Science.gov

Sample records for anneaux par imagerie

  1. Nanoparticules d'or: De l'imagerie par resonance magnetique a la radiosensibilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Etienne M.

    Cette thèse approfondit l'étude de nanoparticules d'or de 5 nm de diamètre recouvertes de diamideéthanethioldiethylènetriaminepentacétate de gadolinium (DTDTPA:Gd), un agent de contraste pour l'imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM). En guise de ciblage passif, la taille des nanoparticules a été contrôlée afin d'utiliser le réseau de néovaisseaux poreux et perméable des tumeurs. De plus les tumeurs ont un drainage lymphatique déficient qui permet aux nanoparticules de demeurer plus longtemps dans le milieu interstitiel de la tumeur. Les expériences ont été effectuées sur des souris Balb/c femelles portant des tumeurs MC7-L1. La concentration de nanoparticules a pu être mesurée à l'IRM in vivo. La concentration maximale se retrouvait à la fin de l'infusion de 10 min. La concentration s'élevait à 0.3 mM dans la tumeur et de 0.12 mM dans le muscle environnant. Les nanoparticules étaient éliminées avec une demi-vie de 22 min pour les tumeurs et de 20 min pour le muscle environnant. Les nanoparticules ont été fonctionnalisées avec le peptide Tat afin de leur conférer des propriétés de ciblage actif La rétention de ces nanoparticules a ainsi été augmentée de 1600 %, passant d'une demi-vie d'élimination de 22 min à 350 min. La survie des souris a été mesurée à l'aide de courbes Kaplan-Meier et d'un modèle mathématique évalue l'efficacité de traitements. Le modèle nous permet, à l'aide de la vitesse de croissance des tumeurs et de l'efficacité des traitements, de calculer la courbe de survie des spécimens. Un effet antagoniste a été observé au lieu de l'effet synergétique attendu entre une infusion de Au@DTDTPA:Gd et l'irradiation aux rayons X. L'absence d'effet synergétique a été attribuée à l'épaisseur du recouvrement de DTDTPA:Gd qui fait écran aux électrons produits par l'or. De plus, le moyen d'ancrage du recouvrement utilise des thiols qui peuvent s'avérer être des capteurs de radicaux. De plus

  2. Caracterisation des occupations du sol en milieu urbain par imagerie radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codjia, Claude

    were able to devise a strategy of compensation of cardinal effects solely based on the responses of the objects according to their orientation from the plane of illumination through the radar's beam. It appeared that a compensation algorithm based on the radar cross section was appropriate. Some examples of the application of this algorithm on HH polarized RADARSAT-2 images are presented as well. Application of this algorithm will allow considerable gains with regard to certain forms of automation (classification and segmentation) at the level of radar imagery thus generating a higher level of quality in regard to visual interpretation. Application of this algorithm on RADARSAT-1 and RADARSAT-2 images with HH, HV, VH, and VV polarisations helped make considerable gains and eliminate most of the classification errors due to the cardinal effects.

  3. Developpement d'outils quantitatifs pour le suivi par imagerie TEP/TDM de la reponse a la chimiotherapie et de sa toxicite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croteau, Etienne

    L'objectif de ce projet de doctorat est de developper des outils quantitatifs pour le suivi des traitements de chimiotherapie pour le cancer du sein et de leurs effets cardiotoxiques a l'aide de l'imagerie TEP dynamique. L'analyse cinetique en TEP dynamique permet l'evaluation de parametres biologiques in vivo. Cette analyse peut etre utilise pour caracteriser la reponse tumorale a la chimiotherapie et les effets secondaires nefastes qui peuvent en resulter. Le premier article de cette these decrit la mise au point des techniques d'analyse cinetique qui utilisent la fonction d'entree d'un radiotraceur derive de l'image dynamique. Des corrections de contamination radioactive externe (epanchement) et de l'effet de volume partiel ont ete necessaires pour standardiser l'analyse cinetique et la rendre quantitative. Le deuxieme article porte sur l'evaluation d'un nouveau radiotraceur myocardique. Le 11C-acetoacetate, un nouveau radiotraceur base sur un corps cetonique, a ete compare au 11C-acetate, couramment utilise en imagerie cardiaque TEP. L'utilisation de 3H-acetate et 14C-acetoacetate ont permis d'elucider la cinetique de ces traceurs depuis la fonction d'entree et la captation par les mitochondries cardiaques qui reflete la consommation en oxygene, jusqu'a la liberation de leurs principaux metabolites reciproques (3H20 et 14CO2). Le troisieme et dernier article de cette these presente l'integration d'un modele qui evalue la reserve cardiaque de perfusion et de consommation en oxygene. Un modele de cardiomyopathie a ete etabli a l'aide d'un agent chimiotherapeutique contre le cancer du sein, la doxorubicine, reconnu comme etant cardiotoxique. Un protocole de repos/effort a permis d'evaluer la capacite d'augmentation de perfusion et de consommation en oxygene par le coeur. La demonstration d'une reserve cardiaque reduite caracterise la cardiotoxicite. La derniere contribution de cette these porte sur la mise au point de methodes peu invasives pour mesurer la

  4. Imagerie Resolue dans le Temps des Photons et Neutres Metastables Emis D'une Surface Par Stimulation Electronique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, Gregoire

    L'appareil que nous presentons ici a ete mis au point pour permettre d'accumuler des images numeriques, resolues dans le temps, de la desorption par stimulation electronique (DSE) d'ions positifs et negatifs, de photons et de neutres metastables, tout en conservant des capacites de base de diffraction d'electrons lents (DEL) et de transmission d'electrons lents (TEL). Le spectrometre comporte un monochromateur d'electrons a secteur cylindrique de 127^ circ dont l'optique de sortie permet la focalisation du faisceau d'electrons sur une large gamme d'energies. Le detecteur consiste en un empilement de galettes de microcanaux et d'une anode resistive a encodage de division de charges. La reponse spatiale du detecteur a ete calibree et plusieurs causes de non-linearite ont ete localisees et corrigees. Des methodes de correction materielle et logicielle des distorsions spatiales sont presentees. La resolution temporelle des evenements est obtenue en pulsant le faisceau d'electrons, et de facon synchrone la detection, laquelle est couplee a un micro-ordinateur. La premiere partie de ce travail est consacree a la caracterisation du spectrometre et la presentation de nombreux parametres operationnels, obtenus soit au moment de la conception, soit experimentalement. Suit la presentation de donnees de DEL et de DSE pour le systeme Ar/Pt(111) en films minces a 15K. Les sequences temporelles d'images de metastables d'Ar desorbes ont revele la presence de plusieurs populations distinctes, ayant des distributions angulaires et distributions d'energie cinetique que nous avons pu separer. Les fonctions d'excitation de l'emission de photons et de la desorption de differentes composantes de metastables, ainsi que la dependance de ces signaux sur l'epaisseur des films d'Ar, sont aussi presentees et analysees. Les techniques que nous avons developpees ont permis de cerner les mecanismes en jeu pour la desorption et la luminescence.

  5. Identification d'indicateurs de risque des populations victimes de conflits par imagerie satellitaire. Etude de cas: Le nord de l'Irak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubareka, Sarah Betoul

    Remote sensing and security, terms which are not usually associated, have found a common platform this decade with the conjuring of the GMOSS network (Global Monitoring for Security and Stability), whose mandate is to discover new applications for satellite-derived imagery to security issues. This study focuses on human security, concentrating on the characterisation of vulnerable areas to conflict. A time-series of satellite imagery taken from Landsat sensors from 1987 to 2001 and the SRTM mission imagery are used for this purpose over a site in northern Iraq. Human security issues include the exposure to any type of hazard. The region of study is first characterised in order to understand which hazards are and were present in the past for the region of study. The principal hazard for the region of study is armed conflict and the relative field data was analysed to determine the links between geographical indicators and vulnerable areas. This is done through historical research and the study of open-sourced information about disease outbreaks; the movements of refugees and the internally displaced; and humanitarian aid and security issues. These open sources offer information which are not always consistent, objective, or normalized and are therefore difficult to quantify. A method for the rapid mapping and graphing and subsequent analysis of the situation in a region where limited information is available is developed. This information is coupled with population numbers to create a "risk map": A disaggregated matrix of areas most at risk during conflict situations. The results show that describing the risk factor for a population to the hazard conflict depends on three complex indicators: Population density, remoteness and economic diversity. Each of these complex indicators is then derived from Landsat and SRTM imagery and a satellite-driven model is formulated. This model based on satellite imagery is applied to the study site for a temporal study. The output

  6. La place de l'imagerie par résonance magnétique dans le carcinome lobulaire du sein

    PubMed Central

    Bouzoubaa, Wail; Laadioui, Meryem; Alaoui, Fatime Zahra Fdili; Jayi, Sofia; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah

    2014-01-01

    Le carcinome lobulaire reste une entité histologique peu fréquente du cancer du sein, toute fois la place qu'occupe le cancer du sein actuellement dans la cancérologie féminine, justifie la connaissance des particularités de ce type de cancer mammaire. Le diagnostic paraclinique est basée sur le couple écho-mammographie a la recherche de multifocalité, multicentricité ou bilatéralité, d'où l'intérêt de l'IRM qui est la technique la plus sensible pour la mise en évidence de ces lésions et qui est devenue un examen de pratique courante dans le carcinome lobulaire du sein. Par le présent travail, et sous la lumière de la revue de la littérature, nous allons essayer de dégager les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques, et paracliniques, du carcinome lobulaire du sein, et insister sur les indications et l'intérêt de l'IRM dans la prise en charge de ce type histologique. PMID:25368710

  7. Etude par Imagerie à faible Niveau dans le proche Infrarouge d'une Emission de la haute Atmosphère

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautet, Pierre-Dominique

    2000-12-01

    requises pour de bonnes observations dans le domaine du proche infrarouge ont aussi été étudiées. Ensuite, la construction d'une station mobile de prise de vues est détaillée. Celle-ci doit permettre d'observer l'émission et d'obtenir des résultats exploitables par la suite. Trois méthodes d'observation ont été décrites: visuelle, photographique et à l'aide d'un détecteur CCD. La troisième, qui a été retenue, a été vue plus en détail. Le matériel utilisé, de la caméra à la plate-forme de prise de vues en passant par les objectifs et les filtres optiques, est ensuite décrit. Lorsque le matériel a été choisi, un protocole d'observation a été défini et mis au point. Le choix du site d'observation a été crucial. Plusieurs lieux géographiques ont été retenus et sont présentés dans le mémoire. Le déroulement d'une séance de prise de vue a été décrit afin de faciliter un futur programme d'observation. Deux séquences types d'observations ont été plus particulièrement détaillées: -la réalisation de panoramas permettant une étude des structures que fait apparaître l'émission, -la réalisation de séquences vidéos afin d'étudier la dynamique du phénomène. Dans une quatrième partie, je décris les méthodes de traitement des images qui ont été développées. Tout d'abord, des prétraitements sont appliqués aux images pour corriger les défauts (champ plat, offset,?). Ensuite, une méthode de restitution géographique permet d'obtenir une image plus exploitable de la couche émissive ; elle n'est alors plus observée à partir d'une station au sol, mais en employant une caméra virtuelle située à la verticale du site d'observation. Différents problèmes liés à cette méthode ont aussi été traités: réfraction atmosphérique proche de l'horizon, passage d'une surface atmosphérique à la surface du pixel correspondant, et effet de Van Rhijn. Plusieurs traitements ont été appliqués aux images pour faciliter leur

  8. Auditory Imagery: Empirical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d)…

  9. Pars Injuries in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Oren, Jonathan H; Gallina, Jason M

    2016-03-01

    Pars injuries are common causes of low back pain in adolescent athletes. Workup traditionally has included lumbar radiographs with oblique views and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). However, recent literature has demonstrated the accuracy of MRI as a diagnostic modality. Acute injuries may be amenable to bracing with the goal of a healed lesion. Most cases of spondylolysis will result in asymptomatic non-union, though pars repair is an option for symptomatic pars defects without spondylolisthesis. PMID:26977552

  10. Nonconsecutive Pars Interarticularis Defects.

    PubMed

    Elgafy, Hossein; Hart, Ryan C; Tanios, Mina

    2015-12-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis is a well-recognized condition occurring in adolescents because of repetitive overuse in sports. Nonconsecutive spondylolysis involving the lumbar spine is rare. In contrast to single-level pars defects that respond well to conservative treatment, there is no consensus about the management of multiple-level pars fractures; a few reports indicated that conservative management is successful, and the majority acknowledged that surgery is often required. The current study presents a rare case of pars fracture involving nonconsecutive segments and discusses the management options. In this case report, we review the patient's history, clinical examination, radiologic findings, and management, as well as the relevant literature. An 18-year-old man presented to the clinic with worsening lower back pain related to nonconsecutive pars fractures at L2 and L5. After 6 months of conservative management, diagnostic computed tomography-guided pars block was used to localize the symptomatic level at L2, which was treated surgically; the L5 asymptomatic pars fracture did not require surgery. At the last follow-up 2 years after surgery, the patient was playing baseball and basketball, and denied any back pain. This article reports a case of rare nonconsecutive pars fractures. Conservative management for at least 6 months is recommended. Successful management depends on the choice of appropriate treatment for each level. Single-photon emission computed tomography scan, and computed tomography-guided pars block are valuable preoperative tools to identify the symptomatic level in such a case. PMID:26665257

  11. Par Pond water balance

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs.

  12. Imagery Integration Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Tracy; Melendrez, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The Human Exploration Science Office (KX) provides leadership for NASA's Imagery Integration (Integration 2) Team, an affiliation of experts in the use of engineering-class imagery intended to monitor the performance of launch vehicles and crewed spacecraft in flight. Typical engineering imagery assessments include studying and characterizing the liftoff and ascent debris environments; launch vehicle and propulsion element performance; in-flight activities; and entry, landing, and recovery operations. Integration 2 support has been provided not only for U.S. Government spaceflight (e.g., Space Shuttle, Ares I-X) but also for commercial launch providers, such as Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) and Orbital Sciences Corporation, servicing the International Space Station. The NASA Integration 2 Team is composed of imagery integration specialists from JSC, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), who have access to a vast pool of experience and capabilities related to program integration, deployment and management of imagery assets, imagery data management, and photogrammetric analysis. The Integration 2 team is currently providing integration services to commercial demonstration flights, Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1), and the Space Launch System (SLS)-based Exploration Missions (EM)-1 and EM-2. EM-2 will be the first attempt to fly a piloted mission with the Orion spacecraft. The Integration 2 Team provides the customer (both commercial and Government) with access to a wide array of imagery options - ground-based, airborne, seaborne, or vehicle-based - that are available through the Government and commercial vendors. The team guides the customer in assembling the appropriate complement of imagery acquisition assets at the customer's facilities, minimizing costs associated with market research and the risk of purchasing inadequate assets. The NASA Integration 2 capability simplifies the process of securing one

  13. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear). PMID:20192565

  14. uPAR

    PubMed Central

    Uhrin, Pavel; Breuss, Johannes M.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-initiated angiogenesis requires both coordinated proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix provided by the urokinase plasminogen activator/urokinase receptor (uPA/uPAR) system and regulation of cell-migration provided by integrin–matrix interaction. Previously we have shown that stimulation of pericellular proteolysis induced by VEGF occurs via the VEGF receptor-2 leading to redistribution of uPAR to focal adhesions at the leading edge of endothelial cells. In our recent work published in Cardiovascular Research, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the uPAR-dependent modulation of VEGF-induced endothelial migration. By applying a micropatterning technique we described that VEGF stimulation results in complex formation between uPAR and α5β1-integrin on the cell surface. The subsequent internalization of this complex, important for receptor redistribution, was demonstrated by flow-cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Targeting of the interaction site between uPAR and α5β1 impairs receptor internalization and leads to the inhibition of endothelial cell migration in vitro and in an angiogenesis model in vivo. This proof-of-principle that the interface of uPAR and α5β1-integrin may represent a promising site to therapeutically target tumor angiogenesis raises hope for the development of an anti-angiogenic approach that is limited to only the mobilizing effect of VEGF to endothelial cells, and does not interfere with the inarguably positive effect of VEGF as survival factor. PMID:23076213

  15. Organizing motor imageries.

    PubMed

    Hanakawa, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few decades, motor imagery has attracted the attention of researchers as a prototypical example of 'embodied cognition' and also as a basis for neuro-rehabilitation and brain-machine interfaces. The current definition of motor imagery is widely accepted, but it is important to note that various abilities rather than a single cognitive entity are dealt with under a single term. Here, motor imagery has been characterized based on four factors: (1) motor control, (2) explicitness, (3) sensory modalities, and (4) agency. Sorting out these factors characterizing motor imagery may explain some discrepancies and variability in the findings from previous studies and will help to optimize a study design in accordance with the purpose of each study in the future. PMID:26602980

  16. MISR Field Campaign Imagery

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-23

      MISR Support of Field Campaigns Aerosol Arctic Research of the Composition of the ... Daily ARCTAS Aerosol Polar Imagery ​Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study ( GoMACCS ) ​July - ...

  17. THE MEASURES PAR PROJECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouin, R. J.; Franz, B.

    2009-12-01

    The solar energy available for photosynthesis, known as PAR, controls the growth of phytoplankton and, therefore, regulates the composition and evolution of marine ecosystems. Knowing the spatial and temporal distribution of PAR over the oceans is critical to understanding biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nutrients, and oxygen, and to address important climate and global change issues such as the fate of anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide. In view of this, a 12-year time series of PAR at the ocean surface, starting in September 1997, is being produced by the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group from SeaWiFS, MODIS-Terra, and MODIS-Aqua data. The product covers the global oceans, with a spatial resolution of about 9.3x9.3 km (equal area grid) and a temporal resolution of one day. PAR is computed as the difference between the 400-700 nm solar flux incident on the top of the atmosphere (known) and reflected back to space by the atmosphere and surface (derived from satellite radiance), taking into account atmospheric absorption (modeled). Knowledge of pixel composition is not required, eliminating the need for cloud screening and arbitrary assumptions about sub-pixel cloudiness. Combining data from satellite sensors with different equatorial crossing times accounts for the diurnal variability of clouds and, therefore, increases accuracy on a daily time scale. The processing system, including routine check of accuracy and control of quality, is designed to operate during the entire lifetime of SeaWiFS and MODIS, and to accommodate future sensors with ocean-color capabilities. Maps of daily, weekly, and monthly PAR obtained from individual sensors are presented, as well as merged products. Accuracy is quantified in comparisons with other satellite estimates, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis product, and in-situ measurements from fixed buoys and platforms. The good statistical performance makes the satellite PAR product suitable for large

  18. Measuring creative imagery abilities

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Dorota M.; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140

  19. Measuring creative imagery abilities.

    PubMed

    Jankowska, Dorota M; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140

  20. The Imagery-Creativity Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels-McGhee, Susan; Davis, Gary A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews historical highlights of the imagery-creativity connection, including early and contemporary accounts, along with notable examples of imagery in the creative process. It also looks at cross-modal imagery (synesthesia), a model of image-based creativity and the creative process, and implications for strengthening creativity by…

  1. BOREAS Level-0 NS001 TMS Imagery: Digital Counts in BIL Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne

    2000-01-01

    For BOREAS, the NS001 TMS imagery, along with the other remotely sensed images, was collected in order to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes detailed land cover and biophysical parameter maps such as fPAR and LAI. Data collections occurred over the study areas during the 1994 field campaigns.

  2. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, l’histologie et l’approche clinique au diagnostic de la pelade par plaques. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant la pathogenèse, le diagnostic et le pronostic de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme de perte pileuse auto-immune dont la prévalence durant une vie est d’environ 2 %. Des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de troubles auto-immuns concomitants, comme le vitiligo ou une maladie de la thyroïde, peuvent être observés dans un petit sous-groupe de patients. Le diagnostic peut souvent être posé de manière clinique en se fondant sur la perte de cheveux non cicatricielle et circulaire caractéristique, accompagnée de cheveux en « point d’exclamation » en périphérie chez ceux dont le problème en est aux premiers stades. Le diagnostic des cas plus complexes ou des présentations inhabituelles peut être facilité par une biopsie et un examen histologique. Le pronostic varie largement et de mauvais résultats sont associés à une apparition à un âge précoce, une perte importante, la variante ophiasis, des changements aux ongles, des antécédents familiaux ou des troubles auto-immuns concomitants. Conclusion La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte de cheveux périodiquement observée en soins primaires. Les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour identifier la pelade par plaques, déterminer la gravité de la maladie et poser le diagnostic différentiel approprié. De plus, ils sont en mesure de renseigner leurs patients à propos de l’évolution clinique de la maladie ainsi que du pronostic général selon le sous-type de patients.

  3. Automated imagery orthorectification pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Johnson, Brad; McMahon, Joe

    2009-10-01

    Automated orthorectification of raw image products is now possible based on the comprehensive metadata collected by Global Positioning Systems and Inertial Measurement Unit technology aboard aircraft and satellite digital imaging systems, and based on emerging pattern-matching and automated image-to-image and control point selection capabilities in many advanced image processing systems. Automated orthorectification of standard aerial photography is also possible if a camera calibration report and sufficient metadata is available. Orthorectification of historical imagery, for which only limited metadata was available, was also attempted and found to require some user input, creating a semi-automated process that still has significant potential to reduce processing time and expense for the conversion of archival historical imagery into geospatially enabled, digital formats, facilitating preservation and utilization of a vast archive of historical imagery. Over 90 percent of the frames of historical aerial photos used in this experiment were successfully orthorectified to the accuracy of the USGS 100K base map series utilized for the geospatial reference of the archive. The accuracy standard for the 100K series maps is approximately 167 feet (51 meters). The main problems associated with orthorectification failure were cloud cover, shadow and historical landscape change which confused automated image-to-image matching processes. Further research is recommended to optimize automated orthorectification methods and enable broad operational use, especially as related to historical imagery archives.

  4. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre les schémas thérapeutiques et les résultats des traitements pour la pelade par plaques, de même que les aider à identifier les patients pour qui une demande de consultation en dermatologie pourrait s’imposer. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant le traitement de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte pileuse qui touche à la fois les enfants et les adultes. Même s’il n’y a pas de mortalité associée à la maladie, la morbidité découlant des effets psychologiques de la perte des cheveux peut être dévastatrice. Lorsque la pelade par plaques et le sous-type de la maladie sont identifiés, un schéma thérapeutique approprié peut être amorcé pour aider à arrêter la chute des cheveux et possiblement faire commencer la repousse. Les traitements de première intention sont la triamcinolone intralésionnelle avec des corticostéroïdes topiques ou du minoxidil ou les 2. Les médecins de famille peuvent prescrire ces traitements en toute sécurité et amorcer ces thérapies. Les cas plus avancés ou réfractaires pourraient avoir besoin de diphénylcyclopropénone topique ou d’anthraline topique. On peut traiter la perte de cils avec des analogues de la prostaglandine. Les personnes ayant subi une perte de cheveux abondante peuvent recourir à des options de camouflage ou à des prothèses capillaires. Il est important de surveiller les troubles psychiatriques en raison des effets psychologiques profonds de la perte de cheveux. Conclusion Les médecins de famille verront de nombreux patients qui perdent leurs cheveux. La reconnaissance de la pelade par plaques et la compréhension du processus pathologique sous-jacent permettent d’amorcer un schéma thérapeutique approprié. Les cas plus graves ou r

  5. Alerts of forest disturbance from MODIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Dan; Kraft, Robin; Wheeler, David

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the methodology and computational strategy for a forest cover disturbance alerting system. Analytical techniques from time series econometrics are applied to imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to detect temporal instability in vegetation indices. The characteristics from each MODIS pixel's spectral history are extracted and compared against historical data on forest cover loss to develop a geographically localized classification rule that can be applied across the humid tropical biome. The final output is a probability of forest disturbance for each 500 m pixel that is updated every 16 days. The primary objective is to provide high-confidence alerts of forest disturbance, while minimizing false positives. We find that the alerts serve this purpose exceedingly well in Pará, Brazil, with high probability alerts garnering a user accuracy of 98 percent over the training period and 93 percent after the training period (2000-2005) when compared against the PRODES deforestation data set, which is used to assess spatial accuracy. Implemented in Clojure and Java on the Hadoop distributed data processing platform, the algorithm is a fast, automated, and open source system for detecting forest disturbance. It is intended to be used in conjunction with higher-resolution imagery and data products that cannot be updated as quickly as MODIS-based data products. By highlighting hotspots of change, the algorithm and associated output can focus high-resolution data acquisition and aid in efforts to enforce local forest conservation efforts.

  6. Kinesthetic imagery of musical performance.

    PubMed

    Lotze, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Musicians use different kinds of imagery. This review focuses on kinesthetic imagery, which has been shown to be an effective complement to actively playing an instrument. However, experience in actual movement performance seems to be a requirement for a recruitment of those brain areas representing movement ideation during imagery. An internal model of movement performance might be more differentiated when training has been more intense or simply performed more often. Therefore, with respect to kinesthetic imagery, these strategies are predominantly found in professional musicians. There are a few possible reasons as to why kinesthetic imagery is used in addition to active training; one example is the need for mental rehearsal of the technically most difficult passages. Another reason for mental practice is that mental rehearsal of the piece helps to improve performance if the instrument is not available for actual training as is the case for professional musicians when they are traveling to various appearances. Overall, mental imagery in musicians is not necessarily specific to motor, somatosensory, auditory, or visual aspects of imagery, but integrates them all. In particular, the audiomotor loop is highly important, since auditory aspects are crucial for guiding motor performance. All these aspects result in a distinctive representation map for the mental imagery of musical performance. This review summarizes behavioral data, and findings from functional brain imaging studies of mental imagery of musical performance. PMID:23781196

  7. Imagery of pineal tumors.

    PubMed

    Deiana, G; Mottolese, C; Hermier, M; Louis-Tisserand, G; Berthezene, Y

    2015-01-01

    Pineal tumors are rare and include a large variety of entities. Germ cell tumors are relatively frequent and often secreting lesions. Pineal parenchymal tumors include pineocytomas, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, pineoblastomas and papillary tumors of the pineal region. Other lesions including astrocytomas and meningiomas as well as congenital malformations i.e. benign cysts, lipomas, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, which can also arise from the pineal region. Imagery is often non-specific but detailed analysis of the images compared with the hormone profile can narrow the spectrum of possible diagnosis. PMID:25676911

  8. Imagery Rescripting for Personality Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arntz, Arnoud

    2011-01-01

    Imagery rescripting is a powerful technique that can be successfully applied in the treatment of personality disorders. For personality disorders, imagery rescripting is not used to address intrusive images but to change the implicational meaning of schemas and childhood experiences that underlie the patient's problems. Various mechanisms that may…

  9. Visual Imagery without Visual Perception?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertolo, Helder

    2005-01-01

    The question regarding visual imagery and visual perception remain an open issue. Many studies have tried to understand if the two processes share the same mechanisms or if they are independent, using different neural substrates. Most research has been directed towards the need of activation of primary visual areas during imagery. Here we review…

  10. Guided Imagery in Career Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, William C.; Eddy, John

    1982-01-01

    Suggests guided imagery can stimulate clients to become more aware of the role of personal values, attitudes, and beliefs in career decision making. Presents guidelines, examples, and implications to enable rehabilitation counselors to use guided imagery exercises in career counseling. (Author)

  11. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)1, PAR2 and PAR4 expressions in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LI, Si-Man; JIANG, Ping; XIANG, Yang; WANG, Wei-Wei; ZHU, Yue-Chun; FENG, Wei-Yang; LI, Shu-De; YU, Guo-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Here, we used reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and western blot to detect protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1, PAR 2 and PAR 4 expression in cancer tissues and cell lines of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and investigated the co-relationship between PAR expression and clinic-pathological data for esophageal cancer. The methylation of PAR4 gene promoter involved in esophageal carcinoma was also analyzed. By comparing the mRNA expressions of normal esophageal tissue and human esophageal epithelial cells (HEEpiC), we found that among the 28 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, PAR1 (60%) and PAR2 (71%) were elevated in 17 and 20 cases, respectively, and PAR4 (68%) expression was lowered in 19 cases. Whereas, in human esophageal squamous cells (TE-1 and TE-10), PAR1 and PAR2 expression was increased but PAR4 was decreased. Combined with clinical data, the expression of PAR1 in poorly differentiated (P=0.016) and middle and lower parts of the esophagus (P=0.016) was higher; expression of PAR4 in poorly differentiated carcinoma was lower (P=0.049). Regarding TE-1 and TE-10 protein expression, we found that in randomized esophageal carcinoma, PAR1 (P=0.027) and PAR2 (P=0.039) expressions were increased, but lowered for PAR4 (P=0.0001). In HEEpiC, TE-1, TE-10, esophageal and normal esophagus tissue samples (case No. 7), the frequency of methylation at the 19 CpG loci of PAR4 was 35.4%, 95.2%, 83.8%, 62.6% and 48.2%, respectively. Our results indicate that the expression of PAR1 and PAR2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is increased but PAR4 is decreased. Hypermethylation of the promoter of the PAR4 gene may contribute to reduced expression of PAR4 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25297082

  12. Evaluation of SPOT imagery data

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Z.; Brovey, R.L.; Merembeck, B.F.; Hopkins, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    SPOT, the French satellite imaging system that became operational in April 1986, provides two major advances in satellite imagery technology: (1) a significant increase in spatial resolution of the data to 20 m multispectral and 10 m panchromatic, and (2) stereoscopic capabilities. The structural and stratigraphic mapping capabilities of SPOT data and compare favorably with those of other available space and airborne remote sensing data. In the Rhine graben and Jura Mountains, strike and dip of folded strata can be determined using SPOT stereoscopic imagery, greatly improving the ability to analyze structures in complex areas. The increased spatial resolution also allows many features to be mapped that are not visible on thematic mapper (TM) imagery. In the San Rafael swell, Utah, TM spectral data were combined with SPOT spatial data to map lithostratigraphic units of the exposed Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks. SPOT imagery provides information on attitude, geometry, and geomorphic expressions of key marker beds that is not available on TM imagery. Over the Central Basin platform, west Texas, SPOT imagery, compared to TM imagery, provided more precise information on the configuration of outcropping beds and drainage patterns that reflect the subtle surface expression of buried structures.

  13. Learner Generated versus Instructor Induced Visual Imagery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenze, James S.

    The concepts of imagery, mathemagenic behaviors, and generative imagery are reviewed; and the learner's use of visual imagery is discussed. Several studies have supported the idea that imagery is an active mental process that gives birth to learning. The concept of mathemagenic control or manipulation is of interest to the instructional designer.…

  14. Imagery mismatch negativity in musicians.

    PubMed

    Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Knief, Arne; Pantev, Christo

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigated musical imagery in musicians and nonmusicians by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG). We used a new paradigm in which subjects had to continue familiar melodies in their mind and then judged if a further presented tone was a correct continuation of the melody. Incorrect tones elicited an imagery mismatch negativity (iMMN) in musicians but not in nonmusicians. This finding suggests that the MMN component can be based on an imagined instead of a sensory memory trace and that imagery of music is modulated by musical expertise. PMID:19673775

  15. The ASPRS Digital Imagery Product Guideline Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Kuper, Philip; Stanley, Thomas; Mondello, Charles

    2001-01-01

    The American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) Primary Data Acquisition Division is developing a Digital Imagery Product Guideline in conjunction with NASA, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), academia, and industry. The goal of the guideline is to offer providers and users of digital imagery a set of recommendatons analogous those defined by the ASPRS Aerial Photography 1995 Draft Standard for film-based imagery. This article offers a general outline and description of the Digital Imagery Product Guideline and Digital Imagery Tutorial/Reference documents for defining digital imagery requirements.

  16. Par Pond vegetation status 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  17. Immunopathogenic Background of Pars Planitis.

    PubMed

    Przeździecka-Dołyk, Joanna; Węgrzyn, Agnieszka; Turno-Kręcicka, Anna; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Pars planitis is defined as an intermediate uveitis of unknown background of systemic disease with characteristic formations such as vitreous snowballs, snowbanks and changes in peripheral retina. The incidence of pars planitis varies 2.4-15.4 % of the uveitis patients. The pathogenesis of the disease is to be determined in future. Clinical and histopathological findings suggest an autoimmune etiology, most likely as a reaction to endogenous antigen of unknown source, with T cells predominant in both vitreous and pars plana infiltrations. T cells subsets play an important role as a memory-effector peripheral cell. Snowbanks are formed as an effect of post inflammatory glial proliferation of fibrous astrocytes. There is also a genetic predisposition for pars planitis by human leukocyte antigen and several other genes. A coexistence of multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis has been described in numerous studies. Epiretinal membrane, cataract, cystoid macular edema, retinal detachment, retinal vasculitis, neovascularization, vitreous peripheral traction, peripheral hole formation, vitreous hemorrhage, disc edema are common complications observed in pars planitis. There is a need to expand the knowledge of the pathogenic and immunologic background of the pars planitis to create an accurate pharmacological treatment. PMID:26438050

  18. Dynamic aspects of musical imagery.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Andrea R

    2012-04-01

    Auditory imagery can represent many aspects of music, such as the starting pitches of a tune or the instrument that typically plays it. In this paper, I concentrate on more dynamic, or time-sensitive aspects of musical imagery, as demonstrated in two recently published studies. The first was a behavioral study that examined the ability to make emotional judgments about both heard and imagined music in real time. The second was a neuroimaging study on the neural correlates of anticipating an upcoming tune, after hearing a cue tune. That study found activation of several sequence-learning brain areas, some of which varied with the vividness of the anticipated musical memory. Both studies speak to the ways in which musical imagery allows us to judge temporally changing aspects of the represented musical experience. These judgments can be quite precise, despite the complexity of generating the rich internal representations of imagery. PMID:22524360

  19. Simulation of parafoil reconnaissance imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogler, Kent J.; Sutkus, Linas; Troast, Douglas; Kisatsky, Paul; Charles, Alain M.

    1995-08-01

    Reconnaissance from unmanned platforms is currently of interest to DoD and civil sectors concerned with drug trafficking and illegal immigration. Platforms employed vary from motorized aircraft to tethered balloons. One appraoch currently under evaluation deploys a TV camera suspended from a parafoil delivered to the area of interest by a cannon launched projectile. Imagery is then transmitted to a remote monitor for processing and interpretation. This paper presents results of imagery obtained from simulated parafoil flights in which software techniques were developed to process-in image degradation caused by atmospheric obscurants and perturbations in the normal parafoil flight trajectory induced by wind gusts. The approach to capturing continuous motion imagery from captive flight test recordings, the introduction of simulated effects, and the transfer of the processed imagery back to video tape is described.

  20. Imagery: Paintings in the Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Albert R.

    1986-01-01

    Describes using the overlapping areas of relaxation, meditation, hypnosis, and imagery as a counseling technique. Explains the methods in terms of right brain functioning, a capability children use naturally. (ABB)

  1. New Percepts via Mental Imagery?

    PubMed

    Mast, Fred W; Tartaglia, Elisa M; Herzog, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    We are able to extract detailed information from mental images that we were not explicitly aware of during encoding. For example, we can discover a new figure when we rotate a previously seen image in our mind. However, such discoveries are not "really" new but just new "interpretations." In two recent publications, we have shown that mental imagery can lead to perceptual learning (Tartaglia et al., 2009, 2012). Observers imagined the central line of a bisection stimulus for thousands of trials. This training enabled observers to perceive bisection offsets that were invisible before training. Hence, it seems that perceptual learning via mental imagery leads to new percepts. We will argue, however, that these new percepts can occur only within "known" models. In this sense, perceptual learning via mental imagery exceeds new discoveries in mental images. Still, the effects of mental imagery on perceptual learning are limited. Only perception can lead to really new perceptual experience. PMID:23060830

  2. Paraplégie compliquant une plaie abdominale antérieure par arme blanche

    PubMed Central

    Elahmadi, Brahim; Awab, Almahdi; El Moussaoui, Rachid; El Hijri, Ahmed; Azzouzi, Abderrahim; Alilou, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    Les traumatismes médullaires sont des complications rares des plaies abdominales antérieures par arme blanche. Son diagnostic est difficile parfois retardé. L'imagerie par résonance magnétique reste l'examen de choix. Le traitement dépend du tableau clinique et de la gravité de la souffrance médullaire. Le pronostic est corrélé à l’étendue et à la nature de la lésion médullaire. Nous rapportons un cas exceptionnel d'un traumatisme médullaire chez une patiente victime d'une plaie abdominale antérieure par arme blanche. PMID:25995808

  3. Exploration of locomotion in the ParA/ParB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindal, Lavisha; Emberly, Eldon

    2015-03-01

    In many bacteria the ParA/ParB system is responsible for actively segregating DNA during replication. ParB precessively moves by hydrolyzing DNA bound ParA-ATP forming a depleted ParA region in its wake. Recent in-vitro experiments have shown that a ParB covered bead can traverse a ParA bound DNA substrate. It has been suggested that the formation of a gradient in ParA leads to diffusion-ratchet like motion of the ParB bead but its origin and potential consequences requires investigation. We have developed a deterministic model for the in-vitro ParA/ParB system and show that any amount of spatial noise in ParA can lead to the spontaneous formation of its gradient. The velocity of the bead is independent of this noise but depends on the scale over which ParA exerts a force on the bead and the scale over which ParB hydrolyzes ParA from the substrate. There is a particular ratio of these scales at which the velocity is a maximum. We also explore the effects of cooperative vs independent rebinding of ParA to the substrate. Our model shows how the driving force for ParB originates and highlights necessary conditions for directed motion in the in-vitro system that may provide insight into the in-vivo behaviour of the ParA/ParB system.

  4. [Physiology of protease-activated receptors (PARs): involvement of PARs in digestive functions].

    PubMed

    Kawabata, A; Kuroda, R; Hollenberg, M D

    1999-10-01

    The protease-activated receptor (PAR), a G protein-coupled receptor present on cell surface, mediates cellular actions of extracellular proteases. Proteases cleave the extracellular N-terminal of PAR molecules at a specific site, unmasking and exposing a novel N-terminal, a tethered ligand, that binds to the body of receptor molecules resulting in receptor activation. Amongst four distinct PARs that have been cloned, PARs 1, 3 and 4 are activated by thrombin, but PAR-2 is activated by trypsin or mast cell tryptase. Human platelets express two distinct thrombin receptors, PAR-1 and PAR-4, while murine platelets express PAR-3 and PAR-4. Apart from roles of PARs in platelet activation, PARs are distributed to a number of organs in various species, predicting their physiological importance. We have been evaluating agonists specific for each PAR, using multiple procedures including a HEK cell calcium signal receptor desensitization assay. Using specific agonists that we developed, we found the following: 1) the salivary glands express PAR-2 mRNA and secret saliva in response to PAR-2 activation; 2) pancreatic juice secretion occurs following in vivo PAR-2 activation; 3) PAR-1 and PAR-2 modulate duodenal motility. Collectively, PAR plays various physiological and/or pathophysiological roles, especially in the digestive systems, and could be a novel target for drug development. PMID:10629876

  5. IMPROVING BIOGENIC EMISSION ESTIMATES WITH SATELLITE IMAGERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will review how existing and future applications of satellite imagery can improve the accuracy of biogenic emission estimates. Existing applications of satellite imagery to biogenic emission estimates have focused on characterizing land cover. Vegetation dat...

  6. NOAA's Use of High-Resolution Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hund, Erik

    2007-01-01

    NOAA's use of high-resolution imagery consists of: a) Shoreline mapping and nautical chart revision; b) Coastal land cover mapping; c) Benthic habitat mapping; d) Disaster response; and e) Imagery collection and support for coastal programs.

  7. Suomi NPP VIIRS Imagery evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillger, Donald; Seaman, Curtis; Liang, Calvin; Miller, Steven; Lindsey, Daniel; Kopp, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) combines the best aspects of both civilian and military heritage instrumentation. VIIRS has improved capabilities over its predecessors: a wider swath width and much higher spatial resolution at swath edge. The VIIRS day-night band (DNB) is sensitive to very low levels of visible light and is capable of detecting low clouds, land surface features, and sea ice at night, in addition to light emissions from both man-made and natural sources. Imagery from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite has been in the checkout process since its launch on 28 October 2011. The ongoing evaluation of VIIRS Imagery helped resolve several imagery-related issues, including missing radiance measurements. In particular, near-constant contrast imagery, derived from the DNB, had a large number of issues to overcome, including numerous missing or blank-fill images and a stray light leakage problem that was only recently resolved via software fixes. In spite of various sensor issues, the VIIRS DNB has added tremendous operational and research value to Suomi NPP. Remarkably, it has been discovered to be sensitive enough to identify clouds even in very low light new moon conditions, using reflected light from the Earth's airglow layer. Impressive examples of the multispectral imaging capabilities are shown to demonstrate its applications for a wide range of operational users. Future members of the Joint Polar Satellite System constellation will also carry and extend the use of VIIRS. Imagery evaluation will continue with these satellites to ensure the quality of imagery for end users.

  8. Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubbs, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation was to inform the ISS International Partners of the new NASA Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library (AVAIL) website. AVAIL is a new resource for the public to search for and download NASA-related imagery, and is not intended to replace the current process by which the International Partners receive their Space Station imagery products.

  9. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  10. Music, Hemisphere Preference and Imagery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Valerie N.; Zalanowski, Annette H.

    Two experiments were conducted to determine a possible relationship between the right hemisphere, music perception, and mental imagery. The first experiment compared two groups of college students, one of which showed a preference for left hemisphere thinking (n=22) and the other a preference for right hemisphere thinking (n=20), in order to test…

  11. Dialectical Imagery and Postmodern Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Kevin G.

    2006-01-01

    This article suggests utilizing dialectical imagery, as understood by German social philosopher Walter Benjamin, as an additional qualitative data analysis strategy for research into the postmodern condition. The use of images mined from research data may offer epistemological transformative possibilities that will assist in the demystification of…

  12. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C.; Liu, Jian

    The segregation of DNA prior to cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of the low-copy-number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of ParA ATPase and its stimulator protein ParB. Recent experiments suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion-ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. We develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB bound cargo. Paradoxically, the resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work sheds light on a new emergent phenomenon in which non-motor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos -- an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria.

  13. The ParB-parS Chromosome Segregation System Modulates Competence Development in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Attaiech, Laetitia; Minnen, Anita; Kjos, Morten; Gruber, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT ParB proteins bind centromere-like DNA sequences called parS sites and are involved in plasmid and chromosome segregation in bacteria. We previously showed that the opportunistic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae contains four parS sequences located close to the origin of replication which are bound by ParB. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we found here that ParB spreads out from one of these parS sites, parS(−1.6°), for more than 5 kb and occupies the nearby comCDE operon, which drives competence development. Competence allows S. pneumoniae to take up DNA from its environment, thereby mediating horizontal gene transfer, and is also employed as a general stress response. Mutating parS(−1.6°) or deleting parB resulted in transcriptional up-regulation of comCDE and ssbB (a gene belonging to the competence regulon), demonstrating that ParB acts as a repressor of competence. However, genome-wide transcription analysis showed that ParB is not a global transcriptional regulator. Different factors, such as the composition of the growth medium and antibiotic-induced stress, can trigger the sensitive switch driving competence. This work shows that the ParB-parS chromosome segregation machinery also influences this developmental process. PMID:26126852

  14. Mental Imagery in Depression: Phenomenology, Potential Mechanisms, and Treatment Implications.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Emily A; Blackwell, Simon E; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Renner, Fritz; Raes, Filip

    2016-03-28

    Mental imagery is an experience like perception in the absence of a percept. It is a ubiquitous feature of human cognition, yet it has been relatively neglected in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of depression. Imagery abnormalities in depression include an excess of intrusive negative mental imagery; impoverished positive imagery; bias for observer perspective imagery; and overgeneral memory, in which specific imagery is lacking. We consider the contribution of imagery dysfunctions to depressive psychopathology and implications for cognitive behavioral interventions. Treatment advances capitalizing on the representational format of imagery (as opposed to its content) are reviewed, including imagery rescripting, positive imagery generation, and memory specificity training. Consideration of mental imagery can contribute to clinical assessment and imagery-focused psychological therapeutic techniques and promote investigation of underlying mechanisms for treatment innovation. Research into mental imagery in depression is at an early stage. Work that bridges clinical psychology and neuroscience in the investigation of imagery-related mechanisms is recommended. PMID:26772205

  15. Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-06-30

    The parallel analysis toolkit (ParCAT) provides parallel statistical processing of large climate model simulation datasets. ParCAT provides parallel point-wise average calculations, frequency distributions, sum/differences of two datasets, and difference-of-average and average-of-difference for two datasets for arbitrary subsets of simulation time. ParCAT is a command-line utility that can be easily integrated in scripts or embedded in other application. ParCAT supports CMIP5 post-processed datasets as well as non-CMIP5 post-processed datasets. ParCAT reads and writes standard netCDF files.

  16. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C; Liu, Jian

    2015-12-22

    The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos-an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria. PMID:26647183

  17. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C.; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA–nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos—an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria. PMID:26647183

  18. Geomorphic analyses from space imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morisawa, M.

    1985-01-01

    One of the most obvious applications of space imagery to geomorphological analyses is in the study of drainage patterns and channel networks. LANDSAT, high altitude photography and other types of remote sensing imagery are excellent for depicting stream networks on a regional scale because of their broad coverage in a single image. They offer a valuable tool for comparing and analyzing drainage patterns and channel networks all over the world. Three aspects considered in this geomorphological study are: (1) the origin, evolution and rates of development of drainage systems; (2) the topological studies of network and channel arrangements; and (3) the adjustment of streams to tectonic events and geologic structure (i.e., the mode and rate of adjustment).

  19. Bistatic SAR: Imagery & Image Products.

    SciTech Connect

    Yocky, David A.; Wahl, Daniel E.; Jakowatz, Charles V,

    2014-10-01

    While typical SAR imaging employs a co-located (monostatic) RADAR transmitter and receiver, bistatic SAR imaging separates the transmitter and receiver locations. The transmitter and receiver geometry determines if the scattered signal is back scatter, forward scatter, or side scatter. The monostatic SAR image is backscatter. Therefore, depending on the transmitter/receiver collection geometry, the captured imagery may be quite different that that sensed at the monostatic SAR. This document presents imagery and image products formed from captured signals during the validation stage of the bistatic SAR research. Image quality and image characteristics are discussed first. Then image products such as two-color multi-view (2CMV) and coherent change detection (CCD) are presented.

  20. Cognitive constraints on motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Dahm, Stephan F; Rieger, Martina

    2016-03-01

    Executed bimanual movements are prepared slower when moving to symbolically different than when moving to symbolically same targets and when targets are mapped to target locations in a left/right fashion than when they are mapped in an inner/outer fashion [Weigelt et al. (Psychol Res 71:238-447, 2007)]. We investigated whether these cognitive bimanual coordination constraints are observable in motor imagery. Participants performed fast bimanual reaching movements from start to target buttons. Symbolic target similarity and mapping were manipulated. Participants performed four action conditions: one execution and three imagination conditions. In the latter they indicated starting, ending, or starting and ending of the movement. We measured movement preparation (RT), movement execution (MT) and the combined duration of movement preparation and execution (RTMT). In all action conditions RTs and MTs were longer in movements towards different targets than in movements towards same targets. Further, RTMTs were longer when targets were mapped to target locations in a left/right fashion than when they were mapped in an inner/outer fashion, again in all action conditions. RTMTs in imagination and execution were similar, apart from the imagination condition in which participants indicated the start and the end of the movement. Here MTs, but not RTs, were longer than in the execution condition. In conclusion, cognitive coordination constraints are present in the motor imagery of fast (<1600 ms) bimanual movements. Further, alternations between inhibition and execution may prolong the duration of motor imagery. PMID:25758054

  1. Role of PAR-4 in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Meynier, Sonia; Kramer, Marianne; Ribaux, Pascale; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Delie, Florence; Petignat, Patrick; Cohen, Marie

    2015-09-01

    Prostate apoptosis response-4 (PAR-4) is considered as a tumour suppressor due to its ability to selectively induce cell apoptosis in most cancer cells. However little is known about the role of PAR-4 in ovarian cancer. In this study, we investigated for the first time the role of PAR-4 in ovarian carcinogenesis. We showed that PAR-4 mRNA level is not significantly different between healthy and cancer ovarian cells. Immunohistochemistry on ovarian tissue showed that ovarian cancer cells are positive for PAR-4 nuclear and cytoplasmic staining whereas ovarian healthy cells are negative for PAR-4 nuclear staining. We then studied the role of PAR-4 in cell apoptosis. We determined that PAR-4 induces cell apoptosis in response to stimuli, in vitro, but is also involved in the relocation of GRP78 from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface of ovarian cancer cell line (SKOV-3 cells). In ovo, PAR-4 decreases ovarian tumour development and increases the response to taxol treatment. These observations suggest that PAR-4 is a very interesting therapeutic target against ovarian carcinogenesis. PMID:26246468

  2. Role of PAR-4 in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meynier, Sonia; Kramer, Marianne; Ribaux, Pascale; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Delie, Florence; Petignat, Patrick; Cohen, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Prostate apoptosis response-4 (PAR-4) is considered as a tumour suppressor due to its ability to selectively induce cell apoptosis in most cancer cells. However little is known about the role of PAR-4 in ovarian cancer. In this study, we investigated for the first time the role of PAR-4 in ovarian carcinogenesis. We showed that PAR-4 mRNA level is not significantly different between healthy and cancer ovarian cells. Immunohistochemistry on ovarian tissue showed that ovarian cancer cells are positive for PAR-4 nuclear and cytoplasmic staining whereas ovarian healthy cells are negative for PAR-4 nuclear staining. We then studied the role of PAR-4 in cell apoptosis. We determined that PAR-4 induces cell apoptosis in response to stimuli, in vitro, but is also involved in the relocation of GRP78 from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface of ovarian cancer cell line (SKOV-3 cells). In ovo, PAR-4 decreases ovarian tumour development and increases the response to taxol treatment. These observations suggest that PAR-4 is a very interesting therapeutic target against ovarian carcinogenesis. PMID:26246468

  3. Accuracy Comparison of Vhr Systematic-Ortho Satellite Imageries against Vhr Orthorectified Imageries Using Gcp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widyaningrum, E.; Fajari, M.; Octariady, J.

    2016-06-01

    The Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite imageries such us Pleiades, WorldView-2, GeoEye-1 used for precise mapping purpose must be corrected from any distortion to achieve the expected accuracy. Orthorectification is performed to eliminate geometric errors of the VHR satellite imageries. Orthorectification requires main input data such as Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Ground Control Point (GCP). The VHR systematic-ortho imageries were generated using SRTM 30m DEM without using any GCP data. The accuracy value differences of VHR systematic-ortho imageries and VHR orthorectified imageries using GCP currently is not exactly defined. This study aimed to identified the accuracy comparison of VHR systematic-ortho imageries against orthorectified imageries using GCP. Orthorectified imageries using GCP created by using Rigorous model. Accuracy evaluation is calculated by using several independent check points.

  4. Pars triangularis asymmetry and language dominance.

    PubMed Central

    Foundas, A L; Leonard, C M; Gilmore, R L; Fennell, E B; Heilman, K M

    1996-01-01

    The pars triangular is a portion of Broca's area. The convolutions that form the inferior and caudal extent of the pars triangularis include the anterior horizontal and anterior ascending rami of the sylvian fissure, respectively. To learn if there are anatomic asymmetries of the pars triangularis, these convolutions were measured on volumetric magnetic resonance imaging scans of 11 patients who had undergone selective hemispheric anesthesia (Wada testing) to determine hemispheric speech and language lateralization. Of the 10 patients with language lateralized to the left hemisphere, 9 had a leftward asymmetry of the pars triangularis. The 1 patient with language lateralized to the right hemisphere had a significant rightward asymmetry of the pars triangularis. Our data suggest that asymmetries of the pars triangularis may be related to speech-language lateralization. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8570622

  5. Initial coastal zone color scanner imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Clark, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner are presented and the atmospheric correction and bio-optical algorithms are reviewed. Comparison of imagery before and after atmospheric correction shows that water features such as color fronts and small scale eddies can be retrieved even through a hazy and horizontally inhomogeneous atmosphere. Imagery is also presented to show that features revealed in color are sometimes completely absent from simultaneous thermal imagery implying that color and thermal imagery can provide complementary rather than redundant information.

  6. Advanced Image Processing of Aerial Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodell, Glenn; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Hines, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Aerial imagery of the Earth is an invaluable tool for the assessment of ground features, especially during times of disaster. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have developed techniques which have proven to be useful for such imagery. Aerial imagery from various sources, including Langley's Boeing 757 Aries aircraft, has been studied extensively. This paper discusses these studies and demonstrates that better-than-observer imagery can be obtained even when visibility is severely compromised. A real-time, multi-spectral experimental system will be described and numerous examples will be shown.

  7. The Functional Equivalence between Movement Imagery, Observation, and Execution Influences Imagery Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sarah E.; Cumming, Jennifer; Edwards, Martin G.

    2011-01-01

    Based on literature identifying movement imagery, observation, and execution to elicit similar areas of neural activity, research has demonstrated that movement imagery and observation successfully prime movement execution. To investigate whether movement and observation could prime ease of imaging from an external visual-imagery perspective, an…

  8. The Intersection of Imagery Ability, Imagery Use, and Learning Style: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolles, Gina; Chatfield, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the intersection of the individual's imagery ability, imagery use in dance training and performance, and learning style. Thirty-four intermediate-level ballet and modern dance students at the University of Oregon completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R) and Kolb's Learning Style Inventory-3 (LSI-3). The four…

  9. Imagerie a haut contraste et caracterisation d'exoplanetes par la spectroscopie integrale de champ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, Jean-Francois

    The main goal of this thesis is the improvement of high-contrast imaging techniques enabling the direct detection of faint companions at small separations from their host star. More precisely, it answers some questions linked to the development of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), a second generation instrument for the Gemini telescopes. This instrument will use an integral field spectrometer (IFS) to characterize the detected faint companions and to attenuate the speckle noise limiting their detection. Moreover, it will use a combination of two deformable mirrors, the woofer and the tweeter, in its adaptive optics (AO) system in order to reach the atmospheric turbulence correction sought. The woofer corrects the low spatial frequency high amplitude aberrations while the ones with a high frequency and a low amplitude are compensated by the tweeter. First, the high-contrast imaging performance achieved by current on-line IFS on 8-10 m telescopes are investigated through the observation of the faint companion to the star GQ Lup using the IFS NIFS and the AO system ALTAIR presently in function on the telescope Gemini North. The angular differential imaging (ADI) technique is used to reach an attenuation of the speckle noise by a factor of 2 to 6. The JHK spectra obtained were used to constrain the mass of the companion to 8-60 M Jup making it most likely a brown dwarf. M Jup represents the mass of Jupiter. Current on-line IFS were conceived to be versatile so that they could be used in many astrophysical fields. Hence, their conception was not optimized for high-contrast imaging. The second part of this thesis objective was to build and test in the laboratory an IFS optimized for this task. Four speckle suppression algorithms were tested on the resulting data: the simple difference, the double difference, the spectral deconvolution and a novel algorithm developed in this thesis dubbed the spectral twin algorithm. We found the spectral twin algorithm to be the most efficient to detect both types of companions tested: methanated and non-methanated. The detection signal-to-noise ratio was improved by a factor up to 14 for the methanated companion and up to 2 for a non-methanated one. In the last part, problems linked to the wavefront correction split between two deformable mirrors are investigated. First, a method allowing to select the woofer key parameters such as its diameter, its number of actuators and its required stroke which influenced the overall instrument design is presented. Second, since GPI will use a Fourier reconstructor, we propose to split the command in the Fourier domain and to limit the modes sent to the woofer to the ones it can accurately reproduce. In GPI, this results in replacing two matrices of 1600 × 69 elements in the case of a classic command split scheme by a single matrix of 45 × 69 components with the proposed method.

  10. Imagerie par modulation acoustique de conductivite electrique destinee au diagnostic du cancer du sein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendron, Mathieu

    This thesis describes a new medical imaging technique for determining the electrical conductivity distribution of tissues in a body region with a resolution comparable to that of current ultrasound techniques. The new technique, henceforth referred to as "Acousto-Electric Conductivity Modulation" (AECM) imaging, is based on the interaction of a sound wave with an electrical field. In its simplest form, four electrodes located near the region to be imaged apply a low-amplitude electrical current and measure the potential difference arising from current flow in the tissues. A focused ultrasound transducer directs a pressure wave to a voxel of the region of interest, modifying its conductivity distribution and, as a result, the amplitude of the potential measured by the electrodes. An image of the conductivity distribution can thus be constructed point-by-point by moving the electrodes and transducer to scan the object. In this context, the acoustic wave acts as the localization agent while the electrical potential provides a measure of the local conductivity change that occurs in the voxel. The first model presented in the thesis is based on the use of bipolar acoustic waves for excitation. This waveform is generally used with narrow band transducers. Acoustic waves generated by an ultrasound transducer driven with a burst of sine waves consists of alternating compression and rarefaction phases which tend to cancel each other in terms of the conductivity changes they produce. However when the thickness of the target object is small compared to the wavelength of the acoustic wave, this cancelling effect will not occur and the AECM signals will have sufficiently high amplitude to achieve image reconstruction using successive transducer positions to scan the region of interest. By extracting from the spectra of the AECM signals the amplitude of the peak at the excitation frequency, a map of the acousto-electric sensitivity of the system can be obtained. This map is then used to reconstruct the electrical conductivity distribution. The second model presented in the thesis uses a unipolar acoustic wave to generate AECM signals of relatively large amplitude. There are two aspects related to this type of wave. The first aspect is that the acoustic modulation is unidirectional if the applied pressure is unidirectional. As a result, a positive pressure only produces an increase in electrical conductivity and this will result in a large AECM signal even when the thickness of the object is large. The second aspect concerns the shape of the acoustic field. Since the unipolar acoustic wave is not focused, it modulates the conductivity over a large area, and thus the associated AECM signals needs to be processed through a reconstruction algorithm so as to recover local conductivity. In this model, the data required for image reconstruction are acquired by rotating the transducer around the target object. An experimental setup has been developed during our project to get values of certain parameter that are required to define the numerical models. The setup comprises a large tank which is filled with water and in which are immersed the ultrasound transducer, a hydrophone and a measurement cell. The acousto-electric interaction takes place within this cell. A computer controlled positioning system allows precise displacements of the transducer relative to the hydrophone and the measurement cell. This cell comprises a cavity in which the object to be analyzed is placed and that is then filled with an electrolytic solution. The cavity is closed on two sides by an acoustic window to allow propagation of the ultrasound wave and on another side by six Ag/AgCl electrodes that are used to apply current and to measure the resulting electrical potential. Mammography is presently the most widely used medical imaging procedure for breast cancer screening. The average sensitivity of this technique is 80 % but it is less for younger women. According to recent studies, MRI offers a higher sensitivity and the possibility of detecting very smal

  11. Imagerie par modulation acoustique de conductivite electrique destinee au diagnostic du cancer du sein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendron, Mathieu

    This thesis describes a new medical imaging technique for determining the electrical conductivity distribution of tissues in a body region with a resolution comparable to that of current ultrasound techniques. The new technique, henceforth referred to as "Acousto-Electric Conductivity Modulation" (AECM) imaging, is based on the interaction of a sound wave with an electrical field. In its simplest form, four electrodes located near the region to be imaged apply a low-amplitude electrical current and measure the potential difference arising from current flow in the tissues. A focused ultrasound transducer directs a pressure wave to a voxel of the region of interest, modifying its conductivity distribution and, as a result, the amplitude of the potential measured by the electrodes. An image of the conductivity distribution can thus be constructed point-by-point by moving the electrodes and transducer to scan the object. In this context, the acoustic wave acts as the localization agent while the electrical potential provides a measure of the local conductivity change that occurs in the voxel. The first model presented in the thesis is based on the use of bipolar acoustic waves for excitation. This waveform is generally used with narrow band transducers. Acoustic waves generated by an ultrasound transducer driven with a burst of sine waves consists of alternating compression and rarefaction phases which tend to cancel each other in terms of the conductivity changes they produce. However when the thickness of the target object is small compared to the wavelength of the acoustic wave, this cancelling effect will not occur and the AECM signals will have sufficiently high amplitude to achieve image reconstruction using successive transducer positions to scan the region of interest. By extracting from the spectra of the AECM signals the amplitude of the peak at the excitation frequency, a map of the acousto-electric sensitivity of the system can be obtained. This map is then used to reconstruct the electrical conductivity distribution. The second model presented in the thesis uses a unipolar acoustic wave to generate AECM signals of relatively large amplitude. There are two aspects related to this type of wave. The first aspect is that the acoustic modulation is unidirectional if the applied pressure is unidirectional. As a result, a positive pressure only produces an increase in electrical conductivity and this will result in a large AECM signal even when the thickness of the object is large. The second aspect concerns the shape of the acoustic field. Since the unipolar acoustic wave is not focused, it modulates the conductivity over a large area, and thus the associated AECM signals needs to be processed through a reconstruction algorithm so as to recover local conductivity. In this model, the data required for image reconstruction are acquired by rotating the transducer around the target object. An experimental setup has been developed during our project to get values of certain parameter that are required to define the numerical models. The setup comprises a large tank which is filled with water and in which are immersed the ultrasound transducer, a hydrophone and a measurement cell. The acousto-electric interaction takes place within this cell. A computer controlled positioning system allows precise displacements of the transducer relative to the hydrophone and the measurement cell. This cell comprises a cavity in which the object to be analyzed is placed and that is then filled with an electrolytic solution. The cavity is closed on two sides by an acoustic window to allow propagation of the ultrasound wave and on another side by six Ag/AgCl electrodes that are used to apply current and to measure the resulting electrical potential. Mammography is presently the most widely used medical imaging procedure for breast cancer screening. The average sensitivity of this technique is 80 % but it is less for younger women. According to recent studies, MRI offers a higher sensitivity and the possibility of detecting very small tumors, thus allowing earlier treatment. The operating costs of MRI systems are at the moment too high to consider using the modality for breast cancer screening on a large scale. AECM imaging could eventually provide an interesting compromise between operating costs and the sensitivity required for screening patients of all ages. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  12. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Daedalus TMS Imagery Digital Counts in BIL Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The level-0 Daedalus Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) imagery, along with the other remotely sensed images, was collected to provide spatially extensive information about radiant energy over the primary BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) study areas. This information includes detailed land cover and biophysical parameter maps such as fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fPAR) and Leaf Area Index (LAI). Two flights of the Daedalus TMS instrument were made onboard the ER-2 aircraft on 16-Sep-1994 and 17-Sep-1994.

  13. PAR for the Course: A Congruent Pedagogical Approach for a PAR Methods Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Joyce D.; Hicks, Maria; Kalman, Rowenn; Miller, Jason

    2005-01-01

    In the past two years, three graduate students and a senior faculty member have co-taught a participatory action research (PAR) course to undergraduate and graduate students. In this article the co-teachers advocate a set of pedagogical principles and practices in a PAR-oriented classroom that establishes congruency with community PAR projects in…

  14. Vector statistics of LANDSAT imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R. R., Jr.; Underwood, D.

    1977-01-01

    A digitized multispectral image, such as LANDSAT data, is composed of numerous four dimensional vectors, which quantitatively describe the ground scene from which the data are acquired. The statistics of unique vectors that occur in LANDSAT imagery are studied to determine if that information can provide some guidance on reducing image processing costs. A second purpose of this report is to investigate how the vector statistics are changed by various types of image processing techniques and determine if that information can be useful in choosing one processing approach over another.

  15. Satellite imagery of the earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merifield, P.M.; Cronin, J.; Foshee, L.L.; Gawarecki, S.J.; Neal, J.T.; Stevenson, R.E.; Stone, R.O.; Williams, R.S., Jr.

    1969-01-01

    Photography of the Earth from spacecraft has application to both atmospheric and Earth sciences. Gemini and Apollo photographs have furnished information on sea surface roughness, areas of potential upwelling and oceanic current systems. Regional geologic structures and geomorphologic features are also recorded in orbital photographs. Infrared satellite imagery provides meteorological and hydrological data and is potentially useful for locating fresh water springs along coastal areas, sources of geothermal power and volcanic activity. Ground and airborne surveys are being undertaken to create a basis for the interpretation of data obtained from future satellite systems.

  16. Beyond visual imagery: how modality-specific is enhanced mental imagery in synesthesia?

    PubMed

    Spiller, Mary Jane; Jonas, Clare N; Simner, Julia; Jansari, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia based in visual modalities has been associated with reports of vivid visual imagery. We extend this finding to consider whether other forms of synesthesia are also associated with enhanced imagery, and whether this enhancement reflects the modality of synesthesia. We used self-report imagery measures across multiple sensory modalities, comparing synesthetes' responses (with a variety of forms of synesthesia) to those of non-synesthete matched controls. Synesthetes reported higher levels of visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory and tactile imagery and a greater level of imagery use. Furthermore, their reported enhanced imagery is restricted to the modalities involved in the individual's synesthesia. There was also a relationship between the number of forms of synesthesia an individual has, and the reported vividness of their imagery, highlighting the need for future research to consider the impact of multiple forms of synesthesia. We also recommend the use of behavioral measures to validate these self-report findings. PMID:25460242

  17. Imagery, Music, Cognitive Style and Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Valerie N.; Zalanowski, Annette

    Paired associate memory was tested with imagery and repetition instructions, with and without background music. Subjects were 64 students enrolled in an introductory psychology course. Music was found to have no effect with imagery instructions, but significantly improved performance with the repetition instructions. Music had different effects on…

  18. Alcohol imagery on New Zealand television

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Rob; Ketchel, Juanita; Reeder, Anthony I

    2007-01-01

    Background To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ) television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral and promotional imagery; and the mean number of scenes with alcohol per hour, and characteristics of scenes in which alcohol featured. Results There were 648 separate depictions of alcohol imagery across the week, with an average of one scene every nine minutes. Scenes depicting uncritical imagery outnumbered scenes showing possible adverse health consequences of drinking by 12 to 1. Conclusion The evidence points to a large amount of alcohol imagery incidental to storylines in programming on NZ television. Alcohol is also used in many advertisements to market non-alcohol goods and services. More attention needs to be paid to the extent of alcohol imagery on television from the industry, the government and public health practitioners. Health education with young people could raise critical awareness of the way alcohol imagery is presented on television. PMID:17270053

  19. Mental Imagery and Visual Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Keogh, Rebecca; Pearson, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Visual working memory provides an essential link between past and future events. Despite recent efforts, capacity limits, their genesis and the underlying neural structures of visual working memory remain unclear. Here we show that performance in visual working memory - but not iconic visual memory - can be predicted by the strength of mental imagery as assessed with binocular rivalry in a given individual. In addition, for individuals with strong imagery, modulating the background luminance diminished performance on visual working memory and imagery tasks, but not working memory for number strings. This suggests that luminance signals were disrupting sensory-based imagery mechanisms and not a general working memory system. Individuals with poor imagery still performed above chance in the visual working memory task, but their performance was not affected by the background luminance, suggesting a dichotomy in strategies for visual working memory: individuals with strong mental imagery rely on sensory-based imagery to support mnemonic performance, while those with poor imagery rely on different strategies. These findings could help reconcile current controversy regarding the mechanism and location of visual mnemonic storage. PMID:22195024

  20. Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polland, Mark J.

    In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…

  1. How Visual Imagery Interferes with Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craver-Lemley, Catherine; Reeves, Adam

    1992-01-01

    The Perky effect, identified in 1910, is the reduction in performance from the no-imagery to the imagery condition. A series of experiments with over 100 undergraduates and graduates shows that the reduction reflects a true reduction in visual sensitivity, not just alteration in criteria for responding or response organization. (SLD)

  2. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  3. Cognitive maps in imagery neglect.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Liana; Ranieri, Giulia; Nemmi, Federico; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2012-04-01

    Patients with imagery neglect (RI+) show peculiar difficulties in orienting themselves in the environment. Navigational impairments could be due to a deficit in creating or using a mental representation of the environment (Guariglia, Piccardi, Iaria, Nico, & Pizzamiglio, 2005) or, according to the BBB model (Burgess, Becker, King, & O'Keefe, 2001), to a specific deficit in a mechanism that transforms an allocentric representation into an egocentric one and vice versa. Previous studies, however, do not allow discerning between a deficit in forming or in using a cognitive map, taking no notice of the fact that these are two different abilities underlain by different neuroanatomical areas, which could be independently impaired. Furthermore, the BBB model has never been verified in a population of brain-damaged patients. Therefore, we administered two tasks that separately assess the ability to create and use a cognitive map of the environment to 28 right brain-damaged patients (4 patients with imagery neglect and 4 patients with perceptual neglect) and 11 healthy participants. RI+ patients showed no specific deficit in creating or using a cognitive map, but failed to transform an egocentric representation of the environment into an allocentric one and vice versa, as predicted by the BBB model. PMID:22310104

  4. Commercial imagery archive product development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakkas, Alysa

    1999-12-01

    The Lockheed Martin (LM) team had garnered over a decade of operational experience in digital imagery management and analysis for the US Government at numerous worldwide sites. Recently, it set out to create a new commercial product to serve the needs of large-scale imagery archiving and analysis markets worldwide. LM decided to provide a turnkey commercial solution to receive, store, retrieve, process, analyze and disseminate in 'push' or 'pull' modes components and adapted and developed its own algorithms to provide added functionality not commercially available elsewhere. The resultant product, Intelligent Library System, satisfies requirements for (a) a potentially unbounded, data archive automated workflow management for increased user productivity; (c) automatic tracking and management of files stored on shelves; (d) ability to ingest, process and disseminate data involves with bandwidths ranging up to multi-gigabit per second; (e) access through a thin client- to-server network environment; (f) multiple interactive users needing retrieval of filters in seconds from both archived images or in real time, and (g) scalability that maintains information throughput performance as the size of the digital library grows.

  5. Imagining predictions: mental imagery as mental emulation

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Samuel T.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    We argue that the primary function of mental imagery is to allow us to generate specific predictions based upon past experience. All imagery allows us to answer ‘what if’ questions by making explicit and accessible the likely consequences of being in a specific situation or performing a specific action. Imagery is also characterized by its reliance on perceptual representations and activation of perceptual brain systems. We use this conception of imagery to argue that all imagery is simulation—more specifically, it is a specific type of simulation in which the mental processes that ‘run’ the simulation emulate those that would actually operate in the simulated scenario. This type of simulation, which we label emulation, has benefits over other types of simulations that merely mimic the content of the simulated scenario. PMID:19528008

  6. Mental Imagery: Functional Mechanisms and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Joel; Naselaris, Thomas; Holmes, Emily A.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Mental imagery research has weathered both disbelief of the phenomenon and inherent methodological limitations. Here we review recent behavioral, brain imaging, and clinical research that has reshaped our understanding of mental imagery. Research supports the claim that visual mental imagery is a depictive internal representation that functions like a weak form of perception. Brain imaging work has demonstrated that neural representations of mental and perceptual images resemble one another as early as the primary visual cortex (V1). Activity patterns in V1 encode mental images and perceptual images via a common set of low-level depictive visual features. Recent translational and clinical research reveals the pivotal role that imagery plays in many mental disorders and suggests how clinicians can utilize imagery in treatment. PMID:26412097

  7. ParAB Partition Dynamics in Firmicutes: Nucleoid Bound ParA Captures and Tethers ParB-Plasmid Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, Virginia S.; Volante, Andrea; Soberón, Nora E.; Lurz, Rudi; Ayora, Silvia; Alonso, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    In Firmicutes, small homodimeric ParA-like (δ2) and ParB-like (ω2) proteins, in concert with cis-acting plasmid-borne parS and the host chromosome, secure stable plasmid inheritance in a growing bacterial population. This study shows that (ω:YFP)2 binding to parS facilitates plasmid clustering in the cytosol. (δ:GFP)2 requires ATP binding but not hydrolysis to localize onto the cell’s nucleoid as a fluorescent cloud. The interaction of (δ:CFP)2 or δ2 bound to the nucleoid with (ω:YFP)2 foci facilitates plasmid capture, from a very broad distribution, towards the nucleoid and plasmid pairing. parS-bound ω2 promotes redistribution of (δ:GFP)2, leading to the dynamic release of (δ:GFP)2 from the nucleoid, in a process favored by ATP hydrolysis and protein-protein interaction. (δD60A:GFP)2, which binds but cannot hydrolyze ATP, also forms unstable complexes on the nucleoid. In the presence of ω2, (δD60A:GFP)2 accumulates foci or patched structures on the nucleoid. We propose that (δ:GFP)2 binding to different nucleoid regions and to ω2-parS might generate (δ:GFP)2 gradients that could direct plasmid movement. The iterative pairing and unpairing cycles may tether plasmids equidistantly on the nucleoid to ensure faithful plasmid segregation by a mechanism compatible with the diffusion-ratchet mechanism as proposed from in vitro reconstituted systems. PMID:26161642

  8. Motor imagery facilitates force field learning.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Muhammad Nabeel; Tomi, Naoki; Ito, Koji

    2011-06-13

    Humans have the ability to produce an internal reproduction of a specific motor action without any overt motor output. Recent findings show that the processes underlying motor imagery are similar to those active during motor execution and both share common neural substrates. This suggests that the imagery of motor movements might play an important role in acquiring new motor skills. In this study we used haptic robot in conjunction with motor imagery technique to improve learning in a robot-based adaptation task. Two groups of subjects performed reaching movements with or without motor imagery in a velocity-dependent and position-dependent mixed force field. The groups performed movements with motor imagery produced higher after effects and decreased muscle co-contraction with respect to no-motor imagery group. These results showed a positive influence of motor imagery on acquiring new motor skill and suggest that motor learning can be facilitated by mental practice and could be used to increase the rate of adaptation. PMID:21555118

  9. Binary coding for hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Chang, Chein-I.; Chang, Chein-Chi; Lin, Chinsu

    2004-10-01

    Binary coding is one of simplest ways to characterize spectral features. One commonly used method is a binary coding-based image software system, called Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) for remotely sensed imagery developed by Mazer et al. For a given spectral signature, the SPAM calculates its spectral mean and inter-band spectral difference and uses them as thresholds to generate a binary code word for this particular spectral signature. Such coding scheme is generally effective and also very simple to implement. This paper revisits the SPAM and further develops three new SPAM-based binary coding methods, called equal probability partition (EPP) binary coding, halfway partition (HP) binary coding and median partition (MP) binary coding. These three binary coding methods along with the SPAM well be evaluated for spectral discrimination and identification. In doing so, a new criterion, called a posteriori discrimination probability (APDP) is also introduced for performance measure.

  10. Sonar imagery of mobile targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medynski, D.; Dorey, Ph.

    A spectral autoregression model is presented for extracting imagery from the brilliant reflections of pure tone sonar signals reflected from a moving target. The model is intended for bypassing the resolution degradation normally caused by temporal and frequency shifts. The Doppler shift caused by a large, moving object (100 m long) is shown to be large enough at a 1000 m distance with a 30 kHz signal that sequential autospectral analysis of the shifts can provide transverse image data of the target. A Fourier transformation would be inadequate for characterizing the difference in the return signals. The autoregression analysis proceeds by pattern recognition and error prediction steps at a set time interval. A SNR of 20 dB is obtained, which exceeds that available using PCM techniques.

  11. Crop identification using ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, M. L.; Heilman, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Digital analysis of August 15 ERTS-I imagery for southeastern South Dakota was performed to determine the feasibility of conducting crop surveys from satellites. Selected areas of bands 4, 5, 6, and 7 positive transparencies were converted to digital form utilizing Signal Analysis and Dissemination Equipment (SADE). The optical transmission values were printed out in a spatial format. Visual analysis of the printouts indicated that cultivated areas were readily distinguished from non-cultivated areas in all four bands. Bare soil was easily recognized in all four bands. Corn and soybeans, the two major crops in the area, were treated as separate classes rather than as a single class called row crops. Bands 6 and 7 provided good results in distinguishing between corn and soybeans.

  12. Loss of form vision impairs spatial imagery

    PubMed Central

    Occelli, Valeria; Lin, Jonathan B.; Lacey, Simon; Sathian, K.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported inconsistent results when comparing spatial imagery performance in the blind and the sighted, with some, but not all, studies demonstrating deficits in the blind. Here, we investigated the effect of visual status and individual preferences (“cognitive style”) on performance of a spatial imagery task. Participants with blindness resulting in the loss of form vision at or after age 6, and age- and gender-matched sighted participants, performed a spatial imagery task requiring memorization of a 4 × 4 lettered matrix and subsequent mental construction of shapes within the matrix from four-letter auditory cues. They also completed the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale (SBSoDS) and a self-evaluation of cognitive style. The sighted participants also completed the Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (OSIVQ). Visual status affected performance on the spatial imagery task: the blind performed significantly worse than the sighted, independently of the age at which form vision was completely lost. Visual status did not affect the distribution of preferences based on self-reported cognitive style. Across all participants, self-reported verbalizer scores were significantly negatively correlated with accuracy on the spatial imagery task. There was a positive correlation between the SBSoDS score and accuracy on the spatial imagery task, across all participants, indicating that a better sense of direction is related to a more proficient spatial representation and that the imagery task indexes ecologically relevant spatial abilities. Moreover, the older the participants were, the worse their performance was, indicating a detrimental effect of age on spatial imagery performance. Thus, spatial skills represent an important target for rehabilitative approaches to visual impairment, and individual differences, which can modulate performance, should be taken into account in such approaches. PMID:24678294

  13. Loss of form vision impairs spatial imagery.

    PubMed

    Occelli, Valeria; Lin, Jonathan B; Lacey, Simon; Sathian, K

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported inconsistent results when comparing spatial imagery performance in the blind and the sighted, with some, but not all, studies demonstrating deficits in the blind. Here, we investigated the effect of visual status and individual preferences ("cognitive style") on performance of a spatial imagery task. Participants with blindness resulting in the loss of form vision at or after age 6, and age- and gender-matched sighted participants, performed a spatial imagery task requiring memorization of a 4 × 4 lettered matrix and subsequent mental construction of shapes within the matrix from four-letter auditory cues. They also completed the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale (SBSoDS) and a self-evaluation of cognitive style. The sighted participants also completed the Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (OSIVQ). Visual status affected performance on the spatial imagery task: the blind performed significantly worse than the sighted, independently of the age at which form vision was completely lost. Visual status did not affect the distribution of preferences based on self-reported cognitive style. Across all participants, self-reported verbalizer scores were significantly negatively correlated with accuracy on the spatial imagery task. There was a positive correlation between the SBSoDS score and accuracy on the spatial imagery task, across all participants, indicating that a better sense of direction is related to a more proficient spatial representation and that the imagery task indexes ecologically relevant spatial abilities. Moreover, the older the participants were, the worse their performance was, indicating a detrimental effect of age on spatial imagery performance. Thus, spatial skills represent an important target for rehabilitative approaches to visual impairment, and individual differences, which can modulate performance, should be taken into account in such approaches. PMID:24678294

  14. The Sport Imagery Questionnaire for Children (SIQ-C)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, C. R.; Munroe-Chandler, K. J.; Fishburne, G. J.; Hall, N. D.

    2009-01-01

    Athletes of all ages report using imagery extensively to enhance their sport performance. The Sport Imagery Questionnaire (Hall, Mack, Paivio, & Hausenblas, 1998) was developed to assess cognitive and motivational imagery used by adult athletes. No such instrument currently exists to measure the use of imagery by young athletes. The aim of the…

  15. The functional alterations associated with motor imagery training: a comparison between motor execution and motor imagery of sequential finger tapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hang; Yao, Li; Long, Zhiying

    2011-03-01

    Motor imagery training, as an effective strategy, has been more and more applied to mental disorders rehabilitation and motor skill learning. Studies on the neural mechanism underlying motor imagery have suggested that such effectiveness may be related to the functional congruence between motor execution and motor imagery. However, as compared to the studies on motor imagery, the studies on motor imagery training are much fewer. The functional alterations associated with motor imagery training and the effectiveness of motor imagery training on motor performance improvement still needs further investigation. Using fMRI, we employed a sequential finger tapping paradigm to explore the functional alterations associated with motor imagery training in both motor execution and motor imagery task. We hypothesized through 14 consecutive days motor imagery training, the motor performance could be improved and the functional congruence between motor execution and motor imagery would be sustained form pre-training phase to post-training phase. Our results confirmed the effectiveness of motor imagery training in improving motor performance and demonstrated in both pre and post-training phases, motor imagery and motor execution consistently sustained the congruence in functional neuroanatomy, including SMA (supplementary motor cortex), PMA (premotor area); M1( primary motor cortex) and cerebellum. Moreover, for both execution and imagery tasks, a similar functional alteration was observed in fusiform through motor imagery training. These findings provided an insight into the effectiveness of motor imagery training and suggested its potential therapeutic value in motor rehabilitation.

  16. Cortical activity during motor execution, motor imagery, and imagery-based online feedback

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kai J.; Schalk, Gerwin; Fetz, Eberhard E.; den Nijs, Marcel; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Rao, Rajesh P. N.

    2010-01-01

    Imagery of motor movement plays an important role in learning of complex motor skills, from learning to serve in tennis to perfecting a pirouette in ballet. What and where are the neural substrates that underlie motor imagery-based learning? We measured electrocorticographic cortical surface potentials in eight human subjects during overt action and kinesthetic imagery of the same movement, focusing on power in “high frequency” (76–100 Hz) and “low frequency” (8–32 Hz) ranges. We quantitatively establish that the spatial distribution of local neuronal population activity during motor imagery mimics the spatial distribution of activity during actual motor movement. By comparing responses to electrocortical stimulation with imagery-induced cortical surface activity, we demonstrate the role of primary motor areas in movement imagery. The magnitude of imagery-induced cortical activity change was ∼25% of that associated with actual movement. However, when subjects learned to use this imagery to control a computer cursor in a simple feedback task, the imagery-induced activity change was significantly augmented, even exceeding that of overt movement. PMID:20160084

  17. Comparative cactus architecture and par interception

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, G.N.; Nobel, P.S. )

    1987-07-01

    Because CO{sup 2} uptake by cacti can be limited by low levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and because plant form affects PAR interception, various cactus forms were studied using a computer model, field measurements, and laboratory phototropic studies. Model predictions indicated that CO{sub 2} uptake by individual stems at an equinox was greatest when the stem were vertical, but at the summer and the winter solstice CO{sub 2} uptake was greatest for stems titled 30{degree} away from the equator. Stem tilting depended on form and taxonomic group. Not only can the shape of cacti be affected by PAR, but also shape influences PAR interception and hence CO{sub 2} uptake.

  18. Competence imagery: a case study treating emetophobia.

    PubMed

    Moran, Daniel J; O'Brien, Richard M

    2005-06-01

    An emetophobic child is nonresponsive to conventional systematic desensitization and has her anxiety responses counterconditioned by using Competence Imagery instead of physical relaxation responses while progressing through her fear hierarchy. PMID:16050615

  19. Technical parameters for specifying imagery requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coan, Paul P.; Dunnette, Sheri J.

    1994-01-01

    Providing visual information acquired from remote events to various operators, researchers, and practitioners has become progressively more important as the application of special skills in alien or hazardous situations increases. To provide an understanding of the technical parameters required to specify imagery, we have identified, defined, and discussed seven salient characteristics of images: spatial resolution, linearity, luminance resolution, spectral discrimination, temporal discrimination, edge definition, and signal-to-noise ratio. We then describe a generalizing imaging system and identified how various parts of the system affect the image data. To emphasize the different applications of imagery, we have constrasted the common television system with the significant parameters of a televisual imaging system for technical applications. Finally, we have established a method by which the required visual information can be specified by describing certain technical parameters which are directly related to the information content of the imagery. This method requires the user to complete a form listing all pertinent data requirements for the imagery.

  20. Radioecological implications of the Par Pond drawdown

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, H.; Whicker, F.W.

    1991-12-05

    The drawdown of the Par Pond reservoir created dramatic alterations in this formerly stable lentic ecosystem. In addition, the radiation environment at Par Pond has changed significantly because of the exposure of Cesium 137-contaminated sediments and the appearance of new transport pathways to the terrestrial environment. In response to this situation, SREL was asked to study the radioecological implications of the reservoir drawdown. This report contains the objectives, methods, and results of the SREL study.

  1. Structural analysis of the ParR/parC plasmid partition complex.

    PubMed

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ringgaard, Simon; Mercogliano, Christopher P; Gerdes, Kenn; Löwe, Jan

    2007-10-17

    Accurate DNA partition at cell division is vital to all living organisms. In bacteria, this process can involve partition loci, which are found on both chromosomes and plasmids. The initial step in Escherichia coli plasmid R1 partition involves the formation of a partition complex between the DNA-binding protein ParR and its cognate centromere site parC on the DNA. The partition complex is recognized by a second partition protein, the actin-like ATPase ParM, which forms filaments required for the active bidirectional movement of DNA replicates. Here, we present the 2.8 A crystal structure of ParR from E. coli plasmid pB171. ParR forms a tight dimer resembling a large family of dimeric ribbon-helix-helix (RHH)2 site-specific DNA-binding proteins. Crystallographic and electron microscopic data further indicate that ParR dimers assemble into a helix structure with DNA-binding sites facing outward. Genetic and biochemical experiments support a structural arrangement in which the centromere-like parC DNA is wrapped around a ParR protein scaffold. This structure holds implications for how ParM polymerization drives active DNA transport during plasmid partition. PMID:17898804

  2. Realistic texture in simulated thermal infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Jason T.

    Creating a visually-realistic yet radiometrically-accurate simulation of thermal infrared (TIR) imagery is a challenge that has plagued members of industry and academia alike. The goal of imagery simulation is to provide a practical alternative to the often staggering effort required to collect actual data. Previous attempts at simulating TIR imagery have suffered from a lack of texture---the simulated scenes generally failed to reproduce the natural variability seen in actual TIR images. Realistic synthetic TIR imagery requires modeling sources of variability including surface effects such as solar insolation and convective heat exchange as well as sub-surface effects such as density and water content. This research effort utilized the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model, developed at the Rochester Institute of Technology, to investigate how these additional sources of variability could be modeled to correctly and accurately provide simulated TIR imagery. Actual thermal data were collected, analyzed, and exploited to determine the underlying thermodynamic phenomena and ascertain how these phenomena are best modeled. The underlying task was to determine how to apply texture in the thermal region to attain radiometrically-correct, visually-appealing simulated imagery. Three natural desert scenes were used to test the methodologies that were developed for estimating per-pixel thermal parameters which could then be used for TIR image simulation by DIRSIG. Additional metrics were devised and applied to the synthetic images to further quantify the success of this research. The resulting imagery demonstrated that these new methodologies for modeling TIR phenomena and the utilization of an improved DIRSIG tool improved the root mean-squared error (RMSE) of our synthetic TIR imagery by up to 88%.

  3. Possibilistic context identification for SAS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiaoxiao; Zare, Alina; Cobb, J. T.

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a possibilistic context identification approach for synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) imagery. SAS seabed imagery can display a variety of textures that can be used to identify seabed types such as sea grass, sand ripple and hard-packed sand, etc. Target objects in SAS imagery often have varying characteristics and features due to changing environmental context. Therefore, methods that can identify the seabed environment can be used to assist in target classification and detection in an environmentally adaptive or context-dependent approach. In this paper, a possibilistic context identification approach is used to identify the seabed contexts. Alternative methods, such as crisp, fuzzy or probabilistic methods, would force one type of context on every sample in the imagery, ignoring the possibility that the test imagery may include an environmental context that has not yet appeared in the training process. The proposed possibilistic approach has an advantage in that it can both identify known contexts as well as identify when an unknown context has been encountered. Experiments are conducted on a collection of SAS imagery that display a variety of environmental features.

  4. ERTS imagery for ground-water investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Gerald K.; Deutsch, Morris

    1975-01-01

    ERTS imagery offers the first opportunity to apply moderately high-resolution satellite data to the nationwide study of water resources. This imagery is both a tool and a form of basic data. Like other tools and basic data, it should be considered for use in ground-water investigations. The main advantage of its use will be to reduce the need for field work. In addition, however, broad regional features may be seen easily on ERTS imagery, whereas they would be difficult or impossible to see on the ground or on low-altitude aerial photographs. Some present and potential uses of ERTS imagery are to locate new aquifers, to study aquifer recharge and discharge, to estimate ground-water pumpage for irrigation, to predict the location and type of aquifer management problems, and to locate and monitor strip mines which commonly are sources for acid mine drainage. In many cases, boundaries which are gradational on the ground appear to be sharp on ERTS imagery. Initial results indicate that the accuracy of maps produced from ERTS imagery is completely adequate for some purposes.

  5. NASA's Global Imagery Management System: TIE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcon, C.; Roberts, J. T.; Huang, T.; Thompson, C. K.; Cechini, M. F.; Hall, J. R.; Murphy, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)' Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) is a system that provides full resolution imagery from a broad set of Earth science disciplines to the public. Using well-accepted standard protocols such as the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Tile Service (WMTS), GIBS delivers global imagery efficiently and responsively. Behind this service, lies The Imagery Exchange (TIE), a workflow data management solution developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. TIE is an Open Archival Information System responsible for orchestrating the workflow for acquisition, preparation, generation, and archiving of imagery to be served by the GIBS' web mapping tile service, OnEarth. The workflow collects imagery provenance throughout a product's lifecycle by leveraging the EOS Clearing House (ECHO) and other long-term metadata repositories in order to promote reproducibility. Through this focus on metadata, TIE provides spatial and temporal searching capabilities such as an OpenSearch interface as well as facilitating the generation of metadata standards such as the OGC GetCapabilities. Designed as a scalable system, TIE's subsystems can scale-up or scale-down depending on the data volume it handles through the usage of popular open source technologies such as Apache Zookeeper and Grails. This presentation will cover the challenges and solutions to developing such a horizontally scalable data management system where science products are often varied with disparate provenance pertaining to source platforms and instruments, spatial resolutions, processing algorithms, metadata models and packaging specifications.

  6. Techniques for measuring intercepted and absorbed PAR in corn canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, K. P.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1984-01-01

    The quantity of radiation potentially available for photosynthesis that is captured by the crop is best described as absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Absorbed PAR (APAR) is the difference between descending and ascending fluxes. The four components of APAR were measured above and within two planting densities of corn (Zea mays L.) and several methods of measuring and estimating APAR were examined. A line quantum sensor that spatially averages the photosynthetic photon flux density provided a rapid and portable method of measuring APAR. PAR reflectance from the soil (Typic Argiaquoll) surface decreased from 10% to less than 1% of the incoming PAR as the canopy cover increased. PAR reflectance from the canopy decreased to less than 3% at maximum vegetative cover. Intercepted PAR (1 - transmitted PAR) generally overestimated absorbed PAR by less than 4% throughout most of the growing season. Thus intercepted PAR appears to be a reasonable estimate of absorbed PAR.

  7. Cognitive aesthetics of alchemical imagery.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Angela M

    2013-02-01

    Jung's contribution to the understanding of the relevance of psychology to alchemy has become increasingly invalidated by the ahistorical nature of his approach, just as his tendency to ignore the importance of cognitive aesthetics for an improved comprehension of the functions of alchemical images has prevented Jungians from further extending Jung's insight of the importance of alchemy for psychology. This paper explores the history of the development of alchemical illustrations in Western Europe from the 14(th) to the 16(th) century, tracing the emergent processes over time. It is only when we take into consideration the historical dimension and the aesthetics of alchemical imagery that it becomes possible to demonstrate how the increasing use of certain aesthetic techniques such as the disjunction and recombination of separate metaphorical elements of previous illustrations, the use of compressive combinations and the use of framing devices worked to gradually increase the cognitive function and the symbolical power of the images. If alchemy is still relevant to psychotherapy it is exactly because it helps us to understand the importance of cognitive aesthetics in our approach to the images, metaphors and narratives of our patients. PMID:23350996

  8. Building detection in SAR imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Steinbach, Ryan Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Current techniques for building detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery can be computationally expensive and/or enforce stringent requirements for data acquisition. I present two techniques that are effective and efficient at determining an approximate building location. This approximate location can be used to extract a portion of the SAR image to then perform a more robust detection. The proposed techniques assume that for the desired image, bright lines and shadows, SAR artifact effects, are approximately labeled. These labels are enhanced and utilized to locate buildings, only if the related bright lines and shadows can be grouped. In order to find which of the bright lines and shadows are related, all of the bright lines are connected to all of the shadows. This allows the problem to be solved from a connected graph viewpoint, where the nodes are the bright lines and shadows and the arcs are the connections between bright lines and shadows. For the first technique, constraints based on angle of depression and the relationship between connected bright lines and shadows are applied to remove unrelated arcs. The second technique calculates weights for the connections and then performs a series of increasingly relaxed hard and soft thresholds. This results in groups of various levels on their validity. Once the related bright lines and shadows are grouped, their locations are combined to provide an approximate building location. Experimental results demonstrate the outcome of the two techniques. The two techniques are compared and discussed.

  9. Histopathology reconstruction on digital imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Lieberman, Rich W.; Nie, Sixiang; Xie, Yihua; Eldred, Michael; Oyama, Jody

    2009-02-01

    Diagnosing cervical cancer in a woman is a multi-step procedure involving examination of the cervix, possible biopsy and follow-up. It is open to subjective interpretation and highly dependent upon the skills of cytologists, colposcopists, and pathologists. In an effort to reduce the subjectiveness of the colposcopist-directed biopsy and to improve the diagnostic accuracy of colposcopy, we have developed new colposcopic imaging systems with accompanying computer aided diagnostic (CAD) techniques to guide a colposcopist in deciding if and where to biopsy. If the biopsy's histopathology, the identification of the disease state at the cellular and near-cellular level, is to be used as the gold standard for CAD, then the location of the histopathologic analysis must match exactly to the location of the biopsy tissue in the digital image. Otherwise, no matter how perfect the histopathology and the quality of the digital imagery, the two data sets cannot be matched and the true sensitivity and specificity of the CAD cannot be ascertained. We report here on new approaches to preserving, continuously, the location and orientation of a biopsy sample with respect to its location in the digital image of the cervix so as to preserve the exact spatial relationship throughout the mechanical aspects of the histopathologic analysis. This new approach will allow CAD to produce a linear diagnosis and pinpoint the location of the tissue under examination.

  10. Visualizing Airborne and Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierwirth, Victoria A.

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing is a process able to provide information about Earth to better understand Earth's processes and assist in monitoring Earth's resources. The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) is one remote sensing instrument dedicated to the cause of collecting data on anthropogenic influences on Earth as well as assisting scientists in understanding land-surface and atmospheric interactions. Landsat is a satellite program dedicated to collecting repetitive coverage of the continental Earth surfaces in seven regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Combining these two aircraft and satellite remote sensing instruments will provide a detailed and comprehensive data collection able to provide influential information and improve predictions of changes in the future. This project acquired, interpreted, and created composite images from satellite data acquired from Landsat 4-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+). Landsat images were processed for areas covered by CAR during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCT AS), Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC), Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEXB), and Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 missions. The acquisition of Landsat data will provide supplemental information to assist in visualizing and interpreting airborne and satellite imagery.

  11. Pseudocolor transformation of ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, J. V.; Merifield, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    One of the photographic techniques which shows great promise as an aid in interpreting ERTS imagery is pseudocolor transformation. It is a process where each shade of gray in an original black-and-white image is seen as a different color in the transformation. The well known ERTS-1 MSS image of the Monterey Bay-San Francisco area was transformed using a technique which requires only two intermediate separations. Possible faults were delineated on an overlay of the transformation before referring to geologic maps. The results were quite remarkable in that all large active or recently active faults shown on the latest geologic map of California were interpreted from the image for all, or much, of their length. Perhaps the most interesting result was the Reliz fault. The fault is shown as covered; however, a lineation corresponding to the position of the fault is visible on the image. The usefulness of ERTS image in identifying recently active faults is demonstrable. Although the faults are also visible in the unenhanced image, they are clearly accentuated and more easily mapped on the pseudocolor transformation.

  12. The functional equivalence between movement imagery, observation, and execution influences imagery ability.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sarah E; Cumming, Jennifer; Edwards, Martin G

    2011-09-01

    Based on literature identifying movement imagery, observation, and execution to elicit similar areas of neural activity, research has demonstrated that movement imagery and observation successfully prime movement execution. To investigate whether movement and observation could prime ease of imaging from an external visual-imagery perspective, an internal visual-imagery perspective, and kinesthetic modality, 36 participants (M age = 20.58; SD = 3.11; 18 women and 18 men) completed an adapted version of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised under four modes of delivery (movement prime, external observation prime, internal observation prime, and image-only). The results revealed that ease of imaging was significantly greater during the movement and observation prime conditions compared to the image-only condition (p < .05). Specifically when priming external visual imagery and internal visual imagery, observation facilitated ease of imaging only when the perspective was congruent with the imagery perspective. The results support the use of movement and observation to facilitate ease of imaging, but highlight the importance of considering the visual perspective when using observation. PMID:21957714

  13. Imagery Assessment through Self-Report: What Do Imagery Questionnaires Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiscock, Merrill

    1978-01-01

    Examined imagery questionnaires and addressed issues of reliability, agreement among questionnaires, social desirability, and construct validity. The Betts and Gordon scales and the Paivio Individual Differences Questionnaire were examined. Reliability of the Paivio inventory was satisfactory and equivalent to other imagery questionnaires. Imagery…

  14. Imagery encoding and false recognition errors: exploring boundary conditions of imagery's enhancing effects.

    PubMed

    Foley, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    After generating images based on descriptions of object interactions, false recognition errors can be substantially reduced in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) task. Boundary conditions for this effect were examined in three experiments by testing imagery encoding tasks against encoding tasks used previously to alter false recognition levels. False recognition errors were lowest following imagery encoding whether comparisons involved an object interaction encoding task used previously (Experiments 1 and 2) or a new version of the task (Experiment 2). In addition reductions in false recognition errors were observed in a new imagery-encoding task (Experiment 3). Generating descriptions had differential effects on "remember" responses to falsely recognised items (Experiment 2). In combination with content analyses on participants' descriptions, these findings speak to alternative explanations for the effects of imagery encoding on false recognition errors. The findings also have implications for the use of DRM results in developing recommendations regarding the use of guided imagery in applied contexts. PMID:22746984

  15. Skylab imagery: Application to reservoir management in New England

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, S.; Anderson, D. (Principal Investigator); Mckim, H. L.; Gatto, L. W.; Merry, C. J.; Haugen, R. K.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. S190B imagery is superior to the LANDSAT imagery for land use mapping and is as useful for level 1 and 2 land use mapping as the RB-57/RC8 high altitude imagery. Detailed land use mapping at levels 3 and finer from satellite imagery requires better resolution. For evaluating factors that are required to determine volume runoff potentials in a watershed, the S190B imagery was found to be as useful as the RB-57/RC8 high altitude aircraft imagery.

  16. ParCAT: Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brian E.; Steed, Chad A.; Shipman, Galen M.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Thornton, Peter E.; Wehner, Michael; Williams, Dean N.

    2013-01-01

    Climate science is employing increasingly complex models and simulations to analyze the past and predict the future of Earth s climate. This growth in complexity is creating a widening gap between the data being produced and the ability to analyze the datasets. Parallel computing tools are necessary to analyze, compare, and interpret the simulation data. The Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT) provides basic tools to efficiently use parallel computing techniques to make analysis of these datasets manageable. The toolkit provides the ability to compute spatio-temporal means, differences between runs or differences between averages of runs, and histograms of the values in a data set. ParCAT is implemented as a command-line utility written in C. This allows for easy integration in other tools and allows for use in scripts. This also makes it possible to run ParCAT on many platforms from laptops to supercomputers. ParCAT outputs NetCDF files so it is compatible with existing utilities such as Panoply and UV-CDAT. This paper describes ParCAT and presents results from some example runs on the Titan system at ORNL.

  17. Imagery in Dance: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Pavlik, Katherine; Nordin-Bates, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Dance imagery is a consciously created mental representation of an experience, either real or imaginary, that may affect the dancer and her or his movement. In this study, imagery research in dance was reviewed in order to: 1. describe the themes and ideas that the current literature has attempted to illuminate and 2. discover the extent to which this literature fits the Revised Applied Model of Deliberate Imagery Use. A systematic search was performed, and 43 articles from 24 journals were found to fit the inclusion criteria. The articles were reviewed, analyzed, and categorized. The findings from the articles were then reported using the Revised Applied Model as a framework. Detailed descriptions of Who, What, When and Where, Why, How, and Imagery Ability were provided, along with comparisons to the field of sports imagery. Limitations within the field, such as the use of non-dance-specific and study-specific measurements, make comparisons and clear conclusions difficult to formulate. Future research can address these problems through the creation of dance-specific measurements, higher participant rates, and consistent methodologies between studies. PMID:27245944

  18. Validation and acceptance of synthetic infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Moira I.; Bernhardt, Mark; Angell, Christopher R.; Hickman, Duncan; Whitehead, Philip; Patel, Dilip

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes the use of an image query database (IQ-DB) tool as a means of implementing a validation strategy for synthetic long-wave infrared images of sea clutter. Specifically it was required to determine the validity of the synthetic imagery for use in developing and testing automatic target detection algorithms. The strategy adopted for exploiting synthetic imagery is outlined and the key issues of validation and acceptance are discussed in detail. A wide range of image metrics has been developed to achieve pre-defined validation criteria. A number of these metrics, which include post processing algorithms, are presented. Furthermore, the IQ-DB provides a robust mechanism for configuration management and control of the large volume of data used. The implementation of the IQ-DB is reviewed in terms of its cardinal point specification and its central role in synthetic imagery validation and EOSS progressive acceptance.

  19. 7 CFR 611.22 - Availability of satellite imagery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 611.22 Availability of satellite imagery. Cloud-free maps of the United States based on imagery... the United States not obscured by clouds or distortions. Orders or requests for information should...

  20. 7 CFR 611.22 - Availability of satellite imagery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 611.22 Availability of satellite imagery. Cloud-free maps of the United States based on imagery... the United States not obscured by clouds or distortions. Orders or requests for information should...

  1. 7 CFR 611.22 - Availability of satellite imagery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 611.22 Availability of satellite imagery. Cloud-free maps of the United States based on imagery... the United States not obscured by clouds or distortions. Orders or requests for information should...

  2. 7 CFR 611.22 - Availability of satellite imagery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 611.22 Availability of satellite imagery. Cloud-free maps of the United States based on imagery... the United States not obscured by clouds or distortions. Orders or requests for information should...

  3. 7 CFR 611.22 - Availability of satellite imagery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 611.22 Availability of satellite imagery. Cloud-free maps of the United States based on imagery... the United States not obscured by clouds or distortions. Orders or requests for information should...

  4. Selective deficit of praxis imagery in ideomotor apraxia.

    PubMed

    Ochipa, C; Rapcsak, S Z; Maher, L M; Rothi, L J; Bowers, D; Heilman, K M

    1997-08-01

    We studied imagery for learned, skilled movements (praxis imagery) in a patient with severe ideomotor apraxia and intact language abilities. This patient, who made predominantly spatial and movement errors when performing transitive movements demonstrating the use of tools (transitive gestures), was also impaired in her ability to answer imagery questions about joint movement or the spatial position of the hands during action. However, visual object imagery was spared. The finding of parallel praxis production and praxis imagery deficits in this patient suggests that the same representations used for gesture production are also activated during imagery of motor acts. Our findings also suggest that certain aspects of motor imagery may be dissociable from general object imagery. PMID:9270580

  5. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation.

    PubMed

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara

    2016-04-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  6. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces. To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  7. Maritime vessel recognition in degraded satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainey, Katie; Parameswaran, Shibin; Harguess, Josh

    2014-06-01

    When object recognition algorithms are put to practice on real-world data, they face hurdles not always present in experimental situations. Imagery fed into recognition systems is often degraded by noise, occlusions, or other factors, and a successful recognition algorithm must be accurate on such data. This work investigates the impact of data degradations on an algorithm for the task of ship classification in satellite imagery by imposing such degradation factors on both training and testing data. The results of these experiments provide lessons for the development of real-world applications for classification algorithms.

  8. Feldenkrais sensory imagery and forward reach.

    PubMed

    Dunn, P A; Rogers, D K

    2000-12-01

    To investigate the effect of sensory imagery on subsequent movement, a unilateral Fleldenkrais lesson of imaging a soft bristle brush passing over one half of the body and in which no movement occurred, was given to 12 naive subjects. Forward flexion for each side of the body was measured at a sit-and-reach box. For 8 and 10 subjects who reported the perception of a side as being longer and lighter following the sensory imagery, there was also a significant increase in the forward flexion range on that side. PMID:11153843

  9. ASPRS Digital Imagery Guideline Image Gallery Discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the image gallery are to 1) give users and providers a simple means of identifying appropriate imagery for a given application/feature extraction; and 2) define imagery sufficiently to be described in engineering and acquisition terms. This viewgraph presentation includes a discussion of edge response and aliasing for image processing, and a series of images illustrating the effects of signal to noise ratio (SNR) on images. Another series of images illustrates how images are affected by varying the ground sample distances (GSD).

  10. A color prediction model for imagery analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skaley, J. E.; Fisher, J. R.; Hardy, E. E.

    1977-01-01

    A simple model has been devised to selectively construct several points within a scene using multispectral imagery. The model correlates black-and-white density values to color components of diazo film so as to maximize the color contrast of two or three points per composite. The CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) color coordinate system is used as a quantitative reference to locate these points in color space. Superimposed on this quantitative reference is a perceptional framework which functionally contrasts color values in a psychophysical sense. This methodology permits a more quantitative approach to the manual interpretation of multispectral imagery while resulting in improved accuracy and lower costs.

  11. Multispectral scanner imagery for plant community classification.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, R. S.; Spencer, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    Optimum channel selection among 12 channels of multispectral scanner imagery identified six as providing the best information for computerized classification of 11 plant communities and two nonvegetation classes. Intensive preprocessing of the spectral data was required to eliminate bidirectional reflectance effects of the spectral imagery caused by scanner view angle and varying geometry of the plant canopy. Generalized plant community types - forest, grassland, and hydrophytic systems - were acceptably classified based on ecological analysis. Serious, but soluble, errors occurred with attempts to classify specific community types within the grassland system. However, special clustering analyses provided for improved classification of specific grassland communities.

  12. A Physicist's Anschauungen Concerning Mental Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Arthur I.; Kaiser, Mary K.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an integration of historical and psychological analyses, with the goal of understanding the role of mental imagery in three seminal developments of early 20th-century physics: special relativity (1905), general relativity (1915), and quantum mechanics (1925). The book focuses on the insights that can be gleaned from Gesalt psychology, genetic epistemology, and recent theories of imagery in cognitive science. The book is divided into three sections. The first presents the comparative epistemologies of the scientists whose developments provide the data base for analyses. The second section considers the role of aesthetics and "visuability" in the transformation (and evaluation) of scientific concepts.

  13. Par-4: A New Activator of Myosin Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Vetterkind, Susanne; Lee, Eunhee; Sundberg, Eric; Poythress, Ransom H.; Tao, Terence C.; Preuss, Ute

    2010-01-01

    Myosin phosphatase (MP) is a key regulator of myosin light chain (LC20) phosphorylation, a process essential for motility, apoptosis, and smooth muscle contractility. Although MP inhibition is well studied, little is known about MP activation. We have recently demonstrated that prostate apoptosis response (Par)-4 modulates vascular smooth muscle contractility. Here, we test the hypothesis that Par-4 regulates MP activity directly. We show, by proximity ligation assays, surface plasmon resonance and coimmunoprecipitation, that Par-4 interacts with the targeting subunit of MP, MYPT1. Binding is mediated by the leucine zippers of MYPT1 and Par-4 and reduced by Par-4 phosphorylation. Overexpression of Par-4 leads to increased phosphatase activity of immunoprecipitated MP, whereas small interfering RNA knockdown of endogenous Par-4 significantly decreases MP activity and increases MYPT1 phosphorylation. LC20 phosphorylation assays demonstrate that overexpression of Par-4 reduces LC20 phosphorylation. In contrast, a phosphorylation site mutant, but not wild-type Par-4, interferes with zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK)-mediated MP inhibition. We conclude from our results Par-4 operates through a “padlock” model in which binding of Par-4 to MYPT1 activates MP by blocking access to the inhibitory phosphorylation sites, and inhibitory phosphorylation of MYPT1 by ZIPK requires “unlocking” of Par-4 by phosphorylation and displacement of Par-4 from the MP complex. PMID:20130087

  14. Imagery Arousal as a Function of Exposure to Artistic Stimuli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilotta, Joseph

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent music and art can arouse imagery experiences in an audience. Because of the relationship found between imagery and the arts in past research, it was hypothesized that artistic stimuli would have a greater influence on imagery than other kinds of stimuli (art-information or non-artistic).…

  15. Operational applications of NOAA-VHRR imagery in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seifert, R. D.; Carlson, R. F.; Kane, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Near-real time operational applications of NOAA satellite enhanced thermal infrared imagery to snow monitoring for river flood forecasts, and a photographic overlay technique of imagery to enhance snowcover are presented. Ground truth comparisons show a thermal accuracy of approximately + or - 1 C for detection of surface radiative temperatures. The application of NOAA imagery to flood mapping is also presented.

  16. Abstract Imagery in Art Therapy: What Does It Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanes, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Explores some of the factors involving abstract imagery in the work of art-therapy patients and presents examples of abstract imagery produced by patients in an acute-patient psychiatric hospital. Examples illustrate that abstract imagery can serve not only a defensive purpose, but a progressive function as well. (Author/MKA)

  17. Using Mental Imagery To Enhance Children's Motor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Sandra E.; Afremow, James; Overby, Lynnette

    2001-01-01

    Students' motor performance can be enhanced through the use of mental imagery. This article presents nine ways that physical education teachers and coaches can use mental imagery to accomplish various outcomes. These include imagery for: learning, performing, focusing, self-confidence, motivation, arousal, changing negatives into positives,…

  18. suPAR and Team Nephrology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) accounts for nearly 10 % of patients who require renal replacement therapy. Elevated circulating levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) have been identified as a biomarker to discriminate primary FSGS from other glomerulopathies. Subsequent reports have questioned the diagnostic utility of this test. In a study in BMC Medicine, Huang et al. demonstrate that urinary soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) excretion assists in distinguishing primary FSGS from other glomerular diseases, and that high plasma suPAR concentrations are not directly linked to a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This observation suggests that further investigation of suPAR is warranted in patients with FSGS. It should be interpreted in light of a recent report that B7-1 is expressed in the podocytes of a subset of patients with FSGS, and that blocking this molecule may represent the first successful targeted intervention for this disease. These advances highlight the rapid pace of scientific progress in the field of nephrology. Nephrologists should work together, share resources, and expedite the design of protocols to evaluate these novel biomarkers in a comprehensive and scientifically valid manner. Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/81. PMID:24885021

  19. suPAR and Team Nephrology.

    PubMed

    Trachtman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) accounts for nearly 10 % of patients who require renal replacement therapy. Elevated circulating levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) have been identified as a biomarker to discriminate primary FSGS from other glomerulopathies. Subsequent reports have questioned the diagnostic utility of this test. In a study in BMC Medicine, Huang et al. demonstrate that urinary soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) excretion assists in distinguishing primary FSGS from other glomerular diseases, and that high plasma suPAR concentrations are not directly linked to a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This observation suggests that further investigation of suPAR is warranted in patients with FSGS. It should be interpreted in light of a recent report that B7-1 is expressed in the podocytes of a subset of patients with FSGS, and that blocking this molecule may represent the first successful targeted intervention for this disease. These advances highlight the rapid pace of scientific progress in the field of nephrology. Nephrologists should work together, share resources, and expedite the design of protocols to evaluate these novel biomarkers in a comprehensive and scientifically valid manner. PMID:24885021

  20. Techniques for the processing of remotely sensed imagery. [digital processing of satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, E. S.; Rosenfeld, A.

    1974-01-01

    The following techniques are considered for classifying low resolution satellite imagery: (1) Gradient operations; (2) histogram methods; (3) gray level detection; (4) frequency domain operations; (5) Hadamard transform in digital image matching; and (6) edge and line detection schemes.

  1. View from east to west of PAR site storage building; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from east to west of PAR site storage building; formerly PAR dispensary - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Storage Building, Across street from Family Housing Units 110 & 111, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  2. View from west to east of PAR site resident engineer's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from west to east of PAR site resident engineer's office building (REOB) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Resident Engineers Office Building, Southeast of intersection of PAR Access Road & Fourth Avenue, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  3. A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    B Chaudhuri; S Gupta; V Urban; M Chance; R DMello; L Smith; K Lyons; J Gee

    2011-12-31

    Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

  4. A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, Barnali; Gupta, Sayan; Urban, Volker S; Chance, Mark; D'Mello, Rhijuta; Smith, Lauren; Lyons, Kelly; Gee, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

  5. A Role for Imagery in Mentoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Sarah

    2000-01-01

    Examples of imagery and visualization in medicine, sports, and preservice teaching explore the potential of these techniques in mentoring relationships. They help proteges develop a positive self-image in a new role, make mentors' experience more explicit, and depict possible selves toward which proteges can work. (SK)

  6. Imagery Rescripting across Disorders: A Practical Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stopa, Lusia

    2011-01-01

    Intrusive images occur in many disorders and, as well as causing distress, they frequently represent important negative meanings about the self, other people, or the world. Imagery rescripting describes a set of therapeutic techniques that are aimed at changing these negative meanings. This special series focuses on when and how to do imagery…

  7. Mapping Waterhyacinth Infestations Using Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] is an exotic aquatic weed that often invades and clogs waterways in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different image classification techniques for mapp...

  8. Better sensors = better imagery = better outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The photogrammetric workflow has traditionally relied upon the use of high quality metric cameras that enable the acquisition of good quality imagery, from which outputs with a well constrained geometry can be obtained. However with the proliferation of low altitude aerial photography from a range of platforms, the quality of sensor itself has largely become of secondary importance in order to reduce weight and minimise cost. These instruments are often "off-the-shelf" consumer digital cameras, not designed for either aerial photography or photogrammetry. This imposes limitations upon the quality of imagery that can be collected and outputs subsequently produced. Photogrammetric techniques such as a self-calibrating bundle adjustment or Structure from Motion allow the use of "less stable" imagery. Yet at the simplest level, the better the sensor, the better the imagery, the better the output. Where analysis and the validity of scientific conclusions are dependent upon the quality of outputs it is critical that consideration is given to the choice of sensor - the wide availability and application of UAVs across disciplines means that users may not be aware of such choices and their implications. This presentation is designed to stimulate discussion around the use of consumer cameras with a focus upon the exposure triangle of ISO-aperture-shutter speed and how this is related to dynamic range and the signal-to-noise ratio. A further important factor is understanding the ground resolution element in terms of resolution, focal length, sensor size (crop factor) and height.

  9. User interface development for semiautomated imagery exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, R. P.; Bohling, Edward H.

    1991-08-01

    Operational reconnaissance technical organizations are burdened by greatly increasing workloads due to expanding capabilities for collection and delivery of large-volume near-real- time multisensor/multispectral softcopy imagery. Related to the tasking of reconnaissance platforms to provide the imagery are more stringent timelines for exploiting the imagery in response to the rapidly changing threat environment being monitored. The development of a semi-automated softcopy multisensor image exploitation capability is a critical step toward integrating existing advanced image processing techniques in conjunction with appropriate intelligence and cartographic data for next-generation image exploitation systems. This paper discusses the results of a recent effort to develop computer-assisted aids for the image analyst (IA) in order to rapidly and accurately exploit multispectral/multisensor imagery in combination with intelligence support data and cartographic information for the purpose of target detection and identification. A key challenge of the effort was to design and implement an effective human-computer interface that would satisfy any generic IA task and readily accommodate the needs of a broad range of IAs.

  10. Speech imagery recalibrates speech-perception boundaries.

    PubMed

    Scott, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The perceptual boundaries between speech sounds are malleable and can shift after repeated exposure to contextual information. This shift is known as recalibration. To date, the known inducers of recalibration are lexical (including phonotactic) information, lip-read information and reading. The experiments reported here are a proof-of-effect demonstration that speech imagery can also induce recalibration. PMID:27068050

  11. How imagery changes self-motion perception

    PubMed Central

    Nigmatullina, Y.; Arshad, Q.; Wu, K.; Seemungal, B.M.; Bronstein, A.M.; Soto, D.

    2015-01-01

    Imagery and perception are thought to be tightly linked, however, little is known about the interaction between imagery and the vestibular sense, in particular, self-motion perception. In this study, the observers were seated in the dark on a motorized chair that could rotate either to the right or to the left. Prior to the physical rotation, observers were asked to imagine themselves rotating leftward or rightward. We found that if the direction of imagined rotation was different to the physical rotation of the chair (incongruent trials), the velocity of the chair needed to be higher for observers to experience themselves rotating relative to when the imagined and the physical rotation matched (on congruent trials). Accordingly, the vividness of imagined rotations was reduced on incongruent relative to congruent trials. Notably, we found that similar effects of imagery were found at the earliest stages of vestibular processing, namely, the onset of the vestibular–ocular reflex was modulated by the congruency between physical and imagined rotations. Together, the results demonstrate that mental imagery influences self-motion perception by exerting top-down influences over the earliest vestibular response and subsequent perceptual decision-making. PMID:25637805

  12. Motion Imagery and Robotics Application Project (MIRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubbs, Rodney P.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the Motion Imagery and Robotics Application (MIRA) Project. A detailed description of the MIRA camera service software architecture, encoder features, and on-board communications are presented. A description of a candidate camera under development is also shown.

  13. Water turbidity detection using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L.; Mccauley, J. R.; James, G. W.; Magnuson, L. M.; Marzolf, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 images of two federal reservoirs in Kansas exhibit good correlation with suspended load. The major reservoirs in Kansas, as well as in other Great Plains states, are playing increasingly important roles in flood control, recreation, agriculture, and urban water supply. Satellite imagery may prove useful for acquiring timely low cost water quality data required for optimum management of these fresh water resources.

  14. Investigation of Satellite Imagery for Regional Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harting, W. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Satellite multispectral imagery was found to be useful in regional planning for depicting general developed land patterns, wooded areas, and newly constructed highways by using visual photointerpretation methods. Other characteristics, such as residential and nonresidential development, street patterns, development density, and some vacant land components cannot be adequately detected using these standard methods.

  15. How imagery changes self-motion perception.

    PubMed

    Nigmatullina, Y; Arshad, Q; Wu, K; Seemungal, B M; Bronstein, A M; Soto, D

    2015-04-16

    Imagery and perception are thought to be tightly linked, however, little is known about the interaction between imagery and the vestibular sense, in particular, self-motion perception. In this study, the observers were seated in the dark on a motorized chair that could rotate either to the right or to the left. Prior to the physical rotation, observers were asked to imagine themselves rotating leftward or rightward. We found that if the direction of imagined rotation was different to the physical rotation of the chair (incongruent trials), the velocity of the chair needed to be higher for observers to experience themselves rotating relative to when the imagined and the physical rotation matched (on congruent trials). Accordingly, the vividness of imagined rotations was reduced on incongruent relative to congruent trials. Notably, we found that similar effects of imagery were found at the earliest stages of vestibular processing, namely, the onset of the vestibular-ocular reflex was modulated by the congruency between physical and imagined rotations. Together, the results demonstrate that mental imagery influences self-motion perception by exerting top-down influences over the earliest vestibular response and subsequent perceptual decision-making. PMID:25637805

  16. Incongruent Imagery Interferes with Action Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Richard; Cumming, Jennifer; Eastough, Daniel; Edwards, Martin G.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that representing an action through observation and imagery share neural processes with action execution. In support of this view, motor-priming research has shown that observing an action can influence action initiation. However, there is little motor-priming research showing that imagining an action can modulate action…

  17. Imagery Rescripting in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackmann, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of methods of working with imagery to change meanings and ameliorate posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It opens with a description of phenomenology in this disorder, usually characterized by a small number of recurrent images of the trauma, each representing a moment that warned of a threat to the physical or…

  18. BOREAS Level-2 NS001 TMS Imagery: Reflectance and Temperature in BSQ Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobitz, Brad; Spanner, Michael; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Strub, Richard

    2000-01-01

    For BOREAS, the NS001 TMS images, along with the other remotely sensed data, were collected to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes detailed land cover and biophysical parameter maps such as fPAR and LAI. Collection of the NS001 images occurred over the study areas during the 1994 field campaigns. The level-2 NS001 data are atmospherically corrected versions of some of the best original NS001 imagery and cover the dates of 19-Apr-1994, 07-Jun-1994, 21-Jul-1994, 08-Aug-1994, and 16-Sep-1994. The data are not geographically/geometrically corrected; however, files of relative X and Y coordinates for each image pixel were derived by using the C130 INS data in an NS001 scan model. The data are provided in binary image format files.

  19. Motion/imagery secure cloud enterprise architecture analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLay, John L.

    2012-06-01

    Cloud computing with storage virtualization and new service-oriented architectures brings a new perspective to the aspect of a distributed motion imagery and persistent surveillance enterprise. Our existing research is focused mainly on content management, distributed analytics, WAN distributed cloud networking performance issues of cloud based technologies. The potential of leveraging cloud based technologies for hosting motion imagery, imagery and analytics workflows for DOD and security applications is relatively unexplored. This paper will examine technologies for managing, storing, processing and disseminating motion imagery and imagery within a distributed network environment. Finally, we propose areas for future research in the area of distributed cloud content management enterprises.

  20. Environmental applications utilizing digital aerial imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Monday, H.M.

    1995-06-01

    This paper discusses the use of satellite imagery, aerial photography, and computerized airborne imagery as applied to environmental mapping, analysis, and monitoring. A project conducted by the City of Irving, Texas involves compliance with national pollutant discharge elimination system (NPDES) requirements stipulated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The purpose of the project was the development and maintenance of a stormwater drainage utility. Digital imagery was collected for a portion of the city to map the City`s porous and impervious surfaces which will then be overlaid with property boundaries in the City`s existing Geographic information System (GIS). This information will allow the City to determine an equitable tax for each land parcel according to the amount of water each parcel is contributing to the stormwater system. Another project involves environmental compliance for warm water discharges created by utility companies. Environmental consultants are using digital airborne imagery to analyze thermal plume affects as well as monitoring power generation facilities. A third project involves wetland restoration. Due to freeway and other forms of construction, plus a major reduction of fresh water supplies, the Southern California coastal wetlands are being seriously threatened. These wetlands, rich spawning grounds for plant and animal life, are home to thousands of waterfowl and shore birds who use this habitat for nesting and feeding grounds. Under the leadership of Southern California Edison (SCE) and CALTRANS (California Department of Transportation), several wetland areas such as the San Dieguito Lagoon (Del Mar, California), the Sweetwater Marsh (San Diego, California), and the Tijuana Estuary (San Diego, California) are being restored and closely monitored using digital airborne imagery.

  1. Application of ERTS-1 Imagery to Flood Inundation Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallberg, G. R.; Hoyer, B. E.; Rango, A.

    1973-01-01

    Ground data and a variety of low-altitude multispectral imagery were acquired for the East Nishnabotna River on September 14 and 15. This successful effort concluded that a near-visible infrared sensor could map inundated areas in late summer for at least three days after flood recession. ERTS-1 multispectral scanner subsystem (MSS) imagery of the area was obtained on September 18 and 19. Analysis of MSS imagery by IGSRSL, USGS, and NASA reinforced the conclusions of the low-altitude study while increasing the time period critical for imagery acquisition to at least 7 days following flood recession. The capability of satellite imagery to map late summer flooding at a scale of 1:250,000 is exhibited by the agreement of interpreted flood boundaries obtained from ERTS-1 imagery to boundaries mapped by low-altitude imagery and ground methods.

  2. Etude des parametres physiques en vue d'applications medicales de l'actionnement magnetique de dispositifs medicaux par un systeme d'imagerie par resonance magnetique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, Jean-Baptiste

    An actuation and control method for medical devices based on the magnetic gradient coils of a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was proposed for the first time in 2002 by NanoRobotics Laboratory [1]. The work undertaken in the present thesis began in the context of demonstrating the concept of automatic navigation of a magnetic bead in vivo. From the point of view of actuation, models and experimental data correlate. A maximum velocity of 13cm/s was measured for a 1.5mm diameter chrome steel bead in the carotid artery of a living swine. The bead was under the influence of magnetic gradients applied by a clinical MRI system without any hardware modification. In light of these results, the aim of this thesis is the study of the physical parameters involved in the development of a first medical application: the steering of magnetic particles in MRI in the context of drug targeting. It was demonstrated that an MRI system equipped with a set of magnetic gradient coils with enhanced amplitude was able to apply a high enough actuation force to act upon magnetic microparticles suspended in a liquid. General rules for MRI actuation were identified. First of all, increasing the amplitude of the main magnetic field of the MRI leads to the increase of the actuation force amplitude only until the ferromagnetic body reaches its saturation magnetization. Moreover, soft ferromagnetic bodies appear to be better candidates for MRI based magnetic actuation because they can reach high saturation magnetizations. Magnetic gradient amplitude appears as a foremost factor to increase the amplitude of the magnetic force. Clinical MRI systems do not provide gradients with high enough amplitude for the applications studied here. Theoretical models developed in this thesis predict that a one order of magnitude increase in gradient amplitude would be required. Implementing actuation dedicated gradient coils is therefore suggested. Finally, a larger ferromagnetic body will lead to higher magnetophoretic velocities for magnetic particles. In the context of magnetic microparticle targeting for cancer treatment through embolisation, the scaling laws bridging from the preliminary works with millimeter sized beads to magnetic microparticles suspensions were studied. Magnetic microparticles suspensions injected through branching channels were guided in MRI under the influence of magnetic gradients. The goal of these experiments was to maximize the amount of particles flowing through one of the outlets of the channel. The outcome of the experiments was quantified using an optical set-up as well as by analyzing the suspension at each outlet of the channels. The most important parameters that were identified are the magnetic force amplitude, the interactions and aggregation between magnetic particles of the suspension, the size, geometry and density of the particles or aggregates driven, the dimensions of the channel and the intensity of the flow. Mathematical models based on analyses of particle trajectories and on non dimensionalization of the experimental parameters were proposed. The model predicts steering efficiencies in the order of what was recorded experimentally. Nevertheless, some parameters that remain to be quantified more precisely like the effects of magnetic aggregation and friction forces cause discrepancies between theoretical and experimental data. Despite these differences, the knowledge gained in the field of magnetic suspension steering appears to be sufficient to envision in vivo experiments lead in parallel with improving the theoretical predictions. Hence, an experimental set-up and an experimental protocol are being designed to adapt the steering methods to interventional procedures and animal subjects. Finally, the same principles used for microparticle steering can be applied for magnetic catheter navigation. Hence, on the side of the main subject of this thesis, the deflection of magnetic catheters by MRI was also studied as a second medical application. Using magnetic catheter and guide wires could facilitate the placement of medical instruments and accelerate medical procedures. The recorded deflections are lower than the ones measured with other magnetic guidance systems. The parameters and performances obtained are functions of the amplitude of the applied magnetic force and material strength properties of the catheters or guide wires. Hence, deflection could be enhanced by adapting the mechanical properties of the devices, by increasing the amplitude of the magnetic gradient or the volume and magnetization of the magnetic tip. These latter results are the object of an upcoming patent application. Hence, the paper relating them could not be submitted prior to the submission date of this thesis. For this reason, this paper's manuscript is presented as an annex of the present document

  3. Lens implant surgery in pars planitis.

    PubMed

    Michelson, J B; Friedlaender, M H; Nozik, R A

    1990-08-01

    Intraocular lens (IOL) implantation is usually contraindicated in eyes with active inflammation, but patients with "burned-out" pars planitis also may be considered as candidates. Fifteen of 16 eyes in eight patients underwent extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with posterior chamber IOL (PC IOL) implantation combined with pars plana vitrectomy for both cataracts and chronic cystoid macular edema (CME); 60% achieved visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Even with "low-grade" inflammation in these patients, however, a persistent veil of debris accumulated over the posterior and anterior surface of the IOL. One patient (patient 2) required 27 YAG procedures for two eyes, and another required 11 YAG procedures and eventual removal of the IOL. Another patient required surgical "brushing-off" of the IOL and vitrectomy. Even in eyes with "burned-out" uveitis, a continual low-grade inflammation may complicate the use of IOL implantation. PMID:2402411

  4. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column.

  5. Combined DSEK and Transconjunctival Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sane, Mona; Shaikh, Naazli

    2016-01-01

    We report here three patients who underwent combined Descemet's stripping with endothelial keratoplasty and transconjunctival pars plana vitrectomy for bullous keratopathy and posterior segment pathology. A surgical technique and case histories are described. Anatomic and visual outcomes of combined Descemet's stripping with endothelial keratoplasty and vitrectomy were excellent. Our experience provides technical guidelines and limitations. The combined minimally invasive techniques allow for rapid anatomical recovery and return of function and visual acuity in a single sitting. PMID:27413563

  6. Performance improvements from imagery: evidence that internal visual imagery is superior to external visual imagery for slalom performance

    PubMed Central

    Callow, Nichola; Roberts, Ross; Hardy, Lew; Jiang, Dan; Edwards, Martin Gareth

    2013-01-01

    We report three experiments investigating the hypothesis that use of internal visual imagery (IVI) would be superior to external visual imagery (EVI) for the performance of different slalom-based motor tasks. In Experiment 1, three groups of participants (IVI, EVI, and a control group) performed a driving-simulation slalom task. The IVI group achieved significantly quicker lap times than EVI and the control group. In Experiment 2, participants performed a downhill running slalom task under both IVI and EVI conditions. Performance was again quickest in the IVI compared to EVI condition, with no differences in accuracy. Experiment 3 used the same group design as Experiment 1, but with participants performing a downhill ski-slalom task. Results revealed the IVI group to be significantly more accurate than the control group, with no significant differences in time taken to complete the task. These results support the beneficial effects of IVI for slalom-based tasks, and significantly advances our knowledge related to the differential effects of visual imagery perspectives on motor performance. PMID:24155710

  7. Mechanisms of apoptosis by the tumor suppressor Par-4.

    PubMed

    Hebbar, Nikhil; Wang, Chi; Rangnekar, Vivek M

    2012-12-01

    Par-4 is a pro-apoptotic, tumor suppressor protein that induces apoptosis selectively in cancer cells. Endoplasmic reticulum-stress and higher levels of protein kinase A in tumor cells confer the coveted feature of cancer selective response to extracellular and intracellular Par-4, respectively. Recent studies have shown that systemic Par-4 confers resistance to tumor growth in mice, and that tumor-resistance is transferable by bone-marrow transplantation. Moreover, recombinant Par-4 inhibits the growth of tumors in mice. As systemic Par-4 induces apoptosis via cell surface GRP78, strategies that promote GRP78 trafficking to the cell surface are expected sensitize cancer cells to circulating levels of Par-4. This review illustrates the domains and mechanisms by which Par-4 orchestrates the apoptotic process in both cell culture models and in physiological settings. PMID:22552839

  8. A Single parS Sequence from the Cluster of Four Sites Closest to oriC Is Necessary and Sufficient for Proper Chromosome Segregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Jecz, Paulina; Bartosik, Aneta A.; Glabski, Krzysztof; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    Among the mechanisms that control chromosome segregation in bacteria are highly-conserved partitioning systems comprising three components: ParA protein (a deviant Walker-type ATPase), ParB protein (a DNA-binding element) and multiple cis-acting palindromic centromere-like sequences, designated parS. Ten putative parS sites have been identified in the P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome, four localized in close proximity of oriC and six, diverged by more than one nucleotide from a perfect palindromic sequence, dispersed along the chromosome. Here, we constructed and analyzed P. aeruginosa mutants deprived of each single parS sequence and their different combinations. The analysis included evaluation of a set of phenotypic features, chromosome segregation, and ParB localization in the cells. It was found that ParB binds specifically to all ten parS sites, although with different affinities. The P. aeruginosa parS mutant with all ten parS sites modified (parSnull) is viable however it demonstrates the phenotype characteristic for parAnull or parBnull mutants: slightly slower growth rate, high frequency of anucleate cells, and defects in motility. The genomic position and sequence of parS determine its role in P. aeruginosa biology. It transpired that any one of the four parS sites proximal to oriC (parS1 to parS4), which are bound by ParB with the highest affinity, is necessary and sufficient for the parABS role in chromosome partitioning. When all these four sites are mutated simultaneously, the strain shows the parSnull phenotype, which indicates that none of the remaining six parS sites can substitute for these four oriC-proximal sites in this function. A single ectopic parS2 (inserted opposite oriC in the parSnull mutant) facilitates ParB organization into regularly spaced condensed foci and reverses some of the mutant phenotypes but is not sufficient for accurate chromosome segregation. PMID:25794281

  9. Smart tools manage digital imagery access and workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzi, Miriam; LaFramboise, William A.

    2000-05-01

    Lockheed Martin's Intelligent Library System (ILS)TM imagery management solution was originally developed for users and distributors of Earth imagery emanating from commercial remote sensing satellites or aircraft. The product is a total hardware and software solution comprised of two main components: SmartArchiverTM digital asset management system and SmartAnalystTM imagery exploration tools. While investigating the latest technologies and developing Intelligent Library System (ILS)TM as a state-of-the-art system, we realized SmartArchiver systems offered robust functionality not available elsewhere for handling large medical imagery files. The SmartArchiver system's features answer the following needs of medical imagery handling: smooth handling of large individual imagery files; easy access to specific imagery or types of imagery; cost-effective storage of historical data and protection of imagery over time; ability to grow an archive to thousands of terabytes; distribution from a central archive to multiple viewing sites; varying levels of resolutions requirements at the viewing stations; strict multi-level security adherence; and automated workflow management. In this paper we detail the features of the system and how they apply to medical imagery management. We also describe how a medical application can be served by the SmartArchiver asset management system.

  10. Lyman-alpha imagery of Comet Kohoutek

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, G. R.; Opal, C. B.; Page, T. L.; Meier, R. R.; Prinz, D. K.

    1974-01-01

    Electrographic imagery of Comet Kohoutek in the 1100-1500 A wavelength range was obtained from a sounding rocket on Jan. 8, 1974, and from the Skylab space station on 13 occasions between Nov. 26, 1973 and Feb. 2, 1974. These images are predominantly due to Lyman-alpha (1216 A) emission from the hydrogen coma of the comet. The rocket pictures have been calibrated for absolute sensitivity and a hydrogen production rate has been determined. However, the Skylab camera suffered degradation of its sensitivity during the mission, and its absolute sensitivity for each observation can only be estimated by comparison of the comet images with those taken by the rocket camera, with imagery of the geocoronal Lyman-alpha glow, of the moon in reflected Lyman-alpha, and of ultraviolet-bright stars. The rocket and geocoronal comparisons are used to derive a preliminary, qualitative history of the development of the cometary hydrogen coma and the associated hydrogen production rate.

  11. Neural decoding of visual imagery during sleep.

    PubMed

    Horikawa, T; Tamaki, M; Miyawaki, Y; Kamitani, Y

    2013-05-01

    Visual imagery during sleep has long been a topic of persistent speculation, but its private nature has hampered objective analysis. Here we present a neural decoding approach in which machine-learning models predict the contents of visual imagery during the sleep-onset period, given measured brain activity, by discovering links between human functional magnetic resonance imaging patterns and verbal reports with the assistance of lexical and image databases. Decoding models trained on stimulus-induced brain activity in visual cortical areas showed accurate classification, detection, and identification of contents. Our findings demonstrate that specific visual experience during sleep is represented by brain activity patterns shared by stimulus perception, providing a means to uncover subjective contents of dreaming using objective neural measurement. PMID:23558170

  12. Seasonal vegetation differences from ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashley, M. D.; Rea, J.

    1975-01-01

    Knowledge of the times when crop and forest vegetation experience seasonally related changes in development is important in understanding growth and yield relationships. This article describes how densitometry of earth resources technology satellite (ERTS-1) multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery can be used to identify such phenological events. Adjustments for instrument calibration, aperture size, gray-scale differences between overpasses, and normalization of changing solar elevation are considered in detail. Seasonal vegetation differences can be identified by densitometry of band 5 (0.6-0.7 microns) and band 7 (0.8-1.1 microns) MSS imagery. Band-to-band ratios of the densities depicted the changes more graphically than the individual band readings.

  13. Assessing mental imagery in clinical psychology: A review of imagery measures and a guiding framework

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, David G.; Deeprose, Catherine; Wallace-Hadrill, Sophie M.A.; Heyes, Stephanie Burnett; Holmes, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Mental imagery is an under-explored field in clinical psychology research but presents a topic of potential interest and relevance across many clinical disorders, including social phobia, schizophrenia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is currently a lack of a guiding framework from which clinicians may select the domains or associated measures most likely to be of appropriate use in mental imagery research. We adopt an interdisciplinary approach and present a review of studies across experimental psychology and clinical psychology in order to highlight the key domains and measures most likely to be of relevance. This includes a consideration of methods for experimentally assessing the generation, maintenance, inspection and transformation of mental images; as well as subjective measures of characteristics such as image vividness and clarity. We present a guiding framework in which we propose that cognitive, subjective and clinical aspects of imagery should be explored in future research. The guiding framework aims to assist researchers in the selection of measures for assessing those aspects of mental imagery that are of most relevance to clinical psychology. We propose that a greater understanding of the role of mental imagery in clinical disorders will help drive forward advances in both theory and treatment. PMID:23123567

  14. USGS and NASA Digital Imagery Product Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanoni, Vicki; Smith, Charles; Blonski, Slawomir

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs about a partnership between USGS and NASA who are jointly developing an airborne digital imagery characterization capability. The topics include: 1) USGS-NASA Product Characterization Approach; 2) Stennis Character Range; 3) Stennis Geodetic Targets; 4) Stennis Manhole Covers; 5) Stennis Edge Target; 6) Stennis Characterization Site; 7) Delivered Data; 8) Other Data Considerations; 9) Status; 10) Geopositional Assessment Approach; 11) Spatial Assessment Approach; 12) Edge Response; and 13) Results to Date.

  15. EXPERIMENTS IN LITHOGRAPHY FROM REMOTE SENSOR IMAGERY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kidwell, R. H.; McSweeney, J.; Warren, A.; Zang, E.; Vickers, E.

    1983-01-01

    Imagery from remote sensing systems such as the Landsat multispectral scanner and return beam vidicon, as well as synthetic aperture radar and conventional optical camera systems, contains information at resolutions far in excess of that which can be reproduced by the lithographic printing process. The data often require special handling to produce both standard and special map products. Some conclusions have been drawn regarding processing techniques, procedures for production, and printing limitations.

  16. Maritime target identification in gated viewing imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Marcus; Hebel, Marcus; Arens, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The growing interest in unmanned surface vehicles, accident avoidance for naval vessels and automated maritime surveillance leads to a growing need for automatic detection, classification and pose estimation of maritime objects in medium and long ranges. Laser radar imagery is a well proven tool for near to medium range, but up to now for higher distances neither the sensor range nor the sensor resolution was satisfying. As a result of the mentioned limitations of laser radar imagery the potential of laser illuminated gated viewing for automated classification and pose estimation was investigated. The paper presents new techniques for segmentation, pose estimation and model-based identification of naval vessels in gated viewing imagery in comparison with the corresponding results of long range data acquired with a focal plane array laser radar system. The pose estimation in the gated viewing data is directly connected with the model-based identification which makes use of the outline of the object. By setting a sufficient narrow gate, the distance gap between the upper part of the ship and the background leads to an automatic segmentation. By setting the gate the distance to the object is roughly known. With this distance and the imaging properties of the camera, the width of the object perpendicular to the line of sight can be calculated. For each ship in the model library a set of possible 2D appearances in the known distance is calculated and the resulting contours are compared with the measured 2D outline. The result is a match error for each reasonable orientation of each model of the library. The result gained from the gated viewing data is compared with the results of target identification by laser radar imagery of the same maritime objects.

  17. Motor Imagery in Unipolar Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Bennabi, Djamila; Monnin, Julie; Haffen, Emmanuel; Carvalho, Nicolas; Vandel, Pierre; Pozzo, Thierry; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    Background: Motor imagery is a potential tool to investigate action representation, as it can provide insights into the processes of action planning and preparation. Recent studies suggest that depressed patients present specific impairment in mental rotation. The present study was designed to investigate the influence of unipolar depression on motor imagery ability. Methods: Fourteen right-handed patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for unipolar depression were compared to 14 matched healthy controls. Imagery ability was accessed by the timing correspondence between executed and imagined movements during a pointing task, involving strong spatiotemporal constraints (speed/accuracy trade-off paradigm). Results: Compared to controls, depressed patients showed marked motor slowing on both actual and imagined movements. Furthermore, we observed greater temporal discrepancies between actual and mental movements in depressed patients than in healthy controls. Lastly, depressed patients modulated, to some extent, mental movement durations according to the difficulty of the task, but this modulation was not as strong as that of healthy subjects. Conclusion: These results suggest that unipolar depression significantly affects the higher stages of action planning and point out a selective decline of motor prediction. PMID:25538580

  18. Mental representation and motor imagery training

    PubMed Central

    Schack, Thomas; Essig, Kai; Frank, Cornelia; Koester, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Research in sports, dance and rehabilitation has shown that basic action concepts (BACs) are fundamental building blocks of mental action representations. BACs are based on chunked body postures related to common functions for realizing action goals. In this paper, we outline issues in research methodology and an experimental method, the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation (SDA-M), to assess action-relevant representational structures that reflect the organization of BACs. The SDA-M reveals a strong relationship between cognitive representation and performance if complex actions are performed. We show how the SDA-M can improve motor imagery training and how it contributes to our understanding of coaching processes. The SDA-M capitalizes on the objective measurement of individual mental movement representations before training and the integration of these results into the motor imagery training. Such motor imagery training based on mental representations (MTMR) has been applied successfully in professional sports such as golf, volleyball, gymnastics, windsurfing, and recently in the rehabilitation of patients who have suffered a stroke. PMID:24904368

  19. Extraction of linear features on SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junyi; Li, Deren; Mei, Xin

    2006-10-01

    Linear features are usually extracted from SAR imagery by a few edge detectors derived from the contrast ratio edge detector with a constant probability of false alarm. On the other hand, the Hough Transform is an elegant way of extracting global features like curve segments from binary edge images. Randomized Hough Transform can reduce the computation time and memory usage of the HT drastically. While Randomized Hough Transform will bring about a great deal of cells invalid during the randomized sample. In this paper, we propose a new approach to extract linear features on SAR imagery, which is an almost automatic algorithm based on edge detection and Randomized Hough Transform. The presented improved method makes full use of the directional information of each edge candidate points so as to solve invalid cumulate problems. Applied result is in good agreement with the theoretical study, and the main linear features on SAR imagery have been extracted automatically. The method saves storage space and computational time, which shows its effectiveness and applicability.

  20. Improved reduced-resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, James; Milstein, Jaime

    1995-01-01

    The resolution of satellite imagery is often traded-off to satisfy transmission time and bandwidth, memory, and display limitations. Although there are many ways to achieve the same reduction in resolution, algorithms vary in their ability to preserve the visual quality of the original imagery. These issues are investigated in the context of the Landsat browse system, which permits the user to preview a reduced resolution version of a Landsat image. Wavelets-based techniques for resolution reduction are proposed as alternatives to subsampling used in the current system. Experts judged imagery generated by the wavelets-based methods visually superior, confirming initial quantitative results. In particular, compared to subsampling, the wavelets-based techniques were much less likely to obscure roads, transmission lines, and other linear features present in the original image, introduce artifacts and noise, and otherwise reduce the usefulness of the image. The wavelets-based techniques afford multiple levels of resolution reduction and computational speed. This study is applicable to a wide range of reduced resolution applications in satellite imaging systems, including low resolution display, spaceborne browse, emergency image transmission, and real-time video downlinking.

  1. Radiometric Characterization of IKONOS Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert E.; Kelly, Michelle; Holekamp, Kara; Zanoni, Vicki; Thome, Kurtis; Schiller, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    A radiometric characterization of Space Imaging's IKONOS 4-m multispectral imagery has been performed by a NASA funded team from the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC), the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group (UARSG), and South Dakota State University (SDSU). Both intrinsic radiometry and the effects of Space Imaging processing on radiometry were investigated. Relative radiometry was examined with uniform Antarctic and Saharan sites. Absolute radiometric calibration was performed using reflectance-based vicarious calibration methods on several uniform sites imaged by IKONOS, coincident with ground-based surface and atmospheric measurements. Ground-based data and the IKONOS spectral response function served as input to radiative transfer codes to generate a Top-of-Atmosphere radiance estimate. Calibration coefficients derived from each vicarious calibration were combined to generate an IKONOS radiometric gain coefficient for each multispectral band assuming a linear response over the full dynamic range of the instrument. These calibration coefficients were made available to Space Imaging, which subsequently adopted them by updating its initial set of calibration coefficients. IKONOS imagery procured through the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program is processed with or without a Modulation Transfer Function Compensation kernel. The radiometric effects of this kernel on various scene types was also investigated. All imagery characterized was procured through the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program.

  2. Videographic enhancement of GRASS imagery: Recent advances

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.G.

    1992-06-01

    The Geographic Resource Analysis Support System (GRASS), a geographic information system, has been fielded at approximately 50 US Army training installations as a land-management decision-making tool. Use of the GRASS geographic information system involves the production of numerous digital maps of environmental parameters, such as elevation, soils, hydrography, etc. A recently emerging technology called computer videographics can be used to graphically enhance GRASS images, thereby creating new ways to visualize GRASS analysis results. The project described in this report explored the enhancement of GRASS images through the use of videographic technology. General image quality of videographically enhanced GRASS images was improved through the use of high-resolution imagery and improved software. Several new types of geographic data visualizations were developed, including three-dimensional shaded-relief maps of GRASS data, overlay of GRASS images with satellite images, and integration of computer-aided-design imagery with GRASS images. GRASS images were successfully enhanced using Macintosh hardware and software, rather than the DOS-based equipment used previously. Images scanned with a document scanner were incorporated into GRASS imagery, and enhanced images were output in an S-VHS high-resolution video format.

  3. Hyperspectral Imagery Data for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garegnani, Jerry; Gualtney, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    In order for remotely sensed data to be useful in a practical application for agriculture, an information product must be made available to the land management decision maker within 24 to 48 hours of data acquisition. Hyperspectral imagery data is proving useful in differentiation of plant species potentially allowing identification of non-healthy areas and pest infestations within crop fields that may require the farm managers attention. Currently however, extracting the needed site-specific feature information from the vast spectral content of large hyperspectral image files is a labor intensive and time consuming task prohibiting the necessary fast turnaround from raw data to final product. We illustrate the methods, techniques and technologies necessary to produce field-level information products from imagery and other related spatial data that are useful to the farm manager for specific decisions that must be made throughout the growing season. We also propose to demonstrate the cost effectiveness of an integrated system, from acquisition to final product distribution, to utilize imagery for decisions on a working farm in conjunction with a commercial agricultural services company and their crop scouts. The demonstration farm is Chesapeake Farms, a 3000 acre research farm in Chestertown, Maryland on the Eastern Shore and is owned by the DuPont Corporation.

  4. Mental representation and motor imagery training.

    PubMed

    Schack, Thomas; Essig, Kai; Frank, Cornelia; Koester, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Research in sports, dance and rehabilitation has shown that basic action concepts (BACs) are fundamental building blocks of mental action representations. BACs are based on chunked body postures related to common functions for realizing action goals. In this paper, we outline issues in research methodology and an experimental method, the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation (SDA-M), to assess action-relevant representational structures that reflect the organization of BACs. The SDA-M reveals a strong relationship between cognitive representation and performance if complex actions are performed. We show how the SDA-M can improve motor imagery training and how it contributes to our understanding of coaching processes. The SDA-M capitalizes on the objective measurement of individual mental movement representations before training and the integration of these results into the motor imagery training. Such motor imagery training based on mental representations (MTMR) has been applied successfully in professional sports such as golf, volleyball, gymnastics, windsurfing, and recently in the rehabilitation of patients who have suffered a stroke. PMID:24904368

  5. Threat object identification performance for LADAR imagery: comparison of 2-dimensional versus 3-dimensional imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Matthew A.; Driggers, Ronald G.; Redman, Brian; Krapels, Keith A.

    2006-05-01

    This research was conducted to determine the change in human observer range performance when LADAR imagery is presented in stereo 3D vice 2D. It compares the ability of observers to correctly identify twelve common threatening and non-threatening single-handed objects (e.g. a pistol versus a cell phone). Images were collected with the Army Research Lab/Office of Naval Research (ARL/ONR) Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) Imaging LADAR. A perception experiment, utilizing both military and civilian observers, presented subjects with images of varying angular resolutions. The results of this experiment were used to create identification performance curves for the 2D and 3D imagery, which show probability of identification as a function of range. Analysis of the results indicates that there is no evidence of a statistically significant difference in performance between 2D and 3D imagery.

  6. Tobacco imagery on New Zealand television 2002–2004

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Rob; Ketchel, Juanita

    2006-01-01

    Considerable emphasis has been placed on the importance of tobacco imagery in the movies as one of the “drivers” of smoking among young people. Findings are presented from a content analysis of 98 hours of prime‐time programming on New Zealand television 2004, identifying 152 scenes with tobacco imagery, and selected characteristics of those scenes. About one in four programmes contained tobacco imagery, most of which might be regarded as “neutral or positive”. This amounted to about two scenes containing such imagery for every hour of programming. A comparison with our earlier content analysis of programming in 2002 indicated little change in the level of tobacco imagery. The effect of this imagery in contributing to young viewers taking up smoking, and sustaining the addiction among those already smoking, deserves more research attention. PMID:16998178

  7. Tobacco imagery on New Zealand television 2002-2004.

    PubMed

    McGee, Rob; Ketchel, Juanita

    2006-10-01

    Considerable emphasis has been placed on the importance of tobacco imagery in the movies as one of the "drivers" of smoking among young people. Findings are presented from a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time programming on New Zealand television 2004, identifying 152 scenes with tobacco imagery, and selected characteristics of those scenes. About one in four programmes contained tobacco imagery, most of which might be regarded as "neutral or positive". This amounted to about two scenes containing such imagery for every hour of programming. A comparison with our earlier content analysis of programming in 2002 indicated little change in the level of tobacco imagery. The effect of this imagery in contributing to young viewers taking up smoking, and sustaining the addiction among those already smoking, deserves more research attention. PMID:16998178

  8. Use of ERTS-1 imagery in forest inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rennie, J. C.; Birth, E. E.

    1974-01-01

    The utility of ERTS-1 imagery when combined with field observations and with aircraft imagery and field observations is evaluated. Satellite imagery consisted of 9-1/2 inch black and white negatives of four multispectral scanner bands taken over Polk County, Tennessee. Aircraft imagery was obtained by a C-130 flying at 23,000 ft over the same area and provided the basis for locating ground plots for field observations. Correspondence between aircraft and satellite imagery was somewhat inaccurate due to seasonal differences in observations and lack of good photogrammetry with the data processing system used. Better correspondence was found between satellite imagery and ground observations. Ways to obtain more accurate data are discussed, and comparisons between aircraft and satellite observations are tabulated.

  9. Escherichia coli low-copy-number plasmid R1 centromere parC forms a U-shaped complex with its binding protein ParR

    PubMed Central

    Hoischen, C.; Bussiek, M.; Langowski, J.; Diekmann, S.

    2008-01-01

    The Escherichia coli low-copy-number plasmid R1 contains a segregation machinery composed of parC, ParR and parM. The R1 centromere-like site parC contains two separate sets of repeats. By atomic force microscopy (AFM) we show here that ParR molecules bind to each of the 5-fold repeated iterons separately with the intervening sequence unbound by ParR. The two ParR protein complexes on parC do not complex with each other. ParR binds with a stoichiometry of about one ParR dimer per each single iteron. The measured DNA fragment lengths agreed with B-form DNA and each of the two parC 5-fold interon DNA stretches adopts a linear path in its complex with ParR. However, the overall parC/ParR complex with both iteron repeats bound by ParR forms an overall U-shaped structure: the DNA folds back on itself nearly completely, including an angle of ∼150°. Analysing linear DNA fragments, we never observed dimerized ParR complexes on one parC DNA molecule (intramolecular) nor a dimerization between ParR complexes bound to two different parC DNA molecules (intermolecular). This bacterial segrosome is compared to other bacterial segregation complexes. We speculate that partition complexes might have a similar overall structural organization and, at least in part, common functional properties. PMID:18056157

  10. Homosexual imagery in print advertisements: attended, remembered, but disliked.

    PubMed

    Angelini, James R; Bradley, Samuel D

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether print advertisements featuring homosexual imagery elicit greater attention and recall while eliciting more negative responses than advertisements featuring heterosexual images. Data indicate that these advertisements were indeed better remembered and required more time to cognitively process, likely because of the advertisement's imagery being inconsistent with existing gender schema. Other responses demonstrated that homosexual imagery negatively impacted opinions about the advertisement itself and the brand featured, and elicited more negative self-reported valence and arousal. PMID:20391007

  11. Delineation of major soil associations using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, W. L.; Bodenheimer, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The delineation of a major soil association in the loess region of Obion County has been accomplished using ERTS-1 imagery. Channel 7 provides the clearest differentiation. The separation of other smaller soil associations in an intensive row crop agricultural area is somewhat more difficult. Soil differentiation has been accomplished visually as well as electronically using a scanning microdensitometer. Lower altitude aircraft imagery permits a more refined soil association identification and where imagery is of sufficient scale, even individual soils may be identified.

  12. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rachel M.; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  13. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  14. Modelisation par elements finis du muscle strie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Mathieu

    Ce present projet de recherche a permis. de creer un modele par elements finis du muscle strie humain dans le but d'etudier les mecanismes engendrant les lesions musculaires traumatiques. Ce modele constitue une plate-forme numerique capable de discerner l'influence des proprietes mecaniques des fascias et de la cellule musculaire sur le comportement dynamique du muscle lors d'une contraction excentrique, notamment le module de Young et le module de cisaillement de la couche de tissu conjonctif, l'orientation des fibres de collagene de cette membrane et le coefficient de poisson du muscle. La caracterisation experimentale in vitro de ces parametres pour des vitesses de deformation elevees a partir de muscles stries humains actifs est essentielle pour l'etude de lesions musculaires traumatiques. Le modele numerique developpe est capable de modeliser la contraction musculaire comme une transition de phase de la cellule musculaire par un changement de raideur et de volume a l'aide des lois de comportement de materiau predefinies dans le logiciel LS-DYNA (v971, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA, USA). Le present projet de recherche introduit donc un phenomene physiologique qui pourrait expliquer des blessures musculaires courantes (crampes, courbatures, claquages, etc.), mais aussi des maladies ou desordres touchant le tissu conjonctif comme les collagenoses et la dystrophie musculaire. La predominance de blessures musculaires lors de contractions excentriques est egalement exposee. Le modele developpe dans ce projet de recherche met ainsi a l'avant-scene le concept de transition de phase ouvrant la porte au developpement de nouvelles technologies pour l'activation musculaire chez les personnes atteintes de paraplegie ou de muscles artificiels compacts pour l'elaboration de protheses ou d'exosquelettes. Mots-cles Muscle strie, lesion musculaire, fascia, contraction excentrique, modele par elements finis, transition de phase

  15. Evaluation of the PAR corneal topography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindal, Prateek; Cheung, Susan; Pirouzian, Amir; Keates, Richard H.; Ren, Qiushi

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the raster photogrammetry based Corneal Topography System by determining: inter-operator variability, reproducibility of images, effects of defocused and decentered images, and the precision of data at different optical zones. 4 human cadaver eyes were used to study the inter-operator variability. To study the reproducibility of images, 3 human cadaver eyes and a test surface doped with flourescine (provided by PAR Vision Systems Corporation) were focused and their images taken four successive times. Defocused and decentered images were taken of 4 human cadaver eyes and four times of the test surface mentioned above. The precision of defocused/decentered cadaver eyes was evaluated at the following optical zones: 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm. All human cadaver eyes used in the above experiments had their epithelial layer removed before imaging. Average inter-operator variability was 0.06 D. In reproducibility attempts, there was an average deviation of 0.28 D for the human cadaver eyes and 0.04 D for the test surface. The defocused and decentered test surface gave an average deviation of 0.09 D. Defocused and decentered cadaver eyes resulted in an average deviation of 0.52 D, 0.37 D, 0.24 D, and 0.22 D at optical zones of 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm, respectively. The imaging method employed by PAR Vision Systems Corporation virtually eliminates inter-operator variability. The PAR Corneal Topography System's clinical usefulness, however, could be improved by improving the reproducibility of images, decreasing the sensitivity to spatial alignment, and increasing accuracy over smaller optical zones.

  16. Investigation of breathing parameters during odor perception and olfactory imagery.

    PubMed

    Kleemann, A M; Kopietz, R; Albrecht, J; Schöpf, V; Pollatos, O; Schreder, T; May, J; Linn, J; Brückmann, H; Wiesmann, M

    2009-01-01

    Compared with visual and auditory imagery, little is known about olfactory imagery. There is evidence that respiration may be altered by both olfactory perception and olfactory imagery. In order to investigate this relationship, breathing parameters (respiratory minute volume, respiratory amplitude, and breathing rate) in human subjects during olfactory perception and olfactory imagery were investigated. Fifty-six subjects having normal olfactory function were tested. Nasal respiration was measured using a respiratory pressure sensor. Using an experimental block design, we alternately presented odors or asked the subjects to imagine a given smell. Four different pleasant odors were used: banana, rose, coffee, and lemon odor. We detected a significant increase in respiratory minute volume between olfactory perception and the baseline condition as well as between olfactory imagery and baseline condition. Additionally we found significant differences in the respiratory amplitude between imagery and baseline condition and between odor and imagery condition. Differences in the breathing rate between olfactory perception, olfactory imagery, and baseline were not statistically significant. We conclude from our results that olfactory perception and olfactory imagery both have effects on the human respiratory profile and that these effects are based on a common underlying mechanism. PMID:18701432

  17. EEG Topographic Mapping of Visual and Kinesthetic Imagery in Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, V E; Dikman, Z; Bird, E I; Williams, J M; Harmison, R; Shaw-Thornton, L; Schwartz, G E

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated differences in QEEG measures between kinesthetic and visual imagery of a 100-m swim in 36 elite competitive swimmers. Background information and post-trial checks controlled for the modality of imagery, swimming skill level, preferred imagery style, intensity of image and task equality. Measures of EEG relative magnitude in theta, low (7-9 Hz) and high alpha (8-10 Hz), and low and high beta were taken from 19 scalp sites during baseline, visual, and kinesthetic imagery. QEEG magnitudes in the low alpha band during the visual and kinesthetic conditions were attenuated from baseline in low band alpha but no changes were seen in any other bands. Swimmers produced more low alpha EEG magnitude during visual versus kinesthetic imagery. This was interpreted as the swimmers having a greater efficiency at producing visual imagery. Participants who reported a strong intensity versus a weaker feeling of the image (kinesthetic) had less low alpha magnitude, i.e., there was use of more cortical resources, but not for the visual condition. These data suggest that low band (7-9 Hz) alpha distinguishes imagery modalities from baseline, visual imagery requires less cortical resources than kinesthetic imagery, and that intense feelings of swimming requires more brain activity than less intense feelings. PMID:26420001

  18. Neuronal correlates of perception, imagery, and memory for familiar tunes.

    PubMed

    Herholz, Sibylle C; Halpern, Andrea R; Zatorre, Robert J

    2012-06-01

    We used fMRI to investigate the neuronal correlates of encoding and recognizing heard and imagined melodies. Ten participants were shown lyrics of familiar verbal tunes; they either heard the tune along with the lyrics, or they had to imagine it. In a subsequent surprise recognition test, they had to identify the titles of tunes that they had heard or imagined earlier. The functional data showed substantial overlap during melody perception and imagery, including secondary auditory areas. During imagery compared with perception, an extended network including pFC, SMA, intraparietal sulcus, and cerebellum showed increased activity, in line with the increased processing demands of imagery. Functional connectivity of anterior right temporal cortex with frontal areas was increased during imagery compared with perception, indicating that these areas form an imagery-related network. Activity in right superior temporal gyrus and pFC was correlated with the subjective rating of imagery vividness. Similar to the encoding phase, the recognition task recruited overlapping areas, including inferior frontal cortex associated with memory retrieval, as well as left middle temporal gyrus. The results present new evidence for the cortical network underlying goal-directed auditory imagery, with a prominent role of the right pFC both for the subjective impression of imagery vividness and for on-line mental monitoring of imagery-related activity in auditory areas. PMID:22360595

  19. A Conserved Mode of Protein Recognition and Binding in a ParD−ParE Toxin−Antitoxin Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, Kevin M.; Crosson, Sean

    2010-05-06

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems form a ubiquitous class of prokaryotic proteins with functional roles in plasmid inheritance, environmental stress response, and cell development. ParDE family TA systems are broadly conserved on plasmids and bacterial chromosomes and have been well characterized as genetic elements that promote stable plasmid inheritance. We present a crystal structure of a chromosomally encoded ParD-ParE complex from Caulobacter crescentus at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. This TA system forms an {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetramer in the crystal and in solution. The toxin-antitoxin binding interface reveals extensive polar and hydrophobic contacts of ParD antitoxin helices with a conserved recognition and binding groove on the ParE toxin. A cross-species comparison of this complex structure with related toxin structures identified an antitoxin recognition and binding subdomain that is conserved between distantly related members of the RelE/ParE toxin superfamily despite a low level of overall primary sequence identity. We further demonstrate that ParD antitoxin is dimeric, stably folded, and largely helical when not bound to ParE toxin. Thus, the paradigmatic model in which antitoxin undergoes a disorder-to-order transition upon toxin binding does not apply to this chromosomal ParD-ParE TA system.

  20. A conserved mode of protein recognition and binding in a ParD-ParE toxin-antitoxin complex†

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Kevin M.; Crosson, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems form a ubiquitous class of prokaryotic proteins with functional roles in plasmid inheritance, environmental stress response, and cell development. ParDE-family TA systems are broadly conserved on plasmids and bacterial chromosomes, and have been well characterized as genetic elements that promote stable plasmid inheritance. We present a crystal structure of a chromosomally-encoded ParD-ParE complex from Caulobacter crescentus at 2.6 Å resolution. This TA system forms an α2β2 heterotetramer in the crystal and in solution. The toxin-antitoxin binding interface reveals extensive polar and hydrophobic contacts of ParD antitoxin helices with a conserved recognition and binding groove on the ParE toxin. A cross-species comparison of this complex structure with related toxin structures identified an antitoxin recognition and binding sub-domain that is conserved between distantly-related members of the RelE/ParE toxin superfamily despite low overall primary sequence identity. We further demonstrate that ParD antitoxin is dimeric, stably folded, and largely helical when not bound to ParE toxin. Thus, the paradigmatic model in which antitoxin undergoes a disorder-to-order transition upon toxin binding does not apply to this chromosomal ParD-ParE TA system. PMID:20143871

  1. Historic macrophyte development in Par Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, J.B.

    1985-08-01

    Aerial photographs from 1975, 1980, and 1983 were examined to evaluate the changes that have occurred in the wetland vegetation of Par Pond, a reactor-cooling reservoir. Evaluation of the aerial photographs was based on comparisons with ground-level vegetation maps made during July 1984. Comparisons of photographs from August and December of 1983 revealed the main seasonal change in the aerial coverage of wetland vegetation to be the wintertime loss of non-persistent emergent species such as Nelumbo lutea and Nymphaea odorata. Comparisons between September 1980 and August 1983 revealed that the lakeward extent of non-persistent macrophytes has increased by an average of 8.2 m, though not all sites have changed equally. For persistent macrophytes (principally Typha), the average increase in lakeward extent between December 1975 and August 1983 was 3.48 m. The extensive development of wetland vegetation in Par Pond as well as the substantial spread of vegetation over only a few years time indicates the high suitability of this habitat for the growth of wetland plants.

  2. A Par-1-Par-3-Centrosome Cell Polarity Pathway and Its Tuning for Isotropic Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; McKinley, R F Andrew; McGill, Melanie A; Angers, Stephane; Harris, Tony J C

    2015-10-19

    To form regulated barriers between body compartments, epithelial cells polarize into apical and basolateral domains and assemble adherens junctions (AJs). Despite close links with polarity networks that generate single polarized domains, AJs distribute isotropically around the cell circumference for adhesion with all neighboring cells [1-3]. How AJs avoid the influence of polarity networks to maintain their isotropy has been unclear. In established epithelia, trans cadherin interactions could maintain AJ isotropy [4], but AJs are dynamic during epithelial development and remodeling [5, 6], and thus specific mechanisms may control their isotropy. In Drosophila, aPKC prevents hyper-polarization of junctions as epithelia develop from cellularization to gastrulation [7]. Here, we show that aPKC does so by inhibiting a positive feedback loop between Bazooka (Baz)/Par-3, a junctional organizer [5, 8-10], and centrosomes. Without aPKC, Baz and centrosomes lose their isotropic distributions and recruit each other to single plasma membrane (PM) domains. Surprisingly, our loss- and gain-of-function analyses show that the Baz-centrosome positive feedback loop is driven by Par-1, a kinase known to phosphorylate Baz and inhibit its basolateral localization [8, 11, 12]. We find that Par-1 promotes the positive feedback loop through both centrosome microtubule effects and Baz phosphorylation. Normally, aPKC attenuates the circuit by expelling Par-1 from the apical domain at gastrulation. The combination of local activation and global inhibition is a common polarization strategy [13-16]. Par-1 seems to couple both effects for a potent Baz polarization mechanism that is regulated for the isotropy of Baz and AJs around the cell circumference. PMID:26455305

  3. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  4. Comparison of hyperspectral imagery with aerial photography and multispectral imagery for mapping broom snakeweed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broom snakeweed [Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh.) Britt. and Rusby] is one of the most widespread and abundant rangeland weeds in western North America. The objectives of this study were to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and compare it with aerial color-infrared (CIR) photography and multispe...

  5. Summary of space imagery studies in Utah and Nevada. [using LANDSAT 1, EREP, and Skylab imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, M. L.; Laylander, P.

    1975-01-01

    LANDSAT-1, Skylab, and RB-57 imagery acquired within days of each other of the San Rafael swell enabled geological mapping of individual formations of the southern portion of this broad anticlinal feature in eastern Utah. Mapping at a scale of 1/250,000 on an enhanced and enlarged S-190B image resulted in a geological map showing correlative mappable features that are indicated on the geological map of Utah at the same scale. An enhanced enlargement of an S-190B color image at a scale of 1/19,200 of the Bingham Porphyry Copper deposit allowed comparison of a geological map of the area with the space imagery map as fair for the intrusion boundaries and total lack of quality for mapping the sediments. Hydrothermal alteration is only slightly evident on space imagery at Bingham but in the Tintic mining district and the volcanic piles of the Keg and Thomas ranges, Utah, hydrothermal alteration is readily mapped on color enlargements of S-190B (SL-3, T3-3N Tr-2). A mercury soil-gas analyzer was developed for locating hidden mineralized zones which were suggested from space imagery.

  6. Source Memory for Mental Imagery: Influences of the Stimuli’s Ease of Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Krefeld-Schwalb, Antonia; Ellis, Andrew W.; Oswald, Margit E.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how ease of imagery influences source monitoring accuracy. Two experiments were conducted in order to examine how ease of imagery influences the probability of source confusions of perceived and imagined completions of natural symmetric shapes. The stimuli consisted of binary pictures of natural objects, namely symmetric pictures of birds, butterflies, insects, and leaves. The ease of imagery (indicating the similarity of the sources) and the discriminability (indicating the similarity of the items) of each stimulus were estimated in a pretest and included as predictors of the memory performance for these stimuli. It was found that confusion of the sources becomes more likely when the imagery process was relatively easy. However, if the different processes of source monitoring—item memory, source memory and guessing biases—are disentangled, both experiments support the assumption that the effect of decreased source memory for easily imagined stimuli is due to decision processes and misinformation at retrieval rather than encoding processes and memory retention. The data were modeled with a Bayesian hierarchical implementation of the one high threshold source monitoring model. PMID:26606752

  7. D Surface Generation from Aerial Thermal Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaei, B.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadras Javan, F.; Hasani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial thermal imagery has been recently applied to quantitative analysis of several scenes. For the mapping purpose based on aerial thermal imagery, high accuracy photogrammetric process is necessary. However, due to low geometric resolution and low contrast of thermal imaging sensors, there are some challenges in precise 3D measurement of objects. In this paper the potential of thermal video in 3D surface generation is evaluated. In the pre-processing step, thermal camera is geometrically calibrated using a calibration grid based on emissivity differences between the background and the targets. Then, Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation from thermal video imagery is performed in four steps. Initially, frames are extracted from video, then tie points are generated by Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. Bundle adjustment is then applied and the camera position and orientation parameters are determined. Finally, multi-resolution dense image matching algorithm is used to create 3D point cloud of the scene. Potential of the proposed method is evaluated based on thermal imaging cover an industrial area. The thermal camera has 640×480 Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) sensor, equipped with a 25 mm lens which mounted in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The obtained results show the comparable accuracy of 3D model generated based on thermal images with respect to DSM generated from visible images, however thermal based DSM is somehow smoother with lower level of texture. Comparing the generated DSM with the 9 measured GCPs in the area shows the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value is smaller than 5 decimetres in both X and Y directions and 1.6 meters for the Z direction.

  8. High-Resolution Radar Imagery of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, John K.; Nolan, M. C.

    2009-09-01

    We present high-resolution radar images of Mars obtained during the 2005 and 2007 oppositions. The images were constructed from long-code delay-Doppler observations made with the Arecibo S-band (13-cm) radar. The average image resolution of 3 km represented a better than order-of-magnitude improvement over pre-upgrade Arecibo imagery of the planet. Images of depolarized reflectivity (an indicator primarily of wavelength-scale surface roughness) show the same bright volcanic flow features seen in earlier imagery, but with much finer detail. A new image of the Elysium region shows fine detail in the radar-bright channels of Athabasca Vallis, Marte Vallis, and Grjota Vallis. The new images of Tharsis and Olympus Mons also show a complex array of radar-bright and radar-dark features. Southern Amazonis exhibits some of the most complex and puzzling radar-bright structure on the planet. Another curiosity is the Chryse/Xanthe/Channels region, where we find some radar-bright features in or adjacent to fluvial chaos structures. Chryse/Xanthe is also the only region of Mars showing radar-bright craters (which are rare on Mars but common on the Moon and Mercury). We also obtained the first delay-Doppler image showing the enhanced backscatter from the residual south polar ice cap. In addition to the depolarized imagery, we were able to make the first delay-Doppler images of the circular polarization ratio (an important diagnostic for surface roughness texture). We find that vast areas of the radar-bright volcanic regions have polarization ratios close to unity. Such high ratios are rare for terrestrial lava flows and only seen for extremely blocky surfaces giving high levels of multiple scattering.

  9. Mental Imagery for Musical Changes in Loudness

    PubMed Central

    Bailes, Freya; Bishop, Laura; Stevens, Catherine J.; Dean, Roger T.

    2012-01-01

    Musicians imagine music during mental rehearsal, when reading from a score, and while composing. An important characteristic of music is its temporality. Among the parameters that vary through time is sound intensity, perceived as patterns of loudness. Studies of mental imagery for melodies (i.e., pitch and rhythm) show interference from concurrent musical pitch and verbal tasks, but how we represent musical changes in loudness is unclear. Theories suggest that our perceptions of loudness change relate to our perceptions of force or effort, implying a motor representation. An experiment was conducted to investigate the modalities that contribute to imagery for loudness change. Musicians performed a within-subjects loudness change recall task, comprising 48 trials. First, participants heard a musical scale played with varying patterns of loudness, which they were asked to remember. There followed an empty interval of 8 s (nil distractor control), or the presentation of a series of four sine tones, or four visual letters or three conductor gestures, also to be remembered. Participants then saw an unfolding score of the notes of the scale, during which they were to imagine the corresponding scale in their mind while adjusting a slider to indicate the imagined changes in loudness. Finally, participants performed a recognition task of the tone, letter, or gesture sequence. Based on the motor hypothesis, we predicted that observing and remembering conductor gestures would impair loudness change scale recall, while observing and remembering tone or letter string stimuli would not. Results support this prediction, with loudness change recalled less accurately in the gestures condition than in the control condition. An effect of musical training suggests that auditory and motor imagery ability may be closely related to domain expertise. PMID:23227014

  10. Mental Imagery Affects Subsequent Automatic Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hagenaars, Muriel A.; Mesbah, Rahele; Cremers, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two experiments explored whether mental imagery as a pre-trauma manipulation could influence fear bradycardia (a core characteristic of freezing) during subsequent analog trauma (affective picture viewing). Image-based interventions have proven successful in the treatment of threat-related disorders and are easily applicable. In Experiment 1, 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to an imagery script condition. Participants executed a passive viewing task with blocks of neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures after listening to an auditory script that was either related (with a positive or a negative outcome) or unrelated to the unpleasant pictures from the passive viewing task. Heart rate was assessed during script listening and during passive viewing. Imagining negative related scripts resulted in greater bradycardia (neutral-unpleasant contrast) than imagining positive scripts, especially unrelated. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (n = 51), again in the neutral-unpleasant contrast. An extra no-script condition showed that bradycardia was not induced by the negative-related script, but rather that a positive script attenuated bradycardia. These preliminary results might indicate reduced vigilance after unrelated positive events. Future research should replicate these findings using a larger sample. Either way, the findings show that highly automatic defense behavior can be influenced by relatively simple mental imagery manipulations. PMID:26089801

  11. Remote imagery for unmanned ground vehicles (RIUGV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, Philip A.; Kania, Robert; Theisen, Bernard; Ward, Derek; Benz, Ursula; Baylot, Alex; Willis, John; Yamauchi, Harold

    2005-05-01

    The combination of high-resolution multi-spectral satellite imagery and advanced COTS object-oriented image processing software provides for an automated terrain feature extraction and classification capability. This information, along with elevation data, infrared imagery, a vehicle mobility model and various meta-data (local weather reports, Zobler Soil map, etc...), is fed into automated path planning software to provide a stand-alone ability to generate rapidly updateable dynamic mobility maps for Manned or Unmanned Ground Vehicles (MGVs or UGVs). These polygon based mobility maps can reside on an individual platform or a tactical network. When new information is available, change files are generated and ingested into existing mobility maps based on user selected criteria. Bandwidth concerns are mitigated by the use of shape files for the representation of the data (e.g. each object in the scene is represented by a shape file and thus can be transmitted individually). User input (desired level of stealth, required time of arrival, etc...) determines the priority in which objects are tagged for updates. This technology was tested at Fort Knox, Kentucky October 11th-15th 2004. Satellite imagery was acquired in a near-real-time fashion for the selected test site. Portions of the resulting geo-rectified image were compared with surveyed range locations to assess the accuracy of the approach. The derived UGV Path Plans were ingested into a Stryker UGV and the routes were autonomously traversed. This paper will detail the feasibility of this approach based of the results of this testing.

  12. Mental imagery for musical changes in loudness.

    PubMed

    Bailes, Freya; Bishop, Laura; Stevens, Catherine J; Dean, Roger T

    2012-01-01

    Musicians imagine music during mental rehearsal, when reading from a score, and while composing. An important characteristic of music is its temporality. Among the parameters that vary through time is sound intensity, perceived as patterns of loudness. Studies of mental imagery for melodies (i.e., pitch and rhythm) show interference from concurrent musical pitch and verbal tasks, but how we represent musical changes in loudness is unclear. Theories suggest that our perceptions of loudness change relate to our perceptions of force or effort, implying a motor representation. An experiment was conducted to investigate the modalities that contribute to imagery for loudness change. Musicians performed a within-subjects loudness change recall task, comprising 48 trials. First, participants heard a musical scale played with varying patterns of loudness, which they were asked to remember. There followed an empty interval of 8 s (nil distractor control), or the presentation of a series of four sine tones, or four visual letters or three conductor gestures, also to be remembered. Participants then saw an unfolding score of the notes of the scale, during which they were to imagine the corresponding scale in their mind while adjusting a slider to indicate the imagined changes in loudness. Finally, participants performed a recognition task of the tone, letter, or gesture sequence. Based on the motor hypothesis, we predicted that observing and remembering conductor gestures would impair loudness change scale recall, while observing and remembering tone or letter string stimuli would not. Results support this prediction, with loudness change recalled less accurately in the gestures condition than in the control condition. An effect of musical training suggests that auditory and motor imagery ability may be closely related to domain expertise. PMID:23227014

  13. Teaching Fair Use with Astronomy Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism among students is most common because of a misunderstanding of copyright and fair use. Images and text are frequently used without proper credit to the original author, and works are frequently acknowledged improperly. For example, space imagery is often used in posters, presentations, on the web, on Facebook, and even in the classrooms, but often are not properly cited. A lesson plan on fair use is presented, outlining what constitutes fair use and how to properly acknowledge the work done by artists and authors everywhere, with examples drawn from the Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD).

  14. Photogrammetry of the Viking-Lander imagery.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, S.S.C.; Schafer, F.J.

    1982-01-01

    We have solved the problem of photogrammetric mapping from the Viking Lander photography in two ways: 1) by converting the azimuth and elevation scanning imagery to the equivalent of a frame picture by means of computerized rectification; and 2) by interfacing a high-speed, general-purpose computer to the AS-11A analytical plotter so that all computations of corrections can be performed in real time during the process of model orientation and map compilation. Examples are presented of photographs and maps of Earth and Mars. -from Authors

  15. Monitoring flood damage with satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, L. A.; Waltz, F. A.

    1973-01-01

    During analysis of ERTS-1 imagery for land use patterns a large impoundment of water was observed in a location that was normally farmland. Subsequent investigation revealed that the satellite had recorded the remaining floodwaters from a severe local rainstorm that had occurred four days prior to the overpass. The inundated area was measured using the automatic planimeter associated with the signal analysis and dissemination equipment located at the Remote Sensing Institute. The area measurement coupled with estimates of the land use and productivity of the region permitted an estimate of the crop damage loss for the inundated area.

  16. Barrier Island Shorelines Extracted from Landsat Imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guy, Kristy K.

    2015-01-01

    The shoreline is a common variable used as a metric for coastal erosion or change (Himmelstoss and others, 2010). Although shorelines are often extracted from topographic data (for example, ground-based surveys and light detection and ranging [lidar]), image-based shorelines, corrected for their inherent uncertainties (Moore and others, 2006), have provided much of our understanding of long-term shoreline change because they pre-date routine lidar elevation survey methods. Image-based shorelines continue to be valuable because of their higher temporal resolution compared to costly airborne lidar surveys. A method for extracting sandy shorelines from 30-meter (m) resolution Landsat imagery is presented here.

  17. The Role of Mental Imagery in Depression: Negative Mental Imagery Induces Strong Implicit and Explicit Affect in Depression.

    PubMed

    Görgen, Stefanie Maria; Joormann, Jutta; Hiller, Wolfgang; Witthöft, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mental imagery, seeing with the mind's eyes, can induce stronger positive as well as negative affect compared to verbal processing. Given this emotion-amplifying effect, it appears likely that mental images play an important role in affective disorders. According to the subcomponents model of depression, depressed mood is maintained by both negative imagery (which amplifies negative mood) and less efficient positive imagery processes. Empirical research on the link between mental imagery and affect in clinical depression, however, is still sparse. This study aimed at testing the role of mental imagery in depression, using a modified version of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP) and the self-assessment manikin (SAM) to assess implicit (AMP) and explicit (SAM) affect elicited by mental images, pictures, and verbal processing in clinically depressed participants (n = 32) compared to healthy controls (n = 32). In individuals with a depressive disorder, compared to healthy controls, negative mental images induced stronger negative affect in the explicit as well as implicit measure. Negative mental imagery did not, however, elicit greater increases in explicitly and implicitly assessed negative affect compared to other processing modalities (verbal processing, pictures) in the depressed group. Additionally, a positive imagery deficit in depression was observed in the explicit measure. Interestingly, the two groups did not differ in implicitly assessed affect after positive imagery, indicating that depressed individuals might benefit from positive imagery on an implicit or automatic level. Overall, our findings suggest that mental imagery also plays an important role in depression and confirm the potential of novel treatment approaches for depression, such as the promotion of positive imagery. PMID:26217240

  18. The Role of Mental Imagery in Depression: Negative Mental Imagery Induces Strong Implicit and Explicit Affect in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Görgen, Stefanie Maria; Joormann, Jutta; Hiller, Wolfgang; Witthöft, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mental imagery, seeing with the mind’s eyes, can induce stronger positive as well as negative affect compared to verbal processing. Given this emotion-amplifying effect, it appears likely that mental images play an important role in affective disorders. According to the subcomponents model of depression, depressed mood is maintained by both negative imagery (which amplifies negative mood) and less efficient positive imagery processes. Empirical research on the link between mental imagery and affect in clinical depression, however, is still sparse. This study aimed at testing the role of mental imagery in depression, using a modified version of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP) and the self-assessment manikin (SAM) to assess implicit (AMP) and explicit (SAM) affect elicited by mental images, pictures, and verbal processing in clinically depressed participants (n = 32) compared to healthy controls (n = 32). In individuals with a depressive disorder, compared to healthy controls, negative mental images induced stronger negative affect in the explicit as well as implicit measure. Negative mental imagery did not, however, elicit greater increases in explicitly and implicitly assessed negative affect compared to other processing modalities (verbal processing, pictures) in the depressed group. Additionally, a positive imagery deficit in depression was observed in the explicit measure. Interestingly, the two groups did not differ in implicitly assessed affect after positive imagery, indicating that depressed individuals might benefit from positive imagery on an implicit or automatic level. Overall, our findings suggest that mental imagery also plays an important role in depression and confirm the potential of novel treatment approaches for depression, such as the promotion of positive imagery. PMID:26217240

  19. Guided Imagery in the Classroom: An Enhancement to Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, Kay U.

    The use of guided imagery meshes with recent insights into right and left brain learning. Guided imagery engages the right brain processes such as imagination, emotion, creative, and intuitive activities. While much instruction is concerned with left brain activity, that is, the processsing of information through words, the addition of right brain…

  20. Girls Like Colors, Boys Like Action? Imagery Preferences and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Patricia L.

    Although there are efforts to equalize educational methods and materials, some differences between males and females may be better served by emphasizing rather than neutralizing gender. One such point is in the area of visual imagery. Studies have shown that imagery preferred by males and females differs in certain visual characteristics. The…

  1. A Motion Aftereffect from Visual Imagery of Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winawer, Jonathan; Huk, Alexander C.; Boroditsky, Lera

    2010-01-01

    Mental imagery is thought to share properties with perception. To what extent does the process of imagining a scene share neural circuits and computational mechanisms with actually perceiving the same scene? Here, we investigated whether mental imagery of motion in a particular direction recruits neural circuits tuned to the same direction of…

  2. Studying Action Representation in Children via Motor Imagery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl

    2009-01-01

    The use of motor imagery is a widely used experimental paradigm for the study of cognitive aspects of action planning and control in adults. Furthermore, there are indications that motor imagery provides a window into the process of action representation. These notions complement internal model theory suggesting that such representations allow…

  3. Airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping crop yield variability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the spatial variation in crop yield has become necessary for site-specific crop management. Traditional satellite imagery has long been used to monitor crop growing conditions and to estimate crop yields over large geographic areas. However, this type of imagery has limited us...

  4. Comparison of ID performance using real and synthetic imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Eddie L.; Edwards, Timothy C.; Miller, Brian; Hodgkin, Van A.

    2002-07-01

    Recent experiments performed at the U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) provide significant insight into the validation of synthetic imagery for use in human perception experiments. This paper documents the procedures and results of target identification (ID) experiments using real and synthetic thermal imagery. Real imagery representing notional first generation and advanced scanning sensor systems was obtained. Parameters derived from the sensor data were used to generate synthetic imagery using the NVESD Paint the Night simulation. Both image sets were then used in a target identification experiment with trained human observers. Perception test results were analyzed and compared with metrics derived from the imagery. Several parameters missing from the original truth data were found to correlate with differences in the perception data. Synthetic data were regenerated using these additional parameters. A subsequent perception experiment confirmed the importance of these parameters, and a good match was obtained between real and synthetic imagery. While the techniques used in this series of experiments do not constitute a definitive method for validating synthetic imagery, they point to some important observations on validation. The main observation is that both target and local background characteristics must be sufficiently specified in the truth data in order to obtain good agreement between synthetic and real data. The paper concludes with suggestions as to the level of detail necessary for truth data when using synthetic imagery in perception experiments.

  5. Emotional Imagery and the Differential Diagnosis of Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Edwin W., III; And Others

    1988-01-01

    For 38 anxiety patients, exposure to phobic imagery resulted in significantly larger heart rate and skin conductance increases than control imagery. Results suggest that simple phobia is avoidance disposition, social phobia involves multiple problems of interpersonal dominance, and agoraphobia may be more similar to generalized anxiety disorder…

  6. Imagining the Music: Methods for Assessing Musical Imagery Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Terry; Williamon, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Timing profiles of live and imagined performances were compared with the aim of creating a context-specific measure of musicians' imagery ability. Thirty-two advanced musicians completed imagery use and vividness surveys, and then gave two live and two mental performances of a two-minute musical excerpt, tapping along with the beat of the mental…

  7. Mapping Giant Salvinia with Satellite Imagery and Image Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    QuickBird multispectral satellite imagery was evaluated for distinguishing giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta Mitchell) in a large reservoir in east Texas. The imagery had four bands (blue, green, red, and near-infrared) and contained 11-bit data. Color-infrared (green, red, and near-infrared bands)...

  8. BOREAS RSS-2 Extracted Reflectance Factors Derived from ASAS Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickerson, Jaime (Editor); Dabney, P.; Kovalick, W.; Graham, D.; Bur, Michael; Irons, James R.; Tierney, M.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-2 team derived atmospherically corrected bidirectional reflectance factor means from multispectral, multiangle ASAS imagery for small homogeneous areas near several BOREAS sites. The ASAS imagery was acquired from the C-130 aircraft platform in 1994 and 1996. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  9. Comparison of Airborne Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery for Yield Estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multispectral and hyperspectral imagery is being used to monitor crop conditions and map yield variability. However, limited research has been conducted to compare the differences between these two types of imagery for assessing crop growth and yield. The objective of this study was to compare airbo...

  10. Evaluating SPOT 5 Multispectral Imagery for Crop Yield Estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High resolution satellite imagery has the potential for mapping within-field variability in crop growth and yield. This study examined SPOT 5 multispectral imagery for estimating grain sorghum yield. A SPOT 5 image with 10-m spatial resolution and four spectral bands (green, red, near-infrared and m...

  11. Imagery and Semantic Elaboration in Hypermnesia for Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belmore, Susan M.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the contribution of imagery and semantic factors to the hypermnesia effect (increases in retention over successive recall attempts). Results showed that hypermnesia accompanies meaningful processing regardless of whether verbal or imagery encoding is emphasized. Semantic elaboration increases reminiscence…

  12. Using Imagery Rescripting to Treat Major Depression: Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheatley, Jon; Hackmann, Ann

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the role that intrusive memories may play in maintaining depression and the rationale for using imagery rescripting in order to target these memories. Potential mechanisms of change underlying imagery rescripting are discussed. The relationship between depressive rumination and memories is considered, as well as potential…

  13. Geometric rectification of radar imagery using digital elevation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naraghi, M.; Stromberg, W.; Daily, M.

    1983-01-01

    Geologic analysis of radar imagery requires accurate spatial rectification to allow rock type discrimination and meaningful exploitation of multisensor data files. A procedure is described which removes distortions produced by most sources including the heretofore elusive problem of terrain induced effects. Rectified imagery is presented which displays geologic features not apparent in the distorted data.

  14. Using Art Criticism To Examine Meaning in Today's Visual Imagery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mary Ruth

    A method of pedagogical art criticism can be used to examine meaning in one of today's most pervasive forms of visual imagery: the advertising image. It was necessary for the art critical method to accommodate the following components of advertising imagery: (1) history; (2) purpose in a capitalist society; (3) function in society; (4) effects on…

  15. Interactively Browsing NASA's EOS Imagery in Full Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boller, R. A.; Joshi, T.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Ilavajhala, S.; Davies, D.; Murphy, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Worldview is a new tool designed to interactively browse full-resolution imagery from NASA's fleet of Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. It is web-based and developed using open standards (JavaScript, CSS, HTML) for cross-platform compatibility. It addresses growing user demands for access to full-resolution imagery by providing a responsive, interactive interface with global coverage, no artificial boundaries, and views in geographic and polar projections. Currently tailored to the near real-time community, Worldview enables the rapid evaluation and comparison of imagery related to such application areas as fires, floods, and air quality. It is supported by the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS), a system that continuously ingests, mosaics, and serves approximately 21GB of imagery daily. This imagery spans over 50 data products that are available within three hours of observation from instruments aboard Terra, Aqua, and Aura. The GIBS image archive began in May 2012 and will have published approximately 4.4TB of imagery as of December 2012. Worldview facilitates rapid access to this archive and is supplemented by socioeconomic data layers from the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), including products such as population density and economic risk from cyclones. Future plans include the accessibility of additional products that cover the entire Terra/MODIS and Aqua/MODIS missions (>150TB) and the ability to download the underlying science data of the onscreen imagery.

  16. Small UAV-Acquired, High-resolution, Georeferenced Still Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan Hruska

    2005-09-01

    Currently, small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are primarily used for capturing and down-linking real-time video. To date, their role as a low-cost airborne platform for capturing high-resolution, georeferenced still imagery has not been fully utilized. On-going work within the Unmanned Vehicle Systems Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is attempting to exploit this small UAV-acquired, still imagery potential. Initially, a UAV-based still imagery work flow model was developed that includes initial UAV mission planning, sensor selection, UAV/sensor integration, and imagery collection, processing, and analysis. Components to support each stage of the work flow are also being developed. Critical to use of acquired still imagery is the ability to detect changes between images of the same area over time. To enhance the analysts’ change detection ability, a UAV-specific, GIS-based change detection system called SADI or System for Analyzing Differences in Imagery is under development. This paper will discuss the associated challenges and approaches to collecting still imagery with small UAVs. Additionally, specific components of the developed work flow system will be described and graphically illustrated using varied examples of small UAV-acquired still imagery.

  17. Yield estimation from hyperspectral imagery using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation indices (VIs) derived from remotely sensed imagery are commonly used to estimate crop yields. Spectral angle mapper (SAM) provides an alternative approach to quantifying the spectral differences among all pixels in imagery and therefore has the potential for mapping yield variability. The...

  18. Users guide to high altitude imagery of Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A guide to the high altitude imagery of Michigan outlines the areas of the state covered by selected recent high altitude aircraft and Earth Resources Technology Satellite flights. The types of remote sensing used are described. Maps of the flight coverage areas are included along with price lists of available imagery.

  19. Seeing Is Believing: Using Imagery to Enhance Your Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Imagery is a powerful sport psychology tool easily accessible to coaches. These reminders can help coaches improve their athletes' images and performance: (1) Create vivid and controllable images; (2) Use polysensory images and instructional cues, delivered, ideally, in real time; (3) Use internal and external perspectives; (4) Use imagery during…

  20. Imagery and Information Processing: Some Implications for Therapeutic Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Corwin P.

    This study of the human power to make mental images in the mind, here called "imagery," is studied as a phenomena of empirical psychology. The findings have importance for the process of communication, especially in behavioral modification through psychotherapy. Current research in imagery is reviewed, along with possible applications to…

  1. Face and object imagery in congenital prosopagnosia: a case series.

    PubMed

    Tree, Jeremy J; Wilkie, Jaimie

    2010-10-01

    It has been reported that congenital prosopagnosics may have a general imagery deficit or an imagery deficit specific to faces. However, much of this evidence is based on self-report questionnaires, rather than experimentally based testing (Grüter et al., 2007, 2009). This study tested face and non-face based imagery in a case series of congenital prosopagnosics, utilising both questionnaire based and forced choice accuracy measures. Our findings indicate that all the prosopagnosics showed impaired face based imagery, which contrasted with normal performance on imagery of objects and colours - a pattern that is consistent with reports of acquired prosopagnosia (Barton, 2008; Michelon and Biederman, 2003). Given all our experimentally based testing indicated face imagery impairments, despite no such problems being seen on self-report questionnaires, we would argue that testing based only on the latter must be interpreted with some caution. Overall, we would advocate that our findings demonstrate a category specific visual imagery impairment in congenital prosopagnosia, such that general imagery skill can be intact in such cases. PMID:20434142

  2. Dance and Imagery--The Link between Movement and Imagination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen Lynn, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This feature examines the diverse nature of imagery, how images work, and the use of imagery--in creative dance for children, to enhance alignment, and as a therapeutic device. Also explored are creative visualization and research tools for observing and categorizing the use of images by dance teachers. (IAH)

  3. Toward a Phenomenology of Dream Imagery and Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Elmer S., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The author partially describes a few of the immanent qualities of dreaming imagery and metaphor. The concept of the ineluctable modality is introduced to illustrate the spontaneous synthesizing of cognitive and noncognitive elements. A short dream excerpt is shared to clarify the pervasive contrapuntallike depth of dreaming imagery. (Author/SJL)

  4. Effects of Pretend Imagery on Learning Dance in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacha, Tori J.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2006-01-01

    Play is important in child development and learning. The intent of this study was to assess the effects of play, using physical movement and pretend imagery, on learning dance. Four preschool dance classes, encompassing 32 children ages 3-6, were randomly divided into pretend imagery groups and traditional teaching groups. The classes were…

  5. Transcriptome profiling reveals links between ParS/ParR, MexEF-OprN, and quorum sensing in the regulation of adaptation and virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ParS/ParR two component regulatory system plays critical roles for multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It was demonstrated that in the presence of antimicrobials, ParR enhances bacterial survival by distinct mechanisms including activation of the mexXY efflux genes, enhancement of lipopolysaccharide modification through the arn operon, and reduction of the expression of oprD porin. Results In this study, we report on transcriptomic analyses of P. aeruginosa PAO1 wild type and parS and parR mutants growing in a defined minimal medium. Our transcriptomic analysis provides the first estimates of transcript abundance for the 5570 coding genes in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Comparative transcriptomics of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and par mutants identified a total of 464 genes regulated by ParS and ParR. Results also showed that mutations in the parS/parR system abolished expression of the mexEF-oprN operon by down-regulating the regulatory gene mexS. In addition to the known effects on drug resistance genes, transcript abundances of the quorum sensing genes (rhlIR and pqsABCDE-phnAB) were higher in both parS and parR mutants. In accordance with these results, a significant portion of the ParS/ParR regulated genes belonged to the MexEF-OprN and quorum sensing regulons. Deletion of the par genes also led to increased phenazine production and swarming motility, consistent with the up-regulation of the phenazine and rhamnolipid biosynthetic genes, respectively. Conclusion Our results link the ParS/ParR two component signal transduction system to MexEF-OprN and quorum sensing systems in P. aeruginosa. These results expand our understanding of the roles of the ParS/ParR system in the regulation of gene expression in P. aeruginosa, especially in the absence of antimicrobials. PMID:24034668

  6. Long-term solution to the imagery bandwidth problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Dennis C.

    1996-11-01

    There are numerous technological challenges in the Tactical Reconnaissance (Tac Recce) arena as the digital imagery era dawns. Foremost among them are the problems of imagery transmission bandwidth and the storage of the collected imagery. In this paper I seek to address these problems in an interrelated manner. I do not propose any new technological innovation, but rather a fundamental change in the philosophy of the collection, transmission, and storage of tactical imagery. The core of the approach requires that the area being imaged has already been imaged before (old imagery). This is reasonable given satellite, long range, UAV, and tactical imagery collection systems presently planned for, anticipated data collection rates, and how hot spots are repeatedly imaged. In addition, the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office (DARO) expects to be imaging tens of thousands of square kilometers each day within the next decade. When new tasking to collect imaging is received, imagery collected before by some imagery collection system must be taken with the aircraft (A/C) or person sent out to collect new imagery. As the new imagery is collected, the old and new imagery of the same area would be automatically registered. The old imagery can be pre-scaled, pre-warped, pre-rotated, etc., in order to maximize the efficiency of this process. The registered images can be spatially and spectrally thresholded in order to isolate significant deltas. Automatic target cueing (ATC)/automatic target recognition (ATR) could be used on both images for comparison to further isolate new objects of interest. Segmentation techniques could then be used to extract objects or regions of interest from the new image and only these objects or regions would be transmitted to the ground, a relay aircraft, or a satellite. Once at the ground station or long-term storage site, the new information could be inserted into the original image, thus minimizing the amount of storage space required as areas

  7. Exploiting range imagery: techniques and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armbruster, Walter

    2009-07-01

    Practically no applications exist for which automatic processing of 2D intensity imagery can equal human visual perception. This is not the case for range imagery. The paper gives examples of 3D laser radar applications, for which automatic data processing can exceed human visual cognition capabilities and describes basic processing techniques for attaining these results. The examples are drawn from the fields of helicopter obstacle avoidance, object detection in surveillance applications, object recognition at high range, multi-object-tracking, and object re-identification in range image sequences. Processing times and recognition performances are summarized. The techniques used exploit the bijective continuity of the imaging process as well as its independence of object reflectivity, emissivity and illumination. This allows precise formulations of the probability distributions involved in figure-ground segmentation, feature-based object classification and model based object recognition. The probabilistic approach guarantees optimal solutions for single images and enables Bayesian learning in range image sequences. Finally, due to recent results in 3D-surface completion, no prior model libraries are required for recognizing and re-identifying objects of quite general object categories, opening the way to unsupervised learning and fully autonomous cognitive systems.

  8. Automated Detection of Clouds in Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Many different approaches have been used to automatically detect clouds in satellite imagery. Most approaches are deterministic and provide a binary cloud - no cloud product used in a variety of applications. Some of these applications require the identification of cloudy pixels for cloud parameter retrieval, while others require only an ability to mask out clouds for the retrieval of surface or atmospheric parameters in the absence of clouds. A few approaches estimate a probability of the presence of a cloud at each point in an image. These probabilities allow a user to select cloud information based on the tolerance of the application to uncertainty in the estimate. Many automated cloud detection techniques develop sophisticated tests using a combination of visible and infrared channels to determine the presence of clouds in both day and night imagery. Visible channels are quite effective in detecting clouds during the day, as long as test thresholds properly account for variations in surface features and atmospheric scattering. Cloud detection at night is more challenging, since only courser resolution infrared measurements are available. A few schemes use just two infrared channels for day and night cloud detection. The most influential factor in the success of a particular technique is the determination of the thresholds for each cloud test. The techniques which perform the best usually have thresholds that are varied based on the geographic region, time of year, time of day and solar angle.

  9. Rocket ultraviolet imagery of the Andromeda galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, G. R.; Opal, C. B.; Heckathorn, H. M.

    1978-01-01

    Far-UV electrographic imagery of M31 is presented which was obtained during a sounding-rocket flight with an electrographic Schmidt camera sensitive in the wavelength range from 1230 to 2000 A. The resolution in the imagery is such that 50% of the energy from a point source is confined within a circle 40 arcsec in radius. Two conspicuous features are observed in the UV image of M31: one corresponding to a bright association (NGC 206) in the SW region of the disk and one centered on the galactic nucleus. Indications of the general spiral-arm structure are also evident. Absolute photometry and brightness distributions are obtained for the observed features, and both the central region and NGC 206 are shown to be diffuse sources. It is found that the brightness distribution of the central region is a flat ellipse with its major axis closely aligned with the major axis of the galaxy, which favors a source model consisting of young early-type stars close to the galactic plane and constitutes strong evidence against a nonthermal point source at the galactic center.

  10. Standardized rendering from IR surveillance motion imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, F. J.

    2014-06-01

    Government agencies, including defense and law enforcement, increasingly make use of video from surveillance systems and camera phones owned by non-government entities.Making advanced and standardized motion imaging technology available to private and commercial users at cost-effective prices would benefit all parties. In particular, incorporating thermal infrared into commercial surveillance systems offers substantial benefits beyond night vision capability. Face rendering is a process to facilitate exploitation of thermal infrared surveillance imagery from the general area of a crime scene, to assist investigations with and without cooperating eyewitnesses. Face rendering automatically generates greyscale representations similar to police artist sketches for faces in surveillance imagery collected from proximate locations and times to a crime under investigation. Near-realtime generation of face renderings can provide law enforcement with an investigation tool to assess witness memory and credibility, and integrate reports from multiple eyewitnesses, Renderings can be quickly disseminated through social media to warn of a person who may pose an immediate threat, and to solicit the public's help in identifying possible suspects and witnesses. Renderings are pose-standardized so as to not divulge the presence and location of eyewitnesses and surveillance cameras. Incorporation of thermal infrared imaging into commercial surveillance systems will significantly improve system performance, and reduce manual review times, at an incremental cost that will continue to decrease. Benefits to criminal justice would include improved reliability of eyewitness testimony and improved accuracy of distinguishing among minority groups in eyewitness and surveillance identifications.

  11. LANL experience with coregistration of MTI imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Paul A.; Theiler, James P.; Galbraith, Amy E.

    2004-01-01

    The fifteen-channel Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) provides accurately calibrated satellite imagery for a variety of scientific and programmatic purposes. To be useful, the calibrated pixels from the individual detectors on the focal plane of this pushbroom sensor must be resampled to a regular grid corresponding to the observed scene on the ground. In the LEVEL1B_R_COREG product, it is required that the pixels from different spectral bands and from different sensor chip assemblies all be coregistered to the same grid. For the LEVEL1B_R_GEO product, it is further required that this grid be georeferenced to the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system. It is important that an accurate registration is achieved, because most of the higher level products (e.g. ground reflectance) are derived from these LEVEL1B_R products. Initially, a single direct georeferencing approach was pursued for performing the coregistration task. Although this continues to be the primary algorithm for our automated pipeline registration, we found it advantageous to pursue alternative approaches as well. This paper surveys these approaches, and offers lessons learned during the three years we have been addressing the coregistration requirements for MTI imagery at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  12. LANL experience with coregistration of MTI imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Paul A.; Theiler, James P.; Galbraith, Amy E.

    2003-12-01

    The fifteen-channel Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) provides accurately calibrated satellite imagery for a variety of scientific and programmatic purposes. To be useful, the calibrated pixels from the individual detectors on the focal plane of this pushbroom sensor must be resampled to a regular grid corresponding to the observed scene on the ground. In the LEVEL1B_R_COREG product, it is required that the pixels from different spectral bands and from different sensor chip assemblies all be coregistered to the same grid. For the LEVEL1B_R_GEO product, it is further required that this grid be georeferenced to the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system. It is important that an accurate registration is achieved, because most of the higher level products (e.g. ground reflectance) are derived from these LEVEL1B_R products. Initially, a single direct georeferencing approach was pursued for performing the coregistration task. Although this continues to be the primary algorithm for our automated pipeline registration, we found it advantageous to pursue alternative approaches as well. This paper surveys these approaches, and offers lessons learned during the three years we have been addressing the coregistration requirements for MTI imagery at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  13. Image processing of underwater multispectral imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zawada, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    Capturing in situ fluorescence images of marine organisms presents many technical challenges. The effects of the medium, as well as the particles and organisms within it, are intermixed with the desired signal. Methods for extracting and preparing the imagery for analysis are discussed in reference to a novel underwater imaging system called the low-light-level underwater multispectral imaging system (LUMIS). The instrument supports both uni- and multispectral collections, each of which is discussed in the context of an experimental application. In unispectral mode, LUMIS was used to investigate the spatial distribution of phytoplankton. A thin sheet of laser light (532 nm) induced chlorophyll fluorescence in the phytoplankton, which was recorded by LUMIS. Inhomogeneities in the light sheet led to the development of a beam-pattern-correction algorithm. Separating individual phytoplankton cells from a weak background fluorescence field required a two-step procedure consisting of edge detection followed by a series of binary morphological operations. In multispectral mode, LUMIS was used to investigate the bio-assay potential of fluorescent pigments in corals. Problems with the commercial optical-splitting device produced nonlinear distortions in the imagery. A tessellation algorithm, including an automated tie-point-selection procedure, was developed to correct the distortions. Only pixels corresponding to coral polyps were of interest for further analysis. Extraction of these pixels was performed by a dynamic global-thresholding algorithm.

  14. Imagery analysis and the need for standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Barbara G.

    2014-09-01

    While efforts within the optics community focus on the development of high-quality systems and data products, comparatively little attention is paid to their use. Our standards for verification and validation are high; but in some user domains, standards are either lax or do not exist at all. In forensic imagery analysis, for example, standards exist to judge image quality, but do not exist to judge the quality of an analysis. In litigation, a high quality analysis is by default the one performed by the victorious attorney's expert. This paper argues for the need to extend quality standards into the domain of imagery analysis, which is expected to increase in national visibility and significance with the increasing deployment of unmanned aerial vehicle—UAV, or "drone"—sensors in the continental U. S.. It argues that like a good radiometric calibration, made as independent of the calibrated instrument as possible, a good analysis should be subject to standards the most basic of which is the separation of issues of scientific fact from analysis results.

  15. Evapotranspiration estimates using ASTER thermal infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmugge, Thomas J.; French, Andrew; Kustas, William P.

    2002-01-01

    The recent availability of multi-band thermal infrared imagery from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission & Reflection radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite has made feasible the estimation of evapotranspiration at 90 meter resolution. One critical variable in evapotranspiration models is surface temperature. With ASTER the temperature can be reliably determined over a wide range of vegetative conditions. The requirements for accurate temperature measurement include minimization of atmospheric effects, correction for surface emissivity variations and sufficient resolution for the type of vegetative cover. When ASTER imagery are combined with meteorological observations, these requirements are usually met and result in surface temperatures accurate within 1-2 C. ASTER-based evapotranspiration estimates were made during September 2000 over a sub-humid regions at the USDA/ARS Grazinglands research laboratory near El Reno in central Oklahoma. Daily evapotranspiration was estimated by applying instantaneous ASTER surface temperatures, as well as ASTER-based vegetation indices from visible-near infrared bands, to a two-source energy flux model and combining the result with separately acquired hourly solar radiation data. The estimates of surface fluxes show reasonable agreement (within 50-100 W/m2) with ground-based Bowen Ratio Energy Balance measurements and illustrate how ASTER measurements can be applied to heterogeneous terrain. There are some significant discrepancies, however, and these may in part be due to difficulty quantifying fractional cover of senescent vegetation.

  16. Digital techniques for processing Landsat imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the basic techniques used to process Landsat images with a digital computer, and the VICAR image processing software developed at JPL and available to users through the NASA sponsored COSMIC computer program distribution center is presented. Examples of subjective processing performed to improve the information display for the human observer, such as contrast enhancement, pseudocolor display and band rationing, and of quantitative processing using mathematical models, such as classification based on multispectral signatures of different areas within a given scene and geometric transformation of imagery into standard mapping projections are given. Examples are illustrated by Landsat scenes of the Andes mountains and Altyn-Tagh fault zone in China before and after contrast enhancement and classification of land use in Portland, Oregon. The VICAR image processing software system which consists of a language translator that simplifies execution of image processing programs and provides a general purpose format so that imagery from a variety of sources can be processed by the same basic set of general applications programs is described.

  17. Automated oil spill detection with multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Brian N.; Sanchez-Reyes, Pedro J.

    2011-06-01

    In this publication we present an automated detection method for ocean surface oil, like that which existed in the Gulf of Mexico as a result of the April 20, 2010 Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion. Regions of surface oil in airborne imagery are isolated using red, green, and blue bands from multispectral data sets. The oil shape isolation procedure involves a series of image processing functions to draw out the visual phenomenological features of the surface oil. These functions include selective color band combinations, contrast enhancement and histogram warping. An image segmentation process then separates out contiguous regions of oil to provide a raster mask to an analyst. We automate the detection algorithm to allow large volumes of data to be processed in a short time period, which can provide timely oil coverage statistics to response crews. Geo-referenced and mosaicked data sets enable the largest identified oil regions to be mapped to exact geographic coordinates. In our simulation, multispectral imagery came from multiple sources including first-hand data collected from the Gulf. Results of the simulation show the oil spill coverage area as a raster mask, along with histogram statistics of the oil pixels. A rough square footage estimate of the coverage is reported if the image ground sample distance is available.

  18. Talker-specific auditory imagery during reading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nygaard, Lynne C.; Duke, Jessica; Kawar, Kathleen; Queen, Jennifer S.

    2001-05-01

    The present experiment was designed to determine if auditory imagery during reading includes talker-specific characteristics such as speaking rate. Following Kosslyn and Matt (1977), participants were familiarized with two talkers during a brief prerecorded conversation. One talker spoke at a fast speaking rate and one spoke at a slow speaking rate. During familiarization, participants were taught to identify each talker by name. At test, participants were asked to read two passages and told that either the slow or fast talker wrote each passage. In one condition, participants were asked to read each passage aloud, and in a second condition, they were asked to read each passage silently. Participants pressed a key when they had completed reading the passage, and reading times were collected. Reading times were significantly slower when participants thought they were reading a passage written by the slow talker than when reading a passage written by the fast talker. However, the effects of speaking rate were only present in the reading-aloud condition. Additional experiments were conducted to investigate the role of attention to talker's voice during familiarization. These results suggest that readers may engage in auditory imagery while reading that preserves perceptual details of an author's voice.

  19. Subjective aspects of working memory performance: memoranda-related imagery.

    PubMed

    Jantz, Tiffany K; Tomory, Jessica J; Merrick, Christina; Cooper, Shanna; Gazzaley, Adam; Morsella, Ezequiel

    2014-04-01

    Although it is well accepted that working memory (WM) is intimately related to consciousness, little research has illuminated the liaison between the two phenomena. To investigate this under-explored nexus, we used an imagery monitoring task to investigate the subjective aspects of WM performance. Specifically, in two experiments, we examined the effects on consciousness of (a) holding in mind information having a low versus high memory load, and (b) holding memoranda in mind during the presentation of distractors (e.g., visual stimuli associated with a response incompatible with that of the memoranda). Higher rates of rehearsal (conscious imagery) occurred in the high load and distractor conditions than in comparable control conditions. Examination of the temporal properties of the rehearsal-based imagery revealed that, across subjects, imagery events occurred evenly throughout the delay. We hope that future variants of this new imagery monitoring task will reveal additional insights about WM, consciousness, and action control. PMID:24583457

  20. Improvement in spatial imagery following sight onset late in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Tapan; Ganesh, Suma; Sinha, Pawan

    2015-01-01

    The factors contributing to the development of spatial imagery skills are not well understood. Here we ask whether visual experience shapes these skills. Although differences between sighted and the blind on spatial imagery have been reported, it is unclear whether they are truly due to visual deprivation or extraneous factors such as reduced opportunities for the blind to interact with their environment. A direct way of assessing vision’s contribution to spatial imagery development lies in determining whether these skills change soon after the onset of sight in a congenitally blind individual. We describe our results with ten children who gained sight after several years of congenital blindness. We find significant improvements in their spatial imagery skills following sight-restoring surgeries. These results provide evidence of vision’s contribution to spatial imagery and also have implications for the nature of internal spatial representations. PMID:24406396

  1. Vegetation mapping from ERTS imagery of the Okavango Delta. [Botswana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willamson, D. T.

    1974-01-01

    The Okavango is Botswana's major water resource. The present study has been specifically directed at mapping vegetation types within the delta and generally concerned with finding what information of value to plant and animal ecologists could be extracted from the imagery. To date it has been found that. (1) It is possible to map broad vegetation types from the imagery. (2) Imagery of the delta records the state of the system in a manner which will facilitate long-term studies of plant succession. (3) Phenological events can be detected. (4) The imagery can be used to detect and map wild fires. This will be useful in determining the role of fire in the ecology of the region. Using the imagery it is thus possible to map existing vegetation and monitor both short and long-term changes.

  2. Facilitating the exploitation of ERTS imagery using snow enhancement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wobber, F. J.; Martin, K. (Principal Investigator); Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Comparative analysis of snow-free and snow-covered imagery of the New England Test Area has resulted in a larger number of lineaments mapped from snow-covered imagery in three out of four sets of comparative imagery. Analysts unfamiliar with the New England Test Area were utilized; the quality of imagery was independently judged to be uniform. In all image sets, a greater total length of lineaments was mapped with the snow-covered imagery. The value of this technique for fracture mapping in areas with thick soil cover is suggested. A number of potentially useful environmental applications of snow enhancement related to such areas as mining, land use, and hydrology have been identified.

  3. Integrating Multi-Source Imagery Data in a GIS System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.

    2013-07-01

    More and more volumes of high quality imagery data are becoming available than ever and it brings a challenge to the industry on how to integrate data from multi-sources effectively and timely to extract information of improved accuracy for a widespread field of applications. Over the past decade, we have witnessed the advance of tightening integration of imagery data in a GIS system. Imagery data takes advantage of the geodatabase management architecture and enriches the GIS system. Empowered with intuitive user interface and advanced tools, ArcGIS provides a great platform for one-stop integration of multi-source, multi-resolution, and multi-temporal imagery data with pre-processing, managing, visualizing, analyzing and sharing functionalities. This paper will discuss some of the core imagery capabilities in ArcGIS including interactive and automatic data correction and registration, intelligent and versatile data models for data crawling, on-the-fly data processing, and data disseminating.

  4. Proceedings of the 2006 Civil Commercial Imagery Evaluation Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Thomas; Pagnutti, Mary

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) team is a collaborative interagency working group formed to leverage different government agencies' capabilities for the characterization of commercial remote sensing products. The team is composed of staff from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Each JACIE agency has a vested interest in the purchase and use of commercial imagery to support government research and operational applications. The intent of the 2006 workshop is to exchange information regarding the characterization and application of commercial imagery used by the government. The main focus of previous workshops has been on high-resolution satellite imagery from systems; such as, IKONOS (Space Imaging, Inc.), QuickBird (DigitalGlobe, Inc.), and OrbView-3 (ORBIMAGE). This workshop is being expanded to cover all civil medium- and high-resolution commercial imagery used by the government.

  5. Taare Zameen Par and dyslexic savants.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Ambar

    2009-04-01

    The film Taare Zameen Par (Stars upon the Ground) portrays the tormented life at school and at home of a child with dyslexia and his eventual success after his artistic talents are discovered by his art teacher at the boarding school. The film hints at a curious neurocognitive phenomenon of creativity in the midst of language disability, as exemplified in the lives of people like Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein, both of whom demonstrated extraordinary creativity even though they were probably affected with developmental learning disorders. It has been hypothesized that a developmental delay in the dominant hemisphere most likely 'disinhibits' the nondominant parietal lobe, unmasking talents-artistic or otherwise-in some such individuals. It has been suggested that, in remedial training, children with learning disorders be encouraged to develop such hidden talents to full capacity, rather than be subjected to the usual overemphasis on the correction of the disturbed coded symbol operations. PMID:20142854

  6. Taare Zameen Par and dyslexic savants

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Ambar

    2009-01-01

    The film Taare Zameen Par (Stars upon the Ground) portrays the tormented life at school and at home of a child with dyslexia and his eventual success after his artistic talents are discovered by his art teacher at the boarding school. The film hints at a curious neurocognitive phenomenon of creativity in the midst of language disability, as exemplified in the lives of people like Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein, both of whom demonstrated extraordinary creativity even though they were probably affected with developmental learning disorders. It has been hypothesized that a developmental delay in the dominant hemisphere most likely ‘disinhibits’ the nondominant parietal lobe, unmasking talents—artistic or otherwise—in some such individuals. It has been suggested that, in remedial training, children with learning disorders be encouraged to develop such hidden talents to full capacity, rather than be subjected to the usual overemphasis on the correction of the disturbed coded symbol operations. PMID:20142854

  7. Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) - Rapidly Serving NASA Imagery for Applications and Science Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaltz, J. E.; Ilavajhala, S.; Plesea, L.; Hall, J. R.; Boller, R. A.; Chang, G.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Kim, R.; Murphy, K. J.; Thompson, C. K.

    2012-12-01

    Expedited processing of imagery from NASA satellites for near-real time use by non-science applications users has a long history, especially since the beginning of the Terra and Aqua missions. Several years ago, the Land Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) was created to greatly expand the range of near-real time data products from a variety of Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) began exploring methods to distribute these data as imagery in an intuitive, geo-referenced format, which would be available within three hours of acquisition. Toward this end, EOSDIS has developed the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS, http://earthdata.nasa.gov/gibs) to provide highly responsive, scalable, and expandable imagery services. The baseline technology chosen for GIBS was a Tiled Web Mapping Service (TWMS) developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Using this, global images and mosaics are divided into tiles with fixed bounding boxes for a pyramid of fixed resolutions. Initially, the satellite imagery is created at the existing data systems for each sensor, ensuring the oversight of those most knowledgeable about the science. There, the satellite data is geolocated and converted to an image format such as JPEG, TIFF, or PNG. The GIBS ingest server retrieves imagery from the various data systems and converts them into image tiles, which are stored in a highly-optimized raster format named Meta Raster Format (MRF). The image tiles are then served to users via HTTP by means of an Apache module. Services are available for the entire globe (lat-long projection) and for both polar regions (polar stereographic projection). Requests to the services can be made with the non-standard, but widely known, TWMS format or via the well-known OGC Web Map Tile Service (WMTS) standard format. Standard OGC Web Map Service (WMS) access to the GIBS server is also available. In addition, users may request a

  8. Improving Long-term Post-wildfire hydrologic simulations using ParFlow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, S. R.; Kinoshita, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfires alter the natural hydrologic processes within a watershed. After vegetation is burned, the combustion of organic material and debris settles into the soil creating a hydrophobic layer beneath the soil surface with varying degree of thickness and depth. Vegetation regrowth rates vary as a function of radiative exposure, burn severity, and precipitation patterns. Hydrologic models used by the Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams use input data and model calibration constraints that are generally either one-dimensional, empirically-based models, or two-dimensional, conceptually-based models with lumped parameter distributions. These models estimate runoff measurements at the watershed outlet; however, do not provide a distributed hydrologic simulation at each point within the watershed. This work uses ParFlow, a three-dimensional, distributed hydrologic model to (1) correlate burn severity with hydrophobicity, (2) evaluate vegetation recovery rate on water components, and (3) improve flood prediction for managers to help with resource allocation and management operations in burned watersheds. ParFlow is applied to Devil Canyon (43 km2) in San Bernardino, California, which was 97% burned in the 2003 Old Fire. The model set-up uses a 30m-cell size resolution over a 6.7 km by 6.4 km lateral extent. The subsurface reaches 30 m and is assigned a variable cell thickness. Variable subsurface thickness allows users to explicitly consider the degree of recovery throughout the stages of regrowth. Burn severity maps from remotely sensed imagery are used to assign initial hydrophobic layer parameters and thickness. Vegetation regrowth is represented with satellite an Enhanced Vegetation Index. Pre and post-fire hydrologic response is evaluated using runoff measurements at the watershed outlet, and using water component (overland flow, lateral flow, baseflow) measurements.

  9. Biased signaling: potential agonist and antagonist of PAR2.

    PubMed

    Kakarala, Kavita Kumari; Jamil, Kaiser

    2016-06-01

    Protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) has emerged as one of the promising therapeutic targets to inhibit rapidly metastasizing breast cancer cells. However, its elusive molecular mechanism of activation and signaling has made it a difficult target for drug development. In this study, in silico methods were used to unfold PAR2 molecular mechanism of signaling based on the concept of GPCR receptor plasticity. Although, there are no conclusive evidences of the presence of specific endogenous ligands for PAR2, the efficacy of synthetic agonist and antagonist in PAR2 signaling has opened up the possibilities of ligand-mediated signaling. Furthermore, it has been proved that ligands specific for one GPCR can induce signaling in GPCRs belonging to other subfamilies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify potential agonists and antagonists from the GPCR ligand library (GLL), which may induce biased signaling in PAR2 using the concept of existence of multiple ligand-stabilized receptor conformations. The results of our in silico study suggest that PAR2 may show biased signaling mainly with agonists of serotonin type 1, β-adrenergic type 1,3 and antagonists of substance K (NK1), serotonin type 2, dopamine type 4, and thromboxane receptors. Further, this study also throws light on the putative ligand-specific conformations of PAR2. Thus, the results of this study provide structural insights to putative conformations of PAR2 and also gives initial clues to medicinal chemists for rational drug design targeting this challenging receptor. PMID:26295578

  10. An Evolving Model for Capacity Building with Earth Observation Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylak-Glassman, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    For the first forty years of Earth observation satellite imagery, all imagery was collected by civilian or military governmental satellites. Over this timeframe, countries without observation satellite capabilities had very limited access to Earth observation data or imagery. In response to the limited access to Earth observation systems, capacity building efforts were focused on satellite manufacturing. Wood and Weigel (2012) describe the evolution of satellite programs in developing countries with a technology ladder. A country moves up the ladder as they move from producing satellites with training services to building satellites locally. While the ladder model may be appropriate if the goal is to develop autonomous satellite manufacturing capability, in the realm of Earth observation, the goal is generally to derive societal benefit from the use of Earth observation-derived information. In this case, the model for developing Earth observation capacity is more appropriately described by a hub-and-spoke model in which the use of Earth observation imagery is the "hub," and the "spokes" describe the various paths to achieving that imagery: the building of a satellite (either independently or with assistance), the purchase of a satellite, participation in a constellation of satellites, and the use of freely available or purchased satellite imagery. We discuss the different capacity-building activities that are conducted in each of these pathways, such as the "Know-How Transfer and Training" program developed by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. , Earth observation imagery training courses run by SERVIR in developing countries, and the use of national or regional remote sensing centers (such as those in Morocco, Malaysia, and Kenya) to disseminate imagery and training. In addition, we explore the factors that determine through which "spoke" a country arrives at the ability to use Earth observation imagery, and discuss best practices for achieving the capability to use

  11. How a Better Understanding of Spontaneous Mental Imagery Linked to Pain Could Enhance Imagery-Based Therapy in Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Berna, Chantal; Tracey, Irene; Holmes, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Therapy with mental images is prevalent in the field of chronic pain, and this has been the case for centuries. Yet few of the recent advances in the cognitive behavioural understanding of spontaneous (i.e. intrusive) mental imagery have been translated to this field. Such advances include imagery as a component of a psychopathological process, as an emotional amplifier and as a cognitive therapeutic target in its own right. Hence very little is known about the contents, prevalence and emotional impact of spontaneous mental imagery in the context of chronic pain. This article discusses the evidence in favour of spontaneous imagery being a potentially important part of patients’ pain experience, and makes a case, based on neurophysiological findings, for imagery having an impact on pain perception. Furthermore, it presents how mental imagery has been used in the treatment of chronic pain. A case report illustrates further how spontaneous negative imagery linked to pain can be distressing, and how this might be addressed in therapy. Additionally, the case report demonstrates the spontaneous use of coping imagery, and raises a discussion of how this might be enhanced. PMID:26457174

  12. Proteases in agricultural dust induce lung inflammation through PAR-1 and PAR-2 activation.

    PubMed

    Romberger, Debra J; Heires, Art J; Nordgren, Tara M; Souder, Chelsea P; West, William; Liu, Xiang-de; Poole, Jill A; Toews, Myron L; Wyatt, Todd A

    2015-08-15

    Workers exposed to aerosolized dust present in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are susceptible to inflammatory lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Extracts of dust collected from hog CAFOs [hog dust extract (HDE)] are potent stimulators of lung inflammatory responses in several model systems. The observation that HDE contains active proteases prompted the present study, which evaluated the role of CAFO dust proteases in lung inflammatory processes and tested whether protease-activated receptors (PARs) are involved in the signaling pathway for these events. We hypothesized that the damaging proinflammatory effect of HDE is due, in part, to the proteolytic activation of PARs, and inhibiting the proteases in HDE or disrupting PAR activation would attenuate HDE-mediated inflammatory indexes in bronchial epithelial cells (BECs), in mouse lung slices in vitro, and in a murine in vivo exposure model. Human BECs and mouse lung slice cultures stimulated with 5% HDE released significantly more of each of the cytokines measured (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, keratinocyte-derived chemokine/CXC chemokine ligand 1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2/CXC chemokine ligand 2) than controls, and these effects were markedly diminished by protease inhibition. Inhibition of PARs also blunted the HDE-induced cytokine release from BECs. In addition, protease depletion inhibited HDE-induced BEC intracellular PKCα and PKCε activation. C57BL/6J mice administered 12.5% HDE intranasally, either once or daily for 3 wk, exhibited increased total cellular and neutrophil influx, bronchial alveolar fluid inflammatory cytokines, lung histopathology, and inflammatory scores compared with mice receiving protease-depleted HDE. These data suggest that proteases in dust from CAFOs are important mediators of lung inflammation, and these proteases and their receptors may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention in CAFO dust-induced airways disease. PMID

  13. Cancer-selective apoptosis by tumor suppressor par-4.

    PubMed

    Hebbar, Nikhil; Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Rangnekar, Vivek M

    2014-01-01

    Tumor suppressor genes play an important role in preventing neoplastic transformation and maintaining normal tissue homeostasis. Par-4 is one such tumor suppressor which is unique in its ability to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells while leaving the normal cells unaffected. The cancer cell specific activity of Par-4 is elicited through intracellular as well as extracellular mechanisms. Intracellularly Par-4 acts through the inhibition of pro-survival pathways and activation of Fas mediated apoptosis whereas extracellular (secreted Par-4) acts by binding to cell surface GRP78 leading to activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Many studies have highlighted the importance of Par-4 not only in preventing cancer development/recurrence but also as a promising anticancer therapeutic agent. PMID:25001535

  14. PAR-3 and PAR-1 Inhibit LET-99 Localization to Generate a Cortical Band Important for Spindle Positioning in Caenorhabditis elegans Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jui-Ching

    2007-01-01

    The conserved PAR proteins are localized in asymmetric cortical domains and are required for the polarized localization of cell fate determinants in many organisms. In Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, LET-99 and G protein signaling act downstream of the PARs to regulate spindle positioning and ensure asymmetric division. PAR-3 and PAR-2 localize LET-99 to a posterior cortical band through an unknown mechanism. Here we report that LET-99 asymmetry depends on cortically localized PAR-1 and PAR-4 but not on cytoplasmic polarity effectors. In par-1 and par-4 embryos, LET-99 accumulates at the entire posterior cortex, but remains at low levels at the anterior cortex occupied by PAR-3. Further, PAR-3 and PAR-1 have graded cortical distributions with the highest levels at the anterior and posterior poles, respectively, and the lowest levels of these proteins correlate with high LET-99 accumulation. These results suggest that PAR-3 and PAR-1 inhibit the localization of LET-99 to generate a band pattern. In addition, PAR-1 kinase activity is required for the inhibition of LET-99 localization, and PAR-1 associates with LET-99. Finally, examination of par-1 embryos suggests that the banded pattern of LET-99 is critical for normal posterior spindle displacement and to prevent spindle misorientation caused by cell shape constraints. PMID:17761536

  15. Recombination in the Human Pseudoautosomal Region PAR1

    PubMed Central

    Hinch, Anjali G.; Altemose, Nicolas; Noor, Nudrat; Donnelly, Peter; Myers, Simon R.

    2014-01-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome. PMID:25033397

  16. Recombination in the human Pseudoautosomal region PAR1.

    PubMed

    Hinch, Anjali G; Altemose, Nicolas; Noor, Nudrat; Donnelly, Peter; Myers, Simon R

    2014-07-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome. PMID:25033397

  17. Circulating suPAR in Two Cohorts of Primary FSGS

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Changli; Trachtman, Howard; Li, Jing; Dong, Chuanhui; Friedman, Aaron L.; Gassman, Jennifer J.; McMahan, June L.; Radeva, Milena; Heil, Karsten M.; Trautmann, Agnes; Anarat, Ali; Emre, Sevinc; Ghiggeri, Gian M.; Ozaltin, Fatih; Haffner, Dieter; Gipson, Debbie S.; Kaskel, Frederick; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Schaefer, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) causes pathology in animal models similar to primary FSGS, and one recent study demonstrated elevated levels of serum suPAR in patients with the disease. Here, we analyzed circulating suPAR levels in two cohorts of children and adults with biopsy-proven primary FSGS: 70 patients from the North America–based FSGS clinical trial (CT) and 94 patients from PodoNet, the Europe-based consortium studying steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Circulating suPAR levels were elevated in 84.3% and 55.3% of patients with FSGS patients in the CT and PodoNet cohorts, respectively, compared with 6% of controls (P<0.0001); inflammation did not account for this difference. Multiple regression analysis suggested that lower suPAR levels associated with higher estimated GFR, male sex, and treatment with mycophenolate mofetil. In the CT cohort, there was a positive association between the relative reduction of suPAR after 26 weeks of treatment and reduction of proteinuria, with higher odds for complete remission (P=0.04). In the PodoNet cohort, patients with an NPHS2 mutation had higher suPAR levels than those without a mutation. In conclusion, suPAR levels are elevated in geographically and ethnically diverse patients with FSGS and do not reflect a nonspecific proinflammatory milieu. The associations between a change in circulating suPAR with different therapeutic regimens and with remission support the role of suPAR in the pathogenesis of FSGS. PMID:23138488

  18. Circulating suPAR in two cohorts of primary FSGS.

    PubMed

    Wei, Changli; Trachtman, Howard; Li, Jing; Dong, Chuanhui; Friedman, Aaron L; Gassman, Jennifer J; McMahan, June L; Radeva, Milena; Heil, Karsten M; Trautmann, Agnes; Anarat, Ali; Emre, Sevinc; Ghiggeri, Gian M; Ozaltin, Fatih; Haffner, Dieter; Gipson, Debbie S; Kaskel, Frederick; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Schaefer, Franz; Reiser, Jochen

    2012-12-01

    Overexpression of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) causes pathology in animal models similar to primary FSGS, and one recent study demonstrated elevated levels of serum suPAR in patients with the disease. Here, we analyzed circulating suPAR levels in two cohorts of children and adults with biopsy-proven primary FSGS: 70 patients from the North America-based FSGS clinical trial (CT) and 94 patients from PodoNet, the Europe-based consortium studying steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Circulating suPAR levels were elevated in 84.3% and 55.3% of patients with FSGS patients in the CT and PodoNet cohorts, respectively, compared with 6% of controls (P<0.0001); inflammation did not account for this difference. Multiple regression analysis suggested that lower suPAR levels associated with higher estimated GFR, male sex, and treatment with mycophenolate mofetil. In the CT cohort, there was a positive association between the relative reduction of suPAR after 26 weeks of treatment and reduction of proteinuria, with higher odds for complete remission (P=0.04). In the PodoNet cohort, patients with an NPHS2 mutation had higher suPAR levels than those without a mutation. In conclusion, suPAR levels are elevated in geographically and ethnically diverse patients with FSGS and do not reflect a nonspecific proinflammatory milieu. The associations between a change in circulating suPAR with different therapeutic regimens and with remission support the role of suPAR in the pathogenesis of FSGS. PMID:23138488

  19. Preliminary Results from the Portable Imagery Quality Assessment Test Field (PIQuAT) of Uav Imagery for Imagery Reconnaissance Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, R.; Orych, A.; Jenerowicz, A.; Walczykowski, P.

    2015-08-01

    The article presents a set of initial results of a quality assessment study of 2 different types of sensors mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle, carried out over an especially designed and constructed test field. The PIQuAT (Portable Imagery Quality Assessment Test Field) field had been designed especially for the purposes of determining the quality parameters of UAV sensors, especially in terms of the spatial, spectral and radiometric resolutions and chosen geometric aspects. The sensor used include a multispectral framing camera and a high-resolution RGB sensor. The flights were conducted from a number of altitudes ranging from 10 m to 200 m above the test field. Acquiring data at a number of different altitudes allowed the authors to evaluate the obtained results and check for possible linearity of the calculated quality assessment parameters. The radiometric properties of the sensors were evaluated from images of the grayscale target section of the PIQuAT field. The spectral resolution of the imagery was determined based on a number of test samples with known spectral reflectance curves. These reference spectral reflectance curves were then compared with spectral reflectance coefficients at the wavelengths registered by the miniMCA camera. Before conducting all of these experiments in field conditions, the interior orientation parameters were calculated for the MiniMCA and RGB sensor in laboratory conditions. These parameters include: the actual pixel size on the detector, distortion parameters, calibrated focal length (CFL) and the coordinates of the principal point of autocollimation (miniMCA - for each of the six channels separately.

  20. Condensation and localization of the partitioning protein ParB on the bacterial chromosome.

    PubMed

    Broedersz, Chase P; Wang, Xindan; Meir, Yigal; Loparo, Joseph J; Rudner, David Z; Wingreen, Ned S

    2014-06-17

    The ParABS system mediates chromosome segregation and plasmid partitioning in many bacteria. As part of the partitioning mechanism, ParB proteins form a nucleoprotein complex at parS sites. The biophysical basis underlying ParB-DNA complex formation and localization remains elusive. Specifically, it is unclear whether ParB spreads in 1D along DNA or assembles into a 3D protein-DNA complex. We show that a combination of 1D spreading bonds and a single 3D bridging bond between ParB proteins constitutes a minimal model for a condensed ParB-DNA complex. This model implies a scaling behavior for ParB-mediated silencing of parS-flanking genes, which we confirm to be satisfied by experimental data from P1 plasmids. Furthermore, this model is consistent with experiments on the effects of DNA roadblocks on ParB localization. Finally, we show experimentally that a single parS site is necessary and sufficient for ParB-DNA complex formation in vivo. Together with our model, this suggests that ParB binding to parS triggers a conformational switch in ParB that overcomes a nucleation barrier. Conceptually, the combination of spreading and bridging bonds in our model provides a surface tension ensuring the condensation of the ParB-DNA complex, with analogies to liquid-like compartments such as nucleoli in eukaryotes. PMID:24927534

  1. SPRY1 promotes the degradation of uPAR and inhibits uPAR-mediated cell adhesion and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiufeng; Lan, Yan; Zhang, Di; Wang, Kai; Wang, Yao; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a GPI anchored cell surface protein that is closely associated with invasion, migration, and metastasis of cancer cells. Many functional extracellular proteins and transmembrane receptors interact with uPAR. However, few studies have examined the association of uPAR with cytoplasm proteins. We previously used yeast two-hybrid screening to isolate several novel uPAR-interacting cytoplasmic proteins, including Sprouty1 (SPRY1), an inhibitor of the (Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase) MAPK pathway. In this study, we show that SPRY1 interacts with uPAR and directs it toward lysosomal-mediated degradation. Overexpression of SPRY1 decreased the cell surface and cytoplasmic uPAR protein level. Moreover, SPRY1 overexpression augmented uPAR-induced cell adhesion to vitronectin as well as proliferation of cancer cells. Our results also further support the critical role of SPRY1 contribution to tumor growth. In a subcutaneous tumor model, overexpression of SPRY1 in HCT116 or A549 xenograft in athymic nude mice led to great suppression of tumor growth. These results show that SPRY1 may affect tumor cell function through direct interaction with uPAR and promote its lysosomal degradation. PMID:25520860

  2. Traitement des fractures des plateaux externes par vissage percutané assisté par arthroscopie

    PubMed Central

    Abouchane, Merouane; Belmoubarik, Amine; Benameur, Hamza; Haddoun, Ahmed Reda; Nechad, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Le but de notre étude est d'évaluer les résultats de fractures des plateaux tibiaux externes traitées par ostéosynthèse percutanée assistée par arthroscopie. Dix patients (8 hommes et 2 femmes) de 32 ans en moyenne ont subi cette intervention afin de réparer des fractures des plateaux tibiaux Schatzker I-III. Après avoir appliqué un garrot pneumatique, nous avons réduit et fixé la fracture au moyen de vis cannelées souschondrales. Lésions associées retrouvent deux lésions partielles du ménisque externe ont été retrouvé, traitées par résection partielle. Une orthèse de genou été de mise à but antalgique et protectrice pendant six semaines avec béquillage et interdiction de l'appui pour une durée de douze semaines avec reprise d'appui partiel au delà. La durée d'hospitalisation été d'une moyenne de cinq jours. La rééducation passive a été commence le lendemain de l'intervention et continuait dans chez un kinésithérapeute à la sortie du patient du service. Le suivi été à J7, J15, 1mois, 3mois, 6 mois puis tous les 6 mois. Neuf de nos patients ont été revu régulièrement sauf un perdu de vue. Le recul moyen de notre série été de 16 mois (10 et 24 mois). Le score de Lysholm a été utilisé pour évaluer les résultats cliniques chez nos neuf patients: excellent chez trois patients bons chez trois moyen chez un seul et mauvais chez deux patients. Tous nos neuf patients ont consolidé (figure 10 contrôle scopique d un article). Aucune gonarthrose n'a été note chez nos neuf patients due essentiellement au recul moyen faible de 16 mois. Le traitement des fractures des plateaux tibiaux externes assisté par arthroscopie produit des résultats satisfaisants et peut être accepté comme solution de rechange efficace au traitement des fractures des plateaux tibiaux causées par un choc de faible énergie. PMID:26587137

  3. Holoprosencephalie alobaire dans un contexte de syndrome polymalformatif: apport de l'imagerie, à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Amadou, Dia Aliou; Franck, D'Almeida; Mamadou, Mbodji; Mourtalla, Ka Mamadou

    2013-01-01

    L'holoprosencéphalie est une malformation cérébrale rare, d’étiologies multiples et souvent associée à des anomalies faciales évocatrices. Cette pathologie, résultant d'un défaut de développement précoce du prosencéphale, est de pronostic fœtal extrêmement réservé en particulier pour la forme alobaire. Nous rapportons à travers ce cas clinique, une holoproséncéphalie alobaire diagnostiquée à l'imagerie (ETF, tomodensitométrie) et relevée par un syndrome polymalformatif chez un nouveau-né de 03 mois. PMID:24171066

  4. Development of Bayesian-based transformation method of Landsat imagery into pseudo-hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Nguyen Tien; Koike, Katsuaki

    2015-10-01

    It has been generally accepted that hyperspectral remote sensing is more effective and provides greater accuracy than multispectral remote sensing in many application fields. EO-1 Hyperion, a representative hyperspectral sensor, has much more spectral bands, while Landsat data has much wider image scene and longer continuous space-based record of Earth's land. This study aims to develop a new method, Pseudo-Hyperspectral Image Synthesis Algorithm (PHISA), to transform Landsat imagery into pseudo hyperspectral imagery using the correlation between Landsat and EO-1 Hyperion data. At first Hyperion scene was precisely pre-processed and co-registered to Landsat scene, and both data were corrected for atmospheric effects. Bayesian model averaging method (BMA) was applied to select the best model from a class of several possible models. Subsequently, this best model is utilized to calculate pseudo-hyperspectral data by R programming. Based on the selection results by BMA, we transform Landsat imagery into 155 bands of pseudo-hyperspectral imagery. Most models have multiple R-squared values higher than 90%, which assures high accuracy of the models. There are no significant differences visually between the pseudo- and original data. Most bands have Pearson's coefficients < 0.95, and only a small fraction has the coefficients < 0.93 like outliers in the data sets. In a similar manner, most Root Mean Square Error values are considerably low, smaller than 0.014. These observations strongly support that the proposed PHISA is valid for transforming Landsat data into pseudo-hyperspectral data from the outlook of statistics.

  5. Intrusive prospective imagery, posttraumatic intrusions and anxiety in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Charlotte P; Picchioni, Marco M; Ellett, Lyn

    2015-12-30

    Trauma exposure and intrusive thoughts are commonly reported in both schizophrenia and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Information processing accounts suggest that intrusions occur in the two conditions as a result of insufficient state and/or trait contextual processing in long-term memory. Most research has focused on intrusions about past events, while growing evidence suggests that intrusions about prospective imagined events warrants further investigation. Prospective intrusive imagery has yet to be examined in psychotic disorders but could provide crucial information regarding the aetiology and maintenance of psychotic symptoms. The current study examines the role of prospective intrusive imagery, posttraumatic intrusions and anxiety in schizophrenia. Fifty-seven participants (30 patients and 27 healthy controls) completed measures of trauma, PTSD, anxiety, general non-affective use of imagery, and intrusive prospective imagery. Patients reported significantly more intrusive prospective imagery relative to control participants but, importantly, not greater use of general non-affective imagery. Intrusive prospective imagery was associated with posttraumatic intrusions and anxiety in schizophrenia. The findings are consistent with information processing models of intrusions and psychosis, and provide novel insights for theoretical accounts, clinical formulation and therapeutic targets for psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. PMID:26619917

  6. Iterative fragmentation of cognitive maps in a visual imagery task.

    PubMed

    Fourtassi, Maryam; Hajjioui, Abderrazak; Urquizar, Christian; Rossetti, Yves; Rode, Gilles; Pisella, Laure

    2013-01-01

    It remains unclear whether spontaneous eye movements during visual imagery reflect the mental generation of a visual image (i.e. the arrangement of the component parts of a mental representation). To address this specificity, we recorded eye movements in an imagery task and in a phonological fluency (non-imagery) task, both consisting in naming French towns from long-term memory. Only in the condition of visual imagery the spontaneous eye positions reflected the geographic position of the towns evoked by the subjects. This demonstrates that eye positions closely reflect the mapping of mental images. Advanced analysis of gaze positions using the bi-dimensional regression model confirmed the spatial correlation of gaze and towns' locations in every single individual in the visual imagery task and in none of the individuals when no imagery accompanied memory retrieval. In addition, the evolution of the bi-dimensional regression's coefficient of determination revealed, in each individual, a process of generating several iterative series of a limited number of towns mapped with the same spatial distortion, despite different individual order of towns' evocation and different individual mappings. Such consistency across subjects revealed by gaze (the mind's eye) gives empirical support to theories postulating that visual imagery, like visual sampling, is an iterative fragmented processing. PMID:23874672

  7. Guided Imagery as a Treatment Option for Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Menzies, Victoria; Jallo, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Fatigue is one of the most common complaints experienced among the general population. Because fatigue is recognized as a biobehavioral occurrence, a biobehavioral intervention such as guided imagery may be effective in reducing self-reported fatigue. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the research literature related to the use of guided imagery as a nonpharmacological mind-body intervention for the symptom of fatigue. Method The electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychInfo, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection and the Cochrane Library were searched from January 1980 to June 2010. Findings Of 24 articles retrieved, eight met the inclusion criteria and were included in this systematic literature review. Findings were inconsistent regarding the effectiveness of guided imagery on fatigue. Studies varied in study length, duration of the applied guided imagery intervention, dosage, and whether the images were targeted to the purpose of the intervention. Implications Guided imagery is a simple, economic intervention with the potential to effectively treat fatigue, thus further research is warranted using systematic, well-designed methodologies Standardizing guided imagery interventions according to total duration of exposure and targeted imagery in a variety of different populations adequately powered to detect changes will contribute to and strengthen nursing’s symptom-management armamentarium. PMID:21772047

  8. Building and road detection from large aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shunta; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    2015-02-01

    Building and road detection from aerial imagery has many applications in a wide range of areas including urban design, real-estate management, and disaster relief. The extracting buildings and roads from aerial imagery has been performed by human experts manually, so that it has been very costly and time-consuming process. Our goal is to develop a system for automatically detecting buildings and roads directly from aerial imagery. Many attempts at automatic aerial imagery interpretation have been proposed in remote sensing literature, but much of early works use local features to classify each pixel or segment to an object label, so that these kind of approach needs some prior knowledge on object appearance or class-conditional distribution of pixel values. Furthermore, some works also need a segmentation step as pre-processing. Therefore, we use Convolutional Neural Networks(CNN) to learn mapping from raw pixel values in aerial imagery to three object labels (buildings, roads, and others), in other words, we generate three-channel maps from raw aerial imagery input. We take a patch-based semantic segmentation approach, so we firstly divide large aerial imagery into small patches and then train the CNN with those patches and corresponding three-channel map patches. Finally, we evaluate our system on a large-scale road and building detection datasets that is publicly available.

  9. Evolving spatio-spectral feature extraction algorithms for hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumby, Steven P.; Galbraith, Amy E.

    2002-11-01

    Hyperspectral imagery data sets present an interesting challenge to feature extraction algorithm developers. Beyond the immediate problem of dealing with the sheer amount of spectral information per pixel in a hyperspectral image, the remote sensing scientist must explore a complex algorithm space in which both spatial and spectral signatures may be required to identify a feature of interest. Rather than carry out this algorithm exploration by hand, we are interested in developing learning systems that can evolve these algorithms. We describe a genetic programming/supervised classifier software system, called GENIE, which evolves image processing tools for remotely sensed imagery. Our primary application has been land-cover classification from satellite imagery. GENIE was developed to evolve classification algorithms for multispectral imagery, and the extension to hyperspectral imagery presents a chance to test a genetic programming system by greatly increasing the complexity of the data under analysis, as well as a chance to find interesting spatio-spectral algorithms for hyperspectral imagery. We demonstrate our system on publicly available imagery from the new Hyperion imaging spectrometer onboard the NASA Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite.

  10. Correlation between lidar-derived intensity and passive optical imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, Jeremy P.; Kim, Angela M.; Kruse, Fred A.; Olsen, Richard C.

    2014-06-01

    When LiDAR data are collected, the intensity information is recorded for each return, and can be used to produce an image resembling those acquired by passive imaging sensors. This research evaluated LiDAR intensity data to determine its potential for use as baseline imagery where optical imagery are unavailable. Two airborne LiDAR datasets collected at different point densities and laser wavelengths were gridded and compared with optical imagery. Optech Orion C200 laser data were compared with a corresponding 1541 nm spectral band from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). Optech ALTM Gemini LiDAR data collected at 1064 nm were compared to the WorldView-2 (WV-2) 949 - 1043 nm NIR2 band. Intensity images were georegistered and spatially resampled to match the optical data. The Pearson Product Moment correlation coefficient was calculated between datasets to determine similarity. Comparison for the full LiDAR datasets yielded correlation coefficients of approximately 0.5. Because LiDAR returns from vegetation are known to be highly variable, a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was calculated utilizing the optical imagery, and intensity and optical imagery were separated into vegetation and nonvegetation categories. Comparison of the LiDAR intensity for non-vegetated areas to the optical imagery yielded coefficients greater than 0.9. These results demonstrate that LiDAR intensity data may be useful in substituting for optical imagery where only LiDAR is available.

  11. Evaluation of the tactical utility of compressed imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, John M.; Eckstein, Barbara A.; Hummel, Robert A.; Peters, Richard J.; Ritzel, Rhonda L.

    2002-06-01

    The effects of compression on image utility are assessed based on manual exploitation performed by military imagery analysts (IAs). The original, uncompressed synthetic aperture radar imagery and compressed products are rated for the Radar National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS), image features and sensor artifacts, and target detection and recognition. Images were compressed via standard JPEG compression, single-scale intelligent bandwidth compression (IBC), and wavelet/trellis- coded quantization (W/TCQ) at 50-to-1 and 100-to-1 ratios. We find that the utility of the compressed imagery differs only slightly from the uncompressed imagery, with the exception of the JPEG products. Otherwise, both the 50-to-1 and 100-to-1 compressed imagery appear similar in terms of image quality. Radar NIIRS indicates that even 100-to-1 compression using IBC or W/TCQ has minimal impact on imagery intelligence value. A slight loss in performance occurs for vehicle counting and identification tasks. These findings suggest that both single-scale IBC and W/TCQ compression techniques have matured to a point that they could provide value to the tactical user. Additional assessments may verify the practical limits of compression for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data and address the transition to a field environment.

  12. Brief guided imagery and body scanning interventions reduce food cravings.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jonathan; Fawson, Sophie; May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie; Kavanagh, David J

    2013-12-01

    Elaborated Intrusion (EI) Theory proposes that cravings occur when involuntary thoughts about food are elaborated; a key part of elaboration is affectively-charged imagery. Craving can be weakened by working memory tasks that block imagery. EI Theory predicts that cravings should also be reduced by preventing involuntary thoughts being elaborated in the first place. Research has found that imagery techniques such as body scanning and guided imagery can reduce the occurrence of food thoughts. This study tested the prediction that these techniques also reduce craving. We asked participants to abstain from food overnight, and then to carry out 10 min of body scanning, guided imagery, or a control mind wandering task. They rated their craving at 10 points during the task on a single item measure, and before and after the task using the Craving Experience Questionnaire. While craving rose during the task for the mind wandering group, neither the guided imagery nor body scanning group showed an increase. These effects were not detected by the CEQ, suggesting that they are only present during the competing task. As they require no devices or materials and are unobtrusive, brief guided imagery strategies might form useful components of weight loss programmes that attempt to address cravings. PMID:23962401

  13. Control of cleavage spindle orientation in Caenorhabditis elegans: The role of the genes par-2 and par-3

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, N.N.; Kirby, C.M.; Kemphues, K.J.

    1995-02-01

    Polarized asymmetric divisions play important roles in the development of plants and animals. The first two embryonic cleavages of Caenorhabditis elegans provide an opportunity to study the mechanisms controlling polarized asymmetric divisions. The first cleavage is unequal, producing daughters with different sizes and fates. The daughter blastomeres divide with different orientations at the second cleavage; the anterior blastomere divides equally across the long axis of the egg, whereas the posterior blastomere divides unequally along the long axis. We report here the results of our analysis of the genes par-2 and par-3 with respect to their contribution to the polarity of these divisions. Strong loss-of-function mutations in both genes lead to an equal first cleavage and an altered second cleavage. Interestingly, the mutations exhibit striking gene-specific differences at the second cleavage. The par-2 mutations lead to transverse spindle orientations in both blastomeres, whereas par-3 mutations lead to longitudinal spindle orientations in both blastomeres. The spindle orientation defects correlate with defects in centrosome movements during both the first and the second cell cycle. Temperature shift experiments with par-2 (it5ts) indicate that the par-2(+) activity is not required after the two-cell stage. Analysis of double mutants shows that par-3 is epistatic to par-2. We propose a model wherein par-2(+) and par-3(+) act in concert during the first cell cycle to affect asymmetric modification of the cytoskeleton. This polar modification leads to different behaviors of centrosomes in the anterior and posterior and leads ultimately to blastomere-specific spindle orientations at the second cleavage. 44 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Evaluation of reforested areas using LANDSAT imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Visual and automatic interpretation of LANDSAT imagery was used to classify the general Pinus and Eucalyptus according to their age and species. A methodology was derived, based on training areas, to define the legend and spectral characteristics of the analyzed classes. Imager analysis of the training areas show that Pinus taeda is separable from the other Pinus species based on JM distance measurement. No difference of JM measurements was observed among Eucalyptus species. Two classes of Eucalyptus were separated according to their ages: those under and those over two years of age. Channel 6 and 7 were suitable for the discrimination of the reforested classes. Channel 5 was efficient to separated reforested areas from nonforested targets in the region. The automatic analysis shows the highest classification precision was obtained for Eucalyptus over two years of age (95.12 percent).

  15. Robust automatic target recognition in FLIR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyman, Yusuf

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, a robust automatic target recognition algorithm in FLIR imagery is proposed. Target is first segmented out from the background using wavelet transform. Segmentation process is accomplished by parametric Gabor wavelet transformation. Invariant features that belong to the target, which is segmented out from the background, are then extracted via moments. Higher-order moments, while providing better quality for identifying the image, are more sensitive to noise. A trade-off study is then performed on a few moments that provide effective performance. Bayes method is used for classification, using Mahalanobis distance as the Bayes' classifier. Results are assessed based on false alarm rates. The proposed method is shown to be robust against rotations, translations and scale effects. Moreover, it is shown to effectively perform under low-contrast objects in FLIR images. Performance comparisons are also performed on both GPU and CPU. Results indicate that GPU has superior performance over CPU.

  16. Toward interactive search in remote sensing imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Reid B; Hush, Do; Harvey, Neal; Theile, James

    2010-01-01

    To move from data to information in almost all science and defense applications requires a human-in-the-loop to validate information products, resolve inconsistencies, and account for incomplete and potentially deceptive sources of information. This is a key motivation for visual analytics which aims to develop techniques that complement and empower human users. By contrast, the vast majority of algorithms developed in machine learning aim to replace human users in data exploitation. In this paper we describe a recently introduced machine learning problem, called rare category detection, which may be a better match to visual analytic environments. We describe a new design criteria for this problem, and present comparisons to existing techniques with both synthetic and real-world datasets. We conclude by describing an application in broad-area search of remote sensing imagery.

  17. Hierarchical segmentation of urban satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefi, Bardia; Mirhassani, Seyed Mostafa; AhmadiFard, Alireza; Hosseini, MohammadMehdi

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes a method to combine contextual, structural, and spectral information for classification. The method is an integrated method for automatically classifying urban-area objects in very high-resolution satellite imagery. The approach addresses three aspects. First, the Gabor wavelet is applied to the image along with morphological operations, with the sparsity of the outcome considered. A Bayesian classifier then categorizes the different classes, such as buildings, roads, open areas, and shadows. There are some false positives (wrong classification), and false negatives (non-classification) in the initial results. These results can be corrected by the relaxation labeling categorization of the unknown regions. The novelty of the proposed approach lies in the extensive use of spatiotemporal features considering the sparsity of urban objects. The results indicate improvement in classification through relaxation labeling compared with existing methods.

  18. Probabilistic cluster labeling of imagery data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chittineni, C. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The problem of obtaining the probabilities of class labels for the clusters using spectral and spatial information from a given set of labeled patterns and their neighbors is considered. A relationship is developed between class and clusters conditional densities in terms of probabilities of class labels for the clusters. Expressions are presented for updating the a posteriori probabilities of the classes of a pixel using information from its local neighborhood. Fixed-point iteration schemes are developed for obtaining the optimal probabilities of class labels for the clusters. These schemes utilize spatial information and also the probabilities of label imperfections. Experimental results from the processing of remotely sensed multispectral scanner imagery data are presented.

  19. Infrared Imagery of Solid Rocket Exhaust Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Robert P.; Houston, Janice D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test program consisted of a series of 18 solid rocket motor static firings, simulating the liftoff conditions of the Ares I five-segment Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Vehicle. Primary test objectives included acquiring acoustic and pressure data which will be used to validate analytical models for the prediction of Ares 1 liftoff acoustics and ignition overpressure environments. The test article consisted of a 5% scale Ares I vehicle and launch tower mounted on the Mobile Launch Pad. The testing also incorporated several Water Sound Suppression Systems. Infrared imagery was employed during the solid rocket testing to support the validation or improvement of analytical models, and identify corollaries between rocket plume size or shape and the accompanying measured level of noise suppression obtained by water sound suppression systems.

  20. Application of ERTS imagery to geological mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, A.; Aranibar, O.; Ballon, P.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In comparing the interpretation of the imagery with that of photomosaics, the following results were derived. The drainage networks of the RBV images show information in greater detail than the photomosaics, and maps, yet maintain scale differences. However, for the basins the mosaics and maps provide better information. The geomorphology is best interpreted in the images of the ERTS-1, not only for the regional countryside, but also for the morphological formations. It was concluded that the satellite images offer the better possibility for identifying the alignment of joints and faults. In the images the relation is 4 to 1. The considered N-S alignments were identified in both systems with a ratio of 2 to 1. The E-W alignments for the areas considered in the ERTS-1 images show a basic Paleozoic formation not previously detected.

  1. Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jucht, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing data are vital to understanding the physical world and to answering many of its needs and problems. The United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Remote Sensing Technologies (RST) Project, working with its partners, is proud to sponsor the annual Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) Workshop to help understand the quality and usefulness of remote sensing data. The JACIE program was formed in 2001 to leverage U.S. Federal agency resources for the characterization of commercial remote sensing data. These agencies sponsor and co-chair JACIE: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) JACIE is an effort to coordinate data assessments between the participating agencies and partners and communicate the knowledge and results of the quality and utility of the remotely sensed data available for government and private use.

  2. Photogrammetry of the Viking Lander imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. S. C.; Schafer, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of photogrammetric mapping which uses Viking Lander photography as its basis is solved in two ways: (1) by converting the azimuth and elevation scanning imagery to the equivalent of a frame picture, using computerized rectification; and (2) by interfacing a high-speed, general-purpose computer to the analytical plotter employed, so that all correction computations can be performed in real time during the model-orientation and map-compilation process. Both the efficiency of the Viking Lander cameras and the validity of the rectification method have been established by a series of pre-mission tests which compared the accuracy of terrestrial maps compiled by this method with maps made from aerial photographs. In addition, 1:10-scale topographic maps of Viking Lander sites 1 and 2 having a contour interval of 1.0 cm have been made to test the rectification method.

  3. An algorithm for segmenting polarimetric SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geaga, Jorge V.

    2015-05-01

    We have developed an algorithm for segmenting fully polarimetric single look TerraSAR-X, multilook SIR-C and 7 band Landsat 5 imagery using neural nets. The algorithm uses a feedforward neural net with one hidden layer to segment different surface classes. The weights are refined through an iterative filtering process characteristic of a relaxation process. Features selected from studies of fully polarimetric complex single look TerraSAR-X data and multilook SIR-C data are used as input to the net. The seven bands from Landsat 5 data are used as input for the Landsat neural net. The Cloude-Pottier incoherent decomposition is used to investigate the physical basis of the polarimetric SAR data segmentation. The segmentation of a SIR-C ocean surface scene into four classes is presented. This segmentation algorithm could be a very useful tool for investigating complex polarimetric SAR phenomena.

  4. Thermal imagery for census of ungulates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wride, M. C.; Baker, K.

    1977-01-01

    A Daedalus thermal linescanner mounted in a light single engine aircraft was used to image the entire 270 square kilometers within the fenced perimeter of ElK Island Park, Alberta, Canada. The data were collected during winter, 1976 in morning and midday (overcast conditions) processed and analyzed to obtain a number for total ungulates. Five different ungulate species were present during the survey. Ungulates were easily observed during the analysis of linescanner imagery and the total number of ungulates was established at 2175 compared to figures of 1010 and 1231 for visual method aerial survey results of the same area that year. It was concluded that the scanner was much more accurate and precise for census of ungulates than visual techniques.

  5. Impervious surface mapping with Quickbird imagery

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dengsheng; Hetrick, Scott; Moran, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    This research selects two study areas with different urban developments, sizes, and spatial patterns to explore the suitable methods for mapping impervious surface distribution using Quickbird imagery. The selected methods include per-pixel based supervised classification, segmentation-based classification, and a hybrid method. A comparative analysis of the results indicates that per-pixel based supervised classification produces a large number of “salt-and-pepper” pixels, and segmentation based methods can significantly reduce this problem. However, neither method can effectively solve the spectral confusion of impervious surfaces with water/wetland and bare soils and the impacts of shadows. In order to accurately map impervious surface distribution from Quickbird images, manual editing is necessary and may be the only way to extract impervious surfaces from the confused land covers and the shadow problem. This research indicates that the hybrid method consisting of thresholding techniques, unsupervised classification and limited manual editing provides the best performance. PMID:21643434

  6. Photography and imagery: a clarification of terms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles J.

    1963-01-01

    The increased use of pictorial displays of data in the fields of photogrammetry and photo interpretation has led to some confusion of terms, not so much b photogrammetrists as bu users and interpreters of pictorial data. The terms "remote sensing" and "remote sensing of environment" are being used as general terms to describe "the measurement of some property of an object without having the measuring device physically in contact with the object" (Parker, 1962). Measurements of size and shape by photogrammetric and optical means are common examples of remote sensing and therefore require no elaboration. Other techniques of remote sensing of electromagnetic radiation in and beyond the limits of the visible spectrum require some explanation and differentiation from the techniques used in the visible spectrum. The following definitions of "photography" and "imagery" are proposed to clarify these two terms in hope that this will lead to more precise understanding and explanation of the processes.

  7. AVHRR imagery reveals Antarctic ice dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bindschadler, R.A.; Vornberger, P.L. STX Corp., Lanham, MD )

    1990-06-01

    A portion of AVHRR data taken on December 5, 1987 at 06:15 GMT over a part of Antarctica is used here to show that many of the most significant dynamic features of ice sheets can be identified by a careful examination of AVHRR imagery. The relatively low resolution of this instrument makes it ideal for obtaining a broad view of the ice sheets, while its wide swath allows coverage of areas beyond the reach of high-resolution imagers either currently in orbit or planned. An interpretation is given of the present data, which cover the area of ice streams that drain the interior of the West Antarctic ice sheet into the Ross Ice Shelf. 21 refs.

  8. A comparison of real and simulated airborne multisensor imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloechl, Kevin; De Angelis, Chris; Gartley, Michael; Kerekes, John; Nance, C. Eric

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a methodology and results for the comparison of simulated imagery to real imagery acquired with multiple sensors hosted on an airborne platform. The dataset includes aerial multi- and hyperspectral imagery with spatial resolutions of one meter or less. The multispectral imagery includes data from an airborne sensor with three-band visible color and calibrated radiance imagery in the long-, mid-, and short-wave infrared. The airborne hyperspectral imagery includes 360 bands of calibrated radiance and reflectance data spanning 400 to 2450 nm in wavelength. Collected in September 2012, the imagery is of a park in Avon, NY, and includes a dirt track and areas of grass, gravel, forest, and agricultural fields. A number of artificial targets were deployed in the scene prior to collection for purposes of target detection, subpixel detection, spectral unmixing, and 3D object recognition. A synthetic reconstruction of the collection site was created in DIRSIG, an image generation and modeling tool developed by the Rochester Institute of Technology, based on ground-measured reflectance data, ground photography, and previous airborne imagery. Simulated airborne images were generated using the scene model, time of observation, estimates of the atmospheric conditions, and approximations of the sensor characteristics. The paper provides a comparison between the empirical and simulated images, including a comparison of achieved performance for classification, detection and unmixing applications. It was found that several differences exist due to the way the image is generated, including finite sampling and incomplete knowledge of the scene, atmospheric conditions and sensor characteristics. The lessons learned from this effort can be used in constructing future simulated scenes and further comparisons between real and simulated imagery.

  9. What Do Eye Gaze Metrics Tell Us about Motor Imagery?

    PubMed

    Poiroux, Elodie; Cavaro-Ménard, Christine; Leruez, Stéphanie; Lemée, Jean Michel; Richard, Isabelle; Dinomais, Mickael

    2015-01-01

    Many of the brain structures involved in performing real movements also have increased activity during imagined movements or during motor observation, and this could be the neural substrate underlying the effects of motor imagery in motor learning or motor rehabilitation. In the absence of any objective physiological method of measurement, it is currently impossible to be sure that the patient is indeed performing the task as instructed. Eye gaze recording during a motor imagery task could be a possible way to "spy" on the activity an individual is really engaged in. The aim of the present study was to compare the pattern of eye movement metrics during motor observation, visual and kinesthetic motor imagery (VI, KI), target fixation, and mental calculation. Twenty-two healthy subjects (16 females and 6 males), were required to perform tests in five conditions using imagery in the Box and Block Test tasks following the procedure described by Liepert et al. Eye movements were analysed by a non-invasive oculometric measure (SMI RED250 system). Two parameters describing gaze pattern were calculated: the index of ocular mobility (saccade duration over saccade + fixation duration) and the number of midline crossings (i.e. the number of times the subjects gaze crossed the midline of the screen when performing the different tasks). Both parameters were significantly different between visual imagery and kinesthesic imagery, visual imagery and mental calculation, and visual imagery and target fixation. For the first time we were able to show that eye movement patterns are different during VI and KI tasks. Our results suggest gaze metric parameters could be used as an objective unobtrusive approach to assess engagement in a motor imagery task. Further studies should define how oculomotor parameters could be used as an indicator of the rehabilitation task a patient is engaged in. PMID:26605915

  10. What Do Eye Gaze Metrics Tell Us about Motor Imagery?

    PubMed Central

    Poiroux, Elodie; Cavaro-Ménard, Christine; Leruez, Stéphanie; Lemée, Jean Michel; Richard, Isabelle; Dinomais, Mickael

    2015-01-01

    Many of the brain structures involved in performing real movements also have increased activity during imagined movements or during motor observation, and this could be the neural substrate underlying the effects of motor imagery in motor learning or motor rehabilitation. In the absence of any objective physiological method of measurement, it is currently impossible to be sure that the patient is indeed performing the task as instructed. Eye gaze recording during a motor imagery task could be a possible way to “spy” on the activity an individual is really engaged in. The aim of the present study was to compare the pattern of eye movement metrics during motor observation, visual and kinesthetic motor imagery (VI, KI), target fixation, and mental calculation. Twenty-two healthy subjects (16 females and 6 males), were required to perform tests in five conditions using imagery in the Box and Block Test tasks following the procedure described by Liepert et al. Eye movements were analysed by a non-invasive oculometric measure (SMI RED250 system). Two parameters describing gaze pattern were calculated: the index of ocular mobility (saccade duration over saccade + fixation duration) and the number of midline crossings (i.e. the number of times the subjects gaze crossed the midline of the screen when performing the different tasks). Both parameters were significantly different between visual imagery and kinesthesic imagery, visual imagery and mental calculation, and visual imagery and target fixation. For the first time we were able to show that eye movement patterns are different during VI and KI tasks. Our results suggest gaze metric parameters could be used as an objective unobtrusive approach to assess engagement in a motor imagery task. Further studies should define how oculomotor parameters could be used as an indicator of the rehabilitation task a patient is engaged in. PMID:26605915

  11. Information mining in remote sensing imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiang

    The volume of remotely sensed imagery continues to grow at an enormous rate due to the advances in sensor technology, and our capability for collecting and storing images has greatly outpaced our ability to analyze and retrieve information from the images. This motivates us to develop image information mining techniques, which is very much an interdisciplinary endeavor drawing upon expertise in image processing, databases, information retrieval, machine learning, and software design. This dissertation proposes and implements an extensive remote sensing image information mining (ReSIM) system prototype for mining useful information implicitly stored in remote sensing imagery. The system consists of three modules: image processing subsystem, database subsystem, and visualization and graphical user interface (GUI) subsystem. Land cover and land use (LCLU) information corresponding to spectral characteristics is identified by supervised classification based on support vector machines (SVM) with automatic model selection, while textural features that characterize spatial information are extracted using Gabor wavelet coefficients. Within LCLU categories, textural features are clustered using an optimized k-means clustering approach to acquire search efficient space. The clusters are stored in an object-oriented database (OODB) with associated images indexed in an image database (IDB). A k-nearest neighbor search is performed using a query-by-example (QBE) approach. Furthermore, an automatic parametric contour tracing algorithm and an O(n) time piecewise linear polygonal approximation (PLPA) algorithm are developed for shape information mining of interesting objects within the image. A fuzzy object-oriented database based on the fuzzy object-oriented data (FOOD) model is developed to handle the fuzziness and uncertainty. Three specific applications are presented: integrated land cover and texture pattern mining, shape information mining for change detection of lakes, and

  12. Atmospheric Correction Algorithm for Hyperspectral Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    R. J. Pollina

    1999-09-01

    In December 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established a Center of Excellence (Hyperspectral-Multispectral Algorithm Research Center, HyMARC) for promoting the research and development of algorithms to exploit spectral imagery. This center is located at the DOE Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, and is operated for the DOE by Bechtel Nevada. This paper presents the results to date of a research project begun at the center during 1998 to investigate the correction of hyperspectral data for atmospheric aerosols. Results of a project conducted by the Rochester Institute of Technology to define, implement, and test procedures for absolute calibration and correction of hyperspectral data to absolute units of high spectral resolution imagery will be presented. Hybrid techniques for atmospheric correction using image or spectral scene data coupled through radiative propagation models will be specifically addressed. Results of this effort to analyze HYDICE sensor data will be included. Preliminary results based on studying the performance of standard routines, such as Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption and Nonlinear Least Squares Spectral Fit, in retrieving reflectance spectra show overall reflectance retrieval errors of approximately one to two reflectance units in the 0.4- to 2.5-micron-wavelength region (outside of the absorption features). These results are based on HYDICE sensor data collected from the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site during overflights conducted in July of 1997. Results of an upgrade made in the model-based atmospheric correction techniques, which take advantage of updates made to the moderate resolution atmospheric transmittance model (MODTRAN 4.0) software, will also be presented. Data will be shown to demonstrate how the reflectance retrieval in the shorter wavelengths of the blue-green region will be improved because of enhanced modeling of multiple scattering effects.

  13. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  14. Crop Residue Coverage Estimation Using ASTER Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, D.; Yao, H.; Kincaid, R.

    2006-12-01

    Soil erosion and its related runoff is a serious problem in U.S. agriculture. USDA has classified 33 percent of U.S. agricultural land as being highly erodible. It is well recognized that residue coverage on the soil surface can reduce soil erosion. The National Food Security Act of 1985 requires that agricultural producers protect all highly erodible cropland from excessive erosion. The 2002 Farm Bill gave U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) the authority to make a determination of compliance. NRCS is currently running several programs to implement conservation practices and to monitor compliance. To be in compliance, growers must keep crop residue cover more than 30 percent of the field. This requires field-level assessment. The NRCS does not have the resources to regularly survey every field. One potential approach for compliance decision making is using data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor onboard NASA's Terra satellite. ASTER data provides 15 bands of 15 meter visible/NIR (VNIR) and 30 meter SWIR resolution data. Both the spatial resolution and spectral wavelength range and resolution are suitable for field level residue cover estimation. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of using ASTER data for crop residue cover estimation. The results indicate that ASTER imagery has good capability to identify residue within the corn fields and moderate capability in soybean residue estimation. SWIR bands have the most promise in separating crop residue when compared to the VNIR bands. Satellite based remote sensing imagery could be a potential rapid decision making tool for NRCS's compliance programs.

  15. Spatial Classification of Orchards and Vineyards with High Spatial Resolution Panchromatic Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Timothy; Steinmaus, Karen L.

    2005-02-01

    New high resolution single spectral band imagery offers the capability to conduct image classifications based on spatial patterns in imagery. A classification algorithm based on autocorrelation patterns was developed to automatically extract orchards and vineyards from satellite imagery. The algorithm was tested on IKONOS imagery over Granger, WA, which resulted in a classification accuracy of 95%.

  16. The Effects of Word Imagery on the Retention of Sight Vocabulary: An Investigation in Grade One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGeorge, Nancy

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of word imagery on the retention of sight vocabulary. It was hypothesized that in an urban, low income area first grade class there would be no significant difference between the acquisition and retention rates of high imagery words and those of low imagery words. Using one group of high imagery words…

  17. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer is a death signal

    PubMed Central

    Andrabi, Shaida A.; Kim, No Soo; Yu, Seong-Woon; Wang, Hongmin; Koh, David W.; Sasaki, Masayuki; Klaus, Judith A.; Otsuka, Takashi; Zhang, Zhizheng; Koehler, Raymond C.; Hurn, Patricia D.; Poirier, Guy G.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2006-01-01

    Excessive activation of the nuclear enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) plays a prominent role in various of models of cellular injury. Here, we identify poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer, a product of PARP-1 activity, as a previously uncharacterized cell death signal. PAR polymer is directly toxic to neurons, and degradation of PAR polymer by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) or phosphodiesterase 1 prevents PAR polymer-induced cell death. PARP-1-dependent, NMDA excitotoxicity of cortical neurons is reduced by neutralizing antibodies to PAR and by overexpression of PARG. Neuronal cultures with reduced levels of PARG are more sensitive to NMDA excitotoxicity than WT cultures. Transgenic mice overexpressing PARG have significantly reduced infarct volumes after focal ischemia. Conversely, mice with reduced levels of PARG have significantly increased infarct volumes after focal ischemia compared with WT littermate controls. These results reveal PAR polymer as a signaling molecule that induces cell death and suggests that interference with PAR polymer signaling may offer innovative therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cellular injury. PMID:17116882

  18. Environmental studies of Iceland with ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.; Boovarsson, A.; Frioriksson, S.; Thorsteinsson, I.; Palmason, G.; Rist, S.; Saemundsson, K.; Sigtryggsson, H.; Thorarinsson, S.

    1974-01-01

    Imagery from the ERTS-1 satellite can be used to study geological and geophysical phenomena which are important in relation to Iceland's natural resources. Multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery can be used to map areas of altered ground, intense thermal emission, fallout from volcanic eruptions, lava flows, volcanic geomorphology, erosion or build-up of land, snow cover, the areal extent of glaciers and ice caps, etc. At least five distinct vegetation types and barren areas can be mapped using MSS false-color composites. Stereoscopic coverage of iceland by side-lapping ERTS imagery permits precise analysis of various natural phenomena.

  19. Improved Prediction of Momentum and Scalar Fluxes Using MODIS Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crago, Richard D.; Jasinski, Michael F.

    2003-01-01

    There are remote sensing and science objectives. The remote sensing objectives are: To develop and test a theoretical method for estimating local momentum aerodynamic roughness length, z(sub 0m), using satellite multispectral imagery. To adapt the method to the MODIS imagery. To develop a high-resolution (approx. 1km) gridded dataset of local momentum roughness for the continental United States and southern Canada, using MODIS imagery and other MODIS derived products. The science objective is: To determine the sensitivity of improved satellite-derived (MODIS-) estimates of surface roughness on the momentum and scalar fluxes, within the context of 3-D atmospheric modeling.

  20. Utility of a scanning densitometer in analyzing remotely sensed imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dooley, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    The utility of a scanning densitometer for analyzing imagery in the NASA Lewis Research Center's regional remote sensing program was evaluated. Uses studied include: (1) quick-look screening of imagery by means of density slicing, magnification, color coding, and edge enhancement; (2) preliminary category classification of both low- and high-resolution data bases; and (3) quantitative measurement of the extent of features within selected areas. The densitometer was capable of providing fast, convenient, and relatively inexpensive preliminary analysis of aerial and satellite photography and scanner imagery involving land cover, water quality, strip mining, and energy conservation.

  1. Hyperspectral imagery classification based on relevance vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guopeng; Yu, Xuchu; Feng, Wufa; Xu, Weixiao; Zhang, Pengqiang

    2009-10-01

    The relevance vector machine is sparse model in the Bayesian framework, its mathematics model doesn't have regularization coefficient and its kernel functions don't need to satisfy Mercer's condition. RVM present the good generalization performance, and its predictions are probabilistic. In this paper, a hyperspectral imagery classification method based on the relevance machine is brought forward. We introduce the sparse Bayesian classification model, regard the RVM learning as the maximization of marginal likelihood, and select the fast sequential sparse Bayesian learning algorithm. Through the experiment of PHI imagery classification, the advantages of the relevance machine used in hyperspectral imagery classification are given out.

  2. Multi-scale photoacoustic remote sensing (PARS) (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji Reza, Parsin; Bell, Kevan; Shi, W.; Zemp, Roger J.

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a novel multi-scale photoacoustic remote sensing (PARS) imaging system. Our system can provide optical resolution details for superficial structures as well as acoustic resolution for deep-tissue imaging down to 5 cm, in a non-contact setting. PARS system does not require any contact with the sample or ultrasound coupling medium. The optical resolution PARS (OR-OARS) system uses optically focused pulsed excitation with optical detection of photoacoustic signatures using a long-coherence interrogation beam co-focused and co-scanned with the excitation spot. In the OR-PARS initial pressures are sampled right at their subsurface origin where acoustic pressures are largest. The Acoustic resolution PARS (AR-PARS) picks up the surface oscillation of the tissue caused by generated photoacoustic signal using a modified version of Michelson interferometry. By taking advantage of 4-meters polarization maintaining single-mode fiber and a green fiber laser we have generated a multi-wavelength source using stimulated Raman scattering. Remote functional imaging using this multi-wavelength excitation source and PARS detection mechanism has been demonstrated. The oxygen saturation estimations are shown for both phantom and in vivo studies. Images of blood vessel structures for an In vivo chicken embryo model is demonstrated. The Phantom studies indicates ~3µm and ~300µm lateral resolution for OR-PARS and AR-PARS respectively. To the best of our knowledge this is the first dual modality non-contact optical and acoustic resolution system used for in vivo imaging.

  3. Protease-Activated Receptor (PAR)2, but Not PAR1, Is Involved in Collateral Formation and Anti-Inflammatory Monocyte Polarization in a Mouse Hind Limb Ischemia Model

    PubMed Central

    Nossent, Anne Yael; van Oeveren-Rietdijk, Annemarie M.; de Vries, Margreet R.; Spek, C. Arnold; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Hamming, Jaap F.; de Boer, Hetty C.; Versteeg, Henri H.; Quax, Paul H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims In collateral development (i.e. arteriogenesis), mononuclear cells are important and exist as a heterogeneous population consisting of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory/repair-associated cells. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)1 and PAR2 are G-protein-coupled receptors that are both expressed by mononuclear cells and are involved in pro-inflammatory reactions, while PAR2 also plays a role in repair-associated responses. Here, we investigated the physiological role of PAR1 and PAR2 in arteriogenesis in a murine hind limb ischemia model. Methods and Results PAR1-deficient (PAR1-/-), PAR2-deficient (PAR2-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice underwent femoral artery ligation. Laser Doppler measurements revealed reduced post-ischemic blood flow recovery in PAR2-/- hind limbs when compared to WT, while PAR1-/- mice were not affected. Upon ischemia, reduced numbers of smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive collaterals and CD31-positive capillaries were found in PAR2-/- mice when compared to WT mice, whereas these parameters in PAR1-/- mice did not differ from WT mice. The pool of circulating repair-associated (Ly6C-low) monocytes and the number of repair-associated (CD206-positive) macrophages surrounding collaterals in the hind limbs were increased in WT and PAR1-/- mice, but unaffected in PAR2-/- mice. The number of repair-associated macrophages in PAR2-/- hind limbs correlated with CD11b- and CD115-expression on the circulating monocytes in these animals, suggesting that monocyte extravasation and M-CSF-dependent differentiation into repair-associated cells are hampered. Conclusion PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in arteriogenesis and promotes the repair-associated response in ischemic tissues. Therefore, PAR2 potentially forms a new pro-arteriogenic target in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. PMID:23637930

  4. Novel Role for Proteinase-activated Receptor 2 (PAR2) in Membrane Trafficking of Proteinase-activated Receptor 4 (PAR4)*

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Margaret R.; McIntosh, Kathryn A.; Pediani, John D.; Robben, Joris; Cooke, Alexandra E.; Nilsson, Mary; Gould, Gwyn W.; Mundell, Stuart; Milligan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR4) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be sustained. Unlike other PAR subtypes, the mechanisms regulating receptor trafficking of PAR4 remain unknown. Here, we report novel features of the intracellular trafficking of PAR4 to the plasma membrane. PAR4 was poorly expressed at the plasma membrane and largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a complex with the COPI protein subunit β-COP1. Analysis of the PAR4 protein sequence identified an arginine-based (RXR) ER retention sequence located within intracellular loop-2 (R183AR → A183AA), mutation of which allowed efficient membrane delivery of PAR4. Interestingly, co-expression with PAR2 facilitated plasma membrane delivery of PAR4, an effect produced through disruption of β-COP1 binding and facilitation of interaction with the chaperone protein 14-3-3ζ. Intermolecular FRET studies confirmed heterodimerization between PAR2 and PAR4. PAR2 also enhanced glycosylation of PAR4 and activation of PAR4 signaling. Our results identify a novel regulatory role for PAR2 in the anterograde traffic of PAR4. PAR2 was shown to both facilitate and abrogate protein interactions with PAR4, impacting upon receptor localization and cell signal transduction. This work is likely to impact markedly upon the understanding of the receptor pharmacology of PAR4 in normal physiology and disease. PMID:22411985

  5. Novel role for proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in membrane trafficking of proteinase-activated receptor 4 (PAR4).

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Margaret R; McIntosh, Kathryn A; Pediani, John D; Robben, Joris; Cooke, Alexandra E; Nilsson, Mary; Gould, Gwyn W; Mundell, Stuart; Milligan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

    2012-05-11

    Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR(4)) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be sustained. Unlike other PAR subtypes, the mechanisms regulating receptor trafficking of PAR(4) remain unknown. Here, we report novel features of the intracellular trafficking of PAR(4) to the plasma membrane. PAR(4) was poorly expressed at the plasma membrane and largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a complex with the COPI protein subunit β-COP1. Analysis of the PAR(4) protein sequence identified an arginine-based (RXR) ER retention sequence located within intracellular loop-2 (R(183)AR → A(183)AA), mutation of which allowed efficient membrane delivery of PAR(4). Interestingly, co-expression with PAR(2) facilitated plasma membrane delivery of PAR(4), an effect produced through disruption of β-COP1 binding and facilitation of interaction with the chaperone protein 14-3-3ζ. Intermolecular FRET studies confirmed heterodimerization between PAR(2) and PAR(4). PAR(2) also enhanced glycosylation of PAR(4) and activation of PAR(4) signaling. Our results identify a novel regulatory role for PAR(2) in the anterograde traffic of PAR(4). PAR(2) was shown to both facilitate and abrogate protein interactions with PAR(4), impacting upon receptor localization and cell signal transduction. This work is likely to impact markedly upon the understanding of the receptor pharmacology of PAR(4) in normal physiology and disease. PMID:22411985

  6. Participation of Chromosome Segregation Protein ParAI of Vibrio cholerae in Chromosome Replication▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kadoya, Ryosuke; Baek, Jong Hwan; Sarker, Arnab; Chattoraj, Dhruba K.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae carries homologs of plasmid-borne parA and parB genes on both of its chromosomes. The par genes help to segregate many plasmids and chromosomes. Here we have studied the par genes of V. cholerae chromosome I. Earlier studies suggested that ParBI binds to the centromeric site parSI near the origin of replication (oriI), and parSI-ParBI complexes are placed at the cell poles by ParAI. Deletion of parAI and parSI caused the origin-proximal DNA to be less polar. Here we found that deletion of parBI also resulted in a less polar localization of oriI. However, unlike the deletion of parAI, the deletion of parBI increased the oriI number. Replication was normal when both parAI and parBI were deleted, suggesting that ParBI mediates its action through ParAI. Overexpression of ParAI in a parABI-deleted strain also increased the DNA content. The results are similar to those found for Bacillus subtilis, where ParA (Soj) stimulates replication and this activity is repressed by ParB (SpoOJ). As in B. subtilis, the stimulation of replication most likely involves the replication initiator DnaA. Our results indicate that control of chromosomal DNA replication is an additional function of chromosomal par genes conserved across the Gram-positive/Gram-negative divide. PMID:21257772

  7. Predicted PAR1 inhibitors from multiple computational methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Jinfeng; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Lujia; He, Xiao; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2016-08-01

    Multiple computational approaches are employed in order to find potentially strong binders of PAR1 from the two molecular databases: the Specs database containing more than 200,000 commercially available molecules and the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) database. By combining the use of popular docking scoring functions together with detailed molecular dynamics simulation and protein-ligand free energy calculations, a total of fourteen molecules are found to be potentially strong binders of PAR1. The atomic details in protein-ligand interactions of these molecules with PAR1 are analyzed to help understand the binding mechanism which should be very useful in design of new drugs.

  8. Evaluation of terrestrial photogrammetric point clouds derived from thermal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, Jeremy P.; Olsen, Richard C.

    2016-05-01

    Computer vision and photogrammetric techniques have been widely applied to digital imagery producing high density 3D point clouds. Using thermal imagery as input, the same techniques can be applied to infrared data to produce point clouds in 3D space, providing surface temperature information. The work presented here is an evaluation of the accuracy of 3D reconstruction of point clouds produced using thermal imagery. An urban scene was imaged over an area at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, viewing from above as with an airborne system. Terrestrial thermal and RGB imagery were collected from a rooftop overlooking the site using a FLIR SC8200 MWIR camera and a Canon T1i DSLR. In order to spatially align each dataset, ground control points were placed throughout the study area using Trimble R10 GNSS receivers operating in RTK mode. Each image dataset is processed to produce a dense point cloud for 3D evaluation.

  9. Improvements in the Visualization of Stereoscopic 3D Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurrieri, Luis E.

    2015-09-01

    A pleasant visualization of stereoscopic imagery must take into account factors that may produce eye strain and fatigue. Fortunately, our binocular vision system has embedded mechanisms to perceive depth for extended periods of time without producing eye fatigue; however, stereoscopic imagery may still induce visual discomfort in certain displaying scenarios. An important source of eye fatigue originates in the conflict between vergence eye movement and focusing mechanisms. Today's eye-tracking technology makes possible to know the viewers' gaze direction; hence, 3D imagery can be dynamically corrected based on this information. In this paper, I introduce a method to improve the visualization of stereoscopic imagery on planar displays based on emulating vergence and accommodation mechanisms of binocular human vision. Unlike other methods to improve the visual comfort that introduce depth distortions, in the stereoscopic visual media, this technique aims to produce a gentler and more natural binocular viewing experience without distorting the original depth of the scene.

  10. Sparing of spatial mental imagery in patients with hippocampal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soyun; Borst, Grégoire; Thompson, William L.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.; Squire, Larry R.

    2013-01-01

    In four experiments, we explored the capacity for spatial mental imagery in patients with hippocampal lesions, using tasks that minimized the role of learning and memory. On all four tasks, patients with hippocampal lesions performed as well as controls. Nonetheless, in separate tests, the patients were impaired at remembering the materials that had been used to assess mental imagery. The findings suggest that the hippocampus is not needed for constructing many forms of spatial imagery but is needed for the formation of long-term memory. In future studies of the neural organization of spatial mental imagery, it will be important to separate the contribution of spatial processing from the contribution of learning and memory. PMID:24136183

  11. APPLYING SATELLITE IMAGERY TO TRIAGE ASSESSMENT OF ECOSYSTEM HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Considerable evidence documents that certain changes in vegetation and soils result in irreversibly degraded rangeland ecosystems. We used Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)imagery to develop calibration patterns of change in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Ind...

  12. Small scale thematic mapping - A case for radar imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. M.

    1974-01-01

    Small scale thematic maps (1:250,000 and smaller) of physical and cultural phenomena manifested on the landscape are a major concern to scientists and investigators in diverse disciplines. A strip of K-band radar imagery consisting of a traverse from eastern Minnesota to northern Utah was employed to evaluate the potential of radar imagery for small scale land use mapping. In the course of this investigation, it was discovered that certain borders derived from radar imagery were compatible with borders found on the nonland use thematic maps used for comparison. Specifically, numerous borders and regions of small scale maps of landforms, soils, vegetation, and geology are found to be similar to the radar land use regions. Although far from conclusive it appears that radar imagery can be employed in the small scale mapping of landforms and possibly for mapping physiognomic or economic vegetation.

  13. Summary of space imagery studies in Utah and Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An enhanced enlargement of a S190B color image at a scale of 1/19,200 of the Bingham porphyry copper deposit has compared a geological map of the area with the space imagery map as fair for the intrusion boundaries and total lack of quality for mapping the sediments. Hydrothermal alteration is only slightly evident on space imagery at Bingham, but in the Tintic mining district and the volcanic piles of the Keg and Thomas ranges, Utah, hydrothermal alteration is readily mapped on color enlargements of S190B. Several sites of calderas were recognized and new ones located on space imagery. One of the tools developed is a mercury soil-gas analyzer that is becoming significant as an aid in locating hidden mineralized zones which were suggested from space imagery. In addition, this tool is a prime aid in locating and better delineating geothermal sites.

  14. Characteristics of merchant vessels in spaceborne SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Huang, Weigen; Yang, Jingsong; Fu, Bin; Lou, XiuLin; Zhang, Huagon

    2006-12-01

    Ship features in high-resolution spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery has crucial significance for ship classification from satellite. In this paper, we discuss the features of merchant Ships including oil tanker, container ship and bulk carrier in SAR imagery, which is comprised of geometrical feature, scattering feature, tonnage information with Radar Cross Section (RCS) and wake. The study show that the ship lengths measured from SAR imagery has a good correlation with the real lengths, but the correlation of ship beam is worse. Ship scattering feature has positive correlation with the ship structure, which maybe is a feature to distinguish container ship from other vessels. A new equation about ship length and its displacement in tons is presented in this paper. The relation suggested by Skolnik M.I between ship tonnage and RCS is tested but not validated. We also validate the means of extracting ship speed by ship turbulence wake in SAR imagery.

  15. An Information-Processing Analysis of a Piagetian Imagery Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Anne L.; Harvey, Wade O.

    1979-01-01

    Children at three age levels (4-6, 7-9, and 10-14 years) performed a reaction-time version of Piaget and Inhelder's rotating squares imagery task and a pivot and shape conservation recognition task. (JMB)

  16. Application of digital image processing techniques to astronomical imagery 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorre, J. J.; Lynn, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Nine specific techniques of combination of techniques developed for applying digital image processing technology to existing astronomical imagery are described. Photoproducts are included to illustrate the results of each of these investigations.

  17. The applied model of imagery use: Examination of moderation and mediation effects.

    PubMed

    Koehn, S; Stavrou, N A M; Young, J A; Morris, T

    2016-08-01

    The applied model of mental imagery use proposed an interaction effect between imagery type and imagery ability. This study had two aims: (a) the examination of imagery ability as a moderating variable between imagery type and dispositional flow, and (b) the testing of alternative mediation models. The sample consisted of 367 athletes from Scotland and Australia, who completed the Sport Imagery Questionnaire, Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire, and Dispositional Flow Scale-2. Hierarchical regression analysis showed direct effects of imagery use and imagery ability on flow, but no significant interaction. Mediation analysis revealed a significant indirect path, indicating a partially mediated relationship (P = 0.002) between imagery use, imagery ability, and flow. Partial mediation was confirmed when the effect of cognitive imagery use and cognitive imagery ability was tested, and a full mediation model was found between motivational imagery use, motivational imagery ability, and flow. The results are discussed in conjunction with potential future research directions on advancing theory and applications. PMID:26247483

  18. Sea-Ice Feature Mapping using JERS-1 Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslanik, James; Heinrichs, John

    1994-01-01

    JERS-1 SAR and OPS imagery are examined in combination with other data sets to investigate the utility of the JERS-1 sensors for mapping fine-scale sea ice conditions. Combining ERS-1 C band and JERS-1 L band SAR aids in discriminating multiyear and first-year ice. Analysis of OPS imagery for a field site in the Canadian Archipelago highlights the advantages of OPS's high spatial and spectral resolution for mapping ice structure, melt pond distribution, and surface albedo.

  19. Preliminary Geologic Application of ERTS-1 Imagery in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathram, E. H.; Tailleur, I. L.; Patton, W. W., Jr.; Fischer, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    The geologic application of ERTS-1 imagery in Alaska is discussed. The results of the investigation are relevant to the three national problems of: (1) identifying minable minerals, (2) accelerating the finding and development of sources of petroleum and gas, and (3) the need to preserve the environment. The use of ERTS-1 imagery in developing a netallogenetic map of Alaska is described. Illustrations of the accomplishments produced by ERTS-1 data are provided.

  20. Application of NASA ERTS-1 satellite imagery in coastal studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magoon, O. T.; Berg, D. W. (Principal Investigator); Hallermeier, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Review of ERTS-1 imagery indicates that it contains information of great value in coastal engineering studies. A brief introduction is given to the methods by which imagery is generated, and examples of its application to coastal engineering. Specific applications discussed include study of the movement of coastal and nearshore sediment-laden water masses and information for planning and construction in remote areas of the world.

  1. The use of ERTS imagery in reservoir management and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Preliminary analysis of ERTS-1 imagery suggests that the configuration and areal coverage of surface waters, as well as other hydrologically related terrain features, may be obtained from ERTS-1 imagery to an extent that would be useful. Computer-oriented pattern recognition techniques are being developed to help automate the identification and analysis of hydrologic features. Considerable man-machine interaction is required while training the computer for these tasks.

  2. Very low rate compression of speckled SAR imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Eichel, P.H.; Ives, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radars produce coherent, and speckled, high resolution images of the ground. Because modern systems can generate large amounts of imagery, there is substantial interest in applying image compression techniques to these products. In this paper, the authors examine the properties of speckled imagery relevant to the task of data compression. In particular, they demonstrate the advisability of compressing the speckle mean function rather than the literal image. The theory, methodology, and an example are presented.

  3. Imagery in the clinical setting: a tool for healing.

    PubMed

    Reed, Terry

    2007-06-01

    This article addresses the why and how of imagery and its relation with holistic theories. The description of clinical applications, program development, and research demonstrates successful interventions in virtually every area of nursing. Case examples show the profound healing that is experienced by the patient and the nurse simultaneously through this work. Imagery is harmless, is time- and cost-effective, and creates a healing partnership between the nurse and patient. PMID:17544682

  4. Overall evaluation of Skylab imagery for mapping of Latin America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, J. E.; Eoldan, J. J. M.; Fernandez, O. W.; Alves, M.; Mutis, J.; Fletcher, A. G.; Ferrero, M. B.; Morell, J. J. H.; Romero, L. E.; Garcia, J. A. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab imagery is both desired and needed by the Latin American catographic agencies. The imagery is cost beneficial for the production of new mapping and maintenance of existing maps at national topographic series scales. If this information was available on a near time routine coverage basis, it would provide an excellent additional data base to the Latin American cartographic community, specifically Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Venezuela.

  5. Planning, preparation, execution, and imagery of volitional action.

    PubMed

    Deecke, L

    1996-03-01

    There are different motor sets, which a human subject can be in or act from: he or she can be in a self-initiated voluntary movement set (action) or in a response set (re-action). Also, imagery sets are available that are necessary for the acquisition and practice of skill. Most important are such imagery sets for rehearsal in theatre, dance, music, sports, combat, etc. PMID:8713545

  6. View from northeast to southwest of PAR site sentry station; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from northeast to southwest of PAR site sentry station; formerly the bachelor's enlisted men's quarter (BEQ) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Sentry Station, North of Second Avenue & West of Electrical Switch Station No. 2, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  7. View from southwest to northeast of PAR site fresh water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from southwest to northeast of PAR site fresh water pump house - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Fresh Water Pump House, In Limited Access Area, on Patrol Road next to Open Storage Reservoir No. 736, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  8. PARS: Programs for Analysis and Resizing of Structures, user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, R. T.; Prasad, B.; Tsach, U.

    1979-01-01

    PARS processors and their use, flutter analysis, sensitivity analysis for stresses, and resizing are presented. Design variable definition and interface with finite element model, static constraints and their derivatives, flutter derivatives, and optimization are discussed.

  9. Worry tendencies predict brain activation during aversive imagery.

    PubMed

    Schienle, Anne; Schäfer, Axel; Pignanelli, Roman; Vaitl, Dieter

    2009-09-25

    Because of its abstract nature, worrying might function as an avoidance response in order to cognitively disengage from fearful imagery. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated neural correlates of aversive imagery and their association with worry tendencies, as measured by the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ). Nineteen healthy women first viewed, and subsequently imagined pictures from two categories, 'threat' and 'happiness'. Worry tendencies were negatively correlated with brain activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, the prefrontal cortex (dorsolateral, dorsomedial, ventrolateral), the parietal cortex and the insula. These negative correlations between PSWQ scores and localized brain activation were specific for aversive imagery. Moreover, activation in the above mentioned regions was positively associated with the experienced vividness of both pleasant and unpleasant mental pictures. As the identified brain regions are involved in emotion regulation, vivid imagery and memory retrieval, a lowered activity in high PSWQ scorers might be associated with cognitive disengagement from aversive imagery as well as insufficient refresh rates of mental pictures. Our preliminary findings encourage future imagery studies on generalized anxiety disorder patients, as one of the main symptoms of this disorder is excessive worrying. PMID:19545612

  10. Processing of SeaMARC swath sonar imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Pratson, L.; Malinverno, A.; Edwards, M.; Ryan, W. )

    1990-05-01

    Side-scan swath sonar systems have become an increasingly important means of mapping the sea floor. Two such systems are the deep-towed, high-resolution SeaMARC I sonar, which has a variable swath width of up to 5 km, and the shallow-towed, lower-resolution SeaMARC II sonar, which has a swath width of 10 km. The sea-floor imagery of acoustic backscatter output by the SeaMARC sonars is analogous to aerial photographs and airborne side-looking radar images of continental topography. Geologic interpretation of the sea-floor imagery is greatly facilitated by image processing. Image processing of the digital backscatter data involves removal of noise by median filtering, spatial filtering to remove sonar scans of anomalous intensity, across-track corrections to remove beam patterns caused by nonuniform response of the sonar transducers to changes in incident angle, and contrast enhancement by histogram equalization to maximize the available dynamic range. Correct geologic interpretation requires submarine structural fabrics to be displayed in their proper locations and orientations. Geographic projection of sea-floor imagery is achieved by merging the enhanced imagery with the sonar vehicle navigation and correcting for vehicle attitude. Co-registration of bathymetry with sonar imagery introduces sea-floor relief and permits the imagery to be displayed in three-dimensional perspectives, furthering the ability of the marine geologist to infer the processes shaping formerly hidden subsea terrains.

  11. STS-114: Discovery Return to Flight Imagery Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    George Diller, from NASA Public Affairs, introduces Bob Page who is the chairman of the NASA Intercenter Photo Working Group. Page discusses the purpose of the group which is to perform an analysis of all imagery captured of spacecraft launches. He presents charts to discuss return to flight optics. The charts consist of: 1) Overall Shuttle Imagery Plan; 2) Baseline Configuration Imagery; 3) Upgraded Operational Television (OTV) Cameras; 4) Mobile Launch Platform Cameras; 5) Fixed Service Structure Cameras; 6) Kimeto Tracking Mount (KMT); 7) MOTS (Mobile Optical Tracking System); 8) Intermediate Focal Length Optical Tracker (IFLOT); 9) Distant Object Attitude Measurement System (DOAMS); 10) Advanced Transportable Optical Tracking System (ATOTS); 11) STS-114 Pad Fixed Tracker Camera Configuration; 12) STS-114 Camera Medium and Long Range Tracker Configuration; 13) WB-57 Ascent Visualization Experiment (WAVE); 14) WAVE Profile, Plan View, CAD Flight Training, and Test Flight; 15) Minimum STS-114 Flight Cameras Configuration; 16) External Tank (ET) Separation Cameras; 17) ET Imagery; Umbilical and Handheld; 18) On-Orbit Imagery; and 19) Imagery Data Distribution Plan. The presentation ends with a brief question and answer period.

  12. Implications for intervention: categorising the quantitative mental imagery of children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jonathan Norris; Harkness, Shelly Sheats

    2013-06-01

    Unlike a child's observable, physical interactions with mathematical tools (e.g., physically touching blocks in order to count them), the subtle manifestations of imagery construction can be considerably more challenging to identify and act upon. Although there have been substantive examinations of mental imagery in a variety of mathematical contexts (i.e., spatial patterns, geometric rotation, etc.) there is a paucity of study regarding the nature of mathematical imagery with respect to initial counting acts. Towards that end, we conducted clinical interviews and longitudinal teaching experiments to ascertain the salient features of early quantitative mental imagery. Our findings indicate that children construct imagined units that are variably connected to the mathematical tool of the moment. Moreover, while this variability appears congruent with existing mathematical progressions, attending to nuances in children's mental imagery provides a platform for more refined instructional design. Indeed, identification of and attention to the child's quantitative imagery in whatever form it may take is essential to maximising mathematical experiences.

  13. Par-4 secretion: stoichiometry of 3-arylquinoline binding to vimentin.

    PubMed

    Sviripa, Vitaliy M; Burikhanov, Ravshan; Obiero, Josiah M; Yuan, Yaxia; Nickell, Justin R; Dwoskin, Linda P; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Liu, Chunming; Tsodikov, Oleg V; Rangnekar, Vivek M; Watt, David S

    2016-01-01

    Advanced prostate tumors usually metastasize to the lung, bone, and other vital tissues and are resistant to conventional therapy. Prostate apoptosis response-4 protein (Par-4) is a tumor suppressor that causes apoptosis in therapy-resistant prostate cancer cells by binding specifically to a receptor, Glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78), found only on the surface of cancer cells. 3-Arylquinolines or "arylquins" induce normal cells to release Par-4 from the intermediate filament protein, vimentin and promote Par-4 secretion that targets cancer cells in a paracrine manner. A structure-activity study identified arylquins that promote Par-4 secretion, and an evaluation of arylquin binding to the hERG potassium ion channel using a [(3)H]-dofetilide binding assay permitted the identification of structural features that separated this undesired activity from the desired Par-4 secretory activity. A binding study that relied on the natural fluorescence of arylquins and that used the purified rod domain of vimentin (residues 99-411) suggested that the mechanism behind Par-4 release involved arylquin binding to multiple sites in the rod domain. PMID:26548370

  14. Croissance epitaxiale de GaAs sur substrats de Ge par epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belanger, Simon

    La situation energetique et les enjeux environnementaux auxquels la societe est confrontee entrainent un interet grandissant pour la production d'electricite a partir de l'energie solaire. Parmi les technologies actuellement disponibles, la filiere du photovoltaique a concentrateur solaire (CPV pour concentrator photovoltaics) possede un rendement superieur et mi potentiel interessant a condition que ses couts de production soient competitifs. La methode d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE pour chemical beam epitaxy) possede plusieurs caracteristiques qui la rendent interessante pour la production a grande echelle de cellules photovoltaiques a jonctions multiples a base de semi-conducteurs III-V. Ce type de cellule possede la meilleure efficacite atteinte a ce jour et est utilise sur les satellites et les systemes photovoltaiques a concentrateur solaire (CPV) les plus efficaces. Une des principales forces de la technique CBE se trouve dans son potentiel d'efficacite d'utilisation des materiaux source qui est superieur a celui de la technique d'epitaxie qui est couramment utilisee pour la production a grande echelle de ces cellules. Ce memoire de maitrise presente les travaux effectues dans le but d'evaluer le potentiel de la technique CBE pour realiser la croissance de couches de GaAs sur des substrats de Ge. Cette croissance constitue la premiere etape de fabrication de nombreux modeles de cellules solaires a haute performance decrites plus haut. La realisation de ce projet a necessite le developpement d'un procede de preparation de surface pour les substrats de germanium, la realisation de nombreuses sceances de croissance epitaxiale et la caracterisation des materiaux obtenus par microscopie optique, microscopie a force atomique (AFM), diffraction des rayons-X a haute resolution (HRXRD), microscopie electronique a transmission (TEM), photoluminescence a basse temperature (LTPL) et spectrometrie de masse des ions secondaires (SIMS). Les experiences ont permis

  15. Daylight coloring for monochrome infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabura, James

    2015-05-01

    The effectiveness of infrared imagery in poor visibility situations is well established and the range of applications is expanding as we enter a new era of inexpensive thermal imagers for mobile phones. However there is a problem in that the counterintuitive reflectance characteristics of various common scene elements can cause slowed reaction times and impaired situational awareness-consequences that can be especially detrimental in emergency situations. While multiband infrared sensors can be used, they are inherently more costly. Here we propose a technique for adding a daylight color appearance to single band infrared images, using the normally overlooked property of local image texture. The simple method described here is illustrated with colorized images from the visible red and long wave infrared bands. Our colorizing process not only imparts a natural daylight appearance to infrared images but also enhances the contrast and visibility of otherwise obscure detail. We anticipate that this colorizing method will lead to a better user experience, faster reaction times and improved situational awareness for a growing community of infrared camera users. A natural extension of our process could expand upon its texture discerning feature by adding specialized filters for discriminating specific targets.

  16. Microscale Effects from Global Hot Plasma Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Fok, M.-C.; Perez, J. D.; Keady, J. P.

    1995-01-01

    We have used a three-dimensional model of recovery phase storm hot plasmas to explore the signatures of pitch angle distributions (PADS) in global fast atom imagery of the magnetosphere. The model computes mass, energy, and position-dependent PADs based on drift effects, charge exchange losses, and Coulomb drag. The hot plasma PAD strongly influences both the storm current system carried by the hot plasma and its time evolution. In turn, the PAD is strongly influenced by plasma waves through pitch angle diffusion, a microscale effect. We report the first simulated neutral atom images that account for anisotropic PADs within the hot plasma. They exhibit spatial distribution features that correspond directly to the PADs along the lines of sight. We investigate the use of image brightness distributions along tangent-shell field lines to infer equatorial PADS. In tangent-shell regions with minimal spatial gradients, reasonably accurate PADs are inferred from simulated images. They demonstrate the importance of modeling PADs for image inversion and show that comparisons of models with real storm plasma images will reveal the global effects of these microscale processes.

  17. Updating Maps Using High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrajhi, Muhamad; Shahzad Janjua, Khurram; Afroz Khan, Mohammad; Alobeid, Abdalla

    2016-06-01

    Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the most dynamic countries of the world. We have witnessed a very rapid urban development's which are altering Kingdom's landscape on daily basis. In recent years a substantial increase in urban populations is observed which results in the formation of large cities. Considering this fast paced growth, it has become necessary to monitor these changes, in consideration with challenges faced by aerial photography projects. It has been observed that data obtained through aerial photography has a lifecycle of 5-years because of delay caused by extreme weather conditions and dust storms which acts as hindrances or barriers during aerial imagery acquisition, which has increased the costs of aerial survey projects. All of these circumstances require that we must consider some alternatives that can provide us easy and better ways of image acquisition in short span of time for achieving reliable accuracy and cost effectiveness. The approach of this study is to conduct an extensive comparison between different resolutions of data sets which include: Orthophoto of (10 cm) GSD, Stereo images of (50 cm) GSD and Stereo images of (1 m) GSD, for map updating. Different approaches have been applied for digitizing buildings, roads, tracks, airport, roof level changes, filling stations, buildings under construction, property boundaries, mosques buildings and parking places.

  18. Learning target masks in infrared linescan imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fechner, Thomas; Rockinger, Oliver; Vogler, Axel; Knappe, Peter

    1997-04-01

    In this paper we propose a neural network based method for the automatic detection of ground targets in airborne infrared linescan imagery. Instead of using a dedicated feature extraction stage followed by a classification procedure, we propose the following three step scheme: In the first step of the recognition process, the input image is decomposed into its pyramid representation, thus obtaining a multiresolution signal representation. At the lowest three levels of the Laplacian pyramid a neural network filter of moderate size is trained to indicate the target location. The last step consists of a fusion process of the several neural network filters to obtain the final result. To perform this fusion we use a belief network to combine the various filter outputs in a statistical meaningful way. In addition, the belief network allows the integration of further knowledge about the image domain. By applying this multiresolution recognition scheme, we obtain a nearly scale- and rotational invariant target recognition with a significantly decreased false alarm rate compared with a single resolution target recognition scheme.

  19. Cataloguing Large Amounts of Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iturrate, E.; O'Connor, A. S.; Hulslander, D.; Farr, B.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing users face the challenge of managing hundreds, even thousands of scenes. These images are normally stored as files organized in a folder structure. Unless there are clearly defined rules about the organization of the directories and file naming conventions, users inevitably find it very difficult to find particular images. "Katalog" is a free satellite image cataloguing tool developed to solve this problem. It can crawl a particular folder structure in search of the satellite images, extracting both metadata, footprints, and thumbnails. This information is then searchable by a number of variables (e.g. name, sensor, geographic location, date, description, and so on) allowing users to quickly find scenes in their imagery libraries, discovering and rediscovering data they didn't even know they had. "Katalog" works as an extension to the ENVI software package, taking advantage of the large collection of satellite image readers that ENVI provides. Generated thumbnails and footprints are also compatible with other applications like Google Earth, Picasa, and Esri ArcGIS.

  20. BOREAS Landsat MSS Imagery: Digital Counts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Strub, Richard; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Satellite Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed satellite data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. The Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) Program launched the first of a series of satellites (ERTS-1) in 1972. Part of the NASA Earth Resources Survey Program, the ERTS Program and the ERTS satellites were later renamed Landsat to better represent the civil satellite program's prime emphasis on remote sensing of land resources. Landsat satellites 1 through 5 carry the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) sensor. Canada for Remote Sensing (CCRS) and BOREAS personnel gathered a set of MSS images of the BOREAS region from Landsat satellites 1, 2, 4, and 5 covering the dates of 21 Aug 1972 to 05 Sep 1988. The data are provided in binary image format files of various formats. The Landsat MSS imagery is available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  1. Signal modeling of turbulence-distorted imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, S. Susan; Driggers, Ronald G.; Krapels, Keith; Espinola, Richard L.; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Cha, Jae

    2009-05-01

    Understanding turbulence effects on wave propagation and imaging systems has been an active research area for more than 50 years. Conventional atmospheric optics methods use statistical models to analyze image degradation effects that are caused by turbulence. In this paper, we intend to understand atmospheric turbulence effects using a deterministic signal processing and imaging theory point of view and modeling. The model simulates the formed imagery by a lens by tracing the optical rays from the target through a band of turbulence. We examine the nature of the turbulence-degraded image, and identify its characteristics as the parameters of the band of turbulence, e.g., its width, angle, and index of refraction, are varied. Image degradation effects due to turbulence, such as image blurring and image dancing, are revealed by this signal modeling. We show that in fact these phenomena can be related not only to phase errors in the frequency domain of the image but also a 2D modulation effect in the image spectrum. Results with simulated and realistic data are provided.

  2. Effects of kinesthetic versus visual imagery practice on two technical dance movements: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Girón, Elizabeth Coker; McIsaac, Tara; Nilsen, Dawn

    2012-03-01

    Motor imagery is a type of mental practice that involves imagining the body performing a movement in the absence of motor output. Dance training traditionally incorporates mental practice techniques, but quantitative effects of motor imagery on the performance of dance movements are largely unknown. This pilot study compared the effects of two different imagery modalities, external visual imagery and kinesthetic imagery, on pelvis and hip kinematics during two technical dance movements, plié and sauté. Each of three female dance students (mean age = 19.7 years, mean years of training = 10.7) was assigned to use a type of imagery practice: visual imagery, kinesthetic imagery, or no imagery. Effects of motor imagery on peak external hip rotation varied by both modality and task. Kinesthetic imagery increased peak external hip rotation for pliés, while visual imagery increased peak external hip rotation for sautés. Findings suggest that the success of motor imagery in improving performance may be task-specific. Dancers may benefit from matching imagery modality to technical tasks in order to improve alignment and thereby avoid chronic injury. PMID:22390952

  3. Water Area Extraction Using RADARSAT SAR Imagery Combined with Landsat Imagery and Terrain Information

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seunghwan; Jang, Hyoseon; Kim, Namhoon; Sohn, Hong-Gyoo

    2015-01-01

    This paper exploits an effective water extraction method using SAR imagery in preparation for flood mapping in unpredictable flood situations. The proposed method is based on the thresholding method using SAR amplitude, terrain information, and object-based classification techniques for noise removal. Since the water areas in SAR images have the lowest amplitude value, the thresholding method using SAR amplitude could effectively extract water bodies. However, the reflective properties of water areas in SAR imagery cannot distinguish the occluded areas caused by steep relief and they can be eliminated with terrain information. In spite of the thresholding method using SAR amplitude and terrain information, noises which interfered with users’ interpretation of water maps still remained and the object-based classification using an object size criterion was applied for the noise removal and the criterion was determined by a histogram-based technique. When only using SAR amplitude information, the overall accuracy was 83.67%. However, using SAR amplitude, terrain information and the noise removal technique, the overall classification accuracy over the study area turned out to be 96.42%. In particular, user accuracy was improved by 46.00%. PMID:25808768

  4. Water area extraction using RADARSAT SAR imagery combined with Landsat imagery and terrain information.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seunghwan; Jang, Hyoseon; Kim, Namhoon; Sohn, Hong-Gyoo

    2015-01-01

    This paper exploits an effective water extraction method using SAR imagery in preparation for flood mapping in unpredictable flood situations. The proposed method is based on the thresholding method using SAR amplitude, terrain information, and object-based classification techniques for noise removal. Since the water areas in SAR images have the lowest amplitude value, the thresholding method using SAR amplitude could effectively extract water bodies. However, the reflective properties of water areas in SAR imagery cannot distinguish the occluded areas caused by steep relief and they can be eliminated with terrain information. In spite of the thresholding method using SAR amplitude and terrain information, noises which interfered with users' interpretation of water maps still remained and the object-based classification using an object size criterion was applied for the noise removal and the criterion was determined by a histogram-based technique. When only using SAR amplitude information, the overall accuracy was 83.67%. However, using SAR amplitude, terrain information and the noise removal technique, the overall classification accuracy over the study area turned out to be 96.42%. In particular, user accuracy was improved by 46.00%. PMID:25808768

  5. Exceptional visuospatial imagery in schizophrenia; implications for madness and creativity.

    PubMed

    Benson, Taylor L; Park, Sohee

    2013-01-01

    Biographical and historical accounts suggest a link between scientific creativity and schizophrenia. Longitudinal studies of gifted children indicate that visuospatial imagery plays a pivotal role in exceptional achievements in science and mathematics. We asked whether visuospatial imagery is enhanced in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ). We compared SZ and matched healthy controls (HC) on five visuospatial tasks tapping parietal and frontoparietal functions. Two aspects of visuospatial transformation, spatial location and mental imagery manipulation were examined with Paper Folding Test (PFT) and jigsaw puzzle task (JPT), respectively. Visuospatial intelligence was assessed with Ravens Progressive Matrices, which is associated with frontoparietal network activity. Hemispatial inattention implicating parietal function was assessed with line bisection (LB) task. Mediated by prefrontal cortex, spatial delayed response task (DRT) was used to index working memory maintenance, which was impaired in SZ compared to HC. In contrast, SZ showed intact visuospatial intelligence and transformation of location. Further, SZ performed significantly better than HC on JPT indicating enhanced mental imagery manipulation. Spatial working memory (SWM) maintenance and mental imagery manipulation were strongly associated in HC but dissociated in SZ. Thus, we observed enhanced mental imagery manipulation in SZ but the dissociation of mental imagery from working memory suggests a disrupted frontoparietal network. Finally, while HC showed the expected leftward pseudoneglect, SZ showed increased rightward LB bias implicating left hemispatial inattention and impaired right parietal control of spatial attention. The current results chart a unique profile of impaired, spared and enhanced parietal-mediated visuospatial functions implicating parietal abnormalities as a biobehavioral marker for SZ. We discuss these results in relation to creative cognition. PMID:24273503

  6. Horizontal-vertical illusion in mental imagery: quantitative evidence.

    PubMed

    Blanuša, Jelena; Zdravković, Sunčica

    2015-01-01

    The present study had two main goals: (1) to investigate the difference between perception and mental imagery using a visual illusion as a stimulus; (2) to inspect gender related differences in perception and imagery. Our main hypothesis, that there would be no differences between perception and mental imagery, was motivated by previous neuroimaging data. Unlike these neuroimaging studies that demonstrate great similarity between the two processes, results obtained in behavioral studies have not always been consistent. We assumed that this inconsistency was a consequence of methodological differences. Hence, we explored the two processes with a modified behavioral procedure. The additional exploration of gender differences was motivated by the discrepancy between our findings and the existing literature. In two experiments, participants estimated the lines constituting the horizontal-vertical illusion, either in perception or imagery task. Results confirmed that there was no significant difference between perception and imagery: the illusion was equally strong in both tasks. In the second experiment, an additional factor was tested, stimulus size. The results showed that, although there was no significant difference in illusion strength, there was a gender difference in the size of mental image for medium and large stimuli. While male subjects performed equally in the two tasks, female subjects tended to underestimate size in the imagery task. This tendency intensified as the stimulus size increased. Our results not only inform us about the status of illusions in imagery but also offer some answers about the spatial nature of mental representations. We hope that such precise measurements of mental representation might provide better understanding of reasoning that uses mental images. PMID:25705186

  7. Exceptional visuospatial imagery in schizophrenia; implications for madness and creativity

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Taylor L.; Park, Sohee

    2013-01-01

    Biographical and historical accounts suggest a link between scientific creativity and schizophrenia. Longitudinal studies of gifted children indicate that visuospatial imagery plays a pivotal role in exceptional achievements in science and mathematics. We asked whether visuospatial imagery is enhanced in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ). We compared SZ and matched healthy controls (HC) on five visuospatial tasks tapping parietal and frontoparietal functions. Two aspects of visuospatial transformation, spatial location and mental imagery manipulation were examined with Paper Folding Test (PFT) and jigsaw puzzle task (JPT), respectively. Visuospatial intelligence was assessed with Ravens Progressive Matrices, which is associated with frontoparietal network activity. Hemispatial inattention implicating parietal function was assessed with line bisection (LB) task. Mediated by prefrontal cortex, spatial delayed response task (DRT) was used to index working memory maintenance, which was impaired in SZ compared to HC. In contrast, SZ showed intact visuospatial intelligence and transformation of location. Further, SZ performed significantly better than HC on JPT indicating enhanced mental imagery manipulation. Spatial working memory (SWM) maintenance and mental imagery manipulation were strongly associated in HC but dissociated in SZ. Thus, we observed enhanced mental imagery manipulation in SZ but the dissociation of mental imagery from working memory suggests a disrupted frontoparietal network. Finally, while HC showed the expected leftward pseudoneglect, SZ showed increased rightward LB bias implicating left hemispatial inattention and impaired right parietal control of spatial attention. The current results chart a unique profile of impaired, spared and enhanced parietal-mediated visuospatial functions implicating parietal abnormalities as a biobehavioral marker for SZ. We discuss these results in relation to creative cognition. PMID:24273503

  8. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned.

  9. Pars Planitis: Epidemiology, Clinical Characteristics, Management and Visual Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Ozdal, Pinar Cakar; Berker, Nilufer; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur

    2015-01-01

    Pars planitis is an idiopathic chronic intermediate uveitis which predominantly affects children and adolescents, and accounts for 5-26.7% of pediatric uveitis. Although an autoimmune process with a genetic predisposition has been suggested, its etiology still remains unknown. The most common presenting symptoms are floaters and blurred vision. Diffuse vitreous cells, haze, snowballs and snowbanks are typical findings of pars planitis. Peripheral retinal vasculitis, optic disc edema and anterior segment inflammation are other well-known findings. Although pars planitis is known to be a benign form of uveitis in most cases, it may become a potentially blinding disease due to complications including cataract, cystoid macular edema, vitreous opacities and optic disc edema. Cystoid macular edema is the most common cause of visual morbidity. Band keratopathy, epiretinal membrane formation, vitreous condensation, neovascularizations, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, cyclitic membranes, glaucoma and amblyopia may develop as a consequence of the chronic course of the disease. Exclusion of infectious and non-infectious causes which may present with intermediate uveitis is of utmost importance before starting treatment. Treatment of pars planitis has been a controversial issue. There is no consensus specifically for treatment of cases with minimal inflammation and relatively good visual acuity. However, current experience shows that pars planitis may cause severe inflammation and needs an aggressive treatment. A stepladder approach including corticosteroids, immunosupressive agents, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and pars plana vitrectomy and/or laser photocoagulation is the most commonly used method for treatment of pars planitis. Adequate control of inflammation and prompt detection of associated complications are crucial in order to improve the overall prognosis of the disease. PMID:27051493

  10. Levels of imagery and personality dimensions in a female prison population.

    PubMed

    Stricklin, A B; Penk, M L

    1980-08-01

    Personality and mental imagery tests were administered to 62 female prisoners. The study replicates the finding concerning relationships between imagery types and two specific personality dimensions, and extends the findings across populations, personality inventories, and investigators. Control of visual imagery is linked negatively to a measure of neurosis (Scale 2 of the MMPI); and (if level of neurosis is controlled) EI is linked to vividness of imagery. That is, an anova interaction showed that, with high neurosis scores, extroverts report more vivid imagery than introverts, but with low neurosis scores, introverts report more vivid imagery than extroverts. PMID:7411380

  11. LANDSAT imagery: Description of products available from the CSIR Satellite Remote Sensing Centre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An overview of the LANDSAT system is provided along with information to assist prospective users in establishing whether imagery for their areas of interest is available and how to obtain such imagery. Spectral bands, spatial resolution, and digital data are explained as well as worldwide reference system indexing and the identification number assigned to images. The sizes and scales of standard black and white imagery and of false color composite imagery are listed. The format is given for computer compatible tapes and standard enhanced imagery is described. Other information available to users include LANDSAT index maps, catalogs of available imagery, a schedule of overpass dates, and a list of product prices.

  12. Combined pars plana vitrectomy-scleral buckle versus pars plana vitrectomy for proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Lai, Frank H P; Lo, Ernie C F; Chan, Vesta C K; Brelen, Mårten; Lo, Wai Ling; Young, Alvin L

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the surgical outcomes of combined pars plana vitrectomy-scleral buckle (PPV-SB) versus pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment complicated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). One thousand one hundred and seventy four patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery between January 2002 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with grade C PVR treated with either combined PPV-SB or PPV alone were included in the study. Study outcomes included single surgery anatomic success rate and postoperative visual outcome at 12 months postoperatively. Seventy-seven patients with grade C PVR were identified for analysis. At the end of 12-month follow-up, 80.5 % eyes (33/41) in the PPV-SB group and 58.3 % eyes (21/36) in the PPV group achieved single surgery anatomical success. In a multiple logistic regression model, none of the baseline variables (age, gender, macula status, grade of PVR, extent of detachment, presence of vitreous hemorrhage, lens status, status of high myopia) nor types of retinal detachment surgery (use of scleral buckle, barrier endolaser, 360 degree endolaser, cryopexy, retinectomy, tamponade agent, phacoemulsification) had significant effect on single surgery anatomical success. The post-treatment mean logMAR visual acuity of the PPV-SB group was 1.58 ± 0.58 and the PPV group was 1.57 ± 0.61. There was no significant difference in the postoperative visual acuity between the two groups (P = 0.849). For patients with grade C PVR, PPV-SB did not demonstrate a superiority over PPV alone in achieving single surgery anatomical success. PMID:26260357

  13. Photogrammetric Processing Using ZY-3 Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornus, W.; Magariños, A.; Pla, M.; Soler, E.; Perez, F.

    2015-03-01

    This paper evaluates the stereoscopic capacities of the Chinese sensor ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3) for the generation of photogrammetric products. The satellite was launched on January 9, 2012 and carries three high-resolution panchromatic cameras viewing in forward (22º), nadir (0º) and backward direction (-22º) and an infrared multi-spectral scanner (IRMSS), which is slightly looking forward (6º). The ground sampling distance (GSD) is 2.1m for the nadir image, 3.5m for the two oblique stereo images and 5.8m for the multispectral image. The evaluated ZY-3 imagery consists of a full set of threefold-stereo and a multi-spectral image covering an area of ca. 50km x 50km north-west of Barcelona, Spain. The complete photogrammetric processing chain was executed including image orientation, the generation of a digital surface model (DSM), radiometric image correction, pansharpening, orthoimage generation and digital stereo plotting. All 4 images are oriented by estimating affine transformation parameters between observed and nominal RPC (rational polynomial coefficients) image positions of 17 ground control points (GCP) and a subsequent calculation of refined RPC. From 10 independent check points RMS errors of 2.2m, 2.0m and 2.7m in X, Y and H are obtained. Subsequently, a DSM of 5m grid spacing is generated fully automatically. A comparison with the Lidar data results in an overall DSM accuracy of approximately 3m. In moderate and flat terrain higher accuracies in the order of 2.5m and better are achieved. In a next step orthoimages from the high resolution nadir image and the multispectral image are generated using the refined RPC geometry and the DSM. After radiometric corrections a fused high resolution colour orthoimage with 2.1m pixel size is created using an adaptive HSL method. The pansharpen process is performed after the individual geocorrection due to the different viewing angles between the two images. In a detailed analysis of the colour orthoimage artifacts are

  14. Efficient target detection in cluttered FLIR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Jesmin F.; Alam, Mohammad S.

    2005-03-01

    from cluttered background. In addition, the clutter rejecters are capable of maintaining a low false alarm rate and excellent discrimination competence. The performance of the proposed techniques has been tested with real life FLIR imagery supplied by the Army Missile Command (AMCOM).

  15. Pattern classification and reconstruction for hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei

    In this dissertation, novel techniques for hyperspectral classification and signal reconstruction from random projections are presented. A classification paradigm designed to exploit the rich statistical structure of hyperspectral data is proposed. The proposed framework employs the local Fisher's discriminant analysis to reduce the dimensionality of the data while preserving its multimodal structure, followed by a subsequent Gaussian-mixture-model or support-vector-machine classifier. An extension of this framework in a kernel induced space is also studied. This classification approach employs a maximum likelihood classifier and dimensionality reduction based on a kernel local Fisher's discriminant analysis. The technique imposes an additional constraint on the kernel mapping---it ensures that neighboring points in the input space stay close-by in the projected subspace. In a typical remote sensing flow, the sender needs to invoke an appropriate compression strategy for downlinking signals (e.g., imagery to a base station). Signal acquisition using random projections significantly decreases the sender-side computational cost, while preserving useful information. In this dissertation, a novel class-dependent hyperspectral image reconstruction strategy is also proposed. The proposed method employs statistics pertinent to each class as opposed to the average statistics estimated over the entire dataset, resulting in a more accurate reconstruction from random projections. An integrated spectral-spatial model for signal reconstruction from random projections is also developed. In this approach, spatially homogeneous segments are combined with spectral pixel-wise classification results in the projected subspace. An appropriate reconstruction strategy, such as compressive projection principal component analysis (CPPCA), is employed individually in each category based on this integrated map. The proposed method provides better reconstruction performance as compared to

  16. Estimating stomatal conductance with thermal imagery.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, I; Grant, O M; Tagliavia, C P P; Chaves, M M; Jones, H G

    2006-08-01

    Most thermal methods for the study of drought responses in plant leaves are based on the calculation of 'stress indices'. This paper proposes and compares three main extensions of these for the direct estimation of absolute values of stomatal conductance to water vapour (gs) using infrared thermography (IRT). All methods use the measured leaf temperature and two environmental variables (air temperature and boundary layer resistance) as input. Additional variables required, depending on the method, are the temperatures of wet and dry reference surfaces, net radiation and relative humidity. The methods were compared using measured gs data from a vineyard in Southern Portugal. The errors in thermal estimates of conductance were of the same order as the measurement errors using a porometer. Observed variability was also compared with theoretical estimates of errors in estimated gs determined on the basis of the errors in the input variables (leaf temperature, boundary layer resistance, net radiation) and the partial derivatives of the energy balance equations used for the gs calculations. The full energy balance approach requires accurate estimates of net radiation absorbed, which may not be readily available in field conditions, so alternatives using reference surfaces are shown to have advantages. A new approach using a dry reference leaf is particularly robust and recommended for those studies where the specific advantages of thermal imagery, including its non-contact nature and its ability to sample large numbers of leaves, are most apparent. Although the results suggest that estimates of the absolute magnitude of gs are somewhat subjective, depending on the skill of the experimenter at selecting evenly exposed leaves, relative treatment differences in conductance are sensitively detected by different experimenters. PMID:16898014

  17. Radiometric Characteristics of Cassini RADAR Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiles, B. W.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G. A.; Johnson, W. T.; Shimada, J. G.; West, R. D.

    2004-12-01

    The Cassini RADAR instrument on-board the Cassini Orbiter is currently being employed to obtain SAR imagery of the surface of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. The viewing geometry of Cassini RADAR is different from most imaging radars because the Cassini Orbiter flies by Titan rather than entering into orbit about it. This unusual viewing geometry leads to variable noise characteristics throughout the SAR swath. Due to large changes in range to target and number of looks, noise characteristics and effective resolution vary widely throughout the swath. A good understanding of these parameters is important in order to draw scientific conclusions from the SAR images. Changes in noise bias could be misinterpreted as changes in reflectivity from the surface. Changes in resolution or noise variance could be misinterpreted as changes in the heterogeneity of the surface. The purpose of this paper is to quantify noise variance, bias, and effective radiometric resolution throughout the SAR swath in order to aid scientists in interpreting the data. Of the three parameters, the easiest to model is noise bias which increases with the range to the target. Noise variance is more complicated. The thermal noise (SNR) contribution to the overall variance increases with range, but the fading (speckle) noise contribution varies inversely with number of looks and thus with range. Effective resolution becomes coarser as range increases, but cross track and along track resolution vary differently. Along track resolution varies continuously, but cross track resolution has a discontinuity at 1600 km altitude, due to a change in commanded bandwidth. This paper presents the equations governing the noise characteristics and effective resolution as well as providing pseudo-color images of each quantity in SAR image coordinates for the October 2004 Cassini RADAR observation of Titan. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract with

  18. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  19. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  20. Enhancing voluntary imitation through attention and motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Bek, Judith; Poliakoff, Ellen; Marshall, Hannah; Trueman, Sophie; Gowen, Emma

    2016-07-01

    Action observation activates brain areas involved in performing the same action and has been shown to increase motor learning, with potential implications for neurorehabilitation. Recent work indicates that the effects of action observation on movement can be increased by motor imagery or by directing attention to observed actions. In voluntary imitation, activation of the motor system during action observation is already increased. We therefore explored whether imitation could be further enhanced by imagery or attention. Healthy participants observed and then immediately imitated videos of human hand movement sequences, while movement kinematics were recorded. Two blocks of trials were completed, and after the first block participants were instructed to imagine performing the observed movement (Imagery group, N = 18) or attend closely to the characteristics of the movement (Attention group, N = 15), or received no further instructions (Control group, N = 17). Kinematics of the imitated movements were modulated by instructions, with both Imagery and Attention groups being closer in duration, peak velocity and amplitude to the observed model compared with controls. These findings show that both attention and motor imagery can increase the accuracy of imitation and have implications for motor learning and rehabilitation. Future work is required to understand the mechanisms by which these two strategies influence imitation accuracy. PMID:26892882

  1. An Adaptive Ship Detection Scheme for Spaceborne SAR Imagery.

    PubMed

    Leng, Xiangguang; Ji, Kefeng; Zhou, Shilin; Xing, Xiangwei; Zou, Huanxin

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and the increasing need of ship detection, research on adaptive ship detection in spaceborne SAR imagery is of great importance. Focusing on practical problems of ship detection, this paper presents a highly adaptive ship detection scheme for spaceborne SAR imagery. It is able to process a wide range of sensors, imaging modes and resolutions. Two main stages are identified in this paper, namely: ship candidate detection and ship discrimination. Firstly, this paper proposes an adaptive land masking method using ship size and pixel size. Secondly, taking into account the imaging mode, incidence angle, and polarization channel of SAR imagery, it implements adaptive ship candidate detection in spaceborne SAR imagery by applying different strategies to different resolution SAR images. Finally, aiming at different types of typical false alarms, this paper proposes a comprehensive ship discrimination method in spaceborne SAR imagery based on confidence level and complexity analysis. Experimental results based on RADARSAT-1, RADARSAT-2, TerraSAR-X, RS-1, and RS-3 images demonstrate that the adaptive scheme proposed in this paper is able to detect ship targets in a fast, efficient and robust way. PMID:27563902

  2. Alcohol imagery on popularly viewed television in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to alcohol consumption and product imagery in films is associated with increased alcohol consumption among young people, but the extent to which exposure also occurs through television is not clear. We have measured the occurrence of alcohol imagery in prime-time broadcasting on UK free-to-air television channels. Methods Occurrence of alcohol imagery (actual use, implied use, brand appearances or other reference to alcohol) was measured in all broadcasting on the five most popular UK television stations between 6 and 10 p.m. during 3 weeks in 2010, by 1-min interval coding. Results Alcohol imagery occurred in over 40% of broadcasts, most commonly soap operas, feature films, sport and comedies, and was equally frequent before and after the 9 p.m. watershed. Brand appearances occurred in 21% of programmes, and over half of all sports programmes, a third of soap operas and comedies and a fifth of advertising/trailers. Three brands, Heineken, Budweiser and Carlsberg together accounted for ∼40% of all brand depictions. Conclusions Young people are exposed to frequent alcohol imagery, including branding, in UK prime-time television. It is likely that this exposure has an important effect on alcohol consumption in young people. PMID:23929886

  3. Exploration applications of satellite imagery in mature basins - A summation

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Z. )

    1991-08-01

    A series of examples supported by surface and subsurface controls illustrates procedures used to integrate satellite imagery interpretation into a conventional exploration program, and the potential contribution of such an approach to the recognition of new hydrocarbon plays in mature basins. Integrated analysis of satellite imagery data consists of four major steps. The first step focuses on the recognition of style, trend, and timing of deformation of exposed structures located at the basin interior or around its margins. This information is obtained through an integrated analysis of satellite imagery data, stereo aerial photography, surface geological mapping, and field observations. The second step consists of integrating the satellite imagery with gravity and magnetic data to recognize obscured and/or buried structures. The third step involves the analysis of available seismic data which is specifically processes to enhance subtle basement topography in order to determine influences on reservoir quality. In the fourth step, subsurface structure, isopach, show, and pool maps derived from available well information are integrated into the structural interpretation. These four analytical steps are demonstrated with examples form the Powder River basin, Western Canada basin, Paris basin, and Central basin platform of west Texas. In all of these highly mature basins, it is easy to demonstrate that (1) hydrocarbon migration and accumulation was largely controlled by subtle basement structures, and (2) these structures can be detected through the integrated analysis of satellite imagery.

  4. Harnessing Satellite Imageries in Feature Extraction Using Google Earth Pro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Sim Joseph; Milano, Alan

    2016-07-01

    Climate change has been a long-time concern worldwide. Impending flooding, for one, is among its unwanted consequences. The Phil-LiDAR 1 project of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), Republic of the Philippines, has developed an early warning system in regards to flood hazards. The project utilizes the use of remote sensing technologies in determining the lives in probable dire danger by mapping and attributing building features using LiDAR dataset and satellite imageries. A free mapping software named Google Earth Pro (GEP) is used to load these satellite imageries as base maps. Geotagging of building features has been done so far with the use of handheld Global Positioning System (GPS). Alternatively, mapping and attribution of building features using GEP saves a substantial amount of resources such as manpower, time and budget. Accuracy-wise, geotagging by GEP is dependent on either the satellite imageries or orthophotograph images of half-meter resolution obtained during LiDAR acquisition and not on the GPS of three-meter accuracy. The attributed building features are overlain to the flood hazard map of Phil-LiDAR 1 in order to determine the exposed population. The building features as obtained from satellite imageries may not only be used in flood exposure assessment but may also be used in assessing other hazards and a number of other uses. Several other features may also be extracted from the satellite imageries.

  5. Detection of people in military and security context imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, Thomas M. L.; Spier, Emmet H.; Wiltshire, Ben

    2014-10-01

    A high level of manual visual surveillance of complex scenes is dependent solely on the awareness of human operators whereas an autonomous person detection solution could assist by drawing their attention to potential issues, in order to reduce cognitive burden and achieve more with less manpower. Our research addressed the challenge of the reliable identification of persons in a scene who may be partially obscured by structures or by handling weapons or tools. We tested the efficacy of a recently published computer vision approach based on the construction of cascaded, non-linear classifiers from part-based deformable models by assessing performance using imagery containing infantrymen in the open or when obscured, undertaking low level tactics or acting as civilians using tools. Results were compared with those obtained from published upright pedestrian imagery. The person detector yielded a precision of approximately 65% for a recall rate of 85% for military context imagery as opposed to a precision of 85% for the upright pedestrian image cases. These results compared favorably with those reported by the authors when applied to a range of other on-line imagery databases. Our conclusion is that the deformable part-based model method may be a potentially useful people detection tool in the challenging environment of military and security context imagery.

  6. Portable Imagery Quality Assessment Test Field for Uav Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dąbrowski, R.; Jenerowicz, A.

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays the imagery data acquired from UAV sensors are the main source of all data used in various remote sensing applications, photogrammetry projects and in imagery intelligence (IMINT) as well as in other tasks as decision support. Therefore quality assessment of such imagery is an important task. The research team from Military University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy, Geodesy Institute, Department of Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry has designed and prepared special test field- The Portable Imagery Quality Assessment Test Field (PIQuAT) that provides quality assessment in field conditions of images obtained with sensors mounted on UAVs. The PIQuAT consists of 6 individual segments, when combined allow for determine radiometric, spectral and spatial resolution of images acquired from UAVs. All segments of the PIQuAT can be used together in various configurations or independently. All elements of The Portable Imagery Quality Assessment Test Field were tested in laboratory conditions in terms of their radiometry and spectral reflectance characteristics.

  7. Mapping Crop Yield and Sow Date Using High Resolution Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royal, K.

    2015-12-01

    Keitasha Royal, Meha Jain, Ph.D., David Lobell, Ph.D Mapping Crop Yield and Sow Date Using High Resolution ImageryThe use of satellite imagery in agriculture is becoming increasingly more significant and valuable. Due to the emergence of new satellites, such as Skybox, these satellites provide higher resolution imagery (e.g 1m) therefore improving the ability to map smallholder agriculture. For the smallholder farm dominated area of northern India, Skybox high-resolution satellite imagery can aid in understanding how to improve farm yields. In particular, we are interested in mapping winter wheat in India, as this region produces approximately 80% of the country's wheat crop, which is important given that wheat is a staple crop that provides approximately 20% of household calories. In northeast India, the combination of increased heat stress, limited irrigation access, and the difficulty for farmers to access advanced farming technologies results in farmers only producing about 50% of their potential crop yield. The use of satellite imagery can aid in understanding wheat yields through time and help identify ways to increase crop yields in the wheat belt of India. To translate Skybox satellite data into meaningful information about wheat fields, we examine vegetation indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), to measure the "greenness" of plants to help determine the health of the crops. We test our ability to predict crop characteristics, like sow date and yield, using vegetation indices of 59 fields for which we have field data in Bihar, India.

  8. A cognitive-psychological perspective on Gillespie's "Lights and lattices": some relations among perception, imagery, and thought.

    PubMed

    Hunt, H

    1989-04-01

    George Gillespie's valuable observations on light and lattice imageries are played in the context of current research and theory on cognitive imagery (Kosslyn, Pylyshyn), ordinary and lucid dreaming, representational geometric imagery in scientific thought, the author's previous writings on altered states of consciousness, and Gibson's views on perception and imagery. Gillespie's reports show categories of imagery deconstruction and abstraction that link these areas and suggest an integrative model of the varieties of symbolic imagery. PMID:2654881

  9. PAR-1 phosphorylates Mind bomb to promote vertebrate neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ossipova, Olga; Ezan, Jerome; Sokol, Sergei Y.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Generation of neurons in the vertebrate central nervous system requires complex transcriptional regulatory network and signaling processes in polarized neuroepithelial progenitor cells. Here we demonstrate that neurogenesis in the Xenopus neural plate in vivo and mammalian neural progenitors in vitro involves intrinsic antagonistic activities of the polarity proteins PAR-1 and aPKC. Furthermore, we show that Mind bomb (Mib), a ubiquitin ligase that promotes Notch ligand trafficking and activity, is a crucial molecular substrate for PAR-1. The phosphorylation of Mib by PAR-1 results in Mib degradation, repression of Notch signaling and stimulation of neuronal differentiation. These observations suggest a conserved mechanism for neuronal fate determination that might operate during asymmetric divisions of polarized neural progenitor cells. PMID:19686683

  10. Atmospheric correction of Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Mueller, J. L.; Wrigley, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) on Nimbus-7 is a scanning radiometer designed to view the ocean in six spectral bands (centered at 443, 520, 550, 670, 750, and 11,500 nm) for the purpose of estimating sea surface chlorophyll and temperature distributions. In the visible bands, the atmosphere obscures the imagery to the extent that at 443 nm, at most, only 20 percent of the observed radiance originates from beneath the sea surface. Retrieving this subsurface radiance from the imagery is complicated by the highly variable nature of the aerosol's contribution. In this paper, an algorithm for the removal of these atmospheric effects from CZCS imagery is described, a preliminary application of the algorithm to an image with very strong horizontal variations in the aerosol optical thickness is presented, and retrieval of the spatial distribution of the aerosol optical thickness is discussed.

  11. Enhanced facial recognition for thermal imagery using polarimetric imaging.

    PubMed

    Gurton, Kristan P; Yuffa, Alex J; Videen, Gorden W

    2014-07-01

    We present a series of long-wave-infrared (LWIR) polarimetric-based thermal images of facial profiles in which polarization-state information of the image-forming radiance is retained and displayed. The resultant polarimetric images show enhanced facial features, additional texture, and details that are not present in corresponding conventional thermal imagery. It has been generally thought that conventional thermal imagery (MidIR or LWIR) could not produce the detailed spatial information required for reliable human identification due to the so-called "ghosting" effect often seen in thermal imagery of human subjects. By using polarimetric information, we are able to extract subtle surface features of the human face, thus improving subject identification. Polarimetric image sets considered include the conventional thermal intensity image, S0, the two Stokes images, S1 and S2, and a Stokes image product called the degree-of-linear-polarization image. PMID:24978755

  12. A qualitative evaluation of Landsat imagery of Australian rangelands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graetz, R.D.; Carneggie, David M.; Hacker, R.; Lendon, C.; Wilcox, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The capability of multidate, multispectral ERTS-1 imagery of three different rangeland areas within Australia was evaluated for its usefulness in preparing inventories of rangeland types, assessing on a broad scale range condition within these rangeland types, and assessing the response of rangelands to rainfall events over large areas. For the three divergent rangeland test areas, centered on Broken W, Alice Springs and Kalgoorlie, detailed interpretation of the imagery only partially satisfied the information requirements set. It was most useful in the Broken Hill area where fenceline contrasts in range condition were readily visible. At this and the other sites an overstorey of trees made interpretation difficult. Whilst the low resolution characteristics and the lack of stereoscopic coverage hindered interpretation it was felt that this type of imagery with its vast coverage, present low cost and potential for repeated sampling is a useful addition to conventional aerial photography for all rangeland types.

  13. Automatic Extraction of Building Outline from High Resolution Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yandong

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a new approach for automated extraction of building boundary from high resolution imagery is proposed. The proposed approach uses both geometric and spectral properties of a building to detect and locate buildings accurately. It consists of automatic generation of high quality point cloud from the imagery, building detection from point cloud, classification of building roof and generation of building outline. Point cloud is generated from the imagery automatically using semi-global image matching technology. Buildings are detected from the differential surface generated from the point cloud. Further classification of building roof is performed in order to generate accurate building outline. Finally classified building roof is converted into vector format. Numerous tests have been done on images in different locations and results are presented in the paper.

  14. Towards the objective analysis of clouds from satellite imagery data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coakley, J. A., Jr.; Baldwin, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    It is suspected that clouds play a major role in climate dynamics. However, conclusive studies regarding the effects related to the cloud cover appear difficult because there is a lack of objective data. The present investigation is concerned with an objective scheme for deriving clouds and their properties from satellite imagery data for the oceans. The objective analysis makes use of the spatial coherence method for retrieving cloud cover from satellite imagery data. This method has advantages over other techniques often applied to imagery data. It is not necessary that clouds fill completely the observing instrument's field-of-view, and a priori or satellite derived knowledge of the cloud radiative properties is not needed.

  15. Interactive analysis of thermal imagery. [computer graphics terminal for photointerpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madding, R. P.; Fisher, L. T.

    1976-01-01

    Necessary knowledge is presented on data acquisition and preparation for analysis of thermal imagery of power plant heated discharges remotely sensed from an aircraft, with special emphasis on analog to digital conversion of analog tapes acquired during scanning and to geometrical scaling. The central element in the interactive analysis of thermal imagery is an interactive graphics computer terminal which allows an interpreter to effectively interact with a large-scale computer, providing decisions or data as computations are carried out. A temperature calibration is performed, which the interpreter may test anywhere on the image. When satisfied that calibration is correct, the portion of the image to be analyzed is outlined. Printed and microfiche analyses of the plume are produced. The flow chart of programs for analysis of thermal imagery is presented and discussed in some detail.

  16. Texture mapping based on multiple aerial imageries in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Ye, Siqi; Wang, Yuefeng; Han, Caiyun; Wang, Chenxi

    2015-12-01

    In the realistic 3D model reconstruction, the requirement of the texture is very high. Texture is one of the key factors that affecting realistic of the model and using texture mapping technology to realize. In this paper we present a practical approach of texture mapping based on photogrammetry theory from multiple aerial imageries in urban areas. By collinearity equation to matching the model and imageries, and in order to improving the quality of texture, we describe an automatic approach for select the optimal texture to realized 3D building from the aerial imageries of many strip. The texture of buildings can be automatically matching by the algorithm. The experimental results show that the platform of texture mapping process has a high degree of automation and improve the efficiency of the 3D modeling reconstruction.

  17. Imagery versus verbal interpretive cognitive bias modification for compulsive checking.

    PubMed

    Black, Melissa J; Grisham, Jessica R

    2016-08-01

    Pathological doubting and checking is a common symptom presentation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Previous research has established that compulsive checkers do not display an actual memory deficit, but lack confidence in their memories and experience intolerance of uncertainty regarding the completion of tasks. We investigated whether interpretive cognitive bias modification (CBM-I) reduced memory distrust and intolerance of uncertainty in a nonclinical sample. We also examined the possible enhancement of CBM-I for OCD through imagery training. The results provide evidence that participants who received positive imagery CBM-I training may have interpreted novel ambiguous checking scenarios more adaptively and endorsed negative checking beliefs less relative to participants in the control imagery CBM-I condition. Findings on behavioural checking tasks did not indicate any specific response to CBM-I training. Future research may translate these suggestive findings into a useful adjunct to traditional strategies targeting maladaptive OCD beliefs. PMID:27300752

  18. Phenomenology of passive multi-band submillimeter-wave imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enestam, Sissi; Kajatkari, Perttu; Kivimäki, Olli; Leivo, Mikko M.; Rautiainen, Anssi; Tamminen, Aleksi A.; Luukanen, Arttu R.

    2016-05-01

    In 2015, Asqella Oy commercialized a passive multi-band submillimeter-wave camera system intended for use in walk-by personnel security screening applications. In this paper we study the imagery acquired with the prototype of the ARGON passive multi-band submm-wave video camera. To challenge the system and test its limits, imagery has been obtained in various environments with varying background surface temperatures, with people of different body types, with different clothing materials and numbers of layers of clothing and with objects of different materials. In addition to the phenomenological study, we discuss the detection statistics of the system, evaluated by running blind trials with human operators. While significant improvements have been made particularly in the software side since the beginning of the testing, the obtained imagery enables a comprehensive evaluation of the capabilities and challenges of the multiband submillimeter-wave imaging system.

  19. Genetic programming approach to extracting features from remotely sensed imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Theiler, J. P.; Perkins, S. J.; Harvey, N. R.; Szymanski, J. J.; Brumby, Steven P.

    2001-01-01

    Multi-instrument data sets present an interesting challenge to feature extraction algorithm developers. Beyond the immediate problems of spatial co-registration, the remote sensing scientist must explore a complex algorithm space in which both spatial and spectral signatures may be required to identify a feature of interest. We describe a genetic programming/supervised classifier software system, called Genie, which evolves and combines spatio-spectral image processing tools for remotely sensed imagery. We describe our representation of candidate image processing pipelines, and discuss our set of primitive image operators. Our primary application has been in the field of geospatial feature extraction, including wildfire scars and general land-cover classes, using publicly available multi-spectral imagery (MSI) and hyper-spectral imagery (HSI). Here, we demonstrate our system on Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) MSI. We exhibit an evolved pipeline, and discuss its operation and performance.

  20. Model for optimal parallax in stereo radar imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisaruck, M. A.; Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    Simulated stereo radar imagery is used to investigate parameters for a spaceborne imaging radar. Incidence angles ranging from small to intermediate to large are used with three digital terrain model areas which are representative of relatively flat, moderately rough, and mountaneous terrain. The simulated radar imagery was evaluated by interpreters for ease of stereo perception and information content, and rank ordered within each class of terrain. The interpreter's results are analyzed for trends between the height of a feature and either parallax or vertical exaggeration for a stereo pair. A model is developed which predicts the amount of parallax (or vertical exaggeration) an interpreter would desire for best stereo perception of a feature of a specific height. Results indicate the selection of angle of incidence and stereo intersection angle depend upon the relief of the terrain. Examples of the simulated stereo imagery are presented for a candidate spaceborne imaging radar having four selectable angles of incidence.

  1. Evaluation of Skylab earth laser beacon imagery. [spaceborne photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piech, K. R.; Schott, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    During the Skylab 3 and 4 missions the Skylab spacecraft was illuminated by a low power argon ion and dye laser. The earth laser beacon was studied visually by the astronauts. In addition, they collected 35 mm hand-held color photographs of the beacons. Photographs are shown that were obtained on Skylab 3 and Skylab 4. The imagery collected during the Skylab mission was analyzed to evaluate the utility of beacon lasers as terrestial 'artificial stars' for space navigation. The analyses of the imagery revealed two unusual features of the earth laser beacon: (1) The beacon, even though of a low power (approximately 1 watt), is considerably brighter than any other terrain feature and is readily visible on imagery at a distance in excess of 1500 km (900 miles). (2) Another feature of the beacon is its large size. The typical beacon extends over about 5 resolution areas with a characteristic dimension of about 200 m.

  2. Springtime size-fractionated primary production across hydrographic and PAR-light gradients in Chilean Patagonia (41-50°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Bárbara G.; Tapia, Fabián J.; Daneri, Giovanni; Iriarte, Jose L.; Montero, Paulina; Sobarzo, Marcus; Quiñones, Renato A.

    2014-12-01

    We combined on-deck and in situ measurements and satellite-derived data to study the spatial variability of springtime size-fractionated primary production and chlorophyll-a biomass along gradients of hydrographic conditions and surface PAR in central and northern Chilean Patagonia (41-50°S). This extensive and fragmented region encompasses numerous fjords and channels, as well as the northern and southern icefields (46-47°S, 48-52°S). Primary production displayed a latitudinal pattern decreasing southwards (6-fold lower), particularly toward areas influenced by rivers with a nival regime. Micro-phytoplankton (>20 μm) dominated the primary production (57-93%) and chlorophyll-a (43-91%) of northern sites, where warmer and more saline surface waters exhibit greater PAR irradiance. Small phytoplankton cells (<2 μm; 2-20 μm) contributed > 50% of carbon fixation and chlorophyll-a in the southernmost sites, especially those located near glaciers and major rivers, where surface temperature, salinity, and PAR irradiance were lowest. The long-term (2002-2012) average field of springtime PAR derived from satellite imagery showed a southward increase in longitudinal gradients, which indicates that spatial changes in surface light attenuation along this region are largely driven by glacier-derived freshwater inputs. A principal component analysis of surface temperature, salinity, and PAR produced an ordination of sites that was consistent with spatial changes in the balance of oceanic versus riverine influence on surface conditions along this region. Total primary production was significantly correlated (r = 0.61, p = 0.007) with the first principal component, which explained 65% of joint variability in hydrographic conditions and PAR. The same principal component clearly separated sites in northern Patagonia where micro-phytoplankton dominated total primary production - along the Reloncavi fjord and Inner Sea of Chiloe - from those located further south where other size

  3. Bacterial actin: architecture of the ParMRC plasmid DNA partitioning complex.

    PubMed

    Salje, Jeanne; Löwe, Jan

    2008-08-20

    The R1 plasmid employs ATP-driven polymerisation of the actin-like protein ParM to move newly replicated DNA to opposite poles of a bacterial cell. This process is essential for ensuring accurate segregation of the low-copy number plasmid and is the best characterised example of DNA partitioning in prokaryotes. In vivo, ParM only forms long filaments when capped at both ends by attachment to a centromere-like region parC, through a small DNA-binding protein ParR. Here, we present biochemical and electron microscopy data leading to a model for the mechanism by which ParR-parC complexes bind and stabilise elongating ParM filaments. We propose that the open ring formed by oligomeric ParR dimers with parC DNA wrapped around acts as a rigid clamp, which holds the end of elongating ParM filaments while allowing entry of new ATP-bound monomers. We propose a processive mechanism by which cycles of ATP hydrolysis in polymerising ParM drives movement of ParR-bound parC DNA. Importantly, our model predicts that each pair of plasmids will be driven apart in the cell by just a single double helical ParM filament. PMID:18650930

  4. Sex hormones predict the sensory strength and vividness of mental imagery.

    PubMed

    Wassell, Jacinta; Rogers, Sebastian L; Felmingam, Kim L; Bryant, Richard A; Pearson, Joel

    2015-04-01

    Mystery surrounds the cause of large individual differences in mental imagery vividness and strength, and how these might map onto mental disorders. Here, we report the concentration of sex hormones predicts the strength and vividness of visual mental imagery. We employed an objective measure of imagery utilizing binocular rivalry and a subjective questionnaire to assess imagery. The strength and vividness of imagery was greater for females in the mid luteal phase than both females in the late follicular phase and males. Further, imagery strength and vividness were significantly correlated with salivary progesterone concentration. For the same participants, performance on visual and verbal working memory tasks was not predicted by progesterone concentration. These results suggest sex hormones might influence visual imagery, but not general working memory. As hormone concentration changes over time, this implies a partial dynamic basis for individual differences in visual mental imagery, any dependent cognition and mental disorders. PMID:25703930

  5. MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-17

    article title:  MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia     ... October 24, 2013 - MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia project:  MISR ...

  6. Generating high temporal and spatial resolution thermal band imagery using robust sharpening approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal infrared band imagery provides key information for detecting wild fires, mapping land surface energy fluxes and evapotranspiration, monitoring urban heat fluxes and drought monitoring. Thermal infrared (TIR) imagery at fine resolution is required for field scale applications. However, therma...

  7. Effects of risk-focused and recommendation-focused mental imagery on occupational risk communication.

    PubMed

    Welbourne, Jennifer L; Hartley, Tara A; Ott, Sybil D; Robertson, Sherrilyn

    2008-09-01

    This study examined the impact of mental imagery instructions in a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) safety document conveying risk and safety information to farmers. A sample of 314 farmers recruited from a large Southeastern state fair was randomly assigned to conditions in a 2 x 2 design. Participants received a NIOSH safety document about skid steer loader safety in which 2 types of mental imagery instructions were manipulated: (a) risk-focused (imagery vs. control) and (b) recommendation-focused (imagery vs. control). Results indicate that risk-focused imagery influenced perceptions of susceptibility to workplace accidents, whereas recommendation-focused imagery influenced attitudes toward engaging in safety behaviors, intentions to share safety information with others, and perceptions of the safety message. Further analyses indicated that ease of imagery partially mediated the relationship between the imagery manipulations and these outcomes. Other potential mechanisms for these effects are discussed. PMID:18850394

  8. NASA's Open Source Software for Serving and Viewing Global Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J. T.; Alarcon, C.; Boller, R. A.; Cechini, M. F.; Gunnoe, T.; Hall, J. R.; Huang, T.; Ilavajhala, S.; King, J.; McGann, M.; Murphy, K. J.; Plesea, L.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Thompson, C. K.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS), which provide open access to an enormous archive of historical and near real time imagery from NASA supported satellite instruments, has also released most of its software to the general public as open source. The software packages, originally developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Goddard Space Flight Center, currently include: 1) the Meta Raster Format (MRF) GDAL driver—GDAL support for a specialized file format used by GIBS to store imagery within a georeferenced tile pyramid for exceptionally fast access; 2) OnEarth—a high performance Apache module used to serve tiles from MRF files via common web service protocols; 3) Worldview—a web mapping client to interactively browse global, full-resolution satellite imagery and download underlying data. Examples that show developers how to use GIBS with various mapping libraries and programs are also available. This stack of tools is intended to provide an out-of-the-box solution for serving any georeferenced imagery.Scientists as well as the general public can use the open source software for their own applications such as developing visualization interfaces for improved scientific understanding and decision support, hosting a repository of browse images to help find and discover satellite data, or accessing large datasets of geo-located imagery in an efficient manner. Open source users may also contribute back to NASA and the wider Earth Science community by taking an active role in evaluating and developing the software.This presentation will discuss the experiences of developing the software in an open source environment and useful lessons learned. To access the open source software repositories, please visit: https://github.com/nasa-gibs/

  9. Photogrammetric Measurements in Fixed Wing Uav Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülch, E.

    2012-07-01

    projects, independent on the application. The effort is estimated to be even higher as expected, as also self-calibration will be an issue to handle a possibly instable camera calibration. To overcome some of the encountered problems with the very specific features of UAV flights a software UAVision was developed based on Open Source libraries to produce input data for bundle adjustment of UAV images by PAMS. The empirical test results show a considerable improvement in the matching of tie points. The results do, however, show that the Open Source bundle adjustment was not applicable to this type of imagery. This still leaves the possibility to use the improved tie point correspondences in the commercial AT package.

  10. Hydraulic parameter identification using satellite earth imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, H.; Raclot, D.; Dartus, D.; Puech, C.

    2003-04-01

    Despite of the progresses recently realized in the implementation of open-channel flow models, the determination of the parameters involved in the simulation process is still uncertain. In alternative to traditional measurements in the field, the use of high resolution satellite earth imagery (visible satellite, infrared, radar) is considered to ascertain, implementing optimization methods, the value of a set of hydraulic parameters allowing to characterize the flow with a precision sufficient to make flood studies. These satellite images generally give a top sight of the flow or of the flooded area. The scope of data assimilation is to make the best possible estimate of the state of a physical system, given data and a model describing the phenomenon. This study focuses only on sequential methods, that is to say methods that correct the model state at the moment of the observations. Data assimilation techniques can be divided into two classes according to the processes of resolution employed. Variational methods minimize a cost function that is the sum of a distance to the observations and a distance to an a priori estimate (often a prevision) of the model state. Statistical methods or filters explicitly solve the assimilation problem by calculating the linear optimal combination between guess and observations that minimizes the estimate error variance. The most known filter, the Best Linear Unbiased Estimator or B.L.U.E., has been proposed by Kalman in 1960. Both approaches have been tested on a simple case. Parameter identification procedure has been implemented for a mono-dimensional steady flow in compound channel with a trapezoidal main channel and near horizontal overbanks. The observations or gauged data, that could be made by a satellite, are created by adding a gaussian noise, inherent to the interpretation of satellite images, to flow top width. Flow top width is obtained by a 1D hydraulic simulation of Saint-Venant equations realized on a known river

  11. Aspects of dem Generation from Uas Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiwe, A.; Gehrke, R.; Spreckels, V.; Schlienkamp, A.

    2013-08-01

    Since a few years, micro UAS (unmanned aerial systems) with vertical take off and landing capabilities like quadro- or octocopter are used as sensor platform for Aerophotogrammetry. Since the restricted payload of micro UAS with a total weight up of 5 kg (payload only up to 1.5 kg), these systems are often equipped with small format cameras. These cameras can be classified as amateur cameras and it is often the case, that these systems do not meet the requirements of a geometric stable camera for photogrammetric measurement purposes. However, once equipped with a suitable camera system, an UAS is an interesting alternative to expensive manned flights for small areas. The operating flight height of the above described UAS is about 50 up to 150 meters above ground level. This low flight height lead on the one hand to a very high spatial resolution of the aerial imagery. Depending on the cameras focal length and the sensor's pixel size, the ground sampling distance (GSD) is usually about 1 up to 5 cm. This high resolution is useful especially for the automatic generation of homologous tie-points, which are a precondition for the image alignment (bundle block adjustment). On the other hand, the image scale depends on the object's height and the UAV operating height. Objects like mine heaps or construction sites show high variations of the object's height. As a result, operating the UAS with a constant flying height will lead to high variations in the image scale. For some processing approaches this will lead to problems e.g. the automatic tie-point generation in stereo image pairs. As precondition to all DEM generating approaches, first of all a geometric stable camera, sharp images are essentially. Well known calibration parameters are necessary for the bundle adjustment, to control the exterior orientations. It can be shown, that a simultaneous on site camera calibration may lead to misaligned aerial images. Also, the success rate of an automatic tie-point generation

  12. Feature Detection Systems Enhance Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    In 1963, during the ninth orbit of the Faith 7 capsule, astronaut Gordon Cooper skipped his nap and took some photos of the Earth below using a Hasselblad camera. The sole flier on the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, Cooper took 24 photos - never-before-seen images including the Tibetan plateau, the crinkled heights of the Himalayas, and the jagged coast of Burma. From his lofty perch over 100 miles above the Earth, Cooper noted villages, roads, rivers, and even, on occasion, individual houses. In 1965, encouraged by the effectiveness of NASA s orbital photography experiments during the Mercury and subsequent Gemini manned space flight missions, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) director William Pecora put forward a plan for a remote sensing satellite program that would collect information about the planet never before attainable. By 1972, NASA had built and launched Landsat 1, the first in a series of Landsat sensors that have combined to provide the longest continuous collection of space-based Earth imagery. The archived Landsat data - 37 years worth and counting - has provided a vast library of information allowing not only the extensive mapping of Earth s surface but also the study of its environmental changes, from receding glaciers and tropical deforestation to urban growth and crop harvests. Developed and launched by NASA with data collection operated at various times by the Agency, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Earth Observation Satellite Company (EOSAT, a private sector partnership that became Space Imaging Corporation in 1996), and USGS, Landsat sensors have recorded flooding from Hurricane Katrina, the building boom in Dubai, and the extinction of the Aral Sea, offering scientists invaluable insights into the natural and manmade changes that shape the world. Of the seven Landsat sensors launched since 1972, Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 are still operational. Though both are in use well beyond their intended lifespans, the mid

  13. Automatic Landmark Identification in Mars Orbital Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstaff, K. L.; Panetta, J.; Greeley, R.; Schorghofer, N.; Bunte, M.; Hoffer, M. P.; Ansar, A.

    2008-12-01

    We have developed new methods for automatically identifying landmarks such as craters, gullies, dark slope streaks, and dust devil tracks in remote sensing imagery. These methods are based on statistical measures of local terrain salience. The salience of a region is defined as the degree to which it differs from its surrounding context. We use pixel intensity histograms to represent each candidate region, and we compute salience in one of two ways. The first method calculates the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the region's histogram and a larger enclosing region. The second method calculates the entropy of the region's histogram independently. The KL-divergence approach is useful for detecting unusual landmarks, while the entropy approach detects high-contrast features such as ridges and crater edges. We have automatically identified landmarks in several Mars surface images collected from orbit (MOC and THEMIS data) and evaluated them against manual annotations of dark slope streaks and dust devil tracks. We have also trained a landmark machine classifier that can assign new landmarks to one of several categories. In an evaluation on dark slope streaks, dust devil tracks, and craters, the classifier achieved an accuracy of 93%. Further, because detections are made based on a generic notion of salience, they are not restricted to known landmark types. It is possible to identify landmarks that do not fit into any existing category as novel features, enabling scientific advances that otherwise rely on serendipity to bring them to light. Automated landmark identification can be useful both onboard a remote spacecraft and in ground-based processing on the Earth. In an onboard setting, salient landmarks can be detected and catalogued as they are observed, providing a highly compressed summary of the region under study (e.g., "five craters, two gullies, and 37 sand dunes" along with their locations). On the ground, gigabyte archives of past images can be analyzed

  14. Using Hyperspectral Imagery to Identify Turfgrass Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutto, Kendall; Shaw, David

    2008-01-01

    The use of a form of remote sensing to aid in the management of large turfgrass fields (e.g. golf courses) has been proposed. A turfgrass field of interest would be surveyed in sunlight by use of an airborne hyperspectral imaging system, then the raw observational data would be preprocessed into hyperspectral reflectance image data. These data would be further processed to identify turfgrass stresses, to determine the spatial distributions of those stresses, and to generate maps showing the spatial distributions. Until now, chemicals and water have often been applied, variously, (1) indiscriminately to an entire turfgrass field without regard to localization of specific stresses or (2) to visible and possibly localized signs of stress for example, browning, damage from traffic, or conspicuous growth of weeds. Indiscriminate application is uneconomical and environmentally unsound; the amounts of water and chemicals consumed could be insufficient in some areas and excessive in most areas, and excess chemicals can leak into the environment. In cases in which developing stresses do not show visible signs at first, it could be more economical and effective to take corrective action before visible signs appear. By enabling early identification of specific stresses and their locations, the proposed method would provide guidance for planning more effective, more economical, and more environmentally sound turfgrass-management practices, including application of chemicals and water, aeration, and mowing. The underlying concept of using hyperspectral imagery to generate stress maps as guides to efficient management of vegetation in large fields is not new; it has been applied in the growth of crops to be harvested. What is new here is the effort to develop an algorithm that processes hyperspectral reflectance data into spectral indices specific to stresses in turfgrass. The development effort has included a study in which small turfgrass plots that were, variously, healthy or

  15. Using GIS databases for simulated nightlight imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollweg, Joshua D.; Gartley, Michael; Roskovensky, John; Mercier, Jeffery

    2012-06-01

    Proposed is a new technique for simulating nighttime scenes with realistically-modelled urban radiance. While nightlight imagery is commonly used to measure urban sprawl,1 it is uncommon to use urbanization as metric to develop synthetic nighttime scenes. In the developed methodology, the open-source Open Street Map (OSM) Geographic Information System (GIS) database is used. The database is comprised of many nodes, which are used to dene the position of dierent types of streets, buildings, and other features. These nodes are the driver used to model urban nightlights, given several assumptions. The rst assumption is that the spatial distribution of nodes is closely related to the spatial distribution of nightlights. Work by Roychowdhury et al has demonstrated the relationship between urban lights and development. 2 So, the real assumption being made is that the density of nodes corresponds to development, which is reasonable. Secondly, the local density of nodes must relate directly to the upwelled radiance within the given locality. Testing these assumptions using Albuquerque and Indianapolis as example cities revealed that dierent types of nodes produce more realistic results than others. Residential street nodes oered the best performance for any single node type, among the types tested in this investigation. Other node types, however, still provide useful supplementary data. Using streets and buildings dened in the OSM database allowed automated generation of simulated nighttime scenes of Albuquerque and Indianapolis in the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model. The simulation was compared to real data from the recently deployed National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System(NPOESS) Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) platform. As a result of the comparison, correction functions were used to correct for discrepancies between simulated and observed radiance. Future work will include investigating more

  16. Auditory pitch imagery and its relationship to musical synchronization.

    PubMed

    Pecenka, Nadine; Keller, Peter E

    2009-07-01

    Musical ensemble performance requires precise coordination of action. To play in synchrony, ensemble musicians presumably anticipate the sounds that will be produced by their co-performers. These predictions may be based on auditory images in working memory. This study examined the contribution of auditory imagery abilities to sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) in 20 musicians. The acuity of single-tone pitch images was measured by an adjustment method and by adaptive threshold estimation. Different types of finger tapping tasks were administered to assess SMS. Auditory imagery and SMS abilities were found to be positively correlated with one another and with musical experience. PMID:19673794

  17. Subband prescreening of foliage-penetrating SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Timothy R.; Potter, Lee C.

    1998-09-01

    In this paper we present the results of an empirical study investigating subband prescreener detection. The prescreener is used with ultra-wideband foliage penetrating synthetic aperture radar imagery. Our results demonstrate that, for the selected set of computationally simple features, lower resolution imagery can be used at the early detection stages. We also present initial multiband detection results. These results indicate that a combination of lower resolution subbands can be used in a fast prescreening algorithm without appreciable performance loss when compared to the fullband detector.

  18. Development of RGB Composite Imagery for Operational Weather Forecasting Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Oswald, Hayden, K; Knaff, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center, in collaboration with the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA), is providing red-green-blue (RGB) color composite imagery to several of NOAA s National Centers and National Weather Service forecast offices as a demonstration of future capabilities of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) to be implemented aboard GOES-R. Forecasters rely upon geostationary satellite imagery to monitor conditions over their regions of responsibility. Since the ABI will provide nearly three times as many channels as the current GOES imager, the volume of data available for analysis will increase. RGB composite imagery can aid in the compression of large data volumes by combining information from multiple channels or paired channel differences into single products that communicate more information than provided by a single channel image. A standard suite of RGB imagery has been developed by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), based upon the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI). The SEVIRI instrument currently provides visible and infrared wavelengths comparable to the future GOES-R ABI. In addition, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites can be used to demonstrate future capabilities of GOES-R. This presentation will demonstrate an overview of the products currently disseminated to SPoRT partners within the GOES-R Proving Ground, and other National Weather Service forecast offices, along with examples of their application. For example, CIRA has used the channels of the current GOES sounder to produce an "air mass" RGB originally designed for SEVIRI. This provides hourly imagery over CONUS for looping applications while demonstrating capabilities similar to the future ABI instrument. SPoRT has developed similar "air mass" RGB imagery from MODIS, and through

  19. Acquisition and registration of aerial video imagery of urban traffic

    SciTech Connect

    Loveland, Rohan C

    2008-01-01

    The amount of information available about urban traffic from aerial video imagery is extremely high. Here we discuss the collection of such video imagery from a helicopter platform with a low-cost sensor, and the post-processing used to correct radial distortion in the data and register it. The radial distortion correction is accomplished using a Harris model. The registration is implemented in a two-step process, using a globally applied polyprojective correction model followed by a fine scale local displacement field adjustment. The resulting cleaned-up data is sufficiently well-registered to allow subsequent straight-forward vehicle tracking.

  20. Facilitating the exploitation of ERTS imagery using snow enhancement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Martin, K. R.; Amato, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Detection and analysis of fracture systems can be more effectively conducted utilizing snow cover as an enhancement tool. From analysis within the Great Barrington Test Site it appears that the use of aeromagnetic data effectively supplements lineament data acquired using ERTS imagery. Coincidence of lineaments derived from aeromagnetics with lineaments interpreted from ERTS imagery apparently indicate the presence of mineralized fracture systems and dikes. Utilizing both tools can increase the speed and efficiency of mineral exploration and geological mapping in areas where bedrock is obscured by a thick unconsolidated sediment cover.

  1. Wedding Imagery and Public Support for Gay Marriage.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Paul R; Wilson, David C; Habegger, Michael

    2016-08-01

    This study uses an experiment embedded in a large, nationally representative survey to test whether exposure to imagery of a gay or lesbian couple's wedding influences support for gay marriage. It also tests whether any such effects depend on the nature of the image (gay or lesbian couple, kissing or not) and viewer characteristics (sex, age, race, education, religion, and ideology). Results show that exposure to imagery of a gay couple kissing reduced support for gay marriage relative to the baseline. Other image treatments (gay couple not kissing, lesbian couple kissing, lesbian couple not kissing) did not significantly influence opinion. PMID:26849489

  2. The eyes in imagery and perceptual processes: first remarks.

    PubMed

    Ruggieri, V; Alfieri, G

    1992-08-01

    Through an echographic system we examined the activity of the crystalline lens of 10 men and women during real perceptual activity and during imagery. Subjects had to perceive near and far stimuli and to imagine reading a word on a page of a book (near imagined stimulus) or seeing a ship on the horizon (far imagined stimulus). Results showed that processes of accommodation (linked to the variations of the optical axis of the crystalline lens) occur in both real and imaginative conditions. The first results suggest an active role of the eye during imagery. PMID:1528683

  3. Application of ERTS imagery to environmental studies of Lake Champlain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, A. O.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS Imagery has provided data relating to a number of environmental and limnological concerns such as water quality, lake flooding and lake ice formation. Pollution plume data provided by ERTS was recently used in the Supreme Court case involving the States of Vermont and New York and a paper company. Flooding of lowland tracts has been a major concern due to a repetitive pattern of high lake levels over the past three years, and ERTS imagery is being used to construct the first series of flood maps of the affected areas. Lake ice development and turbidity patterns have also been studied from ERTS, since these have significance for shore erosion studies.

  4. Viking image processing. [digital stereo imagery and computer mosaicking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the camera systems capable of recording black and white and color imagery developed for the Viking Lander imaging experiment. Each Viking Lander image consisted of a matrix of numbers with 512 rows and an arbitrary number of columns up to a maximum of about 9,000. Various techniques were used in the processing of the Viking Lander images, including: (1) digital geometric transformation, (2) the processing of stereo imagery to produce three-dimensional terrain maps, and (3) computer mosaicking of distinct processed images. A series of Viking Lander images is included.

  5. La projection par plasma : une revue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauchais, P.; Grimaud, A.; Vardelle, A.; Vardelle, M.

    are presented in the fields of aeronautics and mechanics. La qualité d'un dépôt projete par plasma dépend de nombreux paramètres que l'on commence à mieux appréhender du fait des progrès de la modélisation et de la métrologie tant des écoulements plasmas que des transferts plasma-particules ou que des conditions d'écrasement et de refroidissement des particules lors de leur impact sur le substrat ou les couches déjà déposées. Les techniques de mesure utilisdes et leurs limitations sont d'abord rappelées tant pour les jets de plasma que pour les particules en vol et l'importance des différents phénomènes intervenant dans les transferts plasma-particules est soulignée : gradients de température et de concentration d'espèces chimiques très élevés autour des particules, effets de propagation de la chaleur, notamment pour les particules céramiques, effet d'évaporation, effet de raréfaction sensible dès la pression atmosphérique. Les problèmes de distribution de taille et de vitesse d'injection des particules sont également abordés car ils conditionnent les distributions de trajectoires et donc le traitement des particules dans le jet de plasma. La génération du plasma montre d'une part 1'influence considérable de l'injection du gaz, de sa nature, du dessin de la chambre d'arc et de la tuyère ainsi que du pompage de l'air ambiant sur la longueur des jets de plasma d'arc et d'autre part les problèmes d'injection pour éviter le couplage avec la décharge dans les jets de plasmas R.E Tout ceci est illustré avec des exemples de dépôt d'alumine, de zircone, de cermet carbure et de nickel. L'écrasement des particules est ensuite abordé avec les problèmes de réactions chimiques, de trempe ultra-rapide et donc de structure cristalline des dépôts, d'adhdsion mais aussi de containtes résiduelles et de leur contrôle via les gradients de température dans les dépôts pendant le tir. Enfin quelques applications actuelles sont pr

  6. The Therapeutic Use of Mental Imagery: A Review of Recent Empirical Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garman, Steven Lee

    Mental imagery, an internal representational process that enables an individual to experience an event in imagination, has been used effectively in treating psychological conditions, changing behavioral patterns, and altering physiological processes. Research on the psychological effects of imagery has focused on the influences imagery has on…

  7. Teaching Young Readers Imagery in Storytelling: What Color Is the Monkey?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTigue, Erin M.

    2010-01-01

    Although mental imagery's positive role in reading comprehension is clear, the means of introducing imagery to young readers is comparatively vague. Mental imagery's very nature, being nonverbal, invisible, and often unconscious, results in a mismatch with standard instructional practices. Verbal explanations of nonverbal phenomenon fall short.…

  8. The Role of Visual Mental Imagery in the Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodes, Carol L.

    This study investigates the relationship between speed of recognition and accuracy of the responses when visual mental imagery is controlled through imagery instructions. The procedure was to compare the achievement of learners where the independent variable was imagery instructions. The subjects were two 20-person groups of undergraduates from a…

  9. Using very-large-scale aerial imagery for rangeland monitoring and assessment: Some statistical considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The availability of very-high-resolution (VHR) imagery and techniques for processing those data into indicators of ecosystem function has opened the door for VHR imagery to be used in rangeland monitoring and assessment. However, VHR imagery can be expensive and, like any survey measurement, studies...

  10. PH motifs in PAR1&2 endow breast cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Kancharla, A.; Maoz, M.; Jaber, M.; Agranovich, D.; Peretz, T.; Grisaru-Granovsky, S.; Uziely, B.; Bar-Shavit, R.

    2015-01-01

    Although emerging roles of protease-activated receptor1&2 (PAR1&2) in cancer are recognized, their underlying signalling events are poorly understood. Here we show signal-binding motifs in PAR1&2 that are critical for breast cancer growth. This occurs via the association of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain with Akt/PKB as a key signalling event of PARs. Other PH-domain signal-proteins such as Etk/Bmx and Vav3 also associate with PAR1 and PAR2 through their PH domains. PAR1 and PAR2 bind with priority to Etk/Bmx. A point mutation in PAR2, H349A, but not in R352A, abrogates PH-protein association and is sufficient to markedly reduce PAR2-instigated breast tumour growth in vivo and placental extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion in vitro. Similarly, the PAR1 mutant hPar1-7A, which is unable to bind the PH domain, reduces mammary tumours and EVT invasion, endowing these motifs with physiological significance and underscoring the importance of these previously unknown PAR1 and PAR2 PH-domain-binding motifs in both pathological and physiological invasion processes. PMID:26600192

  11. PH motifs in PAR1&2 endow breast cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Kancharla, A; Maoz, M; Jaber, M; Agranovich, D; Peretz, T; Grisaru-Granovsky, S; Uziely, B; Bar-Shavit, R

    2015-01-01

    Although emerging roles of protease-activated receptor1&2 (PAR1&2) in cancer are recognized, their underlying signalling events are poorly understood. Here we show signal-binding motifs in PAR1&2 that are critical for breast cancer growth. This occurs via the association of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain with Akt/PKB as a key signalling event of PARs. Other PH-domain signal-proteins such as Etk/Bmx and Vav3 also associate with PAR1 and PAR2 through their PH domains. PAR1 and PAR2 bind with priority to Etk/Bmx. A point mutation in PAR2, H349A, but not in R352A, abrogates PH-protein association and is sufficient to markedly reduce PAR2-instigated breast tumour growth in vivo and placental extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion in vitro. Similarly, the PAR1 mutant hPar1-7A, which is unable to bind the PH domain, reduces mammary tumours and EVT invasion, endowing these motifs with physiological significance and underscoring the importance of these previously unknown PAR1 and PAR2 PH-domain-binding motifs in both pathological and physiological invasion processes. PMID:26600192

  12. Aqueous misdirection following pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection

    PubMed Central

    Ghoraba, Hammouda H; Ghali, Ali Ahmed; Mansour, Hosam Othman

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report a retrospective series of seven phakic eyes of seven patients suffering from a malignant glaucoma-like syndrome following pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil (SO) injection. Materials and methods Seven eyes with retinal detachment treated with pars plana vitrectomy with or without scleral buckling with SO tamponade. This was followed by cataract extraction to manage the elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Results This was a retrospective review of seven cases that received pars plana vitrectomy and SO with or without scleral buckling for different causes of retinal detachment (three were rhegmatogenous and four were tractional). After a period ranging from 1 week to 1 month, they presented with malignant glaucoma-like manifestations; high IOP, shallow axial anterior chamber, and remarkable decrease of visual acuity. Atropine eye drops and anti-glaucoma medical treatment (topical and systemic) had been tried but failed to improve the condition. Dramatic decrease of IOP and deepening of the axial anterior chamber was observed in all cases in the first postoperative day after phacoemulsification and posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation with posterior capsulotomy. Conclusion Aqueous misdirection syndrome may be observed following pars plana vitrectomy and SO tamponade. This must be differentiated from other causes of post vitrectomy glaucoma. Cataract extraction with posterior capsulotomy controls the condition. PMID:26056429

  13. The Pars Triangularis in Dyslexia and ADHD: A Comprehensive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibby, Michelle Y.; Kroese, Judith M.; Krebbs, Hillery; Hill, Crystal E.; Hynd, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Limited research has been conducted on the structure of the pars triangularis (PT) in dyslexia despite functional neuroimaging research finding it may play a role in phonological processing. Furthermore, research to date has not examined PT size in ADHD even though the right inferior frontal region has been implicated in the disorder. Hence, one…

  14. Radiological impact of Par Pond drawdown from liquid effluent pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-10-25

    The water level of Par Pond has been lowered over the past several months to reduce the effects in the event of catastrophic dam failure while assessing the condition of the dam and determining if repairs are necessary. In lowering the level of Par Pond, 60 billion liters of water containing low levels of tritium and cesium-137 were discharged to several onsite streams. SRS surface streams flow to the Savannah River. An assessment made to determine the total amount of tritium and Cs-137 discharged and to estimate the consequences to downstream Savannah River users. It is estimated that a total of 160 curies of tritium were displaced from Par Pond to the Savannah River between June 28, 1991 and September 19, 1991. This release could hypothetically result in a maximum individual dose of 3. 2{times}10{sup {minus}4} mrem and a total (80-km and drinking water populations) population dose of 1.4{times}10{sup {minus}2} person-rem. Likewise, a maximum individual dose of 5.0{times}10{sup {minus}2} mrem and a total population dose of 1.7{times}10{sup {minus}1} person- rem are predicted as a result of an estimated 0.21 curies of Cs-137 being discharged from Par Pond to the Savannah River.

  15. Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily (Nymphaea odorata), and watershield (Brasenia schreberi) are now extensive and well established. In addition, within isolated coves, extensive beds of water lilies and spike-rush (Eleocharis sp.) are common. Cattail occurrence has increased since refill, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Invasion of willow (Salix sp.) and red maple (Acer rubrum) occurred along the lake shoreline during drawdown. The red maples along the present shoreline are beginning to show evidence of stress and mortality from flooding over the past four months. Some of the willows appear to be stressed as well. The loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), which were flooded in all but the shallow shoreline areas, are now dead. Future surveys are planned for the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data for mapping the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond.

  16. BOREAS RSS-10 TOMS Circumpolar One-Degree PAR Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, Dennis G.; Holben, Brent; Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-10 team investigated the magnitude of daily, seasonal, and yearly variations of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) from ground and satellite observations. This data set contains satellite estimates of surface-incident PAR (400-700 nm, MJ/sq m) at one-degree spatial resolution. The spatial coverage is circumpolar from latitudes of 41 to 66 degrees north. The temporal coverage is from May through September for years 1979 through 1989. Eleven-year statistics are also provided: (1) mean, (2) standard deviation, and (3) coefficient of variation for 1979-89. The PAR estimates were derived from the global gridded ultraviolet reflectivity data product (average of 360, 380 nm) from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Image mask data are provided for identifying the boreal forest zone, and ocean/land and snow/ice-covered areas. The data are available as binary image format data files. The PAR data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  17. Application of thermal imagery to the development of a Great Lakes ice information system. [infrared and SLAR imagery of fresh water ice thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schertler, R. J.; Raquet, C. A.; Svehla, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Recent measurements and analysis have shown that thermal infrared imagery (wavelength, 8-14 microns) can be employed to delineate the relative thicknesses of various regions of freshwater ice, as well as, differentiate new ice from both open water areas and thicker (young)ice. Thermal imagery was observed to be generally superior to visual (0.4 - 0.7 microns) and our SLAR (3.3 cm) imagery for estimating relative ice thicknesses and delineating open water from new ice growth. In a real-time Great Lakes Ice Information System, thermal imagery can not only provide supplementary imagery but also aid in developing interpretative methods for all-weather SLAR imagery, as well as, establishing the areal extent of spot thickness measurements.

  18. Degraded Imagery/Art Technique for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agard, Richard

    Developed for handicapped artists, Degraded Imagery is a technique whereby images can be extracted and refined from a photograph or a collage of photographs. The advantage of this process is that it requires a lower degree of fine motor skills to produce a quality image from a photograph than it does to create a quality image on a blank piece of…

  19. Imagery Rescripting of Early Traumatic Memories in Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Jennifer; Clark, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Negative self-images appear to play a role in the maintenance of social phobia and research suggests they are often linked to earlier memories of socially traumatic events. Imagery rescripting is a clinical intervention that aims to update such unpleasant or traumatic memories, and is increasingly being incorporated in cognitive behavioral therapy…

  20. Sparing of Spatial Mental Imagery in Patients with Hippocampal Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Soyun; Borst, Grégoire; Thompson, William L.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.; Squire, Larry R.

    2013-01-01

    In four experiments, we explored the capacity for spatial mental imagery in patients with hippocampal lesions, using tasks that minimized the role of learning and memory. On all four tasks, patients with hippocampal lesions performed as well as controls. Nonetheless, in separate tests, the patients were impaired at remembering the materials that…

  1. Spatial and Linguistic Aspects of Visual Imagery in Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Benjamin K.; Lindsay, Shane; Matlock, Teenie; Narayanan, Srini

    2007-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that language comprehension involves the activation of mental imagery of the content of utterances (Barsalou, 1999; Bergen, Chang, & Narayan, 2004; Bergen, Narayan, & Feldman, 2003; Narayan, Bergen, & Weinberg, 2004; Richardson, Spivey, McRae, & Barsalou, 2003; Stanfield & Zwaan, 2001; Zwaan, Stanfield, & Yaxley, 2002).…

  2. Adding Insult to Imagery? Art Education and Censorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The "Adding Insult to Imagery? Artistic Responses to Censorship and Mass-Media" exhibition opened in January 16, 2006, Kipp Gallery on the Indiana University of Pennsylvania campus. Eleven gallery-based works, 9 videos, and 10 web-based artworks comprised the show; each dealt with the relationship between censorship and mass mediated images. Many…

  3. Hearing Story Characters' Voices: Auditory Imagery during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunraj, Danielle N.; Klin, Celia M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the longstanding belief in an inner voice, there is surprisingly little known about the perceptual features of that voice during text processing. This article asked whether readers infer nonlinguistic phonological features, such as speech rate, associated with a character's speech. Previous evidence for this type of auditory imagery has…

  4. Guided imagery: an innovative approach to improving maternal sleep quality.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Linda; Jallo, Nancy; Howland, Lois; James, Kathy; Glaser, Dale; Arnell, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Mothers of preterm infants are at risk for poor sleep quality, which may adversely affect their health, maternal-infant attachment, and infant caretaking activities. This study examined the relationship of an 8-week relaxation guided imagery intervention on sleep quality and the association between sleep quality and maternal distress (perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and state anxiety) in 20 mothers of hospitalized preterm infants. Mothers received a CD (compact disc) with three 20-minutes recordings and were asked to listen to at least 1 recording daily for 8 weeks. This analysis used self-report data gathered at baseline and 8 weeks. Pearson correlations were used to examine the relationships between mean cumulative relaxation guided imagery use and measures of maternal distress and sleep quality scores at 8 weeks. Complete data on 19 mothers were available for analysis. At 8 weeks, higher mean relaxation guided imagery use was inversely correlated with sleep quality scores (r = -0.30); sleep quality scores were positively correlated with stress (r = 0.42), depressive symptoms (r = 0.34), and anxiety (r = 0.39) scores. In mothers of preterm infants, sleep quality was negatively affected by mental distress and may be improved by a guided imagery intervention. PMID:23618936

  5. Combined action observation and imagery facilitates corticospinal excitability

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David J.; Williams, Jacqueline; Holmes, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Observation and imagery of movement both activate similar brain regions to those involved in movement execution. As such, both are recommended as techniques for aiding the recovery of motor function following stroke. Traditionally, action observation and movement imagery (MI) have been considered as independent intervention techniques. Researchers have however begun to consider the possibility of combining the two techniques into a single intervention strategy. This study investigated the effect of combined action observation and MI on corticospinal excitability, in comparison to either observation or imagery alone. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was delivered to the hand representation of the left motor cortex during combined action observation and MI, passive observation (PO), or MI of right index finger abduction-adduction movements or control conditions. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles of the right hand. The combined action observation and MI condition produced MEPs of larger amplitude than were obtained during PO and control conditions. This effect was only present in the FDI muscle, indicating the facilitation of corticospinal excitability during the combined condition was specific to the muscles involved in the observed/imagined task. These findings have implications for stroke rehabilitation, where combined action observation and MI interventions may prove to be more effective than observation or imagery alone. PMID:25505880

  6. Imagery and visual working memory: one and the same?

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Although visual imagery and visual working memory are both defined by the ability to actively represent and manipulate visual information, it is not known whether they rely on common mechanisms. A recent study by Albers and colleagues directly investigates this issue, finding evidence of common internal representations in early visual areas. PMID:23958465

  7. Infrared photography and imagery in water resources research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles J.

    1965-01-01

    Infrared photography has restricted usefulness in general water resources studies but is particularly useful in special problems such as shoreline mapping. Infrared imagery is beginning to be used in water resources studies for the identification of surface and sub surface thermal anomalies as expressed at the surface and the measurement of apparent water surface temperatures. It will attain its maximum usefulness only when interpretation criteria for infrared imagery are fully developed. Several important hydrologic problems to which infrared imagery may be applied are: (1) determination of circulation and cooling of water in power plant cooling ponds, (2) measurement of river temperature and temperature decline downstream from power plants discharging heated water, (3) identification of submarine springs along coasts, and (4) measurement of temperature differences along streams as indicators of effluent seepage of ground water. Although it is possible at this time to identify many features of importance to hydrology by the use of infrared imagery, the task remaining is to develop criteria to show the hydrologic significance of the features.

  8. Gestalt Imagery: A Critical Factor in Language Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nanci

    1991-01-01

    Lack of gestalt imagery (the ability to create imaged wholes) can contribute to language comprehension disorder characterized by weak reading comprehension, weak oral language comprehension, weak oral language expression, weak written language expression, difficulty following directions, and a weak sense of humor. Sequential stimulation using an…

  9. Effects of Action on Children's and Adults' Mental Imagery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Andrea; Daum, Moritz M.; Wilson, Margaret; Wilkening, Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether and which aspects of a concurrent motor activity can facilitate children's and adults' performance in a dynamic imagery task. Children (5-, 7-, and 9-year-olds) and adults were asked to tilt empty glasses, filled with varied amounts of imaginary water, so that the imagined water would reach the rim.…

  10. The Role of Imagery in the Production of Written Definitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Ernest T.; Sadoski, Mark; Stricker, Andrew G.; White, Teresa S.; Wang, Zhongmiao

    2007-01-01

    The effect of word concreteness and imagery on the production of written definitions was investigated using procedures designed to produce more generalizable results than previous investigations. A random sample of words was drawn from the Paivio, Yuille, and Madigan (1968) norms, and college undergraduates were presented with a randomly selected,…

  11. New Findings for Concreteness and Imagery Effects in Written Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadoski, Mark; Goetz, Ernest T.; Stricker, Andrew G.; Burdenski, Thomas K., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effects of word concreteness and either imagery, verbal, or control strategy instructions on the composition of written definitions. Reveals significant effects of word concreteness on several quantity and quality variables, but no significant effect of strategy instructions or interaction between concreteness and strategy…

  12. Autonomous rendezvous and feature detection system using TV imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. B., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Algorithms and equations are used for conversion of standard television imaging system information into directly usable spatial and dimensional information. System allows utilization of spacecraft imagery system as sensor in application to operations such as deriving spacecraft steering signal, tracking, autonomous rendezvous and docking and ranging.

  13. LWIR polarimetry for enhanced facial recognition in thermal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurton, Kristan P.; Yuffa, Alex J.; Videen, Gorden

    2014-05-01

    We present a series of long-wave-infrared (LWIR) polarimetric-based thermal images of facial profiles in which polarization-state information of the image forming radiance is retained and displayed. The resultant polarimetric images show enhanced facial features, additional texture, and details that are not present in the corresponding conventional thermal imagery. It has been generally thought that conventional thermal imagery (MidiR or LWIR) could not produce the detailed spatial information required for reliable human identification due to the so-called "ghosting" effect often seen in thermal imagery of human subjects. By using polarimetric information, we are able to extract subtle surface features of the human face, thus improving subject identification. The considered polarimetric image sets include the conventional thermal intensity image, S0 , the two Stokes images, S1 and S2, and a Stokes image product called the degree-of-linear-polarization (DoLP) image. Finally, Stokes imagery is combined with Fresnel relations to extract additional 3D surface information.

  14. Effects of intranasal oxytocin on 'compassion focused imagery'.

    PubMed

    Rockliff, Helen; Karl, Anke; McEwan, Kirsten; Gilbert, Jean; Matos, Marcela; Gilbert, Paul

    2011-12-01

    This study explored the effects of oxytocin on Compassion Focused Imagery (CFI), that is, imagining another "mind" being deeply compassionate to oneself, and the interaction of these effects with self-criticism and feeling socially safe with others. Forty-four healthy participants (29 men and 15 women) completed self-report measures of self-criticism, attachment style, and social safeness before taking part in a double-blind randomized placebo controlled study. They attended two imagery sessions, receiving oxytocin in one and a placebo in the other. Positive affect was measured before and after each imagery session, and "imagery experience" was assessed after each session. Overall, oxytocin increased the ease of imagining compassionate qualities but there were important individual differences in how CFI was experienced. Participants higher in self-criticism, lower in self-reassurance, social safeness, and attachment security had less positive experiences of CFI under oxytocin than placebo, indicating that the effects of oxytocin on affiliation may depend on attachment and self-evaluative styles. PMID:21707149

  15. An Imagery Exercise in Self-Awareness and Literary Sensitivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roncelli, Janet M.

    The ability to communicate the imagery of a literary selection is difficult for beginning students in undergraduate oral interpretation classes. Awareness of indirect sensory images must begin with direct awareness of self. The sensory self-description of how one looks, sounds, smells, tastes, feels, and moves is a means of stimulating…

  16. The Role of Overt Activity in Children's Imagery Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Peter; Levin, Joel R.

    The role of motor activity in children's formation of dynamic mental imagery was investigated in two experiments using a paired-associate recognition task. From the recognition data, it was inferred that (2) the child's ability to form dynamic images relating two objects undergoes its most rapid development between the ages of five and eight; and…

  17. Imagery and spectroscopy of supernova remnants and H-2 regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Research activities relating to supernova remnants were summarized. The topics reviewed include: progenitor stars of supernova remnants, UV/optical/radio/X-ray imagery of selected regions in the Cygnus Loop, UV/optical spectroscopy of the Cygnus Loop spur, and extragalactic supernova remnant spectra.

  18. Comparison of registration techniques for GOES visible imagery data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper briefly describes and then compares the effectiveness of five image registration approaches for GOES visible band imagery. The techniques compared are (1) NOAA "point" manual landmarking, (2) manual landmarking on extant feature (whole island, lake, etc.), (3) automatic phase correlation, (4) automatic spatial correlation on edge features, and (5) automatic spatial correlation of region boundaries derived from image segmentation.

  19. Evaluating Airborne Hyperspectral imagery for mapping waterhyacinth infestations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] is an exotic aquatic weed that often invades and clogs waterways in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different image classification techniques for mapp...

  20. Facilitating the exploitation of ERTS imagery using snow enhancement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Martin, K. R.; Sheffield, C.; Russell, O.; Amato, R. V.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of all available (Gemini, Apollo, Nimbus, NASA aircraft) small scale snow covered imagery has been conducted to develop and refine snow enhancement techniques. A detailed photographic interpretation of ERTS-simulation imagery covering the Feather River/Lake Tahoe area was completed and the 580-680nm. band was determined to be the optimum band for fracture detection. ERTS-1 MSS bands 5 and 7 are best suited for detailed fracture mapping. The two bands should provide more complete fracture detail when utilized in combination. Analysis of early ERTS-1 data along with U-2 ERTS simulation imagery indicates that snow enhancement is a viable technique for geological fracture mapping. A wealth of fracture detail on snow-free terrain was noted during preliminary analysis of ERTS-1 images 1077-15005-6 and 7, 1077-15011-5 and 7, and 1079-15124-5 and 7. A direct comparison of data yield on snow-free versus snow-covered terrain will be conducted within these areas following receipt of snow-covered ERTS-1 imagery.

  1. Classification of motor imagery performance in acute stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangwiriyasakul, Chayanin; Mocioiu, Victor; van Putten, Michel J. A. M.; Rutten, Wim L. C.

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Effective motor imagery performance, seen as strong suppression of the sensorimotor rhythm, is the key element in motor imagery therapy. Therefore, optimization of methods to classify whether the subject is performing the imagery task is a prerequisite. An optimal classification method should have high performance accuracy and use a small number of channels. We investigated the additional benefit of the common spatial pattern filtering (CSP) to a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier, for different channel configurations. Methods. Ten hemispheric acute stroke patients and 11 healthy subjects were included. EEGs were recorded using 60 channels. The classifier was trained with a motor execution task. For both healthy controls and patients, analysis of recordings was initially limited to 3 and 11 electrodes recording from the motor cortex area, and later repeated using 45 electrodes. Results. No significant improvement on the addition of CSP to LDA was found (in both cases, the area under the receiving operating characteristic (AU-ROC) ≈0.70 (acceptable)). We then repeated the LDA+CSP method on recordings of 45 electrodes, since the use of imagery neuronal circuits may well extend beyond the motor area. AU-ROC rose to 0.90, but no virtual ‘most responsible’ electrode was observed. Finally, in mild-to-moderate stroke patients we could successfully use the EEG data recorded from the healthy hemisphere to train the classifier (AU-ROC ≈ 0.70). Significance. Including only the channels on the unaffected motor cortex is sufficient to train a classifier.

  2. Aural-Visual-Kinesthetic Imagery in Motion Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, David W.

    Motion media refers to film, television, and other forms of kinesthetic media including computerized multimedia technologies and virtual reality. Imagery reproduced by motion media carries a multisensory amalgamation of mental experiences. The blending of these experiences phenomenologically intersects with the reality and perception of words,…

  3. Using High Resolution SPOT 5 Multispectral Imagery for Crop Identification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High resolution satellite imagery offers new opportunities for crop monitoring and assessment. A SPOT 5 image with four spectral bands (green, red, near-infrared, and mid-infrared) and 10-m pixel size covering intensively cropped areas in south Texas was evaluated for crop identification. Two images...

  4. Mapping riparian and wetland weeds with high resolution satellite imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquatic and wetland weeds are a serious management problem in many freshwater ecosystems of the world. This paper presents an overview on the application of using high resolution QuickBird multi-spectral satellite imagery for detecting weeds in waterways and wetlands in Texas. Unsupervised image a...

  5. Interpretation of Thermal Infrared Imagery for Irrigation Water Resource Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nellis, M. Duane

    1985-01-01

    Water resources play a major role in the character of agricultural development in the arid western United States. This case study shows how thermal infrared imagery, which is sensitive to radiant or heat energy, can be used to interpret crop moisture content and associated stress in irrigated areas. (RM)

  6. Weakly stationary noise filtering of satellite-acquired imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palgen, J. J. O.; Tamches, I.; Deutsch, E. S.

    1971-01-01

    A type of weakly stationary noise called herringbone noise was observed in satellite imagery. The characteristics of this noise are described; a model for its simulation was developed. The model is used to degrade pictorial data for comparison with similar noise degraded Nimbus data. Two filtering methods are defined and evaluated. A user's application demonstration is discussed.

  7. Developing a Method to Mask Trees in Commercial Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, S. J.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Jain, D.; Karlekar, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    The US Army has an increasing focus on using automated remote sensing techniques with commercial multispectral imagery (MSI) to map urban and peri-urban agricultural and vegetative features; however, similar spectral profiles between trees (i.e., forest canopy) and other vegetation result in confusion between these cover classes. Established vegetation indices, like the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), are typically not effective in reliably differentiating between trees and other vegetation. Previous research in tree mapping has included integration of hyperspectral imagery (HSI) and LiDAR for tree detection and species identification, as well as the use of MSI to distinguish tree crowns from non-vegetated features. This project developed a straightforward method to model and also mask out trees from eight-band WorldView-2 (1.85 meter x 1.85 meter resolution at nadir) satellite imagery at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center in Beltsville, MD spanning 2012 - 2015. The study site included tree cover, a range of agricultural and vegetative cover types, and urban features. The modeling method exploits the product of the red and red edge bands and defines accurate thresholds between trees and other land covers. Results show this method outperforms established vegetation indices including the NDVI, Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, Normalized Difference Water Index, Simple Ratio, and Normalized Difference Red Edge Index in correctly masking trees while preserving the other information in the imagery. This method is useful when HSI and LiDAR collection are not possible or when using archived MSI.

  8. Mental imagery of speech implicates two mechanisms of perceptual reactivation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xing; Zarate, Jean Mary; Poeppel, David

    2016-04-01

    Sensory cortices can be activated without any external stimuli. Yet, it is still unclear how this perceptual reactivation occurs and which neural structures mediate this reconstruction process. In this study, we employed fMRI with mental imagery paradigms to investigate the neural networks involved in perceptual reactivation. Subjects performed two speech imagery tasks: articulation imagery (AI) and hearing imagery (HI). We found that AI induced greater activity in frontal-parietal sensorimotor systems, including sensorimotor cortex, subcentral (BA 43), middle frontal cortex (BA 46) and parietal operculum (PO), whereas HI showed stronger activation in regions that have been implicated in memory retrieval: middle frontal (BA 8), inferior parietal cortex and intraparietal sulcus. Moreover, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG) was activated more in AI compared with HI, suggesting that covert motor processes induced stronger perceptual reactivation in the auditory cortices. These results suggest that motor-to-perceptual transformation and memory retrieval act as two complementary mechanisms to internally reconstruct corresponding perceptual outcomes. These two mechanisms can serve as a neurocomputational foundation for predicting perceptual changes, either via a previously learned relationship between actions and their perceptual consequences or via stored perceptual experiences of stimulus and episodic or contextual regularity. PMID:26889603

  9. Mental Imagery Abilities in Adolescents with Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courbois, Yanick; Coello, Yann; Bouchart, Isabelle

    2004-01-01

    Four visual imagery tasks were presented to three groups of adolescents with or without spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. The first group was composed of six adolescents with cerebral palsy who had associated visual-perceptual deficits (CP-PD), the second group was composed of five adolescents with cerebral palsy and no associated visual-perceptual…

  10. Mapping Invasive Aquatic and Wetland Weeds with Quickbird Satellite Imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquatic and wetland weeds are a serious management problem in many freshwater ecosystems of the world. This paper presents an overview on the application of using high resolution QuickBird multi-spectral satellite imagery for detecting weeds in waterways and wetlands in Texas. Unsupervised image a...

  11. Imagery Associated with Menstruation in Advertising Targeted to Adolescent Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havens, Beverly; Swenson, Ingrid

    1988-01-01

    Analyzed imagery in advertisements in "Seventeen" magazine for sanitary products and products for relief of menstrual symptoms, looking for recurrent themes in text, context, and tone. Found menstruation depicted as a "hygienic crisis" best managed by an effective "security system" affording protection and "peace of mind," with menstruating women…

  12. Coastal applications of the ERTS-1 satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magoon, O. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Samples are given of the possible applications of ERTS-1 imagery to coastal and nearshore studies. Briefly discussed are: (1) obtaining regional views of extended coastal areas; (2) distribution of sediments; (3) coastal configurations and changes; (4) barrier islands; (5) underwater penetration, and (6) coastal waves.

  13. Tobacco imagery in Bollywood films: 2006–2008

    PubMed Central

    Nazar, Gaurang P; Gupta, Vinay K; Millett, Christopher; Arora, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate exposure to tobacco imagery in youth-rated Bollywood films, and examine the results in light of recent developments in India's film rating system. Methods Content coding of 44 top grossing Bollywood films (including 38 youth-rated films) released during 2006–2008 was undertaken to estimate tobacco occurrences and impressions. Results Out of the 38 youth-rated (U and U/A) films coded, 50% contained tobacco imagery. Mean tobacco occurrences were 1.9, 2.9 and 13.7 per U, U/A and adult (A) rated films, respectively. Top grossing youth-rated films delivered 1.91 billion tobacco impressions to Indian cinema audiences. Conclusions Half the youth-rated Bollywood films contain tobacco imagery resulting in large population level exposure in India, relative to other countries. Measures to reduce youth exposure to tobacco imagery through films, such as restricting access through the rating system, will complement other tobacco control measures. PMID:27326073

  14. Relationship between Fractal Dimension and Agreeability of Facial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama-Higa, Mayumi; Miao, Tiejun; Ito, Tasuo

    2007-11-01

    Why do people feel happy and good or equivalently empathize more, with smiling face imageries than with ones of expressionless face? To understand what the essential factors are underlying imageries in relating to the feelings, we conducted an experiment by 84 subjects asked to estimate the degree of agreeability about expressionless and smiling facial images taken from 23 young persons to whom the subjects were no any pre-acquired knowledge. Images were presented one at a time to each subject who was asked to rank agreeability on a scale from 1 to 10. Fractal dimensions of facial images were obtained in order to characterize the complexity of the imageries by using of two types of fractal analysis methods, i.e., planar and cubic analysis methods, respectively. The results show a significant difference in the fractal dimension values between expressionless faces and smiling ones. Furthermore, we found a well correlation between the degree of agreeability and fractal dimensions, implying that the fractal dimension optically obtained in relation to complexity in imagery information is useful to characterize the psychological processes of cognition and awareness.

  15. Evaluating high resolution SPOT 5 satellite imagery for crop identification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High resolution satellite imagery offers new opportunities for crop monitoring and assessment. A SPOT 5 image with four spectral bands (green, red, near-infrared, and mid-infrared) and 10-m pixel size covering intensively cropped areas in south Texas was evaluated for crop identification. Two images...

  16. BOREAS Level-0 TIMS Imagery: Digital Counts in BIL Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOREAS, the TIMS imagery, along with the other remotely sensed images, was collected to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. The level-0 TIMS images cover the time periods of 16-Apr-1994 to 20-Apr-1994 and 06-Sep-1994 to 17-Sep-1994. The images are available in their original uncalibrated format.

  17. The Disposition of AIDS Imagery in "New York Times" Obituaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alali, A. Odasuo

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of 100 AIDS death obituaries indicates imageries reflect much about American society, such as attitudes toward homosexuality, attitudes toward AIDS, and understanding of linkages between sexual practices and AIDS. Analysis suggests construction of AIDS obituaries may be manifestations of sociopolitical structure and a consequence of bias…

  18. Encoding and analyzing aerial imagery using geospatial semantic graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Jean-Paul; Strip, David R.; McLendon, William C.; Parekh, Ojas D.; Diegert, Carl F.; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Rintoul, Mark Daniel

    2014-02-01

    While collection capabilities have yielded an ever-increasing volume of aerial imagery, analytic techniques for identifying patterns in and extracting relevant information from this data have seriously lagged. The vast majority of imagery is never examined, due to a combination of the limited bandwidth of human analysts and limitations of existing analysis tools. In this report, we describe an alternative, novel approach to both encoding and analyzing aerial imagery, using the concept of a geospatial semantic graph. The advantages of our approach are twofold. First, intuitive templates can be easily specified in terms of the domain language in which an analyst converses. These templates can be used to automatically and efficiently search large graph databases, for specific patterns of interest. Second, unsupervised machine learning techniques can be applied to automatically identify patterns in the graph databases, exposing recurring motifs in imagery. We illustrate our approach using real-world data for Anne Arundel County, Maryland, and compare the performance of our approach to that of an expert human analyst.

  19. Self-organised clustering for road extraction in classified imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doucette, Peter; Agouris, Peggy; Stefanidis, Anthony; Musavi, Mohamad

    The extraction of road networks from digital imagery is a fundamental image analysis operation. Common problems encountered in automated road extraction include high sensitivity to typical scene clutter in high-resolution imagery, and inefficiency to meaningfully exploit multispectral imagery (MSI). With a ground sample distance (GSD) of less than 2 m per pixel, roads can be broadly described as elongated regions. We propose an approach of elongated region-based analysis for 2D road extraction from high-resolution imagery, which is suitable for MSI, and is insensitive to conventional edge definition. A self-organising road map (SORM) algorithm is presented, inspired from a specialised variation of Kohonen's self-organising map (SOM) neural network algorithm. A spectrally classified high-resolution image is assumed to be the input for our analysis. Our approach proceeds by performing spatial cluster analysis as a mid-level processing technique. This allows us to improve tolerance to road clutter in high-resolution images, and to minimise the effect on road extraction of common classification errors. This approach is designed in consideration of the emerging trend towards high-resolution multispectral sensors. Preliminary results demonstrate robust road extraction ability due to the non-local approach, when presented with noisy input.

  20. Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Camera Asset Planning: Imagery Previsualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaulieu, K.

    2014-01-01

    Using JSC-developed and other industry-standard off-the-shelf 3D modeling, animation, and rendering software packages, the Image Science Analysis Group (ISAG) supports Orion Project imagery planning efforts through dynamic 3D simulation and realistic previsualization of ground-, vehicle-, and air-based camera output.

  1. Imagery and Improvisation in Dance in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magruder, Ella

    1981-01-01

    Improvisation and imagery should be used to strengthen the thin bond between creativity and motor development in children. The approach to dance as an improvisational tool should be made more concrete when working with special populations such as mentally handicapped students. (JN)

  2. Where, When, and How: A Quantitative Account of Dance Imagery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordin, Sanna M.; Cumming, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate quantitative data on where, when, and how dancers image, while accounting for their experience level. Two hundred fifty dancers were recruited from dance schools, universities, and dance companies. They completed the Dance Imagery Basics survey. Results showed that higher level dancers imaged more frequently…

  3. Parameterization of Vegetation Aerodynamic Roughness of Natural Regions Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Crago, Richard; Stewart, Pamela

    1998-01-01

    Parameterizations of the frontal area index and canopy area index of natural or randomly distributed plants are developed, and applied to the estimation of local aerodynamic roughness using satellite imagery. The formulas are expressed in terms of the subpixel fractional vegetation cover and one non-dimensional geometric parameter that characterizes the plant's shape. Geometrically similar plants and Poisson distributed plant centers are assumed. An appropriate averaging technique to extend satellite pixel-scale estimates to larger scales is provided. The parameterization is applied to the estimation of aerodynamic roughness using satellite imagery for a 2.3 sq km coniferous portion of the Landes Forest near Lubbon, France, during the 1986 HAPEX-Mobilhy Experiment. The canopy area index is estimated first for each pixel in the scene based on previous estimates of fractional cover obtained using Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. Next, the results are incorporated into Raupach's (1992, 1994) analytical formulas for momentum roughness and zero-plane displacement height. The estimates compare reasonably well to reference values determined from measurements taken during the experiment and to published literature values. The approach offers the potential for estimating regionally variable, vegetation aerodynamic roughness lengths over natural regions using satellite imagery when there exists only limited knowledge of the vegetated surface.

  4. The Role of Mental Imagery in Imaginative and Ecological Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how mental imagery evoked from words might enhance the learning of cross-curricular content and how it may help cultivate students' "ecological understanding": that deep sense of connection to a living world and the care and concern to live differently within it. With reference to Elliott Eisner's and Kieran Egan's…

  5. Estimating true color imagery for GOES-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossberg, Michael D.; Shahriar, Fazlul; Gladkova, Irina; Alabi, Paul K.; Hillger, Donald W.; Miller, Steven D.

    2011-06-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on GOES-R will help NOAA's objective of engaging and educating the public on environmental issues by providing near real-time imagery of the earth-atmosphere system. True color satellite images are beneficial to the public, as well as to scientists, who use these images as an important "decision aid" and visualization tool. Unfortunately, ABI only has two visible bands (cyan and red) and does not directly produce the three bands (blue, green, and red) used to create true color imagery. We have developed an algorithm that will produce quantitative true color imagery from ABI. Our algorithm estimates the three tristimulus values of the international standard CIE 1931 XYZ colorspace for each pixel of the ABI image, and thus is compatible with a wide range of software packages and hardware devices. Our algorithm is based on a non-linear statistical regression framework that incorporate both classification and local multispectral regression using training data. We have used training data from the hyper-spectral imager Hyperion. Our algorithm to produce true color images from the ABI is not specific to ABI and may be applicable to other satellites which, like the ABI, do not have the ability to directly produce RGB imagery.

  6. Results of peripheral laser photocoagulation in pars planitis.

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, J S; Mieler, W F; Walton, D; Kuhn, E; Postel, E; Hartz, A; Jampol, L M; Weinberg, D V; Logani, S

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the effect of peripheral retinal laser photocoagulation (PLP) on visual acuity, intraocular inflammation, and other ocular findings, including retinal neovascularization in eyes with pars planitis. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of eyes with pars planitis that had undergone PLP. RESULTS: Twenty-two eyes in 17 patients with pars planitis had undergone treatment with PLP at 2 centers. The mean age at the time of treatment was 19.3 years. Following treatment, mean follow-up was 16.3 months (range, 6 to 37 months). Mean visual acuity was 20/60 preoperatively and 20/50 postoperatively. This level of improvement was not statistically significant (P > .10), but there was a statistically significant decrease in the use of corticosteroids between the preoperative examination and the last postoperative examination (86% versus 27%, P < .05). There was also a statistically significant decrease in vitritis at the last follow-up (P = .0008) and a decrease in neovascularization of the vitreous base (P = .03) and in clinically apparent cystoid macular edema (P = .02). Epiretinal membranes were noted in 23% of eyes preoperatively and in 45% of eyes postoperatively. Only one of these epiretinal membranes was considered to be visually significant. One eye developed a tonic dilated pupil, which slowly improved. CONCLUSIONS: Although the long-term natural history of clinical findings in pars planitis is not well documented, PLP appears to decrease the need for corticosteroids while stabilizing visual acuity. It also appears to decrease vitreous inflammation. PLP has few complications and should be considered in patients with pars planitis who are unresponsive or have adverse reactions to corticosteroids. PMID:10360286

  7. The role of pars flaccida in human middle ear sound transmission.

    PubMed

    Aritomo, H; Goode, R L; Gonzalez, J

    1988-04-01

    The role of the pars flaccida in middle ear sound transmission was studied with the use of twelve otoscopically normal, fresh, human temporal bones. Peak-to-peak umbo displacement in response to a constant sound pressure level at the tympanic membrane was measured with a noncontacting video measuring system capable of repeatable measurements down to 0.2 micron. Measurements were made before and after pars flaccida modifications at 18 frequencies between 100 and 4000 Hz. Four pars flaccida modifications were studied: (1) acoustic insulation of the pars flaccida to the ear canal with a silicone rubber baffle, (2) stiffening the pars flaccida with cyanoacrylate cement, (3) decreasing the tension of the pars flaccida with a nonperforating incision, and (4) perforation of the pars flaccida. All of the modifications (except the perforation) had a minimal effect on umbo displacement; this seems to imply that the pars flaccida has a minor acoustic role in human beings. PMID:3132684

  8. Assessing the value of Landsat imagery: Results from a 2012 comprehensive user survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, H. M.; Richardson, L.; Loomis, J.; Koontz, S.; Koontz, L.

    2012-12-01

    Landsat satellite imagery has long been recognized as unique among remotely sensed data due to the combination of its extensive archive, global coverage, and relatively high spatial and temporal resolution. Since the imagery became available at no cost in 2008, the number of users registered with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has increased tenfold while the number of scenes downloaded annually has increased a hundredfold. It is clear that the imagery is being used extensively, and understanding the benefits provided by this imagery can help inform decisions involving its provision. However, the value of Landsat imagery is difficult to measure for a variety of reasons, one of which stems from the fact that the imagery has characteristics of a public good and does not have a direct market price to reflect its value to society. Further, there is not a clear understanding of the full range of users of the imagery, as well as how these users are distributed across the many different end uses this data is applied to. To assess the value of Landsat imagery, we conducted a survey of users registered with USGS in early 2012. Over 11,000 current users of Landsat imagery responded to the survey. The value of the imagery was measured both qualitatively and quantitatively. To explore the qualitative value of the imagery, users were asked about the importance of the imagery to their work, their dependence on the imagery, and the impacts on their work if there was no Landsat imagery. The majority of users deemed Landsat imagery important to their work and stated they were dependent on Landsat imagery to do their work. Additionally, if Landsat imagery was no longer available, over half of the users would have to discontinue some of their work. On average, these users would discontinue half of their current work if the imagery was no longer available. The focus of this presentation will be the quantitative results of a double-bounded contingent valuation analysis which reveals

  9. Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery for the Detection of Agricultural Crop Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassady, Philip E.; Perry, Eileen M.; Gardner, Margaret E.; Roberts, Dar A.

    2001-01-01

    Multispectral digital imagery from aircraft or satellite is presently being used to derive basic assessments of crop health for growers and others involved in the agricultural industry. Research indicates that narrow band stress indices derived from hyperspectral imagery should have improved sensitivity to provide more specific information on the type and cause of crop stress, Under funding from the NASA Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP) we are identifying and evaluating scientific and commercial applications of hyperspectral imagery for the remote characterization of agricultural crop stress. During the summer of 1999 a field experiment was conducted with varying nitrogen treatments on a production corn-field in eastern Nebraska. The AVIRIS (Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) hyperspectral imager was flown at two critical dates during crop development, at two different altitudes, providing images with approximately 18m pixels and 3m pixels. Simultaneous supporting soil and crop characterization included spectral reflectance measurements above the canopy, biomass characterization, soil sampling, and aerial photography. In this paper we describe the experiment and results, and examine the following three issues relative to the utility of hyperspectral imagery for scientific study and commercial crop stress products: (1) Accuracy of reflectance derived stress indices relative to conventional measures of stress. We compare reflectance-derived indices (both field radiometer and AVIRIS) with applied nitrogen and with leaf level measurement of nitrogen availability and chlorophyll concentrations over the experimental plots (4 replications of 5 different nitrogen levels); (2) Ability of the hyperspectral sensors to detect sub-pixel areas under crop stress. We applied the stress indices to both the 3m and 18m AVIRIS imagery for the entire production corn field using several sub-pixel areas within the field to compare the relative

  10. Monitoring Areal Snow Cover Using NASA Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harshburger, Brian J.; Blandford, Troy; Moore, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop products and tools to assist in the hydrologic modeling process, including tools to help prepare inputs for hydrologic models and improved methods for the visualization of streamflow forecasts. In addition, this project will facilitate the use of NASA satellite imagery (primarily snow cover imagery) by other federal and state agencies with operational streamflow forecasting responsibilities. A GIS software toolkit for monitoring areal snow cover extent and producing streamflow forecasts is being developed. This toolkit will be packaged as multiple extensions for ArcGIS 9.x and an opensource GIS software package. The toolkit will provide users with a means for ingesting NASA EOS satellite imagery (snow cover analysis), preparing hydrologic model inputs, and visualizing streamflow forecasts. Primary products include a software tool for predicting the presence of snow under clouds in satellite images; a software tool for producing gridded temperature and precipitation forecasts; and a suite of tools for visualizing hydrologic model forecasting results. The toolkit will be an expert system designed for operational users that need to generate accurate streamflow forecasts in a timely manner. The Remote Sensing of Snow Cover Toolbar will ingest snow cover imagery from multiple sources, including the MODIS Operational Snowcover Data and convert them to gridded datasets that can be readily used. Statistical techniques will then be applied to the gridded snow cover data to predict the presence of snow under cloud cover. The toolbar has the ability to ingest both binary and fractional snow cover data. Binary mapping techniques use a set of thresholds to determine whether a pixel contains snow or no snow. Fractional mapping techniques provide information regarding the percentage of each pixel that is covered with snow. After the imagery has been ingested, physiographic data is attached to each cell in the snow cover image. This data

  11. Sub-meter Commercial Imagery Coverage for the Earth's Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, P. J.; Peterman, K.

    2013-12-01

    A complete, high resolution satellite imagery view of the Earth's Polar Regions is important to understand a wide variety of scientific, logistical and geospatial problems. To address this need, near complete sub-meter licensed commercial imagery coverage of the Earth's Polar Regions and all ice on earth is now available to US federal employees and US federally funded researchers with a US federal purpose through the NGA Commercial Imagery Program and the Polar Geospatial Center. Included are historical sub-meter mono and stereo imagery from DigitalGlobe, Inc.'s IKONOS, Geoeye-1, and Quickbird as well as historical imagery and new collects from Worldview-1 and 2. The imagery is available in both 'unprocessed' and orthorectified formats. The orthos are both image strips and mosaics. An orthomosaic of the earth became available in August. Additionally, multispectral imagery is aquired by NGA from WV-2 (8 band) and IKONOS (4 band) with every pan shot. The Polar Geospatial Center has developed the capacity to process as many as 5000 scenes or approximately one third of the US lower 48 states a day. This enables researchers to request imagery for large geographic areas to be custom processed to their specifications. To make this imagery more easily accessible for researchers, the Polar Geospatial Center has developed an imagery mosaic, viewer and web services for 60% of Antarctica, 80% of Greenland and 50% of Alaska. Areas are updated as new imagery is collected. We will discuss data access requirements and limitations, current capabilities, and future direction.

  12. Motor imagery muscle contraction strength influences spinal motor neuron excitability and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity

    PubMed Central

    Bunno, Yoshibumi; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Iwatsuki, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in spinal motor neuron excitability and autonomic nervous system activity during motor imagery of isometric thenar muscle activity at 10% and 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). [Methods] The F-waves and low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio were recorded at rest, during motor imagery, and post-trial. For motor imagery trials, subjects were instructed to imagine thenar muscle activity at 10% and 50% MVC while holding the sensor of a pinch meter for 5 min. [Results] The F-waves and LF/HF ratio during motor imagery at 50% MVC were significantly increased compared with those at rest, whereas those during motor imagery at 10% MVC were not significantly different from those at rest. The relative values of the F/M amplitude ratio during motor imagery at 50% MVC were significantly higher than those at 10% MVC. The relative values of persistence and the LF/HF ratio during motor imagery were similar during motor imagery at the two muscle contraction strengths. [Conclusion] Motor imagery can increase the spinal motor neuron excitability and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity. Motor imagery at 50% MVC may be more effective than motor imagery at 10% MVC. PMID:26834354

  13. The Study of Object-Oriented Motor Imagery Based on EEG Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lili; Wang, Jing; Xu, Guanghua; Li, Min; Xie, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Motor imagery is a conventional method for brain computer interface and motor learning. To avoid the great individual difference of the motor imagery ability, object-oriented motor imagery was applied, and the effects were studied. Kinesthetic motor imagery and visual observation were administered to 15 healthy volunteers. The EEG during cue-based simple imagery (SI), object-oriented motor imagery (OI), non-object-oriented motor imagery (NI) and visual observation (VO) was recorded. Study results showed that OI and NI presented significant contralateral suppression in mu rhythm (p < 0.05). Besides, OI exhibited significant contralateral suppression in beta rhythm (p < 0.05). While no significant mu or beta contralateral suppression could be found during VO or SI (p > 0.05). Compared with NI, OI showed significant difference (p < 0.05) in mu rhythm and weak significant difference (p = 0.0612) in beta rhythm over the contralateral hemisphere. The ability of motor imagery can be reflected by the suppression degree of mu and beta frequencies which are the motor related rhythms. Thus, greater enhancement of activation in mirror neuron system is involved in response to object-oriented motor imagery. The object-oriented motor imagery is favorable for improvement of motor imagery ability. PMID:26641241

  14. Motor imagery of hand actions: Decoding the content of motor imagery from brain activity in frontal and parietal motor areas

    PubMed Central

    Pilgramm, Sebastian; de Haas, Benjamin; Helm, Fabian; Zentgraf, Karen; Stark, Rudolf; Munzert, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    Abstract How motor maps are organized while imagining actions is an intensely debated issue. It is particularly unclear whether motor imagery relies on action‐specific representations in premotor and posterior parietal cortices. This study tackled this issue by attempting to decode the content of motor imagery from spatial patterns of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signals recorded in the frontoparietal motor imagery network. During fMRI‐scanning, 20 right‐handed volunteers worked on three experimental conditions and one baseline condition. In the experimental conditions, they had to imagine three different types of right‐hand actions: an aiming movement, an extension–flexion movement, and a squeezing movement. The identity of imagined actions was decoded from the spatial patterns of BOLD signals they evoked in premotor and posterior parietal cortices using multivoxel pattern analysis. Results showed that the content of motor imagery (i.e., the action type) could be decoded significantly above chance level from the spatial patterns of BOLD signals in both frontal (PMC, M1) and parietal areas (SPL, IPL, IPS). An exploratory searchlight analysis revealed significant clusters motor‐ and motor‐associated cortices, as well as in visual cortices. Hence, the data provide evidence that patterns of activity within premotor and posterior parietal cortex vary systematically with the specific type of hand action being imagined. Hum Brain Mapp 37:81–93, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26452176

  15. Motor imagery of hand actions: Decoding the content of motor imagery from brain activity in frontal and parietal motor areas.

    PubMed

    Pilgramm, Sebastian; de Haas, Benjamin; Helm, Fabian; Zentgraf, Karen; Stark, Rudolf; Munzert, Jörn; Krüger, Britta

    2016-01-01

    How motor maps are organized while imagining actions is an intensely debated issue. It is particularly unclear whether motor imagery relies on action-specific representations in premotor and posterior parietal cortices. This study tackled this issue by attempting to decode the content of motor imagery from spatial patterns of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signals recorded in the frontoparietal motor imagery network. During fMRI-scanning, 20 right-handed volunteers worked on three experimental conditions and one baseline condition. In the experimental conditions, they had to imagine three different types of right-hand actions: an aiming movement, an extension-flexion movement, and a squeezing movement. The identity of imagined actions was decoded from the spatial patterns of BOLD signals they evoked in premotor and posterior parietal cortices using multivoxel pattern analysis. Results showed that the content of motor imagery (i.e., the action type) could be decoded significantly above chance level from the spatial patterns of BOLD signals in both frontal (PMC, M1) and parietal areas (SPL, IPL, IPS). An exploratory searchlight analysis revealed significant clusters motor- and motor-associated cortices, as well as in visual cortices. Hence, the data provide evidence that patterns of activity within premotor and posterior parietal cortex vary systematically with the specific type of hand action being imagined. PMID:26452176

  16. Interference Effects Demonstrate Distinct Roles for Visual and Motor Imagery during the Mental Representation of Human Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments were completed to characterize the utilization of visual imagery and motor imagery during the mental representation of human action. In Experiment 1, movement time functions for a motor imagery human locomotion task conformed to a speed-accuracy trade-off similar to Fitts' Law, whereas those for a visual imagery object motion task…

  17. Systèmes d'imagerie à haute résolution dans le domaine des Rayons X pour le Laser Mégajoule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champeaux, J.-Ph.; Troussel, Ph.; Boutin, J.-Y.; Lidove, G.; Marmoret, R.; Soullié, G.; Rosch, R.

    2006-12-01

    Le principe de la fusion par confinement inertiel consiste à faire imploser une cible sphérique de petite taille, millimétrique, remplie d'un mélange de deutérium et de tritium sous l'action des 240 faisceaux lasers impulsionnels de très grande puissance du LMJ. Les études de cette physique d'implosion (mise en vitesse, symétrie d'implosion, instabilités hydrodynamiques) et de l'allumage (traceurs, point chaud) font appel aux techniques de l'imagerie et de la radiographie à haute résolution spatiale (μm) et temporelle (ps) avec sélection spectrale dans le domaine d'énergie de photons comprise entre 100 eV et 20 keV. Plusieurs Systèmes d'Imagerie X (SIX), à haute résolution spatiale, ont donc été développés par le CEA-DIF et mis en œuvre sur la Ligne d'Intégration Laser (LIL) implantée au CEA-CESTA. Dans cet article nous présentons les principaux SIX, à base de microscopes à miroirs. Un exemple de microscope prototype nommé PIXEL (Plasma Imageur X pour les Expériences Lasers) développé pour le LMJ est présenté. Nous portons l'accent sur les problèmes technologiques liés à l'environnement LMJ.

  18. The Role of Prostate Apoptosis Response-4 (Par-4) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infected Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Han, Ji-Ye; Lim, Yun-Ji; Choi, Ji-Ae; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Jo, Sung-Hee; Oh, Sung-Man; Song, Chang-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a tumor suppressor protein that forms a complex with glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) to induce apoptosis. Previously, we reported that ER stress-induced apoptosis is a critical host defense mechanism against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We sought to understand the role of Par-4 during ER stress-induced apoptosis in response to mycobacterial infection. Par-4 and GRP78 protein levels increased in response Mtb (strain: H37Ra) infection. Furthermore, Par-4 and GRP78 translocate to the surface of Mtb H37Ra-infected macrophages and induce apoptosis via caspase activation. NF-κB activation, Mtb-mediated ER stress, and Par-4 production were significantly diminished in macrophages with inhibited ROS production. To test Par-4 function during mycobacterial infection, we analyzed intracellular survival of Mtb H37Ra in macrophages with Par-4 overexpression or knockdown. Mtb H37Ra growth was significantly reduced in Par-4 overexpressing macrophages and increased in knockdown macrophages. We also observed increased Par-4, GRP78, and caspases activation in Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-infected prostate cancer cells. Our data demonstrate that Par-4 is associated with ER stress-induced apoptosis resulting in reduced intracellular survival of mycobacteria. BCG treatment increases Par-4-dependent caspase activation in prostate cancer cells. These results suggest ER stress-induced Par-4 acts as an important defense mechanism against mycobacterial infection and regulates cancer. PMID:27552917

  19. The Role of Prostate Apoptosis Response-4 (Par-4) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ji-Ye; Lim, Yun-Ji; Choi, Ji-Ae; Lee, Jung-hwan; Jo, Sung-Hee; Oh, Sung-Man; Song, Chang-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a tumor suppressor protein that forms a complex with glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) to induce apoptosis. Previously, we reported that ER stress-induced apoptosis is a critical host defense mechanism against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We sought to understand the role of Par-4 during ER stress-induced apoptosis in response to mycobacterial infection. Par-4 and GRP78 protein levels increased in response Mtb (strain: H37Ra) infection. Furthermore, Par-4 and GRP78 translocate to the surface of Mtb H37Ra-infected macrophages and induce apoptosis via caspase activation. NF-κB activation, Mtb-mediated ER stress, and Par-4 production were significantly diminished in macrophages with inhibited ROS production. To test Par-4 function during mycobacterial infection, we analyzed intracellular survival of Mtb H37Ra in macrophages with Par-4 overexpression or knockdown. Mtb H37Ra growth was significantly reduced in Par-4 overexpressing macrophages and increased in knockdown macrophages. We also observed increased Par-4, GRP78, and caspases activation in Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-infected prostate cancer cells. Our data demonstrate that Par-4 is associated with ER stress-induced apoptosis resulting in reduced intracellular survival of mycobacteria. BCG treatment increases Par-4-dependent caspase activation in prostate cancer cells. These results suggest ER stress-induced Par-4 acts as an important defense mechanism against mycobacterial infection and regulates cancer. PMID:27552917

  20. Is There an "F" in Your PAR? Understanding, Teaching and Doing Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzetti, Liza; Walsh, Christine Ann

    2014-01-01

    Participatory Action Research (PAR) is increasingly recognized within academic research and pedagogy. What are the benefits of including feminism within participatory action research and teaching? In responding to this question, we discuss the similarities and salient differences between PAR and feminist informed PAR (FPAR). There are eight themes…