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Sample records for annee francais langue

  1. Dictionnaires du francais langue etrangere (Dictionaries for French as a Second Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Gaston; Ibrahim, Amr

    1981-01-01

    Examines the purposes served by native language dictionaries as an introduction to the review of three monolingual French dictionaries for foreigners. Devotes particular attention to the most recent, the "Dictionnaire du francais langue etrangere", published by Larousse. Stresses the characteristics that are considered desirable for this type of…

  2. Dictionnaires du francais langue etrangere (Dictionaries for French as a Second Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Gaston; Ibrahim, Amr

    1981-01-01

    Examines the purposes served by native language dictionaries as an introduction to the review of three monolingual French dictionaries for foreigners. Devotes particular attention to the most recent, the "Dictionnaire du francais langue etrangere", published by Larousse. Stresses the characteristics that are considered desirable for this type of…

  3. Modeles de rendement langagier--Francais langue premiere: 9e annee (Models of Linguistic Production--French as a Native Language: 9th Grade).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    Aligned with its 1998 standards for first and second language learning, Alberta Learning has published lesson plans that aim for a closer relationship between learning and evaluation. Each volume in this series presents a specific task for students that involves planning, carrying out and evaluating their work. The task for ninth grade students…

  4. Problemes en enseignement fonctionnel des langues (Problems in the Functional Teaching of Languages). Publication B-103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Gerardo, Ed.; Huot, Diane, Ed.

    Articles include: (1) "L'elaboration du materiel pedagogique pour des publics adultes" (The Elaboration of Teaching Materials for the Adult Public) by G. Painchaud-Leblanc, (2) "L'elaboration d'un programme d'etudes en francais langue seconde a partir des donnees recentes en didactique des langues" (The Elaboration of a Program of Study in French…

  5. French as a Second Language. Teacher Resource Manual: Early Childhood Services-Grade 12 = Francais langue seconde: guide d'enseignement de la maternelle a la 12e annee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caouette, Lisa

    This reference guide provides Alberta (Canada) teachers of French as a Second Language with instructional ideas and teaching methods. The guide outlines features of Alberta's new French curriculum, describes pedagogical principles behind the program's philosophy, and proposes a methodology for instructional planning consistent with the curriculum.…

  6. French as a Second Language. Student Evaluation Guide: Early Childhood Services-Grade 12 = Francais langue seconde: guide d'evaluation des eleves de la maternelle a la 12e annee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandergrift, Larry

    The guide is designed as a reference to student evaluation for teachers of Alberta's new French second language curriculum. It provides a suggested philosophy of student evaluation and evaluation techniques consistent with the curriculum. It is presented in its entirety in both English and French. An initial discussion of the purpose of evaluation…

  7. RELIEF: Revue de linguistique et d'enseignement du francais (Review of Linguistics and French Language Instruction), 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, M., Ed.; Haillet, P., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Contains five articles, all in French, reporting research on French second language instruction. "Francophonie et francais langue seconde a l'oral: quel(s) culture(s), quelles methodes?" (Francophony and Spoken French as a Second Language: What Cultures(s), What Method(s) (D. Issa-Sayegh) discusses the content and structure of a university course…

  8. RELIEF: Revue de linguistique et d'enseignement du francais (Review of Linguistics and French Language Instruction), 1991-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haillet, P., Ed.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This document consists of the first two issues of the journal RELIEF. Each issue contains four articles. All articles deal with French second language instruction: (1) "Utiliser la presse ecrite en classe de francais-langue seconde (Using the Print Media in French Second Language Class)" (H. Canto); (2) "Une lecon de grammaire facile a concevoir,…

  9. Les emissions de radio et de television en langue francaise pour l'enseignement du francais et pour la diffusion de la culture francaise (French Language Radio and Television Broadcasts for French Language Instruction and for the Diffusion of the French Culture).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thureau, Josiane; Koesten, Leo

    1980-01-01

    Provides a listing of radio and television programs that teach French language and civilization, the result of two worldwide surveys, one conducted by "Le Francais dans le Monde," the other by the French Foreign Affairs Ministry. The programs are listed alphabetically by country and accompanied by a brief description. (MES)

  10. French: An Accommodating Language? = Le Francais: Langue D'Accueil?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sue, Ed.

    This bilingual book considers recent developments in French attitudes towards language purism, borrowing, and the incursion of English. The book begins with an essay by French sociolinguist Henriette Walter, and most of the following essays are direct responses to her ideas. All chapters are provided in French and English. Chapter titles include…

  11. French: An Accommodating Language? = Le Francais: Langue D'Accueil?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sue, Ed.

    This bilingual book considers recent developments in French attitudes towards language purism, borrowing, and the incursion of English. The book begins with an essay by French sociolinguist Henriette Walter, and most of the following essays are direct responses to her ideas. All chapters are provided in French and English. Chapter titles include…

  12. "Francais Langue Seconde": From Functional Categories to Functionalist Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschensohn, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Four recent volumes on acquisition of French by different populations cover a range of areas, particularly the development of verbal tense/agreement and nominal gender/concord in first language (L1) acquirers, as opposed to second language (L2) learners; the generalizability of grammatical deficits (e.g. difficulty acquiring parametrized features…

  13. "Francais Langue Seconde": From Functional Categories to Functionalist Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschensohn, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Four recent volumes on acquisition of French by different populations cover a range of areas, particularly the development of verbal tense/agreement and nominal gender/concord in first language (L1) acquirers, as opposed to second language (L2) learners; the generalizability of grammatical deficits (e.g. difficulty acquiring parametrized features…

  14. Le Francais Courant: Part V, French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in French for use with "Le Francais Courant: Part 5" focus on the development of mastery of the basic numbering system and other grammatical structures. Structures include the formation of the present tense of the irregular verbs "vouloir,""pouvoir," and "venir,"…

  15. Le Francais Moderne: Part I, French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in French for use with "Le Francais Moderne: Part 1" focus on the development of vocabulary and mastery of grammatical structures. The formation of the passe compose with "avoir," object pronouns, the present tense of regular "-ir" verbs, and the irregular verbs…

  16. Le Francais Courant: Part V, French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in French for use with "Le Francais Courant: Part 5" focus on the development of mastery of the basic numbering system and other grammatical structures. Structures include the formation of the present tense of the irregular verbs "vouloir,""pouvoir," and "venir,"…

  17. Le Francais Moderne: Part I, French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in French for use with "Le Francais Moderne: Part 1" focus on the development of vocabulary and mastery of grammatical structures. The formation of the passe compose with "avoir," object pronouns, the present tense of regular "-ir" verbs, and the irregular verbs…

  18. Neues "Francais fondamental?" Das Europa-Projekt "Un niveau seuil." (A New "Francais fondamental?" The European Project "A Threshold Level").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raasch, Albert

    1978-01-01

    The project "Threshold Level," initiated by the Council of Europe in 1976, is compared with "Francais fondamental," comparing their aims and their differences. Offered as an interim statement, the article leaves open the question of whether Francais fondamental should be replaced by the the Threshold Level. (IFS/WGA)

  19. Les Instituts Francais en Allemagne Federale (The Instituts Francais in the Federal Republic of Germany)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tresse, Christian

    1975-01-01

    Describes the "Service Culturel" of the French Embassy in Bonn, and the Instituts Francais, which, in 20 West German cities, offer various courses. They are also centers of information, offering various materials for loan, counseling, entertainment, etc. A list of addresses is added. (Text is in French.) (IFS/WGA)

  20. Pour Enfant, Francais Langue Etrangere (French as a Foriegn Language for Children)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Charnace, Francoise

    1975-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists dictionaries, readers, and records for French as a foreign language for children. Each entry includes the author, publication date and source, if available. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  1. Les Fonctionnaires Europeens et L'Apprentissage du Francais, Langue Etrangere. Melanges Pedagogiques, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulfinger, F.

    This paper describes a teaching strategy involving authentic material in a semi-autonomous learning situation (European civil servants working in the Common Market Administrations in Brussels). A general description of the learners in terms of their backgrounds (ethnic, educational and social) and the conditions and surroundings of their learning…

  2. Francais: Langue de specialite: Gearing Commercial French for the World of 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finel-Honigman, Irene

    In the area of business-related language training, the United States lags behind Europe, where graduate business schools require at least one foreign language with business proficiency for graduation. In most United States institutions, the long-standing policy of departmentalization and a perceived dichotomy between the humanities and traditional…

  3. Le francais a Calgary: Making a Program Relevant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaremko, B.

    1974-01-01

    New material developed for use in French classrooms in Calgary, Alberta, junior high schools is described. "Le francais a Calgary" is a series of filmstrips and tapes prepared as a supplement to the first fourteen lessons of the course "Voix et Images de France." (Author/PP)

  4. Making "Wiggle Room" in French as a Second Language/Francais Langue Seconde: Reconfiguring Identity, Language, and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd Clark, Julie

    2010-01-01

    In this two-year ethnographic study, I critically examined the problematic nature of the construct French as a Second Language (FSL), drawing specifically from the lived experiences of Canadian youth of Italian origin, participating in a teacher education course to prepare teachers of French. Using discourse analysis of interviews, observations,…

  5. The Language Laboratory of the Ecole de Francais Moderne of the University of Lausanne

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guex, Andre

    1974-01-01

    This is a description of the materials developed for the language laboratory of the Ecole de Francais Moderne at the University of Lausanne. The tapes are designed to deal specifically with French phonetics, grammar, and lexicon. (AM)

  6. Grade 12 Diploma Examination. Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee. Complete Set, January 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    The Alberta (Canada) Department of Education issues "Grade 12 Diploma Examinations" for various disciplines every six months (dated January and June of each year). Except for the English and Francais examinations (which are issued only in their own language), the examinations are issued in an English edition and a French edition. The eight…

  7. Grade 12 Diploma Examination. Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee. Complete Set, January 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    The Alberta (Canada) Department of Education issues "Grade 12 Diploma Examinations" for various disciplines every six months (dated January and June of each year). Except for the English and Francais examinations (which are issued only in their own language), the examinations are issued in an English edition and a French edition. The eight…

  8. Evolution du francais au Quebec au cours des vingt dernieres annees (The Evolution of French in Quebec Over the Past Twenty Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darbelnet, Jean

    1975-01-01

    This is a survey of the evolution of Quebec French over the last twenty years away from anglicizations and toward a modernization which has a tendency to lessen the gap between it and International French. Examples are given of recent "refrancizations"; and reasons for, and obstacles to, this phenomenon are discussed. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  9. Programme des examens en vue du diplome. Bulletin de Francais 30, Annee scolaire 1989-90 (Program of Diploma Exams. French Bulletin 30, School Year 1989-90).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation and Records Branch.

    This guide to Alberta's French 30 standardized test describes the testing program and administration, the test parts, and test scoring for both teachers and students anticipating taking the test. Dates and times of test administration and scoring dates in 1990 are charted. The two parts of the test are described in some detail, including their…

  10. Un Exemple d'approche notionelle dans le cadre du francais fondamental (An Example of a Conceptual Approach within the Framework of "Le Francais fondamental")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combe-McBride, Nicole

    1977-01-01

    An inventory of grammatical and lexical units expressing the notion of place in "Le Francais fondamental," Level One. Interrelationships are discussed from the point of view of vocabulary patterns and syntax. There are numerous tables and examples of interrelated verbs, adverbs, nouns, and prepositions. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  11. Contacts de langues et representations (Language Contacts and Representations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthey, Marinette, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Essays on language contact and the image of language, entirely in French, include: "Representations 'du' contexte et representations 'en' contexte? Eleves et enseignants face a l'apprentissage de la langue" ("Representations 'of' Context or Representations 'in' Context? Students and Teachers Facing Language Learning" (Laurent Gajo); "Le crepuscule…

  12. Recognition of Langue des Signes Quebecoise in Eastern Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisot, Anne-Marie; Rinfret, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a portrait of two community-level and legal efforts in Canada to obtain official recognition of ASL and LSQ (Langue des signes quebecoise), both of which are recognized as official languages by the Canadian Association of the Deaf (CAD). In order to situate this issue in the Canadian linguistic context, the authors first…

  13. Leiomyosarcome de la langue: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    El jahd, Lahcen; Barhmi, Ismail; Tazi, Nabil; Rouadi, Sami; Abada, Reda; Roubal, Mohammed; janah, Abdelaziz; Mahtar, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Le léiomyosarcome primitif de la langue est une tumeur rare qui se développe aux dépens des fibres musculaires lisses. Le diagnostic est souvent difficile, fondé sur des caractéristiques immuno-histologiques particulières. L'objectif de ce travail est de décrire le profil épidémiologique, clinique, thérapeutique et évolutif du léiomyosarcome à travers un cas et une revue de la littérature. Nous rapportons le cas d'un homme âgé de 26 ans, sans antécédents pathologique particuliers, consultant pour une tuméfaction de la langue mobile évoluant depuis 2 ans. Une biopsie de la masse a été réalisée. L’étude anatomopathologique et immunohistochimique a confirmé le diagnostic d'un léiomyosarcome de la langue. L'IRM de la langue a objectivé un processus lesionnel intéressant la portion mobile et antérieur de la langue. Une exérèse de la masse a été réalisée. L'examen histologique a montré la présence d'un large néoplasme de 6 cm compatible à un léiomyosarcome peu différencié de la langue, de garde II selon la Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer (FNCLCC). Une radiothérapie externe sur la cavité buccale avec une dose de 65 Gy a été réalisée. Le patient a présenté 2 mois après la fin du traitement une adénopathie latéro-cervicale haute gauche (territoire II), il a bénéficié d'un curage ganglionnaire fonctionnel intéressant les territoires I, II et III puis réadressé en radiothérapie. Le léiomyosarcome de la langue est très rare surtout chez le sujet jeune. La chirurgie et la radiothérapie sont les armes thérapeutiques majeures. Le pronostic est très mauvais, Les facteurs les plus importants sont les marges d'exérèse et le grade. PMID:26600908

  14. Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee, Langue et Litterature 30. Partie A: Composition (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part A: Composition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the composition component of the January 1987 tests. Divided into three essay questions for a total writing time of two and one-half hours duration, parts one and two of the test…

  15. Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee. Langue et Litterature 30. Partie A: Composition (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part A: Composition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the composition component of the January 1988 tests. Divided into three essay questions for a total writing time of 2.5 hours duration, parts one and two of the test require…

  16. "Le Francais Des Affaires": At the Crossroads of US/EU Trade and Language Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finel-Honigman, Irene

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the need to enhance United States/European Union (EU) commercial and educational cooperation. Differences between US and EU language and trade policies are explored and the importance of plurilingualism in the global economy is examined. The role of the French Language, especially "Le francais des affaires," in facilitating access to the…

  17. The Lycee Francais in New York: A Showcase for the French-Speaking Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Florence

    2004-01-01

    In New York they say that the architecture of the new "Lycee francais" (serving French students from kindergarten through upper secondary education) was inspired by the rationalism of Descartes. What is beyond doubt, however, is that the design and materials chosen by the American firm of architects, "Polshek Partnership Architects," which…

  18. "Le Francais Des Affaires": At the Crossroads of US/EU Trade and Language Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finel-Honigman, Irene

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the need to enhance United States/European Union (EU) commercial and educational cooperation. Differences between US and EU language and trade policies are explored and the importance of plurilingualism in the global economy is examined. The role of the French Language, especially "Le francais des affaires," in facilitating access to the…

  19. The Lycee Francais in New York: A Showcase for the French-Speaking Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Florence

    2004-01-01

    In New York they say that the architecture of the new "Lycee francais" (serving French students from kindergarten through upper secondary education) was inspired by the rationalism of Descartes. What is beyond doubt, however, is that the design and materials chosen by the American firm of architects, "Polshek Partnership Architects," which…

  20. Le "Francais Populaire" and French as a Second Language: A Comparative Study of Language Simplification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenemer, Virginia Lynn

    The French of English speaking students of French as a second language is compared with "francais populaire" (FP) in order to determine similarities in their tendency toward simplified grammar and morphology. Simplifying characteristics that are typical of FP were obtained from French working class sources, while simplification patterns of French…

  1. Enseignement des langues et theories d'acquisition Sprachunterricht unde Spracherwerbstheorien. (Language Teaching and Acquisition Theories).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Alexander, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This collection of articles on language teaching and language acquisition theories includes: "Enseignement des langues et theories de l'acquisition. Introduction au colloque" ("Language Teaching and Theories of Acquisition. Introduction to the Colloquium") (Rene Richterich); "Apprendre une langue dans l'interaction verbale" ("Language Learning in…

  2. Langues et education en Afrique noire (Language and Education in Black Africa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearth, Thomas, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Papers on language and education in Black Africa include: "L'enseignement des et en langues nationales au Zaire. Bilan d'une experience" ("The Teaching of and in National Languages in Zaire. Results of an Experiment") (Andre Mbula Paluku); "Langues et education au Rwanda" ("Languages and Education in Rwanda") (Melchior Kanyamibwa); "Un modele…

  3. Vers une autonomie croissante de l'apprenant du francais langue etrangere (Toward an Increasing Autonomy of the French as a Foreign Language Learner)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeflaak, Arie; Verloop, Nico

    2000-01-01

    Investigates characteristics of spoken French texts. Experience teaching French as a foreign language has revealed that some university students, even at a relatively advanced level, have difficulty understanding the news on Radio France International. Suggests that three characteristics of the spoken news program that may cause students…

  4. "Peau d'Ane" videodisque interactif de francais, langue etrangere ("Donkey's Hide," an Interactive Videodisc in French as a Second Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrigues, Mylene

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of videodisc technology are outlined, and a project undertaken to create an interactive videodisc for French language instruction is described, including the efforts to eliminate physical barriers between the computer and the user, pedagogical strategy and material, programing technicalities, and other details of production.…

  5. Norme et orthographe dans la perspective du francais langue etrangere (Norm and Orthography from the Perspective of French as a Foreign Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catach, Nina

    1982-01-01

    It is impractical, unproductive, and unfair to persist in harsh criticism of spelling errors in French taught as a second language. It is more useful to reflect, with students, on the extremes of orthography in the language with the objective of learning from this exercise. (MSE)

  6. Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee, Langue et Litterature 30. Partie A: Composition (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part A: Composition). June 1988 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the composition component of the June 1988 tests. Divided into three essay questions for a total writing time of 2.5 hours duration, parts 1 and 2 of the test require essays that…

  7. Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee. Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Questions (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Questions Booklet.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the 80 multiple choice questions portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the January 1988 tests. Representing the genres of poetry, short story, novel, and…

  8. Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee, Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Textes (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Readings Booklet. June 1988 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this test, to be accompanied by the questions booklet, contains the reading selections portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the June 1988 tests. Representing the genres of…

  9. Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee, Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Questions (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Questions Booklet). June 1988 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the 80 multiple choice questions portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the June 1988 tests. Representing the genres of poetry, short story, the novel, and…

  10. Examen et Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee. Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Textes (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Text Booklet).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the reading selections portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the January 1988 tests. Representing the genres of poetry, short story, novel, and drama, the…

  11. Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee. Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Textes (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Text Booklet).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the reading selections portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the January 1987 tests. Representing the genres of poetry, short story, novel, and drama, the…

  12. Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee. Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Questions (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Questions Booklet).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the 80 multiple choice questions portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the January 1987 tests. Representing the genres of poetry, short story, the novel, and…

  13. D'une ouverture de la voyelle /epsilon/ en finale absolue en francais quebecois : analyse acoustique et perceptive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riverin-Coutlee, Josiane

    Cette contribution est consacree a l'ouverture du /epsilon/ en finale absolue, un phenomene phonetique repute etre en declin en francais quebecois et caracteristique de locuteurs âges, peu scolarises, issus de milieux populaires et s'exprimant en situation de communication informelle. Une analyse acoustique de 480 voyelles /epsilon/ issues de la parole formelle de 40 jeunes etudiants universitaires originaires des centres urbains de Saguenay et de Quebec revele toutefois que le phenomene est encore bien vivant en francais quebecois et qu'il est plus frequent chez les locuteurs de Saguenay, une tendance validee auditivement par accord inter-juges. Les resultats d'un test de discrimination et d'identification mene aupres de 26 etudiants universitaires originaires de ces deux memes villes indiquent que les auditeurs naifs de Saguenay semblent moins sensibles a la variation et moins enclins a juger de l'origine geographique d'un locuteur a partir de sa prononciation de la voyelle /epsilon/ en fin de mot.

  14. L'enseignement du francais en Republique Federale d'Allemagne (The Teaching of French in the Federal Republic of Germany). L'enseignement du francais dans les classes terminales des lycees allemands (The Teaching of French in the Final Year in German Schools).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Fritz; Lang, Jurgen

    Two papers describe two aspects of French foreign language instruction in West Germany. The first, "L'enseignement du francais en Republique Federale d'Allemagne" by Abel, deals with the institutional framework for French instruction in West Germany. A discussion of the instructional situation looks first at the history of French instruction since…

  15. De la Structure theorique de l'interlangue a l'apprentissage du francais langue etrangere (From the Theoretical Structure of Interlanguage to the Learning of French as a Foreign Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnot, Jean-Francois P.; Spa, Jaap J.

    1988-01-01

    Phonetic deviations occurring in the French of native Dutch-speaking university students are explained by a theory stating that every new rule entering the learner's linguistic competence produces a hypercorrective correlate. The theory is said to permit prediction of the differences in timing between foreign and native learning of French. (MSE)

  16. Bibliographie annotee 4-6--Francais langue seconde-immersion: Selection d'ouvrages de la litterature jeunesse. Supplement 2001 (Annotated Bibliography 4-6--French as a Second Language-Immersion: Selection of Works from Children's Literature. Supplement 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    The document comprises 42 inserts to be included in the List of Books (4-6) for French as a Second Language (Immersion)--a selection of works of youth literature--published by Alberta Learning in 2000. Thirty-seven of the items appeal to the world of imagination and esthetics, and five items are of an informative nature. An appendix, entitled "How…

  17. La Technologie au service de l'enseignement/apprentissage du francais langue seconde: Survol du projet RECALL, 1985-91 (Foreign Language Instruction and Learning and Educational Technology: Survey of Project RECALL, 1985-91).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducretet, Marie-Paule; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A French curriculum development and research project at Erindale College (Canada), established in 1985, studies and initiates incorporation of computer technology into the University of Toronto French program. Specific objectives include evaluation and adaptation of existing software, development of an undergraduate course in computer applications…

  18. Vue d'ensemble du programme d'enseignement par immersion partielle (francais, langue seconde) au Conseil Scolaire Lakeshore (An Overview of the Partial Immersion Educational Program [French, Second Language] in the Lakeshore School District)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malboeuf, Roger

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the program in grades 4-6. The objectives, particularly those concerning affective and psycho-motor development and communication, the role of the teacher, the division of time, and the subjects taught in English are discussed. Reasons for this kind of program organization are given. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  19. Le lexique anglais-francais de l'industrie miniere de l'Office de la langue francaise (The English-French Lexicon of the Mining Industry prepared by the Office of the French Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Louis-Jean

    1974-01-01

    This article describes research methods involved in compiling a lexicon of terms used in the mining industry. This consisted mainly in contrasting terms found in dictionaries with actual usage in spoken and written language. (Text is in French) (AM)

  20. Pratique intonative et utlisation d'un logiciel de visualisation dans un cours de prononciation en francais langue seconde: une etude descriptive (Practicing Pitch and Using Visualization Software in a French as a Second Language Pronunciation Course: A Descriptive Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoerr, Helene

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of a pitch visualization software in a pronunciation course in French as a second language. Outlines the software's characteristics and explains the methodological and pedagogical framework of the experiment. (Author/VWL)

  1. Repertoire de didacticiels de francais langue seconde ou etrangere publies entre 1980 et 1988 (List of Courseware for French as a Second or Foreign Language Published between 1980 and 1988). Publication K-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    H.-Lemonnier, France; And Others

    A listing of 97 items of courseware includes programs in seven categories, pertaining to: (1) vocabulary; (2) grammar; (3) verb conjugation; (4) syntax and/or morphosyntax; (5) reading and/or writing; (6) oral language; and (7) other areas of French second language instruction. Each citation includes the title, program type (e.g. drill, game),…

  2. Actes du colloque: Tendances actuelles de la recherche sur la langue parlee (Conference Presentations: Current Trends in Research on Oral Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auger, Julie, Ed.

    Student papers presented at a sociolinguistics conference include: "La variation phonologique [d'une voyelle] a Hull"; "La force illocutoire des pronoms personnels 'je' et 'tu' en tant qu'insignes des places d'ou parlent les femmes et les hommes"; "L'emploi des modes indicatif et subjonctif dans le francais parle de la ville de Quebec"; "A Study…

  3. L'enseignement de la langue maternelle dans les ecoles francaise aujourd'hui (The Teaching of the Native Language in French Schools Today).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Frank

    1979-01-01

    Describes the three methods of teaching French in elementary schools in France: the traditional, the Freinet, and the "Plan de renovation pour l'enseignement du francais." A description of a model for the l980s is given. Techniques influenced by sociolinguistics seem most suited to replace traditional methodology. (AMH)

  4. Evaluation d'une approche pedagogique respectant les facons d'apprendre des filles en sciences et en TIC en 9e annee au Nouveau-Brunswick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lirette-Pitre, Nicole T.

    2009-07-01

    La reussite scolaire des filles les amene de plus en plus a poursuivre une formation postsecondaire et a exercer des professions qui demandent un haut niveau de connaissances et d'expertise scientifique. Toutefois, les filles demeurent toujours tres peu nombreuses a envisager une carriere en sciences (chimie et physique), en ingenierie ou en TIC (technologie d'information et de la communication), soit une carriere reliee a la nouvelle economie. Pour plusieurs filles, les sciences et les TIC ne sont pas des matieres scolaires qu'elles trouvent interessantes meme si elles y reussissent tres bien. Ces filles admettent que leurs experiences d'apprentissage en sciences et en TIC ne leur ont pas permis de developper un interet ni de se sentir confiante en leurs habiletes a reussir dans ces matieres. Par consequent, peu de filles choisissent de poursuivre leurs etudes postsecondaires dans ces disciplines. La theorie sociocognitive du choix carriere a ete choisie comme modele theorique pour mieux comprendre quelles variables entrent en jeu lorsque les filles choisissent leur carriere. Notre etude a pour objet la conception et l'evaluation de l'efficacite d'un materiel pedagogique concu specifiquement pour ameliorer les experiences d'apprentissage en sciences et en TIC des filles de 9e annee au Nouveau-Brunswick. L'approche pedagogique privilegiee dans notre materiel a mis en oeuvre des strategies pedagogiques issues des meilleures pratiques que nous avons identifiees et qui visaient particulierement l'augmentation du sentiment d'auto-efficacite et de l'interet des filles pour ces disciplines. Ce materiel disponible par Internet a l'adresse http://www.umoncton.ca/lirettn/scientic est directement en lien avec le programme d'etudes en sciences de la nature de 9e annee du Nouveau-Brunswick. L'evaluation de l'efficacite de notre materiel pedagogique a ete faite selon deux grandes etapes methodologiques: 1) l'evaluation de l'utilisabilite et de la convivialite du materiel et 2) l'evaluation de l'effet du materiel en fonction de diverses variables reliees a l'interet et au sentiment d'auto-efficacite des filles en sciences et en TIC. Cette recherche s'est inscrite dans un paradigme pragmatique de recherche. Le pragmatisme a guide nos choix en ce qui a trait au modele de recherche et des techniques utilisees. Cette recherche a associe a la fois des techniques qualitatives et quantitatives, particulierement en ce qui concerne la collecte et l'analyse de donnees. Les donnees recueillies dans la premiere etape de l'evaluation de l'utilisabilite et de la convivialite du materiel par les enseignantes et les enseignants de sciences et les filles ont revele que le materiel concu est tres utilisable et convivial. Toutefois quelques petites ameliorations seront apportees a une version subsequente afin de faciliter davantage la navigation. Quant a l'evaluation des effets du materiel concu sur les variables reliees au sentiment d'auto-efficacite et aux interets lors de l'etape quasi experimentale, nos donnees qualitatives ont indique que ce materiel a eu des effets positifs sur le sentiment d'auto-efficacite et sur les interets des filles qui l'ont utilise. Toutefois, nos donnees quantitatives n'ont pas permis d'inferer un lien causal direct entre l'utilisation du materiel et l'augmentation du sentiment d'auto-efficacite et des interets des filles en sciences et en TIC. A la lumiere des resultats obtenus, nous avons conclu que le materiel a eu les effets escomptes. Donc, nous recommandons la creation et l'utilisation de materiel de ce genre dans toutes les classes de sciences de la 6e annee a la 12e annee au Nouveau-Brunswick.

  5. Motivations d'etude d'une langue etrangere a l'universite: Enquete sur le francais dans l'enseignement sur le francais dans l'enseignement superieur israelien (Reasons for Studying a Foreign Language at the University: Investigation of Advanced French Instruction in Israel).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Francine

    1995-01-01

    Presents a case study of the study of French at the University of Tel Aviv as an illustration of the cultural attitude toward foreign language learning. Knowledge of a foreign language elevates the student socially as the possessor of symbolic capital, establishing social differentiation between the possessors of that capital and others. (28…

  6. Enquete sur le language de l'enfant francais (Investigation of the Language of French Children): The Spoken Language of Nine-Year-Old French Children. A Word Count Based on the CREDIF Transcriptions. Document No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, R. W., Ed.; Wears, M., Ed.

    Transcriptions of recorded conversations of nine-year-old French children are analyzed and presented in this comparative word count. The actual count of the 55,588 word corpus is arranged alphabetically and contrasted with selected, identical words found in the Francais Fondamental word list. Proper nouns are listed separately at the end of the…

  7. L'Application des technologies nouvelles dans l'enseignement du Francais: Experiences et avenir (The Application of New Technologies in the Teaching of French: Experiences and the Future).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornum, Lis

    1989-01-01

    Describes UN MENU FRANCAIS, a teacher developed-computer program for students of French, and points out the advantages of using computers in the second language classroom, despite the poor pedagogical quality of most second language software currently available. An electronic mail correspondence between students in France and Denmark is described.…

  8. Enquete sur le language de l'enfant francais (Investigation of the Language of French Children): The Spoken Language of Nine-Year-Old French Children. A Word Count Based on the CREDIF Transcriptions. Document No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, R. W., Ed.; Wears, M., Ed.

    Transcriptions of recorded conversations of nine-year-old French children are analyzed and presented in this comparative word count. The actual count of the 55,588 word corpus is arranged alphabetically and contrasted with selected, identical words found in the Francais Fondamental word list. Proper nouns are listed separately at the end of the…

  9. L'Application des technologies nouvelles dans l'enseignement du Francais: Experiences et avenir (The Application of New Technologies in the Teaching of French: Experiences and the Future).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornum, Lis

    1989-01-01

    Describes UN MENU FRANCAIS, a teacher developed-computer program for students of French, and points out the advantages of using computers in the second language classroom, despite the poor pedagogical quality of most second language software currently available. An electronic mail correspondence between students in France and Denmark is described.…

  10. Proceedings: Pacific Northwest Council on Foreign Languages. Volume XXX, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Gertrud S., Ed.

    The following papers of relevance to second language instruction are compiled here: (1) "Bilingual Math in a Monolingual Classroom: A Field Study," by Elizabeth M. Baricevic; (2) "Ideologie et pedagogie: reflexions sur le manuel de francais au programme de '3e annee secondaire' en Algerie," by Jeanne Adam; (3) "Pedagogic Grammar and Applied…

  11. Proceedings: Pacific Northwest Council on Foreign Languages. Volume XXX, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Gertrud S., Ed.

    The following papers of relevance to second language instruction are compiled here: (1) "Bilingual Math in a Monolingual Classroom: A Field Study," by Elizabeth M. Baricevic; (2) "Ideologie et pedagogie: reflexions sur le manuel de francais au programme de '3e annee secondaire' en Algerie," by Jeanne Adam; (3) "Pedagogic Grammar and Applied…

  12. Vers une Redefinition de la Comprehension Ecrite en Langue Etrangere (Towards a Redefinition of Reading Comprehension in a Foreign Language). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abe, D.; And Others

    Up to the present, the Centre de Recherches et d'Applications Pedagogiques en Langues has approached the development of reading comprehension skills in English as a second language in terms of morpho-syntactic development. This article proposes to examine difficulties in reading comprehension based not on morpho-syntax but on the textual and…

  13. Les mecanismes psychologiques sous-jacents a l'apprentissage d'une langue seconde (The Psychological Mechanisms Related to the Learning of a Second Language). Publication B-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gendron, Jean-Denis, Ed.; Vigneault, Richard, Ed.

    Articles include: (1) "Variables psychologiques et sociales reliees a l'apprentissage d'une langue seconde par l'immigrant adulte en situation scolaire" (Psychological and Social Variables Related to the Learning of a Second Language by the Adult Immigrant in the Academic Situation) by A. d'Anglejan and C. Renaud, (2) "Les contacts…

  14. Actes du colloque sur la didactique des langues aujourdi'hui: Pratiques et realite. (29 Sept./1 Oct. 1983) [Proceedings of a Colloquium on the Teaching of Modern Languages Today: Practice and Reality. (September 29-October 1, 1983)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travaux Neuchatelois de Linguistique (TRANEL), 1984

    1984-01-01

    The eight papers in this collection include: "Un enseignant de langues a la recherche de la pierre philosophale" (A Language Teacher in Search of the Philosopher's Stone); "Apprentissage autodirige: Compte rendu d'experience 1978-83" (Self-Directed Learning: Report of Experience 1978-83); "Teaching Without a Language Syllabus But With a Linguistic…

  15. Tu peux compter sur moi: Guide a l'intention du parent pour l'accompagnement de l'enfant dans son education en francais langue premiere (You Can Count on Me: Guide for Parents for Accompanying Their Child in French as a First Language Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federation des parents francophones de l'Alberta, Edmonton (Canada).

    This guidebook is intended for parents of French-speaking students in Alberta. It describes French-as-a-first-language education in Alberta and provides information to help parents, in collaboration with school personnel and the wider francophone community in Alberta, to preserve and develop their children's identity as speakers of French and as…

  16. Francais langue seconde: trousse d'evaluation--tests modeles pour les cours: French 31a (Avance 7); French 31b (Avance 8); French 31c (Avance 9) (French as a Second Language: Evaluation Resource Package--Model Tests for the Courses: French 31a (Advanced 7); French 31b (Advanced 8); French 31c (Advanced 9)).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    The French as a Second Language model tests for advanced levels 7, 8, and 9 were designed to evaluate students' language performance, as outlined in the program of studies for Alberta, Canada, in listening and reading comprehension and oral and written production, communication skills, culture, language and general language knowledge. The tests…

  17. Bureau for International Language Coordination (BILC) Bulletin No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, J., Ed.

    This is the second bulletin in a series dealing with international issues in language instruction in the military. Articles include: (1) "L'Enseignement des langues (etrangeres) dans les Forces Armees Belges," (2) "La Morphologic de la Conjugaison ecrite simple en francais contemporain: evantail des cas et rendement des categories," (3) "Data…

  18. Apprenez la Science en Francais?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Juliet; Jacobs, Pippa

    2011-01-01

    The authors explain why integrating the teaching of science and French is not as ridiculous as it may at first sound. They describe how this innovative integrated approach works in a primary school in Oxfordshire. The project involves Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). CLIL is a method whereby a curriculum subject is planned and…

  19. Apprenez la Science en Francais?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Juliet; Jacobs, Pippa

    2011-01-01

    The authors explain why integrating the teaching of science and French is not as ridiculous as it may at first sound. They describe how this innovative integrated approach works in a primary school in Oxfordshire. The project involves Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). CLIL is a method whereby a curriculum subject is planned and…

  20. Integration des sciences et de la langue: Creation et experimentation d'un modele pedagogique pour ameliorer l'apprentissage des sciences en milieu francophone minoritaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Marianne

    Les faibles resultats en sciences des eleves du milieu francophone minoritaire, lors d'epreuves au plan national et international, ont interpelle la recherche de solutions. Cette these avait pour but de creer et d'experimenter un modele pedagogique pour l'enseignement des sciences en milieu linguistique minoritaire. En raison de la presence de divers degres de francite chez la clientele scolaire de ce milieu, plusieurs elements langagiers (l'ecriture, la discussion et la lecture) ont ete integres a l'apprentissage scientifique. Nous avions recommande de commencer le processus d'apprentissage avec des elements langagiers plutot informels (redaction dans un journal, discussions en dyades...) pour progresser vers des activites langagieres plus formelles (redaction de rapports ou d'explications scientifiques). En ce qui a trait a l'apprentissage scientifique, le modele preconisait une demarche d'evolution conceptuelle d'inspiration socio-constructiviste tout en s'appuyant fortement sur l'apprentissage experientiel. Lors de l'experimentation du modele, nous voulions savoir si celui-ci provoquait une evolution conceptuelle chez les eleves, et si, simultanement, le vocabulaire scientifique de ces derniers s'enrichissait. Par ailleurs, nous cherchions a comprendre comment les eleves vivaient leurs apprentissages dans le cadre de ce modele pedagogique. Une classe de cinquieme annee de l'ecole de Grande-Digue, dans le Sud-est du Nouveau-Brunswick, a participe a la mise a l'essai du modele en etudiant les marais sales locaux. Lors d'entrevues initiales, nous avons remarque que les connaissances des eleves au sujet des marais sales etaient limitees. En effet, s'ils etaient conscients que les marais etaient des lieux naturels, ils ne pouvaient pas necessairement les decrire avec precision. Nous avons egalement constate que les eleves utilisaient surtout des mots communs (plantes, oiseaux, insectes) pour decrire le marais. Les resultats obtenus indiquent que les eleves ont progresse dans leurs conceptions au sujet des marais. A la suite de l'intervention pedagogique, ils peuvent decrire le marais de facon comparable a des scientifiques en mettant a profit des mots scientifiques (spartine alterniflore, detritus, chevalier a pattes jaunes). Selon nous, les apprentissages des eleves s'expliquent surtout par la juxtaposition, dans le modele pedagogique, des elements langagiers avec une demarche de changement conceptuel a caractere experientiel. En effet, lors de cette demarche, les eleves se sont beaucoup questionnes, ont ecrit leurs reflexions, discute de leurs preoccupations et consulte des documents. Ces activites langagieres se sont deroulees directement dans le marais ainsi qu'a la suite de visites dans celui-ci. Ainsi, la possibilite de decouverte a ete reelle pour eux. Ces differents elements se sont combines pour creer une forte motivation. Le tout s'est arrime pour permettre une evolution conceptuelle et langagiere. Le modele pedagogique experimente pourrait ainsi s'averer tres fecond aupres des eleves du milieu linguistique minoritaire.

  1. L'interdisciplinarite en sciences sociales pour l'etude du contact des langues (Interdisciplinarity in Social Sciences of the Study of the Relationships of Languages). Proceedings of a Colloquium of the International Center for Research on Bilingualism and the Institute for Interethnic and Intercultural Studies and Research (2nd, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, October 1-5, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prujiner, Alain, Ed.

    Papers given at an international conference applying the social sciences to the study of the relationships of languages include the following: "Reseaux sociaux et comportements langagiers en milieu de contact des langues" ("Social Networks and Language Behaviors in a Language Contact Setting") by M. Blanc and J. Hamers, with commentary by R.…

  2. Le Francais quand meme (French Nonetheless).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delautier, Jean-Marie

    1983-01-01

    Political, attitudinal, and administrative problems of teaching compulsory foreign languages in Colombia are described and discussed from the point of view of a French teacher in a system characterized by confusion and lack of student interest. (MSE)

  3. Les affaires "en francais" (Business "In French").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanko, Helene N.

    1993-01-01

    A French brochure entitled "700 Current Words for Business" was developed to familiarize the business community with modern French business vocabulary and avoid intrusion of terminology from other languages. Some terms are neologisms. Translations from Latin, Japanese, and English illustrate the etymology and morphological patterns of some idioms…

  4. Pourquoi le francais et quel francais au Maroc? (Why French and Which French in Morocco?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akouaou, Ahmed

    1984-01-01

    The status of French in Morocco is ambiguous: it is neither an official language nor a foreign language, and it would benefit greatly from an official definition that would allow a variety of language conflicts to be resolved. (MSE)

  5. Traumatismes Oculaires par Petards: Bilan sur Trois Annees

    PubMed Central

    Zouaoui-Kesraoui, N.; Derdour, A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Les accidents dus aux pétards sont des accidents graves. Leur recrudescence ces dernières années en Algérie, essentiellement durant les fêtes du Mawlid Ennabaoui (fête de la naissance du prophète), mérite à notre sens d'entreprendre des bilans exhaustifs dont celui-ci dans le but d'une sensibilisation de toutes les compétences concernées. Nous avons réuni sur trois années consécutives (2002, 2003, 2004) 60 dossiers de malades ayant subi des accidents oculaires par pétards. Nos patients sont répartis en 42 consultations pour blessures légères et 18 hospitalisations pour blessures graves. Parmi ces derniers, neuf ont présenté des complications et séquelles graves (cinq cas de cécité par atrophie du globe oculaire, trois cas de cécité cornéenne et un cas de cécité par trou maculaire). Dans tous ces cas l'incapacité permanente partielle est au minimum de 30%. Au vu de ces données nous proposons des mesures d'éducation sanitaire et une sensibilisation du grand public aux traumatismes oculaires, par le biais de mé dias appropriés: radio, télévision, affiches. PMID:21991157

  6. LANGUE AND PAROLE IN AMERICAN LINGUISTICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEVIN, SAMUEL R.

    THE PROBLEM OF THE NATURE OF LANGUAGE STRUCTURE IS CONSIDERED AND THE FORM WHICH ANY LINGUISTIC DESCRIPTION SHOULD TAKE. THE AUTHOR EXAMINES THE INFLUENCE OF THE SWISS LINGUIST, FERDINAND DE SAUSSURE, ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN LINGUISTICS. THE QUESTION OF "MENTALISM" IN LINGUISTICS IS REDUCED TO THE PROBLEM OF WHETHER LINGUISTIC TREATMENT…

  7. Pourquoi les langues etrangeres (Why Foreign Languages)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deth, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The 'Association Linguistique Franco-Europeenne' analyzed 1600 questionnaires completed by French students to find out the motives for choosing the languages they study versus which languages they would like to study. The results are tabulated. The general conclusion is that multilingualism is beneficial to world peace and should be encouraged.…

  8. L'autonomie syntaxique en francais (Syntactic Autonomy in French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aymard, Colette

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the nature of the syntactic-autonomy in French, that is, the absence of a correlation between the position of an element in a sequence of discourse and its relative function. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  9. Vers un nouveau phonetisme francais (Toward a New French Phonetics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnot, Michel; Kite, Francoise

    1976-01-01

    Evolutionary changes in French pronunciation have necessitated changes in phonetic representation. The new articulatory phenomena involve modifications in syllabic structure and in consonant/vowel relationship. (Text is in French.) (DB)

  10. Parier sur le francais fonctionnel (Betting on Functional French).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larramendy, Jean-Louis

    1990-01-01

    A discussion of second-language learning looks at the role of functional French in the acquisition of French as a second or foreign language. The choice and implementation of a Vygotskian approach using the study of electricity is described. (MSE)

  11. Programme des examens-Diplome de 12e annee. Mathematiques & Sciences. Annee scolaire 1986-87 (Grade 12 Diploma Examination. Mathematics & Sciences. Academic Year 1986-87).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation and Data Processing Branch.

    Information about the diploma examinations in Mathematics 30, Biology 30, Chemistry 30, and Physics 30 that will be administered during January, June, and August, 1987, is provided in this bulletin. Topics explained include: (1) general format of the examination (stating the content, emphasis, and time allotments for the examinations); (2)…

  12. Musique et Langues Vivantes (Music and Modern Languages)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontaine, M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses the problems encountered by second language learners in mastering the phonology of the target language, and suggests the use of music in second language teaching, particularly for intonation. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  13. Two Visuals to Accompany Albert Valdman's "Langue et Culture."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polly, Lyle R.

    1980-01-01

    Visuals depicting places and high frequency nouns (car, tree, bike, bus, etc.) which students learn in the first semester of studying French are described. These will facilitate instructional presentations and, by reinforcing grammatical concepts, assist language acquisition. (PMJ)

  14. Psycholinguistique et langue des signes (Psycholinguistics and Sign Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosjean, Francois

    1979-01-01

    Reviews research on sign language as an instrument of communication and on the psychological validity of sign language. Examines the production of sign language as compared to oral language, perception in sign language, and studies on the role of memory in sign language. (AM)

  15. Langue francaise et television nigeriane (French Language and Nigerian Television).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Ruyet, Raymond; Solente, Jean-Michel

    1980-01-01

    Enumerates the French language TV programs currently available in Nigeria and describes the difficulties hampering a nationwide development of educational TV programs in French. Offers suggestions to overcome these difficulties, describes the French language courses already on the air, and outlines plans for new programs. (MES)

  16. Logiciels et classe de langue (Software and Language Class).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangenot, Francois

    1989-01-01

    Two French computer software packages that can be of assistance in teaching French-as-a-Second-Language are described and discussed. One, an authoring aid, contains the format for a series of dialogues and comprehension questions. The other allows the production and manipulation of databases and texts. (MSE)

  17. Langue maternelle et langues etrangeres: vers une pedagogie globale. (Native Language and Foreign Languages: Toward a Global Pedogogy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulet, Eddy

    1983-01-01

    Although language needs, strategies, and instructional situations vary considerably, some degree of integration of methods for native and second language instruction based on empirical research is recommended. The value of second language instructional methods for native language instruction, instruction for communicative competence, and the place…

  18. Funding of Schools, 2000-2001 School Year = Financement des ecoles, Annee scolaire 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    Available in English or French, this reference guide summarizes the funding of Manitoba public schools for the 2000-2001 school year. School funding for operating and capital expenses is administered by the provincial government. Following a list of 2000-2001 revisions to the Schools Finance Program, the first section describes base support. The…

  19. Chemistry 30: Grade 12 Diploma Examination = Chimie 30: Examen en vue du diplome 12 annee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    This document, in both French and English versions, is the Chemistry 30 Grade 12 Diploma Examination from Alberta Education. It is a 2.5 hour closed-book examination consisting of 44 multiple-choice and 12 numerical-response questions of equal value that are worth 70% of the examination, and 2 written-response questions of equal value worth 30% of…

  20. Mathematics 33: Grade 12 Diploma Examination = Mathematiques 33: Examen en vue du diplome 12 annee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    This document, in both English and French versions, is the Mathematics 33 Grade 12 Diploma Examination from Alberta Education. It is a 2.5 hour closed-book examination consisting of 37 multiple-choice and 12 numerical-response questions of equal value that are worth 70% of the examination, and 4 written-response questions of equal value worth 30%…

  1. Grade 9 Pilot Test. Mathematics. June 1988 = 9e Annee Test Pilote. Mathematiques. Juin 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This pilot test for ninth grade mathematics is written in both French and English. The test consists of 75 multiple-choice items. Students are given 90 minutes to complete the examination and the use of a calculator is highly recommended. The test content covers a wide range of mathematical topics including: decimals; exponents; arithmetic word…

  2. Mathematics 30: Grade 12 Diploma Examination = Mathematiques 30: Examen en vue du diplome 12 annee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    This document, in both English and French versions, is the Mathematics 30 Grade 12 Diploma Examination from Alberta Education. It is a 2.5 hour closed-book examination consisting of 40 multiple-choice and 9 numerical-response questions of equal value that are worth 70% of the examination, and 3 written-response questions of equal value worth 30%…

  3. Grade 9 Achievement Test. Mathematics. June 1988 = 9e Annee Test de Rendement. Mathematiques. Juin 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This achievement test for ninth grade mathematics is written in both French and English. The test consists of 75 multiple-choice items. Students are given 90 minutes to complete the examination, with the use of calculators permitted. The test content covers a wide range of mathematical content including: positive and negative exponents; word…

  4. Curriculum Summary: Grade Six, 2003-2004 = Sommaire des Programmes: 6e annee, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Intended for parents as a companion to the Alberta Curriculum Guides, this summary, in English- and French-language versions, uses an "at a glance" schematic to list the curricular goals for Grade 6 in Alberta. In addition to English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies, goals cover art, music, health and life skills, physical…

  5. Curriculum Summary: Grade Three, 2003-2004 = Sommaire des Programmes, 3e annee, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Intended for parents as a companion to the Alberta Curriculum Guides, this summary, in English- and French-language versions, uses an "at a glance" schematic to list the curricular goals for Grade 3 in Alberta. In addition to English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies, goals cover art, music, health and life skills, physical…

  6. Curriculum Summary: Grade Four, 2003-2004 = Sommaire des Programmes: 4e annee, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Intended for parents as a companion to the Alberta Curriculum Guides, this summary, in English- and French-language versions, uses an "at a glance" schematic to list the curricular goals for Grade 4 in Alberta. In addition to English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies, goals cover art, music, health and life skills, physical…

  7. Curriculum Summary: Grade Five, 2003-2004 = Sommaire des Programmes: 5e annee, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Intended for parents as a companion to the Alberta Curriculum Guides, this summary, in English- and French-language versions, uses an "at a glance" schematic to list the curricular goals for Grade 5 in Alberta. In addition to English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies, goals cover art, music, health and life skills, physical…

  8. Curriculum Summary: Grade Two, 2003-2004 = Sommaire des Programmes: 2e annee, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Intended for parents as a companion to the Alberta Curriculum Guides, this summary, in English- and French-language versions, uses an "at a glance" schematic to list the curricular goals for Grade 2 in Alberta. In addition to English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies, goals cover art, music, health and life skills, physical…

  9. Biology 30: Grade 12 Diploma Examination = Biologie 30: Examen en vue du diplome 12 annee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    This document, in both English and French versions, is the Biology 30 Grade 12 Diploma Examination from Alberta Education. It is a 2.5 hour closed-book examination consisting of 48 multiple-choice and 8 numerical-response questions of equal value that are worth 70% of the examination, and 2 written-response questions of equal value worth 30% of…

  10. Physics 30: Grade 12 Diploma Examination = Physique 30: Examen en vue du diplome 12 annee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    This document, in both English and French versions, is the Physics 30 Grade 12 Diploma Examination from Alberta Education. It is a 2.5 hour closed-book examination consisting of 37 multiple-choice and 12 numerical-response questions of equal value that are worth 70% of the examination, and 2 written-response questions of equal value worth 30% of…

  11. Biology 30: Grade 12 Diploma Examination = Biologie 30: Examen en vue du diplome 12 annee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    This document, in both English and French versions, is the Biology 30 Grade 12 Diploma Examination from Alberta Education. It is a 2.5 hour closed-book examination consisting of 48 multiple-choice and 8 numerical-response questions of equal value that are worth 70% of the examination, and 2 written-response questions of equal value worth 30% of…

  12. Un Programme de francais fonctionnel pour le tourisme (A Program of Functional French for Tourism)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudry, Jean; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A description of a functional French program for the training of tourism personnel in Greece. The topics discussed are: the public and their needs, and analysis of oral communication, pedagogical techniques and activities, including numerous examples of comprehension and speaking exercises. A short bibliography is included. (Text is in French.)…

  13. L'Enseignement du francais commercial et ses problemes (Business French Instruction and Its Problems).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger Michael, Colette

    1981-01-01

    Describes the Business French program of Northern Illinois University and discusses the problems that led to the adoption of an interdisciplinary approach involving the Department of Foreign Languages and the Business School. Reviews several textbooks and technical dictionaries and provides an extensive bibliography of business communication…

  14. Le Francais des Professions Scientifiques et Techniques (French for the Scientific and Technical Professions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Brigitte

    Two sequential courses in scientific and technical French developed as a supplement to third- and fourth-year college French, in response to expressed student and industry demand, had as their objectives to develop a general familiarity with products of the large French industrial companies and their United States affiliates and to develop means…

  15. Une Nouvelle Place pour le francais au Senegal? (A New Place for French in Senegal?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka, Omar

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the role of the French language in Senegal first chronicles language and education policy from the colonial period until 1980, then cites research indicating that French is infrequently used for personal purposes. Recent initiatives to strengthen its status and usage, and obstacles to their success, are outlined. (MSE)

  16. Le francais fonde sur la competence, Novice (Competency Based French, Novice).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimanche, Maurice

    This instructional guide in French is intended for training Peace Corps volunteers serving in the Central African Republic. The guide includes 21 topical lessons at the introductory level, each consisting of briefly stated competency objectives and a number of brief, related situational dialogues. Lesson topics include: greetings; introducing…

  17. Japon: Le francais en sursis? (Japan: French in Stay of Execution?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecheur, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    In Japan, second-language instruction and specifically French instruction are at a crossroads. Despite appearances of normalcy, survival of university-level French instruction is threatened by greater current interest in Asian languages. In response, the French Embassy and Japanese Association of French Professors have established a policy to…

  18. Avec les Francais et le Telephone (On the Phone with the French).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davoine, Jean-Pierre

    1980-01-01

    Outlines a teaching unit based on the use of the telephone, with activities aimed at easing the difficulties experienced by foreign speakers. Among these difficulties are problems of comprehension due to the absence of visual clues, the use of special formulas, and the characteristic speed of delivery. (MES)

  19. Aspirations langagieres: Negociation et apprentissage du francais (Language Aspirations: Negotiation and Learning French).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepetit, Daniel; Cichocki, Wladyslaw

    1990-01-01

    A survey of 130 beginning French students at the University of Windsor (Canada) focused on their second language aspirations, expectations, and anticipated needs. Interpersonal relations appear to be the primary motivator, with travel and instrumental motivation secondary. (20 references) (Author/MSE)

  20. Technoscientific French Teaching Guide = Guide pour l'enseignement du Francais technoscientifique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Brigitte D.

    This course guide aids university professors in doing research to develop a course in scientific and technical French. The course is intended to aid students in developing communicative skills in French in the context of science and technology. The course introduces students to the culture of France as well as to its industrial and technological…

  1. Lexique anglais-francais du microfilm (Glossary of English-French Microfilm Terminology)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollett, Ray

    1974-01-01

    Presents a list of English-French equivalents for terminology dealing with microfilm. Most of the terms listed were taken from technical documents and brochures of the Kodak Company. (Text is in French.) (PP)

  2. Le Francais parle en situation minoritaire: Volume I (French Spoken in Minority Situations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mougeon, Raymond; And Others

    A previous study indicated localities in which students speak French most of the time, localities where they speak it only sometimes, and one locality between the two extremes. The study reported here was of students in three localities belonging to the groups just mentioned, namely, Cornwall, Pembroke, and North Bay. It revealed that students who…

  3. Technoscientific French Teaching Guide = Guide pour l'enseignement du Francais technoscientifique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Brigitte D.

    This course guide aids university professors in doing research to develop a course in scientific and technical French. The course is intended to aid students in developing communicative skills in French in the context of science and technology. The course introduces students to the culture of France as well as to its industrial and technological…

  4. Enseigner quel francais du tourisme (Which French to Teach for Tourism).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Bjorn

    1992-01-01

    Development of a course in French for tourism and the hotel industry in Sweden is chronicled, focusing on the process of functional analysis used to determine appropriate language content. A general functional outline of touristic French and an outline of language functions specific to a restaurant situation are presented. (MSE)

  5. Le Francais parle au Canada [Spoken French in Canada]. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullmann, Rebecca; Balchunas, Martha

    A resource kit for teaching French in a French-Canadian cultural context is represented by a teacher's guide, a student resource booklet, and a tape transcript. This module is designed for use at the intermediate or advanced level of secondary instruction. Classroom activities are based on a cassette tape that introduces some of the phonological…

  6. Le Francais des Professions Scientifiques et Techniques (French for the Scientific and Technical Professions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Brigitte

    Two sequential courses in scientific and technical French developed as a supplement to third- and fourth-year college French, in response to expressed student and industry demand, had as their objectives to develop a general familiarity with products of the large French industrial companies and their United States affiliates and to develop means…

  7. Le Francais de la Saskatchewan: Etude de lexique (The French of Saskatchewan: Lexical Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Nancy; Longpre, Bernadette

    1987-01-01

    A linguistic survey indicates that despite variations by region and social group, the French spoken by Saskatchewan francophones preserves traces of the history of the language, including anglicisms and older French expressions not much in use today. (MSE)

  8. NORME PEDAGOGIQUE--LES STRUCTURES INTERROGATIVES DU FRANCAIS (PEDAGOGICAL NORM--THE INTERROGATIVE STRUCTURES OF FRENCH).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VALDMAN, ALBERT

    THIS PAPER DISCUSSES THE SELECTION OF A PEDAGOGICAL NORM FOR FRENCH INTERROGATIVE STRUCTURES. SINCE THIS AREA OF FRENCH GRAMMAR IS PARTICULARLY POLYMORPHOUS, OBJECTIVE CRITERIA ARE SET UP TO MAKE THE SELECTION--FREQUENCY, COMPLEXITY, AND EXTENSIVITY. BECAUSE "EST-CE QUE" CAN BE APPLIED WITHOUT EXCEPTION TO ALL TYPES OF KERNEL SENTENCES, IT WAS…

  9. Une lecon de francais avec des jeux electroniques (A French Lesson with Electronic Games).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malandain, Jean-Louis

    1996-01-01

    Electronic games are proposed as a means for encouraging students of French to learn and use the language while solving problems. A computerized card game and mine-removal game are offered as illustration of the language skills and vocabulary that can be developed and the appeal that such exercises can have for students. (MSE)

  10. La phrase du francais parle radiophonique (The Sentence of Spoken Radio French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaire, Suzanne

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of the sentence structure used in radiophonic French. Since the style of language used on the radio bears such a strong influence on the evolution of the French language, it is hoped that such analyses will be used in language teaching. (Text in French.) (TL)

  11. Francais sur objectif specifique: parier sur l'ouverture (French for Specific Purposes: Betting on Expansion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couillerot, Jacques; Fariol, Hanna

    1990-01-01

    The description and summary of a large-scale French study of the future and directions of French-language teaching for special purposes looks at instructional efforts currently under way and at three aspects of the study: the publics addressed, the areas of specialization targeted, and the methods used. (MSE)

  12. Tensions phonologiques en francais (Phonological Tensions in French). Montreal Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Yves-Charles

    This paper presents a diachronic phonological analysis of French in order to show that Kiparsky's (1972) argument against formal (or language-specific) notation is based on a small sample of phenomena and is therefore not valid. Examples of vocalic tension in French are given, and the process from tension to relaxation is described. This tension…

  13. Le Francais des affaires: Problemes et perspectives (Business French: Problems and Perspectives).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepetit, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Examines changes in language department structure and program content at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Clemson University (South Carolina) as a result of new programs in Business French. The programs were developed in cooperation with the business schools to stem declining language enrollments. (MSE)

  14. La langue etrangere: reflexion sur le statut de la langue francaise en Algerie (Foreign Language: Reflections on the Status of the French Language in Algeria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsly, Dalila

    1984-01-01

    The unstable linguistic situation in Algeria resulting from official "normalization" in a country in which French has strong colonial roots is discussed, as well as its effects on the status of French instruction. (MSE)

  15. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Biology 30. June 1986. = Examen en vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee: Biologie 30. Juin 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Biology 30 is a twelfth-grade biology course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is a final test for the course. Both English and French versions of the test are provided. Intended for administration during June 1986, it contains 80 multiple-choice questions and six written-response problems. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for…

  16. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Biology 30. June 1989 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Biologie 30. Juin 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Biology 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. Intended for administration during June 1989, it contains 70 multiple-choice questions and 7 written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since scoring is done by the provincial education department. The…

  17. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Biology 30. January 1988 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Biologie 30. Janvier 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Biology 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is a final test for the course. Intended for administration during January 1988, it contains 80 multiple-choice questions and four written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since scoring…

  18. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Biology 30. January 1989 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Biologie 30. Janvier 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Biology 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the final test for the course. Intended for administration during January 1989, it contains 70 multiple-choice questions and seven written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since…

  19. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Biology 30. June 1988 = Examen en vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee: Biologie 30. Juin 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Biology 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is a final test for the course. Intended for administration during June, 1988, it contains 80 multiple-choice questions and five written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since scoring is…

  20. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Chemistry 30. January 1988 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Chimie 30. Janvier 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Chemistry 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the final test for the course. Intended for administration during January 1988, it contains 56 multiple-choice questions and three written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since…

  1. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Chemistry 30. June 1988 = Examen en vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee: Chimie 30. Juin 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Chemistry 30 is a 12th-grade chemistry course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the final test for the course. Intended for administration during June, 1988, it contains 56 multiple-choice questions and three written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since…

  2. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Chemistry 30. January 1989 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Chimie 30. Janvier 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Chemistry 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the final test for the course. Intended for administration during January 1989, it contains 56 multiple-choice questions and three written-response questions. Two and one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since…

  3. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Chemistry 30. June 1986. = Examen en vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee: Chimie 30. Juin 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Chemistry 30 is a twelfth-grade chemistry course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is a final test for the course. Both English and French versions of the test are provided. Intended for administration during June 1986, it contains 56 multiple-choice questions and three written-response problems. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for…

  4. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Chemistry 30. June 1989 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Chimie 30. Juin 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Chemistry 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the final test for the course. Intended for administration during June 1989, it contains 56 multiple-choice questions and 3 written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since scoring is…

  5. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Mathematics 30. January 1989 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Mathematiques 30. Janvier 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Mathematics 30 is a 12th-grade mathematics course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the final test for the course. Intended for administration during January 1989, it contains 45 multiple-choice questions, seven open-ended scannable questions, and three written-response questions. Two and one-half hours are allowed for completing…

  6. Grade 12 Diploma Examination. Mathematics 30. June 1988 = Examen en vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee. Mathematiques 30. Juin 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This twelfth grade diploma examination is written in both French and English. The test consists of 52 multiple-choice items and three written response questions. Two and one-half hours are provided for taking the test; approved calculators may be used. The test content covers a wide range of mathematical topics including: geometry; trigonometry;…

  7. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Mathematics 30. June 1986. = Examen en vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee: Mathematiques 30. Juin 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This is the final test for students in the twelfth-grade course Mathematics 30, offered in schools in Alberta, Canada. Intended for administration in June 1986, it is available in both English and French. It contains 52 multiple-choice questions and five written-response problems, with two-and-one-half hours allowed for completion. Approved…

  8. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Mathematics 30. June 1989 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Mathematiques 30. Juin 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Mathematics 30 is a 12th-grade mathematics course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the final test for the course. Intended for administration during June 1989, it contains 45 multiple-choice questions, 7 open-ended machine scorable questions, and 3 written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the…

  9. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Mathematics 30. January 1988 = Examen en vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee: Mathematiques 30. Janvier 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This is the final test for students in the twelfth grade course Mathematics 30, offered in schools in Alberta, Canada. Intended for administration in 1988, it is available in both English and French. It contains 52 multiple-choice questions and 3 written-response problems, with 2.5 hours allowed for completion. Approved calculators may be used.…

  10. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Mathematics 30. January 1987 = Examen en vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee: Mathematiques 30. Janvier 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This is the final test for students in the twelfth-grade course Mathematics 30, offered in schools in Alberta, Canada. Intended for administration in January 1987, it is available in both English and French. It contains 52 multiple-choice questions and 3 written-response problems, with 2.5 hours allowed for completion. Approved calculators may be…

  11. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Physics 30. June 1989 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Physique 30. Juin 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Physics 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the final test for the course. Intended for administration during June 1989, it contains 49 multiple-choice questions and 4 written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since scoring is…

  12. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Physics 30. January 1988 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Physique 30. Janvier 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Physics 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the major examination for the course. Both English and French versions are provided. Intended for administration during January 1988, it contains 56 multiple-choice questions and three written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for…

  13. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Physics 30. June 1986. = Examen en vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee: Physique 30. Juin 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Physics 30 is a twelfth-grade physics course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is a final test for the course. Both English and French versions of the test are provided. Intended for administration during June 1986, it contains 56 multiple-choice questions and four written-response problems. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for…

  14. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Physics 30. January 1987 = Examen en vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee: Physique 30. Janvier 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Physics 30 is a twelfth-grade physics course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the major examination for the course. Both English and French versions of the test are provided. Intended for administration during January, 1987, it contains 56 multiple-choice questions and three written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are…

  15. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Physics 30. January 1989 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Physique 30. Janvier 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Physics 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the final test for the course. Intended for administration during January 1989, it contains 49 multiple-choice questions and four written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since scoring…

  16. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Physics 30. June 1988 = Examen en vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee: Physique 30. Juin 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Physics 30 is a 12th-grade physics course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the major examination for the course. Both English and French versions are provided. Intended for administration during June, 1988, it contains 56 multiple-choice questions and three written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for…

  17. A Year of Transitions: 1995 AUCC Activities = Une annee de transitions: 1995 Activites de l'AUCC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This publication in English and French versions describes the activities of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC) for 1995; particularly activities in the areas of public policy and advocacy, member services, and contract management. The section on public policy and advocacy describes how deficit reduction and national…

  18. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Biology 30. June 1989 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Biologie 30. Juin 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Biology 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. Intended for administration during June 1989, it contains 70 multiple-choice questions and 7 written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since scoring is done by the provincial education department. The…

  19. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Biology 30. June 1988 = Examen en vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee: Biologie 30. Juin 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Biology 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is a final test for the course. Intended for administration during June, 1988, it contains 80 multiple-choice questions and five written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since scoring is…

  20. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Biology 30. January 1988 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Biologie 30. Janvier 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Biology 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is a final test for the course. Intended for administration during January 1988, it contains 80 multiple-choice questions and four written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since scoring…

  1. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Biology 30. January 1989 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Biologie 30. Janvier 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Biology 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the final test for the course. Intended for administration during January 1989, it contains 70 multiple-choice questions and seven written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since…

  2. L'Harmonisation des langues maliennes: entre l'Integration nationale et régionale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouane, Adama

    1991-03-01

    The standardization of Malian languages, which began in the period after independence, has been an educational reform guided more by linguists than by any institutional framework laid down by the political authorities of the country. This situation has permitted the technical application of a scientific strategy, but it has not led to widespread and general acceptance of the formulas which have been worked out. The consequent opposition between technical and political considerations, which have admittedly not always been in conflict, has been complicated by a set of additional factors which have made it difficult to reconcile internal (national) harmonization, dictated by local tendencies and balances between languages, and the need to respect the (regional) ecolinguistics of the country, whose linguistic and sociocultural divisions frequently extend well into other countries of the sub-region. This conflict is illustrated by the example of Malian languages with a wide regional distribution — Bamanan (Bambara) and Fulfulde (Fulani) — and by that of languages with a narrower distribution such as Bomu and Syenara-Mamara. The standardization of orthography and the creation of terminology in the MAPE (Mandingo-Peul) Project are the manifestation of a general acceptance of regionalism, while the choice of central, standard languages has often been made without regard for regional factors.

  3. Les langues minoritaires en contexte; Minderheitensprachen im Kontext (Minority Languages in Context).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Anna-Alice Dazzi, Ed.; Mondada, Lorenza, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Articles in Italian, English, French, and German address issues in minority languages and minority language groups. They include: "The Role of Italian in Some Changes in Walser Morphosyntax" (article in Italian); "Compensatory Linguistic Strategies in the Gradual Death Process of a Minority Language: Evidence from Some Dying Dialects of Basque";…

  4. La langue des signes: realite et fiction (Sign Language: Reality and Fiction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowicz, Harry

    1979-01-01

    Discusses erroneous beliefs regarding sign language, namely, (1) sign language is one and universal, (2) its grammar is poor or nonexistant, (3) its vocabulary is concrete and figurative, (4) its "signs" consist of simply gestures, and (5) sign language mimics oral language. (AM)

  5. Concepts linguistiques en didactique des langues (Linguistic Concepts in the Teaching of Languages).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Gerardo; Perron, Denise

    Basic linguistic concepts are presented and their links with second language learning and teaching are examined. The book is intended as a guide for teachers and others interested in second language instruction. Chapters address the following concepts: the relationship of language and linguistics, including basic terminology of discussion about…

  6. Problems Psychopedagogiques des Laboratoires de Langues: Premiere Partie (Psychopedagogical Problems of Language Laboratories: First Part).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Companys, Emmanuel

    This is the first half of a two-part study of psychopedagogical problems in the language laboratory. A study of technical problems will follow. Major attention is directed to divisions of work (unities, elements, and phases), deferred comparison, deferred master control, audio-active feedback, the acquisition of new auditive processes, elimination…

  7. Le bilinguisme et l'enseignement d'une langue etrangere (Bilingualism and Foreign Language Teaching)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabrowska, Jadwiga

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the notion of bilingualism, the role of interference in language instruction to bilingual students, training for language teachers, and socio-cultural factors in second language learning. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  8. Les langues? Un jeu a la decouverte (Languages? A Game of Discovery).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlissinger, Jacqueline

    1994-01-01

    It is proposed that, when individuals discover their own linguistic potential, they unlock the door to interpersonal and intercultural communication. An illustration: a situation in which young people from eastern and western European countries gather after a film festival to discuss what they have seen and immediately find rapport. (MSE)

  9. LA SCIENCE ET L'ENSEIGNEMENT DES LANGUES VIVANTES (RESEARCH AND THE TEACHING OF MODERN LANGUAGES).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MALECOT, ANDRE

    THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES INHERENT IN CURRENT METHODS OF MODERN LANGUAGE TEACHING ARE DISCUSSED AT LENGTH, WITH EMPHASIS ON THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PEDAGOGY DERIVED FROM THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF LANGUAGE. THE IMPACT OF PHILOGICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES OF "EXOTIC LANGUAGES" ON TRADITIONAL GRAMMATICAL CONCEPTS AND TERMINOLOGY IS HIGHLIGHTED IN THE…

  10. L Intercomprehension des langues latines (The Mutual Intelligibility of Romance Languages).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploquin, Francoise

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of the need to promote mutual comprehension among speakers of Romance languages describes one university program in France and looks at the possibility of extending multilanguage instruction to secondary education. The potential, and problems, of trying to teach students listening comprehension in several related languages are…

  11. Civilisation et discourse sociaux en classe de langue (Civilization and Social Discourse in Second Language Class).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beacco, Jean-Claude

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the second-language classroom as a fertile environment for cultural contact looks at the teacher's role and the instructional potential of various kinds of social discourse, including classroom communication, the social sciences, official and nonofficial reports, surveys, mass media, social action, and signs and symbols. (MSE)

  12. COURS DE LANGUE FRANCAISE DESTINE AUX JEUNES FRANCO-AMERICAINS ("BOWDOIN MATERIALS").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRAULT, GERALD J.; AND OTHERS

    THE DATA IN THIS REPORT COMPRISE A TEACHING GUIDE FOR USE IN FRENCH LANGUAGE COURSE FOR YOUNG FRANCO-AMERICANS. THE MATERIAL IS ORAL EXERCISES IN FRENCH DEALING WITH VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR PRESENTED ENTIRELY IN THE FRENCH LANGUAGE. ACCOMPANYING THE MATERIAL IS A MANUAL AND A WORKBOOK FOR AIDING INSTRUCTION. (WN)

  13. Traitement automatique et apprentissage des langues (Automated Discourse Analysis and Language Teaching).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrigues, Mylene

    1992-01-01

    Issues in computerized analysis of language usage are discussed, focusing on the problems encountered as computers, linguistics, and language teaching converge. The tools of automated language and error analysis are outlined and specific problems are illustrated in several types of classroom exercise. (MSE)

  14. "Telematique et Didactique des Langues (Telematics and Language Learning and Teaching).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganderton, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Discusses how e-mail correspondence should be supported and integrated into the overall second language learning program. Reviews a telematics international e-mail exchange project, focusing on the documentation of integration of the project into the overall language program. Findings reveal that the strength of this work is in showing how its…

  15. Le vocabulaire disponible du francais, Tome 1. Le vocabulaire concret usuel des enfants francais et acadiens: Etude temoin (The Working French Vocabulary, Volume 1. Common Generic Terms Used by French and Acadian Children: A Field Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, William F.; And Others

    The first of a two-volume study of the relative accessibility of French vocabulary in French-speaking Canada presents statistical data concerning the frequency, distribution, valence, and accessibility of vocabulary related to 16 fundamental centers of interest found in normal conversation. The scope, procedures, and results of the study are…

  16. L'enseignement du francais par ordinateur: Les programmes conversationnels au Cafe (Cours autodidactique de francais ecrit) [Teaching French by Computer: Conversational Programs in "Cafe" (Self-instructional Course in Written French)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landriault, Bernard; Connolly, Guy

    1980-01-01

    Computer technology has been used to develop "Cafe," a self-instructional course in written French communication, which is offered to the general public by the University of Montreal. The course consists of three workbooks containing 1200 items dealing with vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, agreements, morphology, syntax, and fine points of…

  17. Geographie du francais et de la francite en Louisiane (The Geography of the French Language and Character in Louisiana).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breton, Roland J.-L.

    This study, based on the 1970 U. S. census, concerns Francophones and French influences that are evident, particularly in Louisiana. Four aspects of the question are treated: (1) linguistic minorities in the U. S., especially those of Hispanic and German origin; (2) the history of Franco-Americans; (3) the present state of French in Louisana; and…

  18. Vers un renouveau du "mirage americain" dans les lettres francais (Toward a Renewal of the "American Mirage" in French Literature)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huvos, Kornel

    1973-01-01

    Social and political commentary on the alternating images of America projected in French writing through the years; revised version of a paper presented at the 25th Annual Kentucky Foreign Language Conference, Lexington, Kentucky, April 28, 1972. (RL)

  19. Vers Une Analyse systematique de l'interrogation en francais (Toward a Systematic Analysis of the French Interrogative).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azoulay-Vicente, Avigail

    1988-01-01

    A systematic analysis of the French interrogative focuses on the distinction between the syntactic processes (identification of question words, interrogative phrase preposing, and rules of question formation) and phonological processes (intonation patterns) that characterize questions in French. (Author/MSE)

  20. Images de la variation du francais: dominantes et harmoniques, changements (Images of Variation in French: Dominant and Harmonic, Changes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellotti, Veronique; De Robillard, Didier

    2001-01-01

    This study gathered knowledge on an ill-explored field: attitudes toward French in France. It discusses ways and means to produce empirical data on this issue. Data indicate that the field described deserves investigation because, alongside standard French, the other "parlure" sampled in this study produce a variety of different attitudes and…

  1. Pour une typologie des anglicismes en francais du Canada (Toward a Typology of Anglicisms in Canadian French).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meney, Lionel

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that anglicisms in Canadian French cover a much broader spectrum than in any European variety of French, with traits of the English language incorporated into spelling, pronunciation, morphology, syntax, lexicon, and phraseology. A typology of these features is proposed, with examples. (Author/MSE)

  2. Dictionnaire contextuel anglais-francais de l'energie solaire (Contextual English-French Dictionary on Solar Energy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serre, Robert

    This English-French dictionary on solar energy is intended for translators and purports to contain all the elements necessary for doing quality translations. Each entry contains the following elements: (1) the basic English word with its synonyms and equivalents; (2) the definition in English and reference to its source; and (3) sentences or…

  3. Techniques de Theatre Integrees a l'Enseignement du Francais 1989 = Theatre Techniques Integrated into the Teaching of French, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Roger

    This curriculum guide presents a methodology for teaching language and literature through role-playing in the classroom and demonstrates to teachers the link that exists between effective communication and the techniques used to achieve it. The new French program views language as an instrument of communication, a concept that implies that…

  4. National Core French Study: A Synthesis = Etude nationale sur les programmes de francais de base. Rapport synthese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Raymond

    The National Core French Study had the objectives of defining and developing four syllabuses and assessing their applicability in Core French classes in Canadian elementary and secondary schools. The four syllabuses, proposed as part of a multidimensional curriculum, include language, communicative/experiential, culture, and general language…

  5. La modelisation mathematique dans l'enseignement de la chimie des gaz a des eleves de la cinquieme annee du secondaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Diane

    Les problemes d'enseignement de la chimie des gaz parfaits sont donc importants. Si plusieurs etudes ont ete realisees dans le but d'identifier et d'interpreter ces problemes, aucune recherche, a notre connaissance, n'a ete realisee sur l'enseignement des lois sur les gaz parfaits. Notre recherche sur l'enseignement est donc pionniere. Elle a pour objectif general de construire et d'analyser une sequence d'enseignement de la chimie des gaz comportant diverses situations de modelisation mathematique des conduites des gaz. Les principaux objectifs specifiques sont les suivants: (1) identifier et caracteriser les situations qui provoquent une evolution des conceptions naives des eleves, evolution vers des connaissances plus adequate sur les gaz; (2) identifier et caractEriser les situations qui provoquent une evolution des connaissances mathematiques des eleves leur permettant d'interpreter convenablement les resultats des experiences, d'eprouver leurs conceptions, de donner un sens aux notions et aux relations impliquees dans les lois des gaz parfaits, lois de Boyle-Mariotte et Gay-Lussac. Une sequence d'enseignement comportant huit situations est d'eleves de secondaire V. La construction de ces situations est orientee par les recherches sur les conceptions naives des eleves, par les etudes sur l'evolution historique des conceptions sur les gaz et des pratiques scientifiques, ainsi que par les etudes theoriques et empiriques realisees en didactique des sciences et des mathematiques. La methodologie de l'ingenierie didactique (Artigue, 1998) qui constitue une application de la theorie des situations didactiques (Brousseau, 1986) est utilisee dans la construction et l'analyse des situations d'enseignement. Une analyse a priori de chacune des situations d'enseignement est effectuee; elle a pour but dexpliquer les choix des taches qui font partie des situations et de preciser la gestion didactique des situations. Diverses situations d'enseignement de la chimie ont ainsi ete construites. L'analyse a posteriori des situations, analyse des interactions didactiques lors du deroulement en classe de ces situations, est confrontee a l'analyse a priori realisee lors de la construction de ces situations. La pertinence de ces situations est ainsi examinee, en regard des objectifs de la recherche. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  6. Etude du comportement sous charges laterales des ossatures de beton arme avec murs de remplissage de maconnerie, construites avant les annees 1960

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Karine

    Reinforced concrete structures with unreinforced masonry infills (BMR) are considered vulnerable to earthquakes. Under seismic actions, infills could fail (causing injuries or death) and cause damages to columns. In Quebec and Canada, most of BMR structures have been constructed prior to the introduction of modern seismic design codes raising question on the contribution of the infill to the structure lateral resistance. The aim of this thesis is to improve modelling technique of BMR structures built in Quebec between 1915 and 1960. This type of structures is found in hospitals or schools buildings, which must comply with some post-earthquake functionality requirements. They could also be residential or office buildings. Actually, practicing engineers usually calculate seismic capacity of BMR structures without considering the infill's structural contribution to the lateral resistance. Yet, this contribution should not be omitted. The first part of the thesis investigates the construction techniques and material properties of the old BMR structures in the Province. The results are the material properties (concrete, reinforcing steel, brick, terra cotta tile, and mortar) and the characteristics of the assemblies (wall section, reinforcement details…). The second part of the thesis presents the results of series of parametric analyses to identify among modelling and geometric parameters, which ones are the most influent on the lateral load response (rigidity, fundamental period, normal modes). Linear and modal analyses were performed. The most influent parameters identified are: number of storeys, number of bays, bay's width, soft storey, openings, upper storeys modelized (instead of being replaced by punctual loads) and the modelization technique of infills panels (strut or shell). Nonlinear static analyses have been performed to identify the most influent parameters to be considered for evaluating the lateral resistance, the capacity (load / displacement) and the yielding sequence (beam versus columns versus infills). The identified parameters are the presence of the infills, the openings and the geometric characteristics of the models (number of storeys and number of bays). One important contribution of this work is the development of an equivalent strut model to represent the action of the infill. The model could be easily implemented in standard analysis software. A central axial hinge reproducing the nonlinear behaviour of the masonry is added to the strut element. This model is a hybridization of existing proposals (FEMA and others) with added innovations by the author. It has been validated with experimental and numerical analyses results from literature. An important conclusion of this thesis is that the contribution of infills to lateral load resisting capacities of BMR structures should be considered for structure of more than one storey. Infills can add up to 51 % to bare frame capacity. The National building code requires that the lateral resistance of existing buildings must be at least 60 % of the equivalent static seismic force (V2005). It is concluded that one storey BMR buildings have a sufficient resistance, while three-storeys structures exhibit plastic deformations for loads under 0,6* V2005.

  7. A Time to Celebrate and Reflect: International Year of the Family 1994 = Une bonne occasion de celebrer et de reflechir: L'Annee internationale de la famille 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theilheimer, Ish, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly newsletter issue discusses the upcoming United Nations-sponsored International Year of the Family (IYF), with a specific focus on activities, trends, and research dealing with Canada. Four feature articles examine: (1) the work of the Canada Committee for the IYF, including activities and publications sponsored by the committee and…

  8. Ressources de mathematiques, maternelle-12e annee: Bibliographie annotee. Cadre commun des programmes d'etudes (Pre-Kindergarten-Grade 12 Mathematics Resources: Annotated Bibliography. Common Curriculum Framework).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Basic Education, Edmonton (Alberta).

    This annotated bibliography identifies French language resources endorsed for the K-12 grade levels by all Western Canadian Protocol (WCP) jurisdictions implementing the Common Curriculum Framework for K- 12 Mathematics. Resources were selected through a collaborative review process based on their high level of fidelity with the rationale,…

  9. Ressources de mathematiques, Maternelle-12e annee: Bibliographie annotee. Cadre commun des programmes d'etudes (Pre-Kindergarten-Grade 12 Mathematics Resources: Annotated Bibliography. Common Curriculum Framework).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Basic Education, Edmonton (Alberta).

    This annotated bibliography identifies French language resources endorsed from 1990-1999 by all Western Canadian Protocol (WCP) jurisdictions implementing the Common Curriculum Framework for K-12 Mathematics for K-12 (Common Curriculum Framework). Resources in this bibliography were selected through a collaborative review process based on their…

  10. "Suivez le guide"...L'acquisition de routines de lecture en langue 1 et en langue 2 ("Follow the Guide"...Acquisition of Reading Routines in First and Second Languages).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschall, Matthias

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated the acquisition of grammar-based reading routines in both first and second languages (L1 and L2). The objective was to determine whether routine integration of grammatical information to construct a semantic representation of the text is a matter of general cognitive development or language-specific learning. Subjects were…

  11. Language: langue parlee - langue ecrite et creativite a l'ecole maternelle. Recherches pedagogiques 65 (Language: Spoken Language - Written Language and Creativity in the Pre-Elementary Grades. Pedogogical Research 65).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent-Delchet, Marguerite; And Others

    This is a research report on the acquisition and development of language in children from 4 to 6 years as observed in the pre-elementary grades. The research was done by a number of teams scattered throughout France, and this book is a collection of the papers prepared as a result of their research. The report is divided into five sections. The…

  12. Contribution de la Psychologie a l'Enseignement des Langues Etrangeres et a l'Introduction de la Television en Classe de Langue (Contribution of Psychology to Foreign Language Instruction and to the Introduction of Television in the Language Class).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelkamp, Johannes

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes the psychological factors relevant to the acquisition of a second language and the behavior theories that have had the most dramatic impact on teaching methodology. Advocates a broader use of television in language instruction as a means of clarifying meanings through a visual context tailored to certain pedagogical requirements. (MES)

  13. Les voies d'apprentissage en langue etrangere (Learning Processes in a Foreign Language). Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frauenfelder, Uli; Porquier, Remy

    A general model for second language learning is proposed in this paper. First, this model aims to describe different components (input, intake, integration, output) of the learning process in terms of the information (explicit/implicit, linguistic/sociolinguistic) to which the learner is exposed. Secondly, the model serves to identify the stages,…

  14. L'apprentissage précoce des langues : Des pratiques sociologiquement et politiquement marquées

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groux, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the world there is a great diversity of curricula for introducing early foreign language training more or less intensively. These curricula correspond to different pedagogical approaches. But these pedagogical choices are not neutral. They are the result of political choice. They are also sociologically discriminatory. The author studies and contrasts various forms of language training of certain countries and within the same countries (for example, the correlation between bilingual training and private schools, or the choice of bilingual education as a political goal). She proposes a scale for classifying the kinds of early foreign language training, depending on sociological criteria and political choice.

  15. Traduction et langues de specialite: Approches theoriques et considerations pedagogiques (Translation and Specialty Languages: Theoretical Approaches and Pedagogic Considerations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevel, Zelie, Ed.; Valentine, Egan, Ed.

    Essays on the teaching of translation and on specialized translation, all in French, include: "Perspectives d'optimisation de la formation du traducteur: quelques reflexions" ("Perspectives on Optimization of Training of Translation Teachers: Some Reflections") (Egan Valentine); "L'enseignement de la revision pedagogique" ("The Teaching of…

  16. Voix d'Auvergne. Langue et Civilisation Par le Texte Oral (Voices of Auvergne. Language and Civilization by Oral Text).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institut Francais du Royaume-Uni, London (England).

    This volume is the result of a two-week session organized for 30 British teachers of French, aimed at the rediscovery of French culture and language. The teachers were exposed to French language and culture through a series of round tables with a representative of French business, government, politics, and the like, and through personal interviews…

  17. Reflexions sur un Cours de Langue pour Debutants (Refections on a Language Course for Beginners). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esch, E.; Cembalo, M.

    This article attempts an analysis of the problems involved in creating a course in English as a second language for adult beginners. Various learning theories and linguistic theories are discussed, which should be taken into consideration in choosing a teaching method. In addition, care must be taken to distinguish among the four language skills…

  18. Des convenances du discours litteraire a la classe de langue (From Literary Conventions to the Language Class).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besse, Henri

    1982-01-01

    Notes that literary discourse plays only a marginal role in French foreign language instruction. Suggests why the literary text is closely related to the process of learning a foreign language, which is work on and with the language. Discusses specific didactic processes that are internal and external to the work. (AMH)

  19. L'apprentissage d'une langue etrangere comme ouverture culturelle (Second Language Learning as a Cultural Opportunity).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBrun, Monique

    It has been suggested that the learning of a second language is not only a practical matter, as is commonly emphasized in discussion about language teaching, but is equally an experience of cultural initiation, particularly through the appreciation of literary texts in that language. The first part of this paper reviews educators' ideas about…

  20. Problemes et solutions: a l'ecoute de la langue vivante (Problems and Solutions: Listening In on Living Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubuc, Robert

    1980-01-01

    The development and use of French neologisms, or new words and idioms, is viewed as an important subject for the attention of translators, especially those dealing with specialized journals. A number of examples are given. (MSE)

  1. Le travail sur projet dans la formation des professeurs de langues (Learning Contracts in Language Teacher Training).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landschultz, Karen; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A Danish university's foreign language teacher education program's use of learning contracts is described. The student project has four major functions: solving a particular instructional problem, working in a group, finding a method that uses the individuals' skills to their best advantage, and organizing the work to be done. (MSE)

  2. Interference lexicale dans la langue quebecoise rurale (1900-1950) (Lexical Interference in Rural Quebec's Language, 1900-1950).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, David-F.

    A study of rural Quebec's language showed that by comparison with the urban version, it is less influenced by anglicisms, and the borrowing that has occurred is not solely of terms of civilization designating objects or notions susceptible to exchange between anglophones and francophones in Quebec. Certain anglicisms seem to have become integrated…

  3. Belle Langue Francaise, Je Veux Te Bien Parler. (Beautiful French Language, I Want to Speak You Well.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlebois, Marie-Therese

    1972-01-01

    This article (in French, without translation) describes a Gala which utilized a variety of ways to encourage a real love for the French Language, using games, sketches, debates, and involving pupils from all grades. (MM)

  4. Contact de langues et fonction poetique du changement linguistique (Language Contact and the Poetic Function of Linguistic Change).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jablonka, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Following Roman Jakobson, this article attempts to outline the affinity between linguistic change induced by language contact and conflict, and the poetic function of language. This phenomenon can be observed by studying the discourses of trilingual speakers in the Aosta Valley in Northern Italy. The problematic position of French is reflected and…

  5. Metonymie dans la presse ecrite: entre discours et langue (Metonymies in the Press: Between Discourse and Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecolle, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes certain metonymies that are often employed in the daily French press. In such metonymies, a human being or a set of individuals are referred to by means of the name of an institutional location (i.e., a capital city, a ministry in a western country, the name of a country). These metonymic patterns do not seem to be used by…

  6. Les systemes approximatifs et l'enseignement des langues secondes (Approximative Systems and the Teaching of Second Languages).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    High, Virginia Lacastro

    Errors can be considered concrete representations of stages through which one must go in order to acquire one's native language and a second language. It has been discovered that certain errors appear systematically, revealing an approximate system, or "interlanguage," behind the erroneous utterances. Present research in second language…

  7. Pedagogie des Langues et Prospective: Reflexions Pour 1984 (Language Instruction and the Future: Reflections for 1984). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalon, Y.

    This article explores the possible language teaching situation for the generation born in 1964, with a view toward preparing for the challenges that 1984 will bring. A large percentage of the French population will find a second European language indispensable. To this end, secondary education will have to become an arena of linguistic…

  8. Memorisation et transfert dans l'apprentissage des langues etrangeres (Memorization and Transfer in the Learning of Foreign Languages)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastin, Georges

    1977-01-01

    Account of an experiment reported in "Bulletin de Psychologie." The results indicate a correlation between practice using a wide variety of semantic elements and better retention and use of correct syntax. This experiment indicates the importance of insuring growth in inductive capacity of learners. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  9. Contact des langues et developpement bilingue: un modele macroscopique (Language Contact and Bilingual Development: A Macroscopic Model).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Rodrigue; Allard, Real

    1990-01-01

    The phenomenon of lexical neology and its applications in second-language instruction are discussed. A study of feminization of titles in the Canadian maritime provinces is reported, and teaching materials based on those observations are suggested, aimed at enabling college-level language learners to understand the phenomenon and its practical…

  10. France: Reforme dans l'Enseignement des Langues Vivantes (France: Reform in the Teaching of Modern Languages).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Documentation Centre for Education in Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    Details of a circular distributed in November 1969 by the National Minister of Education of France proposing some controversial changes in the instruction of modern languages are reported in this paper. The principal changes allow students wider choice in determining whether to study one or more languages during the same period of time. German,…

  11. Les Attitudes des Franco-Americains envers la langue francaise (Franco-American Attitudes toward the French Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fare, Louise Peloquin

    1984-01-01

    Social attitudes marking the linguistic behavior of French Canadians living in New England during the last century are examined, including language values and stigmas, ethnocentrism, and adoption of or resistance to American attitudes. Three groups are considered: the "Little Canadas'" founders, their descendents of 50-70 years, and modern-day…

  12. Corps de la Paix Madagascar Livre du Formateur. Langue: Sakalava (Peace Corps Madagascar Teacher's Manual. Language: Sakalava).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tshiangale, Mupemba Wa

    This teacher's manual for Sakalava, a dialect of Malagasy, is designed for the specific language instruction needs of Peace Corps personnel in Madagascar. It is written primarily in French and Sakalava, with some titles in English. It consists of 29 topical lessons, each geared to a specific domain and competency and containing information on…

  13. Corps de la Paix Madagascar Livre du Stagiare. Langue: Malagasy Ofisialy (Peace Corps Madagascar Volunteer Manual. Language: Official Malagasy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tshiangale, Mupemba Wa

    This manual for Malagasy is designed for the specific language instruction needs of Peace Corps personnel working in Madagascar. It is written primarily in English and Malagasy, with introductory sections in French. It consists of 29 topical lessons, each geared to a specific domain and competency and containing information on needed materials,…

  14. La mort d'une langue: le judeo-espagnol (The Death of a Language: The Spanish Spoken by Jews)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renard, Raymond

    1971-01-01

    Describes the Sephardic culture which flourished in the Balkans, Ottoman Empire, and North Africa during the Middle Ages. Suggests the use of Ladino", the language of medieval Spain spoken by the expelled Jews. (DS)

  15. Les annees de transition: une epoque de changement. Reveu et analyse des projets pilotes sur les questions relatives aux annees de Transition. Volume 1: Resume (Year of Transition: Times for Change. A Review and Analysis of Pilot Projects Investigating Issues in the Transition Years. Volume 1: Summary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy; And Others

    In 1990, the Ontario (Canada) Ministry of Education implemented the Transition Years project, an initiative for restructuring middle-grades education. This French-language document presents findings of a study that identified effective policies and practices used by the pilot schools. Data were derived from: (1) surveys completed by staffs in…

  16. Recherche empirique sur l'effet de la musique dans l'enseignement suggestopedique du francais (Empirical Research on the Effect of Music in Suggestopedic French Instruction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffler, Ludger

    1986-01-01

    A study of the effectiveness of music techniques in French second-language instruction using the suggestopedic approach is reported. The study attempts to control for variations commonly found in experimental conditions. (MSE)

  17. Synthese et methodologie des moyens de correction phonetique du "R" francais enseigne aux anglophones (Methods of Correcting the Pronunciation of the French "R" for English Speakers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebel, Jean-Guy

    The present work begins with a phonetic description of the acceptable French /R/ and descriptions of several allophones of English /R/ which must be avoided while learning the French. Various theories are discussed concerning the relationship between the position of the /R/ in an utterance and the difficulty students have in pronouncing it…

  18. Le Certificat Pratique de la CCIP et la Traduction dans les Cours de francais Commercial (The CCIP Certificate and Translation in Business French Courses).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Paul Raymond

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the importance of professional translators in the milieu of the European Community and the global economy. The article focuses on the changes occurring within the French educational system in order to accomodate this reality by preparing students for a practical translation test in order to earn a certificate in the translation of…

  19. From "La Plume de Ma Tante" to "Parlez-Vous Francais?" The Making of French Language Policy in British Columbia, 1945-1982

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raptis, Helen; Fleming, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    During the first half of the twentieth century in British Columbia, French language was considered a school subject to be taught as any other using formal classical approaches. Generally, no specific provincial or local policies existed to guide how French was taught and learned. By 1981, however, British Columbia had developed explicit language…

  20. Systeme des fautes et correction phonetique des Anglais qui apprennent le francais (System of Errors and Phonetic Correction of English Speakers Learning French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebrun, Claire

    1975-01-01

    This article provides the results of an investigation of the system of pronunciation faults of English speakers learning French, and describes means of correction based on the verbo-tonal system. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  1. Le Rythme. Son enseignement et son role dans la correction phonetique du francais (The Teaching and Role of Rhythm in the Correction of French Pronunciation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebel, Jean-Guy

    Students of French learn to pronounce the syllables of the same rhythmic group with the same stress and the same intonation while lengthening slightly only the last syllable uttered. Several techniques designed to help students acquire correct French rhythm patterns are described here. They include: (1) counting aloud, (2) syllable division, (3)…

  2. Teaching English Language Arts to Francophone Program Students, Grades 3 to 9: Bridging the Francais and English Language Arts (ELA) Programs of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    This document is the first in a 3-part collection titled "Teaching English Language Arts (ELA) to Francophone Program Students" to be used primarily by ELA teachers in their efforts to ensure that francophone program students build on their established French language skills when learning English. It is designed to show that a strong correlation…

  3. Vers un nouveau manuel de stylistique comparee du francais et de l'anglais (Toward a New Comparative Style Manual for French and English).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingstone, Basil

    1989-01-01

    The features necessary in an introductory course on translation are described, and the standard text for this kind of course is evaluated with reference to two critical accounts of it. Differences in general structure between the standard text and one in preparation and some theories needing modification are examined. (Author/MSE)

  4. Vers une redefinition de la formation initiale des professeurs de francais? (Towards a Redefinition of Beginning Training for Professors of French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coste, Daniel

    1975-01-01

    Discusses teacher training, specifically beginning training for language teachers. Deficiencies are examined, and new directions are suggested, including: curriculum updating to make methodology and applied linguistics part of language training; greater autonomy in learning; and making practical experience in teaching and research part of the…

  5. Communication et reflexion metalinguistique dans l'apprentissage du francais par les adultes (Communication and Metalinguistic Reflection in French Language Learning by Adults).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galatanu, Olga

    A discussion of the relationships between communication in a foreign language and metalinguistic thought given to that language focuses on formal French language learning by adults in their home countries. Experience with adult language learners suggests a resistance to grammatical explanations but an openness to explanations of meaning. It would…

  6. La Formation des maitres en francais dans les ecoles normales (compte-rendu d'enquete) [French Teacher Education in Elementary Teacher Education Colleges (an Investigative Report)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebrard, Jean; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examines the results of a survey that sought to discover the role of linguistics in the training of teachers of French as a native language on the elementary level, and the role of linguistics professors at the university level in the training of these teachers. (AM)

  7. La notion de point de vue en analyse contrastive anglais-francais (The Notion of Point of View in English-French Contrastive Analysis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuquet, Helene

    1998-01-01

    Examines how the concept of reference, or point of view, operates in the study of aspectual divergence in English and French and to what extent an analysis of this notion can contribute to developing translation strategies. (MSE)

  8. Connaissance et Usage d'Anglicismes par des Francais de Paris (Knowledge and Usage of Anglicisms by French People in Paris)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartier, Alice

    1977-01-01

    A synthesis of a research project treating the relationship between the comprehension of English words, the ability to use them and their actual usage by members of various social groups in Paris. Topics covered are: methodology, classification of words, reactions of informants and interpretation of data. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  9. A propos de l'agraphie des aphasiques sensoriels: etude comparative italien-francais (On Agraphia of Subjects with Sensory Aphasia: A Comparative Study of Italian and French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Agostini, Maria

    1977-01-01

    A report on research on agraphia using subjects afflicted with sensory aphasia. It compares performance in Italian, a phonetic language, with performance in French. The disorders in the Italian language appear less varied than in French. (Text is in French.)

  10. A propos de quelques experiences de francais fonctionnel en milieu hispanaphone (A Commentary on Experiments in Functional French in a Spanish-Speaking Milieu)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzer, Francois

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of the adaptation of audiovisual methods to respond to various specific needs in Mexico City. Some of the topics discussed are: meeting needs of people involved in special fields, particularly science, technology and economics; and the use of television for functional French instruction. (AMH)

  11. Variation et heterogeneite de recits en francais de jeunes eleves tunisiens (Variation and Heterogeneity of the French Narrative Productions of Young Tunisian Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anane, Chiraz

    2001-01-01

    This study analyzes narrative productions in the French of 10 Tunisian pupils selected from 2 schools (1 in an urban area, 1 in a rural area) in Tunisia (Tunis). The purpose of the study was to observe the development of the French language in native Tunisian Arabic speakers. Particular attention is focused on the narrative structure and time…

  12. Vers une culture des affaires? Mentalites, comportements, representations dans la classe de francais commercial (Toward a Business Culture? Attitudes, Behaviors, and Representations in the Commercial French Classroom).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bousquet, Gilles

    1993-01-01

    An exploration of the nature and range of international expertise necessary for students and users of commercial French attempts to note the points where knowledge of law, politics, culture, and business practice takes over from mere accumulation of facts or linguistic competence to facilitate genuine, productive, and culturally appropriate…

  13. Guide d'enseignement du francais au secondaire. Volet I: Comprehension ecrite. Immersion (Teaching Guide for French at the Secondary Level. Part I: Reading Comprehension. Immersion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leduc, Denise

    This guide to secondary school French reading instruction addresses a variety of general and specific instructional issues. An introductory chapter discusses program objectives, minimum program requirements, and the population to be taught. The second chapter looks at theoretical aspects of the development of reading ability: current thoughts on…

  14. Les media dans la salle de classe: L'enseignement du francais aux etudiants en journalisme (The Media in the Classroom: French Instruction for Journalism Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruprecht, Alvina

    1981-01-01

    Describes a French course for English-speaking students of journalism and mass communications based on a global approach to language teaching. The course aims to develop communicative competence as well as a critical attitude toward the media product. This approach stresses the functioning of language in a given context. (Author/MES)

  15. ONU Geneve: quel avenir pour le francais? Silence, on coule! (ONU Geneva: What Future for French? Quiet, We're Sinking!)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebreton, Jean-Michel; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Two articles address change and conflict concerning the French language. One discusses the comparative roles of English and French at the United Nations office in Geneva; the other is in response to the opinions of Philippe de Saint Robert on the need to protect French from change. (MSE)

  16. Patterns and Policies: The Changing Demographics of Foreign Language Instruction. Issues in Language Program Direction: A Series of Annual Volumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liskin-Gasparro, Judith E., Ed.

    This collection of papers is divided into three parts. Part 1, "Changing Patterns: Curricular Implications," includes "Basic Assumptions Revisited: Today's French and Spanish Students at a Large Metropolitan University" (Gail Guntermann, Suzanne Hendrickson, and Carmen de Urioste) and "Le Francais et Mort, Vive le Francais: Rethinking the Function…

  17. Education Accountability Year End Report 1990/91. Executive Summary = Rapport de fin d'annee de formation sur l'exercice des responsabilites 1990/91. Sommaire executif.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correctional Service of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This report provides statistical information and analysis of educational programs provided during the 1990-91 fiscal year by the Correctional Service of Canada. It reports on these program components--adult basic education (ABE), Grade 10 education, and secondary, vocational, and postsecondary education--at all minimum, medium, and maximum…

  18. Articulation: Solution de Continuite de la Fin du Secondaire a la Premiere Annee Universitaire (Articulation: Closing the Gap between the End of the Secondary Level and the First Year of the University).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monod, Pierre; Monod, Madeleine

    1977-01-01

    For years, French language instructors in Alberta have wondered about the possibility of coordinating in a better way their students' transition from last year of secondary education to first year at the university level. At the end of a university year, errors were found in the French compositions of 34 randomly chosen students (out of 68), which…

  19. Evolution de l'interlangue chez les eleves de la 1re a la 6e annee en immersion francaise (Evolution of Interlanguage in Students in First through Sixth Year French Immersion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchesne, Hermann

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of language production skills of French immersion students in grades 1-6 over 3 years revealed rapid growth of oral competence in the first three years of acquisition, followed by a much slower annual rate of progress. Lexical and syntactic structures most difficult to acquire emerge in five distinct patterns. (50 references) (Author/MSE)

  20. Les sciences appliquees et la formulation des programmes de langues d'un "service commun" (Applied Sciences and Program Design at a "Language Center").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Janet E.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the needs and objectives behind the expression "languages for special purposes," considering the problems faced by a language center that attempts to provide strictly specialized programs of instruction. Describes a method for the analysis of student needs as applied to the Department of Agriculture at the University of Newcastle. Societe…

  1. Elements de reflexion sur l'analyse des aspects societaux des contacts des langues (Issues in the Analysis of Societal Aspects of Language Contact).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prujiner, Alain

    The problems of integrating the multiple dimensions of a language contact situation in linguistic research have been of concern in recent years. The use of macro- (collective or group) and micro- (individual) levels of linguistic analysis illustrates this concern. Quebec's International Center for Research on Bilingualism has developed an…

  2. DOSSIER SUR "LA FORMATION PROFESSIONNELLE DES DIRECTEURS DE LABORATOIRE DE LANGUES" (PROPOSED COURSE OF STUDY FOR THE PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION OF LANGUAGE LABORATORY DIRECTORS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PLASTRE, GUY

    THE NEED FOR LANGUAGE LABORATORY SPECIALISTS TO MEET THE CHANGES IN MODERN LANGUAGE PEDAGOGY IS EMPHASIZED BY THE AUTHOR IN THIS REPORT. SUGGESTIONS ARE GIVEN FOR SPECIALIZED COURSES OF STUDY TOWARD A MASTER'S DEGREE FOR LANGUAGE LABORATORY DIRECTORS. SELECTIONS SHOULD BE MADE FROM BLOCKS OF COURSES IN (1) LINGUISTICS, MODERN LANGUAGES,…

  3. Amenagement et politique linguistques: La politique des langues au Benin (Language Management and Language Policy: The Politics of Language in Benin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halaoui, Nazam

    2001-01-01

    Distinguishing between language management and language policy, examines the politics of language in Benin from independence to the present. Describes the politics of language in Dahomey, the early policies of Benin, and the Republican politics of language, arising from the national constitutional convention and striving to address the needs of…

  4. La Recherche en Pedagogie des Langues aux Adultes: Compte Rendu d'un Seminaire (Research in Language Teaching to Adults: Conference Report). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nancy Univ., (France). Centre de Recherches et d'Applications Pedagogiques en Langues.

    This article describes the seminar on research in adult language education held in Nancy, France, in June, 1977. It includes reports on the four roundtables and gives details concerning organization and membership, as well as a list of the topics that were discussed. The four roundtables addressed the issues of student needs and motivation,…

  5. Compte Rendu de Recherche sur le Programme Lexical. Langue Anglaise 6e et 5e (Research Report on the Lexical Program. English Language 5th and 6th).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institut National de Recherche et de Documentation Pedagogiques, Paris (France).

    This research report is concerned with establishing a minimum vocabulary of English instruction for French students at the secondary level. The approach to the investigation is based on choosing vocabulary that corresponds to the current communication needs of the students, has functional content, and takes the spoken language into account. The…

  6. Attitudes et motivations: quelques facteurs dans l'apprentissage d'une langue etrangere (Attitudes and Motivations: Some Factors in Foreign Language Learning).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogaards, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Suggests, based on a review of research, that most of the work on motivation and attitudes as they relate to second language learning do not withstand critical analysis. It is also suggested that integrated research that does not study isolated factors but attempts to account for as many factors as possible is more valuable within its understood…

  7. Le Bilinguisme chez l'Enfant et l'Apprentissage d'une Langue Seconde: Bibliographie Analytique (Child Bilingualism and Second Language Learning: A Descriptive Bibliography).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afendras, Evangelos A.; Pianarosa, Albertina

    This annotated bibliography on child bilingualism and second language acquisition contains 1,661 references. Preceding the bibliographic entries are a list of the major conceptual fields covered by the bibliography, a subject index and an index of languages, countries and peoples dealt with in the bibliography. The indices refer to the entries in…

  8. Problemes de l'enseignement de la langue seconde standard pour les minorites culturelles (Problems in Standard Second Language Teaching for Cultural Minorities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, William F.

    Second-language and native-language methodologies are equally inappropriate as a foundation for the language training of cultural minorities. Second-language methodologies are based on the assumption that the language is to be acquired in school, as either a subject or a school activity. The relationship between teaching and learning is taken for…

  9. Enseignement de la langue francaise au Maroc et dialogue des cultures (Teaching of the French Language in Morocco and Dialogue of Cultures).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahjomri, Abdeljalil

    1984-01-01

    In the process of Arabization of Morocco, it is necessary to maintain French language instruciton, but as a necessary foreign language and not as a primary language. French remains an important part of Morocco's diverse cultural identity. (MSE)

  10. Les sciences appliquees et la formulation des programmes de langues d'un "service commun" (Applied Sciences and Program Design at a "Language Center").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Janet E.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the needs and objectives behind the expression "languages for special purposes," considering the problems faced by a language center that attempts to provide strictly specialized programs of instruction. Describes a method for the analysis of student needs as applied to the Department of Agriculture at the University of Newcastle. Societe…

  11. Parler de la pluie et du beau temps en classe de langue (Talking About Rain and Good Weather in Language Class).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viallon, Virginie; Jamet, Claude

    1996-01-01

    Use of television weather broadcasts is recommended for instruction in both French language and culture. Class activities can focus on geography, comprehension of meteorological terminology, or predicting the weather in different areas based on current charts. Some exercises are suggested. (MSE)

  12. La langue aymara: Des cimes andines a l'intelligence des ordinateurs (The Aymara Language: Andean Peaks for the Intelligence of Computers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbin, Christina

    1987-01-01

    Research suggests that Aymara, an ancient language still spoken in parts of South America, may be well suited for use as a "bridge" language in translation because of its extremely regular and coherent grammar. A machine translation program using the language has already been developed. (MSE)

  13. De la base cerebrale du fonctionnement phonique d'une langue (On the Neural Basis of Language at the Phonic Level). Publication B-189.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Pierre

    Current research on the contributions of neurobiology to the understanding of language, and more specifically of phonics, is reviewed. After an introductory section, the second section provides a brief historic perspective on neurolinguistic research, beginning in the early nineteenth century. The third section focuses on what is known about the…

  14. Katimavik Participant's Manual, Book IV, Second Language Learning = Katimavik manuel du participant, cahier IV, l'apprentissage de la langue seconde. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crelinsten, Michael, Ed.

    The second language (French or English) learning activity portion of Katimavik, a nine-month volunteer community service and experiential learning program for 17 to 21-year-old Canadians, provides an opportunity for living in a French language environment with other people who speak French, or, for participants whose native language is French, to…

  15. L'Ordinateur dans l'enseignement des langues: un colosse aux pieds d'argile? (The Computer in Language Teaching: A Giant with Clay Feet?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Raymond; Guberman, Solange

    1988-01-01

    The computer's potential in second language teaching is compared with the reality of commercial programs and teacher training in an effort to separate beliefs from facts. It is concluded that based on recent developments, the computer is about to occupy its rightful place in language teaching. (Author/MSE)

  16. DEUXIEME CONFERENCE INTERNATIONALE SUR LE TRAITEMENT AUTOMATIQUE DES LANGUES (SECOND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS, GRENOBLE, FRANCE, AUGUST 23-25, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    THE PAPERS IN THIS VOLUME--CATEGORIZED AS EITHER (1) AUTOMATIC ANALYSES OF NATURAL LANGUAGES, (2) STATISTIC AND SEMANTIC ANALYSES OF LINGUISTIC DATA, OR (3) ALGEBRAIC THEORIES OF LANGUAGES--ARE THE COLLECTIVE PRODUCT OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS HELD AT GRENOBLE, FRANCE, AUGUST 23-25, 1967. TOPICS RANGE FROM…

  17. Logiques des langues europeennes-IV: l'italien et l'estrade (The Logic of European Languages: Italian and the Stage).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Lier, Henri

    1989-01-01

    The fourth in a series of articles on the relationships of European languages to their cultures looks at the role of the theater in Italian culture and the theatricality of the Italian language. (MSE)

  18. Atlas International de la vitalite Linguistique, Volume 1. Les langues constitutionnelles de l'Indie = International Atlas of Language Vitality. Volume 1: Constitutional Languages of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Grant D., Ed.; Gendron, Jean-Denis, Ed.

    This International atlas of language vitality offers a cartography of language functions, based on a quantitative measure of the vitality of each language. It covers the constitutional languages of India, and offers maps, graphs, and data tables illustrating the vitality ratings of 14 languages by state, domain of usage (religion, schools, mass…

  19. Les linguistes et les questions de langue au Quebec: points de vue (Linguists and Language Questions in Quebec: Points of View).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshaies, Denise, Ed.; Ouellon, Conrad, Ed.

    Papers, all in French, address four issues concerning linguistics and language in Quebec: language quality and linguistic reality; linguistic politics and the future of French in Quebec; the linguist's role in modern society; and dictionaries. Each section includes an untitled, substantive introduction and several papers. Papers include: "Discours…

  20. Resumes de texte en langue maternelle et en langue seconde: Differences dans l'application des macroregles entre experts et etudiants de differents niveaux universitaires (Test Summaries in the Mother Tongue and in a Second Language: Differences in the Application of Macrorules between Experts and University Students of Various Levels).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbeil, Giselle

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes differences between experts and university students of various academic levels in the application of the macrorules of deletion, generalization, and construction of text summaries. Learners of French as a second language wrote summaries of a French text in French as well as in English, their mother tongue, while professors of French and…

  1. Un enfant, deux langues. Rapport d'un projet de recherche evaluative de l'enseignement de langue dans la province plurilingue de frise, aux pays-bas (One Child, Two Languages. Report of an Evaluative Research Project in Language Instruction in the Multilingual Province of Friesland, in the Netherlands).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijnstra, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the results of a research project that sought to determine the effect of various bilingual education models on general academic achievement and language learning in the primary grades. (AM)

  2. Bulletin bibliographique sur le bilinguisme et le contact des langues. BIBELO: Bibliographie informatisee sur le bilinguisme et l'enseignement des langues officielles (Bibliographic Report on Bilingualism and Language Contact. BIBELO: Computerized Bibliography on Bilingualism and the Teaching of Official Languages).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laforge, Lorne, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography contains over 450 citations of monographs, essays, readings, articles, unpublished documents, research reports, bibliographies, papers, instructional materials, and other publications concerning bilingual education, bilingualism, official language instruction, and French and English language instruction in Canada. The…

  3. La theorie autrement (Theory in Another Light).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertocchini, Paola; Costanzo, Edwige

    1985-01-01

    Outlines a technique using articles from "Le Francais dans le Monde" to teach reading comprehension and theory simultaneously to teachers of French as a second language. Describes a program in Italy using this approach. (MSE)

  4. Une epreuve orale de francais en fin d'etudes de gestion. Construction et implications pedagogiques (An Oral French Exam at the End of a Marketing Program. Construction and Pedagogical Implications).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawshaw, Robert H.

    1984-01-01

    An oral language test administered at the end of a four-year program combining business administration and French is described. The test consists of the formal presentation of a report including numbers, graphics, and text, a discussion of a theoretical issue, and interview. (MSE)

  5. Avez-vous vu la meme chose que les Francais? Stereotypes et documents authentiques video. (Did You See the Same Thing as the French? Stereotypes and Authentic Video Documents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilczynska, Weronika

    1990-01-01

    This discussion treats cultural stereotypes as a significant issue in second-language instruction, and examines the role of video documents from the mass media in helping students perceive and understand such stereotypes. (MSE)

  6. Un corpus de francais parle. Montreal 84: Historique, methodes et perspectives de recherche (A Corpus of Spoken French. Montreal 84: History, Methods, and Perspectives of Research). Recherches Sociolinguistiques/1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibault, Pierrette; Vincent, Diane

    In 1984, a new corpus of spoken Quebecois French (Canada) was added to the existing data. In developing it, half of the native speakers participating in a 1971 study were re-interviewed, providing previously unavailable data on individual language development. The report describes in detail the sociolinguistic methodology used in developing the…

  7. Une verification de l'efficacite de la methode verbo-tonale: apprentissage du /y/ francais par des americanophones (Testing of the Efficiency of the Verbo-Tonal Method: The learning of the French /y/ by Speakers of American English)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Paul; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This article describes a study designed to test the basic notions of the verbo-tonal method of error correction in second language learning, a method based on an awareness of the phonological system of the speaker's native language and its influence on the phonological system of the target language. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  8. La variation synchronique et diachronique de la syntaxe de la negation du francais chez des adultes en milieu guide (Synchronic and Diachronic Variation in the Syntax of French Negation in Adults in a Guided Environment).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, Corinne

    2001-01-01

    This study hypothesizes that negation and finiteness are linked in the development of foreign language acquisition in comparable ways to their development in first language acquisition. By contrasting synchronic intrapersonal variability data with change occurring in the diachronic data about negation, this article shows how adult learners of…

  9. Les gangsters, les truands et les autres: le roman noir francais de l'apres-guerre (Gangsters, Hoodlums and Others: The French Crime Novel of the Post-War Period).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweighaeuser, Jean-Paul

    1984-01-01

    The development and characteristics of a form of detective novel appearing after the war--gangster stories--are discussed. It is proposed that the emphasis on criminality gives an insight into contemporary life and thinking. (MSE)

  10. Apprendre a communiquer: Compte rendu d'une experience d'enseignement du francais (Learning to Communicate: A Report on an Experiment in the Teaching of French). Melanges pedagogiques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gremmo, M. J.

    Communicative competence is now at the point where theory must be translated into practice, that is, where the functional approach must be developed into pedagogical content and strategies. An analysis is presented of the three main pedagogical approaches: the structural, situational, and functional approaches. Principles underlying the…

  11. Attitudes des etudiants canadiens anglais face aux accents des professeurs de francais en Ontario (Attitudes of English-Speaking Canadian Students toward the Accents of French Professors in Ontario).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hume, Elizabeth; And Others

    1993-01-01

    In a study of English Canadian attitudes toward French-accented speakers presented as potential teachers of French as a second language, undergraduate students evaluated standard French speakers most favorably on status traits, linguistic competence, and professional competence. English-accented speakers were rated least favorably;…

  12. Preliminaires pour l'Etude de la Phonetique Suprasegmentale en vue de l'Enseignement du Francais aux Etrangers (Preliminaries to the Study of Suprasegmental Phonetics for the Teaching of French to Foreigners).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Companys, Emmanuel

    Although a great many textbooks of general phonetics deal with the articulation and the acoustics of speech sounds, these works generally deal only briefly with the facts of suprasegmental phonetics--rythm, accent, and intonation. The author feels "it is precisely suprasegmental phonetics which is the most important in our French classes because…

  13. Project experimentale sur le bilinguisme Creole-Francais au niveau de l' enseignement primaire en Haiti (Experimental Project on Creole-French Bilingualism at the Primary Level in Haiti).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ronceray, Hubert; Petit-Frere, Serge

    1975-01-01

    This is a progress report on the first year of an experimental bilingual education project for primary education in Haiti, sponsored by the Centre Haitien d' Investigation en Sciences Sociales (CHISS), The center's goal was to carry out a scientific project, to secure the facts from emotional and political prejudice. The point is to show the…

  14. Un gars, une fille: plaidoyer pour la culture avec un "petit c" dans un cours de francais languae etrangere (Un gars, une fille: Culture with a "Litte c" in a French as a econd Language Course).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    Looks at the Quebecois TV show, "Un gars, Une fille" used in a university French course to teach the socio-cultural reality that underlies all linguistic utterances in a university-level French course. Attempts to identify what makes the show more authentic than videos and CD ROMs that accompany most language textbooks in French. (Author/VWL)

  15. Problemes poses par la mesure du rendement en francais des eleves franco-ontariens (Problems Posed by the Measurement of Proficiency in French Among Franco-Ontarian Students). Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canale, Michael; Mougeon, Raymond

    This study examines the hypothesis that the French used by a large number of Franco-Ontarians represents a linguistic system (or several systems) that differs from Standard French. In addition, a review of previous research leads to the inverse hypothesis, that Ontarian French represents a body of different systems or sub-systems that are more or…

  16. Acquisition et enseignement du francais en situation minoritaire: le cas des Franco-ontariens (French Acquisition and Teaching in a Minority Situation: The Case of the Franco-Ontarians).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mougeon, Raymond; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A synthesis of research on the Franco-Ontarian school environment focuses on the maintenance of French by Franco-Ontarian students, their French language proficiency, and their native language instruction. The relevance of these issues in other French language minority settings is discussed. (MSE)

  17. Evaluation du systeme de traduction automatique SYSTRAN anglais-Francais, version 1978, de la Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Evaluation of the English-French SYSTRAN Machine Translation System, 19 version, of the Commission of European Communities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Slype, Georges

    1979-01-01

    Describes the French-English version of the SYSTRAN machine translation system, used by the Commission of European Communities, and an evaluation study which examined the quality, cost, and weaknesses of the system. The study concluded that this type of system is useful for "pretranslation" and "rough" translation only. (AM)

  18. L'enseignement de la musique et de la langue seconde: pistes d'integration et consequences sur les apprentissages (The Teaching of Music and Second Language: Paths for Integration and Consequences for Instruction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Anne S.

    1998-01-01

    An experiment in a grade 2 French immersion program compared performance of a group-taught music lessons totally integrated into classroom instruction and a group not given music instruction. Pre- and post-tests of tonal-rhythmic patterns and form that have commonalities with pronunciation, oral grammar, vocabulary, and reading comprehension found…

  19. L'enseignement des langues: Pour qui? Pour quoi? (Language Teaching: For Whom? For What Purpose?). Proceedings of the annual Symposium of the Canadian Association of Applied Linguistics (7th, Sherbrooke, Canada, May 6, 1976). Publication B-62.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Gilbert, Ed.

    These 16 papers in French and English deal with questions related to the purpose of learning a language, one's native language as well as a second one. Specifically, the presentations deal with the following topics: (1) consideration of learners' needs; (2) the usefulness of learning English in Quebec; (3) the tension between knowledge and…

  20. The Teaching of Russian Language and Literature in Europe = L'enseignement de la langue et de la litterature russes en Europe = Prepodavanie russkogo yaeyka i literatury v Europe. Proceedings of the AIMAV Seminar (17th, Brussels, Belgium, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankoff, Jean, Ed.; And Others

    Papers from the Proceedings of the 17th meeting of the AIMAV (Association internationale pour le developpement de la communication interculturelle) are collected in this volume. Conference papers appear either in English, in French, or in Russian. For purposes of this abstract, all titles below have been translated into English. The…

  1. L'Approche Macro-Linguistique du Fonctionnement des Langues et Ses Implications Pedagogiques: Role du Visuel (The Macro-Linguistic Approach to Language Functions and Its Pedagogical Implications: Role of the Visual Component). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holec, H.

    This article considers the function and choice of visual aids in the teaching of languages in the light of recent work on communicative competence. An analysis of cartoons, comic strips, and television drama demonstrates that authentic verbo-visual communication consists of a network of interactions between visual and verbal information. This…

  2. Du Role de l'Autonomie et de l'Interculturalite dans l'Etude des Langues Etrangeres (The Role of Independent Study and Cross-cultural Awareness in the Study of Foreign Languages).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Klaus; Cormeraie, Sylvette

    1996-01-01

    Examines ways in which the cross-cultural aspects of learning a second language may be integrated with the objective of achieving communicative competence. The article suggests that foreign-language studies constitute for the learner a preparation for a way of thinking and behaving that views the "foreigner" as a necessary and enriching value. (23…

  3. L'enseignement de la musique et de la langue seconde: pistes d'integration et consequences sur les apprentissages (The Teaching of Music and Second Language: Paths for Integration and Consequences for Instruction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Anne S.

    1998-01-01

    An experiment in a grade 2 French immersion program compared performance of a group-taught music lessons totally integrated into classroom instruction and a group not given music instruction. Pre- and post-tests of tonal-rhythmic patterns and form that have commonalities with pronunciation, oral grammar, vocabulary, and reading comprehension found…

  4. L'application d'un modele mathematique a l'analyse de dissertations en langue seconde: utile ou pas (Application of a Mathematical Model in the Analysis of Essays in a Second Language: Useful or Not?)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbeil, Giselle

    1998-01-01

    A study analyzed the second-language essays of seven anglophone and one French-speaking Quebec university students enrolled in a literature course by using a cognitive-metacognitive framework developed for mathematical problem-solving and a think-aloud protocol. Results indicate the framework, with some adjustments, is a reliable tool for…

  5. Homogeneite et heterogeneite de la langue latine selon Varron et Aulu-Gelle: aspects historique, social et fonctionnel (Homogeneity and Heterogeneity in the Latin Language According to Varron and Aulu-Gelle: Historic, Social and Functional Aspects).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amacker, Rene

    2001-01-01

    Of the many Latin texts that provide views on language, and in particular on linguistic change and variation, Varro's "De Lingua Latina" and Gellius'"Noctes Atticae," provide good examples of the perspectives of the stoic philosopher and of the antiquarian philologist. Stoics suggest that language was created as perfect as possible. In this view,…

  6. L'enseignement d'une langue (non-maternelle ou maternelle) aux apprenants en difficulté et aux enfants issus de milieux socialement défavorisés

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wambach, Michel

    1986-06-01

    Official statistics reveal a high percentage of school failure at primary-school level in Belgium, notably among children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds, be they francophone or foreign. Furthermore, the percentage of adult illiteracy is rising. These situations share a common root: the methodology of the mother tongue at school and the approach to the written language in particular. After defining the psychological objective of a language course the present study proposes a methodology, a synthesis of up-to-date psycho-pedagogical, linguistic and (neuro) biological trends. The data from this research make it possible to verify the working hypotheses which have been elaborated and revised over the last twenty years. Within the recommended methodology, the libération de la parole (`liberation of speech') occupies an important place. This initial stage increases and reinforces the creative dispositions in the child and prepares for real language activities. These help the child to communicate and enable a functional learning of the language. The methodology of reading takes into account research conducted on the operation of the memory and the selective activity of the brain. A first evaluation of the methodology has verified the working hypotheses. Moreover, the pupils in the experimental classes obtained markedly higher grades in tests such as reading comprehension, elaborating texts and in those tests calling for imagination and creativity.

  7. Application des Descriptions Linguistiques a l'Enseignement des Langues. Problematique et Compte-Rendu d'Observation. (The Application of Linguistic Descriptions to Language Teaching: Issues and Observation). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heddesheimer, C.; Holec, H.

    This article considers the issue of the application of linguistic theory and knowledge about the way language functions to second language teaching. It is suggested that this application should be carried out by taking into account educational factors, such as the intended audience, the teaching methods, and the educational objectives. The choice…

  8. La Description des langues naturelles en vue d'applications linguistiques: Actes du colloque (The Description of Natural Languages with a View to Linguistic Applications: Conference Papers). Publication K-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellon, Conrad, Comp.

    Presentations from a colloquium on applications of research on natural languages to computer science address the following topics: (1) analysis of complex adverbs; (2) parser use in computerized text analysis; (3) French language utilities; (4) lexicographic mapping of official language notices; (5) phonographic codification of Spanish; (6)…

  9. Prevailing Lexical-Stylistic Features in Emirati Language Learners' Digital Discourse (Caractéristiques lexicales stylistiques dominantes dans le discours numérique des apprenants en langue émirienne)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigoryan, Tsoghik

    2015-01-01

    Today's language classroom is undergoing an irreversible hyperbole and one of the most powerful drivers of this transformation is ICT. Digital classroom not only exposes the learners to grammatical language of linguistics, but rather the everyday life of the language in use (Thurlow & Mroczek, 2011). The aim of this study was to explore the…

  10. Le Rapport langue-culture dans les organisations internationales: Pour Une Sociologie des organisations internationales (The Relationship between Language and Culture in International Organizations: Toward a Sociology of International Organizations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jastrab de Saint Robert, de Marie-Josee

    1988-01-01

    Understanding the work of international organizations requires an understanding of the relationship between language and culture, a relationship evident in the activities of the international organizations. This relationship is partly responsible for the negative image of such organizations. Research in the sociology of international organizations…

  11. Bilinguisme et problematique des langues ethniques. Enquete sur le comportement linguistique des jeunes montrealais d'origine italienne (Bilingualism and the Problem of Ethnic Languages. A Study of the Linguistic Behavior of Young Montrealers of Italian Descent). Publication B-149.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villata, Bruno

    A study is reported of the language behavior of trilingual 9-to-12-year-old native Italian speakers in Montreal, some of whom were studying Italian on Saturdays and some of whom were not. The study focused on their available vocabulary in the three languages (Italian, French, and English) and on their language productivity during their various…

  12. Evolution linguistique et evolution de perspective en grammaire comparee des langues indoeuropeennes: le cas du "locatif sans desinence" (Linguistic Evolution and Evolution of Perspective in the Comparative Grammar of Indo-European Languages: The Case of the "Endingless Locative").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanseveren, Sylvie

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of the casual origin of the Greek infinitives in "-men,""ein," with respect to the "endingless locative" and the casus indefinitus" hypothesis. These assumptions can be connected with the progress made in the linguistic research, especially on the nominal inflection, from a chronological and methodological point…

  13. Les contributions de la psychologie cognitive a l'enseignement strategique des langues secondes au niveau universitaire (The Contributions of Cognitive Psychology to Strategic Second Language Instruction at the University Level).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besnard, Christine

    1995-01-01

    Contributions of the field of cognitive psychology to second language instruction are reviewed. It is proposed that these concepts can contribute not only to classroom language instruction, but also to methodology of language teacher education. (MSE)

  14. Didactique des langues etrangeres: De quoi parle-t-on quand on parle de grammaire? (Didactic of Foreign Languages: What Are We Talking About When We Talk About Grammar?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berche, Merce Pujol

    1998-01-01

    A discussion of the term "grammar" in the context of second-language teaching and learning looks at various approaches to/definitions of grammar, including linguistic, psychological, sociological, and pedagogical grammars. Pedagogical grammars are viewed as learning tools for the second-language classroom, and their properties and components are…

  15. The Teaching of Russian Language and Literature in Europe = L'enseignement de la langue et de la litterature russes en Europe = Prepodavanie russkogo yaeyka i literatury v Europe. Proceedings of the AIMAV Seminar (17th, Brussels, Belgium, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankoff, Jean, Ed.; And Others

    Papers from the Proceedings of the 17th meeting of the AIMAV (Association internationale pour le developpement de la communication interculturelle) are collected in this volume. Conference papers appear either in English, in French, or in Russian. For purposes of this abstract, all titles below have been translated into English. The…

  16. L'Enseignement scolaire des langues vivantes dans les pays membres de la communaute europeenne: bilan, reflexions et propositions (Modern Language Instruction in the Member Countries of the European Community: Evaluation, Reflections, and Proposals).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deth, Jean-Pierre

    A review of the situation of modern language teaching in western Europe (Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, West Germany, and the United Kingdom) looks at the demography and multilingualism of the region, the organization of school systems in those countries, and the status of school-based modern language…

  17. Confidence through Competence in Modern Language Learning. CILT Reports & Papers 25. Selection of Papers from the World Conference of the International Federation of Modern Language Teachers--FIPLV--Federation Internationale des Professeurs de Langues Vivantes (Helsinki, Finland, July 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenstein, Reinhold, Ed.; James, C. Vaughan, Ed.

    Fourteen papers from six countries are included in this volume. Several have been translated from French or German. The papers are grouped as follows: (1) Creativity and Language Learning: "Creativity, Brain, and Language" (M. Bergstrom) and "Creativity and Interactional Competence in Foreign Language Learning" (E. Oksaar); (2) The Teacher and the…

  18. Les objectifs de l'enseignement des langues etrangeres et les pratiques relevant de la competence de communication (Instructional Objectives for Foreign Language Teaching and Practices Relating to Communicative Competence).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelhoff, Cristoph; van Bommel, Heiner

    1980-01-01

    Remarks are made on learning objectives in teaching manuals for second language instruction. These issues are addressed: goals of communication, factors in the communicative situation, the intention behind the expression, focusing on the students, relating content to student experience, and the importance of these factors in learning objectives.…

  19. La conception et le role des materiels pedagogiques dans l'enseignement des langues secondes (The Conception and Role of Instructional Materials in the Teaching of Second Languages). CILA Bulletin, No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redard, F., Ed.; And Others

    This special issue concerns the content, function, and form of instructional materials dealing with second language instruction. The following articles appear: (1) "Deliberate Semantics--an 'Interventionist' Approach to Second Language Teaching Methodology," by A.P.R. Howatt; (2) "Sprechakte und Sprachunterricht (Speech Acts and Language…

  20. Incidence de la connaissance d'une langue de programmation sur la conception et l'implantation des programmes d'etude. Etude effectuee dans les classes de langue francaise des conseils des ecoles separees de l'Ontario (The Impact of the Knowledge of a Programming Language on the Conception and Implementation of Courses of Study. Study Carried out in French Language Classes in the Council of Separate Schools in Ontario).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaud, Pierre; And Others

    Students in certain French language schools in eastern Ontario took part in this initial experiment in the teaching of computer and electronic programing at the elementary school level. This project had three objectives for optimizing the pedagogical impact of these first attempts at teaching programing: (1) to describe the context of this initial…

  1. Experience d'apprentissage bilingue precoce: Resultats des eleves de Monthey et de Sion a la fin de la 2e Anee Primaire, Annee 1998/99 (Experience of Preschool Bilingual Education: Results from Students in Monthey and Sion at the End of Second Grade, 1998/99 Year).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bregy, Anne-Lore; Brohy, Claudine; Fuchs, Gaby

    During the 1994-1995 school year, the town of Sierre/Siders implemented and evaluated the first bilingual kindergarten class in the Valais canton of Switzerland. The following year the towns of Sion/Sitten and Monthey in the same canton also launched bilingual education classes. In these bilingual classes German is introduced as a second language…

  2. La reussite scolaire de votre enfant: Pour aider votre enfant a mieux apprendre a la Maison et a l'ecole, de la 1re a la 9e annee. Manuel d'accompagnement a l'intention du parent = The Parent Advantage: Helping Children Become More Successful Learners at Home and School, Grades 1-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Catherine; Antaya-Moore, Dana

    This guide for French-speaking parents of students with learning disabilities in Alberta presents a variety of strategies parents can use to help their children in grades 1 through 9 become successful learners. Section 1 offers ideas for helping students get and stay organized, such as using self-talk to create a positive attitude and organizing…

  3. Fiche pratique: Elaborer un texte ecrit avec des debutants; Frequence FDM: Les journees du patrimoine; "Bonne annee"...en kit; Cles pour une expo... (Practical Ideas: Elaborating on a Written Text with Beginners; Frequency FDM: Heritage Days; "Happy New Year"...In a Kit; Keys to an Exhibition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, Corinne; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Four French classroom activities are described, including an introductory exercise in French for special purposes (business administration), a cultural exploration activity using a commercial audiotape, holiday card-writing, and an exercise in interpreting an art or other exhibition. (MSE)

  4. Travaux Neuchatelois de linguistique (TRANEL) (Neuchatel Works in Linguistics). Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travaux Neuchatelois de linguistique (TRANEL), 1985

    1985-01-01

    The five papers in this collection include: "Apprendre a apprendre les langues: 'Mais je veux etre un handicape linguistique!'" (Learning To Learn Languages: But I Want To Be Linguistically Handicapped!) (Richard Duda); "Pedagogie integree des langues maternelle et seconde. La conscience des problemes chez les enseignants et chez les enseignes"…

  5. Travaux Neuchatelois de linguistique (TRANEL) (Neuchatel Works in Linguistics). Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travaux Neuchatelois de linguistique (TRANEL), 1985

    1985-01-01

    The five papers in this collection include: "Apprendre a apprendre les langues: 'Mais je veux etre un handicape linguistique!'" (Learning To Learn Languages: But I Want To Be Linguistically Handicapped!) (Richard Duda); "Pedagogie integree des langues maternelle et seconde. La conscience des problemes chez les enseignants et chez les enseignes"…

  6. Discours oraux--discours ecrits: quelles relations? Actes du 4eme colloque d'orthophoine/logopedie (Neuchatel, 3-4 octobre, 1996) (Oral Discourse--Written Discourse: What Is the Relationship? Proceedings of the Colloquium on Speech Therapy (4th, Neuchatel, Switzerland, October 3-4, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Py, Bernard, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Research papers on the relationship between oral and written language include: "Une distinction bien fragile: oral/ecrit" ("A Fragile Distinction: Oral/Written") (Francoise Gadet); "Oral et ecrit dans les representations des enseignants et dans les pratiques quotidiennes de la classe de francais" ("Oral and Written Language in Teachers'…

  7. Paradoxes in French-Language Instruction: Recent Social and Historical Research on Literacy in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Elsie; Galvao, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    This essay on three recent books by outstanding scholars--"La raison scolaire" by Bernard Lahire, "Histoire de l'enseignement du francais du XVII[superscript e] au XX[superscript e] siecle" by Andre Chervel, and "L'ecole et la lecture obligatoire" by Anne-Marie Chartier--offers the opportunity to acquaint readers with French research on teaching…

  8. French Video Cassettes Produced by the Ecole Commerciale de la Chambre de Commerce et d'Industrie de Paris: Maximizing the Cultural and Linguistic Returns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Charlotte P.

    This paper discusses the use of videotapes furnished with the "Valise du Francais des Affaires" from the Chambre de Commerce et d'Industrie de Paris to teach business French. In the videotapes, French employers discuss the type of employee they would like to hire, and the problems they have encountered in some of the interviews they have conducted…

  9. Actes des journees de linguistique: Colloque sur la recherche etudiante (Proceedings of the Linguistics Conference: Colloquium on Student Research) (Quebec, Canada, March 18-19, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepage, Danielle, Ed.; Dominik, Annette, Ed.

    Presentations by students at a colloquium on student research on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the University of Laval's Faculty of Letters, March 18-19, 1988, include: "Une enquete sur la qualite du francais ecrit au Quebec"; "Amenagement linguistique et neologie"; "Analyse syntaxique des 'arrets et retours' en arabe morocain parle";…

  10. Melanges Pedagogiques (Pedagogical Mixture), 1986/87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melanges Pedagogiques, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The 1986/87 issue of the journal on second language teaching and learning contains seven articles in French and four in English, including: "Learning How To Learn English"; "Socrate est-il un chat? Pratiquer le syllogisme pour apprendre a argumenter (Is Socrates a Cat? Practicing Syllogisms To Learn To Argue)"; "La production orale en francais des…

  11. Travaux du laboratoire de traitement du langage et de la parole (Laboratory Work in the Treatment of Language and Linguistics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosjean, Francois, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Research papers on language and linguistics include: "Enchainement des mots et acces au lexique en francais" ("Word Order and Lexical Access in French") (Besson); "L'apport de la coarticulation dans la perception de consonnes occlusives et constrictives" ("The Contribution of Coarticulation to the Perception of Occlusive and Constrictive…

  12. Paradoxes in French-Language Instruction: Recent Social and Historical Research on Literacy in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Elsie; Galvao, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    This essay on three recent books by outstanding scholars--"La raison scolaire" by Bernard Lahire, "Histoire de l'enseignement du francais du XVII[superscript e] au XX[superscript e] siecle" by Andre Chervel, and "L'ecole et la lecture obligatoire" by Anne-Marie Chartier--offers the opportunity to acquaint readers with French research on teaching…

  13. Games for the Foreign Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Nancy; Madaras, Susan W.

    Two marketing games are described, "Le Marche Francais" and "El Mercado: The Mexican Market Comes to Life in the Spanish Classroom." Both are patterned after a published game entitled "Market: A Simulation Game." The adaptation in each instance relied on simplifying the original game and presenting it in a form understandable to middle school…

  14. Melanges Pedagogiques (Pedagogical Mixture), 1986/87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melanges Pedagogiques, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The 1986/87 issue of the journal on second language teaching and learning contains seven articles in French and four in English, including: "Learning How To Learn English"; "Socrate est-il un chat? Pratiquer le syllogisme pour apprendre a argumenter (Is Socrates a Cat? Practicing Syllogisms To Learn To Argue)"; "La production orale en francais des…

  15. The Training of Modern Language Teachers in Various Countries. Collection d'"Etudes linguistiques," No. 20. Selected papers from the Association Internationale pour la Recherche et la Diffusion des Methodes Audio-Visuelles et Structuro-Globales Seminar (5th, August 27-September 1, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nivette, Jos, Ed.

    Selected papers that address theoretical and practical training of the modern language teacher and language teaching experiments in various countries are presented. Some of the articles included are the following: "Les problemes de la formation linguistique et pedagogique des professeurs de francais en Afrique Subsaharienne" (The Problems of the…

  16. Actes des Journees de linguistique (Proceedings of the Linguistics Conference) (12th, Quebec City, Canada, March 26-27, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boissonneault, Chantal, Ed.

    Papers on language research include: "L'expression de l'opposition en Latin" ("The Expression of Opposition in Latin" (Claude Begin); "Le francais de l'Abitibi: characteristiques phonetiques et origine socio-geographique des locuteurs" ("The French of Abitibi: Phonetic Characteristics and Socio-Geographic Origin of Speakers") (Chantal…

  17. Multilingual Thesauri for the Modern World - No Ideal Solution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorna, Kerstin; Davies, Sylvie

    2001-01-01

    Discusses thesauri as tools for multilingual information retrieval and cross-cultural communication. Considers the need for multilingual thesauri and the importance of explicit conceptual structures, and introduces a pilot thesaurus, InfoDEFT (Information Deutsch-English-Francais Thesaurus), as a possible model for new online thesauri which are…

  18. Current Approaches to the Teaching of Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Martin T.; And Others

    Five papers presented at a language conference are compiled in this report. They include: (1) "Le Francais au Pot-Pourri," or "Adapting the 'Open-Classroom' to the Teaching of Foreign Languages," (2) "We Can Teach Anyone to Speak French," (3) "The Use of Puppetry in the Teaching of Foreign Languages," (4) "A New Perspective for Integrated Foreign…

  19. From CD-ROM to the WWW: Coming Full Circle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Describes the challenges faced and solutions adopted in adapting the multimedia-rich "Varietes de francais" CD-ROM program to operate on the World Wide Web. The program runs locally to retrieve media resources, perform intelligent answer processing and data collection, and turns to the Web only when necessary for data transfer, external Web links,…

  20. An Analysis of Two Basic Word Lists for French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siliakus, H.

    1978-01-01

    Outlines a method of determining which words should be selected as the basic vocabulary for French courses. Rather than using frequency as its criterion, this method defines lexical utility in terms of definition, inclusion, extension, and combination. The Quebec list and the Francais Fondamental are evaluated. (EJS)

  1. En Francasis: A Supplement of Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enwall, Beverly; Joiner, Elizabeth

    This classroom activity supplement is designed to accompany the "En Francais" language instruction series (programs 1-13) used on closed circuit television in South Carolina. It is intended to enrich classroom follow-up of the film program and to prvide a variety of activities and suggestions for teaching French language skills. Lessons introduce…

  2. Report on a Fulbright Year in France: Toulouse-Le Mirail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emblidge, David

    1979-01-01

    Describes the experience which seemed to bear out the diagnosis of French history, character, and culture in "Le mal francais" by Peyrefitte. Intra-departmental relationships, the curriculum, course content, student life and attitudes, the physical plant, and the examination system are among the topics discussed. (AMH)

  3. Teaching with "Voix et Images de France"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrow, G. D.

    1970-01-01

    A report on the classroom use of Voix et Images de France," the French text prepared by the Centre de Recherche et d'Etude pourla Diffusion du Francais (CREDIF) at the Ecole Normale Superieure de Saint-Cloud in France. (FB)

  4. Research Results in Three Large Televised FLES Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, E.S.

    Three research projects conducted by three major televised FLES programs attempted to assess the effect of follow-up activities by the classroom teacher. The programs involved in the projects were "Parlons Francais," the University of Illinois Foreign Language Instruction Project (Spanish), and the Denver-Stanford Project on the Context of…

  5. On the Origin and Nature of Standard English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Discusses origin of word "standard" and how it came to be applied to language; emergence in classical times of concept of "best" Greek and Latin, and how this had profound influence on development of high vernaculars of Europe; establishment of "le bon francais" and "good English," and application of terms "standard" and "standard English" to…

  6. Die CREDIF-Methodik. Versuch einer kritischen Bestandsaufnahme (The CREDIF Methodology. An Attempt at a Critical Evaluation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firges, Jean

    1975-01-01

    A critique of the audiovisual courses of Level 1 produced by the Centre de Recherche et d'Etudes pour la Diffusion du Francais. Discusses the textbook "Bonjour Line" (for 8- to 11-year-olds), "Voix et Images de France" and "De Vive Voix" (both for those older than 11). (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  7. Some Recent French Courses: Kindergarten to Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinrib, Alice

    1976-01-01

    The following courses of study in French at the primary level are described and evaluated: (1) "En Avant" (E. J. Arnold, 1966), (2) "Repondez s'il vous plait" (Copp Clark, 1975), (3) "Pour les Tous Petits" (Carleton Board of Education, 1974), (4) "Dansons la Capucine (Clarke Irwin, 1973), and (5) "Le Francais Partout: Aux Yeux des Petits" (Holt,…

  8. De l'analyse de contextes a la pedagogie des textes (From Analysis of Context to Pedagogy of Texts)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Denis

    1976-01-01

    A detailed description of the "Dictionnaire contextual de francais pour la geologie." This study is used as an example of such a dictionary serving as a basic tool in the study of functional French. Such dictionaries can be useful in conceptual approaches to language learning. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  9. The French Language in the Americas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdman, Albert, Ed.

    The annual bulletin of the French 8 section of the Annual Meeting of the Modern Language Association of America is presented with the texts of papers read at both the 1969 and 1970 sessions. The 1970 papers, in French, include Jean Louis Darbelnet's "Etude Sociolinguistique des contacts entre 1'Anglais et le Francais au Canada et en…

  10. Indexing Price Trends of French Academic Books in the Humanities and Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ronald E.

    1994-01-01

    Provides data on price trends for French academic books in the humanities and social sciences for the years 1986-90 based on information from the "Bulletin Critique du Livre Francais," a monthly book-reviewing journal. A method for developing a price index for this material is demonstrated. (Contains eight references.) (LRW)

  11. Alternative Approaches to Staffing the Elementary Foreign Language Program: Cost and Time vs. Achievement and Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Frank

    1968-01-01

    Based on a Ph.D. dissertation on an experiment involving the teaching of French with the widely used "Parlons francais" course to three groups of Grade 4 students, this article compares and evaluates the methods of staffing and implementing these FLES programs described in the report. The institutional approach methods assessed are--(1) Classroom…

  12. An Application of Didactic Criteria to Courseware Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decoo, Wilfried

    1984-01-01

    Combines a software review with a suggestion for a format that will allow a fair comparison between similar software packages and will also be more complete, accurate, and meaningful to the potential user of the software. The software package "Le Francais Par Ordinateur" is reviewed by this method. (SED)

  13. ECMWF and ERS-1 Surface Winds Over the Arabian Sea During July 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, D.; Freilich, M. H.; Weller, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    The European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and Institut Francais Pour la Recherche et 1'Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER) European Remote-Sensing Satellite (ERS-1), named IFR2, surface wind velocity data products are compared during July 1995 over the Arabian Sea.

  14. Melanges Pedagogiques (Pedagogical Mixture), 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melanges Pedagogiques, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The 1985 issue of the journal on second language teaching and learning contains four articles in French and three in English, including: "Lire et comprendre un texte informatif (Reading and understanding an Informative Text)" (Jacqueline Billant, Pascale Fade); "Les nouveaux diplomes de Francais Language Etrangere: Le D.E.L.F. et le D.A.L.F. (The…

  15. On the Origin and Nature of Standard English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Discusses origin of word "standard" and how it came to be applied to language; emergence in classical times of concept of "best" Greek and Latin, and how this had profound influence on development of high vernaculars of Europe; establishment of "le bon francais" and "good English," and application of terms "standard" and "standard English" to…

  16. The Training of Modern Language Teachers in Various Countries. Collection d'"Etudes linguistiques," No. 20. Selected papers from the Association Internationale pour la Recherche et la Diffusion des Methodes Audio-Visuelles et Structuro-Globales Seminar (5th, August 27-September 1, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nivette, Jos, Ed.

    Selected papers that address theoretical and practical training of the modern language teacher and language teaching experiments in various countries are presented. Some of the articles included are the following: "Les problemes de la formation linguistique et pedagogique des professeurs de francais en Afrique Subsaharienne" (The Problems of the…

  17. FDM Video Classe: Modes d'emploi pour la classe (FDM Video Class: Classroom Uses).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beacco, Marcella Di Giura

    1996-01-01

    Content and design of the videotape series FDM Video Classe, produced by the journal "Le francais dans le monde," are described and classroom uses suggested. The materials are from authentic television programs, selected to illustrate aspects of French culture. It is suggested that the teacher also provide students with supporting materials that…

  18. From CD-ROM to the WWW: Coming Full Circle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Describes the challenges faced and solutions adopted in adapting the multimedia-rich "Varietes de francais" CD-ROM program to operate on the World Wide Web. The program runs locally to retrieve media resources, perform intelligent answer processing and data collection, and turns to the Web only when necessary for data transfer, external Web links,…

  19. Multilingual Thesauri for the Modern World - No Ideal Solution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorna, Kerstin; Davies, Sylvie

    2001-01-01

    Discusses thesauri as tools for multilingual information retrieval and cross-cultural communication. Considers the need for multilingual thesauri and the importance of explicit conceptual structures, and introduces a pilot thesaurus, InfoDEFT (Information Deutsch-English-Francais Thesaurus), as a possible model for new online thesauri which are…

  20. Some Recent French Courses: Kindergarten to Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinrib, Alice

    1976-01-01

    The following courses of study in French at the primary level are described and evaluated: (1) "En Avant" (E. J. Arnold, 1966), (2) "Repondez s'il vous plait" (Copp Clark, 1975), (3) "Pour les Tous Petits" (Carleton Board of Education, 1974), (4) "Dansons la Capucine (Clarke Irwin, 1973), and (5) "Le Francais Partout: Aux Yeux des Petits" (Holt,…

  1. En Francasis: A Supplement of Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enwall, Beverly; Joiner, Elizabeth

    This classroom activity supplement is designed to accompany the "En Francais" language instruction series (programs 1-13) used on closed circuit television in South Carolina. It is intended to enrich classroom follow-up of the film program and to prvide a variety of activities and suggestions for teaching French language skills. Lessons introduce…

  2. Actes des Journees de linguistique (Proceedings of the Linguistics Conference) (15th, Quebec, Canada, March 15-16, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulet, Marie-Josee, Ed.

    Papers on language research in this volume include the following: "Temporalite en francais de France. Differences dans la conceptualisation du temps et son expression dans un texte narratif oral" ("Differences in the Conceptualization of Time and Its Expression in Oral Narratives") (Natalia Dankova); "La traduction des textes womanist: le cas de…

  3. Travaux Neuchatelois de Linguistique (TRANEL) (Neuchatel Working Papers in Linguistics), Volume 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Py, Bernard, Ed.; Rubattel, Christian, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Three papers in linguistics, all in French, are presented. "La delocutivite lexicale en francais standard: esquisse d'un modele derivationnel" ("Lexical Delocutivity in Standard French: Sketch of a Derivational Model"), by Marc Bonhomme, examines the process by which certain expressions become neologisms. "La terminologie de l'Essai de grammaire…

  4. EPA/IFP EUROPEAN WORKSHOP ON THE EMISSION ON NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the proceedings of an EPA/Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) cosponsored workshop addressing direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from fossil fuel combustion. The third in a series, it was held at the IFP in Rueil-Malmaison, France, on June 1-2, 1988. Increas...

  5. FDM Video Classe: Modes d'emploi pour la classe (FDM Video Class: Classroom Uses).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beacco, Marcella Di Giura

    1996-01-01

    Content and design of the videotape series FDM Video Classe, produced by the journal "Le francais dans le monde," are described and classroom uses suggested. The materials are from authentic television programs, selected to illustrate aspects of French culture. It is suggested that the teacher also provide students with supporting materials that…

  6. Television en classe!: L'experience "FDM video plus" (Television in Class!; The FDM Video Plus Experiment).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Giura, Marcella Beacco

    1994-01-01

    The problems and value of television as instructional material for the second-language classroom are discussed, and a new videocassette series produced by the journal "Francais dans le Monde" is described. Criteria for topic and segment selection are outlined, and suggestions are made for classroom use. (MSE)

  7. Implementing "Voix et Images de France, Part 1," in American Schools and Colleges. Section 1, Principles of Audio-Visual Language-Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renard, Colette; And Others

    Principles of the "St. Cloud" audiovisual language instruction methodology based on "Le Francais fondamental" are presented in this guide for teachers. The material concentrates on course content, methodology, and application--including criteria for selection and gradation of course content, a description of the audiovisual and written language…

  8. Melanges, No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melanges, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Articles on second language teaching and learning include: "Ethnographie comparee de la salle de classe en France et en grande-Bretagne" (Comparative Ethnography of the Classroom Environment in France and Great Britain) (F. Carton); "Pour une approche micro et macro du francais parle dans la formation des enseignants de FLE" (Toward a Micro and…

  9. Les mammiferes aquatiques: lexique anglais-francais des mammiferes marins actuels ou recemment disparus, y compris les especes d'eau douce des groupes surtout marins (Aquatic Mammals: English-French Glossary of Livinq or Recently Extinct Marine Mammals, Including the Fresh Water Species of Prevalently Marine Groups).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nekrassoff, Vladimir N.

    1980-01-01

    Introduces a new glossary of aquatic mammals representing recent taxonomic revisions. Describes its design, which consists of the glossary proper, listing the scientific name of each entry followed by its English and French equivalents, and of two indexes, listing other common names for the same entries referred back to the scientific term. (MES)

  10. Fiche Pratique: Concours TV 5--La television a l'ecole; Autre temps, autre temps; Cassette FDM frequence plus--l'invite; Science en francais (Practical Ideas: TV 5 Competition--Television in Schools; Once Again, Another Tense; The "FDM" Audiocassette Series--The Guest; Science in French).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuncea, Nicolae; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The language classroom activities described include work with TV programs (interviews, cooking demonstrations, scenes without soundtrack); exercises with passe compose and passe simple verb tenses; descriptions of available French cassette programs; and use of texts on scientific subjects to build reading for meaning. (CNP)

  11. American Sign Language

    MedlinePlus

    ... Langue des Signes Française).Today’s ASL includes some elements of LSF plus the original local sign languages, ... can also be used to model the essential elements and organization of natural language. Another NIDCD-funded ...

  12. Didactique de la comprehension orale et sensibilisation aux langue etrangere. Tomes 1 et 2. Publications B-203 et 204. (The Teaching of Listening and 204. (The Teaching of Listening Comprehension and Sensitization to Varieties of Oral Spanish: Experiment in Foreign Language Teaching. Volumes 1 and 2). Publications B-203 and 204.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perron, Denise

    A study, presented here in two volumes and entirely in French, investigated the usefulness of introducing different varieties of Spanish in the classroom to improve listening comprehension skills, and the capacity of students to understand language variations. The experiment was conducted during two quarters at the University of Laval (Quebec),…

  13. Compte rendu d'une experience pedagogique. L'Enseignement de la competence de communication en langues secondes. (An Account of a Pedagogical Experiment. The Teaching of Communicative Competence in Second Languages). Acts of the Colloguium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunet, J.; Jammot, M. T.

    Three methodological "hypotheses" elaborated by the "Centre interuniversitaire de recherche pour le recyclage des maitres d'italien" are presented here. These hypotheses came from three teams of teachers working from different perspectives on sets of lessons for beginners of all ages. Each team's operative assumptions, type of text, guiding…

  14. Pour une ecole ouverte aux langues. Actes du Collogue organisi par le Centre de Contact Suisses-Immigres (CCSI) (Geneve, Suisse, le 19 novembre, 1994) = Toward a School Open to Languages. Proceedings of a Colloquium of the Centre de Contact Suisses-Immigres (CCSI) (Geneva, Switzerland, November 19, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goumoens, Claire de, Ed.

    The proceedings of a Swiss conference on languages in education include: a brief preface about the conference topic; summaries in French, Albanian, German, English, Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese; background information on the conference; statistics on the home and community languages of Swiss elementary and secondary school students; the…

  15. An Experiment in Teaching Communicative Competence within a Restricted Discourse (The C.A.P.E.S. "Presentation de la Nouvelle"). L'Enseignement de la competence de communication en langues secondes. (The Teaching of Communicative Competence in Second Languages. Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics.) CILA Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Philip

    The examination for the C.A.P.E.S. (Certificat d'Aptitude Professionnelle a l'Enseignement Secondaire) includes a ten-minute "precise and concise" oral talk on a short story. The presentation is to be prepared in a short time and delivered in a polished manner. Because of the high failure rate, an experimental course is being designed at the…

  16. From randomized trials to the clinic: is it time to implement individual lung-cancer screening in clinical practice? A multidisciplinary statement from French experts on behalf of the french intergroup (IFCT) and the groupe d'Oncologie de langue française (GOLF)

    PubMed Central

    Couraud, S.; Cortot, A. B.; Greillier, L.; Gounant, V.; Mennecier, B.; Girard, N.; Besse, B.; Brouchet, L.; Castelnau, O.; Frappé, P.; Ferretti, G. R.; Guittet, L.; Khalil, A.; Lefebure, P.; Laurent, F.; Liebart, S.; Molinier, O.; Quoix, E.; Revel, M.-P.; Stach, B.; Souquet, P.-J.; Thomas, P.; Trédaniel, J.; Lemarié, E.; Zalcman, G.; Barlési, F.; Milleron, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite advances in cancer therapy, mortality is still high except in early-stage tumors, and screening remains a challenge. The randomized National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), comparing annual low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) and chest X-rays, revealed a 20% decrease in lung-cancer-specific mortality. These results raised numerous questions. The French intergroup for thoracic oncology and the French-speaking oncology group convened an expert group to provide a coherent outlook on screening modalities in France. Methods A literature review was carried out and transmitted to the expert group, which was divided into three workshops to tackle specific questions, with responses presented in a plenary session. A writing committee drafted this article. Results The multidisciplinary group favored individual screening in France, when carried out as outlined in this article and after informing subjects of the benefits and risks. The target population involves subjects aged 55–74 years, who are smokers or have a 30 pack-year smoking history. Subjects should be informed about the benefits of quitting. Screening should involve LDCT scanning with specific modalities. Criteria for CT positivity and management algorithms for positive examinations are given. Conclusions Individual screening requires rigorous assessment and precise research in order to potentially develop a lung-cancer screening policy. PMID:23136229

  17. L'Ordinateur, Un Nouveau Pedagogue? Quelques Exemples d'Application de l'Ordinateur a l'Enseignement des Langues Vivantes (The Computer: A New Teacher? Some Examples of the Use of the Computer in Second Language Teaching). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerling, J. P.

    The aim of this paper is to present linguists--both members of research teams and language teachers--with some possible applications of computing science to language teaching. First, it is possible to use a computer's output system merely in order to print any type of information, e.g., a list of students' names and their marks. The computer also…

  18. (Biotechnology for the conversion of lignocellulosics)

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.

    1990-10-25

    This report summarizes the results of the traveler's participation in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Network planning meeting for Biotechnology for the Conversion of Lignocellulosics,'' held at the Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), Rueil-Malmaison, France. It also summarizes the results of discussions held at Aston University, Birmingham, UK, with Dr. Martin Beevers with whom the traveler is attempting to initiate a collaborative research project that will be beneficial to ongoing research programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The itinerary for the trip is given in Appendix A; the names of the people contacted are listed in Appendix B. Also, pertinent information about the Institut Francais du Petrole is attached (Appendix C). 1 tab.

  19. Methodes d'amas quantiques a temperature finie appliquees au modele de Hubbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plouffe, Dany

    Depuis leur decouverte dans les annees 80, les supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique ont suscite beaucoup d'interet en physique du solide. Comprendre l'origine des phases observees dans ces materiaux, telle la supraconductivite, est l'un des grands defis de la physique theorique du solide des 25 dernieres annees. L'un des mecanismes pressentis pour expliquer ces phenomenes est la forte interaction electron-electron. Le modele de Hubbard est l'un des modeles les plus simples pour tenir compte de ces interactions. Malgre la simplicite apparente de ce modele, certaines de ses caracteristiques, dont son diagramme de phase, ne sont toujours pas bien etablies, et ce malgre plusieurs avancements theoriques dans les dernieres annees. Cette etude se consacre a faire une analyse de methodes numeriques permettant de calculer diverses proprietes du modele de Hubbard en fonction de la temperature. Nous decrivons des methodes (la VCA et la CPT) qui permettent de calculer approximativement la fonction de Green a temperature finie sur un systeme infini a partir de la fonction de Green calculee sur un amas de taille finie. Pour calculer ces fonctions de Green, nous allons utiliser des methodes permettant de reduire considerablement les efforts numeriques necessaires pour les calculs des moyennes thermodynamiques, en reduisant considerablement l'espace des etats a considerer dans ces moyennes. Bien que cette etude vise d'abord a developper des methodes d'amas pour resoudre le modele de Hubbard a temperature finie de facon generale ainsi qu'a etudier les proprietes de base de ce modele, nous allons l'appliquer a des conditions qui s'approchent de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique. Les methodes presentees dans cette etude permettent de tracer un diagramme de phase pour l'antiferromagnetisme et la supraconductivite qui presentent plusieurs similarites avec celui des supraconducteurs a haute temperature. Mots-cles : modele de Hubbard, thermodynamique, antiferromagnetisme, supraconductivite, methodes numeriques, larges matrices

  20. Problemes theoriques et methodologiques dans l'etude des langues/dialectes en contact aux niveaux macrologique et micrologique = Theoretical and Methodological Issues in the Study of Languages/Dialects in Contact at Macro- and Micro-Logical Levels of Analysis. Proceedings of the International Conference DALE (University of London)/ICRB (Laval University, Quebec)/ICSBT (Vrije Universiteit te Brussel) (London, England, May 23-26, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Michel, Ed.; Hamers, Josiane F., Ed.

    Papers from an international conference on the interaction of languages and dialects in contact are presented in this volume. Papers include: "Quelques reflexions sur la variation linguistique"; "The Investigation of 'Language Continuum' and 'Diglossia': A Macrological Case Study and Theoretical Model"; "A Survey of Dialect Grammar in British…

  1. Views and Workshops of a Master's Class in Intercultural Competence: Mill's Model of Intercultural Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannitou, Gina

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the result of a participative process in which the students of the Master's Degree "Didactique des Langues" (foreign language didactics) at Universite du Maine (Le Mans, France) explored through whole-class activities the field of intercultural dialog and intercultural competence teaching. Our approach to intercultural teaching…

  2. [Management and prevention of imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The 12th Consensus Conference of Anti-infectious Therapy of the French-speaking Society of Infectious Diseases, 14 April 1999].

    PubMed

    2000-02-01

    A consensus conference on management and treatment of imported malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum was organized by the French-speaking society for infectious diseases (Société de pathologie infectieuse de langue française) on April 14, 1999 at Saint-Mandé, France. The short text of recommendations of this conference is presented. PMID:10701067

  3. Exploring the Ancestral Roots of American Sign Language: Lexical Borrowing from Cistercian Sign Language and French Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagle, Keith Martin

    2010-01-01

    American Sign Language (ASL) is the natural and preferred language of the Deaf community in both the United States and Canada. Woodward (1978) estimated that approximately 60% of the ASL lexicon is derived from early 19th century French Sign Language, which is known as "langue des signes francaise" (LSF). The lexicon of LSF and ASL may be derived…

  4. Language and "Psychological Race": Leopold de Saussure on French in Indochina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, John E.

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that certain features of race as defined in the work of Gustave Le Bon and Leopold de Saussure (on the psychology of French colonization) may survive in Ferdinand de Saussure's concept of "langue," adapted and transformed by Saussure's more modernist concept of history. (Author/VWL)

  5. The Status of Native Speaker Intuitions in a Polylectal Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debose, Charles E.

    A study of one speaker's intuitions about and performance in Black English is presented with relation to Saussure's "langue-parole" dichotomy. Native speakers of a language have intuitions about the static synchronic entities although the data of their speaking is variable and panchronic. These entities are in a diglossic relationship to each…

  6. "I Want to Go Back to the Text": Response Strategies on the Reading Subtest of the New TOEFL[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew D.; Upton, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the reading and test-taking strategies that test takers used on the "Reading" section of the "LanguEdge Courseware" (2002) materials developed to familiarize prospective respondents with the new TOEFL. The investigation focused on strategies used to respond to more traditional "single selection" multiple-choice formats (i.e.,…

  7. Moroccan Children and Arabic in Spanish Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Bernabe Lopez; Molina, Laura Mijares

    This paper discusses classical Arabic as a minority language for Moroccan children in Spanish schools. It highlights programs of "education des langues et cultures d'origine" (ELCO), which specifically target these students. ELCO is the only public program in Spain recognizing Arabic as an immigrant minority language. Intercultural educational…

  8. Bilingual/Bicultural Deaf Education Is Appropriate. Occasional Monograph Series, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, David G.

    This discussion focuses on the growing trend in deaf education toward bilingualism/biculturalism, with special emphasis on schools for the deaf in Canada. American Sign Language and la Langue Signes Quebecois on the one hand and English and French on the other are used as examples of bilingualism. Biculturalism is seen in the deaf individual's…

  9. Bilingual Signed and Spoken Language Acquisition from Birth: Implications for the Mechanisms Underlying Early Bilingual Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petitto, Laura Ann; Katerelos, Marina; Levy, Bronna G.; Gauna, Kristine; Tetreault, Karine; Ferraro, Vittoria

    2001-01-01

    Studied the case of bilingual acquisition across two modalities to examine diverging hypotheses about the types of knowledge underlying early bilingualism. Three children acquiring Langues des Signes Quebecoise and French, and three children acquiring French and English were videotaped over a year while novel and familiar speakers of each child's…

  10. How Do Deaf Signers of LSQ and Their Teachers Construct the Meaning of a Written Text?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducharme, D. A.; Arcand, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have investigated why learning to read is so problematic for deaf individuals. However, we still know very little about how to teach reading to signing students. In this article, we report on an exploratory qualitative study of deaf LSQ (Langue des signes quebecoise) signers learning to read with two teachers, in an effort to better…

  11. The DELF in Canada: Perceptions of Students, Teachers, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandergrift, Larry

    2015-01-01

    The "Diplôme d'études de langue française" (DELF) has recently gained attention in Canada for its potential as a national French second language (FSL) proficiency test. This article explores the perceptions of students, teachers, and parents in various school jurisdictions across Canada on a range of issues related to the DELF test…

  12. The Role of Women in Foreign-Language Textbooks: A Collection of Essays. Collection d'"Etudes linguistiques" No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenstein, R., Ed.

    Essays that consider the way that women are portrayed in foreign language textbooks are presented. The selected essays were submitted to a competition sponsored by the Federation Internationale des Professeurs de Langues Vivantes, which requested that language teachers assess such concerns as: (1) whether women were described in a stereotyped way;…

  13. Du laboratoire surveille a l'approche modulaire: Contrainte ou autonomie? (From the Supervised Laboratory to the Modular Approach: Constraint or Autonomy?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubert, Jean-Phillipe

    1980-01-01

    The experience of the second language team at the "Centre de Langue Francaise" (CLF) at McGill University (Montreal) is reported. The emphasis placed on designing courses and laboratory experiences in response to student needs is reviewed from the late 1960's until the present. Some of the factors that were operative in curriculum change were the…

  14. Bilinguisme et biculturalisme: Theories et pratiques professionnelles. Actes du 2eme colloque d'orthophomie/logopedie (Neuchatel, 17-18 septembre, 1992). (Bilingualism and Biculturalism: Theories and Professional Practices. Colloquium on Orthophony/Logopedy (2nd, Neuchatel, Switzerland, September 17-18, 1992)).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Py, Bernard, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The conference papers from a colloquium on issues in bilingualism and biculturalism include: "Le bilinguisme et biculturalisme: essai de definition" ("Bilingualism and Biculturalism: Attempt at Definition") (Francois Grosjean); "La variation individuelle dans l'acquisition d'une langue seconde" ("Individual Variation in Second Language…

  15. Films for French: A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savignon, Sandra J., Ed.

    More than 100 films, selected for use in college-level French programs, are evaluated in this teaching guide. Films are listed alphabetically under the following categories: (1) "Beaux-Arts," (2) "La France Contemporaine," (3) "La France et le Nouveau Monde," (4) "Histoire," and (5) "Langue." The index gives an alphabetical list of all the films…

  16. La parole, vue et prise par les etudiants (Speech as Seen and Understood by Student).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajo, Laurent, Ed.; Jeanneret, Fabrice, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Articles on speech and second language learning include: "Les sequences de correction en classe de langue seconde: evitement du 'non' explicite" ("Error Correction Sequences in Second Language Class: Avoidance of the Explicit 'No'") (Anne-Lise de Bosset); "Analyse hierarchique et fonctionnelle du discours: conversations entre basketteurs a plus de…

  17. La Neologie et l'amenagement linguistique du Quebec (Neologisms and Language Planning in Quebec).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulanger, Jean-Claude

    1986-01-01

    Discusses government intervention in language matters in Quebec, particularly in the area of terminology. A language planning model developed by the "Office de la langue francaise" consists of internal neologistic planning followed by the extension of these efforts to other francophone communities, particularly those in Europe. (Author/JR)

  18. Documenting and Researching Endangered Languages: The Pangloss Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michailovsky, Boyd; Mazaudon, Martine; Michaud, Alexis; Guillaume, Séverine; François, Alexandre; Adamou, Evangelia

    2014-01-01

    The Pangloss Collection is a language archive developed since 1994 at the Langues et Civilisations à Tradition Orale (LACITO) research group of the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS). It contributes to the documentation and study of the world's languages by providing free access to documents of connected, spontaneous…

  19. Views and Workshops of a Master's Class in Intercultural Competence: Mill's Model of Intercultural Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannitou, Gina

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the result of a participative process in which the students of the Master's Degree "Didactique des Langues" (foreign language didactics) at Universite du Maine (Le Mans, France) explored through whole-class activities the field of intercultural dialog and intercultural competence teaching. Our approach to intercultural teaching…

  20. Wspolnoty Europejskie wobec problemow jezykowych (Addressing Language Problems in the European Communities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelazny, Walter

    2003-01-01

    Raises questions about the a European Union commissioned report titled "Les Europeens et les langues," which was prepared in accordance with the customary routine used for a series of report on European public opinion. Issues discussed include the omission of several languages, the use of Esperanto, the languages reportedly used by Europeans, and…

  1. Presentation: Linguistique et socio-linguistique (Introduction: Linguistics and Sociolinguistics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Encreve, Pierre

    1977-01-01

    An introduction to this issue of "Langue Francaise," on the relationship between linguistics, sociolinguistics and sociology. An overview is presented of the research methodology of each of these sciences, the contributions of generative grammar, and the point of view of the linguist, sociolinguist and grammarian. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  2. Foreign-Language Pedagogy: Practical Applications to Theoretical Concerns. Selected Papers from the Loyola College Conference Entitled "Bridging Theory and Practice in the Foreign-Language Classroom" (Baltimore, Maryland, October 18-20, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieczorek, Joseph A., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Papers from the conference include the following: "Activites orales et motivation dans l'etude du vocabulaire d'une langue etrangere (Oral Activities and Motivation in the Study of Vocabulary in a Foreign Language)" (M. Guisset); "Bridging High School and College Classes through the Multicultural Approach: The Case of Francophone Africa" (T.…

  3. Bureau for International Language Coordination (BILC) Bulletin No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, J., Ed.

    The first bulletin in a series dealing with international issues in language instruction in the military, this publication presents articles focusing on educational objectives and standards of the contributing member countries. Articles include: (1) "L'Enseignement des langues dans la fonction publique du Canada"/"Language Training in the Canadian…

  4. On Research Methodology in Applied Linguistics in 2002-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martynychev, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examined the status of data-based research in applied linguistics through an analysis of published research studies in nine peer-reviewed applied linguistics journals ("Applied Language Learning, The Canadian Modern Language Review / La Revue canadienne des langues vivantes, Current Issues in Language Planning, Dialog on Language…

  5. LNG projects make progress in Oman and Yemen

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-24

    Two LNG projects in the Middle East, one in Oman and the other in Yemen, are due on stream at the turn of the century--each the largest single project ever put together in its country. Officials described their projects at a yearend 1996 conference in Paris by Institut Francais du Petrole and Petrostrategies. The Oman project develops gas reserves, does gas processing, and transports the gas 360 km to a liquefaction plant to be built on the coast. The Yemen project involves a liquefaction plant and an export terminal.

  6. Fluctuations quantiques et instabilites structurales dans les conducteurs a basse dimensionalite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikande, Alain Moise

    Un engouement particulier s'est manifeste ces dernieres annees pour les systemes electroniques fortement correles, ce en rapport avec l'immense richesse de leurs proprietes physiques. En general, ces proprietes sont induites par la presence d'interactions entre electrons qui, combinees a la structure du reseau moleculaire, donnent parfois lieu a une tres grande variete de phases electroniques et structurales ayant des incidences directes sur les phenomenes de transport dans ces materiaux. Les systemes electroniques couples a un reseau moleculaire et designes systemes electron-phonon font partie de cette classe de materiaux qui ont recemment capte l'attention, en raison notamment de la competition entre plusieurs echelles d'energie dans un environnement caracterise par une forte anisotropie cristalline et une dynamique moleculaire assez importante. En effet, en plus des proprietes electroniques et structurales particulieres la dimensionalite de ces systemes contribue egalement a leur richesse. Ainsi, une tres forte anisotropie structurale peut rehausser de facon considerable l'importance des interactions entre electrons et entre molecules constituant le reseau au point ou la physique du systeme soit regie par de tres fortes fluctuations. Ce dernier contexte est devenu un domaine a part de la physique des systemes fortement correles, a savoir celui des les phenomenes critiques quantiques . Parmi les systemes electron-phonon, on retrouve les composes inorganique KCP et organique TTF-TCNQ decouverts durant les annees 70, et explores en profondeur a cause de leur tendance vers une instabilite du type onde de densite de charge a basse temperature. Ces composes, en general designes systemes de Peierls en reference a l'instabilite de leurs structures electroniques regie par le reseau moleculaire, ont recemment connu un regain d'interet a la lumiere des nouveaux developpements dans les techniques de caracterisation des structures electroniques ainsi que sur le plan de concepts tel le Liquide de Luttinger, propres aux systemes electroniques a une dimension. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  7. The determination of residence times in a pilot plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, F. Pablo; Cortés, M. Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that residence time distributions (RTD) are very important in many chemical processes such as separation, reforming, hydrocracking, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrodesulfuration, hydrogenation among others [3 Procédés de transformation, Editions Technip, Institute Francais du Petrole, Paris, France, 1998]. In addition, tracers can be used to measure the velocity, distribution and residence time of any stream through any part of an industrial [Guidebook on Radioisotope Tracers in Industry, IAEA, Vienna, 1990] or experimental system. Perhaps the best quality of radiotracers is that they do not interfere with normal unit operations or production scheduling. In this paper are presented the RTDs obtained in a pilot plant for a hydrogenation process [IMP, Technical Report, Determinación del tiempo de residencia promedio en el reactor de la planta piloto de hidroagotamiento de crudo, 2002]. The RTDs show a random phenomenon, which is not typical of this type of chemical processes. Several RTDs were determined in order to confirm this random behavior. The data were obtained using as a tracer a radioactive form of sodium iodide containing iodine-131 [The Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 10th Ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold, USA, 1981]. The process works with two phases in a countercurrent flow, inside a packed column. The liquid phase goes down by gravity. The gas phase goes up due to pressure difference [3 Procédés de transformation, Editions Technip, Institute Francais du Petrole, Paris, France, 1998]. The tracer was selected such that it would follow the liquid phase.

  8. Language Teaching with the Help of Multiple Methods. Collection d'"Etudes linguistiques," No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nivette, Jos, Ed.

    This book presents articles on language teaching media. Among the titles are: (1) "Il Foreign Language Teaching e l'impiego degli audio-visivi" (Foreign Language Teaching and the Use of Audio Visual Methods) by D'Agostino, (2) "Le role et la nature de l'image dans l'enseignement programme de l'anglais, langue seconde" (The Role and Nature of the…

  9. A dictionary of Astronomy for the French Sign Language (LSF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proust, Dominique; Abbou, Daniel; Chab, Nasro

    2011-06-01

    Since a few years, the french deaf communauty have access to astronomy at Paris-Meudon observatory through a specific teaching adapted from the French Sign Language (Langue des Signes Françcaise, LSF) including direct observations with the observatory telescopes. From this experience, an encyclopedic dictionary of astronomy The Hands in the Stars is now available, containing more than 200 astronomical concepts. Many of them did not existed in Sign Language and can be now fully expressed and explained.

  10. [Inhaled treatments: Choice of devices, systemic absorption of inhaled drugs and bitter taste receptors in the respiratory tract].

    PubMed

    Benattia, A; Cavaillon, P; Gachelin, E; Devillier, P; Vecellio, L; Williams, G; Dubus, J-C

    2015-10-01

    Inhaled drugs are now routinely prescribed in daily medical practice. Recent topics about these treatments have been developed during the fourth annual meeting of the Groupe de travail aérosolthérapie (GAT) of the French-speaking respiratory society (Société de pneumologie de langue française). This article focuses mainly upon the choice of devices, systemic absorption of inhaled drugs and bitter taste receptors in the respiratory tract, a potential new target for drug development. PMID:26480888

  11. Tropical Atlantic wind field variations during Sequal Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, D. E.; Cardone, V. J.

    1984-01-01

    The Sequal (Seasonal Response of the Equatorial Atlantic) program has the objective to model correctly the dominant physical processes producing the seasonal redistribution of heat, mass, and salt in the upper ocean. The efforts of Sequal are greatly enhanced by the Focal (Francais Ocean et Climat dans l'Atlantique Equatorial) program. A knowledge of fields of wind stress over the tropical Atlantic is needed for the achievement of the Sequal objectives. The Sequal program makes use of the Fleet Numerical Oceanography Central (FNOC) 'Nogaps' wind fields as a first-guess field which will subsequently be modified. Nogaps is a global weather prediction model consisting of independent global wind and mass analysis submodels. The present investigation is concerned with some preliminary comparisons between Nogaps predictions and surface observations, taking into account monthly mean Nogaps fields and monthly means from a century-long ship report-based climatology.

  12. Algorithmes et architectures pour ordinateurs quantiques supraconducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blais, Alexandre

    Depuis sa formulation, la theorie de l'information a ete basee, implicitement, sur les lois de la physique classique. Une telle formulation est toutefois incomplete puisqu'elle ne tient pas compte de la realite quantique. Au cours des vingt dernieres annees, l'expansion de la theorie de l'information englobant les effets purement quantiques a connu un interet grandissant. La realisation d'un systeme de traitement de l'information quantique, un ordinateur quantique, presente toutefois de nombreux defis. Dans ce document, on s'interesse a differents aspects concernant ces defis. On commence par presenter des concepts algorithmiques comme l'optimisation de calculs quantiques et le calcul quantique geometrique. Par la suite, on s'interesse au design et a differents aspects de l'utilisation de qubits bases sur les jonctions Josephson. En particulier, un nouveau design de qubit supraconducteur est suggere. On presente aussi une approche originale pour l'interaction entre qubits. Cette approche est tres generale puisqu'elle peut etre appliquee a differents designs de qubits. Finalement, on s'interesse a la lecture des qubits supraconducteurs de flux. Le detecteur suggere ici a l'avantage de pouvoir etre decouple du qubit lorsqu'il n'y a pas de mesure en cours.

  13. The origin of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClendon, John H.

    1999-07-01

    Microfossil finds have been firmly established at about 3.5 Ga (giga annee=10 9 years), but no rocks older than about 4.0 Ga have been demonstrated, leaving the history of the first 0.6 Ga missing. This gap has been filled by models of the solar system. The origin of the ocean, atmosphere, and much crustal material apparently lies in a heavy rain of comets, subsequent to the catastrophic Moon-forming event. The earliest microfossils are those of the Apex chert in Australia, about 3.5 Ga old. `Prebiotic' simulations of possible biochemistry have made some progress in recent years, but many obstacles remain, and there is no agreement as to the course of development. The `ribose nucleic acid (RNA) World', aboriginal `clay genes', and catalysis on iron-sulfide precipitates are not ruled out. The search for the `last common ancestor' has reached a point between the Bacteria and the Archaea. It is possible that this organism may have been a thermophile, similar to many modern hot spring organisms. But it is likely to have been an autotroph, and a late development after the true origin of life. Even more speculative are suggestions about the origins of metabolic sequences, in particular the origin of the genetic code. Since all modern organisms share this code (and many other things), there had to be a long history of development during the blank period of Earth history.

  14. Sur la nature des absorbeurs dans l'interpretation transactionnelle de la mecanique quantique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Jean-Sebastien

    L'interpretation transactionnelle de la mecanique quantique est l'une des plus recentes propositions de description des phenomenes du microcosme. En accord avec les predictions de la mecanique quantique standard, l'interpretation transactionnelle propose une alternative a celle de Copenhague. Son principal avantage est qu'elle permet de visualiser les mecanismes sous-jacents a l'echange d'energie, de quantite de mouvement ou d'autres quantites quantiques entre un emetteur et un absorbeur. Ces echanges sont le resultat, a l'instar de la theorie de l'absorbeur de Wheeler et Feynman, de l'utilisation autant d'ondes avancees que retardees. Bien que l'interpretation transactionnelle n'ait pas attire la plus grande attention scientifique, plusieurs critiques lui ont ete adressees. Dans les annees 1990, differentes experiences a mesure sans interaction ont ete concues. Depuis, il a ete avance que la version originale de l'interpretation transactionnelle pouvait difficilement rendre compte de ce type d'experience et meme qu'elle n'est pas compatible avec le concept d'univers quadridimensionnel. La recherche de ce memoire par article consiste a montrer que lorsque l'on utilise systematiquement l'interpretation transactionnelle en considerant la configuration totale des absorbeurs (incluant l'absorbeur universel), il n'est pas necessaire de faire appel a une hierarchie de transactions comme certains l'ont propose.

  15. Humain behavior

    SciTech Connect

    2006-05-04

    Le Dr.Muriel James est ingénieur, conseiller/consultant dans plusieurs commissions (p.ex.justice criminelle au Japon) et universités et est l'auteur de nombreux livres (11) traduits dans plusieurs langues. Le plus connu de ses ouvrages est "Born to win". Dans son exposé elle se réfère à son livre "O.K.Boss" et parle d'un modèle spécifique du comportement humain et de ses qualités essentielles qui est la base de son travail.

  16. Humain behavior

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le Dr.Muriel James est ingénieur, conseiller/consultant dans plusieurs commissions (p.ex.justice criminelle au Japon) et universités et est l'auteur de nombreux livres (11) traduits dans plusieurs langues. Le plus connu de ses ouvrages est "Born to win". Dans son exposé elle se réfère à son livre "O.K.Boss" et parle d'un modèle spécifique du comportement humain et de ses qualités essentielles qui est la base de son travail.

  17. Utilisation de l'essai comete et du biomarqueur gamma-H2AX pour detecter les dommages induits a l'ADN cellulaire par le 5-bromodeoxyuridine post-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Madeleine, Carole

    Ce memoire est presente a la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante de l'Universite de Sherbrooke en vue de l'obtention du grade de maitre es sciences (M.Sc.) en radiobiologie (2009). Un jury a revise les informations contenues dans ce memoire. Il etait compose de professeurs de la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante soit : Darel Hunting PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Leon Sanche PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Richard Wagner PhD, membre du programme (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie) et Guylain Boissonneault PhD, membre exterieur au programme (departement de biochimie). Le 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), un analogue halogene de la thymidine reconnu depuis les annees 60 comme etant un excellent radiosensibilisateur. L'hypothese la plus repandue au sujet de l'effet radio sensibilisant du BrdU est qu'il augmente le nombre de cassures simple et double brin lorsqu'il est incorpore dans l'ADN de la cellule et expose aux radiations ionisantes. Toutefois, de nouvelles recherches semblent remettre en question les observations precedentes. Ces dernieres etudes ont confirme que le BrdU est un bon radiosensibilisateur, car il augmente les dommages radio-induits dans l'ADN. Mais, c'est en etant incorpore dans une region simple brin que le BrdU radiosensibilise l'ADN. Ces recherches ont egalement revele pour la premiere fois un nouveau type de dommages produits lors de l'irradiation de l'ADN contenant du BrdU : les dimeres interbrins. Le but de ces travaux de recherche est de determiner si la presence de bromodeoxyuridine dans l'ADN augmente l'induction de bris simple et / ou double brin chez les cellules irradiees en utilisant de nouvelles techniques plus sensibles et specifiques que celles utilisees auparavant. Pour ce faire, les essais cometes et la detection des foci H2AX phosphorylee pourraient permettre d'etablir les effets engendres par le BrdU au niveau cellulaire. Notre hypothese (basee sur des resultats preliminaires effectues dans notre laboratoire) est que l'irradiation de l'ADN cellulaire en presence de BrdU augmentera le nombre de bris simple brin sans toutefois augmenter le nombre de bris double brin. Les resultats presentes dans ce memoire semblent corroborer cette hypothese. Les nouvelles methodes d'analyse, soient l'essai comete et la detection des foci gamma-H2AX remettent en question ce qui a ete dit sur le BrdU au sujet de l'induction des cassures double brin depuis plusieurs annees. L'ensemble de ces nouveaux resultats effectue a l'aide de cellules ayant incorporees du BrdU sont en correlation avec de precedents resultats obtenus dans notre laboratoire sur des oligonucleotides bromes. Ils reaffirment que l'irradiation combinee au BrdU augmente l'induction de bris simple brin mais pas de bris double brin. L'investigation approfondie des mecanismes d'action non elucides du BrdU au niveau cellulaire et son utilisation a des moments strategiques pendant le traitement de radiotherapie pourraient accroitre son efficacite a des fins d'utilisation clinique. Mots cles : 5-bromodeoxyuridine, dimeres interbrins, dommage a l'ADN, essai comete, H2AX, radiosensibilisateur, radiotherapie

  18. Cold pearl surfactant-based blends.

    PubMed

    Crombie, R L

    1997-10-01

    Pearlizing agents have been used for many years in cosmetic formulations to add a pearlescent effect. Cold pearl surfactant-based blends are mixtures of glycol stearates and surfactants which can be blended in the cold into a wide range of personal-care formulations to create a pearlescent lustre effect. Under controlled manufacturing conditions constant viscosities and crystalline characteristics can be obtained. The development of these blends has been driven by efforts to improve the economics of adding solid pearlizing agents directly into a hot mix formulation. This paper summarizes the history of pearlizers, describes their advantages and physical chemistry of the manufacturing process. Finally some suggestions for applications are given. Les agents nacrants sont utilises depuis de nombreuses annees dans les formulations cosmetiques pour ajouter un effet nacre. Les melanges a froid a base de tensioactif nacre sont des melanges de stearates de glycol et de tensioactifs qui peuvent etre melanges a froid dans une large gamme de formulations d'hygiene personnelle pour creer un effet de lustre nacre. On peut obtenir des viscosites et des proprietes cristallines constantes avec des conditions de fabrication maitrisees. Le developpement de ces melanges a ete porte par les efforts pour ameliorer les couts de l'ajout d'agents nacrants solides directement dans une formulation melangee de l'ajout d'agents nacrants solides directement dans une formulation melangee a chaud. Cet article resume l'histoire des agents nacrants, decrit leurs avantages et al physico-chimie du procede de fabrication. On emet a la fin cetaines suggestions d'applications. PMID:18507627

  19. Evolution des quasiparticules nodales du cuprate supraconducteur YBa2Cu3Oy en conductivite thermique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rene de Cotret, Samuel

    Ce memoire presente des mesures de conductivite thermique sur les supraconducteurs YBCO et Tl-2201 afin de statuer sur la presence possible d'un point critique quantique (QCP) dans le diagramme de phase de cuprates. Ce point critique quantique serait a l'origine de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi, d'un large cylindre de trous en de petites poches de trous et d'electrons. La conductivite thermique dans le regime T ? 0 permet d'extraire une quantite purement electronique liee aux vitesses de Fermi et du gap, au noeud. Une discontinuite dans cette quantite pourrait signaler la traversee du dopage critique qui reconstruit la surface de Fermi. Plusieurs sondes experimentales distinguent une transition de phase ou un crossover a T* a temperature finie. D'autres sondes mettent en evidence une transition de phase sous l'effet d'un champ magnetique. La presence ou non de cet ordre, a temperature et champ magnetique nul questionne la communaute depuis plusieurs annees. Dans cette etude, nous detectons une variation brusque de kappa0/T a p = 0.18 dans YBCO et a p = 0.20 dans Tl-2201. Ces sauts sont interpretes comme un signe de la transition a temperature nulle et sont en faveur d'un QCP. Le manque de donnees d'un meme materiau a ces dopages ne permet pas de valider hors de tout doute l'existence d'un point critique quantique. Le modele theorique YRZ decrit aussi bien les donnees de conductivite thermique. Des pistes de travaux experimentaux a poursuivre sont proposees pour determiner la presence ou non du QCP de facon franche. Mots-cles : Supraconducteurs, cuprates, conductivite thermique, point critique quantique.

  20. Oil viscosity limitation on dispersibility of crude oil under simulated at-sea conditions in a large wave tank.

    PubMed

    Trudel, Ken; Belore, Randy C; Mullin, Joseph V; Guarino, Alan

    2010-09-01

    This study determined the limiting oil viscosity for chemical dispersion of oil spills under simulated sea conditions in the large outdoor wave tank at the US National Oil Spill Response Test Facility in New Jersey. Dispersant effectiveness tests were completed using crude oils with viscosities ranging from 67 to 40,100 cP at test temperature. Tests produced an effectiveness-viscosity curve with three phases when oil was treated with Corexit 9500 at a dispersant-to-oil ratio of 1:20. The oil viscosity that limited chemical dispersion under simulated at-sea conditions was in the range of 18,690 cP to 33,400 cP. Visual observations and measurements of oil concentrations and droplet size distributions in the water under treated and control slicks correlated well with direct measurements of effectiveness. The dispersant effectiveness versus oil viscosity relationship under simulated at sea conditions at Ohmsett was most similar to those from similar tests made using the Institut Francais du Pétrole and Exxon Dispersant Effectiveness (EXDET) test methods. PMID:20723943

  1. Combined modeling approaches as an aid to structural interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Richert, J.P. ); Coletta, B. )

    1993-09-01

    Many exploration failures can be attributed to a misunderstanding of poorly expressed seismic data. To aid tectonic and structural interpretation, a combined modeling approach has been attempted in a joint research program between Elf Aquitaine Production, TOTAL, AGIP, and Institut Francais du Petrole. This approach involves analog and numerical modeling constrained by field geology models and examples. Well-studied field geology examples provide defined three-dimensional (3-D) geometries and provide clues about the mechanical history of deformation. However, the field models give a static image of the finite strain, and the different stages of deformation remain conjectural. Analog physical modeling using sand, glass powder, and silicone putty elucidates the kinematics and, to some extent, the mechanism of deformation. However, the oversimplified rheology of modeling materials implies analogy limitations and precludes perfect simulation of all natural examples. Numerical modeling, based on finite or distinct elements methods, permits quantification of stress and strain at each step of the deformation. It also offers a larger range of rheological parameters; however, those parameters are difficult to precisely equate to slow deformation on a geological time scale. Thus, each technique has its respective advantages and limitations, but the combination of the three approaches can help to define 3-D geometries and kinematics, and to evaluate the mechanism of deformation, which can be applied to the structural interpretation of seismic data. Such an interdisciplinary approach has been tested for various tectonic regimes, and examples will be given to illustrate this method of investigation.

  2. Development of a New Stratigraphic Trap Exploration Using Elastic-Wave Seismic Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan DeVault

    2008-02-05

    Vecta acquired 9 square miles of 9-C seismic data in Mountrail County, North Dakota with the Mission Canyon shoreline as a primary target. Vecta contracted the Institute Francais du Petrole in order to co-develop a more rigorous multicomponent seismic interpretation product. The final interpretation was very unique in that it utilized not only the 9-C seismic data but also the new jointly developed software. A Mission Canyon anomaly was developed in 2006; however, it was of insufficient size to be a commercial target at the time. Therefore, Vecta analyzed the shear data for anisotropy within the Bakken formation and successfully reentered an abandoned producer within the project area and drilled a horizontal leg through the anomalous zones of the middle member of the Bakken formation. The well was open hole completed, swab tested, sand fraced, and swab tested some more. No shows of oil were ever seen from the Bakken formation, but the well yielded considerable amounts of formation water. The well has been abandoned as non-commercial. From the swab tests, one may conclude considerable permeability exists in the formation, thus confirming the utility of the shear wave to detect fractures within the targeted formation.

  3. A two-dimensional regional basin model of Williston basin hydrocarbon systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burrus, J.; Wolf, S.; Doligez, B.

    1996-02-01

    Institut Francais du Petrole`s two-dimensional model, TEMISPACK, is used to discuss the functioning of petroleum systems in the Williston basin along a 330-km-long section, focusing on four regional source intervals: Ordovician Yeoman formation, Lower Devonian Winnipegosis Formation, Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation, and Mississippian Lodgepole formation. Thermal history calibration against present temperature and source rock maturity profiles suggests that the Williston basin can be divided into a region of constant heat flow of about 55 mW/m{sup 2} away from the Nesson anticline, and a region of higher heat flow and enhanced thermal maturity in the vicinity of the Nesson anticline. Original kinetic parameters used in the calibration were derived for each of the four source rocks from Rock-Eval yield curves. Bakken overpressures are entirely due to oil generation, not compaction disequilibrium. Very low Bakken vertical permeabilities range from 0.01 to 0.001 and are matched against observed overpressures, whereas Bakken porosities based on the model and confirmed by measurements are inferred to be also unusually low, around 3%.

  4. CO/sub 2/ fluxes in the tropical Atlantic during FOCAL cruises

    SciTech Connect

    Andrie, C.; Oudot, C.; Genthon, C.; Merlivat, L.

    1986-10-15

    CO/sub 2/ partial pressures in the atmosphere and in surface seawater have been measured in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean during Programme Francais Ocean-Climat en Atlantique Equatorial cruises extending from July 1982 to August 1984 along the 4/degree/W, 22/degree/W, and 35/degree/W meridians. Gas transfer coefficients based on recently reported field data combined with information deduced from wind tunnel experiments are used to compute the CO/sub 2/ fluxes. The global mean net flux between 5/degree/N and 5/degree/S is equal to 1.05 mmol m/sup /minus/2/ d/sup /minus/1/ and is from the ocean to the atmosphere. The escape of CO/sub 2/ increases strongly from the east to the west and is always lower in the north than in the south. The importance of wind speed, pCO/sub 2/ in atmosphere, PCO/sub 2/ in surface seawater, and temperature on the flux variability is discussed. The relative influence of the equatorial upwelling on one hand and of the advection and warming of surface waters on the other hand is studied in order to explain high partial pressure in seawater. 59 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].

    PubMed

    Daurat, G; Py, J-Y

    2012-11-01

    In France, most blood products are delivered by the établissement francais du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding to recipients, blood products, blood supply of the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, the integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So, it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed to be a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks. PMID:23039955

  6. Comparison of effectiveness of sub-slab ventilation systems for indoor radon mitigation: A numerical study; Comparaison a l`aide d`un outil numerique de l`efficacite des systemes de ventilation active du sol limitant la penetration du radon dans l`habitat

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnefous, Y.C. |; Gadgil, A.J.; Allard, F.

    1992-04-01

    The functioning of an active sub-slab ventilation system (SVS) has been studied successfully with the help of a previously evaluated numerical model. The parameters explored are the permeability of the sub-slab and the gravel placed beneath it, the amplitude of applied pressure at the installation point of the system and the functioning method: depressurization or pressurization. The mechanisms contributing to the success of the two systems are identified. This numerical study shows that the presence of a layer of gravel beneath the sub-slab considerably improves the performance of the SVS. Considered separately from the extremely permeable sub-slabs, the depressurization systems perform better than the pressurization systems. 17 refs. [Francais] Le fonctionnement des Systemes de Ventilation active du Sol (SVS) a ete etudie a l`aide d`un outil numerique precedemment evalue avec succes. Les parametres explores sont les permeabilites du sol et du gravier place sous plancher bas, l`amplitude de la pression appliquee au point d`installation du systeme, et le mode de fonctionnement: Depressurisation ou Pressurisation. Les mecanismes contribuant au succes des deux systemes sont identifies. Cette etude numerique montre que la presence d`une couche de gravier sous plancher bas ameliore de facon considerable les performances des SVS. Mis a part le cas des sols extremement permeables, les systemes de Depressurisation ont de meilleures performances que les systemes de Pressurisation. 17 refs.

  7. Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia: a Genetic and Clinical Update.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Kristen B; Patnaik, Mrinal M

    2015-09-01

    Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a clonal stem cell disorder, characterized by peripheral blood monocytosis and overlapping features between myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Clonal cytogenetic changes are seen in up to 30 % patients, while approximately 90 % have detectable molecular abnormalities. Most patients are diagnosed in the seventh decade of life. Gene mutations in ten-eleven translocation (TET) oncogene family member 2 (TET2) (60 %), SRSF2 (50 %), ASXL1 (40 %), and RAS (20-30 %) are frequent, with only frame shift and nonsense ASXL1 mutations negatively impacting overall survival. With the lack of formal guidelines, management and response criteria are often extrapolated from MDS and MPN. Contemporary molecularly integrated CMML-specific prognostic models include the Groupe Francais des Myelodysplasies (GFM) model and the Molecular Mayo Model, both incorporating ASXL1 mutational status. Hypomethylating agents and allogeneic stem cell transplant remain the two most commonly used treatment strategies, with suboptimal results. Clinical trials exploiting epigenetic and signal pathway abnormalities, frequent in CMML, offer hope and promise. PMID:26122388

  8. Geologic and structural map of eastern Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Letouzey, J.; Sage, L.

    1986-07-01

    A synthesis of the onshore and offshore geologic data of eastern Asia, prepared by the Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), has allowed the construction of geologic and structural maps for this region. These maps include three color sheets (scale = 1:2.5 million) and three plates of geologic and structural cross sections. Located between lat. 4/sup 0/ and 35/sup 0/N, and long. 106/sup 0/ and 132/sup 0/E, the maps cover the following geographic areas: East and South China Sea, Sulu Sea, West Philippine basin and onshore neighboring terrains, Kyushu and Ryukyu Islands, the China margin, Taiwan Island, Vietnam, North West Borneo, and the Philippines. The maps synthesize seismic interpretations, oil well data, geologic work in south Japan, Taiwan, Borneo, and the Philippines, and recent data published between 1976 and 1985. Twenty-four geologic cross sections (scale = 1:1.25 million, vertical exaggeration x 6) intersect ocean margins, important basins, and the different structural domains. They are based on seismic profiles, well data, and available onshore and offshore geologic data. These cross sections show basement composition and structures, different tectonic and sedimentary domains, and the structure and thickness of different sedimentary deposits (such as age, unconformities, and geologic structures). Maps and cross sections will be published in early 1987.

  9. Haemodynamic management of severe sepsis: recommendations of the French Intensive Care Societies (SFAR/SRLF) Consensus Conference, 13 October 2005, Paris, France

    PubMed Central

    Pottecher, Thierry; Calvat, Sylvie; Dupont, Hervé; Durand-Gasselin, Jacques; Gerbeaux, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    We present a consensus report from the SFAR/SLRF (Société Française d'Anesthésie et de Réanimation/Société de Réanimation de Langue Française) Consensus Conference, held on 13 October 2005 in Paris, France. The consensus report made recommendations on five topics relevant to the treatment of circulatory failure in sepsis and its underlying rationale. These topics are as follows: therapeutic goals of haemodynamic support in sepsis; goals of fluid resuscitation (including transfusion); role of inotropes and vasoactive drugs; role of other treatments; and treatment strategy. This report is reproduced from a translation of the original in Annales Francaises of Anesthésie and Réanimation. PMID:16941754

  10. Using Noldus Observer XT for research on deaf signers learning to read: an innovative methodology.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Daphne A; Arcand, Isabelle

    2009-08-01

    Despite years of research on the reading problems of deaf students, we still do not know how deaf signers who read well actually crack the code of print. How connections are made between sign language and written language is still an open question. In this article, we show how the Noldus Observer XT software can be used to conduct an in-depth analysis of the online behavior of deaf readers. First, we examine factors that may have an impact on reading behavior. Then, we describe how we videotaped teachers with their deaf student signers of langue des signes québécoise during a reading task, how we conducted a recall activity to better understand the students' reading behavior, and how we used this innovative software to analyze the taped footage. Finally, we discuss the contribution this type of research can have on the future reading behavior of deaf students. PMID:19587199

  11. Management of thrombocytopenia in the ICU (pregnancy excluded)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a very frequent disorder in the intensive care unit. Many etiologies should be searched, and therapeutic approaches differ according to these different causes. However, no guideline exists regarding optimum practices for these situations in critically ill patients. We present recommendations for the management of thrombocytopenia in intensive care unit, excluding pregnancy, developed by an expert group of the French-Language Society of Intensive Care (Société de Réanimation de Langue Française (SRLF), the French Language Group of Paediatric Intensive Care and Emergencies (GFRUP) and of the Haemostasis and Thrombosis Study Group (GEHT) of the French Society of Haematology (SFH). The recommendations cover six fields of application: definition, epidemiology, and prognosis; diagnostic approach; therapeutic aspects; thrombocytopenia and sepsis; iatrogenic thrombocytopenia, with a special focus on heparin-induced thrombocytopenia; and thrombotic microangiopathy. PMID:22929300

  12. Floridas Miami Tequesta Indian Site, Its Calusa Indian Locations, the Matacumbe Keys, and Orlandos Wikiwa Springs Generate Environmentally Significant EMFs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac Dougall, Jean S.; Mc Leod, Roger D.; Mc Leod, David M.

    2003-10-01

    Florida purchased the Tequesta ([Langue] doc Christ Spirit-signal) Indian site along the Miami River site that vigorously pulsates with even minor rainstorms entering or leaving the area. Although there is a laughable chimera of a fountain of youth associated with Ponce de Leons discovery of the Florida peninsula in about AD 1513, the Calusa (Royal Christ Jesus Spirit-signal) Indian Nation has an associated significance with EMF signals they possibly monitored throughout their area of activity. Our efforts have also led to the investigation of cultural and other influences implied by the Matacumbe Keys that indicate a shared commonality of awareness with Native Americans of the northeast such as Metacomet, or regions like Maines Grand Lake Matagamon and its associated electromagnetic Spirit Signal. Wikiwa Springs near Orlando shares much with Massachusetts (adherent of serpent Jesus Christ Spirit-signal) Natick, and New Hampshires Naticook Island. These are the locales of environmentally sensitive instrumentation.

  13. Extracorporeal life support for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: report of a Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Richard, Christian; Argaud, Laurent; Blet, Alice; Boulain, Thierry; Contentin, Laetitia; Dechartres, Agnès; Dejode, Jean-Marc; Donetti, Laurence; Fartoukh, Muriel; Fletcher, Dominique; Kuteifan, Khaldoun; Lasocki, Sigismond; Liet, Jean-Michel; Lukaszewicz, Anne-Claire; Mal, Hervé; Maury, Eric; Osman, David; Outin, Hervé; Richard, Jean-Christophe; Schneider, Francis; Tamion, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    The influenza H1N1 epidemics in 2009 led a substantial number of people to develop severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and refractory hypoxemia. In these patients, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was used as rescue oxygenation therapy. Several randomized clinical trials and observational studies suggested that extracorporeal membrane oxygenation associated with protective mechanical ventilation could improve outcome, but its efficacy remains uncertain. Organized by the Société de Réanimation de Langue Française (SRLF) in conjunction with the Société Française d'Anesthésie et de Réanimation (SFAR), the Société de Pneumologie de Langue Française (SPLF), the Groupe Francophone de Réanimation et d'Urgences Pédiatriques (GFRUP), the Société Française de Perfusion (SOFRAPERF), the Société Française de Chirurgie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire (SFCTV) et the Sociedad Española de Medecina Intensiva Critica y Unidades Coronarias (SEMICYUC), a Consensus Conference was held in December 2013 and a jury of 13 members wrote 65 recommendations to answer the five following questions regarding the place of extracorporeal life support for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: 1) What are the available techniques?; 2) Which patients could benefit from extracorporeal life support?; 3) How to perform extracorporeal life support?; 4) How and when to stop extracorporeal life support?; 5) Which organization should be recommended? To write the recommendations, evidence-based medicine (GRADE method), expert panel opinions, and shared decisions taken by all the thirteen members of the jury of the Consensus Conference were taken into account. PMID:24936342

  14. Extracorporeal life support for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: report of a Consensus Conference

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The influenza H1N1 epidemics in 2009 led a substantial number of people to develop severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and refractory hypoxemia. In these patients, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was used as rescue oxygenation therapy. Several randomized clinical trials and observational studies suggested that extracorporeal membrane oxygenation associated with protective mechanical ventilation could improve outcome, but its efficacy remains uncertain. Organized by the Société de Réanimation de Langue Française (SRLF) in conjunction with the Société Française d’Anesthésie et de Réanimation (SFAR), the Société de Pneumologie de Langue Française (SPLF), the Groupe Francophone de Réanimation et d’Urgences Pédiatriques (GFRUP), the Société Française de Perfusion (SOFRAPERF), the Société Française de Chirurgie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire (SFCTV) et the Sociedad Española de Medecina Intensiva Critica y Unidades Coronarias (SEMICYUC), a Consensus Conference was held in December 2013 and a jury of 13 members wrote 65 recommendations to answer the five following questions regarding the place of extracorporeal life support for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: 1) What are the available techniques?; 2) Which patients could benefit from extracorporeal life support?; 3) How to perform extracorporeal life support?; 4) How and when to stop extracorporeal life support?; 5) Which organization should be recommended? To write the recommendations, evidence-based medicine (GRADE method), expert panel opinions, and shared decisions taken by all the thirteen members of the jury of the Consensus Conference were taken into account. PMID:24936342

  15. The 1994 EUROMET collection of micrometeorites at Cap-Prudhomme, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurette, M.; Immel, G.; Engrand, C.; Kurat, G.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1994-07-01

    Advance funding from IFRTP (Institut Francais pour la Recherche et pour la Technique Polaire) for micrometeorite collection at Cap-Prudhomme has allowed construction of a new micrometeorite 'factory,' conceived to greatly reduce contamination of the ultraclean ice by our activities. The potential problems include fly ash, rust grains, fuel spills 'sticking to the shoes,' and trace elements from the plasticizers used in plastic tubing. In the new factory, intended to produce and then cycle 10-15 tons of melt ice water per day, all parts exposed to water were replaced by either stainless steel or teflon. After examination with a microscope and their transfer into teflon and or glass vials, all samples were frozen the day of their collection. The factory operated from December 15, 1993, through February 6, 1994. Problems included injuries as well as very bad weather conditions, characterized by both the heaviest snow falls observed and unexpected gusts from a blizzard. Also, several new components of the factory did not function properly under the extreme conditions of Antarctica. Our major objective was to obtain the 'cleanest' and 'purest' 25-50 microns micrometeorites ever collected in Antarctica, for comparison with stratospheric Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs). We could not fulfill this premise, but we recovered the best 100-400-micron-size fraction of 'giant' micrometeorites ever collected on Earth. Our 26 daily collections are listed,refering to an 'index of quality.' Aliquots of these daily collections will be distributed to major institutions in Austria, England, the U.S.A., and Japan, to be preserved for future generations. The Antarctica ice sheet is truly a gigantic, ultraclean, and inexhaustible micrometeorite collector, but it is very tricky to recover 'ultraclean' micrometeorites from it.

  16. Agriculture: A source of raw materials for industrial purposes the French strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Mauguin, P.; Gaouyer, J.P.; Labrousse, S.

    1995-11-01

    Creating new value-added products from agricultural and forestry biomass can present opportunities for diversifying industry, preserving agricultural activities and reinvigorating exploitation of forests. Stimulating new markets for agriculture and forestry products is strategically important for France, in order to cushion the effects of the reform of the European Common Policy (CAP), while maintaining the commitments assessed at the Rio Coference. The promotion of new markets should constitute a major vector for rural development, by marking use of agricultural lands no longer needed for food crops due to the glut of foodstuffs on the market. In the next few years, energy uses of biomass should help hold down greenhouse gas emissions, by regulating and storing CO{sub 2}. For each of these markets, whether for energy uses (solid, liquid or gaseous fuels) or for other applications, the first priority is to match prices and specifications of the fossil fuels that are to be deplaced, with minimum impact on the environment. To match these goals, the French government has launched a new research group, Agriculture for Chemicals and Energy (AGRICE). AGRICE has been set up for a renewable five years period. Its members are: Agriculture, Industry, Research and Environment departments; the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), the Institut Francais due Petrole (IFP), the French Agency for Environment and Energy (Ademe); Wheat producers, Beet growers, and oil seed producers; and Rhone Poulenc (chemicals), TOTAL (oil company). In 1995, AGRICE will have a 40 Millions FFrancs from public funds, supplemented by 25 Millions FFrancs from business and trade groups.

  17. [Presidential address at the 20th Journees sur la Fertilite et l'Orthogenie].

    PubMed

    Dourlen-rollier, A M

    1993-01-01

    Recollections of the author's early experiences in French family planning and reflections on the ethical issues and legal status of new fertility technologies are the major topics of this address. The group that was to become le Mouvement francais pour le Planning Familial (MFPF) was founded in 1956 by the author and others and opened its first family planning center in 1961, before contraception became legal. Despite opposition from physicians and Catholic clergy, the MFPF operated 100 centers serving over 100,000 clients by 1965. In 1969 the MFPF began a study of abortion. Despite legalization, the controversy concerning the legitimacy of abortion has not subsided. More recently, the practices of artificial insemination with donor sperm, in vitro fertilization, surrogate mothers, and other medically assisted fertility technologies have raised moral, ethical, and legal questions for all societies. The questions range from the legitimacy of gamete donation to the status of unused embryos. The dissociation of different stages of the reproductive process affects concepts of filiation, paternity and maternity. In the absence of appropriate legislation, it has been left largely to the courts to create a new body of law at this frontier. The review of legislation in France, elsewhere in Europe, and in the U.S. concerning contested filiation in cases of artificial insemination, the legitimacy of insemination of a woman after the death of her spouse, the preservation and donation of embryos, surrogate motherhood, the child's rights to information about his biological parents, and other questions indicate that no consensus has yet emerged concerning the admissibility and legitimacy of specific practices. It would be highly desirable for the European countries to adopt a common legislation in these areas. PMID:12289992

  18. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire dans un etat electronique dissociatif, cette localisation est suivie d'une fragmentation. A plus haute energie, la dissociation dipolaire (i.e., la formation simultanee d'un ion positif et negatif) et l'ionisation jouent un role important dans le dommage de l'ADN. L'ensemble de nos resultats permet d'expliquer les mecanismes de degradation de l'ADN par les EBE et d'obtenir des sections efficaces effectives des differents types de dommages.

  19. Analyse des interactions energetiques entre un arena et son systeme de refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seghouani, Lotfi

    La presente these s'inscrit dans le cadre d'un projet strategique sur les arenas finance par le CRSNG (Conseil de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles et en Genie du Canada) qui a pour but principal le developpement d'un outil numerique capable d'estimer et d'optimiser la consommation d'energie dans les arenas et curlings. Notre travail s'inscrit comme une suite a un travail deja realise par DAOUD et coll. (2006, 2007) qui a developpe un modele 3D (AIM) en regime transitoire de l'arena Camilien Houde a Montreal et qui calcule les flux de chaleur a travers l'enveloppe du batiment ainsi que les distributions de temperatures et d'humidite durant une annee meteorologique typique. En particulier, il calcule les flux de chaleur a travers la couche de glace dus a la convection, la radiation et la condensation. Dans un premier temps nous avons developpe un modele de la structure sous la glace (BIM) qui tient compte de sa geometrie 3D, des differentes couches, de l'effet transitoire, des gains de chaleur du sol en dessous et autour de l'arena etudie ainsi que de la temperature d'entree de la saumure dans la dalle de beton. Par la suite le BIM a ete couple le AIM. Dans la deuxieme etape, nous avons developpe un modele du systeme de refrigeration (REFSYS) en regime quasi-permanent pour l'arena etudie sur la base d'une combinaison de relations thermodynamiques, de correlations de transfert de chaleur et de relations elaborees a partir de donnees disponibles dans le catalogue du manufacturier. Enfin le couplage final entre l'AIM +BIM et le REFSYS a ete effectue sous l'interface du logiciel TRNSYS. Plusieurs etudes parametriques on ete entreprises pour evaluer les effets du climat, de la temperature de la saumure, de l'epaisseur de la glace, etc. sur la consommation energetique de l'arena. Aussi, quelques strategies pour diminuer cette consommation ont ete etudiees. Le considerable potentiel de recuperation de chaleur au niveau des condenseurs qui peut reduire l'energie requise par le systeme de ventilation de l'arena a ete mis en evidence. Mots cles. Arena, Systeme de refrigeration, Consommation d'energie, Efficacite energetique, Conduction au sol, Performance annuelle.

  20. Le changement comme tradition dans la recherche et la formation a la recherche en biotechnologie et en peripherie Etude de cas en sciences de la sante, sciences naturelles et genie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourque, Claude Julie

    Le champ de la recherche scientifique et de la formation a la recherche est traverse depuis quelques dizaines d'annees par plusieurs courants et discours associes au changement, mais peu de travaux empiriques permettent de comprendre ce qui change concretement. C'est la contribution originale de cette these au champ de l'education, plus specifiquement a l'etude sociologique de l'enseignement superieur ou sont concentrees les activites liees a la triade thematique du programme doctoral dans lequel elle a ete produite : recherche, formation et pratique. L'enquete-terrain a ete realisee en 2009 et 2010 aupres de 808 repondants affilies a 60 etablissements au Quebec et a produit un vaste materiau de nature mixte (donnees quantitatives et qualitatives). Un portrait de la nebuleuse biotechnologique qui touche les secteurs des sciences de la sante, des sciences naturelles et du genie a ete realise. Ce domaine concerne des dizaines de disciplines et se revele de nature transdisciplinaire, mais les pratiques n'y sont pas davantage marquees par le changement que celles d'autres domaines connexes. Les dynamiques sociales ont fait l'objet d'analyses comparatives dans quatre contextes: le choix des programmes, des objets et des methodes, le financement, la diffusion et la planification de la carriere. Les resultats indiquent que les echanges entre les agents traditionnellement situes au coeur des activites de recherche dominent ces dynamiques dans tous les contextes etudies. L'etude des representations au fondement des pratiques a revele l'existence de trois ecoles de pensee qui coexistent dans le champ scientifique: academique, pragmatique et economiste. Ces ecoles permettent de categoriser les agents en fonction des zones de fractures qui marquent leurs oppositions tout en identifiant ce qu'ils ont en commun. Les representations et les pratiques liees a la formation temoignent d'un habitus plutot homogene, alors que les contradictions semblent plus souvent ancrees dans des luttes universitaires que scientifiques, concentrees sur la negociation du capital scientifique, symbolique et economique en jeu dans la formation doctorale, dans les carrieres auxquelles elle mene, et dans les qualites du titre de Ph.D. Au final, la confusion entre des logiques opposees peut etre reduite en reinterpretant le changement comme tradition du champ scientifique. Mots-cles Sociologie, education, enseignement superieur, science et technologie, biotechnologie, formation doctorale, champ scientifique, reseaux sociaux

  1. Analyse des transferts de chaleur et de masse transitoires dans un arena a l'aide de la methode zonale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, Ahmed

    Cette these presente les resultats d'une etude sur le mouvement de l'air et les transferts thermiques et massiques dans les arenas en regime transitoire et en 3D. Pour la partie aeraulique, il a ete question de developper un modele base sur la methode zonale qui permet de calculer les debits de l'air (dus a la ventilation et aux gradients de temperature) et de l'humidite entre les differentes zones du batiment et de determiner l'age de l'air dans chacune des zones. Pour la partie thermique, un modele de calcul du rayonnement entre les surfaces interieures du batiment qui a ete couple a TRNSYS afin de calculer sur une base annuelle les charges de chauffage et de refrigeration; ces dernieres tiennent compte des transferts radiatif et convectif, de la chaleur latente due a la condensation de l'humidite sur la glace et du surfacage. Le document presente est constitue de 7 chapitres qui peuvent etre resumes comme suit: Les chapitres 1, 2 et 3 sont consacres respectivement: a l'introduction generale, a la revue bibliographique et a la description du batiment modelise. Le chapitre 4 decrit l'approche developpee et la contribution importante qui y est apportee. Il presente l'utilisation de la methode zonale comme une alternative pratique aux methodes CFD car elle permet de realiser des simulations dynamiques sur une annee avec des temps de simulation tres courts et une precision acceptable. Il s'agit d'une approche intermediaire entre les modeles CFD et les modeles a un noeud d'air (considerant la temperature homogene dans un local). Le chapitre 5 est consacre a la methode de resolution numerique. L'outil de simulation a ete developpe en utilisant l'interface du logiciel TRNSYS: Le type 56 de ce logiciel a ete adopte comme modele energetique tandis que les autres modeles ont ete developpes et programmes en utilisant le logiciel MATLAB. Le chapitre 6 presente les resultats de simulation pour un arena sans faux plafond et avec un faux plafond et les resultats de mesures effectuees a l'arena de Camilien Houde pour la validation de son modele. Le chapitre 7 est consacre a l'etude de l'influence de certains parametres sur la charge thermique transmise a la glace et sur le confort thermique des spectateurs.

  2. Evaluation d'un ecosysteme pastoral sahelien: Apport de la geomatique (Oursi, Burkina Faso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabore, Seraphine Sawadogo

    L'objectif principal de cette recherche est la mise au point d'une architecture d'integration de donnees socio-bio-geographiques et de donnees satellitales dans un Systeme d'Information Geographique (SIG) en vue d'une aide a la prise de decisions dans un environnement semi-aride au nord du Burkina Faso. Elle repond a la question fondamentale de l'interpretation des effets des facteurs climatiques et socioeconomiques sur le milieu pastoral. La recherche s'est appuyee sur plusieurs hypotheses de travail: possibilite d'utilisation de modele de simulation, d'approche multicritere et de donnees de teledetection dans un cadre de systeme d'information geographique. L'evolution spatiotemporelle des parametres de productivite du milieu a ete evaluee par approche dynamique selon le modele de Wu et al. (1996) qui modelise les interactions entre le climat, le milieu physique, le vegetal et l'animal pour mieux quantifier la biomasse primaire. A ce modele, quatre parametres ont ete integres par approche floue et multicritere afin de prendre en compte la dimension socioeconomique de la productivite pastorale (apport majeur de la recherche): la sante, l'education, l'agriculture et l'eau. La teledetection (imagerie SPOT) a permis de definir la production primaire a partir de laquelle les simulations ont ete realisees sur 10 annees. Les resultats obtenus montrent une bonne correlation entre biomasse primaire in situ et celle calculee pour les deux modeles, avec toutefois une meilleure efficacite du modele modifie (4 fois plus) dans les zones de forte productivite ou l'on note un taux de surexploitation agricole eleve. A cause de la variabilite spatiale de la production primaire in situ, les erreurs des resultats de simulation (8 a 11%) sont acceptables et montrent la pertinence de l'approche grace a l'utilisation des SIG pour la spatialisation et l'integration des differents parametres des modeles. Les types de production secondaire preconises (production de lait pendant 7 mois ou de viande pendant 6 mois) sont bases sur les besoins de l'UBT et le disponible fourrager qui est de qualite mediocre en saison seche. Dans les deux cas de figure, un deficit fourrager est observe. Deux types de transhumance sont proposes afin d'assurer une production durable selon deux scenarios: exploitation rationnelle des unites pastorales selon un plan de rotation annuelle et mise en defens a moyen terme des zones degradees pour une regeneration. Les zones potentielles pour la transhumance ont ete determinees selon les limites acceptables des criteres d'exploitation durable des milieux saheliens definis par Kessler (1994) soit 0,2 UBT.ha-1.

  3. Diffraction et Deflection dans le Tellurium pour le Laser Carbon-Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souilhac, Dominique Jacques

    Cette these fait suite au travail realise ces dix dernieres annees relatif aux effets acoustooptiques (AO) dans les materiaux, ainsi qu'a une premiere observation indiquant que le tellurium possede une valeur de merite (M) exceptionnellement elevee a la longueur d'onde 10.6 μm du laser CO_2, pour une certaine configuration de l'onde acoustique et optique. Une analyse plus generale et plus complete de la diffraction et de la deflection a des frequences acoustiques simples et multiples est presentee ainsi que pour la premiere fois, les resultats d'une analyse experimentale et quantitative de la diffraction et de la deflection AO pour les configurations birefringentes et isotropiques qui couvrent l'espace entier du crystal. L'expression de l'efficacite de diffraction est derivee pour les interactions du premier-ordre, pour une condition generale de propagation acoustique et optique. Une expression complete de la valeur de merite est par consequent obtenue. La relation entre les angles de Bragg incidents et diffractes en fonction de la frequence acoustique est egalement obtenue. Ces dernieres relations permettent de calculer les bandes passantes de diffraction et les angles de deflection correspondants, en prenant en consideration l'activite optique lorsque les faisceaux optiques se propagent pres de l'axe OZ. Un programme experimental detaille a ete entrepris afin de mesurer les coefficients inconnus du tenseur photoelastique du tellurium et les caracteristiques de diffraction AO dans des cas typiques particulierement choisis des plans d'interaction et des parametres optiques et acoustiques. Utilisant le comportement acoustique connu du tellurium et le tenseur photoelastique complet, nous avons fait fonctionner pour la premiere fois un programme d'ordinateur, dont le but est de calculer toutes les valeurs de (M) et en particulier celles qui sont les plus elevees, dans tout l'espace du crystal, pour les interactions isotropiques et birefringentes. Les configurations optimuns pour la deflection et la modulation du laser CO_2 ont ete analysees. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.).

  4. Interdiffusion de puits quantiques controlee par irradiation laser excimere pour l'integration de composants photoniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genest, Jonathan

    L'integration de composants discrets sur un systeme unique, tel une puce electronique, augmente les performances totales du systeme, fait apparaitre de nouvelles fonctionnalites et diminue les couts associes a la fabrication des dispositifs. Ces ameliorations, appliquees au secteur de la microelectronique, sont grandement responsables des avancements importants qu'ont connus les technologies de l'information et des communications au cours des dernieres annees. Puisque la fabrication de circuits photoniques integres necessite l'integration de structures ayant des bandes interdites differentes a partir d'une meme puce semiconductrice, leur niveau d'integration est bien inferieur que celui atteint pour un microprocesseur standard. Parmi les techniques ayant le potentiel de fabriquer des circuits photoniques integres monolithiquement, l'interdiffusion de puits quantique post-expitaxial controlee spatialement augmente la bande interdite d'une heterostructure semiconductrice a l'interieur de regions definies. Le processus d'interdiffusion, active thermiquement, est accelere par la diffusion d'impuretes et de defauts ponctuels tels que les lacunes et les interstitiels. L'hypothese de depart de mes travaux de doctorat suppose que la radiation laser ultra-violette module la diffusion et la generation de defauts ponctuels dans les heterostructures reposant sur les technologies a base de GaAs et d'InP et, consequemment, controle spatialement l'interdiffusion de puits quantiques. Nous avons demontre que lorsque appliquee sur des heterostructures a base de GaAs, l'irradiation laser excimere l'interdiffusion en favorisant la croissance d'un stresseur de surface qui empeche la diffusion des defauts ponctuels vers les puits quantiques. Nous avons souligne l'influence de la vapeur d'eau physisorbee sur la croissance du stresseur et avons determine la resolution spatiale de la technique. Dans les heterostructures basees sur les technologies InP, meme sous le seuil d'ablation, l'absorption des impulsions laser UV favorise la desorption des atomes de surface ce qui genere des defauts ponctuels en concentration excedentaire. Lors d'un recuit thermique, ces defauts ponctuels augmentent la vitesse de l'interdiffusion sous les regions irradiees. Mots cles : Interdiffusion de puits quantique, integration potonique, laser excimere, semiconducteur, InP, GaAs.

  5. Ulcérations buccales et péri-anales: un mode de révélation inhabituel d'une granulomatose avec polyangéite - à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Jaafoura, Neirouz Ghannouchi; Thaljaoui, Wathek; Atig, Amira; Bouker, Ahmed; Khalifa, Mabrouk; Bahri, Fathi

    2014-01-01

    La granulomatose avec polyangéite, est une vascularite systémique rare qui touche avec prédilection les voies aériennes supérieures, les poumons et les reins. L'atteinte cutanéo-muqueuse ainsi que l'atteinte digestive ne sont pas inhabituelles mais elles sont rarement inaugurales de la maladie. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une femme âgée de 57 ans, ayant une granulomatose avec polyangéite multi-systémique avec comme premières manifestations une atteinte cutanéo-muqueuse à type de nécrose de la langue et d'ulcérations péri-anales ainsi que des rectorragies. La présence de signes radiologiques orientant vers une hémmorragie intra-alvéolaire, l'atteinte rénale, l'atteinte neurologique périphérique ainsi que la positivité des C-ANCA de type anti-PR3 ont permis de rattacher les manifestations dermatologiques à cette vascularite. Des manifestations cutanéo-muqueuses atypiques, au cours d'une granulomateuse avec polyangéite, doivent être connues par le clinicien pour un diagnostic et une prise en charge adéquate. PMID:25404981

  6. How do deaf signers of LSQ and their teachers construct the meaning of a written text?

    PubMed

    Ducharme, D A; Arcand, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have investigated why learning to read is so problematic for deaf individuals. However, we still know very little about how to teach reading to signing students. In this article, we report on an exploratory qualitative study of deaf LSQ (Langue des signes québécoise) signers learning to read with two teachers, in an effort to better understand what strategies might be most useful in constructing the meaning of a text. By videotaping reading sessions between each teacher and student, then conducting recall interviews, we found that both students and teachers used a number of strategies to construct meaning. The list of strategies observed was categorized as word attack or global meaning types. Developing readers showed different patterns of strategy use, with more global meaning strategies being used by the more independent reader. We also found that the deaf teacher and hearing teacher had different patterns of strategy use, although both favored global meaning types. Finally, our findings indicate that both teachers adapted their strategy use to the needs of the students, but with a different focus. Namely, the deaf teacher used more global meaning strategies with the weaker reader and less with the more independent reader, whereas the hearing teacher showed the opposite pattern. PMID:20498132

  7. [French guidelines on electroencephalogram].

    PubMed

    André-Obadia, N; Sauleau, P; Cheliout-Heraut, F; Convers, P; Debs, R; Eisermann, M; Gavaret, M; Isnard, J; Jung, J; Kaminska, A; Kubis, N; Lemesle, M; Maillard, L; Mazzola, L; Michel, V; Montavont, A; N'Guyen, S; Navarro, V; Parain, D; Perin, B; Rosenberg, S D; Sediri, H; Soufflet, C; Szurhaj, W; Taussig, D; Touzery-de Villepin, A; Vercueil, L; Lamblin, M D

    2014-12-01

    Electroencephalography allows the functional analysis of electrical brain cortical activity and is the gold standard for analyzing electrophysiological processes involved in epilepsy but also in several other dysfunctions of the central nervous system. Morphological imaging yields complementary data, yet it cannot replace the essential functional analysis tool that is EEG. Furthermore, EEG has the great advantage of being non-invasive, easy to perform and allows control tests when follow-up is necessary, even at the patient's bedside. Faced with the advances in knowledge, techniques and indications, the Société de Neurophysiologie Clinique de Langue Française (SNCLF) and the Ligue Française Contre l'Épilepsie (LFCE) found it necessary to provide an update on EEG recommendations. This article will review the methodology applied to this work, refine the various topics detailed in the following chapters. It will go over the summary of recommendations for each of these chapters and underline proposals for writing an EEG report. Some questions could not be answered by the review of the literature; in those cases, an expert advice was given by the working and reading groups in addition to the guidelines. PMID:25435392

  8. French recommendations on electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    André-Obadia, N; Lamblin, M D; Sauleau, P

    2015-03-01

    Electroencephalography allows the functional analysis of electrical brain cortical activity and is the gold standard for analyzing electrophysiological processes involved in epilepsy but also in several other dysfunctions of the central nervous system. Morphological imaging yields complementary data, yet it cannot replace the essential functional analysis tool that is EEG. Furthermore, EEG has the great advantage of being non-invasive, easy to perform and allows repeat testing when follow-up is necessary, even at the patient's bedside. Faced with advances in knowledge, techniques and indications, the Société de neurophysiologie clinique de langue française (SNCLF) and the Ligue française contre l'épilepsie (LFCE) found it necessary to provide an update on EEG recommendations. This article will review the methodology applied to this work, refine the various topics detailed in the following chapters. It will go over the summary of recommendations for each of these chapters and highlight proposals for writing an EEG report. Some questions could not be answered by review of the literature; in such cases, in addition to the guidelines the working and reading groups provided their expert opinion. PMID:25637362

  9. Management by the intensivist of gastrointestinal bleeding in adults and children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Intensivists are regularly confronted with the question of gastrointestinal bleeding. To date, the latest international recommendations regarding prevention and treatment for gastrointestinal bleeding lack a specific approach to the critically ill patients. We present recommendations for management by the intensivist of gastrointestinal bleeding in adults and children, developed with the GRADE system by an experts group of the French-Language Society of Intensive Care (Société de Réanimation de Langue Française (SRLF), with the participation of the French Language Group of Paediatric Intensive Care and Emergencies (GFRUP), the French Society of Emergency Medicine (SFMU), the French Society of Gastroenterology (SNFGE), and the French Society of Digestive Endoscopy (SFED). The recommendations cover five fields of application: management of gastrointestinal bleeding before endoscopic diagnosis, treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding unrelated to portal hypertension, treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding related to portal hypertension, management of presumed lower gastrointestinal bleeding, and prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in intensive care. PMID:23140348

  10. Experts' recommendations for the management of adult patients with cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed

    Levy, Bruno; Bastien, Olivier; Karim, Bendjelid; Benjelid, Karim; Cariou, Alain; Chouihed, Tahar; Combes, Alain; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Megarbane, Bruno; Plaisance, Patrick; Ouattara, Alexandre; Spaulding, Christian; Splaulding, Christian; Teboul, Jean-Louis; Vanhuyse, Fabrice; Boulain, Thierry; Kuteifan, Kaldoun

    2015-12-01

    Unlike for septic shock, there are no specific international recommendations regarding the management of cardiogenic shock (CS) in critically ill patients. We present herein recommendations for the management of cardiogenic shock in adults, developed with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system by an expert group of the French-Language Society of Intensive Care (Société de Réanimation de Langue Française (SRLF)), with the participation the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care (SFAR), the French Cardiology Society (SFC), the French Emergency Medicine Society (SFMU), and the French Society of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (SFCTCV). The recommendations cover 15 fields of application such as: epidemiology, myocardial infarction, monitoring, vasoactive drugs, prehospital care, cardiac arrest, mechanical assistance, general treatments, cardiac surgery, poisoning, cardiogenic shock complicating end-stage cardiac failure, post-shock treatment, various etiologies, and medical care pathway. The experts highlight the fact that CS is a rare disease, the management of which requires a multidisciplinary technical platform as well as specialized and experienced medical teams. In particular, each expert center must be able to provide, at the same site, skills in a variety of disciplines, including medical and interventional cardiology, anesthesia, thoracic and vascular surgery, intensive care, cardiac assistance, radiology including for interventional vascular procedures, and a circulatory support mobile unit. PMID:26152849

  11. [Management of COPD exacerbations: from primary care to hospitalization].

    PubMed

    Jouneau, Stéphane; Brinchault, Graziella; Desrues, Benoît

    2014-12-01

    The Société de pneumologie de langue française defines acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE COPD) as an increase in daily respiratory symptoms, basically duration ≥ 48h or need for treatment adjustment. Etiology of EA COPD are mainly infectious, viral (rhinovirus, influenzae or parainfluenzae virus, coronavirus, adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus) or bacterial (Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Moraxella catarrhalis). Pollutant exposure can also lead to AE COPD, such as NO2, SO2, ozone or particulates (PM10 and PM2.5). In 30% the etiology remains unknown. Differential diagnoses of AE COPD include infectious pneumonia, pneumothorax, acute heart failure and pulmonary embolism. Presences of signs of severity impose hospitalization: signs of respiratory distress, shock, acute confusion but also fragile patients, insufficient home support or absence of response to initial treatment. AE COPD treatments consist on increase in bronchodilators, chest physiotherapy, and antibiotics if sputum is frankly purulent. Systemic corticosteroids should not be systematic. Recommended dose is 0.5 mg/kg on short course (5-7 days). During hospitalization, oxygen supplementation and thromboprophylaxis could be prescribed. The main interest in non-invasive ventilation is persistent hypercapnia despite optimal medical management. During ambulatory management or hospitalization, clinical assessment at 48-72 h is mandatory. PMID:25451635

  12. Feedback on the use of the MX6 Mox Fuel transport cask: reduction of the dose uptake during operations

    SciTech Connect

    Blachet, L.; Lallemant, Th.

    2007-07-01

    In the framework of the quality, safety and environment policy of AREVA, TN International has implemented a global management system according to ISO 9001, OHSAS 18001 and ISO 14001 requirements with certification obtained from third part organization (1). The design of the MX6 cask is an example of the implementation of this system in order to guarantee safety and the health of everyone involved and the protection of the environment. The MX6 design has allowed ALARA dose rates for the workers during all the phases of use of the cask, to be significantly reduced compared to previous design. The MX6 cask was developed by TN International for the transport of either BWR or PWR fresh MOX fuel assemblies. Replacing the previous SIEMENS type III and SIEMENS BWR packaging, the MX6 has been firstly used in the German Nuclear Power Plants. Complying with the TS-R-1 (IAEA 1996) regulations, the MX6 cask is based on innovative solutions implemented at each step of the design and the manufacturing. Its design includes an efficient neutron shielding for high Plutonium content and an easy use content restraining system. The large payload of the MX6 cask, 6 PWR MOX fuel assemblies or 16 BWR MOX fuel assemblies, minimizes the doses uptake during its unloading at the NPP. Moreover, new sequences of loading and unloading operations were proposed for testing and implementation in each Nuclear Facility. Concurrently, total dose uptakes by the operators were assessed in order to prove the efficiency of the packaging and the proposed sequences. In this paper, the main contributors to the transports to Germany with the MX6 cask will present their involvement and feedback for the reduction of the dose uptakes by the operators during the loading and unloading operations. Presently in use at GUNDREMMINGEN and ISAR Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), the MX6 cask use will be extended to other German and Swiss NPPs from 2006 onwards. (1) AFAQ-AFNOR Certification for ISO 9001, OHSAS 18001 and ISO 14001, and CEFRI (Comite francais de certification des Entreprises pour la formation et le suivi du personnel travaillant sous Rayonnements Ionisants) certification in the health physics field according to its E specification. (authors)

  13. Effet Hall et Magnetisme des Alliages Amorphes Nickel-Zirconium Fabriques Par Pulverisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, Robert

    Cette these se situe dans le cadre d'une etude des proprietes electroniques et structurales des alliages metalliques amorphes, en cours depuis quelques annees a l'Universite de Montreal. Ce programme nous a entre autres amene a caracteriser la magnetoresistivite et l'effet Hall d'alliages FeZr, CoZr et NiZr, ce qui a permis de mettre en evidence deux caracteristiques de l'effet Hall: Dans les alliages amorphes ferromagnetiques, la resistivite elevee engendre un effet Hall extraordinaire beaucoup plus important que celui enregistre dans les metaux cristallins. La polarisation des spins entrai ne une asymetrie de la diffusion qui, tant dans les phases cristalline et amorphe, est tenue responsable de cette contribution. L'autre particularite du comportement de Hall de ces systemes est le renversement de signe du coefficient de Hall ordinaire, qui passe du negatif au positif dans les echantillons plus riches en zirconium. Dans les metaux cristallins, un modele d'electrons libres predit un signe negatif a moins que la conduction ne soit dominee par les trous. Or, dans un milieu desordonne les memes concepts sont difficilement applicables et de nouvelles theories ont du etre elaborees pour expliquer ce phenomene. Jusqu'a maintenant, l'etude des alliages amorphes nickel-zirconium s'est faite surtout a partir d'echantillons fabriques par trempe sur roue. Malheureusement cette technique ne permet pas la fabrication d'alliages contenant plus de 70% de nickel, a l'exception du seul compose Ni _{90}Zr_{10 }. Pour pallier a cette lacune et etendre nos connaissance a l'ensemble de la gamme de compositions, nous avons fabrique par pulverisation cathodique des echantillons NiZr amorphes--et quelques alliages cristallins tres riches en nickel--couvrant une bonne partie de la gamme interdite par la technique de trempe sur roue. Dans un premier temps, par comparaison avec les resultats connus nous avons mis en evidence les similitudes et les differences entre les alliages obtenus par l'une et l'autre methode de fabrication. Il s'avere que le comportement intrinseque n'est pas different, mais que les echantillons pulverises sont plus sensibles a certaines anomalies de la structure que nous avons relevees et tente d'expliquer. L'etude des echantillons paramagnetiques permet de verifier que dans ces alliages le comportement de l'effet Hall apparent est la somme des contributions ordinaire, consequence de la force de Lorentz, et extraordinaire, etant donnee la tres forte valeur de coefficient de Hall extraordinaire notee dans ces systemes. Dans les alliages ferromagnetiques, l'etude systematique de l'aimantation en fonction de la temperature et de la composition est menee par le biais de la mesure de la resistivite de Hall. Elle permet de definir les principaux parametres magnetiques--temperature de Curie et aimantation--et de mettre en evidence le caractere itinerant du magnetisme et la contribution des fluctuations de spins. Ces mesures de resistivite de Hall dans les amorphes ferromagnetiques mettent aussi en lumiere un effet Hall extraordinaire qui se superpose a un effet Hall ordinaire semblable en grandeur a celui des cristallins. Il appert aussi que l'effet Hall extraordinaire est l'effet dominant, y compris qu dessus de la temperature de Curie. Cette etude du comportement de Hall et de quelques proprietes magnetiques des alliages amorphes NiZr contenant plus de 70% de nickel nous a donc permis de verifier que malgre la faible aimantation l'effet Hall extraordinaire est l'effet dominant, que l'effet Hall ordinaire est semblable a celui trouve dans les cristallins, et que l'ensemble de ces manifestations pouvait etre explique sans faire appel aux modeles quantiques.

  14. Traitements didactiques preventifs d'un type de conceptions erronees en sciences physiques chez des eleves du secondaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blondin, Andre

    Dans un contexte constructiviste, les connaissances anterieures d'un individu sont essentielles a la construction de nouvelles connaissances. Quelle qu'en soit la source (certaines de ces connaissances ont ete elaborees en classe, d'autres ont ete elaborees par interaction personnelle de l'individu avec son environnement physique et social), ces connaissances, une fois acquises, constituent les matieres premieres de l'elaboration des nouvelles conceptions de cet individu. Generalement, cette influence est consideree comme positive. Cependant, dans un milieu scolaire ou l'apprentissage de certaines conceptions enchassees dans un programme d'etudes et enterinees par l'ensemble d'une communaute est obligatoire, certaines connaissances anterieures peuvent entraver la construction des conceptions exigees par la communaute. La litterature abonde de tels exemples. Cependant, certaines connaissances anterieures, en soi tout a fait conformes a l'Heritage, peuvent aussi, parce qu'utilisees de facon non pertinente, entraver la construction d'une conception exigee par la communaute. Ici, la litterature nous donne peu d'exemples de ce type, mais nous en fournirons quelques-uns dans le cadre theorique, et ce sera un d'entre eux qui servira de base a nos propos. En effet, une grande proportion d'eleves inscrits a un cours de sciences physiques de la quatrieme secondaire, en reponse a un probleme deja solutionne durant l'annee et redonne lors d'un examen sommatif, "Pourquoi la Lune nous montre-t-elle toujours la meme face?", attribue principalement la cause de ce phenomene a la rotation de la Terre sur son axe. En tant que responsable de l'enseignement de ce programme d'etudes, plusieurs questions nous sont venues a l'esprit, entre autres, comment, dans un contexte constructiviste, est-il possible de reduire chez un eleve, l'impact de cette connaissance anterieure dans l'elaboration de la solution et ainsi prevenir la construction d'une conception erronee? Nous avons teste nos hypotheses avec la cohorte suivante d'eleves chez qui se repetaient les memes conditions d'apprentissage. Nous avons utilise le design de recherche "posttest only" de Campbell et Stanley. En mai, apres le moment prevu dans la planification du programme pour donner le probleme aux eleves, nous avons suggere deux facons differentes de reviser la solution de ce probleme. Les eleves du premier groupe experimental ont revise sans que soit activee la connaissance anterieure apprehendee de la rotation de la Terre. Les eleves du deuxieme groupe experimental ont ete confrontes, par des questions et une simulation, au fait que la rotation de la Terre n'est pas une connaissance pertinente pour resoudre le probleme. Les groupes temoins et les groupes experimentaux ont ete choisis au hasard dans le bassin des ecoles secondaires de la commission scolaire. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  15. Etude Par Spectroscopie Infrarouge des Oxydes Moleculaires Superoxyde de Potassium, Peroxyde de Potassium et Trioxyde de Silicium Isoles EN Matrice D'argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Benoit

    1995-01-01

    A l'aide de la spectroscopie d'absorption infrarouge et de la technique d'isolation en matrice d'argon, nous avons repris l'etude des differents oxydes moleculaires qui se forment lorsque l'oxygene moleculaire se trouve dans des agregats avec du potassium, du silicium et de l'oxyde de silicium SiO. Le choix des oxydes moleculaires KO_2 et K_2O_2 a ete motive par le fait qu'ils ont souvent ete mis en evidence dans tres travaux en physique des surfaces lors de letude du systeme O_2/K/Si. Ces oxydes avaient deja ete identifies par spectroscopie infrarouge en matrice d'argon au debut des annees soixante-dix. Pour KO_2, l'observation des modes nu_2 et nu_3 pour de nombreuses especes isotopiques nous a permis de deduire la longueur de la liaison K-O et de l'angle O-K-O. En effet, la construction d'un champ de force harmonique nous a permis de determiner sa structure et des constantes de force qui reprodusient tres bien les frequences experimentales observees. L'etude de l'oxyde K_2O _2 s'est averee interessante car avant notre travail, seule une vibration avait ete mise en evidence. Nous avons reussi a observer deux nouvelles vibrations fondamentales: une bande infrarouge faible a 185 cm^{-1}, avec les isotopes ^{16}O _2, ^{18}O _2 et ^{16} O^{18}O de l'oxygene, et une autre, activee en infrarouge avec l'isotope ^{16}O^{18 }O a 405 cm^{-1}. Les donnees experimentales etant insuffisantes pour deduire la structure de la molecule, des calculs theoriques avec la methode de la fonctionnelle de la densite ont donne le structure et les vibrations non observees du K _2O_2. Ces donnees supplementaires sont venues completer les resultats experimentaux et nous ont permis de construire un champ de force harmonique avec <=uel nous avons trouve des constantes de force qui reproduisent tres bien les frequences observees. Les calculs theoriques ont monte que K_2O _2 doit etre de structure C_ {rm 2v}, bien que la structure D _{rm 2h} ne puisse pas etre rejetee, puisque qu'il y a un faible ecart entre les resultats des deux structures. Ensuite, nous avons reetudie les oxydes produits lors de la reaction silicium et oxyde de silicium avec l'oxygene moleculaire. Nous avons observe des oxydes deja connus, et nous avons egalement mis en evidence la formation d'une nouvelle espece moleculaire, le trioxyde de silicium SiO_3. Nous avons observe cinq vibrations fondamentales avec de nombreux effets isotopiques sur l'oxygene et le silicium qui nous ont permis de deduire sa structure. Pour completer les resultats experimentaux, une etude theorique avec la methode de la fonctionnelle de la densite a permis de confirmer cette structure et de calculer plus precisement les angles et les longueurs de liaison, donnees necessaires pour construire un champ de force harmonique et evaluer les differentes constantes de force de la molecule. Nous proposons egalement des hypothese decrivant le processus de formation du SiO_3 permettant d'expliquer les differentes observations experimentales.

  16. Navigation d'un vehicule autonome autour d'un asteroide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionne, Karine

    Les missions d'exploration planetaire utilisent des vehicules spatiaux pour acquerir les donnees scientifiques qui font avancer notre connaissance du systeme solaire. Depuis les annees 90, ces missions ciblent non seulement les planetes, mais aussi les corps celestes de plus petite taille comme les asteroides. Ces astres representent un defi particulier du point de vue des systemes de navigation, car leur environnement dynamique est complexe. Une sonde spatiale doit reagir rapidement face aux perturbations gravitationnelles en presence, sans quoi sa securite pourrait etre compromise. Les delais de communication avec la Terre pouvant souvent atteindre plusieurs dizaines de minutes, il est necessaire de developper des logiciels permettant une plus grande autonomie d'operation pour ce type de mission. Ce memoire presente un systeme de navigation autonome qui determine la position et la vitesse d'un satellite en orbite autour d'un asteroide. Il s'agit d'un filtre de Kalman etendu adaptatif a trois degres de liberte. Le systeme propose se base sur l'imagerie optique pour detecter des " points de reperes " qui ont ete prealablement cartographies. Il peut s'agir de crateres, de rochers ou de n'importe quel trait physique discernable a la camera. Les travaux de recherche realises se concentrent sur les techniques d'estimation d'etat propres a la navigation autonome. Ainsi, on suppose l'existence d'un logiciel approprie qui realise les fonctions de traitement d'image. La principale contribution de recherche consiste en l'inclusion, a chaque cycle d'estimation, d'une mesure de distance afin d'ameliorer les performances de navigation. Un estimateur d'etat de type adaptatif est necessaire pour le traitement de ces mesures, car leur precision varie dans le temps en raison de l'erreur de pointage. Les contributions secondaires de recherche sont liees a l'analyse de l'observabilite du systeme ainsi qu'a une analyse de sensibilite pour six parametres principaux de conception. Les resultats de simulation montrent que l'ajout d'une mesure de distance par cycle de mise a jour entraine une amelioration significative des performances de navigation. Ce procede reduit l'erreur d'estimation ainsi que les periodes de non-observabilite en plus de contrer la dilution de precision des mesures. Les analyses de sensibilite confirment quant a elles la contribution des mesures de distance a la diminution globale de l'erreur d'estimation et ce pour une large gamme de parametres de conception. Elles indiquent egalement que l'erreur de cartographie est un parametre critique pour les performances du systeme de navigation developpe. Mots cles : Estimation d'etat, filtre de Kalman adaptatif, navigation optique, lidar, asteroide, simulations numeriques

  17. Biostereometrics In Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferenc, Kovats

    1986-07-01

    Desuis mon enfance je suis un type soidisant visuel. Cette deviation etait toujours profitable pour moi, pour le clinicien , ainsi que pour le rechercheur scientifique.I1 y a trente ans, que dans l'Atlas Radioanatomique du Thorax nous avons deja utilis6 la conception de trois dimensions. Dans les derni6res edition de cet ouvrage nous avons travaille mke avec la guatrieme, le temps facteur. DePuis cette 6poque-la je me suis ori-en-be vers les quatre dimensions, vers les mouvements dans l'espace et le temps. -:tudiant les mouvements,les mouvements ventilatoires mesure par photogrammetrie le tronc humain.En projetant sur la surface du tronc un reseau quadratique, on pent compter de 3oo-400 points d'information, si un carre est 2 This 2 cm. Simultanement on pent ainsi contraler les deplacement relatifs des differents points. Travaillant avec seriophotographie et ces dernieres annees avec Video, nous avons des documents cDntinuellement en trois dimensions sun la position actuelle en espace de notre modele.On pent mesurer, reproduire la position momentan6e du sujet d'une frequence et dans la quantite desiree. Par exemple on peut les reproduire, une a une, comme une sculpture, en domontrant les changements d'un tronc humain pendant les mouvements respiratoires, comme nous avions fait en 1969 avec le sculpteur Istvan Bencsik en realisant nos differents modeles en inspiration et expiration.flais thooriquement on pent construire tant de sculptures qu'on vent entre les deux positions extremes.La methode est tres utilisable pour l'observation des mouvements sportifs on artistiques, comme le ballet par exemple. / Figure 1./ En etudiant en plusieures series la morphometrie des mouvements respiratoires on pent acquerir une certain experience, qui concerne la phase de respiration, on se trouve un corps humain sculpte, dessine on peint. Come le mimique d'un visage explkue toujours l'6tat affectif d'un individu, le corps humain peut expliquer tart des chases entre les mains d'un artiste doue. Liais nous retournerons encore a cet argument. Avec un objet d'art l'artiste registe un seul moment dune serie de mouvements de son sujet, spit en deux dimensions, s'il est peintre on graveur , dessinateur etc., spit en trois dimensions s'il est sculpteur.i:algre cela , il y a beaucoup d'oeuvresd'art dyna-miques, qui donnent l'impression de mouvement.On pent produire cet effetavec la ROMDOSi-tion des mouvements non simultanees , comme par exemple sur les tableaux de XIX 'si8cle representant des concours hyppiques, on les extremit-ees des chevaux sort distandue an maximum en avant et en arriere; c'est un mode de galop inexistant, mais malgr6, qu'il est faux, it suggere la vitesse.

  18. Geoheritage promotion of Thonon-les-Bains (Fr) region by the development of a geotourism product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanguin, Pauline

    2014-05-01

    Since 2012, the Chablais region (only in France) has acquired the Geopark label. This Geopark contributes to sustainable economic development of the region through geotourism. Moreover, the three Chablais (figure 1) are concerned by an Interreg IV program since 2009 (program of cooperation between European countries). The main objective of this program is to enhance the heritage resources (nature, culture and lifestyle of the region) (www.interreg-francesuisse.org). Therefore, the geotourism offer in this area just waiting to expand. The geodidactics models like the simplification of the scientific content are essential for geoheritage promotion, because this content must be available to a wide audience, allowing thereby the geoheritage recognition. The geotourism permits to apply different models (Cayla et al. 2010, Sellier, 2009) through a wide range of geotourism products, like guide, educational panels, thematic hikes and recently developed, new medias (website, smartphone applications). A geotourism product is based on four areas of questioning and was developed by Martin et al. (2010): (1) site (choice of sites to be valued), (2) public (a family public, good example of heterogeneous public), (3) contents (reasoning on geodidactics models) and (4) support (smartphone application). These four areas are very fundamental before the creation of any geotourism product. These reflexions aim to obtain a mediation product that integrates into geotourism offer of a region and contributes to its development and meets public expectations. New media, such as digital media - smartphone, tablets, website - become geotourism products more and more attractive. In addition, the necessary technologies to develop new media help to integrate a high interactivity potential with the public and thus get their attention. The architecture of this geotourism product is based on the new application developed by the Institute of Geography and sustainability, and the Bureau Relief. One of the thematic itineraries is focused on the discovery of different natural resources by explaining their formation and their use by society, allowing to enhance a selection of geoheritage. The itinerary is entitled: In the footsteps of the exploitation of natural resources... a history of water and rock. Keywords: Promotion, geoheritage, geotourism products, public, geodidactics models. REFERENCES Cayla, N., Hobléa, F., & Gasquet, D. (2010). Guide des bonnes pratiques de médiation des géosciences sur le terrain. Géologie de la France (1), pp. 47-55. Disponible sur : http://geolfrance.brgm.fr/article.asp?annee=2010&revue=1&article=8 (consulté le 4.02.2013). Martin, S., Regolini-Bissig, G., Perret, A., & Kozlik, L. (2010). Elaboration et évaluation des produits géotouristiques. Téoros, 29-2/2010. Disponible sur : http://teoros.revues.org/898 (consulted the 13.12.2012). Sellier D. (2009). La vulgarisation du patrimoine géomorphologique. Objets, moyens et perspectives. Bulletin de l'Association des Géographes Français, 1, pp. 67-81.

  19. Etude theorique des fluctuations structurales dans les composes organiques a dimensionnalite reduite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, Benoit

    Les systemes a dimensionnalite reduite constituent maintenant une branche entiere de la physique de la matiere condensee. Cette derniere s'est developpee rapidement au cours des dernieres annees, avec la decouverte des materiaux organiques qui presentent, justement, des proprietes physiques fortement anisotropes. Cette these presente une etude en trois parties de plusieurs composes organiques qui, bien que tres differents du point de vue de leurs compositions chimiques et de leurs proprietes physiques a haute temperature, subissent tous une instabilite structurale a tres basse temperature. De plus, dans chacun des cas, l'instabilite structurale est precedee d'un important regime fluctuatif a partir duquel les proprietes physiques changent de maniere significative. Notre etude suit un ordre chronologique inverse puisque nous nous attardons en premier lieu au cas de composes recemment decouverts: les composes de la famille des (BCPTTF)2X (X = PF6 , AsF6). Ces derniers sont des isolants magnetiques a la temperature ambiante et subissent une instabilite structurale de type spin-Peierls a une temperature appelee TSP. En particulier, nous nous interessons a l'etude des proprietes physiques de ces systemes dans le regime fluctuatif, qui precede cette instabilite. Notre etude theorique nous permet de comprendre en detail comment ces systemes s'approchent de l'instabilite struturale. Dans la seconde partie de cette these, nous etudions le regime fluctuatif (pre-transitionnel) observe experimentalement dans le compose de (TMTTF)2PF6. Ce compose organique, dont la structure s'apparente aux sels de Bechgaard, subit une instabilite de type spin-Peierls a une temperature T SP = 19K. Bien que ce compose possede la particularite d'etre un bon conducteur a la temperature ambiante, il subit une transition de type Mott-Hubbard a une temperature Trho ≈ 220K et devient alors un isolant magnetique, analogue aux composes de la famille des (BCPTTF)2X. Le regime fluctuatif precedant l'instabilite spin-Peierls apparait ensuite vers 60K. Notre etude theorique montre qu'un modele d'electrons en interaction de type "g-ologie" avec possibilite de processus umklapp permet de bien rendre compte des proprietes physiques de ce systeme. Finalement, la troisieme partie de cette these porte sur l'etude des premiers composes organiques quasi-unidimensionnels a avoir ete synthetises: les composes de la famille du TTF-TCNQ. Notre etude theorique des instabilites structurales que presentent ces composes n'est evidemment pas la premiere. L'originalite de cette derniere est qu'elle tient compte des fortes interactions entre les electrons, presentent dans ces composes. Pour tenir compte de telles interactions, nous avons choisi la formulation "liquide de Luttinger" qui nous permet de mieux traiter ce regimne dit de couplage fort.

  20. Recherche et Analyse de Galaxies Brilliantes EN Exces EN Ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coziol, Roger

    Dans ce travail, nous decrivons et presentons les resultats du sondage Montreal Blue Galaxy (MBG) visant la recherche de galaxies emettant en exces en ultraviolet. Cette recherche utilise le materiel photographique du sondage MCT (Montreal-Cambridge-Tololo) qui par son etendue correspond a un des plus importants sondages de l'hemisphere austral. Le sondage MBG est presentement le seul dans cet hemisphere a employer la technique de poses multiples pour la selection de ses candidats. Grace a cette technique, nous avons l'occasion d'etudier un echantillon de galaxies ayant des caracteristiques quelque peu differentes de celles des echantillons analyses auparavant. Deux phenomenes peuvent expliquer l'exces d'ultraviolet observe dans ces galaxies. Le premier suppose la presence dans leur noyau d'un trou noir massif. Toutes les galaxies sujettes a ce type d'activite sont regroupees sous le nom de galaxies avec noyau actif (AGN). Le deuxieme phenomene est relie a une periode de formation intense d'etoiles, ou sursaut de formation d'etoiles ("starburst"). L'exces d'ultraviolet trahit ici la presence d'un grand nombre d'etoiles massives recemment creees au sein de ces galaxies. En plus d'augmenter le nombre d'AGN connues, les sondages de galaxies brillantes en ultraviolet permettent aussi d'approfondir les questions specifiques suivantes: combien y a-t'il de galaxies starbursts differentes? Quelle est l'origine possible de leur activite? Quel est le role des sursauts de formation d'etoiles dans la vie d'une galaxie? Quel est le lien entre les galaxies starbursts et les AGN?. L'analyse de notre echantillon de galaxies se fait par l'entremise de plusieurs methodes. La premiere consiste a obtenir des spectres optiques de nos candidats. L'etude de ces spectres nous permet de distinguer entre les AGN et les galaxies starbursts et de deduire plusieurs parametres physiques importants. Notre deuxieme methode consiste a obtenir des images. Ceci nous permet d'avoir une idee de la morphologie des galaxies et ainsi de comprendre ies phenomenes sous-jacents aux sursauts de formation d'etoiles. En plus de la forme et des dimensions, une analyse des images prises sous differents filtres nous permet d'etudier les differentes populations stellaires presentes et d'en comprendre l'evolution. La troisieme methode employee pour notre etude utilise les informations en infrarouge du satellite americain IRAS. Ces donnees nous renseignent sur la quantite et l'etat de la poussiere associee a l'activite de ces galaxies. Les resultats faisant l'objet de cette these portent sur 40% du sondage total. L'echantillon etudie compte 332 galaxies, dont 60 ont ete observees en spectroscopie et 15 analysees en imagerie. Les AGN ne constituent que 5% des galaxies de notre echantillon. La majorite de nos candidats sont des galaxies starbursts. Leur caracteristique principale est que le sursaut de formation d'etoiles est principalement localise dans la region de leur noyau. La majorite des galaxies starbursts de notre echantillon ont une morphologie de type spirale precoce et contiennent des populations stellaires relativement evoluees. Plusieurs indices suggerent que les sursauts de formation detoiles sont relies a une accretion relativement recente de matiere provenant soit de leur environnement soit de l'interaction avec d'autres galaxies. Les sursauts de formation d'etoiles peuvent etre de longue duree (de l'ordre de 10 ^9 annees) ou peuvent se produire en cascades. Ces resultats semblent typiques des galaxies avec sursauts de formation d'etoiles dans le noyau. L'importance du phenomene laisse penser qu'il s'agit d'une phase majeure dans l'evolution de ces galaxies.

  1. Realisation de guides d'onde plans faibles pertes en nitrure de silicium pour un biocapteur integre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorin, Arnaud

    Le nitrure de silicium est un materiau tres utilise en microelectronique et en optique integree due a l'excellente homogeneite et reproductibilite de son epaisseur et de son indice de refraction. De plus, l'indice de refraction eleve du nitrure de silicium est particulierement interessant pour les applications en biophotonique. En effet, ces dernieres annees les biocapteurs a champ evanescent ont demontre une augmentation de la sensibilite avec l'utilisation de guides d'onde plans a haut indice de refraction. La sensibilite pourrait etre encore amelioree en integrant sur un meme substrat l'ensemble des composants passifs et actifs (Lab-on-a-chip) qui composent le biocapteur a champ evanescent. L'integration des differents composants optiques passe par la fabrication d'un guide d'onde plan dans le visible qui soit realise avec des procedes a basse temperature, faible epaisseur, faible perte et haut indice de refraction. Meme si les couches d'oxyde metallique (TiO2, Ta2O5 par exemple), generalement utilisees pour ce type d'application, permettent d'obtenir de bonnes proprietes optiques, elles ne permettent pas d'atteindre la qualite des couches en nitrure de silicium notamment en termes de rugosite de surface pour de faibles epaisseurs. Dans le cadre de ces travaux de doctorat, les parametres du guide d'onde sont optimises pour une application utilisant des fluorophores a points quantiques emettant a 650 nm et excites avec une source laser a 532 nm. Une epaisseur de 80 nm est determinee comme optimale pour l'excitation, la collection de la fluorescence et le couplage fibre-guide. Le developpement d'un guide d'onde capable d'atteindre cette epaisseur et conservant des bonnes proprietes optiques est necessaire. A notre connaissance aucun travail n'a ete realise pour optimiser les pertes dans le visible des guides de nitrure de silicium, en fonction des parametres du procede PECVD. Dans ce travail de these, des guides d'onde sont fabriques pour la premiere fois en utilisant le nitrure depose par LF-PECVD (basse frequence), et leurs performances sont comparees aux guides deposes par HF-PECVD (haute frequence). Nous demontrons, en variant le debit des precurseurs, que l'absorption et les pertes en propagation des couches de nitrure sont plus faibles lorsque les depots sont faits par la technique LF-PECVD par rapport a la technique HFPECVD. Cette difference s'explique probablement par le fait que le bombardement ionique, beaucoup plus important a basse frequence qu'a haute frequence, reduit la presence d'amas de silicium dans la couche, responsables de l'absorption dans le visible en plus de densifier les couches par enlevement de l'hydrogene qui s'incorpore durant la deposition PECVD. Nous demontrons egalement que pour la technique LF-PECVD, les proprietes optiques des couches sont ameliorees en utilisant une basse puissance pour la source r-f du plasma. En effet a haute puissance, le bombardement, tres energetique cree des defauts dans la couche et favorise la rupture des liaisons N-H plutot que des liaisons Si-H. Finalement des guides d'onde plans de nitrure de silicium, avec une epaisseur de 80 nm et un indice de refraction de 2, sont fabriques et caracterises. Des pertes de 0.1 dB/cm a 633 nm et 1.05 dB/cm a 532 nm sont obtenues et comparees avec les performances des autres materiaux. Mots cles: biocapteur, integration, guides plans, nitrure de silicium, couches minces

  2. Fabrication de transistors mono-electroniques en silicium pour le traitement classique et quantique de l'information: une approche nanodamascene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey-Collard, Patrick

    Les transistors mono-electroniques (SETs) sont des dispositifs ayant un grand potentiel d'applications, comme la detection de charge ultra-sensible, la logique a basse consommation de puissance, la memoire ou la metrologie. De plus, la possibilite de pieger un seul electron et de manipuler son etat de spin pourrait permettre des applications en informatique quantique. Le silicium est un materiau interessant pour fabriquer l'ilot d'un SET. Son gap semi-conducteur permet le fonctionnement du dispositif dans le regime a un seul electron ou trou et pourrait permettre d'etendre la plage d'operation du SET en temperature en augmentant l'energie d'addition du diamant central de la valeur du gap. En outre, le silicium beneficie de plus de quarante annees d'expertise en microfabrication et d'une compatibilite avec la technologie metal--oxyde--semi-conducteur complementaire (CMOS). Cependant, la fabrication de ces dispositifs fait face a de serieuses limitations a cause de la taille nanometrique requise pour l'ilot. A ce jour, les procedes de fabrication proposes permettant l'operation a la temperature ambiante sont trop peu reproductibles pour permettre des applications a grande echelle. Dans ce memoire de maitrise, la fabrication de transistors mono-electroniques en silicium (Si-SETs) pour le traitement classique et quantique de l'information est realisee avec un procede nanodamascene. Le polissage chimico-mecanique (CMP) est introduit comme etape clef de la fabrication du transistor, permettant le controle au nanometre pres (nanodamascene) de l'epaisseur du transistor. Cet outil permet la fabrication de dispositifs ayant une geometrie auparavant impossible a realiser et ouvre la porte a l'innovation technologique. De plus, un procede de gravure du silicium par plasma a couplage inductif (ICP) est developpe pour permettre la fabrication de nanostructures de silicium sur une nanotopographie alliant le nano et le 3D. Les Si-SETs fabriques sont caracterises a basse temperature et demontrent du blocage de Coulomb avec une energie de charge de plus de 100 meV, soit quatre fois la temperature ambiante. De plus, le regime a un seul electron et les effets quantiques du confinement dans ce regime sont observes. Pour la premiere fois, le gap complet du silicium et les premiers diamants sont mesures sur un dispositif fabrique avec un procede reproductible et industrialisable. Le diamant central voit son energie d'addition augmentee de la valeur du gap du silicium, pour un total de plus de 1200 meV, soit 46 fois la temperature ambiante. Cette caracteristique pourrait ouvrir la porte a des applications en logique basse puissance dans un mode de transport a plusieurs electrons laissant circuler dix fois plus de courant dans l'etat ouvert, tout en conservant le bas courant dans l'etat ferme d'un SET. Mots clefs : transistor mono-electronique, silicium, operation a temperature ambiante, logique basse puissance, informatique quantique, nanoelectronique, polissage chimico-mecanique, gravure plasma, nanofabrication.

  3. Contribution a l'etude du comportement de dalles de ponts en beton arme de barres en PRF soumises a des charges concentrees simulant les charges de roues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouguerra, Kheireddine

    Au cours des dernieres annees, la deterioration des structures en beton arme a pris une ampleur sans precedent, et ce, malgre le fait que leur duree de vie en service initialement prevue est loin d'etre atteinte. La corrosion de l'armature d'acier est un des principaux facteurs reduisant la duree de vie des ponts en beton arme d'acier. Par ailleurs, l'armature en materiaux composites de polymeres renforces de fibres (PRF) constitue une solution a l'armature metallique afin de pallier au probleme de la corrosion d'acier et a la deterioration des structures en beton arme. Aussi, les barres d'armature en materiaux composites de PRF possedent une resistance en traction elevee (environ 2 a 6 fois la limite elastique de l'acier d'armature conventionnel), ce qui leur permet de constituer un renforcement structural attrayant pour les structures en beton. Le comportement d'elements structuraux en beton arme de barres en PRF est different de ceux en beton arme de barres d'acier. En effet, les barres en PRF possedent un module d'elasticite relativement plus faible que celui de l'acier et ont des proprietes d'adherence differentes de celles des barres d'acier. L'utilisation des barres d'armature en PRF pour armer les dalles de tabliers de ponts se concretise de plus en plus avec l'avancement des recherches dans ce domaine. La recherche entamee dans le cadre de cette these s'inscrit dans un programme de travaux realises au sein de la Chaire de recherche CRSNG/Industrie sur les Materiaux composites novateurs en PRF pour les infrastructures au departement de genie civil a l'Universite de Sherbrooke. Le comportement de membrures en beton arme de PRF soumis a des sollicitations mecaniques constitue un des principaux axes de recherche. Dans le cadre de cette these, une serie d'essais a ete effectuee sur huit dalles de ponts a confinement interne a grande echelle. Les parametres des essais comprennent: (1) l'epaisseur de la dalle, (2) le type et le taux d'armature transversale de l'assemblage inferieur, (3) la resistance en compression du beton, et (4) le taux d'armature dans les autres directions (armatures transversale et longitudinale de l'assemblage superieur et l'armature longitudinale de l'assemblage inferieur). Lors des essais de chargement, les dalles ont ete supportees par deux poutrelles metalliques espacees de 2000 mm centre a centre et soumises a une charge statique concentree sur une aire de contact de 600 mm x 250 mm afin de simuler une charge de camion (87,5 kN--CL-625) et ce conformement au code Canadien sur le calcul des ponts routiers [CAN/CSA-S6-06]. Aussi, une analyse numerique du comportement des dalles testees sous charges est faite a l'aide d'un logiciel d'elements finis ADINA version 8.2. Les essais ont montre que toutes les dalles testees ont rompu par poinconnement, peu importe le parametre etudie. Aussi, une epaisseur de dalle de 175 mm repond aux exigences du Canadien sur le calcul des ponts routiers [CAN/CSA-S6-06]. Par ailleurs, les resultats ont montre que la resistance en compression du beton est un parametre qui influe sur la deflexion, les deformations dans les barres et l'ouverture de fissures. Enfin, les resultats des analyses numeriques effectuees corroborent avec ceux obtenus experimentalement. Mots cles. Dalle de ponts en beton, armature de PRF, charges statiques, flexion, deformations, poinconnement, elements finis.

  4. Synthese, etude structurale et electrochimique des materiaux d'electrode positive d'oxydes mixtes lithium cobalt nickel oxide (0 /= 1) pour les batteries rechargeables au lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grincourt, Yves

    Depuis une dizaine d'annees, on observe un interet grandissant pour les batteries rechargeables au lithium de tension superieure a 4 volts. La commercialisation de ces batteries pour l'electronique grand marche tend de plus en plus a supplanter celle des accumulateurs Ni-Cd et Ni-MH, de tension nominate 1,2 V. Ces batteries au lithium font appel a des materiaux d'electrode positive (cathode a la decharge) du type oxydes mixtes de metaux de transition LiMnO 2, LiMn2O4, LiNiO2 ou LiCoO2. Si le compose LiCoO2 est relativement aise a synthetiser, il n'en demeure pas moins que le cobalt reste un metal plus couteux compare au nickel et au manganese. La synthese de LiNiO2, quart a elle, demeure un probleme du point de vue stoechiometrique. Un defaut de lithium (5 a 10% molaire) conduira a des proprietes electrochimiques mediocres de la batterie. Dans cette etude nous nous proposons donc de preparer par voie humide et par voie seche les materiaux d'electrode positive de la famille LiCoyNi1-yO2 aver (0 ≤ y ≤ 1) et d'etudier en detail l'influence du pourcentage de nickel et de cobalt sur les proprietes electrochimiques des oxydes mixtes Li-Ni-Co. Une des caracteristiques est la morphologie plus fine des poudres de materiaux, observes par microscopie electronique a balayage (MEB). Un traitement thermique a plus basse temperature (750°C) que pour LiCoO2 (850°C) ainsi qu'un leger exces de lithium dans la preparation, ont permis d'aboutir a un materiau de stoechiometrie quasi parfaite. Neanmoins, le role de pilfer joue par 2 a 4% de moles de Ni2+ presents sur les sites lithium, permet de conserver intacte la structure hexagonale de la maille entre deux cycles consecutifs. Afin de mieux comprendre l'influence du vieillissement dune demi-pile Li/LiMeO2 (Me = Ni, Co) a temperature ambiante, des etudes electrochimiques et d'impedance spectroscopique ont ete menees en parallele. Le vieillissement de la cellule s'accompagne seulement dune chute de son potentiel due a son auto-decharge. Neanmoins, il est encore possible de la relancer en cyclage par la suite. Une baisse de la valeur de la resistance totale interfaciale et des frequences au sonnet semble indiquer une modification chimique et/ou structurale des films de passivations, pent-etre due a une transformation de ces films lors du cyclage ou a leur degradation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  5. Connaissances, attitudes et pratiques de la population de l'aire de santé SAMBWA en rapport avec le traitement de l'onchocercose à l'ivermectine sous directives communautaires

    PubMed Central

    Philippe, Cilundika Mulenga; Bienvenu, Yogolelo Asani; Francoise, Malonga Kaj; Eric, Mukomena Sompwe; Abdon, Mukalay wa Mukalay; Luboya, Oscar Numbi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'onchocercose constitue un problème majeur de santé publique et l'on a noté environ 13 millions de personnes affectées et 26 millions exposées au cours de l'année 2012 en RDC. L'objectif de notre étude est fournir les données sur le niveau de connaissance, d'attitudes et des pratiques de la communauté huit ans après le lancement de la distribution de l'ivermectine sous directives communautaires. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive transversale dans la communauté de l'aire de santé SAMBWA de la zone de santé de KAFUBU. La population cible de l’étude est toute personne de la communauté âgée de 15 à 65 ans. Les paramètres étudiés sont: âge, niveau d'instruction, connaissance de la maladie en langue locale et des signes, attitudes devant les personnes atteintes, perception de la maladie, utilisation des pratiques traditionnelles, association entre le niveau d'instruction et la connaissance de savoir si l'on peut suivre un traitement. Résultats La moyenne d’âge des répondants était de 38±14 ans et 67,54% des enquêtés étaient de niveau primaire. L’étude a montré que 99,53% des répondants connaissaient le terme onchocercose en langue locale (UBUMFUKU) et un niveau moyen de connaissance en ce qui concerne les lésions de la peau (66,9%) était noté. 1,9% des répondants craignaient les personnes atteintes et 42,2% des répondants percevaient l'onchocercose comme une maladie. Une proportion de 55% qui prenaient les plantes comme médicament. Il y avait association significative entre le niveau d'instruction et la connaissance de suivre un traitement contre l'onchocercose (p: 0,008). Conclusion Ces résultats interpellent en ce qui concerne la sensibilisation de la communauté sur l'onchocercose. Les stratégies de lutte contre l'onchocercose devraient prendre en compte ces différentes insuffisances de la communauté pour améliorer le traitement des masses par l'ivermectine tant au niveau du ménage que des coordinations de programme de lutte. PMID:25932069

  6. Présentation de l’adaptation française de « l’échelle de coparentage » de McHale pour familles avec jeunes enfants

    PubMed Central

    Frascarolo, F.; Dimitrova, N.; Zimmermann, G.; Favez, N.; Kuersten-Hogan, R.; Baker, J.; McHale, J.

    2009-01-01

    Le but de cet article est de présenter l’autoquestionnaire américain de McHale permettant l’évaluation de la qualité du coparentage ainsi qu’un premier pas en direction de sa validation structurelle et de construit en langue française. Quarante et une familles suisses francophones et 84 familles nord-américaines ont rempli ce questionnaire ainsi qu’un autre portant sur leur satisfaction conjugale (Dyadic Adjustment Scale [DAS]). Les résultats des familles suisses correspondent aux résultats américains : d’une part, la distribution des items en quatre facteurs (intégrité familiale, conflit, affection et dénigrement) est retrouvée et, d’autre part, un lien relatif entre la qualité du coparentage et celle des relations conjugales est observé. Ce deuxième résultat confirme la validité de construit du questionnaire, vu le lien reconnu entre ces deux sous-systèmes. Étant donné l’influence de la qualité du coparentage sur le développement socio-affectif de l’enfant, disposer d’un outil permettant son évaluation, dans ses aspects tant positifs (soutien, chaleur, etc.) que négatifs (dénigrement, conflit, etc.), est un atout important aussi bien en recherche qu’en clinique. PMID:19655028

  7. A Guide to Axial-Flow Turbine Off-Design Computer Program AXOD2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Shu-Cheng S.

    2014-01-01

    A Users Guide for the axial flow turbine off-design computer program AXOD2 is composed in this paper. This Users Guide is supplementary to the original Users Manual of AXOD. Three notable contributions of AXOD2 to its predecessor AXOD, both in the context of the Guide or in the functionality of the code, are described and discussed in length. These are: 1) a rational representation of the mathematical principles applied, with concise descriptions of the formulas implemented in the actual coding. Their physical implications are addressed; 2) the creation and documentation of an Addendum Listing of input namelist-parameters unique to AXOD2, that differ from or are in addition to the original input-namelists given in the Manual of AXOD. Their usages are discussed; and 3) the institution of proper stoppages of the code execution, encoding termination messaging and error messages of the execution to AXOD2. These measures are to safe-guard the integrity of the code execution, such that a failure mode encountered during a case-study would not plunge the code execution into indefinite loop, or cause a blow-out of the program execution. Details on these are discussed and illustrated in this paper. Moreover, this computer program has since been reconstructed substantially. Standard FORTRAN Langue was instituted, and the code was formatted in Double Precision (REAL*8). As the result, the code is now suited for use in a local Desktop Computer Environment, is perfectly portable to any Operating System, and can be executed by any FORTRAN compiler equivalent to a FORTRAN 9095 compiler. AXOD2 will be available through NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Software Repository.

  8. PageRank analysis reveals topologically expressed genes correspond to psoriasis and their functions are associated with apoptosis resistance.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xue; Zhao, Jingjing; Wu, Xiaohong; Shi, Hongbo; Liu, Wali; Cui, Bingnan; Yang, Li; Ding, Xu; Song, Ping

    2016-05-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease. Deceleration in keratinocyte apoptosis is the most significant pathological change observed in psoriasis. To detect a meaningful correlation between the genes and gene functions associated with the mechanism underlying psoriasis, 927 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the Gene Expression Omnibus database, GSE13355 [false discovery rate (FDR) <0.01; |log fold change >1] with the package in R langue. The selected DEGs were further constructed using the search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes, in order to analyze the interaction network between the DEGs. Subsequent to PageRank analysis, 14 topological hub genes were identified, and the functions and pathways in the hub genes network were analyzed. The top‑ranked hub gene, estrogen receptor‑1 (ESR1) is downregulated in psoriasis, exhibited binding sites enriched with genes possessing anti‑apoptotic functions. The ESR1 gene encodes estrogen receptor α (ERα); a reduced level of ERα expression provides a crucial foundation in response to the anti‑apoptotic activity of psoriatic keratinocytes by activating the expression of anti‑apoptotic genes. Furthermore, it was detected that the pathway that is associated most significantly with psoriasis is the pathways in cancer. Pathways in cancer may protect psoriatic cells from apoptosis by inhibition of ESR1 expression. The present study provides support towards the investigation of ESR1 gene function and elucidates that the interaction with anti‑apoptotic genes is involved in the underlying biological mechanisms of resistance to apoptosis in psoriasis. However, further investigation is required to confirm the present results. PMID:27035208

  9. A French multicenter study of over 700 patients with 22q11 deletions diagnosed using FISH or aCGH.

    PubMed

    Poirsier, Céline; Besseau-Ayasse, Justine; Schluth-Bolard, Caroline; Toutain, Jérôme; Missirian, Chantal; Le Caignec, Cédric; Bazin, Anne; de Blois, Marie Christine; Kuentz, Paul; Catty, Marie; Choiset, Agnès; Plessis, Ghislaine; Basinko, Audrey; Letard, Pascaline; Flori, Elisabeth; Jimenez, Mélanie; Valduga, Mylène; Landais, Emilie; Lallaoui, Hakima; Cartault, François; Lespinasse, James; Martin-Coignard, Dominique; Callier, Patrick; Pebrel-Richard, Céline; Portnoi, Marie-France; Busa, Tiffany; Receveur, Aline; Amblard, Florence; Yardin, Catherine; Harbuz, Radu; Prieur, Fabienne; Le Meur, Nathalie; Pipiras, Eva; Kleinfinger, Pascale; Vialard, François; Doco-Fenzy, Martine

    2016-06-01

    Although 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most recurrent human microdeletion syndrome associated with a highly variable phenotype, little is known about the condition's true incidence and the phenotype at diagnosis. We performed a multicenter, retrospective analysis of postnatally diagnosed patients recruited by members of the Association des Cytogénéticiens de Langue Française (the French-Speaking Cytogeneticists Association). Clinical and cytogenetic data on 749 cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2013 were collected by 31 French cytogenetics laboratories. The most frequent reasons for referral of postnatally diagnosed cases were a congenital heart defect (CHD, 48.6%), facial dysmorphism (49.7%) and developmental delay (40.7%). Since 2007 (the year in which array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was introduced for the routine screening of patients with intellectual disability), almost all cases have been diagnosed using FISH (96.1%). Only 15 cases (all with an atypical phenotype) were diagnosed with aCGH; the deletion size ranged from 745 to 2904 kb. The deletion was inherited in 15.0% of cases and was of maternal origin in 85.5% of the latter. This is the largest yet documented cohort of patients with 22q11.2DS (the most commonly diagnosed microdeletion) from the same population. French cytogenetics laboratories diagnosed at least 108 affected patients (including fetuses) per year from among a national population of ∼66 million. As observed for prenatal diagnoses, CHDs were the most frequently detected malformation in postnatal diagnoses. The most common CHD in postnatal diagnoses was an isolated septal defect. PMID:26508576

  10. We-Language and Sustained Reductions in Drinking in Couple-Based Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Kevin A; McCrady, Barbara S

    2016-03-01

    Couple-based treatments for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) produce higher rates of abstinence than individual-based treatments and posit that active involvement of both identified patients (IPs) and significant others (SOs) is partly responsible for these improvements. Separate research on couples' communication has suggested that pronoun usage can indicate a communal approach to coping with health-related problems. The present study tested whether communal coping, indicated by use of more first-person plural pronouns ("we" language), fewer second-person pronouns ("you" language), and fewer first-person singular pronouns ("I" language), predicted improvements in abstinence in couple-based AUD treatment. Pronoun use was measured in first- and mid-treatment sessions for 188 heterosexual couples in four clinical trials of alcohol behavioral couple therapy (ABCT). Percentages of days abstinent were assessed during treatment and over a 6-month follow-up period. Greater IP and SO "we" language during both sessions was correlated with greater improvement in abstinent days during treatment. Greater SO "we" language during first- and mid-treatment sessions was correlated with greater improvement in abstinence at follow-up. Greater use of IP and SO "you" and "I" language had mixed correlations with abstinence, typically being unrelated to or predicting less improvement in abstinence. When all pronoun variables were entered into regression models, only greater IP "we" langue and lower IP "you" language predicted improvements in abstinence during treatment, and only SO "we" language predicted improvements during follow-up. Most pronoun categories had little or no association with baseline relationship distress. Results suggest that communal coping predicts better abstinence outcomes in couple-based AUD treatment. PMID:25809790

  11. From Teacher-at-Sea to Authentic Science in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, M. A.; Laj, C.

    2007-12-01

    Research has shown that most teachers will teach the way they have been taught, unless a sustainable intervention has taken place. This has the greatest implications for teachers of science, where those who have been taught with inquiry approaches will employ inquiry approaches in their classrooms, and those who have been taught with lecture and note taking will teach primarily using lectures and note taking. If our children are to learn about the nature of science, they need to be taught using constructivist and inquiry methods. A teacher who only uses textbooks and lectures will not create students who can employ critical thinking skills indicative of the nature of science. There is a way to change the way our teachers teach science, and that is by exposing teachers to authentic inquiry. The Teacher at Sea Program sponsored by Institut Polaire Francais (IPEV) created such an opportunity for 4 teachers, who participated in the PACHIDERME deep sea sediment cruise on the R/V Marion Dufresne off the coast of Chile for 3 weeks in February, 2007. While onboard the teachers assisted research scientists from France, Germany, Norway, and Chile in their quest to gather and analyze sediment cores for clues to past climates. The teachers were immersed in the research projects right from the start. They all participated in a "watch" and assisted those on the watch with the processing of the cores, which included properly labeling and packaging each of the core segments. Prior to the packaging, preliminary analysis was done to identify the physical and biological attributes of the core. The scientists gave of their time to coach the teachers not only on the techniques they were using, but also on the process of science. Whether it's working on an unstable platform, coring into the unknown, or adjusting to the weather that Mother Nature brings, the nature and process of science out at sea is complicated. The teachers came to realize this as they sailed in and out of the fjord region and into the open ocean off the coast of Chile, and shared these experiences with colleagues and students from around the world. They sent daily logs via email, sent pictures, and answered questions sent by teachers and students from Europe, the United States, and Chile. Students kept journals as they followed the daily events of the teachers at sea. A powerpoint presentation documenting the scientific endeavors of the cruise was created and is being used by many teachers as a tool to show how scientific research is done at sea. Was this cruise effective in changing the teaching styles of those teachers on board? The teachers observed how scientists generate questions, propose study plans, and employ creative methods to answer those questions. Having witnessed the nature and process first hand, these teachers reassessed their teaching styles for scientific validity. They are employing a greater number of open/full inquiry projects where the students are constructing and seeking to answer their own questions. These students will leave their classes knowing about the challenges of doing science, and the excitement in doing science. Whether it's out at sea, in the field, or in a lab, the participation of teachers in authentic inquiry is the best way to ensure our students are participating in authentic inquiry.

  12. On occasion of 800th anniversary of birth of Ibn al-Nafis--discoverer of cardiac and pulmonary circulation.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2010-01-01

    With Ibn Sina great Canon came the "golden age of Arabic medicine", almost to its peak. Since the beginning of XI century, when Ibn Sina died, until the middle of XIII century, when creative was Ibn al-Nafis, medical science continues to develop and progress, and had its brilliant minds. For that time characteristic is the fact that neither the strong authority as Avicenna was could paralyze the progress of medical science. Three hundred years before Paracelsus, in Cairo appears a medical scientist who dares to touch the authority of Ibn Sina-Avicenna in the infallibility of Canon-"Medical Bible". The scholar was called Alauddin Ibn al-Nafis (1210-1288). He, 250 years ago Servet, (Michael Servetus, XVI century) reveals the truly describes the small or pulmonary circulation, but also gives a description of the great forerunner of the bloodstream. In his separate work on the anatomy, Ibn al-Nafis in five places contested arguments of Galen's teachings, which also Ibn Sina was accepted. He very persuasively argues that the blood does not oxidize ("does not mix with air "), passing through some hypothetical pores in the partition between the right half of the heart, in which blood is collected and left half, in which, supposedly is the air, but that this happen when the blood is going from the right ventricle through the pulmonary artery into the lungs, where it is mixed with air and thus "converted" murmurs through the pulmonary vein into the left half of the heart. On occasion of the 800th anniversary of Ibn al-Nafis birth, one of the largest Arab and world doctors of all times we publish this article so that readers get something closer image his creative work, especially the one which relates to his contribution to the discovery of cardiac and pulmonary circulation, revolutionary discoveries in the world of medicine. In the year 1924 a heated debate started regarding the discovery of the pulmonary circulation. This discovery was attributed only to European scholars. It stemmed back to the sixteenth century. When Michael Servetus (1511-1553), Anderea Vesalius (?1514-1654), Nicolai Massa (1485-1569), Realdo Colombo (1520-1654), Valverde De Hamusco (1508-1565), Andera Cesalpino (1519-1603), Fabrici d'Aquapendent (1533-1619) and William Harvey (1578-1657) developed the concept. However, Muhyi-d-din At-Tatawi (1896-1945) presented his thesis "Der Lungenkreislauf nach El-Korachi. Dissert, z.eil. d. Doktorwrde, Freiburg im Brisgau 1924" of the blood circulation according to al Qurashi relaying on his discovery of his description of pulmonary circulation in one of ancient manuscripts, He proposed that the real credit for the discovery of the pulmonary circulation belongs this eminent physician of the thirteenth century: Ibn al-Nafis. Later another doctor Abdul Kareem Chihade (1922- ) presented another dissertation in Paris 1951 entitled" decouverte de la circulatio pulmonaire chez Ibn an-Nafis". Published by Institut Francais De Damas 1955. Other prominent professors like: Paul Galiounji and Salman Qatayyah researched extensively in his manuscripts and produced very important monographs. The general consensus is that Ibn al-Nafis' work exerted great influence on the development of medical science, both in the Islamic world and Europe. A closer look on Ibn al-Nafis contribution would indicate that he also described the coronary circulation, the cranial nerves the gall bladder anatomy and many new aspect of ophthalmology. He advocated as well therapy through nutrition. His work integrated the medical knowledge with great clarity and emphasized precision. PMID:21287961

  13. Contribution a la comprehension de la durabilite a l'ecaillage des betons contenant de la cendre volante et du laitier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houehanou, Ernesto C.

    L'incorporation des ajouts cimentaires dans le beton est connue pour ses avantages technologiques et environnementaux. Pour assurer une plus grande utilisation des ajouts cimentaires, il faut accroitre la connaissance dans ce domaine surtout les facteurs relatifs a la durabilite des ouvrages construits avec les betons contenant des ajouts mineraux. Jusqu'a present, la plupart des etudes sur les betons contenant de la cendre volante et du laitier semble s'accorder sur leur moins bonne durabilite a l'ecaillage surtout lorsqu'on les compare au beton ordinaire. Les raisons de cette moins bonne performance ne sont pas toutes connues et cela limite bien des fois l'incorporation de la cendre volante et de laitier dans le beton pour des ouvrages fortement exposes aux cycles de gel-degel en presence de sels fondants. Cette these vise la comprehension des problematiques de la durabilite a l'ecaillage des betons contenant des ajouts cimentaires tels la cendre volante et le laitier. Les objectifs sont de mieux comprendre la representativite et la severite relative des essais normalises ASTM C672 et NQ 2621-900 pour l'evaluation de la durabilite a l'ecaillage de ces betons, d'etudier l'influence de la methode de murissement sur la durabilite a l'ecaillage et d'etudier la relation entre la durabilite a l'ecaillage et la sorptivite des surfaces de beton ainsi que la particularite de la microstructure des betons contenant de la cendre volante. Cinq types de betons a air entraine contenant 25% et 35% de cendre volante et laitier ainsi que 1% et 2% de fumee de silice ont ete produits, muris selon differentes methodes et soumis a des essais acceleres selon les deux procedures normalisees ainsi qu'un essai de sorptivite. Les differentes methodes de murissement sont choisies de facon a mettre en evidence aussi bien l'influence des parametres des essais que celle de la methode de murissement elle-meme. La durabilite en laboratoire des betons testes a ete comparee avec celle de betons similaires apres 4 et 6 annees de service. La microstructure des betons en service a ete analysee au moyen du microscope a balayage electronique (MEB). Les resultats montrent que la qualite du murissement influence grandement la durabilite a l'ecaillage des betons contenant de la cendre volante et de laitier surtout lorsqu'ils sont soumis ' aux essais acceleres en laboratoire. La duree du pretraitement humide est un parametre cle de la durabilite a l'ecaillage des betons testes en laboratoire. Le pretraitement humide correspond a la duree totale du murissement humide (100% HR) et de la periode de presaturation. Pour les deux methodes d'essai, l'allongement du pretraitement humide a 28 jours ameliore la resistance a l'ecaillage de tous les types de betons et en particulier celle des betons avec cendres volantes. Pour les deux methodes d'essai, l'allongement du pretraitement humide a 28 jours ameliore la resistance a l'ecaillage de tous les types de betons et en particulier celle des betons avec cendres volantes. La periode de presaturation de 7 jours de la procedure NQ 2621-900 a un effet similaire a celui d'un murissement humide de meme longueur. Un murissement humide de 28 jours apparait optimal et conduit a une estimation plus realiste de la resistance a l'ecaillage reelle des betons. Pour une meme duree de pretraitement humide, les procedures NQ 2621-900 et ASTM C672 donnent des resultats equivalents. L'utilisation d'un moule a fond drainant n'a pas d'effet sur la resistance a l'ecaillage des betons de cette etude. Bien que le murissement dans l'eau saturee de chaux offre toute l'eau requise pour favoriser le developpement des proprietes du beton et l'amelioration de sa durabilite a l'ecaillage, elle lessive cependant les ions alcalins ce qui diminue defavorablement l'alcalinite et le pH de la solution interstitielle de la pate de ciment pres de la surface exposee. L'utilisation d'un agent de murissement protege mieux les betons contenant de la cendre volante et ameliore significativement leurs resistances a l'ecaillage mais elle a tendance a reduire la durabilite a l'ecaillage des betons contenant de laitier. Pour developper une bonne resistance a l'ecaillage, il est essentiel de produire une surface de beton impermeable qui resiste a la penetration de l'eau externe. La permeabilite et la porosite de la peau du beton sont etroitement liees a la sorptivite. L' allongement de la duree de murissement humide des betons avec ajouts cimentaires diminue systematiquement la sorptivite et ameliore leur durabilite a l'ecaillage, particulierement dans le cas des betons avec cendres volantes. Les resultats montrent qu'il existe une bonne correlation entre les resultats des essais d'ecaillage et les mesures de sorptivite. La correlation etablie entre la sorptivite et la durabilite a l'ecaillage des betons, l'effet • determinant de la carbonatation sur la durabilite a l'ecaillage des betons avec cendres volantes ainsi que l'explication de l'origine de la difference de severite entre les essais ASTM C-672 et NQ 2621-900 sont les contributions scientifiques de cette these. Au plan technique et industriel, elle met en evidence le mode de murissement qui favorise une meilleure durabilite a l'ecaillage des betons et suggere une methode de caracterisation en laboratoire qui ferait une meilleure prediction du comportement en service. Mots cles : Beton, cendre volante, laitier, durabilite, ecaillage, murissement, sorptivite

  14. Les reseaux de politique publique comme facteur d'influence du choix des instruments de politique energetique canadienne a des fins environnementales de 1993 a nos jours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy El Dessouky, Naglaa

    Au cours de la derniere decennie, les modes de la gouvernance ont pris place dans un contexte totalement different de celui qu'ils avaient auparavant. Les gouvernements modernes se rendent compte qu'ils perdent de plus en plus leur capacite a elaborer et a gerer les changements d'une maniere autonome. Ainsi, les fonctions et les activites traditionnellement accomplies exclusivement par le gouvernement engagent de nos jours une gamme d'acteurs etatiques et non etatiques. A l'encontre du concept traditionnel de l'Etat controleur, la gouvernance contemporaine est ainsi devenue moins une question d'offre de service et davantage une gestion indirecte des reseaux de politique publique. Dans cette entreprise, les gouvernements contemporains, cherchant plus d'information, de soutien et de legitimite en matiere de formulation des decisions, ont besoin d'etablir des relations avec les divers groupes d'interet qui, a leur tour, voulaient plus de promotion et de protection en faveur de leurs interets a travers leur implication au processus de l'elaboration et de la mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques. Ainsi, l'approche des reseaux de politique publique represente aujourd'hui un courant considerable au sein du champ d'analyse des politiques publiques. Toutefois, les preoccupations des chercheurs pour cette approche, dans le domaine des politiques energetiques a des fins environnementales, semblent recentes, et les etudes realisees sont encore trop peu nombreuses. Au Canada, au debut des annees 1990, le gouvernement ainsi que plusieurs groupes d'interets, des differents secteurs energetique, industriel et environnemental, ont commence a intensifier leurs efforts pour s'attaquer au probleme du changement climatique d'origine energetique, genere surtout par le secteur de l'industrie. Au cours de la derniere decennie, la question touchant plutot le sujet du developpement energetique durable represente le plus important domaine des politiques publiques ayant surgi recemment dans l'agenda politique du pays. Notre projet de recherche, par le truchement de l'approche des reseaux de politique publique, s'attarde a decrire et a expliquer le processus de la formulation d'une politique particuliere, soit la politique energetique a des fins de protection de l'environnement, elaboree en 1993. Il s'agit de mettre en evidence les facteurs affectant le choix des instruments de ces politiques publiques dans leur contexte national. Ainsi, la question generale de cette recherche est: Comment les phases evolutives de la formation d'un reseau de politique, en l'occurrence le Conseil canadien de l'energie (CCE), menent a des caracteristiques particulieres a ce reseau; et comment celles-ci determinent-elles les types des instruments de politique publique choisis, particulierement ceux de la recente orientation des politiques energetiques canadiennes a des fins environnementales elaborees en 1993? Afin d'atteindre l'objectif de notre recherche, deux facteurs primordiaux sont utilises, soit la circulation de l'information et l'exercice du controle sur les ressources des acteurs. L'analyse des caracteristiques du reseau en fonction des liens forts et des liens faibles autant que la presence ou l'absence des trous structuraux nous permettent de bien identifier les positions des differents acteurs, etatiques et non etatiques, sur le plan de l'information et du controle, qui a leur tour, nous semble-t-il, constituent des facteurs affectant les types des instruments des politiques publiques choisis: instruments substantifs, qui indiquent le degre de l'intervention du gouvernement, et instruments proceduraux, qui mettent plutot l'accent sur le degre de l'influence du gouvernement sur les acteurs non etatiques. L'etude soutient que l'approche des reseaux se distingue notamment par son potentiel a expliquer l'interrelation relative entre idees, interets et institutions, ce qui a son tour est susceptible de permettre une meilleure comprehension des processus de l'elaboration des politiques energetiques et environnementales canadiennes. Qui plus est, le fait de recourir a ce cadre d'analyse permet d'approcher autrement le sujet etudie en essayant de comprendre et d'expliquer non seulement les interactions entre les differents acteurs cibles, mais aussi le dynamisme et l'evolution de ces relations dans leur duree, comme etant des determinants primordiaux en matiere de selection des instruments des politiques.

  15. Le transfert de connaissances entre les mathematiques et les sciences. Une etude exploratoire aupres d'eleves de 4e secondaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, Ghislain

    2003-06-01

    Au moment ou dans plusieurs pays on travaille a refondre les programmes d'etudes, tant au primaire qu'au secondaire, l'interet pour le transfert renait. Un des concepts fondamentaux en apprentissage consiste en l'habilete a reutiliser de facon consciente et efficace un acquis d'une situation a une autre situation. Cette recherche emane de preoccupations professionnelles au moment ou le chercheur etait enseignant au secondaire. Au cours de ces annees, il lui a ete possible de constater que plusieurs eleves percevaient difficilement les liens presents entre les disciplines mathematiques et scientifiques. Des travaux en psychologie cognitive et plus particulierement selon une perspective du traitement de l'information ont servi de cadre de reference pour evaluer et analyser les capacites de transfert aupres d'eleves de 4e secondaire. Ce cadre de reference permet de formuler le principal objectif qui est de mieux comprendre le processus de transfert chez des eleves en situation de resolution de problemes scientifiques. Cette these s'interesse donc au transfert en tant que phenomene important du processus d'apprentissage au sens de l'integration. La methode de recherche choisie, de nature qualitative, est principalement axee sur l'evaluation de la capacite a transferer des connaissances lors d'une epreuve et d'un entretien. Pour evaluer ce potentiel de transfert, nous avons elabore deux outils: une epreuve en mathematiques et en sciences et un guide d'entretien. Pour la passation de l'epreuve, le chercheur a pu compter sur la collaboration de 130 sujets provenant de deux ecoles. L'entretien complete la prise de donnees avec 13 sujets ayant accepte de poursuivre l'etude. Les donnees recueillies par ces instruments font ensuite l'objet d'une analyse de contenu. En premier lieu, les verbatims de l'epreuve et de l'entretien ont ete transcrits, puis codifies. La correction des reponses fournies pour les problemes resolus s'est faite a partir d'une grille d'analyse qualitative et adaptee de la litterature (Thouin, 1995). Une seconde serie d'analyses permettant de categoriser les reponses selon la typologie des connaissances declaratives, procedurales et conditionnelles complete la prise de donnees. Nos resultats indiquent que les sujets sont tres influences par des elements de surface, principalement lorsqu'il s'agit de problemes auxquels ils ne sont pas habitues. En l'absence de connaissances de base, plusieurs sujets vont tendre vers des propositions de solution "pratico-pratique" provenant de leur vecu: cela nous apparait d'importance d'un point de vue didactique et en matiere de transfert. Lors des entretiens realises un mois plus tard, les sujets ont eprouve de la difficulte a se rappeler le contenu de l'epreuve. Et lorsqu'il y avait un rappel, celui-ci etait superficiel et surtout axe sur le contenu ou le contexte d'un probleme. La plupart des sujets ne pouvait nommer que deux ou trois elements (des problemes en mathematiques, en sciences physiques, le probleme de la fenetre, le probleme du laser, etc.). Nos resultats confirment ce que plusieurs chercheurs (Julo, 1995, Jonnaert et Vander Borght, 1999; Richard et al., 1990) qui s'interessent aux questions de l'apprentissage admettent aujourd'hui: l'eleve ne travaille jamais sur la situation proposee par l'enseignant, mais bien sur la representation qu'il s'en est construite. Au plan methodologique, cette recherche est interessante par la variete des sources de collecte de donnees utilisees, par l'application d'outils methodologiques et d'analyses originaux tires de la recherche et de la pratique. Du cote theorique, il resulte de cette etude une meilleure comprehension du processus de transfert des connaissances mathematiques vers les sciences physiques. Finalement, aux plans didactique et pedagogique, cette recherche alimente la reflexion sur l'apprentissage et l'enseignement des sciences au secondaire. Elle fait ressortir que les mathematiques sont importantes dans la mobilisation de certaines connaissances scientifiques et que l'enseignant peut et devrait jouer un role pour favoriser le transfert.

  16. Une alternative au cobalt pour la synthese de nanotubes de carbone monoparoi par plasma inductif thermique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrier, Jean-Francois

    Les nanotubes de carbone de type monoparoi (C-SWNT) sont une classe recente de nanomateriaux qui ont fait leur apparition en 1991. L'interet qu'on leur accorde provient des nombreuses proprietes d'avant-plan qu'ils possedent. Leur resistance mecanique serait des plus rigide, tout comme ils peuvent conduire l'electricite et la chaleur d'une maniere inegalee. Non moins, les C-SWNT promettent de devenir une nouvelle classe de plateforme moleculaire, en servant de site d'attache pour des groupements reactifs. Les promesses de ce type particulier de nanomateriau sont nombreuses, la question aujourd'hui est de comment les realiser. La technologie de synthese par plasma inductif thermique se situe avantageusement pour la qualite de ses produits, sa productivite et les faibles couts d'operation. Par contre, des recherches recentes ont permis de mettre en lumiere des risques d'expositions reliees a l'utilisation du cobalt, comme catalyseur de synthese; son elimination ou bien son remplacement est devenu une preoccupation importante. Quatre recettes alternatives ont ete mises a l'essai afin de trouver une alternative plus securitaire a la recette de base; un melange catalytique ternaire, compose de nickel, de cobalt et d'oxyde d'yttrium. La premiere consiste essentiellement a remplacer la proportion massique de cobalt par du nickel, qui etait deja present dans la recette de base. Les trois options suivantes contiennent de nouveaux catalyseurs, en remplacement au Co, qui sont apparus dans plusieurs recherches scientifiques au courant des dernieres annees: le dioxyde de zircone (ZrO2), dioxyde de manganese (MnO2) et le molybdene (Mo). La methode utilisee consiste a vaporiser la matiere premiere, sous forme solide, dans un reacteur plasma a haute frequence (3 MHz) a paroi refroidi. Apres le passage dans le plasma, le systeme traverse une section dite de "croissance", isolee thermiquement a l'aide de graphite, afin de maintenir une certaine plage de temperature favorable a la synthese de C-SWNT. Le produit final est par la suite recolte sur des filtres metalliques poreux, une fois le systeme mis a l'arret. Dans un premier temps, une analyse thermodynamique, calculee avec le logiciel Fact-Sage, a permis de mettre en lumiere l'etat des differentes produits et reactifs, tout au long de leur passage dans le systeme. Elle a permis de reveler la similitude de composition de la phase liquide du melange catalytique ternaire de base, avec celui du melange binaire, avec nickel et oxyde d'yttrium. Par la suite, une analyse du bilan d'energie, a l'aide d'un systeme d'acquisition de donnees, a permis de determiner que les conditions operatoires des cinq echantillons mis a l'essai etaient similaires. Au total, le produit final a ete caracterise a l'aide de six methodes de caracterisations differentes : l'analyse thermogravimetrique, la diffraction de rayons X, la microscopie electronique a balayage a haute resolution (HRSEM), la microscopie electronique a transmission (MET), la spectroscopie RAMAN, ainsi que la mesure de la surface specifique (BET). Les resultats de ces analyses ont permis de constater, de facon coherente, que le melange a base de molybdene etait celui qui produisait la moins bonne qualite de produit. Ensuite, en ordre croissant, s'en suivait du melange a base de MnO2 et de ZrO2. Le melange de reference, a base de cobalt, est au deuxieme rang en matiere de qualite. La palme revient au melange binaire, dont la proportion est double en nickel. Les resultats de ce travail de recherche permettent d'affirmer qu'il existe une alternative performante au cobalt pour effectuer la synthese de nanotubes de carbone monoparoi, par plasma inductif thermique. Cette alternative est l'utilisation d'un melange catalytique binaire a base de nickel et d'oxyde d'yttrium. Il est suggere que les performances plus faibles des recettes alternatives, moins performantes, pourraient etre expliquees par le profil thermique fixe du reacteur. Ceci pourrait favoriser certains melanges, au detriment des autres, qui possedent des proprietes thermodynamiques differentes. Le montage, l'equipement, ainsi que les parametres d'operations, pourraient etre modifies en fonction de ces catalyseurs afin d'optimiser la synthese. Mots cles : nanotubes de carbone mono paroi, plasma inductif thermique, cobalt, nickel, dioxyde de zirconium, dioxyde de manganese, molybdene, trioxyde d'yttrium et noir de carbone

  17. Une version québécoise du Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2)—Outil d'évaluation des commotions cérébrales dans le sport 2 : Québec (SCAT2-Qc)

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Jami; Boyer-Rémillard, Marie-Eve; Pilon-Piquette, Michael; McKinley, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Objectif : traduire le Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2) dans la langue française parlée au Québec et en vérifier l'acceptabilité pour la population québécoise francophone. Méthodologie : le processus de traduction de la version originale du SCAT2 a fait appel à une variante de la méthode de traduction et d'adaptation d'outils proposée par l'Organisation mondiale de la santé. Une traduction parallèle a d'abord été réalisée. Ensuite, un comité a révisé cette traduction parallèle dans le but de produire une version préliminaire du SCAT2-Qc. Puis, on a procédé à une rétrotraduction parallèle, que l'on a comparée à la version originale. La version préliminaire a été modifiée. Pour parvenir à la version finale, on a intégré les suggestions et les commentaires formulés par deux sujets sains lors de l'essai de l'outil, et lors de la comparaison du SCAT2-Qc à la version française existante par trois réviseurs du domaine de la santé. On a ensuite testé la version finale du SCAT2-Qc auprès de douze sujets sains pour en vérifier l'acceptabilité. Résultats : les douze sujets sains n'ont eu aucun problème de compréhension en utilisant le SCAT2-Qc. Conclusion : les différentes étapes de traduction ont permis de créer le SCAT2-Qc. Son contenu ayant été validé, il peut à présent être utilisé dans le milieu sportif et scientifique québécois. PMID:24396168

  18. Fetal growth restriction and intra-uterine growth restriction: guidelines for clinical practice from the French College of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians.

    PubMed

    Vayssière, C; Sentilhes, L; Ego, A; Bernard, C; Cambourieu, D; Flamant, C; Gascoin, G; Gaudineau, A; Grangé, G; Houfflin-Debarge, V; Langer, B; Malan, V; Marcorelles, P; Nizard, J; Perrotin, F; Salomon, L; Senat, M-V; Serry, A; Tessier, V; Truffert, P; Tsatsaris, V; Arnaud, C; Carbonne, B

    2015-10-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) is defined by weight (in utero estimated fetal weight or birth weight) below the 10th percentile (professional consensus). Severe SGA is SGA below the third percentile (professional consensus). Fetal growth restriction (FGR) or intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) usually correspond with SGA associated with evidence indicating abnormal growth (with or without abnormal uterine and/or umbilical Doppler): arrest of growth or a shift in its rate measured longitudinally (at least two measurements, 3 weeks apart) (professional consensus). More rarely, they may correspond with inadequate growth, with weight near the 10th percentile without being SGA (LE2). Birthweight curves are not appropriate for the identification of SGA at early gestational ages because of the disorders associated with preterm delivery. In utero curves represent physiological growth more reliably (LE2). In diagnostic (or reference) ultrasound, the use of growth curves adjusted for maternal height and weight, parity and fetal sex is recommended (professional consensus). In screening, the use of adjusted curves must be assessed in pilot regions to determine the schedule for their subsequent introduction at national level. This choice is based on evidence of feasibility and the absence of any proven benefits for individualized curves for perinatal health in the general population (professional consensus). Children born with FGR or SGA have a higher risk of minor cognitive deficits, school problems and metabolic syndrome in adulthood. The role of preterm delivery in these complications is linked. The measurement of fundal height remains relevant to screening after 22 weeks of gestation (Grade C). The biometric ultrasound indicators recommended are: head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) (professional consensus). They allow calculation of estimated fetal weight (EFW), which, with AC, is the most relevant indicator for screening. Hadlock's EFW formula with three indicators (HC, AC and FL) should ideally be used (Grade B). The ultrasound report must specify the percentile of the EFW (Grade C). Verification of the date of conception is essential. It is based on the crown-rump length between 11 and 14 weeks of gestation (Grade A). The HC, AC and FL measurements must be related to the appropriate reference curves (professional consensus); those modelled from College Francais d'Echographie Fetale data are recommended because they are multicentere French curves (professional consensus). Whether or not a work-up should be performed and its content depend on the context (gestational age, severity of biometric abnormalities, other ultrasound data, parents' wishes, etc.) (professional consensus). Such a work-up only makes sense if it might modify pregnancy management and, in particular, if it has the potential to reduce perinatal and long-term morbidity and mortality (professional consensus). The use of umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry is associated with better newborn health status in populations at risk, especially in those with FGR (Grade A). This Doppler examination must be the first-line tool for surveillance of fetuses with SGA and FGR (professional consensus). A course of corticosteroids is recommended for women with an FGR fetus, and for whom delivery before 34 weeks of gestation is envisaged (Grade C). Magnesium sulphate should be prescribed for preterm deliveries before 32-33 weeks of gestation (Grade A). The same management should apply for preterm FGR deliveries (Grade C). In cases of FGR, fetal growth must be monitored at intervals of no less than 2 weeks, and ideally 3 weeks (professional consensus). Referral to a Level IIb or III maternity ward must be proposed in cases of EFW <1500g, potential birth before 32-34 weeks of gestation (absent or reversed umbilical end-diastolic flow, abnormal venous Doppler) or a fetal disease associated with any of these (professional consensus). Systematic caesarean deliveries for FGR are not recommended (Grade C). In cases of vaginal delivery, fetal heart rate must be monitored continuously during labour, and any delay before intervention must be faster than in low-risk situations (professional consensus). Regional anaesthesia is preferred in trials of vaginal delivery, as in planned caesareans. Morbidity and mortality are higher in SGA newborns than in normal-weight newborns of the same gestational age (LE3). The risk of neonatal mortality is two to four times higher in SGA newborns than in non-SGA preterm and full-term infants (LE2). Initial management of an SGA newborn includes combatting hypothermia by maintaining the heat chain (survival blanket), ventilation with a pressure-controlled insufflator, if necessary, and close monitoring of capillary blood glucose (professional consensus). Testing for antiphospholipids (anticardiolipin, circulating anticoagulant, anti-beta2-GP1) is recommended in women with previous severe FGR (below third percentile) that led to birth before 34 weeks of gestation (professional consensus). It is recommended that aspirin should be prescribed to women with a history of pre-eclampsia before 34 weeks of gestation, and/or FGR below the fifth percentile with a probable vascular origin (professional consensus). Aspirin must be taken in the evening or at least 8h after awakening (Grade B), before 16 weeks of gestation, at a dose of 100-160mg/day (Grade A). PMID:26207980

  19. Soil organic degradation: bridging the gap between Rock-Eval pyrolysis and chemical characterization (CPMAS 13C NMR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Remy; Sebag, David; Verrecchia, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Being a source of mineral nutrients, organic matter contributes to soil chemical fertility and acts on soil physical fertility through its role in soil structure. Soil organic matter (SOM) is a key component of soils. Despite the paramount importance of SOM, information on its chemistry and behaviour in soils is incomplete. Numerous methods are used to characterize and monitor OM dynamics in soils using different approaches (Kogel-Knabner, 2000). Two of the main approaches are evaluated and compared in this study. Rock-Eval pyrolysis (RE pyrolysis) provides a description of a SOM's general evolution using its thermal resistance. The second tool (13C CPMAS NMR) aims to give precise and accurate chemical information on OM characterization. The RE pyrolysis technique was designed for petroleum exploration (Lafargue et al., 1998) and because of its simplicity, it has been applied to a variety of other materials such as soils or Recent sediments (Disnar et al., 2000; Sebag, 2006). Recently, RE pyrolysis became a conventional tool to study OM dynamics in soils. In RE pyrolysis, a peak deconvolution is applied to the pyrolysis signal in order to get four main components related to major classes of organic constituents. These components differ in origin and resistance to pyrolysis: labile biological constituents (F1), resistant biological constituents (F2), immature non-biotic constituents (F3) and a mature refractory fraction (F4) (Sebag, 2006; Coppard, 2006). Main advantages of the technique are its repeatability, and rapidity to provide an overview of OM properties and stocks. However, do the four major classes used in the literature reflect a pertinent chemical counterpart? To answer this question, we used 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the solid state (13C CPMAS NMR) to collect direct information on structural and conformational characteristics of OM. NMR resonances were assigned to chemical structures according to five dominant forms: alkyl C, O-alkyl C, aromatic C and phenolic C and carbonyl-carboxyl C. Moreover, in order to avoid the influence of pedogenesis, we decided to use "less complex OM", i.e. compost samples. The choice to use compost samples has been dictated by the fact that i) composting processes are well described and referenced in the literature, and ii) these samples have already been studied previously (Albrecht, 2009). Significantly high correlations are observed between classes, or indices, from RE pyrolysis and main classes of organic matter detected by NMR e.g. F1 and labile / easily degradable components (alkyl C et O-alkyl C); F3/F4 and humified OM (aromatic C and phenolic C); R index (contributions of bio-macromolecules) and phenolic and aromatic C; I index (related to immature OM) and labile / easily degradable components (alkyl C et O-alkyl C). This work confirms the interest of RE pyrolysis in soil science (notably by using the R/I index ratio). Compost was an ideal model with a clear chronological evolution of organic matter. The next step consists of using more complex samples such as bulk soil samples. REFERENCES Albrecht, R., Joffre, R., Le Petit, J., Terrom, G., Périssol, C. 2009. Calibration of Chemical and Biological Changes in Cocomposting of Biowastes Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Environmental Science & Technology, 43(3), 804-811. Copard, Y., Di-Govanni, C., Martaud, T., Alberic, P., Olivier, J.E. 2006. Using Rock-Eval 6 pyrolysis for tracking fossil organic carbon in modern environments: implications for the roles of erosion and weathering. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 31(2), 135-153. Disnar, J.R., Guillet, B., Keravis, D., Di-Giovanni, C., Sebag, D. 2003. Soil organic matter (SOM) characterization by Rock-Eval pyrolysis: scope and limitations. Organic Geochemistry, 34(3), 327-343. Kogel-Knabner, I. 2000. Analytical approaches for characterizing soil organic matter. Organic Geochemistry, 31(7-8), 609-625. Lafargue, E., Marquis, F., Pillot, D. 1998. Rock-Eval 6 applications in hydrocarbon exploration, production, and soil contamination studies. Revue De L Institut Francais Du Petrole, 53(4), 421-437. Sebag, D., Disnar, J.R., Guillet, B., Di Giovanni, C., Verrecchia, E.P., Durand, A. 2006. Monitoring organic matter dynamics in soil profiles by 'Rock-Eval pyrolysis': bulk characterization and quantification of degradation. European Journal of Soil Science, 57(3), 344-355.

  20. Motivational beliefs, cognitive engagement, and achievement in language and mathematics in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Metallidou, Panagiota; Vlachou, Anastasia

    2007-02-01

    The contextual differences in the patterns of relations among various motivational, cognitive, and metacognitive components of self-regulated learning and performance in two key curriculum subject areas, language and mathematics, were examined in a sample of 263 Greek primary school children of fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms. Age and gender differences were also investigated. Students were asked to complete the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich & De Groot, 1990 ), which comprised five factors: (a) Self-efficacy, (b) Intrinsic Value, (c) Test Anxiety, (d) Cognitive Strategy Use, and (e) Self-regulation Strategies. They responded to the statements of the questionnaire on a 7-point Likert scale in terms of their behaviour in mathematics and language classes, respectively. Moreover, their teachers were asked to evaluate each of their students' academic achievement in Greek language and mathematics on a 1- to 20-point comparative scale in relation to the rest of the class. The results of the study indicated very few differences in the pattern of relations among self-regulated components within and across the two subject areas and at the same time revealed a context-specific character of self-regulated components at a mean level differences. Further, the current study (a) confirmed the mediatory role of strategies in the motivation-performance relation, (b) stressed the differential role of cognitive and regulatory strategies in predicting performance in subject areas that differ in their structural characteristics of the content, and (c) pointed out the key motivational role of self-efficacy. In fact, self-efficacy proved the most significant predictor not only of performance but of cognitive and regulatory strategy use as well. Gender differences in motivation and strategy use were not reported, while motivation was found to vary mainly with age. The usefulness of these findings for promoting greater clarity among motivational and metacognitive frameworks and ideas for future research are discussed. Cette étude porte sur les différences contextuelles dans les patrons relationnels entre les diverses composantes motivationnelle, cognitive et métacognitive de l'apprentissage et de la performance auto-régulés dans deux domaines d'étude clé du programme, soit la langue et les mathématiques. Ces différences contextuelles ont été examinées dans un échantillon de 263 d'enfants d'une école primaire grecque (of) en cinquième et sixième année. Les différences sexuelles et les différences d'âge ont été aussi étudiées. Les élèves ont été priés de compléter le «Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire» (Pintrich & De Groot, 1990 ) qui comprend cinq facteurs: (a) l'auto-efficacité, (b) la valeur intrinsèque, (c) un test d'anxiété, (d) l'utilisation d'une stratégie cognitive et (e) les stratégies d'auto-régulation. Ils ont répondu aux énoncés du questionnaire sur une échelle de type Likert à 7 points en termes de leur comportement en classe de langue et en classe de mathématiques séparément. De plus, les enseignants ont été priés d'évaluer chaque résultat de leurs élèves dans la langue grecque et en mathématique sur une échelle allant de 1 à 20 points en comparaison au reste de la classe. Les résultats de l'étude ont indiqué très peu de différences dans les patrons relationnels entre les composantes auto-régulées à l'intérieur et entre les domaines d'étude. En même temps, les résultats ont révélé un caractère contextuel spécifique des composantes auto-regulées. De plus, la présente étude (a) a confirmé le rôle médiateur des stratégies dans la relation motivation-performance, (b) a souligné le rôle différé des stratégies cognitive et régulatoire dans la prédiction de la performance dans les domaines d'étude qui diffèrent dans leurs caractéristiques structurelles du contenu et (c) a souligné le rôle motivationnel clé de l'auto-efficacité. En effet, l'auto-efficacité s'est avérée être le prédicteur le plus significatif non seulement de la performance mais aussi de l'utilisation d'une stratégie cognitive et régulatoire. Des différences sexuelles dans la motivation et dans l'utilisation d'une stratégie n'ont pas été rapportées alors qu'il s'est avéré que la motivation variait principalement en fonction de l'âge. L'utilité de ces résultats pour la promotion d'une grande clarté entre les cadres motivationnel et métacognitif et les idées pour les études futures sont discutées. Se examinó, en una muestra de 263 niños griegos de quinto y sexto años de la escuela primaria, las diferencias contextuales en las pautas con las que se dan las relaciones entre varios componentes motivacionales, cognitivos y meta cognitivos del aprendizaje autorregulado y el desempeño en dos áreas clave del currículo, lenguaje y matemáticas. También se investigó las diferencias de edad y género. Se pidió a los alumnos que respondieran el Cuestionario de Estrategias Motivadas para el Aprendizaje (Pintrich & De Groot, 1990 ), compuesto por cinco factores: (a) Auto eficacia, (b) Valor Intrínseco, (c) Ansiedad ante los Exámenes, (d) Empleo de Estrategias Cognitivas, y (e) Estrategias Autorreguladas. Respondieron a los enunciados del cuestionario sobre una escala Likert de 7 puntos en términos de su conducta en las clases de matemáticas y lenguaje por separado. Es más, se pidió a sus profesores que evaluaran el desempeño de cada uno de sus estudiantes en Lenguaje Griego y Matemáticas de acuerdo con una escala comparativa de 1 a 20 puntos, en relación con el resto del grupo escolar. Los resultados del estudio indicaron pocas diferencias en la pauta que describen las relaciones entre los componentes de autorregulación al interior de y entre ambas áreas de estudio y, al mismo tiempo, revelaron un carácter específico del contexto de los componentes de la autorregulación con diferencias en el nivel medio. Más aún, el presente estudio (a) confirmó el papel de mediador que desempeñan las estrategias sobre la relación motivación-desempeño, (b) acentuó el papel diferencial de las estrategias cognitiva y reguladora al predecir el desempeño en áreas de estudio que difieren en las características estructurales de su contenido, y (c) señaló el papel motivacional clave que desempeña la auto eficacia. De hecho, la auto eficacia predijo de manera más significativa no sólo el desempeño, sino también el uso de la estrategia cognitiva y reguladora. No hubo diferencias de género respecto a la motivación y al uso de la estrategia, aunque se encontró que la motivación varía principalmente con la edad. Se discute la utilidad de estos hallazgos para aclarar los referentes motivacionales y meta cognitivos y promover ideas para investigaciones futuras. PMID:24274775

  1. A Multiwavelength Study of a Sample of 70 μm Selected Galaxies in the COSMOS Field. II. The Role of Mergers in Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Sanders, D. B.; Le Floc'h, E.; Frayer, D. T.; Aussel, H.; Arnouts, S.; Ilbert, O.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Surace, J.; Yan, L.; Capak, P.; Caputi, K.; Carollo, C. M.; Cassata, P.; Civano, F.; Hasinger, G.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lilly, S.; Liu, C. T.; McCracken, H. J.; Schinnerer, E.; Smolčić, V.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D. J.; Trump, J.; Baldassare, V. F.; Fiorenza, S. L.

    2010-09-01

    We analyze the morphological properties of a large sample of 1503 70 μm selected galaxies in the COSMOS field spanning the redshift range 0.01 < z < 3.5 with a median redshift of 0.5 and an infrared luminosity range of 108 < L IR(8 - 1000 μm)< 1014 L sun with a median luminosity of 1011.4 L sun. In general, these galaxies are massive, with a stellar mass range of 1010-1012 M sun, and luminous, with -25 < M K < -20. We find a strong correlation between the fraction of major mergers and L IR, with the fraction at the highest luminosity (L IR > 1012 L sun) being up to ~50%. We also find that the fraction of spirals drops dramatically with L IR. Minor mergers likely play a role in boosting the infrared luminosity for sources with low luminosities (L IR < 1011.5 L sun). The precise fraction of mergers in any given L IR bin varies by redshift due to sources at z > 1 being difficult to classify and subject to the effects of bandpass shifting; therefore, these numbers can only be considered lower limits. At z < 1, where the morphological classifications are most robust, major mergers clearly dominate the ULIRG population (~50%-80%) and are important for the LIRG population (~25%-40%). At z > 1, the fraction of major mergers is lower, but is at least 30%-40% for ULIRGs. In a comparison of our visual classifications with several automated classification techniques we find general agreement; however, the fraction of identified mergers is underestimated due to automated classification methods being sensitive to only certain timescales of a major merger. Although the general morphological trends agree with what has been observed for local (U)LIRGs, the fraction of major mergers is slightly lower than seen locally. This is in part due to the difficulty of identifying merger signatures at high redshift. The distribution of the U - V color of the galaxies in our sample peaks in the green valley (langU - Vrang = 1.1) with a large spread at bluer and redder colors and with the major mergers peaking more strongly in the green valley than the rest of the morphological classes. We argue that, given the number of major gas-rich mergers observed and the relatively short timescale that they would be observable in the (U)LIRG phase, it is plausible for the observed red sequence of massive ellipticals (<1012 M sun) to have been formed entirely by gas-rich major mergers. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA Inc, under NASA contract NAS 5-26555; also based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; the XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA; the European Southern Observatory under Large Program 175.A-0839, Chile; the National Radio Astronomy Observatory which is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc; the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope with MegaPrime/MegaCam operated as a joint project by the CFHT Corporation, CEA/DAPNIA, the National Research Council of Canada, the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, TERAPIX and the University of Hawaii.

  2. Toxicité sérotoninergique résultant d’une interaction médicamenteuse entre le bleu de méthylène et les inhibiteurs de la recapture de la sérotonine

    PubMed Central

    Charbonneau, Annie

    2013-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : Le bleu de méthylène est employé en pratique pour diverses raisons médicales. Des données récentes ont évoqué une interaction potentielle avec les inhibiteurs de la recapture de la sérotonine, pouvant conduire à une toxicité sérotoninergique. Objectif : Décrire le risque de toxicité sérotoninergique associé à l’interaction entre le bleu de méthylène et les inhibiteurs de la recapture de la sérotonine. Sources de l’information : Les publications pertinentes ont été ciblées systématiquement au moyen des moteurs de recherche MEDLINE (1946 au 21 mars 2013) et Embase (1974 à 2013, semaine 11) en utilisant les mots clés suivants : methylene blue, methylthioninium, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, serotonin reuptake inhibitors et serotonin syndrome. Aucune restriction touchant l’indication du bleu de méthylène ou la langue n’a été appliquée. Les références des publications ont également été analysées. Sélection des études et extraction des données : Dix-huit études de cas et deux séries de cas systématiques ont été sélectionnées. Aucune étude clinique aléatoire n’a encore été publiée. Synthèse des résultats : La première étude de cas à avoir soupçonné une interaction entre le bleu de méthylène et les inhibiteurs de la recapture de la sérotonine est parue en 2003. Dix-sept autres études de cas décrivant le même type d’interaction ont par la suite été rapportées. Les deux séries de cas ont regroupé les données de quelques 325 parathyroïdectomies où le bleu de méthylène avait été employé comme agent colorant. Les 17 patients qui ont présenté une toxicité du système nerveux central prenaient tous en période préopératoire des inhibiteurs de recapture de la sérotonine. Conclusion : Lorsqu’il est administré en concomitance avec des inhibiteurs de recapture de la sérotonine, le bleu de méthylène peut conduire à une toxicité sérotoninergique à une dose aussi faible que 0,7 mg/kg. En effet, il posséderait des propriétés inhibitrices de la monoamine oxidase A. Des précautions doivent être prises pour éviter cette interaction. PMID:23950608

  3. [Structuralistic and meta-psychological approaches to ambivalence in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Sumida, Kyoko; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    The word "ambivalence" generally signifies a psychic state in which a subject holds a contradictory or conflicted attitude towards an object. The literal meaning of the word is that two valences occur simultaneously, and this connotes the epistemological and ethical problem of where and how the valences arise. The concept of ambivalence implies that the relationship between the subject and the world is ambivalent, that the subject has free will in the alternative evaluation, and that the meanings of the two valences derive from the meta-level outside the world. These reflections lead us to the supposition that ambivalence is closely associated with the function of language. The ambivalent attitude of the subject divides the significance of the object; the appearance of the given ambivalent meanings is the moment of the subject's choice. This phenomenon of division, choice, and given meanings is more than analogous to F. de Saussure's conception of language in terms of sign, différenciation, and l'arbitraire de langue. A view of ambivalence as a fundamental phenomenon concerning subject, world, and language affords insight specifically into ambivalence in schizophrenia. For people with schizophrenia, ambivalent conflict often takes the form of a dichotomy between "good and bad". The more severe the ambivalent symptom, the more similar it seems to a philosophical question about the nature of existence in the world. When schizophrenic people raise philosophical questions directly such as "Is my existence good or bad?" or "To be or not to be?", they seek approval for their existence, assaying to live with "good" intentions. Unfortunately they come to be blamed for harbouring "bad" intentions. When they have an interrogative attitude even to everyday matters, they cannot resolve such questions as "Is the red cup good or bad?", or "Is the green cup good or bad?", and hence "Which cup should I use?". If the projection of the self into the world is essentially the choice of a daily behavior as its own praxis, such indecisiveness thus entails existential conflict. The alternatives of choice appear before them as a tollgate to the world. Wishing admission to the world, they choose the thing that they think "good", but which later turns out to be "bad". These consequences sometimes occur in their inner conflicts and sometimes in their paranoidhallucinatory experiences. We have observed that in these processes, there is an inversion between "good and bad", and "bad" predominates, driving patients to despair. Rethinking E. Bleuler's conception of the ambivalence of schizophrenia, we have found that it is accessible to structuralistic and meta-psychological interpretations. From the viewpoint of linguistic semiology, ambivalence can be considered as a disorder of exclusive differentiation in the associative system resulting from the appearance of antithetical meanings, a phenomenon that is also common in primal words and children's thinking. In the context of psycho-analysis, it is suggested that the dominance of the negative side in ambivalence may be caused by death instinct. These interpretations are consistent with both the philosophical considerations and the clinical observations introduced above, but the problem of schizophrenic specificity is still opened beside the affinity between philosophical conflict and schizophrenic ambivalence. References to ethical and philosophical thinking shed light on the sources of the dichotomous existential conflict and the characteristic inversion between "good and bad" that schizophrenic patients experience. Descriptions of the root of ambivalence can be traced back to ancient times. In the Ecclesiastes of the Apocrypha, Jesus, son of Sirach, elucidates the fundamental ambivalence of will, teaching that the subject has the power of its own choice: at its most extreme, the choice between life and death. In the modern age, L. Wittgenstein offers a strict description of this ambivalence in his "Notebooks 1914-1916". Wittgenstein doubted the possibility of pure subjectivity without individual will and furthermore argued that the will is either good or evil, that is, the bearer of good and evil. In his view, good and evil are somehow connected with the meaning of the world, and meaning ("Sinn" in German) is discerned from significance ("Bedeutung" in German). He went on to write that the meaning does not lie in the world but outside it. As K. Shingu has noted, Wittgenstein's conception is essentially consistent with psycho-analysis. The subject recognizes the world with ambivalent will, the world appears with ambivalent significance, but its ambivalent meaning is given from outside the world, that is, from the meta-level. For E. Husserl's concept of intentionality, it is said that the fundamental disorder of schizophrenia is a preverbal or pre-predicative problem that is connected with intentionality. Yet one wonders whether or not pure, neutral intentionality is really possible. Presumably, intentionality has an intrinsic ambivalence, since the fundamental relationship between the subject and the world may itself be ambivalent. When one becomes conscious of a thing, the potential exists to divide one's intentionality between "good and bad", and the thing thus appears as "good" or "bad". In the healthy psyche, this intrinsic ambivalence emerges only in ethical or philosophical thinking. In schizophrenia, however, the ambivalence of intentionality is explicitly engaged in diverse situations. The inversion of "good and bad" observed in the clinical context signifies that the will of the patient shifts from "good" to "bad", alluding to a contradiction between the subject and the world that is logically inevitable due to the structure of their relationship. The subject objectivfies the world positively, yet is contained by the world passively. That the subject simultaneously announces and is announced in the language system also reflects this paradoxical relationship. Thus, ambivalence of dichotomy between "good and bad" is the very basic phenomenon of consciousness, and the inversion of "good and bad" is a reflection of the structure of the relationship of the subject and the world. If the schizophrenic specificity exists, it may involve the exposure of this intrinsic ambivalence and this paradoxical structure in confrontations with the tellgate into the world under the dominance of the negative side. PMID:14577287

  4. Relevé postnatal Rourke 2014

    PubMed Central

    Riverin, Bruno; Li, Patricia; Rourke, Leslie; Leduc, Denis; Rourke, James

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Mettre à jour la version de 2011 du Relevé postnatal Rourke (RPR) à la suite d’une révision des meilleures données probantes récentes sur le suivi de la santé des nourrissons et des enfants de la naissance jusqu’à l’âge de 5 ans. Qualité des données La qualité des données a été cotée en fonction de l’ancien système de classification du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (jusqu’à 2006) et l’approche de détermination, d’élaboration et d’évaluation des recommandations (GRADE). Message principal De nouveaux faits scientifiques ont été pris en compte dans les recommandations du RPR 2014 en ce qui a trait au suivi de la croissance, à la nutrition, à l’éducation et aux conseils, au développement, à l’examen physique et à l’immunisation. La croissance est surveillée à l’aide des courbes de l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé qui ont été révisées en 2014. On devrait introduire les aliments solides en fonction de l’état de préparation du nourrisson et ces produits devraient contenir du fer. Il n’est actuellement plus recommandé de retarder l’introduction des allergènes alimentaires courants pour prévenir les allergies. Il faut promouvoir l’utilisation d’une tasse sans couvercle au lieu d’une tasse à bec dès l’âge de 12 mois. La section sur l’éducation et les conseils porte sur les blessures causées par du mobilier instable, ainsi que l’utilisation d’un siège d’auto orienté vers l’arrière jusqu’à 2 ans. Elle comporte aussi de l’information sur les saines habitudes de sommeil, la prévention de la maltraitance des enfants, la vie saine et active et la sédentarité de la famille, de même que l’hygiène buccale. On a aussi ajouté à cette section une nouvelle catégorie consacrée à la santé environnementale pour tenir compte des effets des dangers environnementaux sur la santé des enfants. Le RPR a recours à une surveillance développementale globale pour reconnaître les enfants qui pourraient être à risque de retards de développement. La vérification de la mobilité de la langue et de la perméabilité de l’anus est incluse dans l’examen physique du premier bilan de santé du bébé. Le RPR présente aussi les mises à jour concernant le vaccin contre la rougeole, les oreillons et la rubéole, le vaccin atténué vivant contre la grippe et celui contre le virus du papillome humain. Conclusion Le RPR 2014 représente la mise à jour de l’outil d’application pratique des connaissances, fondé depuis longtemps sur des données probantes, accompagné de ses ressources connexes dans le web, à l’intention des professionnels de la santé et des parents pour les soins de santé préventifs durant la petite enfance. La Société canadienne de pédiatrie, le Collège des médecins de famille du Canada et Les diététistes du Canada ont donné leur aval au RPR 2014. Des versions nationales et adaptées à l’Ontario du RPR sont accessibles en français et en anglais.

  5. EGS Richardson AGU Chapman NVAG3 Conference: Nonlinear Variability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    1. The conference The third conference on "Nonlinear VAriability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes" (NVAG 3) was held in Cargese, Corsica, Sept. 10-17, 1993. NVAG3 was joint American Geophysical Union Chapman and European Geophysical Society Richardson Memorial conference, the first specialist conference jointly sponsored by the two organizations. It followed NVAG1 (Montreal, Aug. 1986), NVAG2 (Paris, June 1988; Schertzer and Lovejoy, 1991), five consecutive annual sessions at EGS general assemblies and two consecutive spring AGU meeting sessions. As with the other conferences and workshops mentioned above, the aim was to develop confrontation between theories and experiments on scaling/multifractal behaviour of geophysical fields. Subjects covered included climate, clouds, earthquakes, atmospheric and ocean dynamics, tectonics, precipitation, hydrology, the solar cycle and volcanoes. Areas of focus included new methods of data analysis (especially those used for the reliable estimation of multifractal and scaling exponents), as well as their application to rapidly growing data bases from in situ networks and remote sensing. The corresponding modelling, prediction and estimation techniques were also emphasized as were the current debates about stochastic and deterministic dynamics, fractal geometry and multifractals, self-organized criticality and multifractal fields, each of which was the subject of a specific general discussion. The conference started with a one day short course of multifractals featuring four lectures on a) Fundamentals of multifractals: dimension, codimensions, codimension formalism, b) Multifractal estimation techniques: (PDMS, DTM), c) Numerical simulations, Generalized Scale Invariance analysis, d) Advanced multifractals, singular statistics, phase transitions, self-organized criticality and Lie cascades (given by D. Schertzer and S. Lovejoy, detailed course notes were sent to participants shortly after the conference). This was followed by five days with 8 oral sessions and one poster session. Overall, there were 65 papers involving 74 authors. In general, the main topics covered are reflected in this special issue: geophysical turbulence, clouds and climate, hydrology and solid earth geophysics. In addition to AGU and EGS, the conference was supported by the International Science Foundation, the Centre Nationale de Recherche Scientifique, Meteo-France, the Department of Energy (US), the Commission of European Communities (DG XII), the Comite National Francais pour le Programme Hydrologique International, the Ministere de l'Enseignement Superieur et de la Recherche (France). We thank P. Hubert, Y. Kagan, Ph. Ladoy, A. Lazarev, S.S. Moiseev, R. Pierrehumbert, F. Schmitt and Y. Tessier, for help with the organization of the conference. However special thanks goes to A. Richter and the EGS office, B. Weaver and the AGU without whom this would have been impossible. We also thank the Institut d' Etudes Scientifiques de Cargese whose beautiful site was much appreciated, as well as the Bar des Amis whose ambiance stimulated so many discussions. 2. Tribute to L.F. Richardson With NVAG3, the European geophysical community paid tribute to Lewis Fry Richardson (1881-1953) on the 40th anniversary of his death. Richardson was one of the founding fathers of the idea of scaling and fractality, and his life reflects the European geophysical community and its history in many ways. Although many of Richardson's numerous, outstanding scientific contributions to geophysics have been recognized, perhaps his main contribution concerning the importance of scaling and cascades has still not received the attention it deserves. Richardson was the first not only to suggest numerical integration of the equations of motion of the atmosphere, but also to attempt to do so by hand, during the First World War. This work, as well as a presentation of a broad vision of future developments in the field, appeared in his famous, pioneering book "Weather prediction by numerical processes" (1922). As a consequence of his atmospheric studies, the nondimensional number associated with fluid convective stability has been called the "Richardson number". In addition, his book presents a study of the limitations of numerical integration of these equations, it was in this book that - through a celebrated poem - that the suggestion that turbulent cascades were the fundamental driving mechanism of the atmosphere was first made. In these cascades, large eddies break up into smaller eddies in a manner which involves no characteristic scales, all the way from the planetary scale down to the viscous scale. This led to the Richardson law of turbulent diffusion (1926) and tot he suggestion that particles trajectories might not be describable by smooth curves, but that such trajectories might instead require highly convoluted curves such as the Peano or Weierstrass (fractal) curves for their description. As a founder of the cascade and scaling theories of atmospheric dynamics, he more or less anticipated the Kolmogorov law (1941). He also used scaling ideas to invent the "Richardson dividers method" of successively increasing the resolution of fractal curves and tested out the method on geographical boundaries (as part of his wartime studies). In the latter work he anticipated recent efforts to study scale invariance in rivers and topography. His complex life typifies some of the hardships that the European scientific community has had to face. His educational career is unusual: he received a B.A. degree in physics, mathematics, chemistry, biology and zoology at Cambridge University, and he finally obtained his Ph.D. in mathematical psychology at the age of 47 from the University of London. As a conscientious objector he was compelled to quit the United Kingdom Meteorological Office in 1920 when the latter was militarized by integration into the Air Ministry. He subsequently became the head of a physics department and the principal of a college. In 1940, he retired to do research on war, which was published posthumously in book form (Richardson, 1963). This latter work is testimony to the trauma caused by the two World Wars and which led some scientists including Richardson to use their skills in rational attempts to eradicate the source of conflict. Unfortunately, this remains an open field of research. 3. The contributions in this special issue Perhaps the area of geophysics where scaling ideas have the longest history, and where they have made the largest impact in the last few years, is turbulence. The paper by Tsinober is an example where geometric fractal ideas are used to deduce corrections to standard dimensional analysis results for turbulence. Based on local spontaneous breaking of isotropy of turbulent flows, the fractal notion is used in order to deduce diffusion laws (anomalous with respect to the Richardson law). It is argued that his law is ubiquitous from the atmospheric boundary layer to the stratosphere. The asymptotic intermittency exponent i hypothesized to be not only finite but to be determined by the angular momentum flux. Schmitt et al., Chigirinskaya et al. and Lazarev et al. apply statistical multifractal notions to atmospheric turbulence. In the former, the formal analogy between multifractals and thermodynamics is exploited, in particular to confirm theoretical predictions that sample-size dependent multifractal phase transitions occur. While this quantitatively explains the behavior of the most extreme turbulent events, it suggests that - contrary to the type of multifractals most commonly discussed in the literature which are bounded - more violent (unbounded) multifractals are indeed present in the atmospheric wind field. Chigirinskaya et al. use a tropical rather than mid-latitude set to study the extreme fluctuations form yet another angle: That of coherent structures, which, in the multifractal framework, are identified with singularities of various orders. The existence of a critical order of singularity which distinguishes violent "self-organized critical structures" was theoretically predicted ten years ago; here it is directly estimated. The second of this two part series (Lazarev et al.) investigates yet another aspect of tropical atmospheric dynamics: the strong multiscaling anisotropy. Beyond the determination of universal multifractal indices and critical singularities in the vertical, this enables a comparison to be made with Chigirinskaya et al.'s horizontal results, requiring an extension of the unified scaling model of atmospheric dynamics. Other approaches to the problem of geophysical turbulence are followed in the papers by Pavlos et al., Vassiliadis et al., Voros et al. All of them share a common assumption that a very small number of degrees of freedom (deterministic chaos) might be sufficient for characterizing/modelling the systems under consideration. Pavlos et al. consider the magnetospheric response to solar wind, showing that scaling occurs both in real space (using spectra), and also in phase space; the latter being characterized by a correlation dimension. The paper by Vassiliadis et al. follows on directly by investigating the phase space properties of power-law filtered and rectified gaussian noise; the results further quantify how low phase space correlation dimensions can occur even with very large number of degrees of freedom (stochastic) processes. Voros et al. analyze time series of geomagnetic storms and magnetosphere pulsations, also estimating their correlation dimensions and Lyapounov exponents taking special care of the stability of the estimates. They discriminate low dimensional events from others, which are for instance attributed to incoherent waves. While clouds and climate were the subject of several talks at the conference (including several contributions on multifractal clouds), Cahalan's contribution is the only one in this special issue. Addressing the fundamental problem of the relationship of horizontal cloud heterogeneity and the related radiation fields, he first summarizes some recent numerical results showing that even for comparatively thin clouds that fractal heterogeneity will significantly reduce the albedo. The model used for the distribution of cloud liquid water is the monofractal "bounded cascade" model, whose properties are also outlined. The paper by Falkovich addresses another problem concerning the general circulation: the nonlinear interaction of waves. By assuming the existence of a peak (i.e. scale break) at the inertial oscillation frequency, it is argued that due to remarkable cancellations, the interactions between long inertio-gravity waves and Rossby waves are anomalously weak, producing a "wave condensate" of large amplitude so that wave breaking with front creation can occur. Kagan et al., Eneva and Hooge et al. consider fractal and multifractal behaviour in seismic events. Eneva estimates multifractal exponents of the density of micro-earthquakes induced by mining activity. The effects of sample limitations are discussed, especially in order to distinguish between genuine from spurious multifractal behaviour. With the help of an analysis of the CALNET catalogue, Hooge et al. points out, that the origin of the celebrated Gutenberg-Richter law could be related to a non-classical Self-Organized Criticality generated by a first order phase transition in a multifractal earthquake process. They also analyze multifractal seismic fields which are obtained by raising earthquake amplitudes to various powers and summing them on a grid. In contrast, Kagan, analyzing several earthquake catalogues discussed the various laws associated with earthquakes. Giving theoretical and empirical arguments, he proposes an additive (monofractal) model of earthquake stress, emphasizing the relevance of (asymmetric) stable Cauchy probability distributions to describe earthquake stress distributions. This would yield a linear model for self-organized critical earthquakes. References: Kolmogorov, A.N.: Local structure of turbulence in an incompressible liquid for very large Reynolds number, Proc. Acad. Sci. URSS Geochem. Sect., 30, 299-303, 1941. Perrin, J.: Les Atomes, NRF-Gallimard, Paris, 1913. Richardson, L.F.: Weather prediction by numerical process. Cambridge Univ. Press 1922 (republished by Dover, 1965). Richardson, L.F.: Atmospheric diffusion on a distance neighbour graph. Proc. Roy. of London A110, 709-737, 1923. Richardson, L.F.: The problem of contiguity: an appendix of deadly quarrels. General Systems Yearbook, 6, 139-187, 1963. Schertzer, D., Lovejoy, S.: Nonlinear Variability in Geophysics, Kluwer, 252 pp, 1991.

  6. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schober, Helmut; Fischer, Henry; Leclercq-Hugeux, Françoise

    2003-09-01

    L'École Thématique “Structure et Dynamique des Systèmes Désordonnés” [1] s'inscrit dans le cadre des écoles organisées sous l'impulsion de la Société Française de la Neutronique (SFN). Elle s'est deroulée en mai 2002 sur la Presqu'île de Giens (Var) en première partie des 11émes Journées de la Diffusion Neutronique. L'Édition de ces cours constitue ainsi le cinquième ouvrage introduisant les techniques neutroniques et leurs apports à differentes thématiques [2]. Le désordre est un facteur déterminant pour pratiquement toutes les propriétés des matériaux. Il est inhérent dans les matériaux amorphes ou liquides, mais il détermine également les propriétés mécaniques et électroniques d'autres composés d'importance technologique comme les matériaux métalliques, dont l'aspect “désordonné” est moins évident. Le désordre enfin joue un rôle essentiel dans tout ce que touche à la vie. En fait, il est difficile d'imaginer des systèmes, à part quelques exceptions rares comme l'hélium ou le silicium de haute pureté, où il n'y ait pas de désordre. En dehors de cet aspect pratique, la description scientifique du désordre atomique pose toujours des problèmes fondamentaux faute de concepts pertinents. Une des tâches importantes du scientifique ou de l'ingenieur est de préciser quel genre de désordre existe à une échelle d'espace et de temps donnée. Un materiau peut très bien être homogène à l'échelle atomique et présenter des défauts ou des hétrogéneité visibles à l'œil et inversement. De même, un système désordonné à un instant donné, peut apparaître ordonné si on moyenne dans le temps. Les techniques de diffusion des neutrons sont idéales pour aborder ces questions. Les neutrons sondent directement les noyaux et ont à la fois des longueurs d'ondes proches des distances inter atomiques et des énergies avoisinant celles des excitations élémentaires de la matière condensée. Ils permettent ainsi une observation directe et non-destructive des positions et des mouvements atomiques. La gamme des distances et des temps sondés par les neutrons autorisent aussi bien de suivre le mouvement des atomes à l'échelle inter atomique que l'évolution d'une structure soit mésoscopique soit macroscopique sur des temps de moins d'une picoseconde à plusieurs heures. La gamme des techniques de diffusion utilisées pour couvrir un tel champ d'application est naturellement très large : différents types de diffractomètres permettent des études de structure atomique trés pointue et résolue dans le temps. Les spectromètres nous donnent accès à la dynamique d'une dizaine de femto- à plusieurs nanosecondes. La diffusion aux petits angles, la reflectomètrie et finalement la tomographie nous permettent de regarder la structure et la dynamique d'objets plus grands. Il était illusoire de prétendre couvrir la totalité des systèmes désordonnés et l'ensemble des techniques de diffusion neutronique pertinentes au cours d'une école de 3 jours. Nous avons donc été amené à nous concentrer sur les liquides, les verres, les cristaux plastiques et les polymères. Ce choix s'est imposé par le souhait d'introduire les concepts de base, en acceptant de sacrifier certains domaines d'applications. Il va de soi que l'étude approfondie de systèmes mettant en jeu plusieurs échelles de distance (structure moléculaire, portée des corrélations entre les molécules) et de temps (relaxations caractéristiques des divers phenomènes dynamiques selon leur extension spatiale) implique une pluralité de techniques expérimentales, complémentaires des différentes techniques neutroniques disponibles. Un des objectifs de cette école etait donc de préciser les domaines de pertinence des différentes techniques neutroniques disponibles en en situant la complémentarité avec d'autres approches instrumentales (diffraction des rayons X, EXAFS, RMN, etc.). Enfin la confrontation avec les résultats obtenus par simulation et modélisation numérique est essentielle à la compréhension des processus élémentaires dans ces systèmes complexes. En première partie de cet ouvrage, on trouvera une description géntrale des systèmes désordonnés et une introduction aux techniques de diffusion de neutrons. Pour la partie concernant la structure, une revue des techniques de diffraction est suivie par des applications à des systèmes de complexité croissante (liquides métalliques simples, alliages liquides, semiconducteurs fondus, solutions aqueuses, verres d'oxydes). L'apport des méthodes de variation de longueur de diffusion (substitution isotopique pour les mesures aux neutrons, diffusion anomale des rayons X ou combinaison de ces deux techniques) permet la détermination des facteurs de structures partiels. Pour la dynamique, on a privilégié une approche introduisant progressivement le désordre en passant des solides aux liquides. Le concept de diffusion puis les particularités dynamiques des verres sont ensuite présentés et illustrés par des exemples concrets. Enfin la dernière partie est consacrée à la simulation numérique des propriétés dynamiques des verres et des liquides et à la modélisation de la structure par méthode de Monte Carlo inverse (RMC) à partir de l'ensemble des données expérimentales existant pour un système donné. La communauté française a joué un rôle important dans le développement des techniques neutroniques dédites à l'étude des systèmes désordonnés et y a acquis une competence reconnue. Nous avons essayé, dans cet ouvrage, de privilégier les aspects pédagogiques des cours, pour les rendre accessibles aux scientifiques francophones non spécialistes en diffusion des neutrons. Nous saluons ici l'effort de rédaction, en langue française, des différents intervenants et souhaitons que cet ouvrage puisse participer à la formation et au renouvellement de la communauté neutronique française. Helmut Schober et Henry Fischer (Editeurs scientifiques) Françoise Leclercq-Hugeux (Présidente de la SFN)