, S. Y.; Moon, S. J.; Jeon, B. C.; Shin, J. H.; Seo, Sung Seok A; Noh, Tae Won; Myung-Whun, Kim; Lee, Ho Nyung; Lee, Y. S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of annealing on LaMnO{sub 3} epitaxial thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and propose an efficient method of characterizing their stoichiometry. Structural, magnetic and optical properties coherently indicate non-stoichiometric ferromagnetic and semiconducting phases for as-grown LaMnO{sub 3} films. By annealing in an oxygen-reducing atmosphere, we recovered the antiferromagnetic and insulating phases of bulk-like stoichiometric LaMnO{sub 3}. We show that non-destructive optical spectroscopy at room temperature is one of the most convenient tools for identifying the phases of LaMnO{sub 3} films. Our results serve as a prerequisite for studying LaMnO{sub 3} based heterostructures grown by PLD.

  2. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Performance of SnO2 Thin Film Transistors Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, XinAn; Zhai, JunXia; Yu, XianKun; Zhu, RuiJuan; Zhang, WeiFeng

    2015-08-01

    We fabricated SnO2 thin film transistors on thermally oxidized p-type silicon substrates by low-cost spray pyrolysis. The effect of annealing temperatures on electrical characteristics of SnO2 thin film transistors were investigated. Thermal annealing at higher temperatures induced a negative shift of the threshold voltage (VT) and an increase in the saturation mobility. It was found that the device annealed at 450 °C exhibited a good electrical performance with the field-effect mobility of 0.19 cm2/Vs, the threshold voltage of 2.5 V, and the on/off current ratio of 10(3). PMID:26369222

  3. Effects of Annealing Twins on the Grain Growth and Mechanical Properties of Ag-8Au-3Pd Bonding Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Tung-Han; Tsai, Chih-Hsin; Wang, Hsi-Ching; Chang, Che-Cheng; Chuang, Chien-Hsun; Lee, Jun-Der; Tsai, Hsing-Hua

    2012-11-01

    An innovative Ag-8Au-3Pd bonding wire containing a large amount of annealing twins has been produced. In contrast to the apparent grain growth in a conventional Ag-8Au-3Pd wire during aging at 600°C, the grain size of this annealing-twinned Ag alloy wire remains almost unchanged. The high thermal stability of the grain structure leads to a smaller heat-affected zone near the free air ball of this twinned wire. The annealing twins in this material also result in the dual merits of increased tensile strength and elongation with aging time, which is beneficial for the reliability of wire-bonded packages.

  4. Effect of proton irradiation and annealing on the critical current density in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, H.K. |; Kirk, P.; Baldo, P.; Welp, U.; Crabtree, G.W.; Lee, W.C.; Giapintzakis, J. |

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the effect of annealing up to 350{degrees}C on the critical current densities in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} single crystals that were irradiated with 3.5 MeV protons to a fluence of 1 {times} 10{sup 16} p+/cm{sup 2}. Large enhancements in the critical current densities, determined from DC-magnetization measurements, were observed immediately after irradiation at all temperatures for magnetic field orientations both parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis. These crystals were then annealed at room temperature, 100, 200, 300, and 350{degrees}C, and the critical current densities were determined after each annealing step. The annealing above room temperature resulted in a reduction of the critical current densities for both directions of the magnetic field. The transition temperatures, determined from low field DC-magnetization measurements at each stage of the measurement sequence, decreased by about 0.5 K following the irradiation and recovered to their original value after annealing at higher temperatures. We propose a defect model to explain the observed pining and its anisotropy observed in this work and earlier work on electron and neutron irradiated YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} single crystals.

  5. Effect of thermal annealing on structural and optical properties of In2S3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Sonu

    2015-08-01

    There is a highly need of an alternate of toxic materials CdS for solar cell applications and indium sulfide is found the most suitable candidate to replace CdS due to its non-toxic and environmental friendly nature. In this paper, the effect of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of indium sulfide (In2S3) thin films is undertaken. The indium sulfide thin films of 121 nm were deposited on glass substrates employing thermal evaporation method. The films were subjected to the X-ray diffractometer and UV-Vis spectrophotometer respectively for structural and optical analysis. The XRD pattern show that the as-deposited thin film was amorphous in nature and crystallinity is found to be varied with annealing temperature. The optical analysis reveals that the optical band gap is varied with annealing. The optical parameters like absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient and refractive index were calculated. The results are in good agreement with available literature.

  6. Annealing effect on thermodynamic and physical properties of mesoporous silicon: A simulation and nitrogen sorption study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Huber, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Discovery of porous silicon formation in silicon substrate in 1956 while electro-polishing crystalline Si in hydrofluoric acid (HF), has triggered large scale investigations of porous silicon formation and their changes in physical and chemical properties with thermal and chemical treatment. A nitrogen sorption study is used to investigate the effect of thermal annealing on electrochemically etched mesoporous silicon (PS). The PS was thermally annealed from 200˚C to 800˚C for 1 hr in the presence of air. It was shown that the pore diameter and porosity of PS vary with annealing temperature. The experimentally obtained adsorption / desorption isotherms show hysteresis typical for capillary condensation in porous materials. A simulation study based on Saam and Cole model was performed and compared with experimentally observed sorption isotherms to study the physics behind of hysteresis formation. We discuss the shape of the hysteresis loops in the framework of the morphology of the layers. The different behavior of adsorption and desorption of nitrogen in PS with pore diameter was discussed in terms of concave menisci formation inside the pore space, which was shown to related with the induced pressure in varying the pore diameter from 7.2 nm to 3.4 nm.

  7. The Effect of Solution Annealing on the Microstructural Behavior of Alloy 22 Welds

    SciTech Connect

    El-Dasher, B S; Edgecumbe, T S; Torres, S G

    2005-05-06

    Multi-pass gas tungsten arc welds of Alloy 22 were subjected to solution annealing durations of 20 minutes, 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week at temperatures of 1075, 1121, 1200, and 1300 C. The specimens were studied in cross section by secondary electron microscopy to determine the effect of solution annealing on tetrahedrally close packed (TCP) precipitate stability. Electron backscatter diffraction mapping was also performed on all of the specimens to determine the recrystallization behavior of the welds. It was found that complete TCP precipitate dissolution occurs after solution annealing at 1075 C and 1121 C for 24 hours, and at 1200 C and 1300 C for durations of 20 minutes. Regions of most rapid recrystallization were correlated to the regions of lowest solute content and highest residual tensile stresses. Texture analysis indicated that while the columnar dendrites originally present in the weld grew with a <001> orientation in the transverse direction (opposite the heat flow direction), the recrystallized grains adopt a <101> orientation in the transverse direction when recrystallization and TCP phase dissolution occur simultaneously.

  8. Effects of thermal annealing on photoluminescence of Si+/C+ implanted SiO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yin-Yu; Chao, Der-Sheng; Tsai, Hsu-Sheng; Liang, Jenq-Horng

    2016-04-01

    The mechanisms of photoluminescence (PL) originating from Si+/C+ implanted SiO2 are still unclear and need to be clarified. Thus, the purpose of this study is to thoroughly investigate the effects of ion implantation and post-annealing temperature on microstructures and PL characteristics of the Si+/C+ implanted SiO2 films. A comparative analysis was also conducted to clarify the different optical properties between the Si+ and Si+/C+ implanted SiO2 films. In this study, thermally-grown SiO2 films on Si substrates were used as the matrix materials. The Si+ ions and C+ ions were separately implanted into the SiO2 films at room temperature. After ion implantation, the post-annealing treatments were carried out using the furnace annealing (FA) method at various temperatures (600-1100 °C) for 1 h in a N2 ambient. The PL characteristics of the implanted SiO2 films were analyzed using a fluorescence spectrophotometer. The results revealed that the distinct PL peaks were observed at approximately 310, 450 and 650 nm in the Si+-implanted SiO2 films, which can be attributed to the defects, the so-called oxygen deficiency centers (ODCs) and non-bridging oxygen hole centers (NBOHCs), in the materials. In contrast to the Si+ ion implantation, the SiO2 films which were sequentially implanted with Si+ and C+ ions and annealed at 1100 °C can emit white light corresponding to the PL peaks located at around 420, 520 and 720 nm, those can be assigned to the Si-C bonding, C-C graphite-like structure (sp2), and Si nanocrystals, respectively. Moreover, a correlation between the optical properties, microstructures, and bonding configurations of the Si+/C+ implanted SiO2 films was also established in this study.

  9. Effects of ultra-fast solvent evaporation in solvent vapor annealed cylinder-forming block polymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruth, A.; Nelson, G.; Drapes, C.; Wong, J.; Grant, M.

    Despite continued advances in directed self-assembly of block polymer thin films viasolvent vapor annealing, a standardized process remains absent. There remain several complicating factors, notably solvent evaporation rate. Recent theoretical models point to this rate dominating the propagation of a given morphology into the bulk of a thin film following nucleation from the free surface. During this drying process, the film undergoes a competition between thermodynamically driven phase separation and kinetically controlled chain mobility. We, among others, have demonstrated that faster solvent removal can enhance propagation down to the substrate. Perpendicularly aligned cylinders are one illustrative example. To further quantify this effect, and look at ultra-fast time scales, we have constructed a solvent vapor annealing chamber that computer-controls evaporation times down to 15 ms. In situ spectral reflectance, with 10 ms temporal resolution, monitors the swelling and evaporation. We will present results on cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-polylactide thin films swollen to near disorder with tetrahydrofuran, followed by immediate solvent evaporation. Our data reveals control over evaporation times, ranging from 15 ms to several seconds, and the discovery of various evaporation types, previously undetected, including linear, exponential and combinations. Furthermore, atomic force micrographs correlate surface morphologies (both free and substrate) of the resultant films with each evaporation condition. Funded by Nebraska EPSCoR.

  10. Effects of molybdenum doping and thermal annealing on the physical properties of amorphous In–Zn–O films

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shiu-Jen; Wu, Kuei-Ching; Peng, Kun-Cheng

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The effects of Mo doping and thermal annealing on a-IZO films were studied. • The carrier mobility of Mo-doped a-IZO films was enhanced by thermal annealing. • The optical bandgap of a-IZO films was unaffected by Mo doping. • Ferromagnetism was observed in Mo-doped a-IZO films after annealing. - Abstract: Amorphous In–Zn–O (a-IZO) films doped with Mo were prepared on glass substrates by using magnetron co-sputtering technique. The Mo concentration was controlled by varying the sputtering power applied on the Mo target. The effects of Mo doping and thermal annealing on the electrical, optical and magnetic properties of the a-IZO films were studied. The electrical properties of a-IZO films were found to be strongly affected by Mo doping and thermal annealing. The optical transmission near the absorption edge of a-IZO films is enhanced by Mo doping due to the decrease in reflection. The optical bandgap estimated to be 3.2 eV of a-IZO films is unaffected by Mo doping and thermal annealing. Moreover, some of Mo-doped films exhibit room-temperature ferromagnetism after annealing.

  11. Effects of Low Temperature Anneal on the Interface Properties of Thermal Silicon Oxide for Silicon Surface Passivation.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Nagarajan; Park, Cheolmin; Chung, Sungyoun; Ju, Minkyu; Raja, Jayapal; Yi, Junsin

    2016-05-01

    High quality surface passivation has gained a significant importance in photovoltaic industry for reducing the surface recombination and hence fabricating low cost and high efficiency solar cells using thinner wafers. The formation of good-quality SiO2 films and SiO2/Si interfaces at low processing temperatures is a prerequisite for improving the conversion efficiency of industrial solar cells with better passivation. High-temperature annealing in inert ambient is promising to improve the SiO2/Si interface. However, annealing treatments could cause negative effects on SiO2/Si interfaces due to its chemical at high temperatures. Low temperature post oxidation annealing has been carried out to investigate the structural and interface properties of Si-SiO2 system. Quasi Steady State Photo Conductance measurements shows a promising effective carrier lifetime of 420 μs, surface recombination velocity of 22 cm/s and a low interface trap density (D(it)) of 4 x 10(11) states/cm2/eV after annealing. The fixed oxide charge density was reduced to 1 x 10(11)/cm2 due to the annealing at 500 degrees C. The FWHM and the Si-O peak wavenumber corresponding to the samples annealed at 500 degrees C reveals that the Si dangling bonds in the SiO2 films due to the oxygen defects was reduced by the low temperature post oxidation annealing. PMID:27483822

  12. Effect of annealing on exchange stiffness of ultrathin CoFeB film with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Noriyuki; White, Robert M.; Wang, Shan X.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of annealing on the exchange stiffness of ultrathin CoFeB films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was investigated through the observation of magnetic domain structures by magneto-optic Kerr-effect microscopy. A significant reduction of the exchange stiffness after an annealing process was observed, which is in striking contrast to a previous report that studied thick CoFeB films with in-plane magnetic anisotropy. Our results suggest that interdiffusion of non-magnetic atoms from the adjacent layer into CoFeB layer reduces the exchange stiffness, which explains the difference between the annealing effect on ultrathin and the thick CoFeB films. Thus, it is critical to prevent annealing-induced interdiffusion in order to suppress undesired sub-volume switching that degrades thermal stability of a free-layer in spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory.

  13. Effects of hydrogen annealing, sulfur segregation and diffusion on the cyclic oxidation resistance of superalloys: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.; Jayne, D. T.; Schaeffer, J. C.; Murphy, W. H.

    1994-01-01

    This review is based on the phenomenon of improved oxide scale adhesion for desulfurized superalloys. The proposed adhesion mechanism involves sulfur interfacial segregation and scale-metal bond weakening. Sulfur surface segregation on superalloys is examined as a function of temperature and sulfur content, and is related to the classical behavior predicted by the McLean isotherm. Effective desulfurization to less than 1 ppmw can be accomplished by hydrogen annealing and is described by sulfur diffusion kinetics in nickel. Hydrogen annealing results in excellent cyclic oxidation resistance for a number of advanced superalloys. The concept of a critical sulfur content is discussed in terms of practical annealing conditions and section thicknesses.

  14. Effects of various annealing conditions on (Nd, Mg, Zr)(Ni, Al, Co)3.74 metal hydride alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, K.; Ouchi, T.; Huang, B.

    2014-02-01

    Annealing Nd-only AB3.74 metal hydride alloy was found to effectively increase composition homogeneity, main A2B7 phase abundance, and both gaseous phase and electrochemical hydrogen storage capacities, as well as to facilitate activation, and improve battery high-rate performance, charge retention, and cycle life. As the phase abundance of the main A2B7 phase increases in the alloy with higher annealing temperatures, the general electrochemical performance improves. Extending the annealing period from 5 to 16 h further increases the A2B7 phase abundance, but deteriorates the high-rate dischargeability due to the reduction of AB5 catalytic phase.

  15. Effects of Hydrogen Annealing, Sulfur Segregation and Diffusion on the Cyclic Oxidation Resistance of Superalloys: a Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.; Jayne, D. T.; Schaeffer, J. C.; Murphy, W. H.

    1994-01-01

    This review is based on the phenomenon of improved oxide scale adhesion for desulfurized superalloys. The proposed adhesion mechanism involves sulfur interfacial segregation and scale-metal bond weakening. Sulfur surface segregation on superalloys is examined as a function of temperature and sulfur content and related to classical behavior predicted by the McLean isotherm. Effective desulfurization to less than 1 ppmw can be accomplished by hydrogen annealing and is governed by sulfur diffusion kinetics in nickel. Hydrogen annealing results in excellent cyclic oxidation resistance for a number of advanced superalloys. The concept of a critical sulfur content is discussed in terms of practical annealing conditions and section thicknesses.

  16. Effect of air annealing on structural, optical, morphological and electrical properties of thermally evaporated CdSe thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, A.; Chander, S.; Nehra, S. P.; Dhaka, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a study on effect of air annealing on structural, optical, morphological and electrical properties of CdSe thin films is undertaken. The thin films of thickness 810 nm were deposited on glass and ITO coated glass substrates employing thermal evaporation technique. The glass substrates were used to find structural, optical and morphological properties while ITO coated glass substrates for electrical properties. The as-deposited films were subjected to thermal annealing in air atmosphere at different temperatures 100 °C, 200 °C and 300 °C. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows that the films have cubic phase with preferred orientation (111). The structural parameters like inter-planner spacing, lattice constant, grain size, dislocation density, strain and number of crystallites per unit area are calculated. The grain size is found in the range 27.11-34.03 nm and observed to be varied with air annealing. The dislocation density and strain vary with annealing in the range (0.86-1.36)×1011 cm-2 and 0.276-0.347 respectively. The extinction coefficient is found to be increased at lower annealing temperature and decreased at higher. The refractive index is also calculated and found in the range 2.75-2.80. The AFM studies show that roughness of thin films are increased with annealing. The electrical resistivity is found to be decreased with annealing temperature. The results are in good agreement with the standard data and available literature.

  17. Effects of Annealing Treatment Prior to Cold Rolling on the Edge Cracking Phenomenon of Ferritic Lightweight Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Seok Su; Lee, Byeong-Joo; Kwak, Jai-Hyun; Lee, Sunghak

    2014-08-01

    Effects of annealing treatment from 923 K to 1023 K (650 °C to 750 °C) prior to cold rolling on the edge cracking phenomenon of a ferritic lightweight steel were investigated. The edge cracking was severely found in the hot-rolled and 923 K (650 °C)-annealed steels after cold rolling, whereas it hardly occurred in the 1023 K (750 °C)-annealed steel. As the annealing temperature increased, lamellar κ-carbides were dissolved and coarsened, and most of the κ-carbides continuously formed along boundaries between ferrite and κ-carbide bands disappeared. Microstructural observation of the deformed region of tensile specimens revealed that the removal of band boundary κ-carbides reduced the difference in tensile elongation along the longitudinal direction (LD) and transverse direction (TD), which consequently led to the reduction in edge cracking. The 1023 K (750 °C)-annealed steel showed fine ferrite grain size, weak texture, and decomposed band structure after subsequent cold rolling and intercritical annealing, because κ-carbides actively worked as nucleation sites of ferrite and austenite. The present annealing treatment prior to cold rolling, which was originally adopted to prevent edge cracking, also beneficially modified the final microstructure of lightweight steel.

  18. The effect of annealing temperature on the electrical characterization of Co/n type GaP Schottky diode

    SciTech Connect

    Orak, İ.; Ejderha, K.; Sönmez, E.; Alanyalıoğlu, M.; Turut, A.

    2015-01-15

    The Co/n-GaP nano-Schottky diodes have been fabricated to investigate effect of annealing temperature on the characteristics of the device. DC Magnetron sputtering technique has been used for Co metallic contact. The samples have been annealed for three minutes at 400 °C and 600 °C. XRD analyzes of the devices subjected to thermal annealing process have been investigated. Surface images have been taken with atomic force microscopy (AFM) in order to examine the morphology of the surface of the metal layer before and after the annealing the sample. The current–voltage (I–V) measurements taken at room temperature have shown that the ideality factor and series resistance decrease with the increasing annealing temperature. The ideality factor was found to be 1.02 for sample annealed at 400 °C. Before and after annealing, depending on the temperature measurement, the capacitance–frequency (C–f), and conductance–frequency (G–f) have been measured, and graphs have been plotted.

  19. Study on effect of annealing conditions on structural, magnetic and superconducting properties of MgB{sub 2} bulk samples

    SciTech Connect

    Phaneendra, Konduru Asokan, K. Kanjilal, D.; Awana, V. P. S.; Sastry, S. Sreehari

    2014-04-24

    Effect of annealing conditions on structural, magnetic and superconducting properties of Magnesium Diboride (MgB{sub 2}) bulk superconductor samples prepared by solid state route method are compared. The samples are made by taking Magnesium and Boron powders in stoichiometric ratio, grounded well and pelletized at pressure of about 10Tonnes. These pellets are annealed in both Argon and vacuum environment separately up to 800°c for two hours. Both the samples show clear superconducting transition at Tc ∼ 38 k. This is further conformed by AC/DC magnetization (M-T), Resistivity [ρ (T, H)] measurements under magnetic field up to 14 Tesla as well. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction of both samples conformed the MgB{sub 2} phase formation with P6/mmm space group symmetry. Scanning Electron Microscopy images of the surface revile more agglomeration of grains in case of Argon annealed samples. This result in more critical current density (J{sub c}) of Argon annealed samples than vacuum annealed one calculated from Bean's critical state model. This high Jc is explained in terms of more inter grain connectivity for Argon annealed sample than vacuum annealed sample.

  20. Annealing effects in plated-wire memory elements. I - Interdiffusion of copper and Permalloy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudson, C. I.; Kench, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Results of investigations using X-ray diffraction and electron-beam microprobe techniques have shown that copper and Permalloy platings interdiffuse at low temperatures when plated-wire memory elements are annealed for times as short as 50 hr. Measurable interdiffusion between Permalloy platings and gold substrates does not occur in similar conditions. Both magnetic and compositional changes during aging are found to occur by a thermally activated process with activation energies around 38 kcal/mol. It is shown, however, that copper-diffusion and magnetic-dispersion changes during aging are merely concurrent processes, neither being the other's cause.

  1. Estimation of effective temperatures in a quantum annealer: Towards deep learning applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Realpe-Gómez, John; Benedetti, Marcello; Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro

    Sampling is at the core of deep learning and more general machine learning applications; an increase in its efficiency would have a significant impact across several domains. Recently, quantum annealers have been proposed as a potential candidate to speed up these tasks, but several limitations still bar them from being used effectively. One of the main limitations, and the focus of this work, is that using the device's experimentally accessible temperature as a reference for sampling purposes leads to very poor correlation with the Boltzmann distribution it is programmed to sample from. Based on quantum dynamical arguments, one can expect that if the device indeed happens to be sampling from a Boltzmann-like distribution, it will correspond to one with an instance-dependent effective temperature. Unless this unknown temperature can be unveiled, it might not be possible to effectively use a quantum annealer for Boltzmann sampling processes. In this work, we propose a strategy to overcome this challenge with a simple effective-temperature estimation algorithm. We provide a systematic study assessing the impact of the effective temperatures in the quantum-assisted training of Boltzmann machines, which can serve as a building block for deep learning architectures. This work was supported by NASA Ames Research Center.

  2. Effects of Annealing on Electrical Characteristics and Current Transport Mechanisms of the Y/ p-GaN Schottky Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, V. Rajagopal; Asha, B.; Choi, Chel-Jong

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the effects of annealing on the electrical properties and current transport mechanism of Y/ p-GaN Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs). We found no significant change in the surface morphology of the Y Schottky contacts during the annealing process. The Schottky barrier height (SBH) of the as-deposited Y/ p-GaN SBD was estimated to be 0.95 eV ( I- V)/1.19 eV ( C- V). The SBH increased upon annealing at 400°C and 500°C, and then decreased slightly with annealing at 600°C. Thus the maximum SBH of the Y/ p-GaN SBD was achieved at 500°C, with values of 1.01 eV ( I- V)/1.29 eV ( C- V). In addition, the SBH values were estimated by Cheung's, Norde, and Ψs- V plots and were found to be in good agreement with one another. Series resistance ( R S) values were also calculated by I- V, Cheung's, and Norde functions at different annealing temperatures, with results showing a decrease in the interface state density of the SBD with annealing at 500°C, followed by a slight increase upon annealing at 600°C. The forward-bias current transport mechanism of SBD was investigated by the log I-log V plot at different annealing temperatures. Our investigations revealed that the Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism dominated the reverse leakage current in Y/ p-GaN SBD at all annealing temperatures.

  3. Annealing effect on Cu2S thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Pawan; Dhanayat, Swapnali; Gattu, Ketan; Mahajan, Sandeep; Upadhye, Deepak; Sharma, Ramphal

    2016-05-01

    In present work Cu2S thin film fabricated on glass substrate by simple, cost effective chemical bath deposition method subsequently it annealed at 150°c.These films were studied for their structural, optical and electrical properties using X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectrophotometer and I-V system. The results show successful synthesis of Cu2S thin films and improvement in crystalline nature of the thin film which resulted in reduced bad gap and resistance of the film. Thus these thinfilms prove to be a promising candidate for solar cell application.

  4. Effects of thermal annealing on the properties of niobium nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotovy, I.; Srnanek, R.; Buc, D.

    1994-08-01

    The effects of the partial pressure of nitrogen an of the annealing temperature on the properties of NbN films are examined in order to use these films for Schottky contacts on GaAs. Through a thermally oxidized silicon and glass slides by a laboratory-made d.c. magnetron sputtering source with an Nb target approximately 5 cm in diameter and 0.64 cm in thickness and nominally 99.9% pure, the NbN films were deposited.

  5. Neutron, gamma ray and post-irradiation thermal annealing effects on power semiconductor switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, G. E.; Frasca, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of neutron and gamma rays on the electrical and switching characteristics of power semiconductor switches must be known and understood by the designer of the power conditioning, control, and transmission subsystem of space nuclear power systems. The SP-100 radiation requirements at 25 m from the nuclear source are a neutron fluence of 10(exp 13) n/sq cm and a gamma dose of 0.5 Mrads. Experimental data showing the effects of neutrons and gamma rays on the performance characteristics of power-type NPN Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs), Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs), and Static Induction Transistors (SITs) are presented. These three types of devices were tested at radiation levels which met or exceeded the SP-100 requirements. For the SP-100 radiation requirements, the BJTs were found to be most sensitive to neutrons, the MOSFETs were most sensitive to gamma rays, and the SITs were only slightly sensitive to neutrons. Post-irradiation thermal anneals at 300 K and up to 425 K were done on these devices and the effectiveness of these anneals are also discussed.

  6. Neutron, gamma ray and post-irradiation thermal annealing effects on power semiconductor switches

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarze, G.E.; Frasca, A.J.

    1994-09-01

    The effects of neutrons and gamma rays on the electrical and switching characteristics of power semiconductor switches must be known and understood by the designer of the power conditioning, control, and transmission subsystem of space nuclear power systems. The SP-100 radiation requirements at 25 m from the nuclear source are a neutron fluence of 10{sup 13} n/cm {sup 2} and a gamma dose of 0.5 Mrads. Experimental data showing the effects of neutrons and gamma rays on the performance characteristics of power-type NPN Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs), Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs), and Static Induction Transistors (SITs) are given in this paper. These three types of devices were tested at radiation levels which met or exceeded the SP-100 requirements. For the SP-100 radiation requirements, the BJTs were found to be most sensitive to neutrons, the MOSFETs were most sensitive to gamma rays, and the SITs were only slightly sensitive to neutrons. Post-irradiation thermal anneals at 300 K and up to 425 K were done on these devices and the effectiveness of these anneals are also discussed.

  7. Effect of laser annealing of pressure gradients in a diamond-anvil cell using common solid pressure media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uts, Ilya; Glazyrin, Konstantin; Lee, Kanani K. M.

    2013-10-01

    Pressure media are one of the most effective deterrents of pressure gradients in diamond-anvil cell (DAC) experiments. The media, however, become less effective with increasing pressure, particularly for solid pressure media. One of the most popular ways of alleviating the increase in pressure gradients in DAC samples is through laser annealing of the sample. We explore the effectiveness of this technique for six common solid pressure media that include: alkali metal halides LiF, NaCl, KCl, CsCl, KBr, as well as amorphous SiO2. Pressure gradients are determined through the analysis of the first-order diamond Raman band across the sample before and after annealing the sample with a near-infrared laser to temperatures between ˜2000 and 3000 K. As expected, we find that in the absence of sample chamber geometrical changes and diamond anvil damage, laser annealing reduces pressure gradients, albeit to varying amounts. We find that under ideal conditions, NaCl provides the best deterrent to pressure gradients before and after laser annealing, at least up to pressures of 60 GPa and temperatures between ˜2000 and 3000 K. Amorphous SiO2, on the other hand, transforms in to harder crystalline stishovite upon laser annealing at high pressures resulting in increased pressure gradients upon further compression without laser annealing.

  8. Effect of annealing temperature on the morphology and optical properties of PMMA films by spin-coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aadila, A.; Afaah, A. N.; Asib, N. A. M.; Mohamed, R.; Rusop, M.; Khusaimi, Z.

    2016-07-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films were deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel spin-coating method. The films were annealed for 10 minutes in furnace at different annealing temperature of room temperature, 50, 100, 150 and 200 °C. The effect of annealing temperatures to the surface and optical properties of PMMA films spin-coated on the substrate were investigated by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy. It was observed in AFM analysis all the annealed films show excellent smooth surface with zero roughness. All the samples demonstrate a high transmittance of 80% in UV region as shown in UV-Vis measurement. Highly transparent films indicate the films are good optical properties and could be applied in various optical applications and also in non-linear optics.

  9. Preparation of silver thin films, and the study of the annealing effects on their structures and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samavat, F.; Jafari Rahman, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, using an electron beam, silver thin films with a thickness of about 120 Å were coated on white glass with thickness of (1 mm) by electron beam irradiation method, and the effects of annealing temperature on the morphology and optical properties of the thin films were investigated. The silver films were annealed at the temperature of 550, 625, 700, 775 and 850 K in the presence of air; in addition, a single sample that had undergone no annealing has also been provided for further comparisons. Their physical and morphological properties were analyzed using the spectroscopy of Ultra-Violet and Visible (UV-vis), x-ray radiation (XRD) and the SEM and AFM methods. The results obtained from this study show that by increasing the annealing temperature of the nanoparticles, the size of the mentioned particles has also increased.

  10. Effects of thermal annealing process on the electrical properties of p{sup +}-Si/n-SiC heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, J. Nishida, S.; Shigekawa, N.; Arai, M.

    2014-04-21

    The effects of thermal annealing process on the interface in p{sup +}-Si/n-SiC heterojunctions fabricated by using surface-activated bonding are investigated. It is found by measuring their current-voltage (I-V) characteristics that the reverse-bias current and the ideality factor decreased to 2.98 × 10{sup −6} mA/cm{sup 2} and 1.03, respectively, by annealing the junctions at 1000 °C. Observation by using transmission electron microscopy indicates that an amorphous layer with a thickness of ∼6 nm is formed at the unannealed interface, which vanishes after annealing at 1000 °C. No structural defects at the interface are observed even after annealing at such a high temperature.

  11. Effect of annealing on morphology and photoluminescence of beta-Ga2O3 nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiying; Zhuang, Huizhao; Xue, Chengshan; Li, Baoli

    2008-07-01

    A novel method was applied to prepare one-dimensional beta-Ga2O3 nanostructure films. In this method, beta-Ga2O3 nanostructures have been successfully synthesized on Si(111) substrates through annealing sputtered Ga22O3/Mo films for differernt time under flowing ammonia. The as-synthesized beta-Ga2O3 nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. The results show that the formed nanostructures are single-crystalline Ga2O3 with monoclinic structure. The annealing time of the samples has an evident influence on the morphology and optical property of the nanostructured beta-Ga2O3 synthesized. The representative photoluminescence spectrum at room temperature exhibits a strong and broad emission band centered at 411.5 nm and a relatively weak emission peak located at 437.6 nm. The growth mechanism of the beta-Ga2O3 nanostructured materials is also discussed briefly. PMID:19051894

  12. Evolution of Self-Assembled Au NPs by Controlling Annealing Temperature and Dwelling Time on Sapphire (0001).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihoon; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Li, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Quanzhen; Kunwar, Sundar

    2015-12-01

    Au nanoparticles (NPs) have been utilized in a wide range of device applications as well as catalysts for the fabrication of nanopores and nanowires, in which the performance of the associated devices and morphology of nanopores and nanowires are strongly dependent on the size, density, and configuration of the Au NPs. In this paper, the evolution of the self-assembled Au nanostructures and NPs on sapphire (0001) is systematically investigated with the variation of annealing temperature (AT) and dwelling time (DT). At the low-temperature range between 300 and 600 °C, three distinct regimes of the Au nanostructure configuration are observed, i.e., the vermiform-like Au piles, irregular Au nano-mounds, and Au islands. Subsequently, being provided with relatively high thermal energy between 700 and 900 °C, the round dome-shaped Au NPs are fabricated based on the Volmer-Weber growth model. With the increased AT, the size of the Au NPs is gradually increased due to a more favorable surface diffusion while the density is gradually decreased as a compensation. On the other hand, with the increased DT, the size and density of Au NPs decrease due to the evaporation of Au at relatively high annealing temperature at 950 °C. PMID:26704710

  13. Evolution of Self-Assembled Au NPs by Controlling Annealing Temperature and Dwelling Time on Sapphire (0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jihoon; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Li, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Quanzhen; Kunwar, Sundar

    2015-12-01

    Au nanoparticles (NPs) have been utilized in a wide range of device applications as well as catalysts for the fabrication of nanopores and nanowires, in which the performance of the associated devices and morphology of nanopores and nanowires are strongly dependent on the size, density, and configuration of the Au NPs. In this paper, the evolution of the self-assembled Au nanostructures and NPs on sapphire (0001) is systematically investigated with the variation of annealing temperature (AT) and dwelling time (DT). At the low-temperature range between 300 and 600 °C, three distinct regimes of the Au nanostructure configuration are observed, i.e., the vermiform-like Au piles, irregular Au nano-mounds, and Au islands. Subsequently, being provided with relatively high thermal energy between 700 and 900 °C, the round dome-shaped Au NPs are fabricated based on the Volmer-Weber growth model. With the increased AT, the size of the Au NPs is gradually increased due to a more favorable surface diffusion while the density is gradually decreased as a compensation. On the other hand, with the increased DT, the size and density of Au NPs decrease due to the evaporation of Au at relatively high annealing temperature at 950 °C.

  14. Irradiate-anneal screening of total dose effects in semiconductor devices. [radiation hardening of spacecraft components of Mariner spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Price, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    An extensive investigation of irradiate-anneal (IRAN) screening against total dose radiation effects was carried out as part of a program to harden the Mariner Jupiter/Saturn 1977 (MJS'77) spacecraft to survive the Jupiter radiation belts. The method consists of irradiating semiconductor devices with Cobalt-60 to a suitable total dose under representative bias conditions and of separating the parts in the undesired tail of the distribution from the bulk of the parts by means of a predetermined acceptance limit. The acceptable devices are then restored close to their preirradiation condition by annealing them at an elevated temperature. IRAN was used when lot screen methods were impracticable due to lack of time, and when members of a lot showed a diversity of radiation response. The feasibility of the technique was determined by testing of a number of types of linear bipolar integrated circuits, analog switches, n-channel JFETS and bipolar transistors. Based on the results of these experiments a number of device types were selected for IRAN of flight parts in the MJS'77 spacecraft systems. The part types, screening doses, acceptance criteria, number of parts tested and rejected as well as the program steps are detailed.

  15. No adverse effects of submelt-annealed highly crosslinked polyethylene in cemented cups

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Highly crosslinked polyethylene (PE) is in standard use worldwide. Differences in the crosslinking procedure may affect the clinical performance. Experimenatal data from retrieved cups have shown free radicals and excessive wear of annealed highly crosslinked PE. We have previously reported low wear and good clinical performance after 6 years with this implant, and now report on the 10-year results. Patients and methods In 8 patients, we measured wear of annealed highly crosslinked PE prospectively with radiostereometry after 10 years. Activity was assessed by UCLA activity score and a specifically designed activity score. Conventional radiographs were evaluated for osteolysis and clinical outcome by the Harris hip score (HHS). Results The mean (95% CI) proximal head penetration for highly crosslinked PE after 10 years was 0.07 (–0.015 to 0.153) mm, and the 3D wear was 0.2 (0.026 to 0.36) mm. Without creep, proximal head penetration was 0.02 (–0.026 to 0.066) mm and for 3D penetration was 0.016 (–0.47 to 0.08) mm. This represents an annual proximal wear of less than 2 µm. All cups were clinically and radiographically stable but showed a tendency of increased rotation after 5 years. Interpretation Wear for annealed highly crosslinked PE is extremely low up to 10 years. Free radicals do not affect mechanical performance or lead to clinically adverse effects. Creep stops after the first 6 months after implantation. Highly crosslinked PE is a true competitor of hard-on-hard bearings. PMID:22248172

  16. The effect of annealing temperature on the stability of gallium tin zinc oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Ngoc; McCall, Briana; Alston, Robert; Collis, Ward; Iyer, Shanthi

    2015-10-01

    With the growing need for large area display technology and the push for a faster and cheaper alternative to the current amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) as the active channel layer for pixel-driven thin film transistors (TFTs) display applications, gallium tin zinc oxide (GSZO) has shown to be a promising candidate due to the similar electronic configuration of Sn4+ and In3+. In this work TFTs of GSZO sputtered films with only a few atomic % of Ga and Sn have been fabricated. A systematic and detailed comparison has been made of the properties of the GSZO films annealed at two temperatures: 140 °C and 450 °C. The electrical and optical stabilities of the respective devices have been studied to gain more insight into the degradation mechanism and are correlated with the initial TFT performance prior to the application of stress. Post deposition annealing at 450 °C of the films in air was found to lead to a higher atomic concentration of Sn4+ in these films and a superior quality of the film, as attested by the higher film density and less surface and interface roughness in comparison to the lower annealed temperature device. These result in significantly reduced shallow and deep interface traps with improved performance of the device exhibiting VON of -3.5 V, ION/IOFF of 108, field-effect mobility (μFE) of 4.46 cm2 V-1s-1, and sub-threshold swing of 0.38 V dec-1. The device is stable under both electrical and optical bias for wavelengths of 550 nm and above. Thus, this work demonstrates GSZO-based TFTs as a promising viable option to the IGZO TFTs by further tailoring the film composition and relevant processing temperatures.

  17. Effects of thermal annealing of power BJTs, MOSFETs, and SITs following neutron and gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frasca, Albert J.; Schwarze, Gene E.

    1991-01-01

    The electrical and switching characteristics of high power semiconductor switches subjected to high levels of neutron fluences and gamma doses must be known by the designer of the power conditioning, control and transmission subsystem of space nuclear power systems. Location and the allowable shielding mass budget will determine the level of radiation tolerance required by the switches to meet performance and reliability requirements. Neutron and gamma ray interactions with semiconductor materials and how these interactions affect switch performance are briefly discussed. The effects of post-irradiation thermal anneals at 300 K and up to 425 K for NPN Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs), N-channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs), and N-channel Static Induction Transistors (SITs) are discussed in terms of recovery of degraded electrical and switching parameters caused by either neutron or gamma irradiation. The important experimental results from these annealing tests show that BJTs have very good recovery to leakage current degradation but poor recovery to current gain degradation; MOSFETs show some recovery in gate-source threshold voltage degradation but no significant recovery in drain-source on-resistance degradation; and likewise, SITs show no significant recovery in drain-source on-resistance degradation.

  18. Effects of annealing and pulse plating on soft magnetic properties of electroplated Fe-Ni films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanai, T.; Azuma, K.; Eguchi, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Ohgai, T.; Nakano, M.; Fukunaga, H.

    2016-05-01

    We have already reported that Fe-Ni films prepared in citric-acid-based plating baths show good soft magnetic properties. In this paper, we investigated the effect of the grain size of the Fe-Ni crystalline phase in the films on magnetic properties, and employed an annealing and a pulse plating method in order to vary the grain size. The coercivity of the annealed Fe-Ni films at 600 °C shows large value, and good correlation between the grain growth and the coercivity was observed. The pulse plating enables us to reduce the grain size of the as-plated Fe-Ni films compared with the DC plating method, and we realized smooth surface and low coercivity of the Fe-Ni films using the pulse plating method. From these results, we confirmed the importance of the reduction in the grain size, and concluded that a pulse plating is an effective method to improve the good soft magnetic properties for our previously-reported Fe-Ni films.

  19. Effects of thermal annealing of power BJTs, MOSFETs, and SITs following neutron and gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Frasca, A.J. ); Schwarze, G.E. )

    1991-01-10

    The electrical and switching characteristics of high power semiconductor switches subjected to high levels of neutron fluences and gamma doses must be known by the designer of the power conditioning, control and transmission subsystem of space nuclear power systems. Location and the allowable shielding mass budget will determine the level of radiation tolerance required by the switches to meet performance and reliability requirements. Neutron and gamma ray interactions with semiconductor materials and how these interactions affect switch performance are briefly discussed. The effects of post-irradiation thermal anneals at 300 K and up to 425 K for NPN Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs), N-channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs), and N-channel Static Induction Transistors (SITs) are discussed in terms of recovery of degraded electrical and switching parameters caused by either neutron or gamma irradiation. The important experimental results from these annealing tests show that BJTs have very good recovery to leakage current degradation but poor recovery to current gain degradation; MOSFETs show some recovery in gate-source threshold voltage degradation but no significant recovery in drain-source on-resistance degradation; and likewise, SITs show no significant recovery in drain-source on-resistance degradation.

  20. Remarkable changes in interface O vacancy and metal-oxide bonds in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors by long time annealing at 250 °C

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, Md Delwar Hossain; Um, Jae Gwang; Jang, Jin

    2014-12-08

    We have studied the effect of long time post-fabrication annealing on negative bias illumination stress (NBIS) of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film-transistors. Annealing for 100 h at 250 °C increased the field effect mobility from 14.7 cm{sup 2}/V s to 17.9 cm{sup 2}/V s and reduced the NBIS instability remarkably. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the oxygen vacancy and OH were found to exist at the interfaces of a-IGZO with top and bottom SiO{sub 2}. Long time annealing helps to decrease the vacancy concentration and increase the metal-oxygen bonds at the interfaces; this leads to increase in the free carrier concentrations in a-IGZO and field-effect mobility. X-ray reflectivity measurement indicated the increment of a-IGZO film density of 5.63 g cm{sup −3} to 5.83 g cm{sup −3} (3.4% increase) by 100 h annealing at 250 °C. The increase in film density reveals the decrease of O vacancy concentration and reduction of weak metal-oxygen bonds in a-IGZO, which substantially helps to improve the NBIS stability.

  1. Effect of Annealing on Microstructure and Tensile Properties of 5052/AZ31/5052 Clad Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Huihui; Liang, Wei; Chi, Chengzhong; Li, Xianrong; Fan, Haiwei; Yang, Fuqian

    2016-05-01

    Three-layered 5052Al/AZ31Mg/5052Al (5052/AZ31/5052) clad sheets were fabricated by four-pass rolling and annealed under different conditions. Under the optimal annealing condition, homogeneous and equiaxial grains with an average AZ31 grain size of 5.24 µm were obtained and the maximum values of ultimate tensile strength and elongation of the clad sheet reached 230 MPa and 18%, respectively. Electron backscatter diffraction analysis showed that the AZ31 layer had a typical rolling texture with its c-axis parallel to the normal direction. The fraction of low-angle grain boundaries in the 5052 layer was nearly four times more than that in the AZ31 layer because of different deformation extent and recrystallization driving forces. The textures of Al3Mg2 and Mg17Al12 were similar to that of 5052 because of the deformation coordination during the rolling and recrystallization process. The orientation relationship between Mg17Al12 and AZ31 seemed to be (110) Mg17Al12//(10-11) AZ31.

  2. Effects of Pnictogen Atmosphere Annealing on Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Tatsuhiro; Sun, Yue; Pyon, Sunseng; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    It has been clarified that bulk superconductivity in Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 can be induced by annealing in an appropriate atmosphere to remove the harmful effects of excess iron. In order to clarify the details of the annealing process, we studied the changes in the physical properties and reaction products of Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 annealed in pnictogen (P, As, Sb) atmospheres. Crystals annealed in a pnictogen atmosphere show bulk superconductivity and the values of Tc and Jc are about 14 K and (2-4) × 105 A/cm2 (2 K, self-field), respectively. It is also found that the reaction rate increases with the increase in the saturated vapor pressure of the pnictogen. Unexpectedly, the reaction products of Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 after annealing in a P atmosphere mainly consist of FeTe2. In addition, the amount of P required to obtain the optimal Tc is much smaller than the amount of excess iron, which is similar to the case of oxygen annealing. P, oxygen, and to some extent As could serve as catalysts to form FeTe2 to remove excess iron.

  3. Effects of thermal annealing on the radiation produced electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of bovine and equine tooth enamel: Fossil and modern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeks, Robert A.; Bogard, James S.; Elam, J. Michael; Weinand, Daniel C.; Kramer, Andrew

    2003-06-01

    The concentration of stable radiation-induced paramagnetic states in fossil teeth can be used as a measure of sample age. Temperature excursions >100 °C, however, can cause the paramagnetic state clock to differ from the actual postmortem time. We have heated irradiated enamel from both fossilized bovid and modern equine (MEQ) teeth for 30 min in 50 °C increments from 100 to 300 °C, measuring the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum after each anneal, to investigate such effects. Samples were irradiated again after the last anneal, with doses of 300-1200 Gy from 60Co photons, and measured. Two unirradiated MEQ samples were also annealed for 30 min at 300 °C, one in an evacuated EPR tube and the other in a tube open to the atmosphere, and subsequently irradiated. The data showed that hyperfine components attributed to the alanine radical were not detected in the irradiated MEQ sample until after the anneals. The spectrum of the MEQ sample heated in air and then irradiated was similar to that of the heat treated fossil sample. We conclude that the hyperfine components are due to sample heating to temperatures/times >100 °C/30 min and that similarities between fossil and MEQ spectra after the 300 °C/30 min MEQ anneal are also due to sample heating. We conclude that the presence of the hyperfine components in spectra of fossil tooth enamel indicate that such thermal events occurred either at the time of death, or during the postmortem history.

  4. Effects of annealing pressure and Ar+ sputtering cleaning on Al-doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiwei; Mei, Yong; Lu, Xuemei; Fan, Xiaoxing; Kang, Dawei; Xu, Panfeng; Tan, Tianya

    2016-11-01

    Post-treatments of Al-doped ZnO films fabricated by sol-gel method were studied in condition of annealing in air, vacuum and protective ambient, as well as the follow-up Ar+ sputtering cleaning. The effect of annealing pressure on resistivity of AZO films was investigated from 105 to 10-4 Pa, where the resistivity decreased four orders of magnitude as the pressure decreased and approached to its minimum at 10 Pa. It was observed that the main decreasing of resistivity occurred in a very narrow range of middle vacuum (between 100 and 10 Pa) and high vacuum was dispensable. The XRD and XPS characterizations demonstrated that the radical increasing of oxygen vacancy, Zn interstitial and substitution of Al3+ for Zn2+ under middle vacuum were responsible for the significant enhancement of conductivity. The follow-up Ar+ sputtering cleaning can further decrease the resistivity through removing the chemisorbed oxygen on film surface and grain boundaries, meanwhile fulfil the surface texture process, and thus improve both electrical and optical performances for applications.

  5. Infrared spectroscopy of water clusters isolated in methane matrices: Effects of isotope substitution and annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakawa, Koichiro; Ehara, Namika; Ozawa, Nozomi; Arakawa, Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Using infrared-active solvents of CH4 and CD4 for matrix isolation, we measured infrared spectra of H2O and D2O clusters at 7 K. The solute-concentration dependence of the spectrum of H2O clusters in a CH4 matrix was investigated and was used for the peak assignment. Annealing procedures were found to promote the size growth of water clusters in methane matrices for all the combinations of (H2O, CH4), (H2O, CD4), (D2O, CH4), and (D2O, CD4). We also monitored the ν3 absorption due to methane to find the annealing-induced structural change only of solid CH4. The matrix effects on the vibrations of the clusters are discussed on the basis of "Tc plots", where their frequencies are plotted as a function of the square root of the matrix critical temperature, Tc. The obtained plots assure the validity of the assignment of the cluster peaks.

  6. The precipitation in annealing and its effect on permittivity of Fe-Si-Al powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Cui, Yin; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Xin; Xie, Jian Liang

    2016-01-01

    SEM images show that some precipitates distributed on the surface of as-annealed Fe-Si-Al powders. Subsequent experimental results indicate that both morphology and microstructure of as-annealed Fe-Si-Al powders change with increasing annealing temperature. Meanwhile, dielectric properties analysis suggesting that both real part ε‧ and imaginary part ε″ of the Fe-Si-Al powders decrease significantly after annealed at 450 °C or higher temperature. We assume that it's the precipitates with low electrical conductivity developed on the surface of powders that increase the surface resistivity of as-annealed powders and leading to a lower imagine part of permittivity. The drop of real part ε‧ ascribed to the weakened interfacial polarization which resulted from the decrease of structural defects such as grain boundaries and interfaces during annealing process.

  7. Temperature dependence and annealing effects of absorption edges for selenium quantum dots formed by ion implantation in silica glass

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, A.; Wu, M.; Mu, R.

    1998-12-31

    The authors have fabricated Se nanoparticles in silica substrates by ion implantation followed by thermal annealing up to 1000 C, and studied the Se nanoparticle formation by optical absorption spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The sample with the highest dose (1 {times} 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}) showed the nanoparticle formation during the ion implantation, while the lower dose samples (1 and 3 {times} 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}) required thermal treatment to obtain nano-sized particles. The Se nanoparticles in silica were found to be amorphous. After thermal annealing, the particle doses approached the value of bulk after thermal annealing. The temperature dependent absorption spectra were also measured for this system in a temperature range from 15 to 300 K.

  8. Effect of Nano-Particle Addition on Grain Structure Evolution of Friction Stir-Processed Al 6061 During Postweld Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Junfeng; Lee, Bing Yang; Du, Zhenglin; Bi, Guijun; Tan, Ming Jen; Wei, Jun

    2016-06-01

    The fabrication of nano-composites is challenging because uniform dispersion of nano-sized reinforcements in metallic substrate is difficult to achieve using powder metallurgy or liquid processing methods. In the present study, Al-based nano-composites reinforced with Al2O3 particles have been successfully fabricated using friction stir processing. The effects of nano-Al2O3 particle addition on grain structure evolution of friction stir-processed Al matrix during post-weld annealing were investigated. It was revealed that the pinning effect of Al2O3 particles retarded grain growth and completely prevented abnormal grain growth during postweld annealing at 470°C. However, abnormal grain growth can still occur when the composite material was annealed at 530°C. The mechanism involved in the grain structure evolution and the effect of nano-sized particle addition on the mechanical properties were discussed therein.

  9. Effect of Ag doping and annealing on thermoelectric properties of PbTe

    SciTech Connect

    Bala, Manju Tripathi, T. S.; Avasthi, D. K.; Asokan, K.; Gupta, Srashti

    2015-06-24

    The present study reveals that annealing Ag doped PbTe thin films enhance thermoelectric properties. Phase formation was identified by using X-ray diffraction measurement. Annealing increases the crystallinity of both undoped and Ag doped PbTe. Electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power measurements are done using four probe and bridge method respectively. The increase in thermoelectric power of Ag doped PbTe is 29 % in comparison to undoped PbTe and it further increases to 34 % after annealing at 250{sup o} C for 1 hour whereas thermoelectric power increases by 14 % on annealing undoped PbTe thin films at same temperature.

  10. Effect of temperature annealing on capacitive and structural properties of hydrous ruthenium oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Wei-Chuan; Huang, Jin-Hua; Chen, Li-Chyong; Su, Yuh-Long Oliver; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    The structure-property relationships of hydrous ruthenium oxides, fabricated by electro deposition on Ti foil, were investigated with different annealing conditions. The annealing temperature was found to play an important role in affecting the electrochemical performance of the annealed hydrous ruthenium oxides. The results indicate that annealing hydrous ruthenium oxide at its crystallization threshold temperature, ∼200 °C, may help to create suitable nanostructure in the oxide that supports the establishment of interpenetrating percolation paths for balanced electron and proton conduction, thereby improving the capacitive response of the oxide dramatically. This finding is useful for fabrication of electrodes with enhanced electrochemical performance for application in microsupercapacitor.

  11. Effect of annealing on the thermal properties of poly (lactic acid)/starch blends.

    PubMed

    Lv, Shanshan; Gu, Jiyou; Cao, Jun; Tan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yanhua

    2015-03-01

    A comparative study of the thermal behavior of PLA/starch blends annealed at different temperatures has been conducted. Annealing was found to be beneficial to weaken and even eliminate the enthalpy relaxation near Tg. The degree of crystallinity was evaluated by means of DSC, and the results showed that the crystallinity of the samples increased as the annealing temperatures were increased. It was observed that, during the annealing process, the disorder α (α') crystal modification tended to transform into the order α crystal modification. All of the PLA/starch blends showed a double melting behavior. With the increase of annealing temperatures, the lower Tm1 increased, while the Tm2 showed no evident change. The XRD patterns also showed that annealing was beneficial to the samples to form higher crystallinity. The TGA results indicated that the annealed samples did not show any higher thermal stability than the virgin samples. The activation energy calculated by the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method at lower conversion degrees confirmed that the annealing slightly slowed the degradation. The activation energy did not show any dependence on the conversion degree, which indicated that there existed a complex degradation process of the PLA/starch blends. The average activation energy did not show obvious differences, indicating that the annealing treatment had little influence on the degradation activation energy. PMID:25542167

  12. Effect of low and high temperature anneal on process-induced damage of gate oxide

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.C.; Hu, C. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences)

    1994-11-01

    The authors have investigated the ability of high and low temperature anneals to repair the gate oxide damage due to simulated electrical stress caused by wafer charging resulting from plasma etching, etc. Even 800 C anneal cannot restore the stability in interface trap generation. Even 900 C anneal cannot repair the deteriorated charge-to-breakdown and oxide charge trapping. As a small consolation, the ineffectiveness of anneal in repairing the process-induced damage allows them to monitor the damages even at the end of the fabrication process.

  13. Effects of rolling temperature and subsequent annealing on mechanical properties of ultrafine-grained Cu–Zn–Si alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiangkai; Yang, Xuyue; Chen, Wei; Qin, Jia; Fouse, Jiaping

    2015-08-15

    The effects of rolling temperature and subsequent annealing on mechanical properties of Cu–Zn–Si alloy were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, electron back scattered diffraction and tensile tests. The Cu–Zn–Si alloy has been processed at cryogenic temperature (approximately 77 K) and room temperature up to different rolling strains. It has been identified that the cryorolled Cu–Zn–Si alloy samples show a higher strength compared with those room temperature rolled samples. The improved strength of cryorolled samples is resulted from grain size effect and higher densities of dislocations and deformation twins. And subsequent annealing, as a post-heat treatment, enhanced the ductility. An obvious increase in uniform elongation appears when the volume fraction of static recrystallization grains exceeds 25%. The strength–ductility combination of the annealed cryorolled samples is superior to that of annealed room temperature rolled samples, owing to the finer grains, high fractions of high angle grain boundaries and twins. - Highlights: • An increase in hardness of Cu–Zn–Si alloy is noticed during annealing process. • Thermal stability is reduced in Cu–Zn–Si alloy by cryorolling. • An obvious enhancement in UE is noticed when fraction of SRX grains exceeds 25%. • A superior strength–ductility combination is achieved in the cryorolling samples.

  14. Degradation and annealing effects caused by oxygen in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, R.; Shen, X.; Chen, J.; Duan, G. X.; Zhang, E. X.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Kaun, S. W.; Kyle, E. C. H.; Speck, J. S.; Pantelides, S. T.

    2016-07-01

    Hot-carrier degradation and room-temperature annealing effects are investigated in unpassivated ammonia-rich AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors. Devices exhibit a fast recovery when annealed after hot carrier stress with all pins grounded. The recovered peak transconductance can exceed the original value, an effect that is not observed in control passivated samples. Density functional theory calculations suggest that dehydrogenation of pre-existing ON-H defects in AlGaN plays a significant role in the observed hot carrier degradation, and the resulting bare ON can naturally account for the "super-recovery" in the peak transconductance.

  15. Effects of High-Temperature Annealing in Air on Hi-Nicalon Fiber-Reinforced Celsian Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    2008-01-01

    BN/SiC-coated Hi-Nicalon fiber-reinforced celsian matrix composites (CMC) were annealed for 100 h in air at various temperatures to 1200 C, followed by flexural strength measurements at room temperature. Values of yield stress and strain, ultimate strength, and composite modulus remain almost unchanged for samples annealed up to 1100 C. A thin porous layer formed on the surface of the 1100 C annealed sample and its density decreased from 3.09 to 2.90 g/cu cm. The specimen annealed at 1200 C gained 0.43 wt%, was severely deformed, and was covered with a porous layer of thick shiny glaze which could be easily peeled off. Some gas bubbles were also present on the surface. This surface layer consisted of elongated crystals of monoclinic celsian and some amorphous phase(s). The fibers in this surface ply of the CMC had broken into small pieces. The fiber-matrix interface strength was characterized through fiber push-in technique. Values of debond stress, alpha(sub d), and frictional sliding stress, tau(sub f), for the as-fabricated CMC were 0.31+/-0.14 GPa and 10.4+/-3.1 MPa, respectively. These values compared with 0.53+/-0.47 GPa and 8.33+/-1.72 MPa for the fibers in the interior of the 1200 C annealed sample, indicating hardly any change in fiber-matrix interface strength. The effects of thermal aging on microstructure were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Only the surface ply of the 1200 C annealed specimens had degraded from oxidation whereas the bulk interior part of the CMC was unaffected. A mechanism is proposed explaining the various steps involved during the degradation of the CMC on annealing in air at 1200 C.

  16. Effect of annealing temperature on magnetic phase transition in Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, A.; Farjami Shayesteh, S.; Salouti, M.; Boustani, K.

    2015-04-01

    Fe3O4 (magnetite) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using a co-precipitation method, and then annealed at various temperatures between 50 and 850 °C for 1 h in air. After annealing, the NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The FTIR and XRD results indicated that Fe3O4 NPs were converted to γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite) by annealing at 250 °C for 1 h and then to α-Fe2O3 (hematite) on annealing in the range of 550-650 °C. The average crystallite size of the NPs estimated by the Debye-Scherrer equation increased from 6.6 to 37.6 nm by increasing annealing temperature from 50 to 850 °C. According to VSM results, the magnetite NPs were superparamagnetic and converted to the maghemite with superparamagnetic phase by annealing up to 550 °C. A phase transition from soft to hard ferromagnetic was occurred at annealing temperature 650 and 850 °C, respectively °C. This phase transition was attributed to the conversion of magnetite to hematite. The VSM analysis confirmed the XRD and FTIR results. The saturation magnetization (Ms) of Fe3O4 NPs was increased from 41.69 to 53.61 emu/g by increasing annealing temperature from 50 to 550 °C, and then decreased intensively to 0.49 emu/g after annealing at 850 °C. By increasing annealing temperature from 50 to 550, the crystallite size of NPs was increased from 6.6 to 12.7 and the coercive force (Hc) was reached to 4.20 Oe after annealing at 550 °C and then intensively increased to 1459.02 Oe for any further increasing of particle size up to 850 °C.

  17. THE EFFECT OF POST-IRRADATION ANNEALING ON STACKING FAULT TETRAHEDRA IN NEUTRON-IRRADIATED OFHC COPPER

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Danny J.; Singh, Bachu N.; Eldrup, M.

    2003-09-03

    Two irradiation experiments have been completed wherein two sets of tensile specimens of OFHC copper were irradiated with fission neutrons, one set at 200 degrees C and the other at 250 degrees C. Post-irradiation annealing in vacuum was then used to evaluate the change in the defect microstructure, including vacancy-type SFT, voids, and dislocation loops. Individual samples within each set were given one annealing exposure at 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, or 550 degrees C for 2 hours. The fine-scale defect microstructure was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to compare the defect size and spatial distribution at each annealing temperature and reference the results to that measured in the as-irradiated condition. Based on the change in the SFT size distributions, post-irradiation annealing led to a preferential removal of the smaller sized SFT, but did not lead to a general coarsening as might be expected from an Oswald ripening scenario. The issue of whether the SFT produced during irradiation are all structurally perfect is still being investigated at the time of this report, however, the images of the SFT appeared more perfect after annealing at 300 degrees C and higher. Further analysis is being performed to determine whether intermediate stages of SFT formation exist in the as-irradiated condition.

  18. The effect of annealing on the creep of plasma sprayed ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Mcdonald, G.; Mullen, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    The creep of plasma sprayed ZrO2-8Y2O3 was measured at temperatues from 98 to 1250 C (180 to 220 F), and compared to creep of identical samples after annealing at temperatures from 98 to 1316 C (1800 to 2400 F). Loads and temperatures which produced significant creep of as sprayed ceramics produced no creep after annealing.

  19. Effect of Thermal Annealing on Tribological and Corrosion Properties of DLC Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linlin; Nie, X.; Hu, Xin

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the mechanical, tribological, and corrosion properties of annealed diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on M2 steel with various annealing temperatures were investigated. The results indicated that DLC coating on M2 steel annealed at 500 °C had the worst performance. Both corrosion polarization resistance and wear resistance against ceramic alumina counterface of DLC coatings decreased with increasing annealing temperature, which can be due to the decline of the coating hardness after the thermal treatment. When sliding against aluminum counterface material, the DLC annealed at 600 °C had the lowest coefficient of friction (cof) and wear resistance due to its high graphitic structure and low hardness. Compared with the original coating, cofs increased for coatings treated at below 300 °C; however, further increasing the annealing temperature led to the decrease of the cofs. Little material attachment occurred between DLC coatings (original and annealed) and counterface materials (both alumina and aluminum balls) except for the DLC annealed at 600 °C, in which coating material transferred to the surface of counterface ball.

  20. Effects of annealing conditions on the dielectric properties of solution-processed Al2O3 layers for indium-zinc-tin-oxide thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Park, Sung Kyu

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, the effects of annealing conditions on the dielectric properties of solution-processed aluminum oxide (Al2O3) layers for indium-zinc-tin-oxide (IZTO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been investigated. The dielectric properties of Al2O3 layers such as leakage current density and dielectric strength were largely affected by their annealing conditions. In particular, oxygen partial pressure in rapid thermal annealing, and the temperature profile of hot plate annealing had profound effects on the dielectric properties. From a refractive index analysis, the enhanced dielectric properties of Al2O3 gate dielectrics can be attributed to higher film density depending on the annealing conditions. With the low-temperature-annealed Al2O3 gate dielectric at 350 degrees C, solution-processed IZTO TFTs with a field-effect mobility of approximately 2.2 cm2/Vs were successfully fabricated. PMID:24245333

  1. Annealing Mechanism and Effect of Microwave Plasma Assisted Annealing on Properties of Sputtered Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jing; Yang, Chengtao; He, Ming

    2016-03-01

    To solve some problems existing in PZT films, such as: large residual stresses, interface diffusion, and lead loss, etc., which were caused by high post-annealing temperatures, and to obtain thin films with high-preferred orientation and uniform size grain and dense microstructure, different technological conditions of microwave plasma assisted post-annealing had been pilot studied. X-ray diffraction was used to analyze the crystal structures of the films. Transmission electronic microscope was used to analyze the surface and the interface morphology of the films. Ferroelectric properties were showed by measuring the remnant polarization and the leakage current dependence of electric field. The results indicated that it was good for reducing lead loss and annealing temperature of PZT films by microwave plasma assisted annealing. Ferroelectric properties of the film could also be enhanced by this pilot annealing method. PMID:27455722

  2. Effect of annealing and applied bias on barrier shape in CoFe/MgO/CoFe tunnel junctions.

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Chiaramonti, A. N.; Schreiber, D. K.; Yang, H.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Heinonen, O. G.; Petford-Long, A. K.

    2011-04-12

    Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy and electron holography were used to study changes in the MgO tunnel barrier of CoFe/MgO/CoFe magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) as a function of annealing and in situ applied electrical bias. Annealing was found to increase the homogeneity and crystallinity of the MgO tunnel barrier. Cobalt, oxygen, and trace amounts of iron diffused into the MgO upon annealing. Annealing also resulted in a reduction of the tunneling barrier height, and decreased the resistance of the annealed MTJ relative to that of the as-grown sample. In situ off-axis electron holography was employed to image the barrier potential profile of a MTJ directly, with the specimen under electrical bias. Varying the bias voltage from -1.5 to +1.5 V was found to change the asymmetry of the barrier potential and decrease the effective barrier width as a result of charge accumulation at the MgO-CoFe interface.

  3. Effect of annealing temperature on microstructure, hardness and adhesion properties of TiSi xN y superhard coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y. H.; Wang, J. P.; Tao, S. L.; Zhou, Z. F.

    2011-05-01

    A series of TiSi xN y superhard coatings with different Si contents were prepared on M42 steel substrates using two Ti and two Si targets by reactive magnetron sputtering at 500 °C. These samples were subsequently vacuum-annealed at 500, 600, 700, 800 and 900 °C, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), microindenter, Rockwell hardness tester and scratch tester were applied to investigate the microstructure, phase configuration, hardness and adhesion properties of as-deposited and annealed samples. The results indicated that there were two bonds, TiN and Si 3N 4, in all presently deposited TiSi xN y thin films, that structure was nanocomposite of nanocrystalline (nc-) TiN embedded into amorphous Si 3N 4 matrices. Annealing treatment below 900 °C played a little role in microstructure and hardness of the coatings although it greatly affected those of steel substrates. The film-substrate adhesion strength was slightly increased, followed by an abrupt decrease with increasing annealing temperature. Its value got to the maximum at 600 °C. Annealing had little effect on the friction coefficient with its value varying in the range of 0.39-0.40.

  4. The Effect of Thermal Annealing on Structural-phase Changes in the Ni-Ti Alloy Implanted with Krypton Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poltavtseva, V. P.; Kislitsin, S. B.; Ghyngazov, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    The influence of thermal annealing within the temperature range 100-300°C on the structural-phase state of a Ni-Ti alloy with shape memory effect (SME) implanted with 84Kr ions at the energies E = 280 keV and 1.75 MeV/nucl and the fluences within 5·1012-1·1020 ion/m2 is investigated. For the samples modified by 84Kr ions at E = 1.75 MeV/nucl up to the fluences 1·1020 and 5·1012 ion/m2, the formation of a martensitic NiTi phase with the B19 ' structure, responsible for the SME, is revealed at the annealing temperatures 100 and 300°C, respectively, in the near-surface region corresponding to the outrange area. This is accompanied by the formation of nanosized NiTi particles in the R-phase. As the implantation fluence increases, the probability of their formation decreases. It is shown that annealing of the implanted structures can increase the strength of the Ni-Ti alloy. The degree of hardening is determined by the value of annealing temperature, and an increase in strength is primarily due to ordering of the radiation-induced defect structures (phases). A correlation between the onset temperature of a forward martensitic transition and the structural-phase state of the thermally annealed Ni-Ti alloy is established.

  5. Effect of annealing on properties of decorative zirconium oxynitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed Mohamed, Sodky; Hadia, Nomery M. A.; Ali, Hazim M.

    2015-03-01

    > of 0.98. The as-prepared films were annealed in air for 1 h. The full set of annealing was 100, 200, 300, 400, 450, 500 and 550°C. The annealed zirconium oxynitride films exhibited nitrogen loss (oxidation). The nitrogen loss results in a great variance in compositional, electrical and optical properties. The energy dispersive analysis of X-ray and X-ray diffraction were used to examine the compositional and structural properties, respectively. A huge increase in the electrical resistivity was observed upon oxidation. The films annealed at higher temperatures (≥450°C) showed insulating behavior with low extinction coefficient (<1) and reasonable refractive index values. The optical band gap values of the films annealed at 500°C and 550°C are in good agreement with the previously reported values for ZrO2.

  6. Effect of Thermal Annealing on the Characteristics of Phosphorus-Implanted ZnO Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, T. S.; Yu, J. H.; Mo, H. S.; Kim, T. S.; Lim, K. Y.; Youn, C. J.; Hong, K. J.; Kim, H. S.

    2014-07-01

    A P-doped ZnO surface layer on undoped ZnO wafers was prepared by phosphorus (P) ion implantation. Hall effect measurement revealed p-type conduction in such layers annealed at 800°C. This indicates that acceptor levels are present in P-doped ZnO, even though the ZnO is still n-type. Micro-Raman scattering in - z( xy) z geometry was conducted on P-implanted ZnO. The E {2/high} mode shift observed toward the high-energy region was related to compressive stress as a result of P-ion implantation. This compressive stress led to the appearance of an A 1(LO) peak, which is an inactive mode. This A 1(LO) peak relaxed during thermal annealing in ambient oxygen at temperatures higher than 700°C. The P2p3/2 peak observed at 135.6 eV by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is associated with chemical bond formation leading to 2(P2O5) molecules. This indicates that implanted P ions substituted Zn sites in the ZnO layer. In photoluminescence spectroscopy, the P-related peaks observed at energies ranging between 3.1 and 3.5 eV originated from (A0, X) emission, because of PZn-2VZn complexes acting as shallow acceptors. The acceptor level was observed to be 126.9 meV above the valence band edge. Observation of this P-related emission indicates that ion implantation results in acceptor levels in the P-doped ZnO layer. This suggests that the P2O5 bonds are responsible for the p-type activity of P-implanted ZnO.

  7. Annealing effect for SnS thin films prepared by high-vacuum evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Revathi, Naidu Bereznev, Sergei; Loorits, Mihkel; Raudoja, Jaan; Lehner, Julia; Gurevits, Jelena; Traksmaa, Rainer; Mikli, Valdek; Mellikov, Enn; Volobujeva, Olga

    2014-11-01

    Thin films of SnS are deposited onto molybdenum-coated soda lime glass substrates using the high-vacuum evaporation technique at a substrate temperature of 300 °C. The as-deposited SnS layers are then annealed in three different media: (1) H{sub 2}S, (2) argon, and (3) vacuum, for different periods and temperatures to study the changes in the microstructural properties of the layers and to prepare single-phase SnS photoabsorber films. It is found that annealing the layers in H{sub 2}S at 400 °C changes the stoichiometry of the as-deposited SnS films and leads to the formation of a dominant SnS{sub 2} phase. Annealing in an argon atmosphere for 1 h, however, causes no deviations in the composition of the SnS films, though the surface morphology of the annealed SnS layers changes significantly as a result of a 2 h annealing process. The crystalline structure, surface morphology, and photosensitivity of the as-deposited SnS films improves significantly as the result of annealing in vacuum, and the vacuum-annealed films are found to exhibit promising properties for fabricating complete solar cells based on these single-phase SnS photoabsorber layers.

  8. Effect of Long Term, High Temperature Annealing on the Strength of Beta''-Alumina Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, James R.; Williams, Roger M.; Kisor, Adam K.

    2003-01-01

    It has been recently reported that subjecting beta''-alumina ceramics to a long term, high temperature anneal for the purpose of reducing the residual sodium aluminate content within the ceramic results in an apparent increase in the strength of the ceramic as well. In order to examine this hypothesis, a carefully controlled experiment was conducted. Ten tubes were cut into 100 rings 1.5 mm long. A third of the rings (randomly selected) were broken in diametral ring fracture tests, while the remaining rings were packaged and shipped to Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) where half of them were annealed, and the other half were unpacked and stored under appropriate dry conditions to act a shipping and handling control group. Once the annealing was completed, both groups of rings were repackaged and returned to Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) and broken in diametral ring tests. The annealed group had the lowest strength as indicated by the Weibull characteristic strengths. Weibull characteristic strengths for the unannealed, control, and annealed groups were 376 MPa, 326 MPa, and 294 MPa, respectively. The Weibull moduli of the unannealed and annealed groups were nominally the same at 9.0 and 8.6, respectively. That for the handling control group was lower at 6.8. The lower strength of the annealed ceramics is consistent with earlier work showing a decrease in ceramic strength with increasing grain size.

  9. The Effect of Annealing at 1500 C on Migration and Release of Ion Implanted Silver in CVD Silicon Carbide

    SciTech Connect

    HJ MacLean; RG Ballinger; LE Kolaya; SA Simonson; N Lewis; M Hanson

    2004-10-07

    The transport of silver in CVD {beta}-SiC has been studied using ion implantation. Silver ions were implanted in {beta}-SiC using the ATLAS accelerator facility at the Argonne National Laboratory. Ion beams with energies of 93 and 161 MeV were used to achieve deposition with peak concentrations at depths of approximately 9 and 13 {micro}m, respectively. As-implanted samples were then annealed at 1500 C for 210 or 480 hours. XPS, SEM, TEM, STEM, and optical methods were used to analyze the material before and after annealing. Silver concentration profiles were determined using XPS before and after annealing. STEM and SEM equipped with quantitative chemical analysis capability were used to more fully characterize the location and morphology of the silver before and after annealing. The results show that, within the uncertainty of measurement techniques, there is no silver migration, via either inter- or intragrannular paths, for the times and temperature studied. Additionally, the silver was observed to phase separate within the SiC after annealing. The irradiation damage from the implantation process resulted in a three-layer morphology in the as-implanted condition: (1) a layer of unaltered SiC, followed by (2) a layer of crystallized SiC, followed by (3) an amorphized layer which contained essentially all of the implanted silver. After annealing the layer structure changed. Layer 1 was unaltered. The grains in layer 2 recrystallized to form an epitaxial (columnar) layer. Layer 3 recrystallized to form a fine grain equiaxed layer. The results of this work do not support the long held assumption that silver release from CVD SiC, used for gas-reactor coated particle fuel, is dominated by grain boundary diffusion.

  10. Improved cost-effectiveness of the block co-polymer anneal process for DSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathangi, Hari; Stokhof, Maarten; Knaepen, Werner; Vaid, Varun; Mallik, Arindam; Chan, Boon Teik; Vandenbroeck, Nadia; Maes, Jan Willem; Gronheid, Roel

    2016-04-01

    This manuscript first presents a cost model to compare the cost of ownership of DSA and SAQP for a typical front end of line (FEoL) line patterning exercise. Then, we proceed to a feasibility study of using a vertical furnace to batch anneal the block co-polymer for DSA applications. We show that the defect performance of such a batch anneal process is comparable to the process of record anneal methods. This helps in increasing the cost benefit for DSA compared to the conventional multiple patterning approaches.

  11. The Effect of Hydrogen Annealing on the Oxidation Resistance of Four EPM Single Crystal Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Barrett, Charles A.; Garlick, Ralph G.

    2001-01-01

    Four single crystal EPM (enabling propulsion materials) developmental airfoil superalloys were hydrogen annealed at 1300 C for up to 100 hours to remove sulfur and improve oxidation resistance. Although the 1100 and 1150 C cyclic oxidation resistance was remarkably improved by annealing for 24 or 100 hours, the behavior was still considerably inferior to that of commercially available single crystal superalloys, especially those that are either Y-doped or hydrogen annealed. Excessive degradation in the developmental alloys appeared to be correlated with low Cr contents and, to a lesser extent, high Co and Re contents.

  12. Effect of rapid thermal annealing on recombination centres in boron-doped Czochralski-grown silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, D. C. Lim, B.; Bothe, K.; Schmidt, J.; Voronkov, V. V.; Falster, R.

    2014-01-27

    Rapid thermal annealing in a belt furnace results in a dramatic change of the recombination properties of boron-doped Czochralski silicon: (1) the lifetime degraded by applying a prolonged illumination at room temperature was significantly improved, (2) after subsequent dark recovery, the lifetime has a remarkably high value, and (3) the permanent recovery, by annealing at 185 °C under illumination, is enormously accelerated, and the finally achieved stable lifetime acquires a record value of 1.5 ms, as compared to 110 μs after permanent recovery of not-annealed reference samples.

  13. Effect of Annealing Twins on Electromigration in Ag-8Au-3Pd Bonding Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Tung-Han; Wang, Hsi-Ching; Chuang, Chien-Hsun; Lee, Jun-Der; Tsai, Hsing-Hua

    2013-03-01

    An innovative Ag-8Au-3Pd bonding wire with a high twin density has been produced. The grain size of this annealing-twinned wire changes moderately during electrical stressing, unlike that of the conventional grained wire, which increases drastically and even leads to a bamboo structure. In addition, the durability against electromigration of the annealing-twinned Ag-8Au-3Pd alloy wire is higher than that of the conventional grained wire. This higher durability can be ascribed to the surface reconstruction of a stepwise morphology and slow grain growth resulting from the abundance of annealing twins in this wire.

  14. Effects of annealing in N2 ambient on traps and persistent conduction in hydrothermally grown ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Z.-Q.; Claflin, B.; Look, D. C.

    2008-04-01

    Thermally stimulated current (TSC) spectroscopy and temperature-dependent dark current (DC) measurements have been applied to study traps and photoinduced persistent surface conduction in two hydrothermally grown bulk ZnO samples, as-grown, and annealed at 600°C in N2 ambient for 30min, respectively. The as-grown sample had a room-temperature (RT) resistivity of 1.6×103Ωcm, mobility of 2.1×102cm2/Vs, and carrier concentration of 1.8×1013cm-3, while the annealed sample was highly resistive, with RT resistivity of 3.6×106Ωcm, mobility of 4.4cm2/Vs, and carrier concentration of 3.9×1011cm-3. The as-grown sample showed strong conduction at low temperatures, which has been shown to be due to near-surface carriers in other studies. The annealed sample did not demonstrate this phenomenon. The dominant trap in the as-grown sample had an activation energy of 0.16eV, was strongest near the surface, and is possibly related to VZn. In the annealed sample, however, the dominant trap had an activation energy of 0.22eV, was of bulk nature, and is tentatively assigned to LiZn. After several routine TSC measurements, the DC for the as-grown sample increased by more than one order of magnitude at low temperatures (T<180K), while for the annealed sample, the DC increased by a factor of 2 at high temperatures (T>200K). These effects are generated by the TSC trap-filling illumination and can persist for many days under vacuum. At RT, the DC in the annealed sample returns to its equilibrium state if the sample is vented to air.

  15. Post-deposition annealing effect on RF-sputtered TiO2 thin-film properties for photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjoub, Ilhem; Touam, Tahar; Chelouche, Azeddine; Atoui, Mohamed; Solard, Jeanne; Chakaroun, Mahmoud; Fischer, Alexis; Boudrioua, Azzedine; Peng, Lung-Han

    2016-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were grown on glass substrates at room temperature using RF magnetron sputtering technique. Effect of the post-annealing for 1 h at 400-600 °C on the structural, morphological, optical and waveguide properties was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-visible spectrophotometry and m-lines spectroscopy (MLS). XRD studies show that as-grown and post-annealed TiO2 films exhibit (101) XRD peak corresponding to the anatase phase of TiO2. Higher annealing temperatures result in a significant increase in crystallinity. The grain size values were calculated and found to be about 15-37 nm. From the analyses made on the SEM micrographs and AFM images, it was revealed that the morphology and surface roughness of the thin films were influenced by the heat treatment temperature. The UV-visible spectroscopy analyses show that as-grown TiO2 films were transparent in the visible region with an average transmittance of more than 75 % and the transmittance decreases slightly with an increase in annealing temperature. Annealed TiO2 films also exhibit an increase in the values of direct optical band gap. MLS measurements at 633-nm wavelength put into evidence that TiO2 planar waveguides demonstrate a well-guided fundamental mode for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarized light. Moreover, the refractive index was found to increase with temperature and to approach to the anatase TiO2 single-crystal value for the TiO2 film annealed at 600 °C.

  16. Effect of sulfur hexafluoride gas and post-annealing treatment for inductively coupled plasma etched barium titanate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cong; Li, Yang; Yao, Zhao; Kim, Hong-Ki; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Nam-Young

    2014-09-01

    Aerosol deposition- (AD) derived barium titanate (BTO) micropatterns are etched via SF6/O2/Ar plasmas using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching technology. The reaction mechanisms of the sulfur hexafluoride on BTO thin films and the effects of annealing treatment are verified through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, which confirms the accumulation of reaction products on the etched surface due to the low volatility of the reaction products, such as Ba and Ti fluorides, and these residues could be completely removed by the post-annealing treatment. The exact peak positions and chemicals shifts of Ba 3d, Ti 2p, O 1 s, and F 1 s are deduced by fitting the XPS narrow-scan spectra on as-deposited, etched, and post-annealed BTO surfaces. Compared to the as-deposited BTOs, the etched Ba 3d 5/ 2 , Ba 3d 3/ 2 , Ti 2p 3/ 2 , Ti 2p 1/ 2 , and O 1 s peaks shift towards higher binding energy regions by amounts of 0.55, 0.45, 0.4, 0.35, and 0.85 eV, respectively. A comparison of the as-deposited film with the post-annealed film after etching revealed that there are no significant differences in the fitted XPS narrow-scan spectra except for the slight chemical shift in the O 1 s peak due to the oxygen vacancy compensation in O2-excessive atmosphere. It is inferred that the electrical properties of the etched BTO film can be restored by post-annealing treatment after the etching process. Moreover, the relative permittivity and loss tangent of the post-annealed BTO thin films are remarkably improved by 232% and 2,695%, respectively.

  17. Annealing polymer nanocomposite fibers and films with photothermal heating: effects on overall crystallinity and resultant mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanath, Vidya; Maity, Somsubhra; Bochinski, Jason; Clarke, Laura; Gorga, Russell

    2013-03-01

    Metal nanoparticles embedded within polymeric systems can be made to act as localized heat sources thereby aiding in-situ polymer processing. This is made possible by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) mediated photothermal effect of gold nanoparticles, wherein incident light absorbed by the nanoparticle generates a non-equilibrium electron distribution which subsequently transfers this energy into the surrounding medium, resulting in a temperature increase in the immediate region around the particle. The current research demonstrates this effect in polymer nanocomposite systems, electrospun nanofiber mats and thin films, which have been annealed at temperatures above the glass transition and below melting. A non-contact temperature measurement technique utilizing embedded fluorophores has been used to monitor the average temperature within samples. The effect of annealing methods (conventional and plasmonic), annealing conditions (temperature and duration) and cooling mechanisms on the morphology, crystallinity, and mechanical properties of polymeric nanocomposite systems will be discussed. The specificity of plasmonic heating coupled with the inside-outside approach of annealing presents a unique tool to thermally process polymers. NSF grant MPM 1069108.

  18. Annealing effects on the ferromagnetic resonance linewidths of sputter-deposited Fe{sub 100−x}Co{sub x}(001) thin films (x < 11)

    SciTech Connect

    Kusaoka, A.; Kimura, J.; Takahashi, Y. Inaba, N.; Kirino, F.; Ohtake, M.; Futamoto, M.

    2015-05-07

    Effects of post-growth annealing on the magnetic damping of 3d transition alloy thin films were investigated. Fe{sub 100−x}Co{sub x} (x < 11 at. %) thin films were epitaxially deposited on GaAs(001) substrates by rf magnetron sputtering, and some of them were annealed without exposing to atmosphere. Electrical measurement showed that in-plane resistivity was smaller in the annealed films than in the as-deposited ones, indicating that the annealing mitigates crystalline imperfections and leads to reduced electron scattering rates. Magnetic damping was evaluated by the peak widths of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra obtained by a conventional Q-band spectrometer. Comparison of as-deposited and annealed specimens showed that the damping was decreased by annealing. Combined with the electrical and FMR measurements, these observations are consistent with the theoretical predictions that crystalline imperfections strongly influence the magnetic damping, both in intrinsic and extrinsic origins.

  19. Effects of thermal annealing on the performance of polymer light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Yang, Yang

    2002-02-01

    Thermal annealing plays an important role in controlling morphologies of polymer thin films and consequently the device performance, such as emission spectra, turn-on voltages, quantum efficiency of photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL). In thermal annealing there is a tradeoff between hole-injection efficiency and PL efficiency. Annealing at a temperature higher than the glass transition temperature can improve the efficiency of hole injection at the expense of the PL efficiency, and vice versa. Optimizing the annealing conditions can improve the overall EL efficiency. The high efficiency of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene based polymer light-emitting diodes is demonstrated: 2.7 cd/A at a luminescence of 1000 cd/m2.

  20. Influence of air annealing temperature and time on the optical properties of Yb:YAG single crystal grown by HDS method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Ying; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Yequan; Zhang, Mingfu

    2015-08-01

    8 at.% Yb:YAG plate single crystal with the dimension of 170 mm × 150 mm × 30 mm was grown in vacuum by Horizontal Directional Solidification method. Aimed at blue-green color centers, annealing treatments of 15 mm × 15 mm × 1 mm samples from 900 °C to 1400 °C for 5 h and at 900 °C from 5 h to 40 h in air were conducted. The absorption spectra, emission spectra, fluorescence lifetime and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of samples under different annealing conditions were measured at room temperature, respectively. Annealing at above 1000 °C for 5 h or at 900 °C for 40 h made the blue-green color centers disappear and the samples turned to transparent. Absorption coefficients decreased in the 300 nm-800 nm wavelength range, emission intensities increased and emission bands broadened around 486 nm and 1029 nm with increasing temperature up to 1200 °C, then varied inversely. These values decreased or increased monotonically with increasing annealing time at 900 °C. The maximal increases of fluorescence lifetime were 62.3% and 64.7%, respectively. The calculated emission cross section of 1200 °C for 5 h was up to 4.4 × 10-20 cm2. In X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the concentrations of oxygen vacancies reduced from 1.28% down to absence by annealing. These experiments show that color centers are detrimental to the optical properties of HDS-Yb:YAG laser crystal and optimal annealing treatments should be conducted.

  1. Effects of reductive annealing on insulating polycrystalline thin films of Nb-doped anatase TiO2: recovery of high conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakao, Shoichiro; Hirose, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2016-02-01

    We studied the effects of reductive annealing on insulating polycrystalline thin films of anatase Nb-doped TiO2 (TNO). The insulating TNO films were intentionally fabricated by annealing conductive TNO films in oxygen ambient at 400 °C. Reduced free carrier absorption in the insulating TNO films indicated carrier compensation due to excess oxygen. With H2-annealing, both carrier density and Hall mobility recovered to the level of conducting TNO, demonstrating that the excess oxygen can be efficiently removed by the annealing process without introducing additional scattering centers.

  2. Effect of Laser Annealing of Common Solid Pressure Media on Pressure Gradients in a Diamond Anvil Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uts, I.; Glazyrin, K.; Lee, K. K.

    2012-12-01

    Advances in experimental techniques allow for the studying of geophysics and planetary science related materials under high pressure and high temperature conditions. With the intrinsic limits of the multianvil apparatus, compression in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) has become the preferred method for creating the extreme conditions of planetary interiors. High pressures up to 1 Mbar can be routinely obtained in laboratories with the use of DACs. Additionally, as in situ laser heating is becoming progressively more affordable for DACs, it is becoming more common to find laser heating setups in many large scale facilities. After the sample material, the pressure medium is the second most important ingredient for a successful high pressure DAC experiment. Not every pressure medium is equally suitable for every experiment. For example, solid pressure media are more persistent than gaseous pressure media if high temperature heating is required. The melting point of the former is much higher, and melting of pressure media may induce undesirable sample shift in the pressure chamber. However, the most important characteristic of a pressure medium is its ability to maintain hydrostaticity in the DAC. The media, particularly solid pressure media, become less effective with increasing pressure. One of the most popular ways of alleviating pressure gradients is through laser annealing of the sample. We explore the effectiveness of this technique in relation to common pressure media, namely, alkali metal halides NaCl, CsCl, KCl, LiF, and oxide MgO. The samples were laser annealed at temperatures above 2000 K. Pressure gradients were determined through the analysis of diamond Raman and ruby fluorescence peaks before and after annealing the sample with a near-infrared laser. We find that the effect of annealing varies for different materials. For some (NaCl and KCl), it reduces pressure gradients considerably, but for the others (MgO), the effect of annealing is less profound.

  3. The effect of annealing on the creep of plasma-sprayed ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Mcdonald, G.; Mullen, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    The creep of plasma sprayed ZrO2-8Y2O3 was measured at temperatures from 98 to 1250 C (180 to 220 F), and compared to creep of identical samples after annealing at temperatures from 98 to 1316 C (1800 to 2400 F). Loads and temperatures which produced significant creep of as sprayed ceramics produced no creep after annealing. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24799

  4. Thermal annealing effect on physical properties of DNA-CTMA thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizioł, Jacek; Dendzik, Maciej; Sitarz, Maciej; Hebda, Edyta; Pielichowski, Jan; Łojewska, Joanna; Rogulska, Anna; Bakasse, Mina

    2013-11-01

    DNA-CTMA is a material of increasing interest in the domain of organic electronics and photonics. However, its physical properties are not sufficiently understood. In this work DNA-CTMA thin films were subjected to thermal annealing. Annealing courses was monitored in situ by spectroscopic ellipsometry, infrared spectroscopy and dielectric spectroscopy. The results suggest existence of an irreversible structural transition, occurring at a temperature adjacent to 150 °C.

  5. Effects of thermal annealing on structural and magnetic properties of thin Pt/Cr/Co multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, J. K.; Satpati, B.; Oskar Liedke, Maciej; Gupta, A.; Som, T.

    2010-11-01

    Thermal stability of thin Pt/Cr/Co multilayers and the subsequent changes in their structural, magnetic, and magneto-optical properties are reported. We observe CoCrPt ternary alloy phase formation due to annealing at temperatures about 773 K, which is accompanied by enhancement in the coercivity value. In addition, 360° domain wall superimposed on a monodomain like background has been observed in the pristine multilayer, which changes into a multidomain upon annealing at 873 K.

  6. Rapid-thermal-annealing surface treatment for restoring the intrinsic properties of graphene field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Chan Wook; Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Jong Min; Shin, Dong Hee; Kim, Sung; Choi, Suk-Ho

    2013-10-01

    Graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) were fabricated by photolithography and lift-off processes, and subsequently heated in a rapid-thermal-annealing (RTA) apparatus at temperatures (TA) from 200 to 400 ° C for 10 min under nitrogen to eliminate the residues adsorbed on the graphene during the GFET fabrication processes. Raman-scattering, current-voltage (I-V), and sheet resistance measurements showed that, after annealing at 250 ° C, graphene in GFETs regained its intrinsic properties, such as very small intensity ratios of D to G and G to 2D Raman bands, a symmetric I-V curve with respect to ˜0 V, and very low sheet resistance. Atomic force microscopy images and height profiles also showed that the surface roughness of graphene was almost minimized at TA = 250 ° C. By annealing at 250 ° C, the electron and hole mobilities reached their maxima of 4587 and 4605 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively, the highest ever reported for chemical-vapor-deposition-grown graphene. Annealing was also performed under vacuum or hydrogen, but this was not so effective as under nitrogen. These results suggest that the RTA technique is very useful for eliminating the surface residues of graphene in GFETs, in that it employs a relatively low thermal budget of 250 ° C and 10 min.

  7. Effect of aging and annealing on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of ultra-thin CoPt films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, R.; Hayakawa, K.; Ebata, K.; Sugita, R.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of aging and annealing on the magnetic properties of ultra-thin CoPt films with a Ru underlayer was investigated. For the 3 nm thick CoPt film aged in the air, the decrease of the saturation magnetic moment ms, the drastic increase of the perpendicular coercivity Hc⊥ and the perpendicular anisotropy were observed. This is because the surface layer of the CoPt film was oxidized and the bottom layer with high perpendicular anisotropy due to lattice distortion remained. For the annealed 3 nm thick CoPt film with a Pt protective layer, rising the annealing temperature Ta led to the decrease of ms, the decrease after increase of Hc⊥, and the decrease of the perpendicular squareness ratio S⊥ at Ta of 400 ∘C. The origins of effect of annealing were considered to be the grain boundary diffusion and the bulk diffusion of Ru and Pt into the CoPt film, and relaxation of the lattice distortion.

  8. The effect of substrate on high-temperature annealing of GaN epilayers: Si versus sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Pastor, D.; Cusco, R.; Artus, L.; Gonzalez-Diaz, G.; Iborra, E.; Jimenez, J.; Peiro, F.; Calleja, E.

    2006-08-15

    We have studied the effects of rapid thermal annealing at 1300 deg.C on GaN epilayers grown on AlN buffered Si(111) and on sapphire substrates. After annealing, the epilayers grown on Si display visible alterations with craterlike morphology scattered over the surface. The annealed GaN/Si layers were characterized by a range of experimental techniques: scanning electron microscopy, optical confocal imaging, energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis, Raman scattering, and cathodoluminescence. A substantial Si migration to the GaN epilayer was observed in the crater regions, where decomposition of GaN and formation of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} crystallites as well as metallic Ga droplets and Si nanocrystals have occurred. The average diameter of the Si nanocrystals was estimated from Raman scattering to be around 3 nm. Such annealing effects, which are not observed in GaN grown on sapphire, are a significant issue for applications of GaN grown on Si(111) substrates when subsequent high-temperature processing is required.

  9. Combined effects of annealing/quenching and transition metal substitution on physical properties of CaFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Sheng; Bud'Ko, Sergey; Canfield, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Our previous work on CaFe2As2 single crystals grown out of FeAs flux has shown that a process of annealing and quenching can be used as an additional control parameter which can tune the ground state of CaFe2As2 systematically, in a manner similar to applied pressure. With combined effect of annealing/quenching and transition metal substitution, CaFe2As2 system offers ready access to the salient low-temperature states associated with Fe-based superconductors: antiferromagnetic/orthorhombic, superconducting, and nonmagnetic/collapsed tetragonal. In this talk we will present systematic studies of the combined effects of annealing/quenching and chemical substitution with various transition metals (Co, Ni, Rh) on the physical properties of CaFe2As2 and construct phase diagrams for different substitution levels and different annealing/quenching temperatures. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  10. Effects of post-growth annealing in a CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB trilayer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Ji-Feng; Ter Lim, Sze; Tran, Michael; Ji, Rong

    2015-11-01

    CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB tri-layer thin-film stacks have been widely used in the design of STT-RAM devices as functional magnetic-tunnel-junction (MTJ) structures. The materials properties of the CoFeB and MgO layers, including composition and lattice quality, have been extensively researched from the stand point of optimizing for the best MTJ performance. On the other hand, post-growth annealing is required for the MTJ structure to acquire its functional property, i.e. its TMR performance. In this work, we have studied the various possible effects resulting from the post-growth annealing process. Specifically, we show that the post-growth annealing causes boron in the top and bottom CoFeB layers to migrate into the adjacent Ta layers as well as deterioration in lattice quality of the MgO layer. Furthermore, we evaluate other effects that could be possibly induced during the annealing process, including Ta diffusion and layer intermixing in the CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB tri-layer structure. The post-growth annealing causes little change in the Ta diffusion and the layer intermixing. These annealing effects were also evaluated with respect to variations in the MgO growth process; more specifically, an additional natural oxidation treatment during the MgO layer deposition and the insertion of a Fe layer before the MgO layer. Our results indicate that the addition of a natural oxidation process during the MgO deposition process and the insertion of a thin-layer of Fe before the MgO layer both lead to a reduction in the layer intermixing between the MgO and the CoFeB layer and to an improvement in MgO lattice quality. We also show that the post-growth annealing does not alter the beneficial effect of these MgO growth process modifications.

  11. Effects of the density of collision cascades: Separating contributions from dynamic annealing and energy spikes

    SciTech Connect

    Titov, A I; Karaseov, P A; Azarov, A Y; Kucheyev, S O

    2008-08-13

    We present a quantitative model for the efficiency of the molecular effect in damage buildup in semiconductors. Our model takes into account only one mechanism of the cascade density dependence: nonlinear energy spikes. In our three-dimensional analysis, the volume of each individual collision cascade is divided into small cubic cells, and the number of cells that have an average density of displacements above some threshold value is calculated. We assume that such cells experience a catastrophic crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition, while defects in the cells with lower displacement densities have perfect annihilation. For the two limiting cases of heavy (500 keV/atom {sup 209}Bi) and light (40 keV/atom {sup 14}N) ion bombardment of Si, theory predictions are in good agreement with experimental data for a threshold displacement density of 4.5 at.%. For intermediate density cascades produced by small 2.1 keV/amu PF{sub n} clusters, we show that dynamic annealing processes entirely dominate cascade density effects for PF{sub 2} ions, while energy spikes begin contributing in the case of PF{sub 4} cluster bombardment.

  12. Effects of Postdeposition Annealing on Cobalt Nanodots Embedded in Silica for Nonvolatile Memory Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Yanli; Kojima, Toshiya; Hiraki, Tatsuro; Fukushima, Takafumi; Tanaka, Tetsu; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa

    2010-06-01

    We studied the effects of postdeposition annealing (PDA) on the films of cobalt nanodots (Co-NDs) dispersed in silica formed by self-assembled nanodot deposition (SAND). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis showed that the as-grown Co-NDs have a high density of 8×1012/cm2 and a small size of ˜1.5 nm. After PDA at 800 °C, a monolayer of Co-NDs is produced by agglomeration. Under this PDA condition, the dot size and density are easily controlled by adjusting the thickness of the as-grown Co-ND film. In contrast, a high-temperature PDA of 900 °C induces the diffusion of cobalt into the silicon substrate and leads to the failure of memory effect. When the PDA temperature is between 600 and 800 °C, a large counterclockwise hysteresis memory window is obtained. Furthermore, in this region, the charge retention is enhanced by increasing the PDA temperature, which presumably contributes to the release of oxygen from oxidized cobalt.

  13. Effects of Postdeposition Annealing on Cobalt Nanodots Embedded in Silica for Nonvolatile Memory Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanli Pei,; Toshiya Kojima,; Tatsuro Hiraki,; Takafumi Fukushima,; Tetsu Tanaka,; Mitsumasa Koyanagi,

    2010-06-01

    We studied the effects of postdeposition annealing (PDA) on the films of cobalt nanodots (Co-NDs) dispersed in silica formed by self-assembled nanodot deposition (SAND). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis showed that the as-grown Co-NDs have a high density of 8× 1012/cm2 and a small size of ˜1.5 nm. After PDA at 800 °C, a monolayer of Co-NDs is produced by agglomeration. Under this PDA condition, the dot size and density are easily controlled by adjusting the thickness of the as-grown Co-ND film. In contrast, a high-temperature PDA of 900 °C induces the diffusion of cobalt into the silicon substrate and leads to the failure of memory effect. When the PDA temperature is between 600 and 800 °C, a large counterclockwise hysteresis memory window is obtained. Furthermore, in this region, the charge retention is enhanced by increasing the PDA temperature, which presumably contributes to the release of oxygen from oxidized cobalt.

  14. The effect of polyethylene glycol on the stability of pores in polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels during annealing.

    PubMed

    Bodugoz-Senturk, Hatice; Choi, Jeeyoung; Oral, Ebru; Kung, Jean H; Macias, Celia E; Braithwaite, Gavin; Muratoglu, Orhun K

    2008-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels are candidate biomaterials for cartilage resurfacing or interpositional arthroplasty devices requiring high-creep resistance and high water content to maintain lubricity. Annealing of PVA improves creep resistance but also reduces the water content. We hypothesized that maintaining poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) within PVA during annealing would prevent the collapse of the pores and thus would result in high equilibrium water content (EWC). Our hypothesis tested positive. The PVA hydrogels containing PEG maintained their opacity through annealing and exhibited large pores under confocal imaging while hydrogels not containing PEG turned translucent and no pores were visible after annealing. The EWC of gels annealed with PEG (83 +/- 1.0%) was higher than that of the gels processed without PEG (55 +/- 4.8). The crystallinity of the former was 8.0 +/- 1.7% and the latter was 27.5 +/- 8.7%. The hydrogels processed in the presence of PEG exhibited a significantly higher total creep strain (69 +/- 3.4%) when compared to the PEG-free hydrogels (17 +/- 3.7) under an initial contact stress of 0.45 MPa. EWC appeared to be strongly related to the creep resistance of annealed PVA theta-gels. PMID:17950839

  15. Effect of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of spin coated copper phthalocyanine thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afify, H. A.; Gadallah, A.-S.; El-Nahass, M. M.; Atta Khedr, M.

    2015-10-01

    Low cost sol-gel spin coating was used to deposit copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) thin films on both fused quartz and glass substrate. The prepared films were studied before and after thermal annealing at 350 °C for 1 h in air. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) were used to study the structural properties. From the structural characterization results, the films transformed from the metastable α-phase to the stable β-phase. Refractive index, absorption coefficient, and lattice dielectric constant were evaluated before and after annealing for the first time for spin coated CuPc thin films using spectrophotometric measurements in the spectral range 200-2500 nm. The values of the direct optical band gap of the as deposited film at 1.52 eV and 2.85 eV were redshifted to 1.4 eV and 2.42 eV for the annealed film. This shift is significant for near infrared photonics. The third order non-linear susceptibility was presented at lower photon energy for the CuPc films showing higher value for the annealed film.

  16. Effect of annealing temperature on structural and magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roohani, Ebrahim; Arabi, Hadi; Sarhaddi, Reza; Sudkhah, Saeedeh; Shabani, Ameneh

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel auto-combustion method. Effect of annealing temperature on crystal structure, morphology and magnetic properties of nanoparticles was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Also, the thermal decomposition of as-synthesized powdered samples has been studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD patterns confirmed the formation of single phase M-type hexagonal crystal structure for powders annealed above 950∘C, whereas the presence of hematite (α-Fe2O3) as secondary phase was also observed for sample annealed at 900∘C. Furthermore, the crystallinity along with the crystallite size were augmented with annealing temperature. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the samples before and after annealing treatment showed the existence of metal-oxygen stretching modes after annealing. The thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the thermal decomposition of as-burnt powders happened in three-stage degradation process. The TEM images showed the nanoparticles like hexagonal-shaped platelets as the size of nanoparticles increases by increasing the annealing temperature. With increasing annealing temperature, the magnetic saturation and the coercivity were increased to the maximum value of 74.26 emu/g and 5.67 kOe for sample annealed at 1000∘C and then decreased.

  17. Effect of low-temperature annealing on the electronic- and band-structures of (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yastrubchak, O.; Wosinski, T.; Gluba, L.; Andrearczyk, T.; Domagala, J. Z.; Żuk, J.; Sadowski, J.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of outdiffusion of Mn interstitials from (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers, caused by post-growth low-temperature annealing, on their electronic- and band-structure properties has been investigated by modulation photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy. The annealing-induced changes in structural and magnetic properties of the layers were examined with high-resolution X-ray diffractometry and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, respectively. They confirmed an outdiffusion of Mn interstitials from the layers and an enhancement in their hole concentration, which were more efficient for the layer covered with a Sb cap acting as a sink for diffusing Mn interstitials. The PR results demonstrating a decrease in the band-gap-transition energy in the as-grown (Ga,Mn)As layers, with respect to that in the reference GaAs one, are interpreted by assuming a merging of the Mn-related impurity band with the GaAs valence band. Whereas an increase in the band-gap-transition energy caused by the annealing treatment of the (Ga,Mn)As layers is interpreted as a result of annealing-induced enhancement of the free-hole concentration and the Fermi level location within the valence band. The experimental results are consistent with the valence-band origin of itinerant holes mediating ferromagnetic ordering in (Ga,Mn)As, in agreement with the Zener model for ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  18. Effects of annealing, acid and alcoholic beverages on Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Taen, T.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Shi, Z. X.; Tamegai, T.

    2013-01-01

    We have systematically investigated and compared different methods to induce superconductivity in the iron chalcogenide Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4, including annealing in a vacuum, N2, O2 and I2 atmospheres and immersing samples into acid and alcoholic beverages. Vacuum and N2 annealing are proved to be ineffective in inducing superconductivity in a Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 single crystal. Annealing in O2 and I2 and immersion in acid and alcoholic beverages can induce superconductivity by oxidizing the excess Fe in the sample. Superconductivity in O2 annealed samples is of a bulk nature, while I2, acid and alcoholic beverages can only induce superconductivity near the surface. By comparing the different effects of O2, I2, acid and alcoholic beverages we propose a scenario to explain how the superconductivity is induced in the non-superconducting as-grown Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4.

  19. Effect of low-temperature annealing on the electronic- and band-structures of (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers

    SciTech Connect

    Yastrubchak, O. Gluba, L.; Żuk, J.; Wosinski, T. Andrearczyk, T.; Domagala, J. Z.; Sadowski, J.

    2014-01-07

    The effect of outdiffusion of Mn interstitials from (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers, caused by post-growth low-temperature annealing, on their electronic- and band-structure properties has been investigated by modulation photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy. The annealing-induced changes in structural and magnetic properties of the layers were examined with high-resolution X-ray diffractometry and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, respectively. They confirmed an outdiffusion of Mn interstitials from the layers and an enhancement in their hole concentration, which were more efficient for the layer covered with a Sb cap acting as a sink for diffusing Mn interstitials. The PR results demonstrating a decrease in the band-gap-transition energy in the as-grown (Ga,Mn)As layers, with respect to that in the reference GaAs one, are interpreted by assuming a merging of the Mn-related impurity band with the GaAs valence band. Whereas an increase in the band-gap-transition energy caused by the annealing treatment of the (Ga,Mn)As layers is interpreted as a result of annealing-induced enhancement of the free-hole concentration and the Fermi level location within the valence band. The experimental results are consistent with the valence-band origin of itinerant holes mediating ferromagnetic ordering in (Ga,Mn)As, in agreement with the Zener model for ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  20. Effect of annealing on down-conversion properties of monoclinic Gd2O3:Er3+ nanophosphors.

    PubMed

    Tamrakar, Raunak Kumar; Bisen, D P; Upadhyay, Kanchan

    2015-09-01

    Erbium-doped nano-sized Gd2O3 phosphor was prepared by a solution combustion method in the presence of urea as a fuel. The phosphor was characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results of the XRD shows that the phosphor has a monoclinic phase, which was further confirmed by the TEM results. Particle size was calculated by the Debye-Scherrer formula. The erbium-doped Gd2O3 nanophosphor was revealed to have good down-conversion (DC) properties and the intensity of phosphor could be modified by annealing. The effects of annealing at 900°C on the particle size and luminescence properties were studied and compared with freshly prepared Gd2O3:Er(3+) nanoparticles. The average particle sizes were calculated as 8 and 20 nm for the freshly prepared samples and samples annealed at 900°C for 1 h, respectively. The results show that both freshly prepared and annealed Gd2O3:Er(3+) have monoclinic structure. PMID:25529921

  1. Effect of Variants of Thermomechanical Working and Annealing Treatment on Titanium Alloy Ti6Al4V Closed Die Forgings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R. K.; Kumar, V. Anil; Kumar, P. Ram

    2016-06-01

    Performance of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V pressure vessels made of closed die forged domes of route `B' (multiple step forged and mill annealed) is reported to be better than route `A' (single/two step forged and mill annealed). Analysis revealed that forgings processed through route `B' have uniformity in microstructure and yield strength at various locations within the forging, as compared to that of route `A.' It is attributed to in-process recrystallization (dynamic as well as static) of route `B' forgings as compared to limited recrystallization of route `A' forgings. Further, post-forging recrystallization annealing (RA) effect is found to be more significant for route `A' forgings in achieving uniform microstructure and mechanical properties, since route `B' forgings have already undergone similar phenomenon during the thermomechanical working process itself. Considering prime importance of yield strength, statistical scatter in yield strength values within the forgings have been evaluated for forgings of both the routes. Standard deviation in the yield strength of route `B' forgings was lower (<10 MPa) as compared to route `A' (>15 MPa), which later became lower (~10 MPa) after RA with a minor decrease in yield strength. The present work discusses these variants of thermomechanical processing along with annealing to achieve better uniformity in properties and microstructure.

  2. Effect of Solution Annealing on Susceptibility to Intercrystalline Corrosion of Stainless Steel with 20% Cr and 8% Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taiwade, R. V.; Patil, A. P.; Patre, S. J.; Dayal, R. K.

    2013-06-01

    In general, as-received (AR) austenitic stainless steels (ASSs) contain complex carbide precipitates due to manufacturing operations, subsequent annealing treatment, or due to the fabrication processes such as welding. The presence of pre-existing carbides leads to cumulative sensitization and make the steel susceptible to intercrystalline corrosion (ICC)/intergranular corrosion (IGC) which causes premature failure during service. Solution annealing (SA) is one of the ways to deal with such situations. In this present investigation, the AR (hot rolled and mill annealed) chromium-nickel (Cr-Ni) ASS is compared with SA Cr-Ni ASS. The extent of ICC/IGC was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively by various electrochemical tests including ASTM standard A-262 Practice A and Practice E, double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The degree of sensitization for hot rolled mill annealed AR condition is found to be substantially higher (51.55%) than that of SA condition (26.9%) for thermally aged samples (at 700 °C). The chemical composition across the grain boundary was measured using electron probe micro-analyzer for both (AR and SA) conditions and confirms that the pre-sensitization effect was completely removed after SA treatment.

  3. Annealing effects on the bonding structures, optical and mechanical properties for radio frequency reactive sputtered germanium carbide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, C. Q.; Zhu, J. Q.; Zheng, W. T.; Han, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of thermal annealing in vacuum on the bonding structures, optical and mechanical properties for germanium carbide (Ge 1- xC x) thin films, deposited by radio frequency (RF) reactive sputtering of pure Ge(1 1 1) target in a CH 4/Ar mixture discharge, are investigated. We find that there are no significant changes in the bonding structure of the films annealed below 300 °C. The fraction of Ge-H bonds for the film annealed at temperatures ( Ta) above 300 °C decreases, whereas that of C-H bonds show a decrease only when Ta exceeds 400 °C. The out-diffusion of hydrogen promotes the formation of Ge-C bonds at Ta above 400 °C and thus leads to a substantial increase in the compressive stress and hardness for the film. The refractive indices and optical gaps for Ge 1- xC x films are almost constant against Ta, which can be ascribed to the unchanged ratios of Ge/C and sp 2-C/sp 3-C concentrations. Furthermore, we also find that the excellent optical transmission for an antireflection Ge 1- xC x double-layer film on ZnS substrate is still maintained after annealing at 700 °C.

  4. Effect of Austenite Stability on Microstructural Evolution and Tensile Properties in Intercritically Annealed Medium-Mn Lightweight Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hyejin; Sohn, Seok Su; Kwak, Jai-Hyun; Lee, Byeong-Joo; Lee, Sunghak

    2016-06-01

    The microstructural evolution with varying intercritical-annealing temperatures of medium-Mn ( α + γ) duplex lightweight steels and its effects on tensile properties were investigated in relation to the stability of austenite. The size and volume fraction of austenite grains increased as the annealing temperature increased from 1123 K to 1173 K (850 °C to 900 °C), which corresponded with the thermodynamic calculation data. When the annealing temperature increased further to 1223 K (950 °C), the size and volume fraction were reduced by the formation of athermal α'-martensite during the cooling because the thermal stability of austenite deteriorated as a result of the decrease in C and Mn contents. In order to obtain the best combination of strength and ductility by a transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) mechanism, an appropriate mechanical stability of austenite was needed and could be achieved when fine austenite grains (size: 1.4 μm, volume fraction: 0.26) were homogenously distributed in the ferrite matrix, as in the 1123 K (850 °C)—annealed steel. This best combination was attributed to the requirement of sufficient deformation for TRIP and the formation of many deformation bands at ferrite grains in both austenite and ferrite bands. Since this medium-Mn lightweight steel has excellent tensile properties as well as reduced alloying costs and weight savings, it holds promise for new automotive applications.

  5. The effect of aluminium on the post-anneal concentration of ion implanted bismuth in silica thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southern-Holland, R.; Halsall, M. P.; Crowe, I. F.; Yang, P.; Gwilliam, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    We present a study of bismuth and aluminium co-implanted silica thin films and the effectiveness of post implantation annealing at activating Bismuth related photoluminescence. The only emission seen in photoluminescence from any of the samples was centred at 1160 nm and is of the kind generally reported as due to silicon dislocation loops. In particular, the layers did not exhibit the broad NIR emission in photoluminescence as reported by other authors in Bismuth doped silica fibres. In order to study the retention of the Bismuth in the layers after annealing Rutherford Backscattering measurements were conducted on the samples, these found that the concentration of bismuth in the samples was greatly reduced following the annealing process when compared to the concentration implanted and explains why we measured no emission from bismuth. The concentration of bismuth remaining in the sample post anneal depended on the initial implant doses of bismuth and aluminium. We propose that aluminium plays the role of increasing the solubility of bismuth in oxide but that this was not sufficient in our samples to observe the photoemission reported for fibre materials.

  6. Effect of annealing on graphene incorporated poly-(3-hexylthiophene):CuInS{sub 2} photovoltaic device

    SciTech Connect

    Kumari, Anita Dixit, Shiv Kumar; Singh, Inderpreet

    2014-10-15

    The effect of thermal annealing on the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):CuInS{sub 2} quantum dot:graphene photovoltaic device has been studied by analyzing optical characteristics of composite films and electrical characteristics of the device with structure indium tin oxide/poly[ethylene dioxythiophene]:poly[styrene sulfonate] (ITO/PEDOT:PSS)/P3HT:CIS:graphene/LiF/aluminum. It was observed that after annealing at 120°C for 15 min a typical device containing 0.005 % w/w of graphene shows the best performance with a PCE of 1.3%, an open-circuit voltage of 0.44V, a short-circuit current density of 7.6 mA/cm{sup 2}, and a fill factor of 0.39. It is observed that the thermal annealing considerably enhances the efficiency of solar cells. However, an annealing at higher temperature such as at 140°C results in a decrease in the device efficiency.

  7. Effects of high-temperature anneals and {sup 60}Co gamma-ray irradiation on strained silicon on insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Park, K.; Canonico, M.; Celler, G. K.; Seacrist, M.; Chan, J.; Gelpey, J.; Holbert, K. E.; Nakagawa, S.; Tajima, M.; Schroder, D. K.

    2007-10-01

    Strained silicon on insulator was exposed to high-temperature annealing and high-dose {sup 60}Co gamma ({gamma})-ray irradiation to study the tenacity of the bond between the strained Si film and the underlying buried oxide. During the high-temperature anneals, the samples were ramped at a rate of 150 deg. C/s to 850 deg. C then ramped to 1200, 1250, and 1300 deg. C at a rate of approximately 5x10{sup 5} deg. C/s for millisecond duration anneals. For the irradiation experiments, the samples were irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays to a dose of 51.5 kGy. All samples were characterized by ultraviolet (UV) Raman, pseudo metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor ({psi}-MOSFET) current voltage, Hall mobility, and photoluminescence (PL) to verify changes in strain. UV Raman, PL, and {psi}-MOSFET measurements show no strain relaxation for the high-temperature annealed samples and only very slight relaxation for the {gamma}-ray irradiated samples.

  8. Thermal annealing effects on chemical states of deuterium implanted into boron coating film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, H.; Sugiyama, T.; Morimoto, Y.; Oya, Y.; Okuno, K.; Inoue, N.; Sagara, A.; Noda, N.

    2003-03-01

    To reveal interaction between boron coating film and energetic hydrogen isotopes, chemical states of deuterium implanted into the boron coating films deposited on graphite by using DC glow discharge in a diborane diluted helium have been studied. The XPS measurements showed the possibility of the formation of B-D and C-D bonds by D 2+ ion implantation. The TDS experiments indicated that deuterium desorption took place in two stages, which were attributed to the desorption processes from the trapping sites of B-D and C-D bonds. The results of the XPS measurements after D 2+ ion implantation revealed that the peak areas of the B-D and C-D bonds began to decrease at 310 and 473 K and the peaks almost disappeared at 873 and 1073 K, respectively. These results suggest that the trapping site of the B-D bond is largely influenced by thermal annealing effects compared with that of the C-D bond.

  9. Heterogeneous patterns on block copolymer thin film via solvent annealing: Effect on protein adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Lei; Zhu, Jintao; Liang, Haojun

    2015-03-01

    Heterogeneous patterns consisting of nanometer-scaled hydrophobic/hydrophilic domains were generated by self-assembly of poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PHEMA) block copolymer thin film. The effect of the heterogeneity of the polymer film surface on the nonspecific adsorption of the protein human plasma fibrinogen (FBN, 5.0 × 5.0 × 47.5 nm3) was investigated. The kinetics of the FBN adsorption varies from a single-component Langmuir model on homogeneous hydrophilic PHEMA to a two-stage spreading relaxation model on homogeneous hydrophobic PS surface. On a heterogeneous PS-b-PHEMA surface with majority PS part, the initial FBN adsorption rate remains the same as that on the homogeneous PS surface. However, hydrophilic PHEMA microdomains on the heterogeneous surface slow down the second spreading stage of the FBN adsorption process, leading to a surface excess of adsorbed FBN molecules less than the presumed one simply calculated as adsorption onto multiple domains. Importantly, when the PS-b-PHEMA surface is annealed to form minority domelike PS domains (diameter: ˜50-100 nm) surrounded by a majority PHEMA matrix, such surface morphology proves to be strongly protein-repulsive. These interesting findings can be attributed to the enhancement of the spread FBN molecule in a mobile state by the heterogeneity of polymer film surface before irreversible adsorption occurs.

  10. Effect of composition and annealing on electrodeposited CoxPt1-X nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Manvendra Singh; Agarwal, Shivani; Hsu, Jen-Hwa; Chien, Chia-Hua; Chen, Cheng-Lung; Chen, Yang-Yuan

    2016-05-01

    Highly ordered CoxPt1-x (x ≤ 0.82) magnetic nanowire arrays of 60 nm diameter have been fabricated successfully by electrodeposition process into the pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. Electrodeposition process has been used as it is one of the simplest and most inexpensive, easily controlled method for the synthesis of nanowires.It was found that deposition potential is a key factor to control the composition and thus the magnetic properties of the nanowires. The as-deposited CoxPt1-x nanowires were characterized by XRD to have fcc structure with preferred orientation of (111) or (001) along the nanowire. Co-rich nanowires exhibit ferromagnetic behavior in contrast to near superparamagnetic response of the Pt-rich nanowires. Upon annealing the effects of crystallization cause the decrease of anisotropy along the wire axis for Co82Pt18 nanowires due to the increase of magnetocrystalline anisotropy perpendicular to the wire axis. In the next phase of our work segmented CoPtP/Pt multilayers nanowires will be deposited within the AAO template. Such multilayers nanowires are expected to have the high anisotropy due to the formation of ordered Co-Pt alloy phase at the interface.

  11. Effect of RF power and annealing on chemical bonding and morphology of a-CNx thin films as humidity sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, N. F. H.; Ritikos, R.; Kamal, S. A. A.; Hussain, N. S. Mohamed; Awang, R.

    2013-11-01

    Amorphous carbon nitride (a-CNx) thin films were deposited using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf-PECVD) technique. A set of a-CNx thin films were prepared using pure methane (CH4) gas diluted with nitrogen (N2) gas. The rf power was varied at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 W. These films were then annealed at 400 °C in a quartz tube furnace in argon (Ar) gas. The effects of rf power and thermal annealing on the chemical bonding and morphology of these samples were studied. Surface profilometer was used to measure film thickness. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) measurements were used to determine their chemical bonding and morphology respectively. The deposition rate of the films increased constantly with increasing rf power up to 80W, before decreasing with further increase in rf power. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) studies showed a systematic change in the spectra and revealed three main peaks included C-N, C=N, C=C and C≡N triple bond. C=N and C≡N bonds decreased with increased C-N bonds after thermal annealing process. The FESEM images showed that the structure is porous for as-deposited and covered by granule-like grain structure after thermal annealing process was done. The resistance of the a-CNx thin film changed from 23.765 kΩ to 5.845 kΩ in the relative humidity range of 5 to 92 % and the film shows a good response and repeatability as a humidity sensing materials. This work showed that rf power and thermal annealing has significant effects on the chemical bonding and surface morphology of the a-CNx films and but yield films which are potential candidate as humidity sensor device.

  12. The effect of non-contact heating (microwave irradiation) and contact heating (annealing process) on properties and performance of polyethersulfone nanofiltration membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansourpanah, Y.; Madaeni, S. S.; Rahimpour, A.; Farhadian, A.

    2009-07-01

    In this work the effect of microwave irradiation on morphology and performance of polyethersulfone (PES) membranes was investigated. The membranes were prepared with 20 wt.% of PES by phase inversion method. N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and mixture of water and ethyl alcohol (90/10 vol.%) were employed as solvent and coagulant respectively. Polyvinylpirrolidone (PVP) with the concentration of 2 wt.% was selected as pore former. The effects of irradiation time (10, 30, 60, 90, 120 s) and microwave power (180, 360, 720 and 900 W) on structure and performance of membranes were studied. Increasing the irradiation time and power caused variation in permeate flux and ion rejection. Moreover, the effects of annealing processes (60, 70, 80 °C) were studied. Transmembrane pressure was selected around 1.5 MPa for all experiments. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) were employed to describe the surface morphology of the prepared membranes. The effect of microwave irradiation time in different power revealed alterations in membrane surface morphology and AFM images represented that surface parameters (such as surface roughness) have been changed. The membrane exhibited moderate rejection (47%) and low permeate flux (4.5 kg/m 2 h) at 80 °C for NaCl solution. The SEM images indicate that the dense skin layer is formed at 80 °C annealing.

  13. Effect of annealing on EPR spectra of Ti-Si-C-N samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guskos, N.; Anagnostakis, E. A.; Zolnierkiewicz, G.; Typek, J.; Biedunkiewicz, A.; Guskos, A.; Berczynski, P.

    2012-03-01

    Two nanocrystalline samples of TiC+SiC+20%C (sample 1) and Si3N4+Si(C,N)+Ti(C,N)+1%C (sample 2) were prepared by non-hydrolytic sol-gel method. The latter sample was produced from sample 1, by subjecting it to additional annealing at high temperature. XRD measurements showed the presence of aggregates of cubic SiC+TiC nanoparticles (10 to 30 nm in size). In both samples, a very narrow electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) line originating from localized magnetic centers was centered at g eff˜2. At T = 130 K, we registered the linewidths Δ H pp = 1.41(2) G and Δ H pp = 2.92(2) G for the sample without and with thermal annealing, respectively. For the non-annealed sample, the resonance line was fitted by a Lorentzian line in the low temperature range, and by a Dysonian line above 70 K, which indicates a significant change in electrical conductivity. Therefore, thermal annealing can significantly improve the transport properties of samples. An analysis of the temperature dependence of the EPR parameters ( g-factor, linewidth, integrated intensity) showed that thermal annealing has a significant impact on the reorientation processes of localized magnetic centers.

  14. Effect of annealing temperature on wettability of TiO2 nanotube array films

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube array (TN) films were prepared by anodization of titanium foil in a mixed electrolyte solution of glycerin and NH4F and then annealed at 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, and 800°C, respectively. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water contact angle (WCA), and photoluminescence (PL). It was found that low temperature (below 600°C) has no significant influence on surface morphology, but the diameter of the nanotube increases from 40 to 50 nm with increasing temperature. At 800°C, the nanotube arrays are completely destroyed and only dense rutile film is observed. Samples unannealed and annealed at 200°C are amorphous. At 400°C, anatase phase appears. At 600°C, rutile phase appears. At 800°C, anatase phase changes into rutile phase completely. The wettability of the TN films shows that the WCAs for all samples freshly annealed at different temperatures are about 0°. After the annealed samples have been stored in air for 1 month, the WCAs increase to 130°, 133°, 135°, 141°, and 77°, respectively. Upon ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, they exhibit a significant transition from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity. Especially, samples unannealed and annealed at 400°C show high photoinduced hydrophilicity. PMID:25426006

  15. ZnO nanostructures growth with silver catalyst—Effect of annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, S. K.; Jacob, C.

    2009-03-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures have been grown on both the as-deposited silver thin-film templates over silicon substrates and annealed silver thin-film templates on silicon substrates. ZnO was grown by evaporation of metallic zinc over the silver templates followed by thermal annealing in air. Sword-like ZnO nanostructures grew densely throughout the surface of the annealed silver template sample. A small number of ZnO swords embedded in a porous surface were found for the as-deposited silver template sample. It is observed that the annealing treatment of the Ag thin-film is the key factor in controlling the formation of ZnO nanostructures. XRD study shows that the nanostructures have very good crystallinity and have the hexagonal wurtzite ZnO structure. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectrum indicates that the nanostructures grown on annealed Ag template are less defective and have high optical quality. On the other hand, a very weak UV emission peak and the blue emission doublet band reveal that the ZnO sample grown on the as-deposited silver template are highly defective. The micro-Raman spectra of the ZnO nanostructures grown on both types of Ag templates show enhanced Raman scattering which is related to surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS).

  16. The effect of neutron irradiation dose on vacancy defect accumulation and annealing in pure nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druzhkov, A. P.; Arbuzov, V. L.; Perminov, D. A.

    2012-02-01

    In order to investigate the dose dependence of vacancy defect evolution in nickel, specimens of high-purity Ni were neutron-irradiated at ˜330 K in the IVV-2M reactor (Russia) to fluencies in the range of 1 × 10 21-1 × 10 23 n/m 2 ( E > 0.1 MeV) corresponding to displacement dose levels in the range of about 0.0001-0.01 dpa and subsequently stepwise annealed to about 900 K. Ni was characterized both in as-irradiated state as well as after post-irradiation annealing by positron annihilation spectroscopy. The formation of three-dimensional vacancy clusters (3D-VCs) in cascades was observed under neutron irradiation, the concentration of 3D-VCs increases with increasing dose level. 3D-VCs collapse into secondary-type clusters (stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs), and vacancy loops) during stepwise annealing at 350-450 K. It is shown that the thermal stability of SFTs grow with increasing dose level, probably, it is due to growth of the average SFT size during annealing. The results of annealing experiments on electron-irradiated Ni at 300 K are indicated in the paper, for comparison. We also have briefly discussed the positron response to the SFT-like structures.

  17. Effect of annealing on atomic ordering of amorphous ZrTaTiNbSi alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tsung-Han; Huang, Rong-Tang; Wu, Cheng-An; Chen, Fu-Rong; Gan, Jon-Yiew; Yeh, Jien-Wei; Narayan, Jagdish

    2009-12-01

    In this letter, we have reported on initial stages of atomic ordering in ZrTaTiNbSi amorphous films during annealing. The atomic ordering and structure evolution were studied in Zr17Ta16Ti19Nb22Si26 amorphous films as a function of annealing temperature in the temperature range from 473 to 1173 K. Up to annealing temperature of 1173 K, the films retained amorphous structure, but the degree of disorder is increased with the increase in temperature. The formation of Si-M covalent bonds, which contributed to the local atomic arrangement, occurred in the initial stages of ordering. The bonding reactions between Si and other metal species explain the anomalous structural changes which were observed in x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. We discuss the stages of phase transformation for amorphous films as a function of annealing temperature. From these results, we propose that annealing leads to formation of random Si-M4 tetrahedron, and two observed rings, a first and second in the electron diffraction patterns compared to M-M and Si-M bond length, respectively.

  18. Structural, electrical and optical studies of SILAR deposited cadmium oxide thin films: Annealing effect

    SciTech Connect

    Salunkhe, R.R.; Dhawale, D.S.; Gujar, T.P.; Lokhande, C.D.

    2009-02-04

    Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method has been successfully employed for the deposition of cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films. The films were annealed at 623 K for 2 h in an air and changes in the structural, electrical and optical properties were studied. From the X-ray diffraction patterns, it was found that after annealing, H{sub 2}O vapors from as-deposited Cd(O{sub 2}){sub 0.88}(OH){sub 0.24} were removed and pure cubic cadmium oxide was obtained. The as-deposited film consists of nanocrystalline grains of average diameter about 20-30 nm with uniform coverage of the substrate surface, whereas for the annealed film randomly oriented morphology with slight increase in the crystallite size has been observed. The electrical resistivity showed the semiconducting nature with room temperature electrical resistivity decreased from 10{sup -2} to 10{sup -3} {omega} cm after annealing. The decrease in the band gap energy from 3.3 to 2.7 eV was observed after the annealing.

  19. Rapid thermal annealing effect on surface of LiNi 1- xCo xO 2 cathode film for thin-film microbattery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Han-Ki; Seong, Tae-Yeon; Cho, Won il; Yoon, Young Soo

    The effect of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the surface of a LiNi 1- xCo xO 2 cathode film is examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). It is found that the as-deposited LiNi 1- xCo xO 2 film undergoes a surface reaction with oxygen in the air, due to the high activity of lithium in the film. AES spectra indicate that the surface layer consists of lithium and oxygen atoms. The RTA process at 500 °C eliminates the surface layer to some extent. An increase in annealing temperature to 700 °C results in complete elimination of the surface layer. The surface evolution of the LiNi 1- xCo xO 2 film with increasing annealing time at 700 °C is examined by means of AFM examination. It is found that the surface layer, which is initially present in the form of an amorphous like-film, becomes agglomerated and then vaporizes after 5 min of annealing. A thin-film microbattery (TFB), fabricated by using the LiNi 1- xCo xO 2 film without a surface layer, exhibits more stable cycliability and a higher specific discharge capacity of 60.2 μAh cm -2 μm than a TFB with an unannealed LiNi 1- xCo xO 2 film. Therefore, it is important to completely eliminate the surface layer in order to achieve high performance from all solid-state thin-film microbatteries.

  20. Effect of annealing on the growth dynamics of ZnPc LB thin film and its surface morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Dhrubojyoti; Das, Nayan Mani; Gupta, P. S.

    2014-07-01

    The ZnPc molecules in the thin film prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) process in asdeposited state has been found to have an edge on orientation with average tilt angle of 64.3 ° as confirmed from the Pressure-Area (π-A) isotherm and X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. The ZnPc LB thin film has been observed to have abnormal growth mode at higher annealing temperature and it is mainly driven by minimization of surface free energy which lead to large increase in crystallinity of the film. Kinetically favored orientational and structural transitions of ZnPc thin film during annealing and their effect on the surface morphology of the thin film has been studied using scaling concepts. The scaling exponents 1) root mean square (RMS) roughness σ, 2) roughness exponent α and, 3) in plane correlation length ξ are calculated from the HDCF g(r) and ACF C(r). The RMS surface roughness σ is found to be dependent on the as defined short wavelength undulations (ρ) and long wavelength undulations (χ). Both ρ and χ are the function of all the three scaling exponents. σ has been observed to be maximum for the ZnPc thin film annealed at 290 °C, since the χ shoot to maximum value at this temperature due to the formation of small domains of ZnPc nanorods. The self affinity of the ZnPc thin film is found to decrease on annealing as obtained from both power spectral density (PSD) and HDCF g(R) & ACF C(R) study, which confirms that the dimension of surface morphology of the ZnPc LB thin film transform towards 2D with increase in annealing temperature.

  1. Effect of postdeposition annealing on the structure, composition, and the mechanical and optical characteristics of niobium and tantalum oxide films.

    PubMed

    Cetinörgü-Goldenberg, Eda; Klemberg-Sapieha, Jolanta-Ewa; Martinu, Ludvik

    2012-09-20

    Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of optical thin films are very important for a reliable device performance. In the present work, the effect of annealing on the stability and the characteristics of niobium and tantalum oxide films grown at room temperature (RT) by dual ion beam sputtering were studied. The refractive index (n(λ)), extinction coefficient (k(λ)), hardness (H), reduced Young's modulus (E(r)), and film stress (σ) were investigated as a function of the annealing temperature (T(A)). X-ray diffraction analysis showed that all as-deposited films were amorphous, and crystallization was observed only after annealing at 700°C. Compositional analyses confirmed that the atomic ratio of oxygen to metal in as-deposited and annealed films was close to 2.5, indicating that the films were stoichiometric pentoxides of Nb and Ta. The properties of Nb(2)O(5) and Ta(2)O(5) films were, respectively, affected by postdeposition annealing: n(λ) values (at 550 nm) decreased from 2.30 to 2.20 and from 2.14 to 2.08, the average H and E(r) values increased from 5.6 to 7.4 GPa, and from 121 to 132 GPa for Nb(2)O(5), and from 6.5 to 8.3 GPa, and from 132 to 144 GPa for Ta(2)O(5), and the initial low compressive stress for both materials changed to tensile. We explain the variation of the coating material properties in terms of film stoichiometry, crystallinity, electronic structure, and possible reactions at the film-substrate interface. PMID:23033019

  2. Effect of annealing on the growth dynamics of ZnPc LB thin film and its surface morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Dhrubojyoti Das, Nayan Mani; Gupta, P. S.

    2014-07-15

    The ZnPc molecules in the thin film prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) process in asdeposited state has been found to have an edge on orientation with average tilt angle of 64.3 ° as confirmed from the Pressure-Area (π-A) isotherm and X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. The ZnPc LB thin film has been observed to have abnormal growth mode at higher annealing temperature and it is mainly driven by minimization of surface free energy which lead to large increase in crystallinity of the film. Kinetically favored orientational and structural transitions of ZnPc thin film during annealing and their effect on the surface morphology of the thin film has been studied using scaling concepts. The scaling exponents 1) root mean square (RMS) roughness σ, 2) roughness exponent α and, 3) in plane correlation length ξ are calculated from the HDCF g(r) and ACF C(r). The RMS surface roughness σ is found to be dependent on the as defined short wavelength undulations (ρ) and long wavelength undulations (χ). Both ρ and χ are the function of all the three scaling exponents. σ has been observed to be maximum for the ZnPc thin film annealed at 290 °C, since the χ shoot to maximum value at this temperature due to the formation of small domains of ZnPc nanorods. The self affinity of the ZnPc thin film is found to decrease on annealing as obtained from both power spectral density (PSD) and HDCF g(R) and ACF C(R) study, which confirms that the dimension of surface morphology of the ZnPc LB thin film transform towards 2D with increase in annealing temperature.

  3. Recombination luminescence in irradiated silicon - Effects of thermal annealing and lithium impurity.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. S.; Compton, W. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of luminescence in irradiated silicon to determine the thermal stability of the defects responsible for the recombination. It is found that the defect responsible for the zero-phonon line at 0.97 eV has an annealing behavior similar to that of the divacancy and that the zero-phonon line at 0.79 eV anneals in a manner similar to the G-15 or K-center. Annealing at temperatures up to 500 C generates other defects whose luminescence is distinct from that seen previously. Addition of lithium to the material produces defects with new characteristic luminescence. Of particular importance is a defect with a level at E sub g -1.045 eV.

  4. The effects of annealing temperature on the photoluminescence from silicon nitride multilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scardera, G.; Puzzer, T.; Perez-Wurfl, I.; Conibeer, G.

    2008-07-01

    The room temperature photoluminescence from silicon nitride multilayer structures, grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition, is monitored for different annealing temperatures and is correlated to structural and molecular changes in the film. Use of various annealing temperatures from 600 °C to 1150 °C results in films which vary from being completely amorphous to an amorphous matrix containing silicon nanocrystals, and finally to a fully crystallized composite containing silicon, α-Si 3N 4 and β-Si 3N 4 nanocrystals. Coupled with the observed trends seen with grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and infra-red absorbance with annealing temperature, the photoluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in amorphous silicon nitride is attributed to the presence of the nanocrystals in the film and not to transitions between band tails of the remaining amorphous matrix.

  5. Effects of Ni doping and structural defects on magnetic properties of annealed SiC films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuting; Jin, Xin; Sun, Ning; Li, Chunjing; An, Yukai; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-08-01

    Ni-doped SiC films deposited on Si (100) substrates prepared by RF-magnetron sputtering were discussed in this paper. The results show that with reference to the as-deposited as well as annealing at 800 °C. C atoms were substituted by Ni atoms in the 3Csbnd SiC lattice and Ni-related secondary phase cannot be detected. After annealing at 1200 °C, the crystal quality improved obviously while the majority of Ni atoms form the Ni2Si secondary phase. Temperature dependent on resistivity reveals that the conduction mechanism is dominated by Mott variable range hopping behavior for the Ni-doped SiC films, confirming that the carriers are localized. All the films are ferromagnetic at 300 K and annealing can evidently improve the room-temperature (RT) ferromagnetism. The bound magnetic polarons should be responsible for the RT ferromagnetism of the Ni-doped SiC films.

  6. Enhanced photocurrent density of hematite thin films on FTO substrates: effect of post-annealing temperature.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Soo; Kang, Myung Jong; Kang, Young Soo

    2015-06-28

    Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) is widely used as a substrate in the synthesis of a photo-reactive semiconductor electrode for solar water splitting. The hematite film on the surface of the FTO substrate annealed at 700 °C showed an enhanced photocurrent value with a maximum photocurrent of 0.39 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V vs. RHE under 1 sun illumination. This is a much enhanced photocurrent value of the hematite films than that of those annealed at temperatures lower than 700 °C. This is a promising approach for the enhancement of the photoelectrochemical properties of metal oxide thin films. This work reports on the mechanism of the annealing process of the synthesized hematite film to enhance the photocurrent value. Furthermore, this can be used for the enhanced efficiency of the solar water splitting reaction. PMID:26032403

  7. Synergistic Effects of Binary-Solvent Annealing for Efficient Polymer-Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fu-Chiao; Li, Yi-Hao; Tsou, Chieh-Jen; Tung, Kuo-Cheng; Yen, Chia-Te; Chou, Fang-Sheng; Tang, Fu-Ching; Chou, Wei-Yang; Ruan, Jrjeng; Cheng, Horng-Long

    2015-09-01

    Conjugated polymer-fullerene-based bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs) have attracted tremendous attention over the past two decades because of their potential to develop low-cost and easy methods to produce energy from light. The complicated microstructure and morphology with randomly organized architecture of these polymer-fullerene-based active layers (ALs) is a key factor that limits photovoltaic performance. In this study, a binary-solvent annealing (BSA) approach was established to improve the poly(3-hexylthiophene):indene-C60 bisadduct-based AL for efficient BHJ-type OSCs by varying the second solvents with different boiling points (BP). Thus, we were able to change the evaporation behavior of cosolvents and consequently obtain the various microstructural properties of the AL. An in-depth study was conducted on the solvent-evaporation driven morphology of the active layer under various cosolvent conditions and its effect on the photovoltaic parameters of OSCs. Under the BSA processes, we found that the specimens with low-BP second solvents allows us to observe a more ideal AL for increasing photon absorption and efficient charge transport and collection at the respective electrodes, resulting in enhanced PCE of the corresponding OSCs. By contrast, the specimens with high-BP second solvents exhibit random microstructures, which are detrimental to charge transport and collection and lead to diminished PCE of the corresponding OSCs. By appropriately selecting the composition of a binary solvent, BSA can be employed as an easy method for the effective manipulation of the microstructures of ALs. BSA is a promising technique for the performance enhancement of not only OSCs but also other organic/polymeric-based electronic devices. PMID:26267758

  8. Effect of α-damage on fission-track annealing in zircon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasuya, Masao; Naeser, Charles W.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal stability of confined fission-track lengths in four zircon samples having different spontaneous track densities (i.e., different amounts of ??-damage) has been studied by one-hour isochronal annealing experiments. The thermal stability of spontaneous track lengths is independent of initial spontaneous track density. The thermal stability of induced track lengths in pre-annealed zircon, however, is significantly higher than that of spontaneous track lengths. The results indicate that the presence of ??-damage lowers the thermal stability of fission-tracks in zircon.

  9. The effect of α-damage on fission-track annealing in zircon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasuya, M.; Naeser, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal stability of confined fission-track lengths in four zircon samples having different spontaneous track densities (i.e. different amounts of ??-damage) has been studied by one hour isochronal annealing experiments. The thermal stability of spontaneous track lengths is independent of initial spontaneous track density. The thermal stability of induced track lengths in pre-annealed zircon, however, is significantly higher than that of spontaneous track lengths. The results indicate that the presence of ??-damage lowers the thermal stability of fission-tracks in zircon. ?? 1988.

  10. Effect of annealing on the structure of chemically synthesized SnO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kulwinder; Kumar, Virender; Vij, Ankush; Kumari, Sudesh; Kumar, Akshay; Thakur, Anup

    2016-05-01

    Tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles have been synthesized by co-precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. XRD analysis confirmed the single phase formation of SnO2 nanoparticles. The Raman shifts showed the typical feature of the tetragonal phase of the as-synthesized SnO2 nanoparticles. At low annealing temperature, a strong distortion of the crystalline structure and high degree of agglomeration was observed. It is concluded that the crystallinity of SnO2 nanoparticles improves with the increase in annealing temperature.

  11. Unraveling the roles of thermal annealing and off-time duration in magnetic properties of pulsed electrodeposited NiCu nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji jamali, Z.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Ramazani, A.; Montazer, A. H.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic alloy nanowires (ANWs) have long been studied owing to both their fundamental aspects and possible applications in magnetic storage media and magnetoresistance devices. Here, we report on the roles of thermal annealing and duration of off-time between pulses (toff) in crystalline characteristics and magnetic properties of arrays of pulsed electrodeposited NiCu ANWs (35 nm in diameter and a length of 1.2 μm), embedded in porous anodic alumina template. Increasing toff enabled us to increase the Cu content thereby fabricating NiCu ANWs with different crystallinity and alloy compositions. Although major hysteresis curve measurements showed no considerable change in magnetic properties before and after annealing, the first-order reversal curve (FORC) analysis provided new insights into the roles of thermal annealing and toff. In other words, FORC diagrams indicated the presence of low and high coercive field regions in annealed Ni-rich ANWs, coinciding with the increase in toff in as-deposited ANWs. The former has a small coercivity with strong demagnetizing magnetostatic interactions from neighboring NWs and may correspond to a soft magnetic phase. The latter has a greater coercivity with weak interactions, corresponding to a hard magnetic phase. On the other hand, for as-deposited and annealed Cu-rich NiCu ANWs, a mixed phase of the soft and hard segments could be found. Furthermore, a transition from the interacting Ni-rich to non-interacting Cu-rich ANWs took place with a magnetic field applied parallel to the NW axis. Thus, these arrays of ANWs with tunable magnetic phases and interactions may have potential applications in the nanoscale devices.

  12. Effect of annealing temperature and layer thickness on the opto-electrical properties of transparent conducting Zn/SnO2/Zn multilayer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Jae; Anwar, M. S.; Kim, Eun Ji; Cho, Hyeon Ji; Song, Tae Kwon; Koo, Bon Heun; Ko, Hang Joo

    2016-01-01

    Highly transparent Zn/SnO2/Zn conducting multilayer films are prepared on quartz glass substrates by using RF sputtering. The deposited films were annealed at various temperatures for thermal diffusion. The influences of annealing temperature, annealing time and the zinc thickness on the structural, electrical and optical properties of the multilayer films were studied. X-ray diffraction results showed that all p-type conducting films possessed polycrystalline SnO2 with a tetragonal rutile structure. Hall measurements indicates that annealing at 450 °C for 2 h was the optimum annealing parameters for p-type Zn (5 nm)/SnO2 (300 nm)/Zn (5 nm) multilayer films with a hole concentration and resistivity of 9.80 × 1016 cm-3 and 352 Ω·cm, respectively. The average transmission of the p-type Zn/SnO2/Zn multilayer films was above 87% in the visible range.

  13. Effect of thermal annealing on the emission properties of heterostructures containing a quantum-confined GaAsSb layer

    SciTech Connect

    Dikareva, N. V. Vikhrova, O. V.; Zvonkov, B. N.; Malekhonova, N. V.; Nekorkin, S. M.; Pirogov, A. V.; Pavlov, D. A.

    2015-01-15

    Heterostructures containing single GaAsSb/GaAs quantum wells and bilayer GaAsSb/InGaAs quantum wells are produced by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy at atmospheric pressure. The growth temperature of the quantum-confined layers is 500–570°C. The structural quality of the samples and the quality of heterointerfaces of the quantum wells are studied by the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy of cross sections. The emission properties of the heterostructures are studied by photoluminescence measurements. The structures are subjected to thermal annealing under conditions chosen in accordance with the temperature and time of growth of the upper cladding p-InGaP layer during the formation of GaAs/InGaP laser structures with an active region containing quantum-confined GaAsSb layers. It is found that such heat treatment can have a profound effect on the emission properties of the active region, only if a bilayer GaAsSb/InGaAs quantum well is formed.

  14. Effects of interface roughness on the annealing behaviour of laminated Ti-Al composite deformed by hot rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Y.; Fan, G. H.; Yu, T.; Hansen, N.; Geng, L.; Huang, X.

    2015-08-01

    A laminated Ti-Al composite has been fabricated by hot compaction and hot rolling of alternate layers of commercial purity Ti and Al sheets with a thickness of 200 μm. The hot compaction temperature was 500°C and in a following step the composite has been reduced 50% in thickness by hot rolling. The fully consolidated composite has been annealed at 300°C and 500°C for different length of time. As a result of the differences in crystal structure and mechanical properties between Ti and Al protrusions and retrusions formed at the interface. A heterogeneous interface has thereby been created. The heterogeneity affected the recovery kinetics of the aluminium phase which at 300°C was faster near the interface than in the middle of the Al layer. This effect of a heterogeneous interface is of relevance when optimizing the thermomechanical processing of the composite to obtain high strength and formability for application.

  15. The effect of high-temperature annealing on the structure and electrical properties of well-aligned carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Qianming . E-mail: gongqianming@mail.tsinghua.org.cn; Li Zhi; Wang Ye; Wu Bin; Zhang Zhengyi; Liang Ji

    2007-03-22

    Systematic work has been performed on the effect of high-temperature annealing on structural defects and impurities of well-aligned carbon nanotubes (ACNTs) in this paper. ACNTs had been prepared by CVD process with ferrocene as catalyst and then the as-grown samples were experienced heat treatment (HT) from 1800 to 3000 deg. C. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), etc., have been used to analyze the effect of annealing. Results indicate that some impurities can be removed once annealing temperature exceeds vaporization point of corresponding metal or non-metal. Desorption of O should be attributed to reduced active sites of dangling covalent bonds after heat treatment. Specious discrepancy about interlayer spacing resulted from XRD and Raman tests show that although high-temperature heat treatment can remove in-plane defects of carbon nanotubes greatly, interlayer spacing between graphene shells could not be reduced effectively because of the special concentric cylindrical structure of nanotubes. Electrical resistivity of ACNTs block is about three orders higher than that of copper even after HT at 3000 deg. C, and the anisotropy of electrical properties increased once experienced heat treatment at increased temperature.

  16. Annealing temperature and barrier thickness effect on the structural and optical properties of silicon nanocrystals/SiO₂ superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    López-Vidrier, J. Hernández, S.; López-Conesa, L.; Peiró, F.; Garrido, B.; Hiller, D.; Gutsch, S.; Zacharias, M.; Estradé, S.

    2014-10-07

    The effect of the annealing temperature and the SiO₂ barrier thickness of silicon nanocrystal (NC)/SiO₂ superlattices (SLs) on their structural and optical properties is investigated. Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the SL structure is maintained for annealing temperatures up to 1150 °C, with no variation on the nanostructure morphology for different SiO₂ barrier thicknesses. Nevertheless, annealing temperatures as high as 1250 °C promote diffusion of Si atoms into the SiO₂ barrier layers, which produces larger Si NCs and the loss of the NC size control expected from the SL approach. Complementary Raman scattering measurements corroborated these results for all the SiO₂ and Si-rich oxynitride layer thicknesses. In addition, we observed an increasing crystalline fraction up to 1250 °C, which is related to a decreasing contribution of the suboxide transition layer between Si NCs and the SiO₂ matrix due to the formation of larger NCs. Finally, photoluminescence measurements revealed that the emission of the superlattices exhibits a Gaussian-like lineshape with a maximum intensity after annealing at 1150 °C, indicating a high crystalline degree in good agreement with Raman results. Samples submitted to higher annealing temperatures display a progressive emission broadening, together with an increase in the central emission wavelength. Both effects are related to a progressive broadening of the size distribution with a larger mean size, in agreement with TEM observations. On the other hand, whereas the morphology of the Si NCs is unaffected by the SiO₂ barrier thickness, the emission properties are slightly modified. These observed modifications in the emission lineshape allow monitoring the precipitation process of Si NCs in a direct non-destructive way. All these experimental results evidence that an annealing temperature of 1150 °C and 1-nm SiO₂ barrier can be reached whilst preserving the SL structure, being

  17. The effect of annealing process on the optical and microwave dielectric properties of transparent MgAl2O4 ceramics by spark plasma sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Ping; Xu, Yong; Shi, Haohao; Zhang, Baohua; Ruan, Xuefeng; Lu, Wenzhong

    2014-05-01

    Transparent MgAl2O4 ceramics were fabricated by using spark plasma sintering (SPS). The effects of annealing temperature on the optical and microwave dielectric properties were investigated by positron annihilation technique and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the optimal annealing temperature for the optical property improvement was 900 °C and the in-line transmittance was improved to 74.9% at the wavelength of 550 nm. The further elevation of annealing temperature damaged the optical performance due to the combination of oxygen vacancies. The Q × f values of transparent MgAl2O4 ceramics were an overall increase from 800 °C to 1200 °C, but decreased at 1300 °C. It can be concluded that the annealing temperature plays an important role in the Q × f value, while a certain annealing temperature is corresponding to the best microwave dielectric property.

  18. Annealing Effects on the Surface Plasmon of MgO Implanted with Gold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueda, A.; Mu, R.; Tung, Y. -S.; Henderson, D. O.; White, C. W.; Zuhr, R. A.; Zhu, Jane G.; Wang, P. W.

    1997-01-01

    Gold ion implantation was carried out with the energy of 1.1 MeV into (100) oriented MgO single crystal. Implanted doses are 1, 3, 6, 10 x 10(exp 16) ions/sq cm. The gold irradiation results in the formation of gold ion implanted layer with a thickness of 0.2 microns and defect formation. In order to form gold colloids from the as-implanted samples, we annealed the gold implanted MgO samples in three kinds of atmospheres: (1)Ar only, (2)H2 and Ar, and (3)O2 and Ar. The annealing over 1200 C enhanced the gold colloid formation which shows surface plasmon resonance band of gold. The surface plasmon bands of samples annealed in three kinds of atmospheres were found to be at 535 nm (Ar only), 524 nm(H2+Ar), and 560 nm (02+Ar), The band positions of surface plasmon can be reversibly changed by an additional annealing.

  19. EFFECTS OF XE ION IRRADIATION AND SUBSEQUENT ANNEALING ON THE PROPERTIES OF MAGNESIUM-ALUMINATE SPINEL

    SciTech Connect

    I. AFANASYEV; ET AL

    2000-04-01

    Single crystals of magnesium-aluminate spinel MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} were irradiated with 340 keV Xe{sup 2} ions at {minus}173 C ({approximately} 100 K). A fluence of 1 x 10{sup 20} Xe/m{sup 2} created an amorphous layer at the surface of the samples. The samples were annealed for 1 h at different temperatures ranging from 130 C to 880 C. Recrystallization took place in the temperature interval between 610 C and 855 C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show two distinct layers near the surface: (1) a polycrystalline layer with columnar grain structure; and (2) a buried damaged layer epitaxial with the substrate. After annealing at 1100 C for 52 days, the profile of implanted Xe ions did not change, which means that Xe ions are not mobile in the spinel structure up to 1100 C. The thickness of the buried damaged layer decreased significantly in the 1100 C annealed sample comparing to the sample annealed for 1 h at 855 C.

  20. Effects of annealing treatment and gamma irradiation on the absorption and fluorescence spectra of Cr:GSGG laser crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D. L.; Luo, J. Q.; Xiao, J. Z.; Zhang, Q. L.; Jiang, H. H.; Yin, S. T.; Wang, Y. F.; Ge, X. W.

    2008-09-01

    The influence of annealing treatments and gamma-ray irradiation on the absorption and fluorescence spectra of Cr:GSGG crystals grown by the Czochralski method has been investigated. Two absorption bands located near 686 nm and 1050 nm were weakened markedly after the crystal was re-annealed in H2 atmosphere, which is due to the Cr4+ ions being de-oxidized into Cr3+ ions. The other two weak additional absorption bands induced by gamma-ray irradiation appearing near 310 nm and 480 nm are ascribed to the Fe2+ ions and F-type color centers, respectively. In particular, the gamma-ray irradiation with a dose of 100 Mrad has an effect of improving slightly the luminescence properties of Cr:GSGG crystals. The improvement mechanism is analyzed and discussed.

  1. Effects of NIR annealing on the characteristics of al-doped ZnO thin films prepared by RF sputtering.

    PubMed

    Jun, Min-Chul; Koh, Jung-Hyuk

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by employing radio frequency (RF) sputtering method for transparent conducting oxide applications. For the RF sputtering process, a ZnO:Al2O3 (2 wt.%) target was employed. In this paper, the effects of near infrared ray (NIR) annealing technique on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the AZO thin films have been researched. Experimental results showed that NIR annealing affected the microstructure, electrical resistance, and optical transmittance of the AZO thin films. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all films have a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with the preferentially c-axis oriented normal to the substrate surface. Optical transmittance spectra of the AZO thin films exhibited transmittance higher than about 80% within the visible wavelength region, and the optical direct bandgap (Eg) of the AZO films was increased with increasing the NIR energy efficiency. PMID:22673232

  2. The Effects of Helium Bubble Microstructure on Ductility in Annealed and HERF 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Tosten, M.H.; Morgan, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the effects of microstructure on the ambient temperature embrittlement from hydrogen isotopes and decay helium in 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel. Hydrogen and tritium-exposed 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel tensile samples were pulled to failure and then characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and optical microscopy. This study determined that ductility differences between annealed and high-energy-rate-forged (HERF) stainless steel containing tritium and its decay product, helium, could be related to differences in the helium bubble microstructures. The HERF microstructures were more resistant to tritium-induced embrittlement than annealed microstructures because the high number density of helium bubbles on dislocations trap tritium within the matrix and away from the grain boundaries.

  3. Effects of NIR annealing on the characteristics of al-doped ZnO thin films prepared by RF sputtering

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by employing radio frequency (RF) sputtering method for transparent conducting oxide applications. For the RF sputtering process, a ZnO:Al2O3 (2 wt.%) target was employed. In this paper, the effects of near infrared ray (NIR) annealing technique on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the AZO thin films have been researched. Experimental results showed that NIR annealing affected the microstructure, electrical resistance, and optical transmittance of the AZO thin films. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all films have a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with the preferentially c-axis oriented normal to the substrate surface. Optical transmittance spectra of the AZO thin films exhibited transmittance higher than about 80% within the visible wavelength region, and the optical direct bandgap (Eg) of the AZO films was increased with increasing the NIR energy efficiency. PMID:22673232

  4. A rapid response time and highly sensitive amperometric glucose biosensor based on ZnO nanorod via citric acid-assisted annealing route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zao; Ye, Zhizhen; Zhao, Binghui; Zong, Xiaolin; Wang, Ping

    2010-04-01

    ZnO nanorods were synthesized by citric acid-assisted annealing route. In a phosphate buffer solution with a pH value of 7.4, glucose oxidase was immobilized on the surface of ZnO nanorod through chitosan-assisted cross-linking technique. The one-dimensional ZnO nanorods provide a large effective surface area with high surface-to-volume ratio and provide a favorable environment for the immobilization of GO x. The response time of this biosensor is less than 2 s. This biosensor has a very high sensitivity of 25.7 μA cm -2 mM -1. The low detection limit was estimated to be 0.01 mM. Two linear response ranges are 0.01-0.25 mM and 0.3-0.7 mM. The Michaelis-Menten constant is found to be 1.95 mM. These results demonstrate that zinc oxide nanorods have potential applications in biosensors.

  5. Effect of moderate magnetic annealing on the microstructure, quasi-static and viscoelastic mechanical behavior of a structural epoxy

    SciTech Connect

    Tehrani, Mehran; Al-Haik, Marwan; Garmestani, Hamid; Li, Dongsheng

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effect of moderate magnetic fields on the microstructure of a structural epoxy system was investigated. The changes in the microstructure have been quantitatively investigated using wide angle x-ray diffraction (WAXD) and pole figure analysis. The mechanical properties (modulus, hardness and strain rate sensitivity parameter) of the epoxy system annealed in the magnetic field were probed with the aid of instrumented nanoindentation and the results are compared to the reference epoxy sample. To further examine the creep response of the magnetically annealed and reference samples, short 45 min duration creep tests were carried out. An equivalent to the macro scale creep compliance was calculated using the aforementioned nano-creep data. Using the continuous complex compliance (CCC) analysis, the phase lag angle, tan (δ), between the displacement and applied force in an oscillatory nanoindentation test was measured for both neat and magnetically annealed systems through which the effect of low magnetic fields on the viscoelastic properties of the epoxy was invoked. The comparison of the creep strain rate sensitivity parameter , A/d(0), from short term(80 ), creep tests and the creep compliance J(t) from the long term(2700 s) creep tests with the tan(δ) suggests that former parameter is a more useful comparative creep parameter than the creep compliance. The results of this investigation reveal that under low magnetic fields both the quasi-static and viscoelastic mechanical properties of the epoxy have been improved.

  6. Effect of rapid thermal annealing temperature on the dispersion of Si nanocrystals in SiO{sub 2} matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Nupur Kumar, Pragati; Gupta, Vinay

    2015-05-15

    Effect of rapid thermal annealing temperature on the dispersion of silicon nanocrystals (Si-NC’s) embedded in SiO{sub 2} matrix grown by atom beam sputtering (ABS) method is reported. The dispersion of Si NCs in SiO{sub 2} is an important issue to fabricate high efficiency devices based on Si-NC’s. The transmission electron microscopy studies reveal that the precipitation of excess silicon is almost uniform and the particles grow in almost uniform size upto 850 °C. The size distribution of the particles broadens and becomes bimodal as the temperature is increased to 950 °C. This suggests that by controlling the annealing temperature, the dispersion of Si-NC’s can be controlled. The results are supported by selected area diffraction (SAED) studies and micro photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The discussion of effect of particle size distribution on PL spectrum is presented based on tight binding approximation (TBA) method using Gaussian and log-normal distribution of particles. The study suggests that the dispersion and consequently emission energy varies as a function of particle size distribution and that can be controlled by annealing parameters.

  7. The effect of magnetic annealing on crystallographic texture and magnetic properties of Fe-2.6% Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salih, M. Z.; Uhlarz, M.; Pyczak, F.; Brokmeier, H.-G.; Weidenfeller, B.; Al-hamdany, N.; Gan, W. M.; Zhong, Z. Y.; Schell, N.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of magnetic annealing on crystallographic texture, microstructure, defects density and magnetic properties of a Fe-2.6% Si steel has been analyzed. After two stage cold rolling (75% and 60% cold rolled) with intermediate annealing process at (600 °C/1 h) the sample annealed at 600 °C for one hour during which different magnetic field of 0, 7 and 14 T were applied has been investigated. The effect of defects density after cold rolling process on the recrystallization texture and magnetic properties was characterized. Heat treatments under a high external field of 14 T show a drastic improvement of the magnetic properties such as significantly increased permeability. Neutron diffraction measurements were preferred for measurement of the bulk sample texture so that sufficient grain statistics were obtained. Because of its small wavelength (0.05-0.2 Å) Synchrotron diffraction with high photon energy was used to evaluate the defects density by a modified Williamson-Hall plot.

  8. Effect of rapid thermal annealing temperature on the dispersion of Si nanocrystals in SiO2 matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Nupur; Kumar, Pragati; Gupta, Vinay

    2015-05-01

    Effect of rapid thermal annealing temperature on the dispersion of silicon nanocrystals (Si-NC's) embedded in SiO2 matrix grown by atom beam sputtering (ABS) method is reported. The dispersion of Si NCs in SiO2 is an important issue to fabricate high efficiency devices based on Si-NC's. The transmission electron microscopy studies reveal that the precipitation of excess silicon is almost uniform and the particles grow in almost uniform size upto 850 °C. The size distribution of the particles broadens and becomes bimodal as the temperature is increased to 950 °C. This suggests that by controlling the annealing temperature, the dispersion of Si-NC's can be controlled. The results are supported by selected area diffraction (SAED) studies and micro photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The discussion of effect of particle size distribution on PL spectrum is presented based on tight binding approximation (TBA) method using Gaussian and log-normal distribution of particles. The study suggests that the dispersion and consequently emission energy varies as a function of particle size distribution and that can be controlled by annealing parameters.

  9. The effect of different annealing temperatures on tin and cadmium telluride phases obtained by a modified chemical route

    SciTech Connect

    Mesquita, Anderson Fuzer; Porto, Arilza de Oliveira; Magela de Lima, Geraldo; Paniago, Roberto; Ardisson, José Domingos

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Synthesis of cadmium and tin telluride. ► Chemical route to obtain pure crystalline cadmium and tin telluride. ► Effect of the annealing temperature on the crystalline phases. ► Removal of tin oxide as side product through thermal treatment. -- Abstract: In this work tin and cadmium telluride were prepared by a modification of a chemical route reported in the literature to obtain metallacycles formed by oxidative addition of tin-tellurium bonds to platinum (II). Through this procedure it was possible to obtain tin and cadmium telluride. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to identify the crystalline phases obtained as well as the presence of side products. In the case of tin telluride it was identified potassium chloride, metallic tellurium and tin oxide as contaminants. The tin oxidation states were also monitored by {sup 119}Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy. The annealing in hydrogen atmosphere was chosen as a strategy to reduce the tin oxide and promote its reaction with the excess of tellurium present in the medium. The evolution of this tin oxide phase was studied through the annealing of the sample at different temperatures. Cadmium telluride was obtained with high degree of purity (98.5% relative weight fraction) according to the Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data. The modified procedure showed to be very effective to obtain amorphous tin and cadmium telluride and the annealing at 450 °C has proven to be useful to reduce the amount of oxide produced as side product.

  10. Simulated annealing model of acupuncture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2015-05-01

    The growth control singularity model suggests that acupuncture points (acupoints) originate from organizers in embryogenesis. Organizers are singular points in growth control. Acupuncture can cause perturbation of a system with effects similar to simulated annealing. In clinical trial, the goal of a treatment is to relieve certain disorder which corresponds to reaching certain local optimum in simulated annealing. The self-organizing effect of the system is limited and related to the person's general health and age. Perturbation at acupoints can lead a stronger local excitation (analogous to higher annealing temperature) compared to perturbation at non-singular points (placebo control points). Such difference diminishes as the number of perturbed points increases due to the wider distribution of the limited self-organizing activity. This model explains the following facts from systematic reviews of acupuncture trials: 1. Properly chosen single acupoint treatment for certain disorder can lead to highly repeatable efficacy above placebo 2. When multiple acupoints are used, the result can be highly repeatable if the patients are relatively healthy and young but are usually mixed if the patients are old, frail and have multiple disorders at the same time as the number of local optima or comorbidities increases. 3. As number of acupoints used increases, the efficacy difference between sham and real acupuncture often diminishes. It predicted that the efficacy of acupuncture is negatively correlated to the disease chronicity, severity and patient's age. This is the first biological - physical model of acupuncture which can predict and guide clinical acupuncture research.

  11. Effect of annealing on the properties of nanocrystalline CuInSSe thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shrotriya, Vipin Rajaram, P.

    2015-08-28

    The effect of annealing CuInSSe thin films, which were grown on glass substrates using the spray pyrolysis technique from spray solutions having S/Se ionic ratio 0.6, were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical transmission measurements. The CuInSSe films were co-deposited from an aqueous solution containing CuCl{sub 2}, InCl{sub 3}, thiourea and SeO{sub 2}. EDC was used as a complexing agent and films were deposited at the constant temperature 300°C. Post annealing (at 350°C) was used to improve the structural, morphological and optical properties of CuInSSe thin films. From the results, it is found that the films are single phase, p-type in conductivity having the chalcopyrite structure. From the Scherrer formula the average size of the films was found to be in the range (15-28) nm. Optical studies show that the optical band gap value increases slightly from 1.35 eV to 1.37 eV with annealing for films grown from spray solutions having S/Se ionic ratio 0.6.

  12. Annealing effect on the electrical and optical properties of Au/n-ZnO NWs Schottky diodes white LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soomro, M. Y.; Hussain, I.; Bano, N.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.

    2013-10-01

    We report the post-growth heat treatment effect on the electrical and the optical properties of hydrothermally grown zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) Schottky white light emitting diodes (LEDs). It was found that there is a changed in the electroluminescence (EL) spectrum when post growth annealing process was performed at 600 °C under nitrogen, oxygen and argon ambients. The EL spectrum for LEDs based on the as grown NWs show three bands red, green and blue centered at 724, 518 and 450 nm respectively. All devices based on ZnO NWs annealed in oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2) and argon (Ar) ambient show blue shift in the violet and the red emissions whereas a red shift is observed in the green emission compared to the as grown NWs based device. The color rendering index (CRI) and the correlated color temperature (CCT) of all LEDs were calculated to be in the range 78-91 and 2753-5122 K, respectively. These results indicate that light from the LEDs can be tuned from cold white light to warm white light by post growth annealing.

  13. Effect of thermal annealing on structural and optical properties of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhary, Sonu

    2015-08-28

    There is a highly need of an alternate of toxic materials CdS for solar cell applications and indium sulfide is found the most suitable candidate to replace CdS due to its non-toxic and environmental friendly nature. In this paper, the effect of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of indium sulfide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films is undertaken. The indium sulfide thin films of 121 nm were deposited on glass substrates employing thermal evaporation method. The films were subjected to the X-ray diffractometer and UV-Vis spectrophotometer respectively for structural and optical analysis. The XRD pattern show that the as-deposited thin film was amorphous in nature and crystallinity is found to be varied with annealing temperature. The optical analysis reveals that the optical band gap is varied with annealing. The optical parameters like absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient and refractive index were calculated. The results are in good agreement with available literature.

  14. Effect of annealing on contact performance and electrical properties of p-type high purity germanium single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gang; Mei, Dongming; Govani, Jayesh; Wang, Guojian; Khizar, Muhammad

    2013-10-01

    Van de Pauw Hall measurement is an effective method to characterize the properties of semiconductors, such as bulk concentration, mobility, and resistivity, all of which are used to describe the purity level in the semiconductors. However, the performance of the ohmic contacts has a direct impact on the reliability and accuracy of the results obtained from the Van de Pauw Hall measurement. In the present work, the influences of different annealing techniques on the performance of the InSn ohmic contacts have been investigated using a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) crystal sample. The results show that the preferred annealing condition is at 400 °C for 1 hour, which has provided a significant improvement of the InSn contact quality and microscopic homogenization of the impurities in the HPGe crystal. The carrier concentration, charge mobility, and resistivity of the sample annealed at 400 °C for 1 hour are 5.772×1010/cm3, 1.883×104× cm2/Vs, and 5.795×103×Ω cm at 77 K, respectively.

  15. Effect of annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of CeO2:Ni thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, R.; Vijayaprasath, G.; Sakthivel, P.; Mahalingam, T.; Ravi, G.

    2016-05-01

    High quality Ni-doped CeO2 (CeO2:Ni) thin films were deposited on glass substrates at room temperature by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The effect of annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of the CeO2:Ni films was investigated. The structural, optical and vibrational properties of the films were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence spectrometer (PL) and Raman spectrometer. It was found that the as-deposited film has a fluorite cubic structure. By increasing annealing temperature from 100°C to 300°C, the crystalline quality of the thin films could be improved. The UV and visible band emissions were observed in the photoluminescence spectra, due to exciton, defect related emissions respectively. The micro-Raman results show the characteristic peak of CeO2 F2g at 465 cm-1 and 2L0 at 1142 cm-1. Defect peaks like D and 0 bands were observed at 641 cm-1 and 548 cm-1 respectively. It is found from the spectra that the peak intensity of the films increased with increase of annealing temperature.

  16. Effects of annealing temperature on optical, morphological, and electrical characteristics of polyfluorene-derivative thin films on ITO glass substrate.

    PubMed

    Lim, Way Foong; Quah, Hock Jin; Hassan, Zainuriah

    2016-02-20

    The effects of postdeposition annealing temperature (125°C-200°C) toward optical, morphological, and electrical characteristics of poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(1,4-phenylene)] end capped with dimethylphenyl group deposited on indium tin oxide glass substrates were investigated. Green and red-infrared photoluminescence emissions, originating from П-conjugation aggregates and keto-type defects did not attenuate the intensity of the blue emission peak. This suggested that the aggregates and defects might serve as local traps for radiative recombination. In samples annealed at 125°C-175°C, a decreasing optical energy gap (E(g)) that decreased barrier height as well as an increasing amount of traps have increased current conduction via thermionic emission and trap-assisted tunneling. Nonetheless, an acquisition of the largest E(g) and amount of traps testified that thermionic emission was dominating current conduction, surpassing trap-assisted tunneling in samples annealed at 200°C. PMID:26906569

  17. Effect of annealing treatment on the performance of organic photovoltaic devices using SPFGraphene as electron-accepter material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, HaiTeng; He, DaWei; Wang, YongSheng; Liu, ZhiYong; Wu, HongPeng; Wang, JiGang; Zhao, Yu

    2012-08-01

    We have researched the performances of organic photovoltaic devices with the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure using the organic solution-processable functionalized graphene (SPFGraphene) material as the electron-accepter material and P3OT as the donor material. The structural configuration of the device is ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3OT:PCBM-SPFGraphene/LiF/Al. Given the P3OT/PCBM (1:1) mixture with 8wt% of SPFGraphene, the open-circuit voltage ( V oc) of the device reaches 0.64 V, a short-circuit current density ( J sc) reaches 5.7 mA/cm2, a fill factor ( FF) reaches 0.42, and the power conversion efficiency ( η) reaches 1.53% at illumination at 100 mW/cm2 AM1.5. We further studied the reason for the device performances improvement. In the P3OT:PCBM-SPFGraphene composite, the SPFGraphene material acts as exciton dissociation sites and provides the transport pathways of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO)-SPFGraphene-Al. Furthermore, adding SPFGraphene to P3OT results in appropriate energetic distance between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and LUMO of the donor/acceptor and provides higher exciton dissociation volume mobility of carrier transport. We have researched the effect of annealing treatment for the devices and found that the devices with annealing treatment at 180°C show better performances compared with devices without annealed treatment. The devices with annealed treatment show the best performance, with an enhancement of the power conversion efficiency from 1.53% to 1.75%.

  18. Effects of Co layer thickness and annealing temperature on the magnetic properties of inverted [Pt/Co] multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae Young; Chan Won, Young; Su Son, Dong; Lee, Seong-Rae; Ho Lim, Sang

    2013-11-07

    The effects of Co layer thickness and annealing temperature on the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) properties of inverted [Pt (0.2 nm)/Co (t{sub Co})]{sub 6} multilayers (where t{sub Co} indicates the thickness of the Co layer) have been investigated. The cross-sectional microstructure, as observed from the high-resolution transmission electron microscope images, shows a clear layered structure with atomically flat interfaces both in the as-deposited state as well as after annealing, indicating the interface effects for PMA. The effective PMA energy density (K{sub eff}) increases significantly with an increase in t{sub Co} from 0.2 to 0.28 nm and then becomes almost saturated with further increases in t{sub Co}, followed by a slight reduction at the highest Co thickness, t{sub Co} = 0.6 nm. In order to explain the t{sub Co} dependence on K{sub eff}, the intrinsic PMA energy density (K{sub i}) is calculated by additionally measuring a similar set of results for the saturation magnetization. The K{sub i} value increases nearly linearly with the increase in t{sub Co} from 0.2 to 0.5 nm, followed by saturation at a higher t{sub Co} value of 0.6 nm. Owing to a close relationship between K{sub i} and the quality of the interfaces, these results indicate a similar t{sub Co} dependence on the quality of the interfaces. This is further supported from the magnetic measurements of the samples annealed at the highest temperature of 500 °C, where a second phase is formed, which show a similar t{sub Co} dependence on the amount of the second phase. The K{sub i} value is nearly independent of the annealing temperature at t{sub Co} ≤ 0.4 nm, above which a substantial reduction is observed, when the annealing temperature exceeds 500 °C.

  19. Restorative effect of oxygen annealing on device performance in HfIZO thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Tae-Jun

    2015-03-15

    Metal-oxide based thin-film transistors (oxide-TFTs) are very promising for use in next generation electronics such as transparent displays requiring high switching and driving performance. In this study, we demonstrate an optimized process to secure excellent device performance with a favorable shift of the threshold voltage toward 0V in amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc-oxide (a-HfIZO) TFTs by using post-treatment with oxygen annealing. This enhancement results from the improved interfacial characteristics between gate dielectric and semiconductor layers due to the reduction in the density of interfacial states related to oxygen vacancies afforded by oxygen annealing. The device statistics confirm the improvement in the device-to-device and run-to-run uniformity. We also report on the photo-induced stability in such oxide-TFTs against long-term UV irradiation, which is significant for transparent displays.

  20. Annealing effects on recombinative activity of nickel at direct silicon bonded interface

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, Takuto Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2015-09-15

    By performing capacitance transient analyses, the recombination activity at a (110)/(100) direct silicon bonded (DSB) interface contaminated with nickel diffused at different temperatures, as a model of grain boundaries in multicrystalline silicon, was studied. The trap level depth from the valence band, trap density of states, and hole capture cross section peaked at an annealing temperature of 300 °C. At temperatures ⩾400 °C, the hole capture cross section increased with temperature, but the density of states remained unchanged. Further, synchrotron-based X-ray analyses, microprobe X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF), and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses were performed. The analysis results indicated that the chemical phase after the sample was annealed at 200 °C was a mixture of NiO and NiSi{sub 2}.

  1. Restorative effect of oxygen annealing on device performance in HfIZO thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Tae-Jun

    2015-03-01

    Metal-oxide based thin-film transistors (oxide-TFTs) are very promising for use in next generation electronics such as transparent displays requiring high switching and driving performance. In this study, we demonstrate an optimized process to secure excellent device performance with a favorable shift of the threshold voltage toward 0V in amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc-oxide (a-HfIZO) TFTs by using post-treatment with oxygen annealing. This enhancement results from the improved interfacial characteristics between gate dielectric and semiconductor layers due to the reduction in the density of interfacial states related to oxygen vacancies afforded by oxygen annealing. The device statistics confirm the improvement in the device-to-device and run-to-run uniformity. We also report on the photo-induced stability in such oxide-TFTs against long-term UV irradiation, which is significant for transparent displays.

  2. Thermal expansion of CaFe2As2: effect of annealing and cobalt doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bud'Ko, Sergey L.; Ran, Sheng; Canfield, Paul C.

    2013-03-01

    Careful choice of Co concentration and annealing/quenching temperature in the Ca(Fe1-xCox)2As2 series allows for tuning the ground state of the from orthorhombic-antiferromagnetic to superconducting to collapsed tetragonal.In this talk temperature-dependent, c-axis, thermal expansion measurements on several sets of Co-doped CaFe2As2 single crystals that were subjected to a variety of annealing conditions will be presented. These samples were chosen to cover all salient regions of the 3D x -Tanneal - T phase diagram. The thermal expansion signatures of different types of phase transitions observed in these series will be discussed and comparison with the other measurements will be made. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  3. The effect of annealing on the structural and magnetic properties of Ni-ferrite nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ojha, Chaturbhuj Chauhan, S. S.; Shrivastava, A. K.; Verma, A. K.

    2015-06-24

    Magnetic nanoparticles NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were prepared by chemical co-precipitation technique using the chlorides of Ni, Fe (III) and oleic acid. The precursors were annealed at different temperature 500, 700, and 900 °C. The XRD of samples show the presence of inverse cubic spinel structure. Grain size was determined using Scherrer formula and SEM technique. The Particle size, Lattice parameter and X-ray density were also estimated from X-ray diffraction data. The particles size was found to vary from 17nm to 37 nm and largely depends on the annealing temperature. Magnetization measurements have also carried out using VSM and it was found that saturation magnetization (Ms), Remanance (Mr) and coercivity (H{sub c}) of nano ferrite materials are lower compared to bulk materials.

  4. Effect of laser annealing using high repetition rate pulsed laser on optical properties of phosphorus-ion-implanted ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimogaki, Tetsuya; Ofuji, Taihei; Tetsuyama, Norihiro; Okazaki, Kota; Higashihata, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Daisuke; Ikenoue, Hiroshi; Asano, Tanemasa; Okada, Tatsuo

    2014-02-01

    The effect of high repetition rate pulsed laser annealing with a KrF excimer laser on the optical properties of phosphorus-ion-implanted zinc oxide nanorods has been investigated. The recovery levels of phosphorus-ion-implanted zinc oxide nanorods have been measured by photoluminescence spectra and cathode luminescence images. Cathode luminescence disappeared over 300 nm below the surface due to the damage caused by ion implantation with an acceleration voltage of 25 kV. When the annealing was performed at a low repetition rate of the KrF excimer laser, cathode luminescence was recovered only in a shallow area below the surface. The depth of the annealed area was increased along with the repetition rate of the annealing laser. By optimizing the annealing conditions such as the repetition rate, the irradiation fluence and so on, we have succeeded in annealing the whole damaged area of over 300 nm in depth and in observing cathode luminescence. Thus, the effectiveness of high repetition rate pulsed laser annealing on phosphorus-ion-implanted zinc oxide nanorods was demonstrated.

  5. Effects of thermal annealing on the optical characteristics of k -na + waveguides.

    PubMed

    Ciminelli, C; D'Orazio, A; De Sario, M; Gerardi, C; Petruzzelli, V; Prudenzano, F

    1998-04-20

    We present a systematic study of the changes induced in the refractive-index profile of different sets of K -Na + ion-exchanged waveguides on soda-lime and BK7 substrates because of thermal annealing in the presence or absence of salt vapors. The concentration of potassium is recovered by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and the propagation losses are measured by means of the three-prism configuration. PMID:18273162

  6. Effects of thermal annealing on the optical characteristics of k(+)-na(+) waveguides.

    PubMed

    Ciminelli, C; D'Orazio, A; De Sario, M; Gerardi, C; Petruzzelli, V; Prudenzano, F

    1998-03-20

    We present a systematic study of the changes induced in the refractive-index profile of different sets of K(+)-Na(+) ion-exchanged waveguides on soda-lime and BK7 substrates because of thermal annealing in the presence or absence of salt vapors. The concentration of potassium is recovered by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and the propagation losses are measured by means of the three-prism configuration. PMID:18268769

  7. Effects of Thermal Annealing on the Optical Characteristics of K -Na + Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciminelli, Caterina; D'Orazio, Antonella; de Sario, Marco; Gerardi, Cosimo; Petruzzelli, Vincenzo; Prudenzano, Francesco

    1998-04-01

    We present a systematic study of the changes induced in the refractive-index profile of different sets of K -Na + ion-exchanged waveguides on soda-lime and BK7 substrates because of thermal annealing in the presence or absence of salt vapors. The concentration of potassium is recovered by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and the propagation losses are measured by means of the three-prism configuration.

  8. Effects of annealing temperature on the physicochemical, optical and photoelectrochemical properties of nanostructured hematite thin films prepared via electrodeposition method

    SciTech Connect

    Phuan, Yi Wen; Chong, Meng Nan; Zhu, Tao; Yong, Siek-Ting; Chan, Eng Seng

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Nanostructured hematite thin films were synthesized via electrodeposition method. • Effects of annealing on size, grain boundary and PEC properties were examined. • Photocurrents generation was enhanced when the thin films were annealed at 600 °C. • The highest photocurrent density of 1.6 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.6 V vs Ag/AgCl was achieved. - Abstract: Hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is a promising photoanode material for hydrogen production from photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to its wide abundance, narrow band-gap energy, efficient light absorption and high chemical stability under aqueous environment. The key challenge to the wider utilisation of nanostructured hematite-based photoanode in PEC water splitting, however, is limited by its low photo-assisted water oxidation caused by large overpotential in the nominal range of 0.5–0.6 V. The main aim of this study was to enhance the performance of hematite for photo-assisted water oxidation by optimising the annealing temperature used during the synthesis of nanostructured hematite thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-based photoanodes prepared via the cathodic electrodeposition method. The resultant nanostructured hematite thin films were characterised using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for their elemental composition, average nanocrystallites size and morphology; phase and crystallinity; UV-absorptivity and band gap energy; and the functional groups, respectively. Results showed that the nanostructured hematite thin films possess good ordered nanocrystallites array and high crystallinity after annealing treatment at 400–600 °C. FE-SEM images illustrated an increase in the average hematite nanocrystallites size from 65 nm to 95 nm when the annealing temperature was varied from 400 °C to 600

  9. Annealing effect on structural and optical properties of hydrothermally synthesized TiO2 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Hadia, N M A

    2014-07-01

    TiO2 nanowires (TiO2 NWs) were successfully synthesized in large amounts through the one step hydrothermal process in 10 M NaOH aqueous solution at 150 degrees C for 15 h followed by annealing at 300-800 degrees C for 2 h. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scan electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM). The optical properties of TiO2 nanowires were characterized using UV-VIS-NIR Spectrophotometers. It was found that the TiO2 nanowires persist in the anatase phase even after annealing at 500 degrees C and that the morphology of the nanowires was maintained. At 800 degrees C, the nanowires transformed into a rod-like shapes with a rutile structure. The optical band gap of TiO2 nanowires was found to decrease when the annealing temperature increases. PMID:24758068

  10. Effect of flash lamp annealing on electrical activation in boron-implanted polycrystalline Si thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Do, Woori; Jin, Won-Beom; Choi, Jungwan; Bae, Seung-Muk; Kim, Hyoung-June; Kim, Byung-Kuk; Park, Seungho; Hwang, Jin-Ha

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Intensified visible light irradiation was generated via a high-powered Xe arc lamp. • The disordered Si atomic structure absorbs the intensified visible light. • The rapid heating activates electrically boron-implanted Si thin films. • Flash lamp heating is applicable to low temperature polycrystalline Si thin films. - Abstract: Boron-implanted polycrystalline Si thin films on glass substrates were subjected to a short duration (1 ms) of intense visible light irradiation generated via a high-powered Xe arc lamp. The disordered Si atomic structure absorbs the intense visible light resulting from flash lamp annealing. The subsequent rapid heating results in the electrical activation of boron-implanted Si thin films, which is empirically observed using Hall measurements. The electrical activation is verified by the observed increase in the crystalline component of the Si structures resulting in higher transmittance. The feasibility of flash lamp annealing has also been demonstrated via a theoretical thermal prediction, indicating that the flash lamp annealing is applicable to low-temperature polycrystalline Si thin films.

  11. Effect of annealing on the nonequilibrium carrier lifetime in GaAs grown at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Pastor, A. A.; Prokhorova, U. V.; Serdobintsev, P. Yu.; Chaldyshev, V. V. Yagovkina, M. A.

    2013-08-15

    GaAs samples grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at low (230 Degree-Sign C) temperatures are investigated. One of the samples is subjected to aftergrowth annealing at 600 Degree-Sign C. Using an unconventional pump-probe scheme for measuring the dynamic variation in the light refractive index, the nonequilibrium charge-carrier lifetime (275 {+-} 30 fs before annealing) is determined. Such a short carrier lifetime in the unannealed material is due to the high concentration of point defects, mainly As{sub Ga} antisite defects. According to X-ray diffraction and steady-state optical absorption data, the As{sub Ga} concentration in the samples is 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, which corresponds to an arsenic excess of 0.26 at %. Upon annealing at 600 Degree-Sign C, the superstoichiometric As defects self-organize and form As nanoinclusions in the GaAs crystal matrix. It is shown that in this case the nonequilibrium charge-carrier lifetime increases to 452 {+-} 5 fs. This lifetime is apparently ensured by the capture of non-equilibrium charge carriers at metal As nanoinclusions.

  12. Effect of Hot Band Annealing on Forming Limit Diagrams of Ultra-Pure Ferritic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Jun; Bi, Hongyun; Li, Xin; Xu, Zhou

    2014-03-01

    In order to better understand the texture evolution, coincidence site lattice (CSL) and forming limit diagrams (FLDs) of ferritic stainless steels with and without hot band annealing, the texture evolution and CSL of ferritic stainless steels with 15% Cr content were studied by using x-ray diffraction and electron back-scattered diffraction technique. The strain hardening exponent n value, the strength coefficient K value, and Plastic strain ratio r value are the key parameters for the FLD. It was found out that the FLDo of plane strain condition and the stretchability were mainly influenced by their n value and K value, respectively. The higher n value and K value, better was the stretchability of investigated steels. The intensity of the γ-fiber dominated by {111} <112> was improved significantly in the cold rolled and annealed sheets because of a hot band annealing treatment and the sharp increase of Σ13b CSL boundaries. The increase of the formability is attributed to the significantly increase of the r value.

  13. High dose neutron irradiation of MgAl2O4 spinel: effects of post-irradiation thermal annealing on EPR and optical absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, A.; Bravo, D.; Lopez, F J.; Garner, Francis A.

    2005-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption spectra were measured during thermal annealing for stoichiometric MgAl2O4 spinel that was previously irradiated in FFTF-MOTA at {approx}405 C to {approx}50 dpa. Both F and F+ centres are to persist up to very high temperatures (over 700C), suggesting the operation of an annealing mechanism based on evaporation from extended defects Using x-ray irradiation following the different annealing steps it was shown that the optical absorption band is related to a sharp EPR band at g=2.0005 and that the defect causing these effects is the F+ centre.

  14. Estimation of effective temperatures in quantum annealers for sampling applications: A case study with possible applications in deep learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Marcello; Realpe-Gómez, John; Biswas, Rupak; Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    An increase in the efficiency of sampling from Boltzmann distributions would have a significant impact on deep learning and other machine-learning applications. Recently, quantum annealers have been proposed as a potential candidate to speed up this task, but several limitations still bar these state-of-the-art technologies from being used effectively. One of the main limitations is that, while the device may indeed sample from a Boltzmann-like distribution, quantum dynamical arguments suggest it will do so with an instance-dependent effective temperature, different from its physical temperature. Unless this unknown temperature can be unveiled, it might not be possible to effectively use a quantum annealer for Boltzmann sampling. In this work, we propose a strategy to overcome this challenge with a simple effective-temperature estimation algorithm. We provide a systematic study assessing the impact of the effective temperatures in the learning of a special class of a restricted Boltzmann machine embedded on quantum hardware, which can serve as a building block for deep-learning architectures. We also provide a comparison to k -step contrastive divergence (CD-k ) with k up to 100. Although assuming a suitable fixed effective temperature also allows us to outperform one-step contrastive divergence (CD-1), only when using an instance-dependent effective temperature do we find a performance close to that of CD-100 for the case studied here.

  15. Effect of thermal annealing on the kinetics of rehydroxylation of Eu3+:La2O3 nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Maria; Cesteros, Yolanda; Marsal, Lluís Francesc; Giguère, Alexandre; Drouin, Dominique; Salagre, Pilar; Formentín, Pilar; Pallarès, Josep; Aguiló, Magdalena; Díaz, Francesc; Carvajal, Joan Josep

    2012-06-01

    Europium-doped lanthanum oxide (5 mol % Eu(3+):La(2)O(3)) was prepared by calcining europium-doped lanthanum hydroxide (5 mol % Eu(3+):La(OH)(3)) previously synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. Interestingly, we observed different emission Eu(3+) signatures depending on the phase of the host (lanthanum oxide or hydroxide) by cathodoluminescence. Taking into account that lanthanum oxide easily rehydroxylates in air, for the first time, we report the use of cathodoluminiscence as a novel characterization technique to follow the lanthanum oxide rehydroxylation reaction versus time according to different annealing procedures. Additionally, differential thermal-thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques were used to identify the phases formed from the Eu(3+):La(OH)(3) depending on temperature and to study the evolution of La(2)O(3) to La(OH)(3) versus time. The results showed that the higher the temperature and the longer the annealing time, the higher the resistance to rehydroxylation of the Eu(3+):La(2)O(3) sample. PMID:22621467

  16. Effect of annealing temperature on the electrical, structural and surface morphological properties of Ru/Ti Schottky contacts on n-type InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munikrishna Reddy, Y.; Padmasuvarna, R.; Lakshmi Narasappa, T.; Sreehith, P.; Padma, R.; Dasaradha Rao, L.; Rajagopal Reddy, V.

    2015-10-01

    The effects of annealing temperature on the electrical, structural and surface morphological properties of Ru/Ti/n-InP Schottky diode have been investigated. Calculations showed that the Schottky barrier height (SBH) and ideality factor n of the as-deposited Ru/Ti/n-InP Schottky diode are 0.82 eV (I-V)/1.00 eV (C-V) and 1.19, respectively. However, it is observed that the SBH of Ru/Ti/n-InP Schottky diode decreases upon annealing at 200 °C, 300 °C and 400 °C. Cheung's and Norde method are also employed to calculate the SBH, ideality factor and series resistance of the Ru/Ti/n-InP Schottky diode as a function of annealing temperature. Experimental results reveal that the SBH and series resistance of the Ru/Ti/n-InP Schottky diode decreases upon annealing temperatures. The energy distribution of interface state density (Nss) is determined for the Ru/Ti/n-InP Schottky diode at different annealing temperatures. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the formation of phosphide phases at the Ru/Ti/n-InP interface may be the cause for the decrease of SBH upon annealing temperature. The AFM results indicated that there is no significant degradation in the surface morphology of the Ru/Ti Schottky contacts at elevated annealing temperatures.

  17. Annealing effects on microstructure and laser-induced damage threshold of HfO2/SiO2 multilayer mirrors.

    PubMed

    Jena, Shuvendu; Tokas, Raj Bahadur; Rao, K Divakar; Thakur, Sudhakar; Sahoo, Naba Kishore

    2016-08-01

    HfO2/SiO2 periodic multilayer high reflection mirrors have been prepared by a reactive electron-beam evaporation technique. The deposited mirrors were annealed in the temperature range from 300°C to 500°C. The effects of annealing on optical, microstructural, and laser-induced damage characteristics of the mirrors have been investigated. The high reflection band of the mirror shifts toward a shorter wavelength with increasing annealing temperature. As-deposited and annealed mirrors show polycrystalline structure with a monoclinic phase of HfO2. Crystalinity and grain size increase upon annealing. The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) has been assessed using a 532 nm pulsed laser at a pulse width of 7 ns. The LIDT value of the multilayer mirror increases from 44.1  J/cm2 to 77.6  J/cm2 with annealing up to 400°C. The improvement of LIDT with annealing is explained through oxygen vacancy defects as well as grain-size-dependent thermal conductivity. Finally, the observed laser damage morphology, such as circular scalds and ablated multilayer stacks with terrace structure, are analyzed. PMID:27505395

  18. Effects of low-temperature (120 °C) annealing on the carrier concentration and trap density in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae-sung; Piao, Mingxing; Jang, Ho-Kyun; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Oh, Byung Su; Joo, Min-Kyu; Ahn, Seung-Eon

    2014-12-28

    We report an investigation of the effects of low-temperature annealing on the electrical properties of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize the charge carrier concentration, which is related to the density of oxygen vacancies. The field-effect mobility was found to decrease as a function of the charge carrier concentration, owing to the presence of band-tail states. By employing the transmission line method, we show that the contact resistance did not significantly contribute to the changes in device performance after annealing. In addition, using low-frequency noise analyses, we found that the trap density decreased by a factor of 10 following annealing at 120 °C. The switching operation and on/off ratio of the a-IGZO TFTs improved considerably after low-temperature annealing.

  19. Effect of annealing on electronic carrier transport properties of gamma-irradiated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Anupama; Schwarz, Casey; Shatkhin, Max; Wang, Luther; Flitsiyan, Elena; Chernyak, Leonid; Liu, Lu; Hwang, Ya; Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen; Department of Physics, University of Central Florida Collaboration; Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida Collaboration; Department of Materials Science; Engineering, University of Florida Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors were irradiated with 60Co gamma-ray doses from 100Gy to 1000Gy, in order to analyze the effects of irradiation on the devices' transport properties. Temperature dependent Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) measurements, conducted on the devices before and after exposure to gamma-irradiation, allowed for the obtaining of activation energy related to radiation-induced defects due to nitrogen vacancies. Later, the devices were annealed at 200o C for 25 minutes. All the measurements were performed again to study the effect of annealing on the gamma-irradiated devices. Annealing of gamma-irradiated transistors shows that partial recovery of device performance is possible at this temperature. DC current-voltage measurements were also conducted on the transistors to assess the impact of gamma-irradiation and annealing on transfer, gate and drain characteristics.

  20. Effect of annealing atmosphere on photoluminescence and gas sensing of solution-combustion-synthesized Al, Pd co-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Liu, Min; Lv, Tan; Wang, Qiong; Zou, Yun-ling; Lian, Xiao-xue; Liu, Hong-peng

    2015-11-01

    Al, Pd co-doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized using a solution combustion method and subsequent annealing process under various atmospheres, including air, nitrogen, and hydrogen, were characterized using x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The gas-sensing properties of the sensors based on the NPs were also examined. The results indicated that the Al, Pd co-doped ZnO NPs, with an average crystallite size of 10 nm, exhibited enhanced gas-sensing performance compared with that of pure ZnO and Al-doped ZnO. The response of the Al, Pd co-doped ZnO NPs annealed in N2 to ethanol (49.22) was nearly 5.7 times higher than that to acetone (8.61) and approximately 20 - 27 times higher than that to benzene (2.38), carbon monoxide (2.23), and methane (1.78), which demonstrates their excellent selectivity to ethanol versus other gases. This high ethanol response can be attributed to the combined effects of the small size, Schottky barrier, lattice defects, and catalysis. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Effects of rapid thermal annealing on the structural and local atomic properties of ZnO: Ge nanocomposite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ceylan, Abdullah Ozcan, Sadan; Rumaiz, Abdul K.; Caliskan, Deniz; Ozbay, Ekmel; Woicik, J. C.

    2015-03-14

    We have investigated the structural and local atomic properties of Ge nanocrystals (Ge-ncs) embedded ZnO (ZnO: Ge) thin films. The films were deposited by sequential sputtering of ZnO and Ge thin film layers on z-cut quartz substrates followed by an ex-situ rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 600 °C for 30, 60, and 90 s under forming gas atmosphere. Effects of RTA time on the evolution of Ge-ncs were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES), and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). XRD patterns have clearly shown that fcc diamond phase Ge-ncs of sizes ranging between 18 and 27 nm are formed upon RTA and no Ge-oxide peak has been detected. However, cross-section SEM images have clearly revealed that after RTA process, Ge layers form varying size nanoclusters composed of Ge-ncs regions. EXAFS performed at the Ge K-edge to probe the local atomic structure of the Ge-ncs has revealed that as prepared ZnO:Ge possesses Ge-oxide but subsequent RTA leads to crystalline Ge structure without the oxide layer. In order to study the occupied electronic structure, HAXPES has been utilized. The peak separation between the Zn 2p and Ge 3d shows no significant change due to RTA. This implies little change in the valence band offset due to RTA.

  2. Effects of forming gas anneal on ultrathin InGaAs nanowire metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Mengwei; Gu, Jiangjiang J.; Wang, Xinwei; Shao, Jiayi; Li, Xuefei; Manfra, Michael J.; Gordon, Roy G.; Ye, Peide D.

    2013-03-01

    InGaAs gate-all-around metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with 6 nm nanowire thickness have been experimentally demonstrated at sub-80 nm channel length. The effects of forming gas anneal (FGA) on the performance of these devices have been systematically studied. The 30 min 400 °C FGA (4% H2/96% N2) is found to improve the quality of the Al2O3/InGaAs interface, resulting in a subthreshold slope reduction over 20 mV/dec (from 117 mV/dec in average to 93 mV/dec). Moreover, the improvement of interface quality also has positive impact on the on-state device performance. A scaling metrics study has been carried out for FGA treated devices with channel lengths down to 20 nm, indicating excellent gate electrostatic control. With the FGA passivation and the ultra-thin nanowire structure, InGaAs MOSFETs are promising for future logic applications.

  3. Annealing effects on the optical and morphological properties of ZnO nanorods on AZO substrate by using aqueous solution method at low temperature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) substrates were fabricated by a single-step aqueous solution method at low temperature. In order to optimize optical quality, the effects of annealing on optical and structural properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence (PL), and Raman spectroscopy. We found that the annealing temperature strongly affects both the near-band-edge (NBE) and visible (defect-related) emissions. The best characteristics have been obtained by employing annealing at 400°C in air for 2 h, bringing about a sharp and intense NBE emission. The defect-related recombinations were also suppressed effectively. However, the enhancement decreases with higher annealing temperature and prolonged annealing. PL study indicates that the NBE emission is dominated by radiative recombination associated with hydrogen donors. Thus, the enhancement of NBE is due to the activation of radiative recombinations associated with hydrogen donors. On the other hand, the reduction of visible emission is mainly attributed to the annihilation of OH groups. Our results provide insight to comprehend annealing effects and an effective way to improve optical properties of low-temperature-grown ZnO NRs for future facile device applications. PMID:25520589

  4. Effect of annealing temperature on the structure and optical parameters of Ge{sub 20}Se{sub 50}Te{sub 30} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Mansour

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The amorphous nature of as prepared Ge{sub 20}Se{sub 50}Te{sub 30} films was confirmed by XRD. • The thermal annealing was found to affect the structure and optical parameter. • Thermal annealing resulted in an appearance of crystalline phases in studied films. • The average particle size increased with increasing the annealing temperature. • The indirect band gap was found to decrease with increasing annealing temperature. - Abstract: Bulk glasses and thin films of Ge{sub 20}Se{sub 50}Te{sub 30} were prepared by melt-quenching and thermal evaporation technique, respectively. The stoichiometry of the composition was checked by energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDX), whereas the crystallization was investigated using differential scanning calorimetery (DSC). The effect of heat treatment on the structure transformation of Ge{sub 20}Se{sub 50}Te{sub 30} films was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results reveal that the as-prepared films are amorphous in nature while the annealed ones show crystalline phases. Further, the average crystallite size, strain, and dislocation density were found to depend on the annealing temperature. The optical transmittance and reflectance of the studied films at different annealing temperatures were measured using spectrophotometer. The optical parameters were calculated as a function of annealing temperature. The optical transition was found to be allowed indirect transition with optical band gap decreases from 1.69 to 1.41 eV with increasing the annealing temperature from 553 to 633 K.

  5. Effect of intermediate annealing on the microstructure and mechanical property of ZK60 magnesium alloy produced by twin roll casting and hot rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hongmei; Zang, Qianhao; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Jing; Jin, Yunxue

    2015-08-15

    Twin roll cast (designated as TRC in short) ZK60 magnesium alloy strip with 3.5 mm thickness was used in this paper. The TRC ZK60 strip was multi-pass rolled at different temperatures, intermediate annealing heat treatment was performed when the thickness of the strip changed from 3.5 mm to 1 mm, and then continued to be rolled until the thickness reached to 0.5 mm. The effect of intermediate annealing during rolling process on microstructure, texture and room temperature mechanical properties of TRC ZK60 strip was studied by using OM, TEM, XRD and electronic universal testing machine. The introduction of intermediate annealing can contribute to recrystallization in the ZK60 sheet which was greatly deformed, and help to reduce the stress concentration generated in the rolling process. Microstructure uniformity and mechanical properties of the ZK60 alloy sheet were also improved; in particular, the room temperature elongation was greatly improved. When the TRC ZK60 strip was rolled at 300 °C and 350 °C, the room temperature elongation of the rolled sheet with 0.5 mm thickness which was intermediate annealed during the rolling process was increased by 95% and 72% than that of no intermediate annealing, respectively. - Highlights: • Intermediate annealing was introduced during hot rolling process of twin roll cast ZK60 alloy. • Intermediate annealing can contribute to recrystallization and reduce the stress concentration in the deformed ZK60 sheet. • Microstructure uniformity and mechanical properties of the ZK60 sheet were improved, in particular, the room temperature elongation. • The elongation of the rolled ZK60 sheet after intermediate annealed was increased by 95% and 72% than that of no intermediate annealing.

  6. Effect of annealing on magnetic exchange coupling in CoPt/Co bilayer thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.; Barmak, K.; De Graef, M.; Lewis, L. H.; Crew, D. C.

    2000-05-01

    Thin film CoPt/Co bilayers have been prepared as a model system to investigate the relationship between microstructure and exchange coupling in two-phase nanocomposite permanent magnets. The bilayers were prepared by magnetron sputter deposition of near-equiatomic CoPt with a thickness of 25 nm onto oxidized Si wafers. In the as-deposited state, CoPt had the A1 (fcc) structure and was magnetically soft. Before reinsertion into the sputtering chamber for the deposition of 2.8-16.7 nm thick Co layers, the CoPt films were annealed at 700 degree sign C for 120 min to produce the magnetically hard, fully ordered L1{sub 0} phase. The presence of exchange coupling in the bilayers was verified by magnetic hysteresis and recoil measurements and showed that only for Co thicknesses below 6.3 nm was this layer (in its as-deposited state) coupled through its full thickness to the CoPt layer. Annealing the bilayer samples at 300 and 550 degree sign C for 20 min resulted in improvement of the interlayer magnetic coupling and produced clear differences in the magnetic reversal coherency and the recoil curves. However, for some samples, the improved coupling resulted in a decrease in coercivity, indicating that there is an optimum in the coupling strength for the attainment of high coercivity. Transmission electron microscopy studies of the bilayers in plan view showed that the increased interlayer coupling with annealing was a result of improved granular epitaxy of Co to CoPt. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  7. Effect of Intercritical Annealing Temperature on Phase Transformations in Medium Carbon Dual Phase Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erişir, Ersoy; Bilir, Oğuz Gürkan

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a study concerning phase transformations during quenching of a medium carbon dual phase steel using thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and dilatometry. Medium carbon steel was subjected to the intermediate quenching to produce a fine grained ferrite/martensite dual phase steel. 4 samples quenched after intercritical annealing at 725, 730, 740, and 750 °C. Martensite-start and bainite-start temperatures were calculated from dilatometric curves using plastodilotemeter. Experimental findings are supported by calculated phase diagrams and equilibrium phase compositions using ThermoCalc® and calculations from different empirical formulas. It is concluded that martensite-start temperature depend on chemical composition and grain size of austenite.

  8. Effects of buffer layer and thermal annealing on the performance of hybrid Cu2S/PVK electrically bistable devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xu; Lu, Yue; Guan, Li; Li, Jiantao; Wang, Yichao; Dong, Guoyi; Tang, Aiwei; Teng, Feng

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic electrically bistable devices (EBDs) based on Cu2S/PVK nanocomposites have been fabricated by using a simple spin-coating method. An obvious electrical bistability is observed in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the devices, and the presence of the buffer layer and the annealing process have an important effect on the enhancement of the ON/OFF current ratios. Different electrical conduction mechanisms are responsible for the charge switching of the devices in the presence and absence of the buffer layer.

  9. Effects of Annealing Process on the Formability of Friction Stir Welded Al-Li Alloy 2195 Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Po-Shou; Bradford, Vann; Russell, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Large rocket cryogenic tank domes have typically been fabricated using Al-Cu based alloys like Al-Cu alloy 2219. The use of aluminum-lithium based alloys for rocket fuel tank domes can reduce weight because aluminum-lithium alloys have lower density and higher strength than Al-Cu alloy 2219. However, Al-Li alloys have rarely been used to fabricate rocket fuel tank domes because of the inherent low formability characteristic that make them susceptible to cracking during the forming operations. The ability to form metal by stretch forming or spin forming without excessive thinning or necking depends on the strain hardening exponent "n". The stain hardening exponent is a measure of how rapidly a metal becomes stronger and harder. A high strain hardening exponent is beneficial to a material's ability to uniformly distribute the imposed strain. Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a novel annealing process that can achieve a work hardening exponent on the order of 0.27 to 0.29, which is approximately 50% higher than what is typically obtained for Al-Li alloys using the conventional method. The strain hardening exponent of the Al-Li alloy plates or blanks heat treated using the conventional method is typically on the order of 0.17 to 0.19. The effects of this novel annealing process on the formability of friction stir welded Al-Li alloy blanks are being studied at Marshall Space Flight Center. The formability ratings will be generated using the strain hardening exponent, strain rate sensitivity and forming range. The effects of forming temperature on the formability will also be studied. The objective of this work is to study the deformation behavior of the friction stir welded Al-Li alloy 2195 blank and determine the formability enhancement by the new annealing process.

  10. Optimization of silver nanowire-based transparent electrodes: effects of density, size and thermal annealing.

    PubMed

    Lagrange, M; Langley, D P; Giusti, G; Jiménez, C; Bréchet, Y; Bellet, D

    2015-11-01

    Silver nanowire (AgNW) networks are efficient as flexible transparent electrodes, and are cheaper to fabricate than ITO (Indium Tin Oxide). Hence they are a serious competitor as an alternative to ITO in many applications such as solar cells, OLEDs, transparent heaters. Electrical and optical properties of AgNW networks deposited on glass are investigated in this study and an efficient method to optimize them is proposed. This paper relates network density, nanowire dimensions and thermal annealing directly to the physical properties of the nanowire networksusing original physical models. A fair agreement is found between experimental data and the proposed models. Moreover thermal stability of the nanowires is a key issue in thermal optimization of such networks and needs to be studied. In this work the impact of these four parameters on the networks physical properties are thoroughly investigated via in situ measurements and modelling, such a method being also applicable to other metallic nanowire networks. We demonstrate that this approach enables the optimization of both optical and electrical properties through modification of the junction resistance by thermal annealing, and a suitable choice of nanowire dimensions and network density. This work reports excellent optical and electrical properties of electrodes fabricated from AgNW networks with a transmittance T = 89.2% (at 550 nm) and a sheet resistance of Rs = 2.9 Ω □(-1), leading to the highest reported figure of merit. PMID:26437607

  11. Thermal Annealing Effect on Poly(3-hexylthiophene): Fullerene:Copper-Phthalocyanine Ternary Photoactive Layer

    PubMed Central

    Derouiche, H.; Mohamed, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    We have fabricated poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/fullerene (C60) ternary blend films. This photoactive layer is sandwiched between an indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) photoanode and a bathocuproine (BCP)/aluminium photocathode. The thin films have been characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM) and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy in order to study the influence of P3HT doping on the morphological and optical properties of the photoactive layer. We have also compared the I-V characteristics of three different organic solar cells: ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CuPc0.5:C600.5/BCP/Al and ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT0.3:CuPc0.3:C600.4/BCP/Al with and without annealing. Both structures show good photovoltaic behaviour. Indeed, the incorporation of P3HT into CuPc:C60 thin film improves all the photovoltaic characteristics. We have also seen that thermal annealing significantly improves the optical absorption ability and stabilizes the organic solar cells making it more robust to chemical degradation. PMID:23766722

  12. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Corrosion Resistance of Electroless Ni-B-Mo Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serin, Ihsan Gökhan; Göksenli, Ali; Yüksel, Behiye; Yildiz, Rasid Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    The Ni-B-Mo coating on steel by electroless plating and the evaluation of the morphology and corrosion performance after applying heat treatments at different temperatures for 1 h were investigated in this study. The 25-μm-thick coating was uniform and adhesion between the substrate and the coating was good. The coating consisted of an amorphous-like structure in their as-plated condition, and after annealing at 400 °C for 1 h, crystallized nickel, nickel borides, and molybdenum carbide were formed. Immersion tests in 10% HCl solution and potentiodynamic polarization measurements in 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution were applied to investigate corrosion resistance. The corrosion performance of heat-treated coatings was compared with steel and the as-plated coating. By increasing the annealing temperature, corrosion potential shifted toward a noble direction, corrosion current density decreased and the weight loss of specimens decreased, demonstrating an increase in corrosion resistance. Best corrosion performance was achieved by the coating heat treated at 550 °C.

  13. Effect of annealing treatment on the crystallisation and leaching of dumped base metal smelter slags.

    PubMed

    Maweja, Kasonde; Mukongo, Tshikele; Mbaya, Richard K; Mochubele, Emela A

    2010-11-15

    Leaching tests of base metals contained in two smelter slags were undertaken in ammonia and nitric acid solutions aiming to recover Co, Cu and Zn. Leaching tests were conducted at 25 and 60°C at pH=0 and 3 in HNO(3) and pH=12 in NH(4)OH media. XRD analysis revealed that the dumped slags were amorphous. Annealing these slags at 1180°C produced crystalline phases comprising diopside, magnetite and fayalite. SEM and EDS analysis revealed that Cu and Pb compounds have concentrated in the magnetite phase, whereas another phase rich in Zn and Cu was located in the diopside matrix. ICP-OES analysis of the pregnant leaching solutions (PLS) showed that 30-60% of Co, Cu and Zn were released from the amorphous slags treated in HNO(3) at pH=0, and lesser in ammonia. However, the contamination by Fe and Pb was higher at pH=0. The contamination of the PLS obtained by leaching of the crystallised slags remained low. The low Fe and Pb contamination was attributed in this case to the chemical stability of the crystalline phases formed upon annealing treatment. The higher solubilisation of metals contained in amorphous slags was attributed to the collapse of silicate structures during nitric acid leaching at pH∼0. PMID:20674164

  14. Annealing effect on soft magnetic properties and magnetoimpedance of Finemet Fe 73.5Si 13.5B 9Nb 3Au 1 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tho, N. D.; Chau, N.; Yu, S. C.; Lee, H. B.; The, N. D.; Tuan, L. A.

    2006-09-01

    Effect of annealing on the soft magnetic properties of Fe 73.5Si 13.5B 9Nb 3Au 1 amorphous ribbon has been investigated by means of structure examination, magnetoimpedance ratio (MIR) and incremental permeability ratio (PR) spectra measured in the frequency range of 1-10 MHz at a fixed current of 10 mA X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the as-cast sample was amorphous and it became nanocrystalline under a proper heat treatment. When annealing amorphous alloy at 530 °C for 30, 60, 90 min, soft magnetic properties have been improved drastically. Among the samples investigated, the sample annealed at 530 °C for 90 min showed the softest magnetic behavior. The MIR and PR curves revealed the desirable changes in anisotropy field depending upon annealing.

  15. Comparative study in annealing effects of Ag/Co/Pt(1 1 1) and Co/Ag/Pt(1 1 1) ultrathin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, C. W.; Wu, Y. E.; Shern, C. S.

    2001-06-01

    Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy and depth profile were used to study the growth and annealing effects of mirror systems: Ag/Co/Pt(1 1 1) and Co/Ag/Pt(1 1 1). An anomalous behavior of specular beam intensity of LEED versus temperature was found in the annealing process for Ag/Co/Pt(1 1 1). A dramatic increase of the beam intensity occurs after Co-Pt alloy formation is complete. The exchange between Co and Ag atoms of Co/Ag/Pt(1 1 1) occurs when the annealing temperature is high enough. The Co-Pt alloy develops after the atomic exchange is complete. The chemical compositions at the interfaces of these two ultrathin films were investigated. The mechanisms of the different behaviors of the two systems in the annealing processes are discussed.

  16. Effect of the Solution Annealing and Chemical Passivation Followed by Aging on the Corrosion of Shell Mold Cast CF8 Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kuk-Jin; Ju, Heongkyu; Moon, Young-Dae; Hong, Jun Ho; Pak, Sung Joon

    2016-07-01

    The effects of solution annealing and passivation of shell mold cast CF8 stainless steels on Elbow pipe fittings with 2-month room temperature aging have been studied using a corrosion technique. The resistance of corrosion increased with 2-month room temperature aging combined with solid solution annealing and chemical passivation. The mode of corrosion was deeply related to the δ-ferrite content, permeability, and passivation. The corrosion probability decreased as both the δ-ferrite content and the permeability decreased. Therefore, it is considered that δ-ferrite content and passive film of Cr2O3 play an important role in corrosion resistance of CF8 Elbow pipe fittings due to the long-term aging with solid solution annealing and chemical passivation. This result shows that the corrosion resistance of CF8 fittings can be enhanced by the solid solution annealing and chemical passivation. Decreased ferrite phases and permeability improve IGC resistance in CF8 steel.

  17. Formation of TiO2 nanotube arrays by anodic oxidation in LiOH added ethylene glycol electrolyte and the effect of thermal annealing on the photoelectrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taib, Mustaffa Ali Azhar; Tan, Wai Kian; Okuno, Teruhisa; Kawamura, Go; Jaafar, Mariatti; Razak, Khairunisak Abdul; Matsuda, Atsunori; Lockman, Zainovia

    2016-07-01

    The present study employs LiOH as an additive in fluoride ethylene glycol (EG) electrolyte (LiOH/EG) for anodic oxidation of Ti in fabricating anodic TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs). TNTs formed in LiOH/EG electrolyte were found to be longer (6.23 ± 0.2 µm) compared to when only water was used in EG electrolyte: 4.54 ± 0.2 µm for the same anodisation time of 30 min and voltage of 60 V. The as-anodised TNTs were however amorphous. Hence, the samples were annealed at high temperatures for crystallization preferably as anatase oxide. Anatase phase is needed as the anodised Ti is used as a photoanode in a photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell. The effect of annealing temperatures on the TNTs to the photocurrent measurement was investigated in a standard KOH PEC cell under visible light illumination. Anodised Ti annealed at 200 °C has the lowest photocurrent of 0.002 mA cm-2. Sample annealed at 400 °C has the highest photocurrent of 0.955 mA cm-2 (0.5 V) since it is comprised of mostly anatase with crystallite size of 31.80 nm, whereas sample annealed at 600 °C seems to be a mixture of anatase and rutile, displays lower photocurrent of 0.823 mA cm-2. It was also observed that the as-anodised sample has slightly higher photocurrent than the 200 °C annealed sample perhaps due to the adsorbed OH species from the electrolyte acting as holes trapping sites.

  18. Shrinking of silicon nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous silicon oxide matrix during rapid thermal annealing in a forming gas atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Sebille, M.; Fusi, A.; Xie, L.; Ali, H.; van Swaaij, R. A. C. M. M.; Leifer, K.; Zeman, M.

    2016-09-01

    We report the effect of hydrogen on the crystallization process of silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silicon oxide matrix. We show that hydrogen gas during annealing leads to a lower sub-band gap absorption, indicating passivation of defects created during annealing. Samples annealed in pure nitrogen show expected trends according to crystallization theory. Samples annealed in forming gas, however, deviate from this trend. Their crystallinity decreases for increased annealing time. Furthermore, we observe a decrease in the mean nanocrystal size and the size distribution broadens, indicating that hydrogen causes a size reduction of the silicon nanocrystals.

  19. Isochronal annealing effects on local structure, crystalline fraction, and undamaged region size of radiation damage in Ga-stabilized δ-Pu

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Olive, D. T.; Booth, C. H.; Wang, D. L.; Bauer, E. D.; Pugmire, A. L.; Freibert, F. J.; McCall, S. K.; Wall, M. A.; Allen, P. G.

    2016-07-19

    The effects on the local structure due to self-irradiation damage of Ga stabilized δ-Pu stored at cryogenic temperatures have been examined using extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments. Extensive damage, seen as a loss of local order, was evident after 72 days of storage below 15 K. The effect was observed from both the Pu and the Ga sites, although less pronounced around Ga. Isochronal annealing was performed on this sample to study the annealing processes that occur between cryogenic and room temperature storage conditions, where damage is mostly reversed. Damage fractions at various points along the annealing curvemore » have been determined using an amplitude-ratio method, a standard EXAFS fitting, and a spherical crystallite model, and provide information complementary to the previous electrical resistivity- and susceptibility-based isochronal annealing studies. The use of a spherical crystallite model accounts for the changes in EXAFS spectra using just two parameters, namely, the crystalline fraction and the particle radius. Altogether, these results are discussed in terms of changes to the local structure around Ga and Pu throughout the annealing process and highlight the unusual role of Ga in the behavior of the lowest temperature anneals.« less

  20. Isochronal annealing effects on local structure, crystalline fraction, and undamaged region size of radiation damage in Ga-stabilized δ-Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olive, D. T.; Wang, D. L.; Booth, C. H.; Bauer, E. D.; Pugmire, A. L.; Freibert, F. J.; McCall, S. K.; Wall, M. A.; Allen, P. G.

    2016-07-01

    The effects on the local structure due to self-irradiation damage of Ga stabilized δ-Pu stored at cryogenic temperatures have been examined using extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments. Extensive damage, seen as a loss of local order, was evident after 72 days of storage below 15 K. The effect was observed from both the Pu and the Ga sites, although less pronounced around Ga. Isochronal annealing was performed on this sample to study the annealing processes that occur between cryogenic and room temperature storage conditions, where damage is mostly reversed. Damage fractions at various points along the annealing curve have been determined using an amplitude-ratio method, a standard EXAFS fitting, and a spherical crystallite model, and provide information complementary to the previous electrical resistivity- and susceptibility-based isochronal annealing studies. The use of a spherical crystallite model accounts for the changes in EXAFS spectra using just two parameters, namely, the crystalline fraction and the particle radius. Together, these results are discussed in terms of changes to the local structure around Ga and Pu throughout the annealing process and highlight the unusual role of Ga in the behavior of the lowest temperature anneals.

  1. Effect of surface energy and seed layer annealing temperature on ZnO seed layer formation and ZnO nanowire growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Sub; Mahmud, Imtiaz; Shin, Han Jae; Park, Min-Kyu; Ranjkesh, Amid; Lee, Do Kyung; Kim, Hak-Rin

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the effects of surface energy and seed layer annealing temperature (Tannealing) on seed layer growth and hydrothermally-grown zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs). In this work, by varying the ultraviolet ozone (UVO) treatment times on a silicon surface, the surface energy conditions for the seed layer formation changed and the seed layer was annealed under different Tannealing conditions. Under a lower surface energy condition of the substrate, with increasing Tannealing, the coverage density and the average thickness of the seed layer increased, but island-like growth was observed. This case was inevitably accompanied by an increase in surface roughness, which resulted in agglomerated low density growth of ZnO NWs. After sufficient UVO treatment, hydroxyl groups on the silicon surface activated the ZnO seed layer formation in the chemical reaction and increased the bonding energy between the active nucleation sites of the seed layer and the substrate surface. This ensured higher coverage density of the seed layer with lower surface roughness under the same Tannealing condition, thereby providing the ZnO NW growth with an enhanced density and aspect ratio as well as good crystallinity.

  2. Effect of Annealing on Mechanical Properties and Formability of Cold Rolled Thin Sheets of Fe-P P/M Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, Shefali; Ravi Kumar, D.; Aravindan, S.

    2016-08-01

    Phosphorus in steel is known to increase strength and hardness and decrease ductility. Higher phosphorus content (more than 0.05%), however, promotes brittle behavior due to segregation of Fe3P along the grain boundaries which makes further mechanical working of these alloys difficult. In this work, thin sheets of Fe-P alloys (with phosphorus in range of 0.1-0.35%) have been developed through processing by powder metallurgy followed by hot rolling and cold rolling. The effect of phosphorus content and annealing parameters (temperature and time) on microstructure, mechanical properties, formability in biaxial stretching and fracture behavior of the cold rolled and annealed sheets has been studied. A comparison has also been made between the properties of the sheets made through P/M route and the conventional cast route with similar phosphorus content. It has been shown that thin sheets of Fe-P alloys with phosphorous up to 0.35% possessing a good combination of strength and formability can be produced through rolling of billets of these alloys made through powder metallurgy technique without the problem of segregation.

  3. Effects of Annealing on GaAs/GaAsSbN/GaAs Core-Multi-shell Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Kasanaboina, Pavan; Sharma, Manish; Deshmukh, Prithviraj; Reynolds, C Lewis; Liu, Yang; Iyer, Shanthi

    2016-12-01

    The effects of ex-situ annealing in a N2 ambient on the properties of GaAs/GaAsSbN/GaAs core-multi-shell nanowires on Si (111) substrate grown by self-catalyzed molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are reported. As-grown nanowires exhibit band edge emission at ~0.99 eV with a shoulder peak at ~0.85 eV, identified to arise from band tail states. A large red shift of 7 cm(-1) and broadened Raman spectra of as-grown nanowires compared to that of non-nitride nanowires confirmed phonon localization at N-induced localized defects. On annealing nanowires to 750 °C, there was no change in the planar defects in the nanowire with respect to the as-grown nanowire; however, vanishing of the photoluminescence (PL) peak corresponding to band tail states along with enhanced band edge PL intensity, recovery of the Raman shift and increase in the Schottky barrier height from 0.1 to 0.4 eV clearly point to the efficient annihilation of point defects in these GaAsSbN nanowires. A significant reduction in the temperature-induced energy shift in the annealed nanowires is attributed to annihilation of band tail states and weak temperature dependence of N-related localized states. The observation of room temperature PL signal in the 1.3 μm region shows that the strategy of adding small amounts of N to GaAsSb is a promising route to realization of efficient nanoscale light emitters with reduced temperature sensitivity in the telecommunication wavelength region. PMID:26831685

  4. Effects of Annealing on GaAs/GaAsSbN/GaAs Core-Multi-shell Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasanaboina, Pavan; Sharma, Manish; Deshmukh, Prithviraj; Reynolds, C. Lewis; Liu, Yang; Iyer, Shanthi

    2016-02-01

    The effects of ex-situ annealing in a N2 ambient on the properties of GaAs/GaAsSbN/GaAs core-multi-shell nanowires on Si (111) substrate grown by self-catalyzed molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are reported. As-grown nanowires exhibit band edge emission at ~0.99 eV with a shoulder peak at ~0.85 eV, identified to arise from band tail states. A large red shift of 7 cm-1 and broadened Raman spectra of as-grown nanowires compared to that of non-nitride nanowires confirmed phonon localization at N-induced localized defects. On annealing nanowires to 750 °C, there was no change in the planar defects in the nanowire with respect to the as-grown nanowire; however, vanishing of the photoluminescence (PL) peak corresponding to band tail states along with enhanced band edge PL intensity, recovery of the Raman shift and increase in the Schottky barrier height from 0.1 to 0.4 eV clearly point to the efficient annihilation of point defects in these GaAsSbN nanowires. A significant reduction in the temperature-induced energy shift in the annealed nanowires is attributed to annihilation of band tail states and weak temperature dependence of N-related localized states. The observation of room temperature PL signal in the 1.3 μm region shows that the strategy of adding small amounts of N to GaAsSb is a promising route to realization of efficient nanoscale light emitters with reduced temperature sensitivity in the telecommunication wavelength region.

  5. Effect of thermal annealing in vacuum on the photovoltaic properties of electrodeposited Cu2O-absorber solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimopoulos, T.; Peić, A.; Abermann, S.; Postl, M.; List-Kratochvil, E. J. W.; Resel, R.

    2014-07-01

    Heterojunction solar cells were fabricated by electrochemical deposition of p-type, cuprous oxide (Cu2O) absorber on sputtered, n-type ZnO layer. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the as-deposited absorber consists mainly of Cu2O, but appreciable amounts of metallic Cu and cupric oxide (CuO) are also present. These undesired oxidation states are incorporated during the deposition process and have a detrimental effect on the photovoltaic properties of the cells. The open circuit voltage (VOC), short circuit current density (jSC), fill factor (FF) and power conversion efficiency (η) of the as-deposited cells are 0.37 V, 3.71 mA/cm2, 35.7% and 0.49%, respectively, under AM1.5G illumination. We show that by thermal annealing in vacuum, at temperatures up to 300 °C, compositional purity of the Cu2O absorber could be obtained. A general improvement of the heterojunction and bulk materials quality is observed, reflected upon the smallest influence of the shunt and series resistance on the transport properties of the cells in dark and under illumination. Independent of the annealing temperature, transport is dominated by the space-charge layer generation-recombination current. After annealing at 300 °C the solar cell parameters could be significantly improved to the values of: VOC = 0.505 V, jSC = 4.67 mA/cm2, FF = 47.1% and η = 1.12%.

  6. Investigation of Cu Doping, Morphology and Annealing Effects on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO:Dy Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Mehrdad

    2016-05-01

    Dysprosium (Dy) doped ZnO nanosheets and nanorods were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Effects of Cu doping, morphology and annealing in Oxygen ambient on structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. This study recommends that both of intrinsic and extrinsic defects facilitate energy transfer (ET) from the ZnO host to Dy(3+) ions and consequently have an effective role on producing intense Dy emissions at indirect excitation. The results also revealed that annealing process improved the crystal structure of ZnO nanorods due to decrease of surface; however decreased ET and Dy emissions because of diminishing in oxygen vacancy. In addition, as a result of increasing of surface area in nanorods compared to nanosheets, the oxygen vacancies and ET were enhanced. Moreover the results exhibited that electrical and optical properties of ZnO:Dy can be tuned by various amount of Dy concentrations and also Cu doping. PMID:26798063

  7. Annealing effect on the near-band edge emission of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomyak, V. V.; Slyotov, M. M.; Shtepliuk, I. I.; Lashkarev, G. V.; Slyotov, O. M.; Marianchuk, P. D.; Kosolovskiy, V. V.

    2013-02-01

    ZnO thin films have been grown on the sapphire (с-Al2O3) substrates at the temperature of 250 °C by means of the direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering technique. The crystal structure and surface morphology of the deposited films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The optical transmission, reflection and luminescence spectra at 300 K were analyzed for both the as-grown and post-annealed ZnO films. Using the λ-modulation method gives the possibility to reveal the main features of the energy band structure and the nature of the radiative transitions causing the ultraviolet (UV) luminescence.

  8. Effects of annealed temperature on the properties of TiO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Avesh

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the structural, morphological and electrical properties of TiO2 thin films are studied. The phase transformation of TiO2 from anatase to rutile is occurred at a certain temperature. This transformation increases defects concentration onthe surface of the film which acts as trapping sites for carriers, thereby affecting the Fermi level of TiO2 film.Quantitative estimation of Fermi level shifting is measured in terms of work function measurement using scanning Kelvin probe measurement. Work function of TiO2 was found to decrease with increasing annealed temperature indicating shifting of Fermi level towards conduction band. Position of Fermi level plays an important role in phase transformation and electronic properties of TiO2.

  9. Effects of high-temperature annealing on ESR properties of solid solutions of garnet minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundu Rao, T. K.; Cano, Nilo F.; Chubaci, Jose F. D.; Watanabe, S.

    2016-04-01

    A garnet (G7) silicate mineral belonging to pyralspite subgroup was studied using the technique of electron spin resonance (ESR). This study shows that iron is present in G7 as isolated species as well as species coupled by dipolar interactions. The ESR data shows a gradual increase of cluster of Fe3+ ions accompanied by decrease of dipolar interactions and increase of possible exchange interactions at high temperature. The Fe2+→Fe3+ oxidation process occurs in the garnets as a function of annealing temperature. Thermoluminescence (TL) peaks at approximately 190 and 340 °C are observed in the irradiated G7 garnet. Investigations using the technique of ESR were carried out to identify the centers involved in the TL process.

  10. Effects of Thermal Annealing on Structural and Magnetic Properties of Lithium Ferrite Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Jovic, Natasa G.; Masadeh, Ahmad S.; Kremenovic, Aleksandar S.; Antic, Bratislav V.; Blanusa, Jovan L.; Cvjeticanin, Nikola D.; Goya, Gerardo F.; Antisari, Marco Vittori; Bozin, Emil S.

    2010-01-12

    Pure, crystalline, {approx}10 nm lithium ferrite phase (Li{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2.5}O{sub 4}), was successfully synthesized at very low temperature using a modified combustion method. The crystal structure and microstructure evolution of this system upon annealing were monitored by a careful investigation of X-ray diffractograms collected on a synchrotron source. Comparative analysis of the results obtained from the full profile Rietveld method (in reciprocal space) and the pair distribution function method (in direct space) was carried out. Nanocrystalline samples exhibit similar crystal structure, on average, with a partial ordering of Li{sup +} and Fe{sup 3+} ions between octahedral 4b and 12d sites on the spinel crystal lattice (space group P4{sub 3}32). After annealing at 973 K, cation distribution changes to a completely ordered, resembling that which is seen in the bulk lithium ferrite. The PDF analysis reveals abnormally high values of oxygen atomic displacement parameters in tetrahedral 8c sites (O1) indicating a significant disordering of the O1 network and suggests migration of lithium ions from 4b sites to the outer layers of nanoparticles. Analysis of room temperature Moessbauer spectra has shown that the hyperfine field for Fe{sup 3+} ions in tetrahedral 8c sites is the most sensitive on increasing the particle size and improving the crystallinity. From the differential thermal analysis, it was found that a lower driving force is required to induce an order-disorder phase transition in nanocrystalline samples, compared to the bulk-like sample, presumably due to the higher crystal disordering in these samples.

  11. Effects of High-Pressure Hydrogen Annealing (HPHA) on Reliability Characteristics of RRAM.

    PubMed

    Song, Jeonghwan; Lee, Daeseok; Woo, Jiyong; Cha, Euijun; Lee, Sangheon; Hwang, Hyunsang

    2016-05-01

    Reliability characteristics (retention and endurance) of RRAM are critical for its practical realization and need to be improved. In this work, we confirmed the trade-off between retention and endurance by using various top electrode thickness conditions. The trade-off between retention and endurance characteristics was mainly due to the different amount of oxygen in scavenging layer (Ta) and the amount of oxygen vacancy in switching layer (HfO2). The amount of the oxygen in scavenging layer (Ta) and the amount of the oxygen vacancy in switching layer (HfO2) will be increased with the increase of Ta thickness. Therefore, the thicker Ta cells have worse retention because the large amount of oxygen in scavenging layer (Ta) can diffuse back into switching layer (HfO2) and recombine with oxygen vacancies in the filament. However, it has longer endurance because the large amount of oxygen vacancy in switching layer (HfO2) can be a source of the filament. Hence, there exists a trade-off relation between retention and endurance under the various Ta thickness conditions. To improve both retention and endurance characteristics, we proposed a new method by using high-pressure hydrogen annealing (HPHA). The thin Ta cells have longer retention and worse endurance because it has small amount of both oxygen in scavenging layer (Ta) and oxygen vacancy in switching layer (HfO2). Therefore, to generate more oxygen vacancies in switching layer (HfO2) maintaining small amount of oxygen in scavenging layer (Ta), we treated the samples by HPHA before Ta deposition. Finally, we obtained both improved retention and endurance characteristics in HfO2 based RRAM devices after high-pressure hydrogen annealing treatment. PMID:27483819

  12. Effects of Post-Deposition Annealing on the Copper Films Electrodeposited on the ECR Plasma Cleaned Copper Seed Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hanseung; Chakrabarti, Kuntal; Lee, Chongmu

    2002-12-01

    Thin copper films were grown by electrodeposition on copper seed layers which were grown by sputtering of an ultra-pure copper target on tantalum nitride-coated silicon wafers and subsequently, cleaned in ECR plasma. The copper films were then subjected to i) vacuum annealing, ii) rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and iii) rapid thermal nitriding (RTN) at various temperatures over different periods of time. XRD, SEM, AFM and resistivity measurements were done to ascertain the optimum heat treatment condition for obtaining film with minimum resistivity, predominantly (111)-oriented and smoother surface morphology. The as-deposited film has a resistivity of ˜6.3 μΩ\\cdotcm and a relatively small intensity ratio of (111) and (200) peaks. With heat treatment, the resistivity decreases and the (111) peak becomes dominant, along with improved smoothness of the copper film. The optimum condition (with a resistivity of 1.98 μΩ\\cdotcm) is suggested as the rapid thermal nitriding at 400°C for 120 s.

  13. Effects of Annealing Treatment Prior to Cold Rolling on Delayed Fracture Properties in Ferrite-Austenite Duplex Lightweight Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Seok Su; Song, Hyejin; Kim, Jung Gi; Kwak, Jai-Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Lee, Sunghak

    2016-02-01

    Tensile properties of recently developed automotive high-strength steels containing about 10 wt pct of Mn and Al are superior to other conventional steels, but the active commercialization has been postponed because they are often subjected to cracking during formation or to the delayed fracture after formation. Here, the delayed fracture behavior of a ferrite-austenite duplex lightweight steel whose microstructure was modified by a batch annealing treatment at 1023 K (750 °C) prior to cold rolling was examined by HCl immersion tests of cup specimens, and was compared with that of an unmodified steel. After the batch annealing, band structures were almost decomposed as strong textures of {100}<011> α-fibers and {111}<112> γ-fibers were considerably dissolved, while ferrite grains were refined. The steel cup specimen having this modified microstructure was not cracked when immersed in an HCl solution for 18 days, whereas the specimen having unmodified microstructure underwent the delayed fracture within 1 day. This time delayed fracture was more critically affected by difference in deformation characteristics such as martensitic transformation and deformation inhomogeneity induced from concentration of residual stress or plastic strain, rather than the difference in initial microstructures. The present work gives a promise for automotive applications requiring excellent mechanical and delayed fracture properties as well as reduced specific weight.

  14. Effect of fuel rate and annealing process of LiFePO{sub 4} cathode material for Li-ion batteries synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis method

    SciTech Connect

    Halim, Abdul; Setyawan, Heru; Machmudah, Siti; Nurtono, Tantular; Winardi, Sugeng

    2014-02-24

    In this study the effect of fuel rate and annealing on particle formation of LiFePO{sub 4} as battery cathode using flame spray pyrolysis method was investigated numerically and experimentally. Numerical study was done using ANSYS FLUENT program. In experimentally, LiFePO{sub 4} was synthesized from inorganic aqueous solution followed by annealing. LPG was used as fuel and air was used as oxidizer and carrier gas. Annealing process attempted in inert atmosphere at 700°C for 240 min. Numerical result showed that the increase of fuel rate caused the increase of flame temperature. Microscopic observation using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed that all particles have sphere and polydisperse. Increasing fuel rate caused decreasing particle size and increasing particles crystallinity. This phenomenon attributed to the flame temperature. However, all produced particles still have more amorphous phase. Therefore, annealing needed to increase particles crystallinity. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis showed that all particles have PO4 function group. Increasing fuel rate led to the increase of infrared spectrum absorption corresponding to the increase of particles crystallinity. This result indicated that phosphate group vibrated easily in crystalline phase. From Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis, annealing can cause the increase of Li{sup +} diffusivity. The diffusivity coefficient of without and with annealing particles were 6.84399×10{sup −10} and 8.59888×10{sup −10} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1}, respectively.

  15. Preferential orientation, microstructure and functional properties of SnO2:Sb thin film: The effects of post-growth annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Haoran; Li, Lingxia; Sun, Zheng; Yu, Shihui; Luo, Weijia

    2016-01-01

    The SnO2:Sb thin films (ATO) were deposited on quartz glass by magnetron sputtering. The effects of post-growth annealing on preferential orientation, microstructure and functional properties of thin films have been investigated. It was found that the thin films were polycrystalline with the cassiterite tetragonal (rutile type) structure. As the annealing temperature increased from 200 °C to 600 °C, the crystalline quality of the thin films improved. The texture transition from (2 0 0) to (2 1 1) crystallographic orientations was found as annealing temperature increased to 600 °C. This result revealed that the process of abnormal grain growth occurred. However, the crystalline quality was subsequently deteriorated with further increase of the annealing temperature. The obtained ATO thin film annealed at 600 °C showed the lowest resistivity of 1.5 × 10-3 Ω cm with the carrier concentration of 2.11 × 1020 cm-3 and hall mobility of 21.37 cm2 V-1 s-1. The average optical transmittance was 84.9% in the visible wavelength range from 380 to 780 nm. In addition, the mechanism of the changes of electrical and optical properties at different annealing temperature was proposed.

  16. Effects of annealing temperature on structure and magnetic properties of CoAl0.2Fe1.8O4/SiO2 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Li, J.; Liu, M.; Zhang, Y. M.; Lu, J. B.; Li, H. B.

    2012-12-01

    CoAl0.2Fe1.8O4/SiO2 nanocomposites were prepared by sol-gel method. The effects of annealing temperature on the structure and magnetic properties of the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results show that the CoAl0.2Fe1.8O4 in the samples exhibits a spinel structure after being annealed. As annealing temperature increases from 800 to 1200 °C, the average grain size of CoAl0.2Fe1.8O4 in the nanocomposites increases from 5 to 41 nm while the lattice constant decreases from 0.8397 to 0.8391 nm, the saturation magnetization increases from 21.96 to 41.53 emu/g. Coercivity reaches a maximum of 1082 Oe for the sample annealed at 1100 °C, and thereafter decreases with further increasing annealing temperature. Mössbauer spectra show that the isomer shift decreases, hyperfine field increases and the samples transfer from mixed state of superparamagnetic and magnetic order to the completely magnetic order with annealing temperature increasing from 800 to 1200 °C.

  17. Effect of annealing on cation distribution and magnetic properties of nano sized Mn0.34Co0.66Fe2O4 microwave ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datt, Gopal; Abhyankar, A. C.

    2016-05-01

    Microwave spinel ferrites are ubiquitous in systems that receive, send, and manipulate electromagnetic signals across very high frequency to quasi-optical frequency bands. This paper elaborates the effects of annealing on structural and magnetic properties of the Mn0.34Co0.66Fe2O4 ferrite nano-particles, synthesised by solvothermal method. The Rietveld refinement of XRD data reveals that nanoparticles are crystallized in spinel structure with Fd-3m space group and on annealing the Mn2+ ions migrates from tetrahedral to octahedral site. The FESEM microstructures reveal that grain size increase from 30 nm to 200 nm on annealing and morphology of the particles changes from spherical to rhombohedral. The magnetic data analysis shows that on annealing the magnetization improves significantly from Ms = 59.23 emu/g to Ms = 86.80 emu/g. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy and coercivity increased significantly on annealing. The change in magnetic properties on annealing is strongly correlated to redistribution of Mn2+ cations on different sites.

  18. Effect of Annealing Temperature on Dielectric Constant and Bonding Structure of Low-k SiCOH Thin Films Deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungwoo; Yang, Jaeyoung; Yeo, Sanghak; Lee, Jaewon; Jung, Donggeun; Boo, Jin-hyo; Kim, Hyoungsub; Chae, Heeyeop

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the effect of annealing temperature on the properties of SiCOH films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using or a mixture of Si-O containing and hydrocarbon precursors, decamethyl-cyclopentasiloxane (DMCPSO-C10H30O5Si5) and cyclohexane (CHex-C6H12). These SiCOH films were deposited at pressures of 0.6 and 1.5 Torr and the as-deposited SiCOH films were subjected to annealing temperatures from 25 to 500 °C in a furnace for 1 h in N2 ambient at a pressure of 1 atm. The relative dielectric constants, k, of the SiCOH films deposited at 0.6 and 1.5 Torr were 2.76 and 2.26, respectively, before the annealing process. The subsequent annealing of the SiCOH film at 500 °C further reduced the k values to as low as 2.31 and 1.85, respectively. Decreases in the refractive index, hardness, and modulus were observed as the annealing temperature increased to 450 °C. However, further increasing annealing temperature to 500 °C caused the refractive index, hardness, and modulus to increase again. Trends of decreases in both the hardness and modulus with increasing annealing temperature were found. The refractive index and the film thickness retention also decreased with increasing annealing temperature. The change in the k value as a function of the annealing temperature was correlated with the change in the Fourier transform infrared absorption peaks of C-Hx, Si-CH3, and Si-O related groups. As the annealing temperature increased, the intensity of both the CHx and Si-CH3 peaks decreased, respectively. In particular, the C-H2 (asymmetric and symmetric) peaks provide direct evidence of the presence of ethylene groups in the SiCOH films. Thus the decrease in intensity of the peaks corresponding to the CHx groups and Si-O cage structure in the SiCOH films was considered to be responsible for lowering they dielectric constant, refractive index, hardness and modulus of the films. The leakage current density of the SiCOH films at 1 MV/cm is obtained

  19. Simulated annealing and metaheuristic for randomized priority search algorithms for the aerial refuelling parallel machine scheduling problem with due date-to-deadline windows and release times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Sezgin; Rabadi, Ghaith

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the aerial refuelling scheduling problem (ARSP), where a set of fighter jets (jobs) with certain ready times must be refuelled from tankers (machines) by their due dates; otherwise, they reach a low fuel level (deadline) incurring a high cost. ARSP is an identical parallel machine scheduling problem with release times and due date-to-deadline windows to minimize the total weighted tardiness. A simulated annealing (SA) and metaheuristic for randomized priority search (Meta-RaPS) with the newly introduced composite dispatching rule, apparent piecewise tardiness cost with ready times (APTCR), are applied to the problem. Computational experiments compared the algorithms' solutions to optimal solutions for small problems and to each other for larger problems. To obtain optimal solutions, a mixed integer program with a piecewise weighted tardiness objective function was solved for up to 12 jobs. The results show that Meta-RaPS performs better in terms of average relative error but SA is more efficient.

  20. Effects of annealing and stoichiometry to (Nd, Mg)(Ni, Al)3.5 metal hydride alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, K.; Ouchi, T.; Huang, B.

    2012-10-01

    The structures, gaseous phase hydrogen storage, and electrochemical properties of a series of (Nd0.83Mg0.16Zr0.01)(Ni0.953Al0.046Co0.001)α alloys, where α = 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, and 3.7, before and after annealing (900 °C and 5 h in argon) were studied. Besides the main Nd2Ni7 phase, other secondary phases, such as MgNdNi4, NdNi5, NdNi3, NdNi, and CeNi3, were present in most of the samples and influenced the hydrogen storage properties. After annealing, several changes happened: the stoichiometry of the main Nd2Ni7 phase remained constant at B/A = 3.3 and its abundance increased; the abundances of the major secondary phases decreased but were not totally eliminated (which helped preserve the catalytic effects); both the gaseous phase hydrogen storage and electrochemical capacity increased; the high-rate dischargeability decreased slightly; and the activation became more difficult. A stoichiometry of AB3.5 showed the best compromise among electrochemical capacity, high-rate dischargeability, and ease of activation.

  1. Controllable nitrogen doping in as deposited TiO{sub 2} film and its effect on post deposition annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Shaoren; Devloo-Casier, Kilian; Devulder, Wouter; Dendooven, Jolien; Deduytsche, Davy; Detavernier, Christophe; Lenaerts, Silvia; Martens, Johan A.; Van den Berghe, Sven

    2014-01-15

    In order to narrow the band gap of TiO{sub 2}, nitrogen doping by combining thermal atomic layer deposition (TALD) of TiO{sub 2} and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of TiN has been implemented. By altering the ratio between TALD TiO{sub 2} and PEALD TiN, the as synthesized TiO{sub x}N{sub y} films showed different band gaps (from 1.91 eV to 3.14 eV). In situ x-ray diffraction characterization showed that the crystallization behavior of these films changed after nitrogen doping. After annealing in helium, nitrogen doped TiO{sub 2} films crystallized into rutile phase while for the samples annealed in air a preferential growth of the anatase TiO{sub 2} along (001) orientation was observed. Photocatalytic tests of the degradation of stearic acid were done to evaluate the effect of N doping on the photocatalytic activity.

  2. Microstructural evolution during ultra-rapid annealing of severely deformed low-carbon steel: strain, temperature, and heating rate effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafaei, M. A.; Kazeminezhad, M.

    2016-07-01

    An interaction between ferrite recrystallization and austenite transformation in low-carbon steel occurs when recrystallization is delayed until the intercritical temperature range by employing high heating rate. The kinetics of recrystallization and transformation is affected by high heating rate and such an interaction. In this study, different levels of strain are applied to low-carbon steel using a severe plastic deformation method. Then, ultra-rapid annealing is performed at different heating rates of 200-1100°C/s and peak temperatures of near critical temperature. Five regimes are proposed to investigate the effects of heating rate, strain, and temperature on the interaction between recrystallization and transformation. The microstructural evolution of severely deformed low-carbon steel after ultra-rapid annealing is investigated based on the proposed regimes. Regarding the intensity and start temperature of the interaction, different microstructures consisting of ferrite and pearlite/martensite are formed. It is found that when the interaction is strong, the microstructure is refined because of the high kinetics of transformation and recrystallization. Moreover, strain shifts an interaction zone to a relatively higher heating rate. Therefore, severely deformed steel should be heated at relatively higher heating rates for it to undergo a strong interaction.

  3. Experimental tests of irradiation-anneal-reirradiation effects on mechanical properties of RPV plate and weld materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Charpy-V (C{sub V}) notch ductility and tension test properties of three reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel materials were determined for the 288{degree}C (550{degree}F) irradiated (I), 288{degree}C (550{degree}F) irradiated + 454{degree}C (850{degree}F)-168 h postirradiation annealed (IA), and 288{degree}C (550{degree}F) reirradiated (IAR) conditions. Total fluences of the I condition and the IAR condition were, respectively, 3.33 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} and 4.18 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV. The irradiation portion of the IAR condition represents an incremental fluence increase of 1. 05 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV, over the I-condition fluence. The materials (specimens) were supplied by the Yankee Atomic Electric Company and represented high and low nickel content plates and a high nickel, high copper content weld deposit prototypical of the Yankee-Rowe reactor vessel. The promise of the IAR method for extending the fluence tolerance of radiation-sensitive steels and welds is clearly shown by the results. The annealing treatment produced full C{sub V} upper shelf recovery and full or nearly full recovery in the C{sub V} 41 J (30 ft-lb) transition temperature. The C{sub V} transition temperature increases produced by the reirradiation exposure were 22% to 43% of the increase produced by the first cycle irradiation exposure. A somewhat greater radiation embrittlement sensitivity and a somewhat greater reirradiation embrittlement sensitivity was exhibited by the low nickel content plate than the high nickel content plate. Its high phosphorus content is believed to be responsible. The IAR-condition properties of the surface vs. interior regions of the low nickel content plate are also compared.

  4. Effect of annealing temperature on the pitting corrosion resistance of super duplex stainless steel UNS S32750

    SciTech Connect

    Tan Hua; Jiang Yiming; Deng Bo; Sun Tao; Xu Juliang; Li Jin

    2009-09-15

    The pitting corrosion resistance of commercial super duplex stainless steels SAF2507 (UNS S32750) annealed at seven different temperatures ranging from 1030 deg. C to 1200 deg. C for 2 h has been investigated by means of potentiostatic critical pitting temperature. The microstructural evolution and pit morphologies of the specimens were studied through optical/scanning electron microscope. Increasing annealing temperature from 1030 deg. C to 1080 deg. C elevates the critical pitting temperature, whereas continuing to increase the annealing temperature to 1200 deg. C decreases the critical pitting temperature. The specimens annealed at 1080 deg. C for 2 h exhibit the best pitting corrosion resistance with the highest critical pitting temperature. The pit morphologies show that the pit initiation sites transfer from austenite phase to ferrite phase as the annealing temperature increases. The aforementioned results can be explained by the variation of pitting resistance equivalent number of ferrite and austenite phase as the annealing temperature changes.

  5. Effects of MgO buffer annealing on optical and electrical quality of P-MBE grown ZnO films on c-sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, A.; Yao, T.

    2016-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) has been attracting much attention because of its potential applications in photonic and optoelectronic devices. In this present study, we investigated the effect of MgO buffer annealing on the optical and electrical quality of P-MBE grown ZnO films on c-sapphire with MgO buffer layer. The optical quality was observed by low-temperature PL (photoluminescence) measurement in the near band edge emission region measured at 10K and at 77K. The emission line located at 3.368eV dominates the spectrum in both samples (ZnO with and without MgO buffer annealing) at 10K and 77K. This emission can be divided into two peaks, 3.367eV and 3.363eV and assigned as I2 (ionized donor bound excitons emission) and I4 (Hydrogen donor related emission), respectively. The relative intensity of these donor bound exactions to free exaction emission of the sample without MgO buffer annealing is greater than that of the sample with MgO buffer annealing. Comparison of the PL spectra of ZnO with and without annealing revealed that the intensity of free exciton emission from the sample with MgO buffer annealing is twice of that from the sample without annealing. We also found that the intensity of deep-level broad emission is reduced by about 1/3 by MgO-buffer annealing. Hence, the decrease of deep level emission intensity and the increase of free exciton emission intensity by annealing of MgO buffer corresponds to the reduction of defects of the ZnO film. The PL properties also suggest that there are fewer nonradiative recombination centers in ZnO layers with MgO buffer annealing than those in ZnO layers grown without MgO buffer annealing. The electrical quality was measured by room temperature Hall measurements. We found that the samples have a background n-type carrier concentration. The ZnO samples with MgO buffer annealing has a carrier concentration of 1.17×1017 cm-3 and Hall mobility of 120 cm2/V.s, while the ZnO sample without MgO buffer annealing has a carrier

  6. Defect annealing and thermal desorption of deuterium in low dose HFIR neutron-irradiated tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Masashi; Hara, Masanori; Otsuka, Teppei; Oya, Yasuhisa; Hatano, Yuji

    2015-08-01

    Three tungsten samples irradiated at High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were exposed to deuterium plasma (ion fluence of 1 × 1026 m-2) at three different temperatures (100, 200, and 500 °C) in Tritium Plasma Experiment at Idaho National Laboratory. Subsequently, thermal desorption spectroscopy was performed with a ramp rate of 10 °C min-1 up to 900 °C, and the samples were annealed at 900 °C for 0.5 h. These procedures were repeated three times to uncover defect-annealing effects on deuterium retention. The results show that deuterium retention decreases approximately 70% for at 500 °C after each annealing, and radiation damages were not annealed out completely even after the 3rd annealing. TMAP modeling revealed the trap concentration decreases approximately 80% after each annealing at 900 °C for 0.5 h.

  7. Asymmetric magnetoimpedance effect in CoFeSiB amorphous ribbons by combination of field and current annealing for sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajiali, Mohammadreza; Mohseni, S. Majid; Roozmeh, S. Ehsan; Moradi, Mehrdad

    2016-08-01

    The roles of applied magnetic field during the current annealing of Co68.15Fe4.35Si12.5B15 soft magnetic amorphous ribbons are studied. Samples heat treated by Joule heating effect in open air and simultaneously in the present of longitudinal external magnetic field showed asymmetric magnetoimpedance (AMI) behavior. The AMI profile can be related to the exchange bias interaction between the soft magnetic amorphous material and a harder magnetic crystalline phase formed on the surface of the ribbon. This effect stems from thermal effect, the transverse Oe field generated from the annealing current which is thickness dependent and the longitudinal external field. The single peak AMI with the field sensitivity of 101%/Oe for DC annealing current is achieved. Our results could address a simple way to achieve the AMI response toward developing high sensitive magnetic field sensors.

  8. Effect of annealing on magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B thin films prepared by ECR ion beam sputtering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokumaru, R.; Tamano, S.; Goto, S.; Madeswaran, S.; Tokiwa, K.; Watanabe, T.

    2009-11-01

    Nd-Fe-B thin films were prepared by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion beam sputtering and subsequent annealing. The influence of annealing on the magnetic properties and X-ray diffraction patterns of the product films was investigated. Amorphous films deposited at room temperature were annealed at temperatures between 600 and 800 °C. The c-axis oriented crystallization of the Nd2Fe14B phase did not appear by annealing of the buffer layer and magnetic Nd-Fe-B layer deposited at room temperature, and the hysteresis loops of the films indicated magnetic isotropy.

  9. Effect of annealing temperature of Bi1.5Zn1.0Nb1.5O7 gate insulator on performance of ZnO based thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ye; Wei, Ren; Peng, Shi; Zhuangde, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    The bottom-gate structure ZnO based thin film transistors (ZnO-TFTs) using Bi1.5Zn1.0Nb1.5O7 (BZN) thin films as gate insulator were fabricated on Pt/SiO2/Si substrate by radio frequency magnetic sputtering. We investigated the effect of annealing temperature at 300, 400, and 500 °C on the performance of BZN thin films and ZnO-TFTs. XRD measurement confirmed that BZN thin films were amorphous in nature. BZN thin films annealed at 400 °C obtain the high capacitance density of 249 nF/cm2, high dielectric constant of 71, and low leakage current density of 10‑7 A/cm2 on/off current ratio and field effect mobility of ZnO-TFTs annealed at 400 °C are approximately one order of magnitude and two times, respectively higher than that of ZnO-TFTs annealed at 300 °C. When the annealing temperature is 400 °C, the electrical performance of ZnO-TFTs is enhanced remarkably. Devices obtain a low sub-threshold swing of 470 mV/dec and surface states density of 3.21 × 1012cm‑2. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51332003, 51202184), the International Science & Technology Cooperation Program of China (Nos. 2010DFB13640, 2011DFA51880), and the “111 Project” of China (No. B14040).

  10. Determination of effects of deposition and anneal properties for tetranitratotitanium deposited TiO2 dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyeon-Seag; Campbell, S. A.; Gilmer, D. C.; Kaushik, V.; Conner, J.; Prabhu, L.; Anderson, A.

    1999-03-01

    Carbon and hydrogen free tetranitratotitanium was synthesized, which is believed to thermally decomposed primarily as: Ti(NO3)4→TiO2+4NO2+O2. The by-products of the thermal decomposition of tetranitratotitanium, which include NO2 and O2, may possibly provide a robust ultrathin tunnel interfacial layer. Due to the hydrogen free nature of thermolysis, N2O may form an oxynitride layer which has been shown to produce thermal oxynitrides with higher quality than NH3-based nitride oxides. Unlike titanium tetrakis isopropoxide (TTIP) deposited films, the interface state density more closely follows the "U" shape characteristic of conventional thermal SiO2/Si interfaces. The integrated interface state density is considerably less for the film annealed at higher temperature, which should produce considerably higher inversion layer mobilities. This improvement of the interface, compared to TTIP deposited films, is believed to be due to the elimination of water vapor from the deposition ambient.

  11. In-Situ Measurements of Graphene Mechanics During Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Aaron; de Alba, Roberto; Sebastian, Abhilash; Parpia, Jeevak

    Graphene shows great potential as a material for a new generation of mechanical nanodevices. However, current methodologies used for fabricating graphene structures involve polymer resists for transfer and patterning, which degrades mechanical performance. To improve surface quality, high current or high temperature annealing of graphene is commonly employed. Previous studies of graphene mechanics have focused on performance after annealing or temperature-dependent behavior from 4K-300K. Here we present real-time, in-situ measurements of graphene mechanical resonance during high temperature annealing from 300K-600K. Upon heating, reversible changes in mechanical frequency are indicative of graphene thermal contraction. Discontinuous and irreversible changes are also seen, corresponding to graphene slipping and mass desorption. Both reversible and irreversible changes in quality factor are also observed. Characterizing the effects of annealing on the structural properties of graphene will enable more precise engineering for particular applications, such as mass sensing.

  12. Study of the effect of annealing on defects in Fe Mn Si Cr Ni C alloy by slow positron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa, Khaled. M.; De Baerdemaeker, J.; Van Caenegem, N.; Segers, D.; Houbaert, Y.

    2008-10-01

    FeMnSi shape memory alloys (SMAs) have received much attention as one-way SMAs due to their cost-effectiveness. Variable-energy (0-30 keV) positron beam studies have been carried out on a Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni-C alloy with different degrees of deformation. Doppler broadening profiles of the positron annihilation as a function of incident positron energy were shown to be quite sensitive to defects introduced by deformation. The variation of the nature and the concentration of defects are studied as a function of isochronal annealing temperature. These results are correlated with the data measured with the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The positron annihilation results are compared to XRD and optical microscopy (OM).

  13. Effects of Growth Temperature and Postgrowth Annealing on Inhomogeneous Luminescence Characteristics of Green-Emitting InGaN Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masui, Hisashi; Melo, Thiago; Sonoda, Junichi; Weisbuch, Claude; Nakamura, Shuji; Denbaars, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    Microscopic photoluminescence was applied to investigate μm-order inhomogeneity of InGaN alloys. Samples had InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well structures grown on sapphire substrates at various temperatures, and luminescence was adjusted to be green. Luminescence morphologies of dendritic appearance were observed on as-grown samples. Bright spots luminescing at long wavelengths (green to amber) were formed at high growth temperatures. After annealing at 1000°C, the bright spots disappeared and the dendritic morphology turned into a granular morphology. Because of these μm-order inhomogeneities, it has been suggested that small-scale characterization (sub- μm or smaller) requires special attention in order not to miss effects of μm-order inhomogeneity in InGaN alloys.

  14. Effect of air annealing on the color center in Yb:Y3Al5O12 transparent ceramics with MgO as sintering additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhongwen; Lu, Tiecheng; Wei, Nian; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Benyuan; Qi, Jianqi; Guan, Yongbing; Chen, Xingtao; Wu, Huajun; Zhao, Yu

    2015-09-01

    High quality Yb:Y3Al5O12 (YAG) transparent ceramics were fabricated by vacuum sintering with MgO as sintering aids. The Yb:YAG samples were annealed at 1250-1450 °C for 20 h in air. The experimental results showed that the transparency of Yb:YAG samples declined markedly with the annealing temperatures of 1250-1450 °C. The samples became increasingly orange-yellow in color with the increase of annealing temperature. The potential reasons of discoloration were discussed for the first time. It was attributed to the complex color center [Mg2+F+] formed during the annealing, which was evidenced by optical absorption in the range of 300-500 nm wavelength and the presence of an electron spin resonance (ESR) line at g = 1.9806. The formation mechanism of the complex color center was explained in detail. The complex color center can be eliminated after post-HIP (hot isostatic pressing). And by air annealing and post-HIP, the transmittance of the samples increased from 80.3% to 83.4%.

  15. Effect of high temperature swaging and annealing on the mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of W-Y2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Z. M.; Liu, R.; Miao, S.; Zhang, T.; Wang, X. P.; Fang, Q. F.; Liu, C. S.; Luo, G. N.

    2015-09-01

    The mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of W-1.0 wt%Y2O3 (WY10) alloys prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) as well as ordinary sintering followed by swaging and annealing treatment, respectively, were investigated. The grains in the swaged WY10 are of round-bar shape with average diameter and length of 4.6 and 26.7 μm, respectively, which keep stable even after being annealed for 1 h at 1300 °C. The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of swaged and annealed WY10 is about 200 °C, much lower than that of WY10 prepared by SPS method (∼500 °C). Annealing significantly improves thermal conductivity from 146 to 198 W/m K at room temperature. In addition, the total elongation is raised by 5.7 times than that of the unannealed one. The results indicate that the strength, ductility and thermal conductivity can be greatly improved by swaging and subsequent annealing.

  16. Energy-transfer efficiency in Eu-doped ZnO thin films: the effects of oxidative annealing on the dynamics and the intermediate defect states.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Samah M; Szymanski, Paul; El-Nadi, Lotfia M; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

    2014-02-12

    We have studied ultrafast dynamics in thin films of Eu-doped zinc oxide (ZnO), prepared by radio-frequency sputtering onto sapphire substrates. Following UV excitation of ZnO, a red emission is observed. Postdeposition annealing in an oxygen atmosphere improves the crystallinity and emission intensity of the films, which are highly sensitive to the dopant concentration. Transient-absorption spectroscopy shows that the excited semiconductor host transfers energy to rare-earth ions on a time scale of only a few picoseconds. The dynamics as a function of the probe wavelength change dramatically after annealing, with annealed films showing the fastest dynamics at much lower wavelengths. Our results show that annealing greatly affects the defect energy levels of the films and the dynamics of the trapped carriers. Unannealed films show dynamics consistent with energy transfer from O vacancies to the dopant, while energy transfer in annealed samples involves acceptor-type defects such as Zn vacancies as intermediates. PMID:24397538

  17. Nanocrystalline Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} particles: Effects of N{sub 2} annealing on microstructure and near-infrared shielding characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jing-Xiao; Shi, Fei; Dong, Xiao-Li; Xu, Qiang; Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio

    2013-10-15

    In order to further improve the near-infrared shielding properties of cesium tungsten bronze (Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3}) for solar filter applications, Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} particles were prepared by solvothermal reaction method and the effects of nitrogen annealing on the microstructure and near-infrared shielding properties of Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} were investigated. The obtained Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectrophotometer. The results indicate that nanosheet-like Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} particles with hexagonal structure began to transform into nanorods after annealed at temperature higher than 600 °C. The near-infrared shielding properties of Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} particles could be further improved by N{sub 2} annealing at 500–700 °C. Particularly, the 500 °C-annealed Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} samples in the N{sub 2} atmosphere showed best near-infrared shielding properties. It was suggested that the excellent near-infrared shielding ability of the 500 °C-annealed Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} samples is correlated with its minimum O/W atomic ratio and most oxygen vacancies. Highlights: • N{sub 2} annealing could further improve the near-infrared (NIR) shielding of Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3}. • Effects of N{sub 2} annealing on microstructure and NIR shielding of Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} were studied. • The 500 °C-N{sub 2}-annealed Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} exhibited minimum O/W ratio and most oxygen vacancies. • The 500 °C-N{sub 2}-annealed Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} particles exhibited best NIR shielding properties.

  18. Effects of Phosphorous-doping and High Temperature Annealing on CVD grown 3C-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    I. J. van Rooyen; J. H. Neethling; A. Henry; E. Janzen; S. M. Mokoduwe; A. Janse van Vuuren; E. Olivier

    2012-10-01

    The integrity and property behavior of the SiC layer of the Tri-isotropic (TRISO) coated particle (CP) for high temperature reactors (HTR) are very important as the SiC layer is the main barrier for gaseous and metallic fission product release. This study describes the work done on un-irradiated SiC samples prepared with varying phosphorus levels to simulate the presence of phosphorus due to transmutation. 30Si transmutes to phosphorous (31P) and other transmutation products during irradiation, which may affect the integrity of the SiC layer. The P-doping levels of the SiC samples used in this study cover the range from 1.1x1015 to 1.2x1019 at/cm3 and are therefore relevant to the PBMR operating conditions. Annealing from 1000 C to 2100 C was performed to study the possible changes in nanostructures and various properties due to temperature. Characterization results by X-ray diffraction (XRD), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), are reported in this article. As grain boundary diffusion is identified as a possible mechanism by which 110mAg, one of the fission activation products, might be released through intact SiC layer, grain size measurements is also included in this study. Temperature is evidently one of the factors/parameters amongst others known to influence the grain size of SiC and therefore it is important to investigate the effect of high temperature annealing on the SiC grain size. The ASTM E112 method as well as electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to determine the grain size of various commercial SiC samples and the SiC layer in experimental PBMR Coated Particles (CPs) after annealing at temperatures ranging from 1600 C to 2100 C. The HRTEM micrograph of the decomposition of SiC at 2100 C are shown and discussed. Nanotubes were not identified during the TEM and HRTEM analysis although graphitic

  19. Molecular beam epitaxy and properties of GaAsBi/GaAs quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy: effect of thermal annealing.

    PubMed

    Makhloufi, Hajer; Boonpeng, Poonyasiri; Mazzucato, Simone; Nicolai, Julien; Arnoult, Alexandre; Hungria, Teresa; Lacoste, Guy; Gatel, Christophe; Ponchet, Anne; Carrère, Hélène; Marie, Xavier; Fontaine, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    We have grown GaAsBi quantum wells by molecular beam epitaxy. We have studied the properties of a 7% Bi GaAsBi quantum well and their variation with thermal annealing. High-resolution X-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy have been employed to get some insight into its structural properties. Stationary and time-resolved photoluminescence shows that the quantum well emission, peaking at 1.23 μm at room temperature, can be improved by a rapid annealing at 650°C, while the use of a higher annealing temperature leads to emission degradation and blue-shifting due to the activation of non-radiative centers and bismuth diffusion from the quantum well. PMID:24636335

  20. Molecular beam epitaxy and properties of GaAsBi/GaAs quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy: effect of thermal annealing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We have grown GaAsBi quantum wells by molecular beam epitaxy. We have studied the properties of a 7% Bi GaAsBi quantum well and their variation with thermal annealing. High-resolution X-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy have been employed to get some insight into its structural properties. Stationary and time-resolved photoluminescence shows that the quantum well emission, peaking at 1.23 μm at room temperature, can be improved by a rapid annealing at 650°C, while the use of a higher annealing temperature leads to emission degradation and blue-shifting due to the activation of non-radiative centers and bismuth diffusion from the quantum well. PMID:24636335

  1. Eu3+-doped β-Ga2O3 nanophosphors: annealing effect, electronic structure and optical spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haomiao; Li, Renfu; Luo, Wenqin; Chen, Xueyuan

    2011-03-14

    A comprehensive survey of electronic structure and optical properties of rare-earth ions-doped semiconductor is of vital importance for their potential applications. In this work, Eu(3+)-doped β-Ga(2)O(3) nanocrystals were synthesized via a combustion method. The evolution of the optical properties of nanophosphors with increasing the annealing temperature was investigated in detail by means of excitation and emission spectra at room temperature and 10 K. Eu(3+) ions were proved to be incorporated into the crystal lattice of the β-Ga(2)O(3) phase after annealing the as-prepared nanoparticles at 1100 °C. It was observed that the substitution of Eu(3+) for Ga(3+) occurred at merely single site, in spite of two crystallographically nonequivalent sites of Ga(3+) in β-Ga(2)O(3). Spectroscopic evidence corroborated and clarified the local symmetry of C(s) for Eu(3+) at this single site. From the high-resolution excitation and emission spectra, 71 crystal-field levels of Eu(3+) in β-Ga(2)O(3) were identified and analyzed in terms of 19 freely varied free-ions and crystal-field parameters based on C(s) symmetry. The standard deviation of the final fitting is as low as 12.9 cm(-1), indicating an excellent agreement between experimental and calculated energy levels. The temperature-dependent luminescence dynamics of the (5)D(0) multiplet for Eu(3+) in β-Ga(2)O(3) phosphors has also been revealed for the first time from 10 to 300 K. PMID:21246126

  2. Effect of annealing on the temperature dependence of inelastic tunneling contributions vis-à-vis tunneling magnetoresistance and barrier parameters in CoFe/MgO/NiFe magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Bhusan Singh, Braj; Chaudhary, Sujeet

    2014-02-28

    The effect of annealing on the changes in the inelastic tunneling contributions in tunneling conductance of ion beam sputtered CoFe/MgO/NiFe magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) is investigated. The inelastic contributions are evaluated using hopping conduction model of Glazman and Matveev in the temperature range of 25–300 K. The hopping through number of series of localized states present in the barrier due to structural defects increases from 9 (in as deposited MTJ) to 18 after annealing (at 200 °C/1 h); although no changes in the interface roughness of CoFe-MgO and MgO-NiFe interfaces are observed as revealed by the x-ray reflectance studies on planar MTJs. The bias dependence of tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) at 25 K is found to get improved after annealing as revealed by the value V{sub 1/2} (the bias value at which the TMR reaches to half of its value at nearly zero bias); which is 78 mV (in MTJ annealed at 200 °C/1 h) 2.5 times the value of 33 mV (in as deposited MTJ). At 25 K the inelastic tunneling spectra revealed the presence of zero bias anomaly and magnon excitations in the range of 10–15 mV. While the barrier height exhibited a strong temperature dependence with nearly 100% increase from the value at 300 K to 25 K, the temperature dependence of TMR becomes steep after annealing.

  3. Mathematical foundation of quantum annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Satoshi; Nishimori, Hidetoshi

    2008-12-15

    Quantum annealing is a generic name of quantum algorithms that use quantum-mechanical fluctuations to search for the solution of an optimization problem. It shares the basic idea with quantum adiabatic evolution studied actively in quantum computation. The present paper reviews the mathematical and theoretical foundations of quantum annealing. In particular, theorems are presented for convergence conditions of quantum annealing to the target optimal state after an infinite-time evolution following the Schroedinger or stochastic (Monte Carlo) dynamics. It is proved that the same asymptotic behavior of the control parameter guarantees convergence for both the Schroedinger dynamics and the stochastic dynamics in spite of the essential difference of these two types of dynamics. Also described are the prescriptions to reduce errors in the final approximate solution obtained after a long but finite dynamical evolution of quantum annealing. It is shown there that we can reduce errors significantly by an ingenious choice of annealing schedule (time dependence of the control parameter) without compromising computational complexity qualitatively. A review is given on the derivation of the convergence condition for classical simulated annealing from the view point of quantum adiabaticity using a classical-quantum mapping.

  4. The effects of substrate and annealing on structural and electrochemical properties in LiCoO2 thin films prepared by DC magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jung Pil; Jung, Ki Taek; Cho, Gyu Bong; Lee, Sang Hun; Kim, Ki Won; Nam, Tae Hyun

    2012-07-01

    LiCoO2 thin films were fabricated by direct current magnetron sputtering method on STS304 and Ti substrates. The effects of substrate and annealing on their structural and electrochemical properties of LiCoO2 thin film cathode were studied. Crystal structures and surface morphologies of the deposited films were investigated by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The as-deposited films on both substrates have amorphous structure. The (104) oriented perfect crystallization was obtained by annealing over 600 degrees C in STS304 substrate. The LiCoO2 thin film deposited on Ti substrate shows the (003) texture after annealing at 700 degrees C. The electrochemical properties were investigated by the cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge measurement. The 600 degrees C-annealed LiCoO2 film deposited on STS304 substrate exhibits the inithial discharge capacity of 22 uAh/cm2 and the 96% capacity retention rate at 50th cycles. The electrochemical measurement on annealed films over 600 degrees C was impossible due to the formed TiO2 insulator layer using Ti substrate. As a result, it was found that the STS304 substrate seems to be more suitable material than the Ti substrate in fabricating LiCoO2 thin film cathode. PMID:22966684

  5. Effect of annealing treatment on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films deposited by dc reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, L. M. Franco; Arias Duran, A.; Cardona, D.; Camps, E.; Gómez, M. E.; Zambrano, G.

    2015-07-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films have been deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering on silicon and quartz substrates with different Ar/O2 ratios in the gas mixture. Substrate temperature was kept constant at 400 °C during the deposition process, and the TiO2 thin films were later annealed at 700 °C for 3 h. The effect of the Ar/O2 ratio in the gas flow and the annealing treatment on the phase composition, deposition rate, crystallinity, surface morphology and the resulting photocatalytic properties were investigated. For photocatalytic measurements, the variation of the concentration of the methylene blue (MB) dye under UV irradiation was followed by a change in the intensity of the characteristic MB band in the UV- Vis transmittance spectra. We report here that the as-grown TiO2 films showed only the anatase phase, whereas after annealing, the samples exhibited both the anatase and rutile phases in proportions that varied with the Ar/O2 ratio in the mixture of gases used during growth. In particular, the annealed TiO2 thin film deposited at a 50/50 ratio of Ar/O2, composed of both anatase (80%) and rutile phases (20%), exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity (30% of MB degradation) compared with the samples without annealing and composed of only the anatase phase.

  6. The effect of annealing temperatures to prepare ZnO seeds layer on ZnO nanorods array/TiO2 nanoparticles photoanode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Hsueh-Tao; Hsu, Ho-Chun

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we have fabricated a ZnO nanorods array/TiO2 nanoparticles thin-film as a photoanode, and also investigated the annealing effect at various temperatures (as grown, 250 °C, 350 °C, 450 °C and 550 °C) on ZnO seeds layer. The material properties of ZnO nanorods array were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy. Besides, the performances of solar cells were evaluated using a source meter (Keithley 2400), which included open-circuit voltage (VOC), short-circuit current density (JSC), fill factor (F.F.) and power conversion efficiency (η%) at one sun (A.M. 1.5G, 100 mW/cm2). The electrochemical properties of the cells were analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From the EIS results, the cell performances were affected by annealing temperature, especially the fill-factor, at an annealing temperature of 550 °C due to the annealing treatment can enhance the connection between the interfaces of ZnO seeds/TCO, improving the electron lifetime, reducing the electron recombination loss. Finally, the sample annealing at 550 °C has the highest fill-factor of 44, power conversion efficiency of 0.19%, the highest Rct2 of 162.8 Ω and long electron lifetime of 7.25 ms.

  7. Thermal Conductivity Changes in Titanium-Graphene Composite upon Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagannadham, Kasichainula

    2016-02-01

    Ti-graphene composite films were prepared on polished Ti substrates by deposition of graphene platelets from suspension followed by deposition of Ti by magnetron sputtering. The films were annealed at different temperatures up to 1073 K (800 °C) and different time periods in argon atmosphere. The annealed films were characterized by X-ray diffraction for phase identification, scanning electron microscopy for microstructure, energy-dispersive spectrometry for chemical analysis, atomic force microscopy for surface roughness, and transient thermoreflectance for thermal conductivity and interface thermal conductance. The results showed that the interface between the composite film and Ti substrate remained continuous with the absence of voids. Oxygen concentration in the composite films has increased for higher temperature and time of annealing. TiO2 and TiC phases are formed only in the film annealed at 1073 K (800 °C). The thermal conductivity of the composite film decreased with increasing oxygen concentration. The effective thermal conductance of the film annealed at 1073 K (800 °C) was significantly lower. The interface thermal conductance between the composite film and the Ti substrate is also reduced for higher oxygen concentration. Formation of microscopic TiO2 phase bound by interface boundaries and oxygen incorporation is considered responsible for the lower thermal conductance of the Ti-graphene composite annealed at 1073 K (800 °C).

  8. Effect of ion beam parameters on engineering of nanoscale voids and their stability under post-growth annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooda, Sonu; Khan, S. A.; Satpati, B.; Stange, D.; Buca, D.; Bala, M.; Pannu, C.; Kanjilal, D.; Kabiraj, Debdulal

    2016-03-01

    Swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation of damaged germanium (d-Ge) layer results in porous structure with voids aligned along ion trajectory due to local melting and resolidification during high electronic energy deposition. The present study focuses on the irradiation temperature- and incident angle-dependent growth dynamics and shape evolution of these voids due to 100 MeV Ag ions irradiation. The d-Ge layers were prepared by multiple low-energy Ar ion implantations in single crystalline Ge with damage formation of ~7 displacements per atom. Further, these d-Ge layers were irradiated using 100 MeV Ag ions at two different temperatures (77 and 300 K) and three different angles (7°, 30° and 45°). After SHI irradiation, substantial volume expansion of d-Ge layer is detected which is due to formation of nanoscale voids. The volume expansion is observed to be more in the samples irradiated at 77 K as compared to 300 K at a given irradiation fluence. It is observed that the voids are of spherical shape at low ion irradiation fluence. The voids grow in size and change their shape from spherical to prolate spheroid with increasing ion fluence. The major axis of spheroid is observed to be aligned approximately along the ion beam direction which has been confirmed by irradiation at three different angles. The change in shape is a consequence of combination of compressive strain and plastic flow developed due to thermal spike generated along ion track. Post-SHI irradiation annealing shows increase in size of voids and reversal of shape from prolate spheroid towards spherical through strain relaxation. The stability of voids was studied with the effect of post-growth annealing.

  9. The effect of millisecond flash lamp annealing on electrical and structural properties of ZnO:Al/Si structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, P. F.; Lipp Bregolin, F.; Wiesenhütter, K.; Wiesenhütter, U.; Riise, H. N.; Vines, L.; Prucnal, S.; Skorupa, W.; Svensson, B. G.; Monakhov, E. V.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of millisecond flash lamp annealing (FLA) on aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) films and their interface with Si have been studied. The AZO films were deposited by magnetron sputtering on Si (100) substrates. The electrical and structural properties of the film and AZO/Si structures were characterized by current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, and deep level transient spectroscopy measurements, X-ray diffraction, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The resistivity of the AZO film is reduced to a close to state-of-the-art value of 2 × 10-4 Ω cm after FLA for 3 ms with an average energy density of 29 J/cm2. In addition, most of the interfacial defects energy levels are simultaneously annealed out, except for one persisting shallow level, tentatively assigned to the vacancy-oxygen complex in Si, which was not affected by FLA. Subsequent to the FLA, the samples were treated in N2 or forming gas (FG) (N2/H2, 90/10%mole) ambient at 200-500 °C. The latter samples maintained the low resistivity achieved after the FLA, but not the former ones. The interfacial defect level persisting after the FLA is removed by the FG treatment, concurrently as another level emerges at ˜0.18 eV below the conduction band. The electrical data of the AZO films are discussed in term of point defects controlling the resistivity, and it is argued that the FLA promotes formation of electrically neutral clusters of Zink vacancies (VZn's) rather than passivating/compensating complexes between the Al donors and VZn's.

  10. High-dose neutron irradiation of MgAl 2O 4 spinel: effects of post-irradiation thermal annealing on EPR and optical absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, A.; Bravo, D.; Lopez, F. J.; Garner, F. A.

    2005-02-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption spectra were measured during thermal annealing of stoichiometric MgAl 2O 4 spinel that was previously irradiated in the Materials Open Test Assembly in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF/MOTA) at ≈680 K to ≈50 dpa. Both F and F + centres are to persist up to very high temperatures (over 1000 K) suggesting the operation of an annealing mechanism controlled by the thermal stability of extended defects. Using X-ray irradiation following the different annealing steps it was shown that an optical absorption band at 37 000 cm -1 is related to a sharp EPR band at g = 2.0005 and that the defect causing these effects is the F + centre.

  11. Study on the effect of heat-annealing and irradiation on spectroscopic properties of Bi:alpha-BaB2O4 single crystal.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Zhao, Hengyu; Su, Liangbi; Yu, Jun; Zhou, Peng; Tang, Huili; Zheng, Lihe; Li, Hongjun

    2010-02-15

    The absorption, excitation, and ultrabroadband near-infrared luminescence spectra of Bismuth were investigated in H(2)-annealed and gamma-irradiated Bi:alpha-BaB(2)O(4)(alpha-BBO) single crystals, respectively. Energy-level diagrams of the near-infrared luminescent centers were fixed. The electronic transition energies of near-infrared active centers are basically consistent with the multiplets of free Bi(+) ions. The minor difference of the energy-level diagrams of Bi(+) ions in H(2)-annealed and gamma-irradiated Bi:alpha-BaB(2)O(4) crystals can be ascribed to the difference of the local lattice environments. The involved physical and chemical processes were discussed. The effect of Ar-, air-annealing and electron-irradiation on Bi:alpha-BaB(2)O(4) crystal were also investigated. PMID:20389348

  12. Metal nano-particles sizing by thermal annealing for the enhancement of surface plasmon effects in thin-film solar cells application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Li-Zen; Chau, Yuan-Fong Chou; Lim, Chee Ming; Lin, Mo-Hua; Huang, Hung Ji; Lin, Chun-Ting; Muhammad Nur Syafi'ie, Md Idris

    2016-07-01

    The optical properties and surface plasmon effects of different thickness of silver film grown on a silicon substrate were experimentally and numerically investigated. By modifying the film thickness and the annealing temperature, the size of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) can be manipulated. The reflectance of silver film deposited onto silicon wafers were adjusted by controlling the film thickness and annealing temperature. The experimental results show the MNPs grew larger with thinner deposition of silver film, and this has a correlation to the reflectance. We found that the thermal annealing temperature affects the optical properties of the MNPs, and this enhances the E-field intensity on the MNPs, and contributes to the improvement in the conversion efficiency of solar cells. This paper describes our attempts to develop a simple method that can replace the previously reported processes of lithography and thermal vacuum evaporation of the silver film and MNPs preparation.

  13. EFFECT OF PRE-ANNEALING TEMPERATURE ON THE GROWTH OF ALIGNED α-Fe2O3 NANOWIRES VIA A TWO-STEP THERMAL OXIDATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Norhana Mohamed; Kishi, Naoki; Soga, Tetsuo

    2016-03-01

    Pre-annealing as part of a two-step thermal oxidation process has a significant effect on the growth of hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanowires on Fe foil. High-density aligned nanowires were obtained on iron foils pre-annealed at 300∘C under a dry air flow for 30min. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that the nanowires are transformed from the small α-Fe2O3 grains and uniquely grow in the (110) direction. The formation of a high-density of small grains by pre-annealing improved the alignment and density of the α-Fe2O3 nanowires.

  14. Effect of post-growth rapid thermal annealing on bilayer InAs/GaAs quantum dot heterostructure grown with very thin spacer thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, S.; Halder, N.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2010-11-15

    We have investigated the effect of post-growth rapid thermal annealing on self-assembled InAs/GaAs bilayer quantum dot samples having very thin barrier thickness (7.5-8.5 nm). In/Ga interdiffusion in the samples due to annealing is presumed to be controlled by the vertical strain coupling from the seed dots in bilayer heterostructure. Strain coupling from embedded seed QD layer maintains a strain relaxed state in active top islands of the bilayer quantum dot sample grown with comparatively thick spacer layer (8.5 nm). This results in minimum In/Ga interdiffusion. However controlled interdiffusion across the interface between dots and GaAs barrier, noticeably enhances the emission efficiency in such bilayer quantum dot heterostructure on annealing up to 700 {sup o}C.

  15. Evaluation of a gate-first process for AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors with low ohmic annealing temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liuan, Li; Jiaqi, Zhang; Yang, Liu; Jin-Ping, Ao

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, TiN/AlOx gated AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors (MOS-HFETs) were fabricated for gate-first process evaluation. By employing a low temperature ohmic process, ohmic contact can be obtained by annealing at 600 °C with the contact resistance approximately 1.6 Ω·mm. The ohmic annealing process also acts as a post-deposition annealing on the oxide film, resulting in good device performance. Those results demonstrated that the TiN/AlOx gated MOS-HFETs with low temperature ohmic process can be applied for self-aligned gate AlGaN/GaN MOS-HFETs. Project supported by the International Science and Technology Collaboration Program of China (Grant No. 2012DFG52260).

  16. Effects of postdeposition annealing on the dielectric properties of antiferroelectric lanthanum-doped lead zirconate stannate titanate thin films derived from pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yingbang; Lu, S. G.; Chen, Haydn; Wong, K. H.

    2004-11-01

    Lanthanum-doped lead zirconate stannate titanate antiferroelectric thin films were deposited onto Pt-buffered silicon substrates using the pulsed laser deposition method. The deposition temperature was 570°C. The postdeposition annealing process was carried out in an oxygen-flow tube furnace at temperatures ranging from 650 to 800°C for a duration of 30min; its effects were studied through the variations of the microstructure as well as the electrical and dielectric properties. It was found that an appropriate annealing process at temperatures above 700°Ccould substantially improve the dielectric properties. However, annealing beyond 800°C caused the film properties to deteriorate severely. Explanations were given with regard to the microstructure-property relationship.

  17. Effects of post thermal annealing on the electrical properties of vertical type organic thin film transistors using poly(3-hexylthiophene) and its application in organic light emitting transistor.

    PubMed

    Oh, Se Young; Hwang, Sun Kak; Kim, Young Do; Park, Jong Wook; Kang, In Nam

    2008-09-01

    We have fabricated the vertical type organic thin film transistor (OTFT) using electrically conductive poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as a p-type organic material. Effects of post thermal annealing and thickness of active layer on the performance of vertical type transistors were investigated. Especially, the correlation between carrier mobility of P3HT after post thermal annealing and static characteristics of the transistor was studied. Carrier mobility was calculated by space charge limited current (SCLC) model from the I-V curves of the prepared device. The vertical type OTFT after post thermal annealing at 120 degrees C (Tg) showed high current of 0.383 mA and on-off ratio of 22.5 at a low gate voltage of +2.0 V. Additionally, we report on emission characteristics from the vertical type transistor using P3HT. PMID:19049130

  18. The effects of incomplete annealing on the temperature dependence of sheet resistance and gage factor in aluminum and phosphorus implanted silicon on sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisciotta, B. P.; Gross, C.

    1976-01-01

    Partial annealing of damage to the crystal lattice during ion implantation reduces the temperature coefficient of resistivity of ion-implanted silicon, while facilitating controlled doping. Reliance on this method for temperature compensation of the resistivity and strain-gage factor is discussed. Implantation conditions and annealing conditions are detailed. The gage factor and its temperature variation are not drastically affected by crystal damage for some crystal orientations. A model is proposed to account for the effects of electron damage on the temperature dependence of resistivity and on silicon piezoresistance. The results are applicable to the design of silicon-on-sapphire strain gages with high gage factors.

  19. Rapid thermal annealing and modulation-doping effects on InAs/GaAs quantum dots photoluminescence dependence on excitation power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaâbani, W.; Melliti, A.; Maaref, M. A.; Testelin, C.; Lemaître, A.

    2016-07-01

    The optical properties of p-doped and annealed InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) was investigated by photoluminescence (PL) as a function of temperature and excitation power density (Pexc). At low-T, PL spectra of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and p-modulation doped QDs show an energy blueshift and redshift, respectively. A superlinear dependence of integrated PL intensity on Pexc at high-T was found only for undoped QD. The superlinearity was suppressed by modulation-doping and RTA effects. A linear dependence of IPL at all temperatures and a decrease of the carrier-carrier Coulomb interaction at high-T was found after RTA.

  20. GenAnneal: Genetically modified Simulated Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoulos, Ioannis G.; Lagaris, Isaac E.

    2006-05-01

    A modification of the standard Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm is presented for finding the global minimum of a continuous multidimensional, multimodal function. We report results of computational experiments with a set of test functions and we compare to methods of similar structure. The accompanying software accepts objective functions coded both in Fortran 77 and C++. Program summaryTitle of program:GenAnneal Catalogue identifier:ADXI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXI_v1_0 Program available from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: The tool is designed to be portable in all systems running the GNU C++ compiler Installation: University of Ioannina, Greece on Linux based machines Programming language used:GNU-C++, GNU-C, GNU Fortran 77 Memory required to execute with typical data: 200 KB No. of bits in a word: 32 No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:84 885 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:14 896 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: A multitude of problems in science and engineering are often reduced to minimizing a function of many variables. There are instances that a local optimum does not correspond to the desired physical solution and hence the search for a better solution is required. Local optimization techniques are frequently trapped in local minima. Global optimization is hence the appropriate tool. For example, solving a non-linear system of equations via optimization, employing a "least squares" type of objective, one may encounter many local minima that do not correspond to solutions (i.e. they are far from zero). Typical running time: Depending on the objective function. Method of solution: We modified the process of step selection that the traditional Simulated

  1. Effect of annealing treatment on structure and electrochemical properties of La 0.67Mg 0.33Ni 2.5Co 0.5 alloy electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Faliang; Luo, Yongchun; Chen, Jiangping; Yan, Ruxu; Kang, Long; Chen, Jianhong

    La 0.67Mg 0.33Ni 2.5Co 0.5 alloys were prepared by induction melting followed by different annealing treatments (1023, 1073, 1123 and 1173 K) for 24 h. Alloy structure and electrochemical properties of different annealed alloys have been studied systematically by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electrochemical experiments. Alloy structure analyses show that all of the alloys consisted of complex phases such as (La, Mg)(Ni, Co) 3 phase (PuNi 3-type, SG: R-3 m), (La, Mg) 2(Ni, Co) 7 phase (Ce 2Ni 7-type, SG: P6 3/mmc), LaMg(Ni, Co) 4 phase (MgCu 4Sn-type, SG: F-4 3 m) and La(Ni, Co) 5 phase (CaCu 5-type, SG:P6/mmm). One thousand one hundred and twenty-three kelvin benefited formation of (La, Mg)(Ni, Co) 3 phase best. Main phase in alloy became (La, Mg) 2(Ni, Co) 7 phase at 1173 K annealing treatment. Electrochemical experiments show that absorption/desorption plateau became flatter and wider after annealing treatment, that all of the alloy electrodes exhibited good activation characteristics, that annealing treatment improved discharge capacities of alloy electrodes from 315 mAh g -1 (as-cast) to 402.5 mAh g -1 (1173 K). At the same time, cyclic stability of alloy electrodes was also improved with rise of annealing temperature, especially for alloy electrode (S 70 = 92.9%) with main phase (La, Mg) 2(Ni, Co) 7 at 1173 K. As (La, Mg)(Ni, Co) 3 phase in alloys increased, high rate dischargeability characteristics were deteriorated. However, alloy electrode with main phase (La, Mg) 2(Ni, Co) 7 exhibited the best kinetic characteristics. All experiments imply that alloy electrode with main phase (La, Mg) 2(Ni, Co) 7 possessed excellent overall electrochemical properties.

  2. Effect of annealing temperature on the optical property of high Cd content CdZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Teren; Wang, Dongbo; Guo, Fengyun; Jiao, Shujie; Wang, Jinzhong; Liu, Yuhang; Luan, Chunyang; Cao, Wenwu; Zhao, Liancheng

    2016-09-01

    CdZnO films with high Cd contents (59%) have been deposited on quartz substrate by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The as-deposited CdZnO films can hardly show detectable photoluminescence (PL). However, once subjected to suitable annealing temperature, the CdZnO films exhibit pronounced PL. Furthermore, when the annealing temperature at 300 °C and above, that the CdZnO are changed from the single phase of the rs structure to involving w, zb, and rs phases. Consequently, reliable formation and optical property improvement of the CdZnO layers are achieved through annealing temperature at 300 °C.

  3. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Structural and Optical Properties of Zn1-xMnxO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, A. R. Abd; Menon, P. S.; Shaari, S.

    2010-10-01

    Mn doped ZnO films with different annealing temperatures were synthesized by sol gel method using a spin coating technique. The annealing temperature was varied from 500° C, 550° C, and 700° C. The atomic force microscopy images show the surface morphologies change greatly with an increase in annealing temperature and it also depends on the type of substrate used. The XRD analysis show the films exhibiting hexagonal wurtzite structure with increasing crystalline size at higher temperatures. The optical properties were characterized using UV-Vis where the transmittance decreases due to ionization at higher temperatures which affect the material band gap.

  4. Effect of air annealing on structure and magnetic properties of Sn1-xFexO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuppan, M.; Begam, M. Regana; Babu, S. Harinath; Kaleemulla, S.; Rao, N. Madhusudhana; Krishnamoorthi, C.

    2016-05-01

    Sn1-xFexO2 (x = 0.07) thin films were prepared on to glass substrates using flash evaporation technique and annealed in air at different temperatures. The X-ray diffraction study showsed that all the thin films annealed at different temperatures were in tetragonal rutile structure of SnO2. The Elemental analysis confirms the presence of Fe and Sn and O in the films. The magnetic measurements were carried out using vibrating sample magnetometer and found that the strength of magnetization decreased with increase of annealing temperature.

  5. Effect of oxygen annealing on the multiferroic properties of Ca{sup 2+} doped BiFeO{sub 3} nanoceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Tirupathi, Patri; Mandal, Satish Kumar; Chandra, Amreesh

    2014-12-28

    The high leakage current in divalent ion doped BiFeO{sub 3} systems is limiting their large scale application. It is clearly shown that the methodology of oxygen annealing will prove to be an effective procedure for suppressing the detrimental consequences that originate from the oxygen vacancies. The samples annealed under oxygen also show different particle morphologies and packing density that can help in tuning the relevant physical properties, viz., magnetic, ferroelectric, and magnetoelectric. The difference in magnetic behaviour in samples annealed in air and oxygen can be explained in terms of the modification in the Fe-O-Fe bonds, domain wall pinning centres, and crystal anisotropy. Another important observation is the stabilization of a dielectric anomaly near the magnetic transition temperature. This observation can make this multiferroic system very interesting for application in sensors where the change in the magnetic parameters can be observed by monitoring the electrical parameters. Detailed analysis of the dielectric and impedance curves indicate towards the presence of non-Debye type processes in samples obtained by annealing in air or oxygen. From the calculated activation energy values, the vacancy related relaxation mechanism is predominant in air annealed samples, while the oxygen annealed samples show the presence of two type of relaxation processes, viz., electron hopping mechanism stabilizes at low temperature while, at higher temperatures, the process associated with the diffusion of doubly ionized oxygen ions predominates. The ac-conductivity data suggests that the correlated barrier tunnelling mechanism, where single electron or two electrons hopping through neighbouring lattice sites leads to ac-conduction.

  6. Quantum annealing speedup over simulated annealing on random Ising chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanca, Tommaso; Santoro, Giuseppe E.

    2016-06-01

    We show clear evidence of a quadratic speedup of a quantum annealing (QA) Schrödinger dynamics over a Glauber master equation simulated annealing (SA) for a random Ising model in one dimension, via an equal-footing exact deterministic dynamics of the Jordan-Wigner fermionized problems. This is remarkable, in view of the arguments of H. G. Katzgraber et al. [Phys. Rev. X 4, 021008 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevX.4.021008], since SA does not encounter any phase transition, while QA does. We also find a second remarkable result: that a "quantum-inspired" imaginary-time Schrödinger QA provides a further exponential speedup, i.e., an asymptotic residual error decreasing as a power law τ-μ of the annealing time τ .

  7. Effect of Annealing Temperature on Structural and Optical Parameters of Sol-Gel Routed Molybdenum Oxide Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arasu, P. Adal; Williams, R. Victor

    2015-05-01

    The influence of annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of sol-gel routed spin-coated molybdenum tri oxide (MoO3) thin films are studied. The higher annealing temperatures improve the crystalline nature of the film. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) study reveals the formation of α-orthorhombic phase at higher annealing temperature and amorphous nature at lower annealing temperature. The optical bandgap of molybdenum tri oxide (MoO3) film is found to be 3.3-3.8 eV, and the refractive index of the film is found to be 2.2-2.9. The dispersion curve of the refractive index shows that an abnormal dispersion in the absorption region and normal dispersion in the transparent region are observed. The optical polarizability, optical conductivity, dielectric constant, volume and surface energy loss parameters are evaluated.

  8. Effect of annealing temperature on the contact properties of Ni/V/4H-SiC structure

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Chong-Chong; Zhou, Tian-Yu; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 ; Liu, Xue-Chao Zhuo, Shi-Yi; Kong, Hai-Kuan; Yang, Jian-Hua; Shi, Er-Wei

    2014-04-15

    A sandwich structure of Ni/V/4H-SiC was prepared and annealed at different temperatures from 650 °C to 1050 °C. The electrical properties and microstructures were characterized by transmission line method, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A low specific contact resistance of 3.3 × 10{sup -5} Ω·cm{sup 2} was obtained when the Ni/V contact was annealed at 1050 °C for 2 min. It was found that the silicide changed from Ni{sub 3}Si to Ni{sub 2}Si with increasing annealing temperature, while the vanadium compounds appeared at 950 °C and their concentration increased at higher annealing temperature. A schematic diagram was proposed to explain the ohmic contact mechanism of Ni/V/4H-SiC structure.

  9. Rapid thermal annealing effects on the electrical and structural properties of Ru/V/n-InP Schottky barrier diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padma, R.; Shanthi Latha, K.; Rajagopal Reddy, V.; Choi, Chel-Jong

    2015-07-01

    A Ru/V/n-InP Schottky barrier diode (SBD) is fabricated and investigated its electrical and structural properties as a function of annealing temperature. Measurements showed that the barrier height (BH) of the as-deposited Ru/V/n-InP SBD is found to be 0.83 eV (I-V) and 1.03 eV (C-V). Experimental results indicate that the SBD with high BH and low ideality factors (0.87 eV (I-V), 1.20 eV (C-V), and 1.12) can be achieved after annealing at 400 °C for 1 min in N2 atmosphere. Further, it is observed that the BH slightly decreases to 0.85 eV (I-V) and 1.09 eV (C-V) upon annealing at 500 °C. The BH, ideality factor and series resistance are also determined by Cheung's functions and Norde method. Further, the energy distribution of interface state density of Ru/V/n-InP SBD is calculated from the forward bias I-V characteristics as a function of annealing temperature. It is found that the interface state density decreases upon annealing at 400 °C and then slightly increases after annealing at 500 °C. The AES and XRD results revealed that the formation of indium phases at the Ru/V/n-InP interface could be the reason for the increase of BH upon annealing at 400 °C. The formation of phosphide phases at the interface may be the cause for the decrease of BH after annealing at 500 °C. The overall surface morphology of Ru/V Schottky contacts is considerably smooth at elevated temperatures.

  10. A comparison of the effect of joule heating vs thermal annealing on the morphology of typical hole transport layers in organic light emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson-Hall, Tyler; Aziz, Hany

    2015-09-01

    It is well-known that hole transport layers (HTLs) in organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are more sensitive to morphological changes than other organic layers due to the lower glass transition temperatures. A high operational temperature can alter the HTL morphology, severely impacting OLED performance and stability. Although joule heating is a known factor affecting OLED stability during operation, its effect in experimental studies is typically simulated through thermal annealing of the devices rather than applying current. In this work, a comparison of the effects of joule heating vs thermal annealing on the morphological stability of N,N'-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine (NPB) and N,N'-Dicarbazolyl-4,4'-biphenyl (CBP) HTLs and the impact this has on OLED performance is investigated. While thermal annealing of an OLED can be used as an approximation of joule heating, the temperature distribution profile of the OLED is different under the two stress conditions and thus can impact the morphology of the HTL differently. However, joule heating introduces a confounding factor whereby the OLEDs experience intrinsic degradation by the flow of current, aside from thermal stress. Therefore, in this work, joule heating is studied in unipolar devices that comprise solely of the HTL. Device JVL and morphology as a function of temperature for both joule heating and thermal annealing are presented as a means to evaluate stability and performance.

  11. Effect of Channel Thickness, Annealing Temperature and Channel Length on Nanoscale Ga2O3-In2O3-ZnO Thin Film Transistor Performance.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, Yogeenth; Pak, Yusin; Lim, Namsoo; Lee, Ryeri; Song, Hui; Kim, Tae Heon; Choi, Boran; Jung, Gun Young

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrated the effect of active layer (channel) thickness and annealing temperature on the electrical performances of Ga2O3-In2O3-ZnO (GIZO) thin film transistor (TFT) having nanoscale channel width (W/L: 500 nm/100 μm). We found that the electron carrier concentration of the channel was decreased significantly with increasing the annealing temperature (100 degrees C to 300 degrees C). Accordingly, the threshold voltage (V(T)) was shifted towards positive voltage (-12.2 V to 10.8 V). In case of channel thickness, the V(T) was shifted towards negative voltage with increasing the channel thickness. The device with channel thickness of 90 nm annealed at 200 degrees C revealed the best device performances in terms of mobility (10.86 cm2/Vs) and V(T) (0.8 V). The effect of channel length was also studied, in which the channel width, thickness and annealing temperature were kept constant such as 500 nm, 90 nm and 200 degrees C, respectively. The channel length influenced the on-current level significantly with small variation of V(T), resulting in lower value of on/off current ratio with increasing the channel length. The device with channel length of 0.5 μm showed enhanced on/off current ratio of 10(6) with minimum V(T) of 0.26 V. PMID:27427719

  12. Annealing effect on structural, morphological, and optical properties of reactive sputtered WO{sub 3} films for mediated heterogeneous photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Prabakar, K.; Takahashi, T.; Takahashi, K.; Nezuka, T.; Nakashima, T.; Kubota, Y.; Fujishima, A.

    2007-07-15

    The reactive facing-target sputtering method was used to deposit WO{sub 3} thin films from a metal tungsten disk in an Ar+O{sub 2} mixture gas atmosphere at different sputtering pressures. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible spectrophotometer, and Raman studies were performed to study structural, surface morphology, and optical properties of the as-deposited and annealed samples. Annealing treatments were done in oxygen atmospheres. All the as-deposited films were amorphous in structure. The films annealed at 400 deg. C and deposited at 200 W show preferential orientation. SEM images show nanorodlike growth for the films deposited at a sputtering pressure of 0.15 Pa and annealed at 400 deg. C. The optical absorption edge of the as-deposited films prepared at the sputtering pressures of 0.8-0.15 Pa varied between 340 and 380 nm and shifted up to 480 nm when the samples were annealed at 400 deg. C. From Raman spectra, we observed the O-W{sup 6+}-O bonds, and the W{sup 6+}=O stretching mode of terminal atoms on the surface of WO{sub 3} microcrystalline grains. The crystal structures of the annealed films were of monoclinic phase. The suitability of the films for the WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} heterogeneous photocatalyst are analyzed and discussed.

  13. The effects of annealing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe28Ni18Mn33Al21

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Meng, Fanling; Qiu, Jingwen; Baker, Ian; Bei, Hongbin

    2015-08-20

    In this paper, As-cast Fe28Ni18Mn33Al21, which consists of aligned, 50 nm, (Ni, Al)-rich B2, and (Fe, Mn)-rich f.c.c. phases, was annealed at a variety of temperatures up to 1423 K and the microstructure and mechanical properties were examined. It was shown that the as-cast microstructure arises from a eutectoid transformation at ~1300 K. Annealing at temperatures ≤1073 K produces β-Mn-structured precipitates and hardness values up to 816 HV, while annealing at temperatures >1073 K leads to dramatic coarsening of the two-phase B2/f.c.c. microstructure (up to 5.5 µm after 50 h at 1273 K), but does not lead to β-Mn precipitation.more » Interestingly, annealing at temperatures >1073 K delays the onset of β-Mn precipitation during subsequent anneals at lower temperatures. Coarsening the B2/f.c.c. lamellar structure by annealing at higher temperatures softens it and leads to increases in ductility from fracture before yield to ~8 % elongation. Finally, the presence of β-Mn precipitates makes the very fine, brittle B2/f.c.c. microstructures even more brittle, but significant ductility (8.4 % elongation) is possible even with β-Mn precipitates present if the B2/f.c.c. matrix is coarse and, hence, more ductile.« less

  14. The combined effect of thermal annealing of MgO substrate and Ca substitution on the surface resistance of YBa2Cu3Oz thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugesan, M.; Obara, H.; Yamasaki, H.

    2005-07-01

    Single-layer Y1-xCaxBa2Cu3Oz (YCBCO) thin films (x =0.00, 0.02, 0.05, and 0.10) grown on annealed as well as unannealed MgO substrates have been systematically investigated for their carrier concentration, critical current density Jc, and microwave surface resistance Rs. For x ⩽0.05, the grain growth follows a three-dimensional-spiral growth mechanism, while for x =0.10 we observed a mainly two-dimensional-like growth of grains. The results of Hall data reveal that the x =0.05 film is overdoped while films with x =0.02 and 0.10 are underdoped with respect to the x =0.00 film. However, the Hall mobility μH is highly enhanced for the x =0.02 film. Thermal annealing of MgO substrates prior to film deposition results to an improvement in the overall superconducting properties of the film such as suppression of normal-state resistivity, enhancement of Jc, and minimization of Rs both for pure as well as Ca-substituted films. Annealing of MgO substrates enhances the Jc value to a magnitude (i) nearly doubled for x =0.00 films and (ii) more than an order for x =0.02 films. Also it leads to a minimization of the Rs value to (i) more than half and (ii) nearly an order of magnitude higher, respectively, for x =0.00 and x =0.02 films. Furthermore, for the x =0.02 film, below 60K, we realized an enhanced Jc value in self- as well as in large-applied fields. For other than the Ca-2% substituted films, a suppression of Jc with a strong field dependency has been noticed. Furthermore, the Rs value of the x =0.02 film (0.1mΩ at 20K, 21.9GHz) was three times lower compared to that of the x =0.00 film (0.35mΩ at 20K, 21.9GHz). At 20K and 21.9GHz, the Rs value for the x =0.05 film is comparable to that of the x =0.00 film, whereas for the x =0.10 film it is twice that of x =0.00. The low normal-state resistivity, enhanced mobility, high Jc, and the minimized Rs observed for x =0.02 films firmly support the possible improvement of superconducting order parameters near the grain

  15. Comparing codes for error corrected quantum annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Anurag; Albash, Tameem; Paz, Gerardo; Lidar, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Previous work on the D-Wave Two (DW2) device has demonstrated the effectiveness of using error correction and suppression for quantum annealers. As the size of a quantum annealer increases, error correction becomes crucial for improved performance. We introduce a new type of code for error correction tailored to the hardware graph of the DW2, discuss the result of benchmarking this code on qubit chains, discuss various new decoding methods, and compare the performance to previous quantum annealing correction schemes.

  16. Classical Simulated Annealing Using Quantum Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Cour, Brian R.; Troupe, James E.; Mark, Hans M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we consider the use of certain classical analogues to quantum tunneling behavior to improve the performance of simulated annealing on a discrete spin system of the general Ising form. Specifically, we consider the use of multiple simultaneous spin flips at each annealing step as an analogue to quantum spin coherence as well as modifications of the Boltzmann acceptance probability to mimic quantum tunneling. We find that the use of multiple spin flips can indeed be advantageous under certain annealing schedules, but only for long anneal times.

  17. Classical Simulated Annealing Using Quantum Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Cour, Brian R.; Troupe, James E.; Mark, Hans M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we consider the use of certain classical analogues to quantum tunneling behavior to improve the performance of simulated annealing on a discrete spin system of the general Ising form. Specifically, we consider the use of multiple simultaneous spin flips at each annealing step as an analogue to quantum spin coherence as well as modifications of the Boltzmann acceptance probability to mimic quantum tunneling. We find that the use of multiple spin flips can indeed be advantageous under certain annealing schedules, but only for long anneal times.

  18. Optical exchange spring effect in RF-annealed Fe-based amorphous ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setoodeh, V.; Hosseini, S. I.; Ghanaatshoar, M.; Shokri, B.

    2013-01-01

    We report the surface exchange spring behavior in Fe-based amorphous ribbons which is detected by the magneto-optical Kerr effect. To realize this effect at the surface of FeSiB, the radio frequency (RF) radiation is used to change the magnetic phase of its outermost atomic surface layers. The RF radiation produced by a capacitively coupled parallel plate plasma reactor creates a nanometric hard magnetic layer on the surface of Fe-based ribbons and leaves the magnetically soft volume without any substantial modification.

  19. Annealing effect on the photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanorod array prepared by a PLD-assistant wet chemical method

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Sufeng; Lian Jianshe; Wu Hua

    2010-11-15

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized by a wet chemical method on the glass substrate with ZnO thin film as seed layer prepared by pulsed laser deposition. The effect of annealing temperature on the luminescence characteristics was investigated. As the annealing temperature increased, the photoluminescence properties show a general enhancing tendency. The nanorod array with high ultraviolet emission and negligible visible light emission (designated by the photoluminescence intensity ratio of ultraviolet to visible emission of 66.4) is obtained by annealing the sample at 700 deg. C for 1 h. Based on the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectra, the mechanisms of visible emission were discussed. - Research Highlights: {yields} ZnO nanorod array with good crystallography, low defects concentration and good optical property was obtained after annealed at 700 deg. C for 1 h. {yields} The transition from the conduction band to the O{sub i} level may be responsible for the yellow-green emission. {yields} The yellow emission may originate from the presence of Zn(OH){sub 2} on the surface or the band transition from conduction band to V{sub o}Zn{sub i} level. {yields} The transition from the Zn{sub i} level to the level should produce an orange emission or an orange-red emission.

  20. Effect of annealing in a various oxygen atmosphere on structural, optical, electrical and gas sensing properties of MoxOy thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arfaoui, A.; Ouni, B.; Touihri, S.; Mhamdi, A.; Labidi, A.; Manoubi, T.

    2015-07-01

    Molybdenum oxide thin films were thermally evaporated on a glass substrate and monitored by an annealing process in a variable oxygen atmosphere. The effects of post annealing condition on the microstructural, morphological, optical and electrical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscope, spectroscopic ellipsometry and impedance spectroscopy. As-deposited amorphous films crystallized into tetragonal metastable phase of Mo5O14 on annealing at 500 °C in vacuum and air. This structure transformed to stable orthorhombic of MoO3 with annealing in oxygen environment. The optical parameters such as the refractive index, extinction coefficient, optical band gap energy and the Urbach energy were calculated from Cauchy formalism. Ellipsometric measurements reveal that the samples present optical gap located between 3.24 and 3.90 eV when the atmosphere becomes rich on oxygen. The variation of the conductivity in terms of the temperature shows an electrical behavior with oxygen environment. Finally, it has been found that MoO3 thin films had high sensitivity to ethanol, which made them as a good candidate for the ethanol sensor.

  1. Effects of thermal annealing on deep-level defects and minority-carrier electron diffusion length in Be-doped InGaAsN

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, S.Y.; Yoon, S.F.; Wang, S.Z.

    2005-04-01

    We report the effects of ex situ thermal annealing on the deep-level defects and the minority-carrier electron diffusion length in Be-doped, p-type In{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.97}As{sub 0.99}N{sub 0.01} grown by solid source molecular-beam epitaxy. Deep-level transient spectroscopy measurements reveal two majority-carrier hole traps, HT1 (0.18 eV) and HT4 (0.59 eV), and two minority-carrier electron traps, ET1 (0.09 eV) and ET3 (0.41 eV), in the as-grown sample. For the sample with postgrowth thermal annealing, the overall deep-level defect-concentration is decreased. Two hole traps, HT2 (0.39 eV) and HT3 (0.41 eV), and one electron trap, ET2 (0.19 eV), are observed. We found that the minority-carrier electron diffusion length increases by {approx}30% and the leakage current of the InGaAsN/GaAs p-n junction decreases by 2-3 orders after thermal annealing. An increase of the net acceptor concentration after annealing is also observed and can be explained by a recently proposed three-center-complex model.

  2. Thermal annealing effect on material characterizations of β-Ga2O3 epilayer grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chiung-Yi; Horng, Ray-Hua; Wuu, Dong-Sing; Tu, Li-Wei; Kao, Hsiang-Shun

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a single-crystalline β-Ga2O3 epilayer was grown on (0001) sapphire at low temperature by low-pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The optimized parameters for the chamber pressure, oxygen flow, and growth temperature were 15 Torr, 200 sccm, and 500 °C, respectively. The β-Ga2O3 epilayer was fabricated as a metal-semiconductor-metal solar-blind deep ultraviolet photodetector. Due to the gallium oxide grown at low temperature, the as-grown β-Ga2O3 epilayer was annealed at 800 °C in atmosphere or in a nitrogen environment. The effects of defects of the β-Ga2O3 epilayer before and after N2 annealing were studied using x-ray diffraction system, cathodoluminescence at differential temperature, and Hall measurement. The β-Ga2O3 epilayer that was N2 annealed for 15 min presented better photodetector performance than the as-grown β-Ga2O3 epilayer. The annealed epilayer exhibited a dark current of 1.6 × 10-13 A under 5 V bias.

  3. Effect of Mg diffusion on photoluminescence spectra of MgZnO/ZnO bi-layers annealed at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Amit K.; Misra, P.; Ajimsha, R. S.; Bose, A.; Joshi, S. C.; Porwal, S.; Sharma, T. K.; Oak, S. M.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2013-11-01

    MgZnO/ZnO bilayers (Mg concentration of ˜30%) have been grown and subsequently annealed at different temperatures in the range of 600-900 °C with the specific interest of studying the effect of inter-diffusion of Mg on the photoluminescence (PL) properties of the bilayers. The influence of Mg diffusion and material homogenization is evaluated through absorption, PL, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements. No appreciable change in the spectral positions is seen either in PL or absorption up to an annealing temperature of 700 °C, which is also supported by SIMS. However at higher annealing temperatures, diffusion of Mg into the ZnO layer is clearly evident in SIMS profile, which results in the red-shift (blue-shift) of spectral positions of MgZnO (ZnO) layer, respectively. Finally, for the sample annealed at 900 °C, the two layers are completely merged providing a single peak at ˜3.60 eV in PL/absorption corresponding to a completely homogenized MgZnO layer. Spectroscopic results are corroborated by the numerical simulations based on a simple theoretical model, which correlates the observed PL spectra of the heterostructures with the experimental Mg diffusion profiles across the heterointerface, as measured by SIMS.

  4. Effects of the Annealing Temperature and CdCl2 Treatment on the Photovoltaic Properties of the CdS/CdTe Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Hyung; textscLee, Ho-Yeol; Park, Yong-Kwan; Shin, Sung-Ho; Park, Kwang-Ja

    1998-06-01

    Effects of the annealing temperature and CdCl2 treatment of CdTe films prepared by vacuum evaporation on structural properties of the CdTe films and photovoltaic properties of thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells were investigated. The crystal structure of as-deposited CdTe films was zincblende type with preferential orientation of the (111) plane parallel to the substrate. The preferential orientation of the (111) plane in CdTe films decreased, and the grain size of CdTe films increased with the increase of the annealing temperature and the CdCl2 treatment. As increasing annealing temperature, the conversion efficiency of the CdS/CdTe solar cells without and with CdCl2 was increased due to increasing grain size and improving crystalline of CdTe films. However, the efficiency of cells annealed at the temperature of higher than 500°C for cells without CdCl2 treatment and 450°C for cells with CdCl2 treatment was reduced because of increasing reverse saturation current density and series resistance.

  5. Effects of air annealing on CdS quantum dots thin film grown at room temperature by CBD technique intended for photosensor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, Shaheed U.; Desale, Dipalee J.; Siddiqui, Farha Y.; Ghosh, Arindam; Birajadar, Ravikiran B.; Ghule, Anil V.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The effect of different intensities (40, 60 100 and 200 W) of light on CdS quantum dots thin film annealed at 350 °C indicating enhancement in (a) photo-current and (b) photosensitivity. Highlights: ► The preparation of CdS nanodot thin film at room temperature by M-CBD technique. ► Study of air annealing on prepared CdS nanodots thin film. ► The optimized annealing temperature for CdS nanodot thin film is 350 °C. ► Modified CdS thin films can be used in photosensor application. -- Abstract: CdS quantum dots thin-films have been deposited onto the glass substrate at room temperature using modified chemical bath deposition technique. The prepared thin films were further annealed in air atmosphere at 150, 250 and 350 °C for 1 h and subsequently characterized by scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, electrical resistivity and I–V system. The modifications observed in morphology and opto-electrical properties of the thin films are presented.

  6. Effect of rapid thermal annealing on the noise properties of InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures

    SciTech Connect

    Arpatzanis, N.; Tsormpatzoglou, A.; Dimitriadis, C. A.; Song, J. D.; Choi, W. J.; Lee, J. I.; Charitidis, C.

    2007-09-01

    Self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on n{sup +}-GaAs substrates, capped between 0.4 {mu}m thick n-type GaAs layers with electron concentration of 1x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}. The effect of rapid thermal annealing at 700 deg. C for 60 s on the noise properties of the structure has been investigated using Au/n-GaAs Schottky diodes as test devices. In the reference sample without containing QDs, the noise spectra show a generation-recombination (g-r) noise behavior due to a discrete energy level located about 0.51 eV below the conduction band edge. This trap is ascribed to the M4 (or EL3) trap in GaAs MBE layers, related to a chemical impurity-native defect complex. In the structure with embedded QDs, the observed g-r noise spectra are due to a midgap trap level ascribed to the EL2 trap in GaAs, which is related to the InAs QDs dissolution due to the thermal treatment.

  7. Effects of swift heavy ion irradiation and thermal annealing on nearly immiscible W/Ni multilayer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Sharmistha; Potdar, Satish; Singh, F.; Lalla, N. P.

    2007-10-01

    The effect of 120 MeV Au9+ ion irradiation and thermal annealing on [W(25 Å)/Ni(25 Å)]×10 multilayers, grown on float-glass and silicon substrates, has been studied. Wide-angle x-ray diffraction studies of pristine, as well as irradiated W/Ni multilayers, show deterioration of the superlattice structure, but x-ray reflectivity (XRR) studies reveal a nearly unaffected multilayer structure. Analysis of the XRR data using "Parratt's formalism" does show a significant increase of W/Ni interface roughness. The observed differences in wide-angle and low-angle scattering results of the irradiated W/Ni multilayers suggest significant difference in the interlayer and intralayer mixing induced by swift heavy ion irradiation. XRR results also reveal the fluence dependence of layer densification. Plane, as well as cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, carried out in imaging and diffraction modes very clearly shows that at higher fluence the intralayer microstructure becomes nanocrystalline (1-2 nm) and at some places amorphous too. But, the definition of the W and Ni layers still remains intact. This has been understood in terms of competition between low miscibility at the W/Ni interface and ion-beam mixing kinetics.

  8. Effect of RF power and annealing on chemical bonding and morphology of a-CN{sub x} thin films as humidity sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, N. F. H; Hussain, N. S. Mohamed; Awang, R.; Ritikos, R.; Kamal, S. A. A.

    2013-11-27

    Amorphous carbon nitride (a-CN{sub x}) thin films were deposited using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf-PECVD) technique. A set of a-CN{sub x} thin films were prepared using pure methane (CH{sub 4}) gas diluted with nitrogen (N{sub 2}) gas. The rf power was varied at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 W. These films were then annealed at 400 °C in a quartz tube furnace in argon (Ar) gas. The effects of rf power and thermal annealing on the chemical bonding and morphology of these samples were studied. Surface profilometer was used to measure film thickness. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) measurements were used to determine their chemical bonding and morphology respectively. The deposition rate of the films increased constantly with increasing rf power up to 80W, before decreasing with further increase in rf power. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) studies showed a systematic change in the spectra and revealed three main peaks included C-N, C=N, C=C and C≡N triple bond. C=N and C≡N bonds decreased with increased C-N bonds after thermal annealing process. The FESEM images showed that the structure is porous for as-deposited and covered by granule-like grain structure after thermal annealing process was done. The resistance of the a-CN{sub x} thin film changed from 23.765 kΩ to 5.845 kΩ in the relative humidity range of 5 to 92 % and the film shows a good response and repeatability as a humidity sensing materials. This work showed that rf power and thermal annealing has significant effects on the chemical bonding and surface morphology of the a-CN{sub x} films and but yield films which are potential candidate as humidity sensor device.

  9. Linear response theory for annealing of radiation damage in semiconductor devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litovchenko, Vitaly

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical study of the radiation/annealing response of MOS ICs is described. Although many experiments have been performed in this field, no comprehensive theory dealing with radiation/annealing response has been proposed. Many attempts have been made to apply linear response theory, but no theoretical foundation has been presented. The linear response theory outlined here is capable of describing a broad area of radiation/annealing response phenomena in MOS ICs, in particular, both simultaneous irradiation and annealing, as well as short- and long-term annealing, including the case when annealing is nearing completion. For the first time, a simple procedure is devised to determine the response function from experimental radiation/annealing data. In addition, this procedure enables us to study the effect of variable temperature and dose rate, effects which are of interest in spaceflight. In the past, the shift in threshold potential due to radiation/annealing has usually been assumed to depend on one variable: the time lapse between an impulse dose and the time of observation. While such a suggestion of uniformity in time is certainly true for a broad range of radiation annealing phenomena, it may not hold for some ranges of the variables of interest (temperature, dose rate, etc.). A response function is projected which is dependent on two variables: the time of observation and the time of the impulse dose. This dependence on two variables allows us to extend the theory to the treatment of a variable dose rate. Finally, the linear theory is generalized to the case in which the response is nonlinear with impulse dose, but is proportional to some impulse function of dose. A method to determine both the impulse and response functions is presented.

  10. Observation of Shape, Configuration, and Density of Au Nanoparticles on Various GaAs Surfaces via Deposition Amount, Annealing Temperature, and Dwelling Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Daewoo; Li, Ming-Yu; Sui, Mao; Zhang, Quanzhen; Pandey, Puran; Kim, Eun-Soo; Lee, Jihoon

    2015-05-01

    Metallic nanoparticles have been widely witnessed in many applications: serving as the catalysts for various nanowire systems, as the active mediums of various device applications, and also for the nanoscale templates for hybrid quantum structures. In the performance of devices and configurations of the resulting nanostructures, the size and density of nanoparticles play critical roles. In this paper, the control of self-assembled Au droplets on GaAs (100), (110), and (111) is systematically investigated through the variation of deposition amount (DA), annealing temperature (AT), and dwelling time (DT). Based on the Volmer-Weber growth model, the formation of Au droplets and dramatic evolution of Au nanostructures on various GaAs surfaces is observed from the Au clusters to the round-dome shapes with the AT variation between 250 and 550 °C. With the systematic DA control, a radical size and density evolution of Au droplets shows the size expansion of over 400 % in average height and 800 % in average lateral diameter, while the density shows over two orders of decrease. With the DT variation, the self-assembled Au droplets tend to grow larger due to the Ostwald ripening while a clear distinction among the surface indexes is observed.

  11. Observation of Shape, Configuration, and Density of Au Nanoparticles on Various GaAs Surfaces via Deposition Amount, Annealing Temperature, and Dwelling Time.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daewoo; Li, Ming-Yu; Sui, Mao; Zhang, Quanzhen; Pandey, Puran; Kim, Eun-Soo; Lee, Jihoon

    2015-12-01

    Metallic nanoparticles have been widely witnessed in many applications: serving as the catalysts for various nanowire systems, as the active mediums of various device applications, and also for the nanoscale templates for hybrid quantum structures. In the performance of devices and configurations of the resulting nanostructures, the size and density of nanoparticles play critical roles. In this paper, the control of self-assembled Au droplets on GaAs (100), (110), and (111) is systematically investigated through the variation of deposition amount (DA), annealing temperature (AT), and dwelling time (DT). Based on the Volmer-Weber growth model, the formation of Au droplets and dramatic evolution of Au nanostructures on various GaAs surfaces is observed from the Au clusters to the round-dome shapes with the AT variation between 250 and 550 °C. With the systematic DA control, a radical size and density evolution of Au droplets shows the size expansion of over 400 % in average height and 800 % in average lateral diameter, while the density shows over two orders of decrease. With the DT variation, the self-assembled Au droplets tend to grow larger due to the Ostwald ripening while a clear distinction among the surface indexes is observed. PMID:26055482

  12. Post-irradiation annealing effect on helium diffusivity in austenitic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsura, R.; Morisawa, J.; Kawano, S.; Oliver, B. M.

    2004-08-01

    As an experimental basis for helium induced weld cracking of neutron irradiated austenitic stainless steels, helium diffusivity has been evaluated by measuring helium release at high temperature. Isochronal and isothermal experiments were performed at temperatures between 700 and 1300 °C for 304 and 316L stainless steels. In 1 h isochronal experiments, helium was released beginning at ˜900 °C and reaching almost 100% at 1300 °C. No apparent differences in helium release were observed between the two stainless steel types. At temperatures between 900 and 1300 °C, the diffusion rate was calculated from the time dependence of the helium release rate to be: D0=4.91 cm 2/s, E=289 kJ/mol. The observed activation energy suggests that the release of helium from the steels is associated with the removal of helium from helium bubbles and/or from vacancy diffusion.

  13. Post-Irradiation Annealing Effect on Helium Diffusivity in Austenitic Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Katsura, Ryoei; Morisawa, J; Kawano, S; Oliver, Brian M.

    2004-08-01

    As an experimental basis for helium induced weld cracking of neutron irradiated austenitic stainless steels, helium diffusivity has been evaluated by measuring helium release rates at high temperature. Isochronal and isothermal experiment were performed at temperatures between 700 and 1300 for Type 304 and 316L stainless steels. In 1 hour isochronal experiments, helium was released beginning at {approx}900 and reaching near 100% at 1300. No apparent differences in helium release rate were observed between Type 304 and 316L stainless steels. At temperatures between 1100 and 1300, the diffusion rate was calculated from the time dependence of the helium release rate to be:?D0=3.42?104 cm2/s, E=173.2 kJ/mol. The observed activation energy suggests that the release of helium from the steels is associated with the removal of helium from helium bubbles.

  14. Energy dependence of defects in a-Si:H solar cells during degradation and annealing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Caputo, D.; Lemmi, F.; Palma, F.

    1997-07-01

    In this work the authors report on the effect of current-induced degradation and annealing on p-i-n amorphous silicon solar cells. Current-voltage curves and capacitance measurements under forward bias have been used to monitor the current-induced changes as a function of time. They found that the recovery rate increases with the annealing current, while the stabilized value of efficiency decreases. Comparison of short circuit current and capacitance evolution suggests that defect kinetics in the electronic gap occurs in a different way during degradation and annealing. This behavior can be modeled assuming a faster annealing of defects closest to the extended band and a slower annealing of mid-gap defects.

  15. Examination of the effect of the annealing cation on higher order structures containing guanine or isoguanine repeats

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Sarah E.; Wang, Junmei; Jayawickramarajah, Janarthanan; Hamilton, Andrew D.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2010-01-01

    Isoguanine (2-oxo-6-amino-guanine), a natural but non-standard base, exhibits unique self-association properties compared to its isomer, guanine, and results in formation of different higher order DNA structures. In this work, the higher order structures formed by oligonucleotides containing guanine repeats or isoguanine repeats after annealing in solutions containing various cations are evaluated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The guanine-containing strand (G9) consistently formed quadruplexes upon annealing, whereas the isoguanine strand (Ig9) formed both pentaplexes and quadruplexes depending on the annealing cation. Quadruplex formation with G9 showed some dependence on the identity of the cation present during annealing with high relative quadruplex formation detected with six of ten cations. Analogous annealing experiments with Ig9 resulted in complex formation with all ten cations, and the majority of the resulting complexes were pentaplexes. CD results indicated most of the original complexes survived the desalting process necessary for ESI-MS analysis. In addition, several complexes, especially the pentaplexes, were found to be capable of cation exchange with ammonium ions. Ab initio calculations were conducted for isoguanine tetrads and pentads coordinated with all ten cations to predict the most energetically stable structures of the complexes in the gas phase. The observed preference of forming quadruplexes versus pentaplexes as a function of the coordinated cation can be interpreted by the calculated reaction energies of both the tetrads and pentads in combination with the distortion energies of tetrads. PMID:19746468

  16. Effect of annealing on the nanoscratch behavior of multilayer Si 0.8Ge 0.2/Si films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Derming

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we examined the nanoscratch behavior of annealed multilayered silicon-germanium (SiGe) films comprising alternating sublayers (Si) deposited using an ultrahigh-vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV/CVD) system. Annealing consisted of ex situ thermal treatment in a furnace system. We used a nanoscratch technique to investigate the nanotribological behavior of the SiGe films and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to observe deformation phenomena. Our AFM morphological studies of the SiGe films revealed that pile-up phenomena occurred on both sides of each scratch. The scratched surfaces of the SiGe films that had been subjected to various annealing conditions exhibited significantly different features, it is conjectured that cracking dominates in the case of SiGe films while ploughing dominates during the scratching process. We obtained higher coefficients of friction ( μ) when the ramped force was set at 6000 μN, rather than 2000 μN, suggesting that annealing of SiGe films leads to higher shear resistance; annealing treatment not only produced misfit dislocations in the form of a significantly wavy sliding surface but also promoted scratching resistance.

  17. Post-annealing effect on the room-temperature ferromagnetism in Cu-doped ZnO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Yu-Min Kuang, Chein-Hsiun; Han, Tai-Chun; Yu, Chin-Chung; Li, Sih-Sian

    2015-05-07

    In this work, we investigated the structural and magnetic properties of both as-deposited and post-annealed Cu-doped ZnO thin films for better understanding the possible mechanisms of room-temperature ferromagnetism (RT-FM) in ZnO-based diluted magnetic oxides. All of the films have a c-axis-oriented wurtzite structure and display RT-FM. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that the incorporated Cu ions in as-deposited films are in 1+ valence state merely, while an additional 2+ valence state occurs in post-annealed films. The presence of Cu{sup 2+} state in post-annealed film accompanies a higher magnetization value than that of as-deposited film and, in particular, the magnetization curves at 10 K and 300 K of the post-annealed film separate distinctly. Since Cu{sup 1+} ion has a filled 3d band, the RT-FM in as-deposited Cu-doped ZnO thin films may stem solely from intrinsic defects, while that in post-annealed films is enhanced due to the presence of CuO crystallites.

  18. Effect of multiple strain-anneal cycles on the 1000 C creep behaviour of gamma/gamma prime-alpha

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Buzek, B. C.; Wirth, G.

    1986-01-01

    Various multiple strain-anneal cycles (1000 C) were imposed on specimens of the directionally solidified eutectic (DSE) alloy gamma/gamma prime-alpha to identify thermomechanical processing methods (TMP) which would improve the creep behavior. Specimens of the Ni-32.3Mo-6.3Al wt pct alloy were grown with a modified Bridgeman technique. Some of the cylindrical specimens were alternately heat-treated at 900 C, then strained, or heat-treated only, while other specimens were annealed at 900 C after swaging and then worked at ambient temperature. The specimens were all examined microstructurally using transmission electron microscopy, some before and after being exposed to constant-load compression tests at 1000 C. The creep strain increased for all TMP specimens for strain rates of at least 2 millionths per sec. Strain rates of about 2 ten millionths per sec were only improved with strain annealing with 13 percent work at ambient temperature. A slight improvement, compared to as-grown materials, was observed in the 1000 C creep behavior of materials annealed at 900 C. Strain-annealing was found to introduce three-dimensional dislocation networks into the gamma-prime matrix.

  19. Coupled annealing temperature and layer thickness effect on strengthening mechanisms of Ti/Ni multilayer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhou; Wang, Junlan

    2016-03-01

    A systematic study was performed on mechanical and microstructural properties of Ti/Ni multilayers with layer thickness from 200 nm to 6 nm and annealing temperature from room temperature to 500 °C. Based on the observed hardness evolution, a coupled layer-thickness and annealing-temperature dependent strengthening mechanism map is proposed. For as-deposited films, the deformation behavior follows the traditional trend of dislocation mediated strengthening to grain boundary mediated softening with decreasing layer thickness. For annealed films, grain boundary relaxation is considered to be the initial strengthening mechanism with higher activation temperature required for thicker layers. Under further annealing, solid solution hardening, intermetallic precipitation hardening, and fully intermixed alloy structure continue to strengthen the thin layered films, while recrystallization and grain-growth lead to the eventual softening of thick layered films. For the films with intermediate layer thickness, a strong orientation dependent hardness behavior is exhibited under high temperature annealing due to mechanism switch from grain growth softening to intermetallic precipitation hardening when changing the loading orientation from perpendicular to parallel to the layer interfaces.

  20. Modelling of organic field effect transistors with inkjet printed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonate) electrodes: study of the annealing effects.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Immacolata Angelica; Del Mauro, Anna de Girolamo; Loffredo, Fausta; Morvillo, Pasquale; Villani, Fulvia

    2013-07-01

    In the present work, the transport mechanism of organic transistors with bottom-gate/top-contact structure, manufactured by employing traditional and inkjet printing techniques, was studied. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conductive polymer was used for realizing printed source, drain and gate electrodes. The influence of the printing parameters (substrate temperature, drop overlapping degree, drop emission frequency) on the uniformity and morphology of the PEDOT:PSS layer was investigated. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was used as organic dielectric and pentacene, deposited by thermal evaporation, was employed as p-type semiconductor. Organic field effect transistors (OFETs) were fabricated and electrically characterized before and after the thermal annealing process at 120 degrees C for 1 h in nitrogen ambient. The effect of the annealing on the performances of the OFETs was investigated by modelling the measured electrical characteristics and analyzing them in terms of mobility, characteristic temperature and energy distribution of the density of localized states (DOS). In addition, the OFET working under electrical stress in ambient conditions was observed and discussed. PMID:23901549

  1. High temperature annealing effects on deep-level defects in a high purity semi-insulating 4H-SiC substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Iwamoto, Naoya Azarov, Alexander; Svensson, Bengt G.; Ohshima, Takeshi; Moe, Anne Marie M.

    2015-07-28

    Effects of high-temperature annealing on deep-level defects in a high-purity semi-insulating 4H silicon carbide substrate have been studied by employing current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, junction spectroscopy, and chemical impurity analysis measurements. Secondary ion mass spectrometry data reveal that the substrate contains boron with concentration in the mid 10{sup 15 }cm{sup −3} range, while other impurities including nitrogen, aluminum, titanium, vanadium and chromium are below their detection limits (typically ∼10{sup 14 }cm{sup −3}). Schottky barrier diodes fabricated on substrates annealed at 1400–1700 °C exhibit metal/p-type semiconductor behavior with a current rectification of up to 8 orders of magnitude at bias voltages of ±3 V. With increasing annealing temperature, the series resistance of the Schottky barrier diodes decreases, and the net acceptor concentration in the substrates increases approaching the chemical boron content. Admittance spectroscopy results unveil the presence of shallow boron acceptors and deep-level defects with levels in lower half of the bandgap. After the 1400 °C annealing, the boron acceptor still remains strongly compensated at room temperature by deep donor-like levels located close to mid-gap. However, the latter decrease in concentration with increasing annealing temperature and after 1700 °C, the boron acceptor is essentially uncompensated. Hence, the deep donors are decisive for the semi-insulating properties of the substrates, and their thermal evolution limits the thermal budget for device processing. The origin of the deep donors is not well-established, but substantial evidence supporting an assignment to carbon vacancies is presented.

  2. Effect of post-deposition annealing on the growth of Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films for a solar cell absorber layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, G. Suresh; Kishore Kumar, Y. B.; Uday Bhaskar, P.; Sundara Raja, V.

    2008-08-01

    The effect of substrate temperature and post-deposition annealing on the growth and properties of Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films, a potential candidate for a solar cell absorber layer, is investigated. The substrate temperature (Ts) is chosen to be in the range 523-673 K and the annealing temperature (Tpa) is kept at 723 K. Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of as-deposited films revealed that the films deposited at Ts = 523 K and 573 K contain Cu2-xSe as a secondary phase. Single phase, polycrystalline Cu2ZnSnSe4 films are obtained at Ts = 623 K and films deposited at Ts = 673 K have ZnSe as a secondary phase along with Cu2ZnSnSe4. Direct band gap of as-deposited CZTSe films is found to lie between 1.40 eV and 1.65 eV depending on Ts. XRD patterns of post-deposition annealed films revealed that the films deposited at Ts = 523-623 K are single phase CZTSe and films deposited at Ts = 673 K still contain ZnSe secondary phase. CZTSe films are found to exhibit kesterite structure with the lattice parameters a = 0.568 nm and c = 1.136 nm. Optical absorption studies of post-deposition annealed films show that there is a slight increase in the band gap on annealing, due to decrease in the Cu content. Electrical resistivity of the films is found to lie in the range 0.02-2.6 Ω cm depending on Ts.

  3. Effects of pre-annealed ITO film on the electrical characteristics of high-reflectance Ni/Ag/Ni/Au contacts to p-type GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiao-Long; Liu, Li; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Xi-Chun

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a Ni/Ag/Ni/Au multilayer with first Ni layer of 0.5 nm was first optimized for high reflectivity (92.3%), low specific contact resistance (2.1 × 10-3 Ω cm2) and good attachment strength to p-type GaN. To further decrease the contact resistance, the p-type GaN surface was previously treated with pre-annealed indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film before deposition of the Ni/Ag/Ni/Au multilayer, and resulted in a lower specific contact resistance of 1.9 × 10-4 Ω cm2. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that Ga 2p core level of the p-type GaN surface with the pre-annealed ITO film had a lower binding energy, leading to a reduction in the contact resistance. Furthermore, GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with and without the pre-annealed ITO film were fabricated. The average forward voltage of the flip-chip LEDs fabricated with the pre-annealed ITO film is 3.22 V at an injection current density of 35 A/cm2, which is much lower than that (3.49 V) of flip-chip LEDs without the pre-annealed ITO film. These results reveal that the proposed approach is effectively to fabricate high quality p-type contacts toward high power GaN-based LEDs.

  4. Low temperature annealed amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) as a pH sensitive layer for applications in field effect based sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Narendra; Kumar, Jitendra; Panda, Siddhartha

    2015-06-01

    The use of a-IGZO instead of the conventional high-k dielectrics as a pH sensitive layer could lead to the simplification of fabrication steps of field effect based devices. In this work, the pH sensitivities of a-IGZO films directly deposited over a SiO2/Si surface were studied utilizing electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) structures. Annealing of the films was found to affect the sensitivity of the devices and the device with the film annealed at 400 oC in N2 ambience showed the better sensitivity, which reduced with further increase in the annealing temperature to 500 oC. The increased pH sensitivity with the film annealed at 400 oC in N2 gas was attributed to the enhanced lattice oxygen ions (based on the XPS data) and improved C-V characteristics, while the decrease in sensitivity at an increased annealing temperature of 500 oC was attributed to defects in the films as well as the induced traps at the IGZO/SiO2 interface based on the stretched accumulation and the peak in the inversion region of C-V curves. This study could help to develop a sensor where the material (a-IGZO here) used as the active layer in a thin film transistors (TFTs) possibly could also be used as the pH sensitive layer without affecting the TFT characteristics, and thus obviating the need of high-K dielectrics for sensitivity enhancement.

  5. Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of the effect of illumination and thermal annealing on the optical constants of thin Ge-As-S films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamukchieva, V.; Szekeres, A.; Arsova, D.

    2011-02-01

    The effects of illumination and post-illumination thermal annealing on the optical properties of chalcogenide thin (~150 nm) films were studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The films were thermally evaporated from Ge30.8As5.7S63.5 and Ge32As5S63 glasses. They were exposed to illumination with an HBO 500 lamp and to subsequent thermal annealing at a temperature of 350 °C. Ellipsometric measurements in the spectral range 300-820 nm were carried out after each technological step. From the ellipsometric data analysis the optical constants (n, k, ɛ), optical band gap energy Eog and film thickness have been determined, while the oscillator energies E0 and Ed have been estimated applying the single-oscillator approximation theory. In the ɛ2 spectra three peaks, denoted by E1, E2 and E3, have appeared, which are attributed to interband transitions. By illumination, the values of the complex refractive index (\\tilde n = n - {\\rm{i}}k), dielectric function (\\skew3\\tilde \\varepsilon = \\varepsilon _1 - {\\rm{i}}\\varepsilon _{\\rm{2}} ) and dispersion energy Ed decrease, whereas the band gap energy (Eog) and the oscillator energy (E0) values increase. All these are accompanied by a ~12-13% enhancement of film thickness. Thermal annealing leads to a further increase of the energetic parameters values, but causes a ~14-15% decrease of film thickness in comparison to that of illuminated films. The E1 and E2 peaks diminish on illumination and post-illumination annealing, whereas the magnitude of the E3 peak decreases on illumination and increases by annealing, approaching its initial value for the as-deposited state.

  6. High temperature annealing effects on deep-level defects in a high purity semi-insulating 4H-SiC substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Naoya; Azarov, Alexander; Ohshima, Takeshi; Moe, Anne Marie M.; Svensson, Bengt G.

    2015-07-01

    Effects of high-temperature annealing on deep-level defects in a high-purity semi-insulating 4H silicon carbide substrate have been studied by employing current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, junction spectroscopy, and chemical impurity analysis measurements. Secondary ion mass spectrometry data reveal that the substrate contains boron with concentration in the mid 1015 cm-3 range, while other impurities including nitrogen, aluminum, titanium, vanadium and chromium are below their detection limits (typically ˜1014 cm-3). Schottky barrier diodes fabricated on substrates annealed at 1400-1700 °C exhibit metal/p-type semiconductor behavior with a current rectification of up to 8 orders of magnitude at bias voltages of ±3 V. With increasing annealing temperature, the series resistance of the Schottky barrier diodes decreases, and the net acceptor concentration in the substrates increases approaching the chemical boron content. Admittance spectroscopy results unveil the presence of shallow boron acceptors and deep-level defects with levels in lower half of the bandgap. After the 1400 °C annealing, the boron acceptor still remains strongly compensated at room temperature by deep donor-like levels located close to mid-gap. However, the latter decrease in concentration with increasing annealing temperature and after 1700 °C, the boron acceptor is essentially uncompensated. Hence, the deep donors are decisive for the semi-insulating properties of the substrates, and their thermal evolution limits the thermal budget for device processing. The origin of the deep donors is not well-established, but substantial evidence supporting an assignment to carbon vacancies is presented.

  7. Composition and annealing effects on the response of electrostrictive graft elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ji; Hales, Kelly; Xu, Tian-Bing

    2003-07-01

    The electrostrictive graft elastomer is a new type of electromechanically active polymer developed by NASA. The material has demonstrated promising electromechanical properties including large electrical field induced strain, high electromechanical output, and a relatively high mechanical modulus. As a two-component system, the elastomer contains flexible backbone chains and electro-responsive polar grafted crystal domains. The two-component material system enables optimization of the electrostriction by controlling the relative fraction of the two components and the molecular morphology. The present work is a systematic study on the effects of the relative fraction of the two components and morphology on the electrical field induced strain. The results show that the elastomer containing more polar grafted domains and higher crystallinity yields higher electric field-induced strains.

  8. Effect of thermal annealing on the properties of transparent conductive In–Ga–Zn oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ling; Fan, Lina; Li, Yanhuai; Song, Zhongxiao; Ma, Fei E-mail: chlliu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Liu, Chunliang E-mail: chlliu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2014-03-15

    Amorphous In–Ga–Zn oxide (IGZO) thin films were prepared using radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Upon thermal annealing at temperatures even up to 500 °C, the amorphous characteristics were still maintained, but the electronic properties could be considerably enhanced. This could be ascribed to the increased optical band gap and the increased oxygen vacancies, as corroborated by the microstructure characterizations. In addition, the surface became smoother upon thermal annealing, guaranteeing good interface contact between electrode and a-IGZO. The optical transmittance at 400–800 nm exceeded 90% for all samples. All in all, thermal annealing at appropriate temperatures is expected to improve the performances of relevant a-IGZO thin film transistors.

  9. Effect of post-deposition annealing on the structural and electrical properties of RF sputtered hafnium oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, K. C.; Ghosh, S. P.; Tripathy, N.; Bose, G.; Kar, J. P.

    2016-02-01

    Hafnium oxide films were deposited on silicon substrates by RF sputtering at room temperature. Post-deposition rapid thermal annealing of the sputtered HfO2 films was carried out in the temperature range of 400°C to 800°C in oxygen ambient. The structural properties ware studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), where the enhancement in the crystallinity of HfO2 (1¯11) orientation was observed. The Capacitance —Voltage (C-V) and Current density —Voltage (J-V) characteristics of the annealed dielectric film were investigated employing Al/HfO2/Si Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) capacitor structure. The flatband voltage (V fb ) and oxide charge density (Q ox ) were extracted from the high frequency (1 MHz) C-V curve. Leakage current was found to be minimum for the annealing temperature of 600°C.

  10. Effect of vacuum-annealing on the d0 ferromagnetism of undoped In2O3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shaohua; Wu, Ping; Xing, Pengfei

    2012-09-01

    Vacuum-annealing was carried out on the pure indium oxide films deposited on Si (100) substrates by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering. Oxygen-deficiency states and room temperature d0 ferromagnetism were both detected in the as-grown and vacuum-annealed films. With more oxygen vacancies appeared through vacuum-annealing, the saturation magnetization increased rapidly from 0.5 to 5.5 emu/cm3. The connection between the highly oxygen-deficiency states and the strong magnetic moment suggests that oxygen vacancies play a crucial role in mediating the ferromagnetism in In2O3 films. We think that this d0 ferromagnetism mainly stems from V0+ and oxygen vacancy clusters in the interfaces or grain boundaries.

  11. Semi insulating CdTe:Cl after elimination of inclusions and precipitates by post grown annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franc, J.; Belas, E.; Bugár, M.; Hlídek, P.; Grill, R.; Yang, G.; Cavallini, A.; Fraboni, B.; Castaldini, A.; Assali, S.

    2012-11-01

    We present in this contribution results of two-step annealing, when the CdTe:Cl doped samples are at first annealed under Cd overpressure to remove inclusions and the re-annealed under Te overpressure to restore the high resistivity state. Investigation of samples after Cd rich annealing by infrared microscope has proven, that all inclusions are removed. Also Te nano precipitates were strongly influenced by the annealing process. The resistivity of the samples after Te-rich annealing was restored to values ( ~ 108-109Ωcm). We observed, however, decrease of mobility-lifetime product of electrons from 10-3cm2/Vs to 10-4cm2/Vs. In order to understand the reason of this decrease we performed a study of point defects before and after annealing by thermoelectric effect spectroscopy. It shows a decrease of concentrations of most deep levels after two-step annealing. This behavior is completely different compared to past annealing studies, where concentration of deep levels strongly increased after annealing. The only level with an increased concentration in the current study is the midgap level (E ~ 0.8 eV). At the same time we observed increase of micro-twins in the samples investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The decrease of charge collection efficiency after two-step annealing may be therefore connected with re-arrangement of near midgap levels due to increase of concentrations of structure defects (micro twins, dislocations) that accumulate in their surroundings point defects with energy ~ 0.75 eV.

  12. Annealing-induced alloy formation in Pd/Fe bilayers on Si(1 1 1) for hydrogen sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudinepalli, Venkata Ramana; Tsai, Cheng-Jui; Chuang, Ying-Chin; Chang, Po-Chun; Plusnin, N.; Lin, Wen-Chin

    2016-03-01

    The bilayers of Pd and Fe with different thickness and relative positions were grown on Si(1 1 1)-7 × 7 surface at room temperature. For the investigation of the thermal annealing induced inter-diffusion and the corresponding magnetic behavior, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) measurement was carried out after various annealing processes, including the variation of annealing duration and temperature. With the annealing temperature of 300-500 K, the Pd/Fe bilayers were stable. Slight Si segregated into the thin film at around 700 K. Above 700 K, more serious Si segregation occurred and most of the Pd/Fe bilayer was mixed with Si, forming a silicide layer. 700-800 K annealing also induced change of Pd/Fe AES ratio, indicating the inter-diffusion between Pd and Fe layers. To overcome the unavoidable silicide formation induced magnetic dead layer, a relative thick Fe film of 20 ML capped with 1.5 ML Pd was chosen for the investigation of magnetism. The magnetic coercivity (Hc) increased by 2-3 times with the annealing temperature up to 740 K. Obvious hydrogenation effect was observed in 710 K-annealed sample; the in-plane Hc increased by more than 10% when the hydrogen pressure was above 200 mbar. After further annealing at 740-800 K, the hydrogenation effect on Hc became nearly unobservable. The annealing induced Pd-rich magnetic interface is supposed to dominate the hydrogenation effect on magnetism.

  13. Effect of high temperature annealing on ion-irradiation induced magnetization in FeRh thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohki, A.; Aikoh, K.; Iwase, A.; Yoneda, K.; Kosugi, S.; Kume, K.; Batchuluun, T.; Ishigami, R.; Matsui, T.

    2012-04-01

    Low temperature ferromagnetic FeRh with B2-type crystal structure was successfully synthesized by annealing of the excessively irradiated FeRh thin film samples having nonmagnetic A1-type crystal structure. The B2 phase transformed from the A1 phase by this process contained some amount of lattice defects, such as anti-site defects and vacancies, which made the magnetic spins of the sample aligned. These results imply that the combination of the process of the ion-beam irradiation and annealing of the film samples makes the magnetic state systematically controlled.

  14. Effects of vacuum annealing treatment on microstructures and residual stress of AlSi10Mg parts produced by selective laser melting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tian; Wang, Linzhi; Tan, Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM)-fabricated AlSi10Mg parts were heat-treated under vacuum to eliminate the residual stress. Microstructure evolutions and tensile properties of the SLM-fabricated parts before and after vacuum annealing treatment were studied. The results show that the crystalline structure of SLM-fabricated AlSi10Mg part was not modified after the vacuum annealing treatment. Additionally, the grain refinement had occurred after the vacuum annealing treatment. Moreover, with increasing of the vacuum annealing time, the second phase increased and transformed to spheroidization and coarsening. The SLM-produced parts after vacuum annealing at 300∘C for 2 h had the maximum ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS) and elongation, while the elastic modulus decreased significantly. In addition, the tensile residual stress was found in the as-fabricated AlSi10Mg samples by the microindentation method.

  15. Size effects in the thermal conductivity of gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3) films grown via open-atmosphere annealing of gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwejkowski, Chester J.; Creange, Nicole C.; Sun, Kai; Giri, Ashutosh; Donovan, Brian F.; Constantin, Costel; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2015-02-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is a widely used semiconductor for high frequency and high power devices due to of its unique electrical properties: a wide band gap, high breakdown field, and high electron mobility. However, thermal management has become a limiting factor regarding efficiency, lifetime, and advancement of GaN devices and GaN-based applications. In this work, we study the thermal conductivity of beta-phase gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3) thin films, a component of typical gate oxides used in such devices. We use time domain thermoreflectance to measure the thermal conductivity of a variety of polycrystalline β-Ga2O3 films of different thicknesses grown via open atmosphere annealing of the surfaces of GaN films on sapphire substrates. We show that the measured effective thermal conductivity of these β-Ga2O3 films can span 1.5 orders of magnitude, increasing with an increased film thickness, which is indicative of the relatively large intrinsic thermal conductivity of the β-Ga2O3 grown via this technique (8.8 ± 3.4 W m-1 K-1) and large mean free paths compared to typical gate dielectrics commonly used in GaN device contacts. By conducting time domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) measurements with different metal transducers (Al, Au, and Au with a Ti wetting layer), we attribute this variation in effective thermal conductivity to a combination of size effects in the β-Ga2O3 film resulting from phonon scattering at the β-Ga2O3/GaN interface and thermal transport across the β-Ga2O3/GaN interface. The measured thermal properties of open atmosphere-grown β-Ga2O3 and its interface with GaN set the stage for thermal engineering of gate contacts in high frequency GaN-based devices.

  16. Effects of post-annealing treatment on the structure and photoluminescence properties of CdS/PS nanocomposites prepared by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong-yan

    2016-03-01

    CdS nanocrystals have been successfully grown on porous silicon (PS) by sol-gel method. The plan-view field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) shows that the pore size of PS is smaller than 5 μm in diameter and the agglomerates of CdS are broadly distributed on the surface of PS substrate. With the increase of annealing time, the CdS nanoparticles grow in both length and diameter along the preferred orientation. The cross-sectional FESEM images of ZnO/PS show that CdS nanocrystals are uniformly penetrated into all PS layers and adhere to them very well. photoluminescence (PL) spectra demonstrate that the intensity of PL peak located at about 425 nm has almost no change after the annealing time increases. The range of emission wavelength of CdS/PS is from 425 nm to 455 nm and the PL intensity is decreasing with the annealing temperature increasing from 100 °C to 200 °C.

  17. Effect of the annealing temperature on dynamic and structural properties of Co2FeAl thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmeguenai, M.; Tuzcuoglu, H.; Gabor, M.; Petrisor, T.; Tiusan, C.; Zighem, F.; Chérif, S. M.; Moch, P.

    2014-07-01

    10 nm and 50 nm thick Co2FeAl (CFA) thin films have been deposited on thermally oxidized Si(001) substrates by magnetron sputtering using a Tantalum cap layer and were then ex-situ annealed at 415°C, 515°C and 615°C during 15 minutes in vacuum. X-rays diffraction indicates that films CFA are polycrystalline and exhibit an in-plane isotropy growth. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements, using a microstrip line (MS-FMR), reveal a huge interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and small in-plane uniaxial anisotropy both annealing temperature-dependent. The MS-FMR data also allow concluding that the gyromagnetic factor remains constant and that the exchange stiffness constant increases with annealing temperature. Finally, the FMR linewidth decreases with increasing annealing temperature due to the enhancement of the chemical order, and allow deriving a very low intrinsic damping parameter (1.3×10-3 at 615°C).

  18. Effects of Xe ion irradiation and subsequent annealing on the structural properties of magnesium-aluminate spinel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev-Charkin, Ivan V.; Dickerson, Robert M.; Wayne Cooke, D.; Bennett, Bryan L.; Gritsyna, Vasily T.; Sickafus, Kurt E.

    2001-02-01

    Single crystals of magnesium-aluminate spinel MgAl 2O 4 were irradiated with 340 keV Xe ++ ions at -173°C (˜100 K). A fluence of 1×10 20 Xe/m 2 created an amorphous layer at the surface of the samples. The samples were annealed for 1 h at different temperatures ranging from 130°C to 880°C. Recrystallization took place in the temperature interval between 610°C and 855°C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show two distinct layers near the surface: (1) a polycrystalline layer with columnar grain structure; and (2) a buried damaged layer epitaxial with the substrate. After annealing at 1100°C for 52 days, the profile of implanted Xe ions did not change, which means that Xe ions are not mobile in the spinel structure up to 1100°C. The thickness of the buried damaged layer decreased significantly in the 1100°C annealed sample comparing to the sample annealed for 1 h at 855°C.

  19. Effect of annealing temperature on the supercapacitor behaviour of β-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Jeyalakshmi, K.; Vijayakumar, S.; Nagamuthu, S.; Muralidharan, G.

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Structural, optical, supercapacitor properties of β-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films are reported. ► Influence of annealing temperature on β-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films have been studied. ► Film annealed at 300 °C exhibit lower charge transfer resistance. -- Abstract: Vanadium pentoxide thin films are prepared via sol–gel spin coating method. The films coated on FTO and glass substrates are treated at different temperatures ranging from 250 °C to 400 °C. The structural, optical and electrochemical investigations are made. X-ray diffraction analysis shows the film to be composed of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} in β-phase up to annealing temperature of 350 °C and at 400 °C the structural transformation to α-phase is observed. FTIR spectrum shows the formation of V-O bond. The SEM images reveal the formation of nanopores. Optical absorption studies indicate a band gap of 2.2–2.4 eV. The supercapacitor behaviour is studied using cyclic voltammetery technique and electrochemical impedance analysis. The vanadium pentoxide films annealed at 300 °C for an hour exhibits a maximum specific capacitance of 346 F g{sup −1} at a scan rate of 5 mV s{sup −1}.

  20. 454-Pyrosequencing Analysis of Bacterial Communities from Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal Bioreactors Utilizing Universal Primers: Effect of Annealing Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Rodelas, Belén; Abbas, Ben A.; Martinez-Toledo, Maria Victoria; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Osorio, F.; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Identification of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria by molecular tools aimed at the evaluation of bacterial diversity in autotrophic nitrogen removal systems is limited by the difficulty to design universal primers for the Bacteria domain able to amplify the anammox 16S rRNA genes. A metagenomic analysis (pyrosequencing) of total bacterial diversity including anammox population in five autotrophic nitrogen removal technologies, two bench-scale models (MBR and Low Temperature CANON) and three full-scale bioreactors (anammox, CANON, and DEMON), was successfully carried out by optimization of primer selection and PCR conditions (annealing temperature). The universal primer 530F was identified as the best candidate for total bacteria and anammox bacteria diversity coverage. Salt-adjusted optimum annealing temperature of primer 530F was calculated (47°C) and hence a range of annealing temperatures of 44–49°C was tested. Pyrosequencing data showed that annealing temperature of 45°C yielded the best results in terms of species richness and diversity for all bioreactors analyzed. PMID:26421306

  1. Effects of quenching, irradiation, and annealing processes on the radiation hardness of silica fiber cladding materials (I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jianxiang; Gong, Renxiang; Xiao, Zhongyin; Luo, Wenyun; Wu, Wenkai; Luo, Yanhua; Peng, Gang-ding; Pang, Fufei; Chen, Zhenyi; Wang, Tingyun

    2016-07-01

    Silica optical fiber cladding materials were experimentally treated by a series of processes. The treatments involved quenching, irradiation, followed by annealing and subsequent re-irradiation, and they were conducted in order to improve the radiation hardness. The microstructural properties of the treated materials were subsequently investigated. Following the treatment of the optical fiber cladding materials, the results from the electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis demonstrated that there was a significant decrease in the radiation-induced defect structures. The ESR signals became significantly weaker when the samples were annealed at 1000 °C in combination with re-irradiation. In addition, the microstructure changes within the silica optical fiber cladding material were also analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results demonstrate that the Sisbnd Osbnd Si bending vibrations at ω3 = 800-820 cm-1 and ω4 = 1000-1200 cm-1 (with longitudinal optical (LO) and transverse optical (TO) splitting bands) were relatively unaffected by the quenching, irradiation, and annealing treatments. In particular, the annealing process resulted in the disappearance of the defect centers; however, the LO and TO modes at the ω3 and ω4 bands were relatively unchanged. With the additional support of the ESR test results, we can conclude that the combined treatment processes can significantly enhance the radiation hardness properties of the optical fiber cladding materials.

  2. Effects of concentration and thermal annealing on the optical activation of Er implanted into GaN layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathish, N.; Pathak, A. P.; Devaraju, G.; Trave, E.; Mazzoldi, P.; Dhamodaran, S.; Kulkarni, V. N.

    2012-07-01

    The wide band gap semiconductor, GaN, has emerged as an important host for rare earth-electroluminescence. The annealing behaviour and lattice site location of Er implanted into GaN were studied with the Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS)/channelling and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. Also Er site dependence on the annealing temperature and implantation dose has been studied in detail. The optical properties of the Er-doped GaN system, evidencing their dependence on the parameters adopted during the synthesis procedure (Er implantation dose, annealing temperature) have been discussed. RBS/channelling measurements suggested that mostly Er occupy substitutional site and depends on the Er concentration. The main result is the activation of a typical Er giving rise to PL emission in the 1450-1650 nm range, related to radiative 4 I 13/2→4 I 15/2 transitions. Depending on the Er dose, we observe a specific behaviour linked to variation of the annealing temperature that strongly determines PL emission band. We observed a PL spectral shape with the main peak located at 1542 nm and shoulder peak at 1558 nm (and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 33 nm) with a series of weaker PL structures at 1519, 1572 and 1591 nm, due to the Stark sub-level splitting.

  3. Consideration on Isochronal Anneal Technique: From Measurement to Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Flament, O.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Leray, J.L.; Paillet, P.

    1999-03-09

    The isochronal anneal technique used to predict isothermal anneal behavior of MOS devices is analyzed as a function of experimental parameters. The effects of detrapping of trapped holes and compensating electrons are discussed.

  4. Investigation of the impact of annealing on global molecular mobility in glasses: optimization for stabilization of amorphous pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Luthra, Suman A; Hodge, Ian M; Pikal, Michael J

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of annealing on the molecular mobility in lyophilized glasses using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) techniques. A second objective that emerged was a systematic study of the unusual pre-T(g) thermal events that were observed during DSC warming scans after annealing. Aspartame lyophilized with three different excipients; sucrose, trehalose and poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) was studied. The aim of this work was to quantify the decrease in mobility in amorphous lyophilized aspartame formulations upon systematic postlyophilization annealing. DSC scans of aspartame:sucrose formulation (T(g) = 73 degrees C) showed the presence of a pre-T(g) endotherm which disappeared upon annealing. Aspartame:trehalose (T(g) = 112 degrees C) and aspartame:PVP (T(g) = 100 degrees C) showed a broad exotherm before T(g) and annealing caused appearance of endothermic peaks before T(g). This work also employed IMC to measure the global molecular mobility represented by structural relaxation time (tau(beta)) in both un-annealed and annealed formulations. The effect of annealing on the enthalpy relaxation of lyophilized glasses, as measured by DSC and IMC, was consistent with the behavior predicted using the Tool-Narayanaswamy-Moynihan (TNM) phenomenology (Luthra et al., 2007, in press). The results show that the systems annealed at T(g) -15 degrees C to T(g) -20 degrees C have the lowest molecular mobility. PMID:18200533

  5. Effect of annealing temperature on photoelectrochemical properties of nanocrystalline MoBi2(Se0.5Te0.5)5 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salunkhe, Manauti; Pawar, Nita; Patil, P. S.; Bhosale, P. N.

    2014-10-01

    Nanocrystalline MoBi2(Se0.5Te0.5)5 thermoelectric thin films have been deposited on ultrasonically cleaned glass and FTO-coated glass substrates by Arrested Precipitation Technique. The change in properties of MoBi2(Se0.5Te0.5)5 thin films were examined after annealing at the temperature 473 K for 3 h. The structural, morphological, compositional and electrical properties of thin films were characterized by X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, etc. Thermoelectric properties of the thin films have been evaluated by measurements of electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient in the temperature range 300-500 K. Our aim is to investigate the effect of annealing on behaviour of MoBi2(Se0.5Te0.5)5 thin films along with photoelectrochemical properties.

  6. Annealing effect on the magnetic induced austenite transformation in polycrystalline freestanding Ni-Co-Mn-In films produced by co-sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Crouïgneau, G.; Porcar, L.; Pairis, S.; Mossang, E.; Eyraud, E.; Bourgault, D.; Courtois, P.

    2015-01-21

    Ni-Co-Mn-In freestanding films, with a magneto-structural transformation at room temperature were successfully produced by co-sputtering and post-annealing methods leading to film composition mastering. For a post-annealing temperature of 700 °C, the phase transformation occurs slightly above room temperature, with a twisted martensitic microstructure phase observed at 300 K by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. Magnetization measurements on a polycrystalline film showed a phase transformation from a weakly magnetic martensite to a magnetic austenite phase. Moreover, an inverse magnetocaloric effect with an entropy variation of 4 J/kg K under 5 T was also measured. A simple magneto-actuation experiment based on the magnetic induced austenite transformation was also successfully completed. The possibility to insert such films in microsystems is clearly demonstrated in this work.

  7. Annealing effect on the magnetic induced austenite transformation in polycrystalline freestanding Ni-Co-Mn-In films produced by co-sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouïgneau, G.; Porcar, L.; Courtois, P.; Pairis, S.; Mossang, E.; Eyraud, E.; Bourgault, D.

    2015-01-01

    Ni-Co-Mn-In freestanding films, with a magneto-structural transformation at room temperature were successfully produced by co-sputtering and post-annealing methods leading to film composition mastering. For a post-annealing temperature of 700 °C, the phase transformation occurs slightly above room temperature, with a twisted martensitic microstructure phase observed at 300 K by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. Magnetization measurements on a polycrystalline film showed a phase transformation from a weakly magnetic martensite to a magnetic austenite phase. Moreover, an inverse magnetocaloric effect with an entropy variation of 4 J/kg K under 5 T was also measured. A simple magneto-actuation experiment based on the magnetic induced austenite transformation was also successfully completed. The possibility to insert such films in microsystems is clearly demonstrated in this work.

  8. SiO{sub 2}/SiC structures annealed in D{sub 2}{sup 18}O: Compositional and electrical effects

    SciTech Connect

    Pitthan, E. Corrêa, S. A.; Soares, G. V.; Boudinov, H. I.; Stedile, F. C.

    2014-03-17

    Effects of water vapor annealing on SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC structures formed following different routes were investigated using water isotopically enriched in {sup 18}O and {sup 2}H (D). Isotopic exchange between oxygen from the water vapor and oxygen from SiO{sub 2} films deposited on 4H-SiC was observed in the whole depth of the films, differently from the behavior of SiO{sub 2} films thermally grown on 4H-SiC. The highest amount of D was obtained in the sample with the highest negative fixed charge concentration, suggesting that the D incorporation occurs in defects in the structure that exist prior to the annealing. As a consequence of the water annealing, a significant reduction in the negative effective charge in metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors and the removal of the SiO{sub 2}/SiC interfacial region was observed, attributed to the reduction of the amount of SiO{sub x}C{sub y} compounds in the interfacial region.

  9. Annealing effect on the optical properties and laser-induced damage resistance of solgel-derived ZrO{sub 2} films

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Liping; Xu Yao; Zhang Lei; Sheng Yonggang; Wu Dong; Sun Yuhan

    2007-05-15

    By modifying some structural characteristics, the annealing process can have considerable effects on the optical performance of the solgel-derived ZrO{sub 2} xerogel films. Annealing at increasing temperature from 150 deg. C to 750 deg. C gives rise to first an increase of refractive index from 1.63 (at 633 nm) to 1.93 and then a decrease to 1.86 with the watershed temperature of 550 deg. C. This can be associated with the evolutions in both packing density and structure order of the films due to the removal of organic segments, material crystallization, and phase transformation. The optical bandgap is found to decrease from 5.63 to 4.97 eV over the entire temperature range, suggesting an increasing nonlinear absorption in the case of high-power laser irradiation. Moreover, annealing completely destroys the network structure of the xerogel films that is suspected to facilitate the energy relaxation. Thus, the combined effect of the greatly weakened endurance and possible enhanced absorption to irradiation laser leads to a monotonous decrease of the laser-induced damage threshold from 55 to 10 J/cm{sup 2} (at 1053 nm, 10 ns pulse duration, and R/1 testing mode)

  10. Annealing effect on the optical properties and laser-induced damage resistance of solgel-derived ZrO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Liping; Xu, Yao; Zhang, Lei; Sheng, Yonggang; Wu, Dong; Sun, Yuhan

    2007-05-01

    By modifying some structural characteristics, the annealing process can have considerable effects on the optical performance of the solgel-derived ZrO2 xerogel films. Annealing at increasing temperature from 150°Cto750°C gives rise to first an increase of refractive index from 1.63 (at 633 nm) to 1.93 and then a decrease to 1.86 with the watershed temperature of 550°C. This can be associated with the evolutions in both packing density and structure order of the films due to the removal of organic segments, material crystallization, and phase transformation. The optical bandgap is found to decrease from 5.63to4.97 eV over the entire temperature range, suggesting an increasing nonlinear absorption in the case of high-power laser irradiation. Moreover, annealing completely destroys the network structure of the xerogel films that is suspected to facilitate the energy relaxation. Thus, the combined effect of the greatly weakened endurance and possible enhanced absorption to irradiation laser leads to a monotonous decrease of the laser-induced damage threshold from 55to10 J/cm2 (at 1053 nm, 10 ns pulse duration, and R/1 testing mode).

  11. Catalyst-free growth of ZnO nanowires on ITO seed layer/glass by thermal evaporation method: Effects of ITO seed layer laser annealing temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsultany, Forat H.; Hassan, Z.; Ahmed, Naser M.

    2016-04-01

    Novel catalyst-free growth of ZnO nanowires (ZnO-NWs) on ITO seeds/glass substrate by thermal evaporation method, and effects of continuous wave CO2 laser thermal annealed seed layer on the morphology and properties of ZnO-NWs growth were investigated. The effects of sputtered ITO seed layer laser annealing temperature on the morphological, structural, and optical properties of ZnO-NWs was systematically investigated at temperatures 250, 350, and 450 °C, respectively. The surface morphology and structure of the seeds and the products of ZnO-NWs were characterized in detail by using field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Optical properties were further examined through photoluminescence, and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. A growth mechanism was proposed on the basis of obtained results. The results showed that the nanowires were strongly dependent on the seed layer annealing temperatures, which played an important role in nucleation and dissimilar growth of the nanowires with varying sizes and geometric shapes.

  12. Rapid thermal annealing effect on amorphous hydrocarbon film deposited by CH4/Ar dielectric barrier discharge plasma on Si wafer: Surface morphology and chemical evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Abhijit; Bhattacharayya, S. R.; Hippler, Rainer

    2009-05-01

    The effects of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on amorphous hydrogenated carbon-coated film on Si wafer, deposited by CH4/Ar dielectric barrier discharge plasma (at half of the atmospheric pressure), was examined. Bubbles-like structures were formed on the surface of the deposited carbon-coated film. The surface morphology studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which showed that the effect of RTA on the film changing the morphological property drastically at 600 °C and most of the bubbles started evaporating above 200 °C. The inbuilt energy dispersive x-ray in SEM gives the quantitative analysis of the annealed surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results of the as-deposited films agree with the IR results in that the percent of Si-CH3, Si-O-Si and C-O(H) stretching vibrational band in the film. Most of these bands disappeared as the sample was annealed at 600 °C in Ar medium.

  13. Effects of Annealing, Thermomigration, and Electromigration on the Intermetallic Compounds Growth Kinetics of Cu/Sn-2.5Ag Microbump.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Park, Gyu-Tae; Park, Jong-Jin; Park, Young-Bae

    2015-11-01

    The effects of annealing, thermomigration (TM), and electromigration (EM) on the intermetallic com- pound (IMC) growth kinetics of Cu/Sn-2.5Ag microbumps were investigated using in-situ scanning electron microscopy at 120-165 degrees C with a current density of 1.5 x 10(5) A/cm2. The IMC growth kinetics was controlled by a diffusion-dominant mechanism and a chemical-reaction-dominant mechanism with annealing and current-stressing conditions, respectively. Before all of the Sn was fully transformed into IMCs, the activation energies of the Cu3Sn IMCs were 0.54 eV, 0.50 eV, and 0.40 eV for annealing, TM, and EM, respectively, which is closely related to the acceleration effect of the interfacial reaction by electron wind force under current stressing. After all of the Sn was fully transformed into IMCs by reacting with Cu, the Cu3Sn IMC growth rates of the three structures became similar due to the reduced and similar diffusion rates inside the IMCs with and without current stressing. PMID:26726558

  14. Experimental quantum annealing: case study involving the graph isomorphism problem

    PubMed Central

    Zick, Kenneth M.; Shehab, Omar; French, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Quantum annealing is a proposed combinatorial optimization technique meant to exploit quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling and entanglement. Real-world quantum annealing-based solvers require a combination of annealing and classical pre- and post-processing; at this early stage, little is known about how to partition and optimize the processing. This article presents an experimental case study of quantum annealing and some of the factors involved in real-world solvers, using a 504-qubit D-Wave Two machine and the graph isomorphism problem. To illustrate the role of classical pre-processing, a compact Hamiltonian is presented that enables a reduced Ising model for each problem instance. On random N-vertex graphs, the median number of variables is reduced from N2 to fewer than N log2 N and solvable graph sizes increase from N = 5 to N = 13. Additionally, error correction via classical post-processing majority voting is evaluated. While the solution times are not competitive with classical approaches to graph isomorphism, the enhanced solver ultimately classified correctly every problem that was mapped to the processor and demonstrated clear advantages over the baseline approach. The results shed some light on the nature of real-world quantum annealing and the associated hybrid classical-quantum solvers. PMID:26053973

  15. Experimental quantum annealing: case study involving the graph isomorphism problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zick, Kenneth M.; Shehab, Omar; French, Matthew

    2015-06-01

    Quantum annealing is a proposed combinatorial optimization technique meant to exploit quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling and entanglement. Real-world quantum annealing-based solvers require a combination of annealing and classical pre- and post-processing; at this early stage, little is known about how to partition and optimize the processing. This article presents an experimental case study of quantum annealing and some of the factors involved in real-world solvers, using a 504-qubit D-Wave Two machine and the graph isomorphism problem. To illustrate the role of classical pre-processing, a compact Hamiltonian is presented that enables a reduced Ising model for each problem instance. On random N-vertex graphs, the median number of variables is reduced from N2 to fewer than N log2 N and solvable graph sizes increase from N = 5 to N = 13. Additionally, error correction via classical post-processing majority voting is evaluated. While the solution times are not competitive with classical approaches to graph isomorphism, the enhanced solver ultimately classified correctly every problem that was mapped to the processor and demonstrated clear advantages over the baseline approach. The results shed some light on the nature of real-world quantum annealing and the associated hybrid classical-quantum solvers.

  16. Combined effects of transition metal (Ni and Rh) substitution and annealing/quenching on the physical properties of CaFe2As2

    SciTech Connect

    Ran, S; Bud'ko, S L; Straszheim, W E; Canfield, P C

    2014-08-01

    We performed systematic studies of the combined effects of annealing/quenching temperature (TA/Q) and T=Ni, Rh substitution (x) on the physical properties of Ca(Fe1-xTx)2As2. We constructed two-dimensional, TA/Q-x phase diagrams for the low-temperature states for both substitutions to map out the relations between ground states and compared them with that of Co substitution. Ni substitution, which brings one more extra electron per substituted atom and suppresses the c-lattice parameter at roughly the same rate as Co substitution, leads to a similar parameter range of antiferromagnetic/orthorhombic phase space in the TA/Q-x space as that found for Co substitution, but the parameter range for superconductivity has been shrunk (roughly by a factor of 2). This result is similar to what is found when Co- and Ni-substituted BaFe2As2 are compared. On the other hand, Rh substitution, which brings the same amount of extra electrons as does Co substitution, but suppresses the c-lattice parameter more rapidly, has a different phase diagram. The collapsed tetragonal phase exists much more pervasively, to the exclusion of the normal, paramagnetic, tetragonal phase. The range of antiferromagnetic/orthorhombic phase space is noticeably reduced, and the superconducting region is substantially suppressed, essentially truncated by the collapsed tetragonal phase. In addition, we found that whereas for Co substitution there was no difference between phase diagrams for samples annealed for 1 or 7 days, for Ni and Rh substitutions a second, reversible effect of annealing was revealed by 7-day anneals.

  17. Effects of substrate annealing and post-crystallization thermal treatments on the functional properties of preferentially oriented (Pb,Ca)TiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poyato, R.; Calzada, M. L.; Pardo, L.

    2003-04-01

    <111> and <001>,<100> preferentially oriented calcium-modified lead titanate thin films have been studied. Effects of the substrate annealing and post-crystallization thermal treatment of the films on the texture and ferro-, piezo-, and pyroelectric properties have been analyzed and discussed. The annealing of the substrate has effect on the texture of <001>,<100>-oriented films and, as a consequence, produces an increase in the net polarization in the perpendicular direction to the plane of the film and in the pyroelectric coefficient. The annealing of the substrate does not affect the texture of <111>-oriented films, but the electrical properties at the electrode-substrate interface and, as a consequence, gives place to high internal electric fields leading to the highest spontaneous piezo- (5 pm V-1) and pyroelectric coefficients (25.0×10-9 C cm-2 K-1). The asymmetry that characterizes the functional properties of <111>-oriented films under poling with negative or positive polarity is also consequence of such a high internal field. This is accompanied with a remarkable field stability of the piezoelectric d33 coefficient when poling in the sense of the spontaneous polarization (d33˜45 pm V-1 under ±200 kV cm-1). The application of post-crystallization thermal treatment results in an enhancement of the ferroelectric and pyroelectric properties in all the films, by liberation of domains that were clamped by charged defects. Both the substrate and post-crystallization film annealing treatments lead to reach the highest values of remanent polarization (43 μC cm-2), pyroelectric coefficient (42.0×10-9 C cm-2 K-1), and figure of merit [13.3×10-6 (N m-2)-1/2] reported to date for sol-gel PTC films.

  18. Rapid thermal annealing effect on the spatial resistivity distribution of AZO thin films deposited by pulsed-direct-current sputtering for solar cells applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayachi, Boubakeur; Aviles, Thomas; Vilcot, Jean-Pierre; Sion, Cathy

    2016-03-01

    Room temperature deposited aluminium-doped zinc oxide thin films on glass substrate, using pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering, have shown high optical transmittance and low electrical resistivity with high uniformity of its spatial distribution after they were exposed to a rapid thermal annealing process at 400 °C under N2H2 atmosphere. It is particularly interesting to note that such an annealing process of AZO thin films for only 30 s was sufficient, on one hand to improve their optical transmittance from 73% to 86%, on the other hand to both decrease their resistivity from 1.7 × 10-3 Ω cm to 5.1 × 10-4 Ω cm and achieve the highest uniformity spatial distribution. To understand the mechanisms behind such improvements of the optoelectronic properties, electrical, optical, structural and morphological changes as a function of annealing time have been investigated by using hall measurement, UV-visible spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope imaging, respectively.

  19. The effect of different annealing temperatures on the structure and luminescence properties of Y2O3:Bi3+ thin films fabricated by spin coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, A.; Jafer, R. M.; Som, S.; Duvenhage, M. M.; Coetsee, E.; Swart, H. C.

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports on the structural, morphology and optical properties of Y2-xO3:Bix=0.005 micro-and nanophosphors synthesized via the spin coating method. The influence of different annealing temperatures (900-1200 °C) on the morphology, crystal structure and the photoluminescence (PL) properties of the synthesized films were studied in detail. The crystal structure of the films was investigated with X-ray diffraction. The presence of the three major diffraction peaks with Miller indexes (2 1 1), (2 2 2) and (4 0 0) indicated that the Y2-xO3:Bix=0.005 thin films were well-crystallized at 900 °C, 1000 °C, 1100 °C and 1200 °C. Additionally, extra diffraction peaks were observed for the sample that was annealed at 1200 °C. Those extra peaks were due to the formation of the Y2Si2O7 phase owing to the annealing induced changes in the crystal structure and chemical composition of the Y2-xO3:Bix=0.005 thin film. This may also be attributed to inter diffusion of atomic species between the Si substrate and the Y2-xO3:Bix=0.005 thin film at the high annealing temperature. Due to structure-sensitive properties of the Bi3+ ions, a blue shift of the centre PL emission band from 495 nm to 410 nm was clearly observed and explained in detail. The time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy results show the Si diffusion from the Si substrate, whereas, the scanning electron microscopy and the atomic force microscopy were used for the morphology analysis.

  20. DOE`s annealing prototype demonstration projects

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.; Nakos, J.; Rochau, G.

    1997-02-01

    One of the challenges U.S. utilities face in addressing technical issues associated with the aging of nuclear power plants is the long-term effect of plant operation on reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). As a nuclear plant operates, its RPV is exposed to neutrons. For certain plants, this neutron exposure can cause embrittlement of some of the RPV welds which can shorten the useful life of the RPV. This RPV embrittlement issue has the potential to affect the continued operation of a number of operating U.S. pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants. However, RPV material properties affected by long-term irradiation are recoverable through a thermal annealing treatment of the RPV. Although a dozen Russian-designed RPVs and several U.S. military vessels have been successfully annealed, U.S. utilities have stated that a successful annealing demonstration of a U.S. RPV is a prerequisite for annealing a licensed U.S. nuclear power plant. In May 1995, the Department of Energy`s Sandia National Laboratories awarded two cost-shared contracts to evaluate the feasibility of annealing U.S. licensed plants by conducting an anneal of an installed RPV using two different heating technologies. The contracts were awarded to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Center for Research and Technology Development (CRTD) and MPR Associates (MPR). The ASME team completed its annealing prototype demonstration in July 1996, using an indirect gas furnace at the uncompleted Public Service of Indiana`s Marble Hill nuclear power plant. The MPR team`s annealing prototype demonstration was scheduled to be completed in early 1997, using a direct heat electrical furnace at the uncompleted Consumers Power Company`s nuclear power plant at Midland, Michigan. This paper describes the Department`s annealing prototype demonstration goals and objectives; the tasks, deliverables, and results to date for each annealing prototype demonstration; and the remaining annealing technology challenges.