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1

Modeles de rendement langagier. Francais-- 1re annee-3e annee. Francais langue premiere (Language Production Models. French-- Grades 1-3. French as a First Language).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The materials in this document present the results of a study of French native language testing in Alberta (Canada) public schools for grades 1-3 based on the curriculum instituted in 1998. As a result of the study, this collection was developed for grades 1-3 students who should be taught French as a first language. A separate section is devoted…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

2

L'Attitude Et La Motivation Des Eleves Israeliens Dans L'Apprentissage Du Francais, Seconde Langue Etrangere  

Microsoft Academic Search

L'étude d'une seconde langue étrangère en Israël, et particulièrement l'étude du français, est dans la plupart des cas, réservée aux élèves qui obtiennent de bons résultats dans les tests d'aptitude à l'apprentissage d'une première langue étrangère et de bons résultats dans l'étude de cette première langue (l'anglais).

Rivka Herzlich

1978-01-01

3

Modeles de rendement langagier: Francais, 10e annee. Francais langue premiere (Models of Linguistic Production: French, 10th Grade. French as a Native Language).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aligned with its 1998 standards for first- and second-language learning, Alberta Learning has published lesson plans that aim for a closer relationship between learning and evaluation. Each volume in this series presents a specific task for students that involves planning, carrying out, and evaluating their work. The task for tenth grade students…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

4

Modeles de rendement langagier--Francais langue premiere: 8e annee (Models of Linguistic Production--French as a Native Language: 8th Grade).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aligned with its 1998 standards for first- and second-language learning, Alberta Learning has published lesson plans that aim for a closer relationship between learning and evaluation. Each volume in this series presents a specific task for students that involves planning, carrying out and evaluating their work. The task for eighth grade students…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

5

Modeles de rendement langagier. French Language Arts-- 1re annee-3e annee. Francais langue seconde--immersion (Language Production Models. French Language Arts-- Grades 1-3. French as a Second Language--Immersion).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The materials in this document present the results of a study of French second language immersion testing in Alberta (Canada) public schools for grades 1-3 based on the curriculum instituted in 1998. As a result of the study, this collection was developed for grades 1-3 students who need to be taught French as a second language. A separate section…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

6

BECKETT ET LES HUIT LANGUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenant comme point de départ le fait que le français était pour Beckett une langue apprise, cet article étudie la mise en scène de l'apprentissage des langues étrangères telle qu'on la trouve dans \\

Daniel Katz

2000-01-01

7

L'amenagement linguistique et le statut du francais langue etrangere au Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that French remains a foreign language in Ghana, it plays an important role in many social sectors in the Ghanaian contemporary society. Therefore, this language deserves official support from the Ghanaian government such that funding can be procured for its promotion. In our research work, we have stressed the importance of being able to communicate fluently in

Richard Beyogle

2009-01-01

8

Pedagogie des Langues Etrangeres, Specialement du Francais (Foreign Language Teaching, with Emphasis on French)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first section of this annotated bibliography cites general works on teaching, including topics such as psychology, sociology, methods and evaluation. The second section cites works that deal specifically with foreign language teaching, with emphasis on French. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

Cortes, J.; And Others

1975-01-01

9

Le Francais Langue Etrangere en France: Perspectives Historiques (The French Language, Foreign in France: Historical Perspectives).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on the prevalence of the expression in France, "a foreign french language," used to designate a variety of activities and institutions devoted to the teaching and learning of French outside of France. The article emphasizes that to affirm the existence of a French language that is foreign to France highlights historical realities related…

Reboullet, Andre

1996-01-01

10

Pour une didactique du francais langue et litterature etrangeres (Toward a Didactic of French Second Language and Literature).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method of second-language instruction that acknowledges and reinforces the connection between ordinary and artistic uses of language is discussed. The theory, rationale, methods, and some sample activities for the approach are outlined. (MSE)

Oriol-Boyer, Claudette

1990-01-01

11

La Representation (tres) feminine du francais-langue-etrangere (The (Very) Feminine Representation of French as a Second Language).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is argued that study of French language and literature is perceived as feminine because, like other languages, it is represented as such and because of the stereotypes held of France, its language, and its culture. The university student's concern is for the study's symbolism rather than its utility. (16 references) (MSE)

Levy, Francine

1993-01-01

12

Student Achievement Testing Program Bulletin, Grade 6 French Language Arts, 1987-88 School Year=Bulletin du programme de tests de rendement, Francais 6e annee, annee scolaire 1987-88.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A bulletin concerning Alberta's Grade 6 French language achievement test to be administered in June 1988 provides specific information about the test's design, items, and scoring. It begins with general information about the province's achievement test program in English and goes on to describe and illustrate the French language arts achievement…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation and Data Processing Branch.

13

6e Annee test de rendement. francais. Partie A: Composition. Partie B: Lecture (choix multiples) (Sixth Year Achievement Test, French. Part A: Writing. Part B: Reading (Multiple Choice).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two parts of Alberta's sixth-year French achievement test are in test booklet form. Part A, the writing test, requires the development of a composition from a story for which the beginning is provided. The booklet contains instructions concerning the procedure and the criteria to be used in evaluating the composition. Space is provided for a…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

14

Contacts de langues et representations (Language Contacts and Representations).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essays on language contact and the image of language, entirely in French, include: "Representations 'du' contexte et representations 'en' contexte? Eleves et enseignants face a l'apprentissage de la langue" ("Representations 'of' Context or Representations 'in' Context? Students and Teachers Facing Language Learning" (Laurent Gajo); "Le crepuscule…

Matthey, Marinette, Ed.

1997-01-01

15

Réflexions métasyntaxiques formulées par des élèves de 6 année apprenant l'anglais langue seconde  

Microsoft Academic Search

RÉSUMÉ La capacité métasyntaxique, une des composantes de la capacité métalinguistique, est essentiellement examinée dans une perspective quantitative au moyen de tâches dites traditionnelles telles que le jugement de grammaticalité ou la correction de l'erreur tant en langue maternelle (L1) (Armand, 2000; Blackmore & Pratt, 1997) qu'en langue seconde (L2) (Lipka, Siegel & Vukovic, 2005; Armand, 2005). Dans le cadre

Véronique Fortier; Daphnée Simard

2008-01-01

16

Enseignement des langues et theories d'acquisition Sprachunterricht unde Spracherwerbstheorien. (Language Teaching and Acquisition Theories).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of articles on language teaching and language acquisition theories includes: "Enseignement des langues et theories de l'acquisition. Introduction au colloque" ("Language Teaching and Theories of Acquisition. Introduction to the Colloquium") (Rene Richterich); "Apprendre une langue dans l'interaction verbale" ("Language Learning in…

Schwarz, Alexander, Ed.

1996-01-01

17

La position des langues étrangères et de la didactique du français langue étrangère dans les programmes de la Faculté des lettres de l'Université de Zagreb, Croatie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé: La première partie de l'article présente la situation d'enseignement\\/ apprentissage des langues étrangères dans le système scolaire croate. Dans la deuxième partie on aborde le programme des étudiants qui suivent les cours de didactique du français langue étrangère. Deux programmes sont présentés, l'ancien qui fonctionnait jusqu'à l'introduction du processus de Bologne et celui qui est actuellement en cours selon

Yvonne Vrhovac

2009-01-01

18

Les examens de francais langue etrangere aux Etats-Unis (Examinations in French as a Foreign Language in the United States)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The absence of a uniform system of education in the United States is accompanied by freedom in testing. Two types of testing procedures are described: the multi-level standardized tests produced by the Educational Testing Service and experimental use of the cloze procedure. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

Valette, Rebecca

1978-01-01

19

La pedagogie du francais langue maternelle et l'heterogeneite linguistique (The Pedagogy of French Native Language Instruction and Linguistic Heterogeneity).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report, entirely in French, presents a study of the instructional approaches used for French native language instruction at the elementary and secondary school levels in five regions of Ontario (northwest, northeast, mid-north, central, and east). It examined the nature and degree of linguistic heterogeneity and the distinctive traits of the…

Cazabon, Benoit; Lafortune, Sylvie; Boissonneault, Julie

20

La pedagogie du francais langue maternelle et l'heterogeneite linguistique. Condense; Volume I; Volume II (French Native Language Pedagogy and Linguistic Heterogeneity. Summary; Volume I; Volume II).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An Ontario (Canada) study had these objectives: to (1) examine the nature of linguistic heterogeneity in five regions of French Ontario; (2) analyze instructional strategies appropriate for French native language instruction; (2) offer general recommendations and specific interventions to facilitate adaptation of French language instruction for…

Cazabon, Benoit; And Others

21

Multimedia interactif et formation des maitres en francais langue seconde: evaluation formative (Interactive Multimedia and Preservice Training of Teachers of French as a Second Language: Formative Evaluation).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an interactive multimedia program designed to promote reflective teaching of preservice teachers specializing in the teaching of French as a second language. Presents a formative evaluation of the conception of the use of multimedia. (Author/VWL)

Vignola, Marie-Josee; Kenny, Richard; Andrews, Bernard W.; Schilz, Mary-Anne

1999-01-01

22

Vers une autonomie croissante de l'apprenant du francais langue etrangere (Toward an Increasing Autonomy of the French as a Foreign Language Learner)?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates characteristics of spoken French texts. Experience teaching French as a foreign language has revealed that some university students, even at a relatively advanced level, have difficulty understanding the news on Radio France International. Suggests that three characteristics of the spoken news program that may cause students…

Hoeflaak, Arie; Verloop, Nico

2000-01-01

23

Echantillons du travail ecrit des eleves. Francais 6e annee, teste de rendement, juin 1988 (Sample of the Written Work of Students. 6th Grade French Achievement Test, June 1988).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of student essays provides illustrations of the criteria used to grade the composition portion of the sixth-grade achievement test used in Alberta (Canada). An introductory section describes the procedures for selecting the essays used, establishing scoring norms, and scoring the tests, and offers general comments on the writing…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation and Records Branch.

24

Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee. Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Questions (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Questions Booklet).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the 80 multiple choice questions portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the January 1987 tests. Representing the genres of poetry, short story, the novel, and…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

25

Examen et Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee. Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Textes (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Text Booklet).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the reading selections portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the January 1988 tests. Representing the genres of poetry, short story, novel, and drama, the…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

26

Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee. Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Textes (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Text Booklet).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the reading selections portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the January 1987 tests. Representing the genres of poetry, short story, novel, and drama, the…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

27

Examen en Vue du Diplome Douzieme Annee. Langue et Litterature 30. Partie B: Lecture (Choix Multiples). Livret de Questions (Examination for the Twelfth Grade Diploma, Language and Literature 30. Part B: Reading--Multiple Choice. Questions Booklet.)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of an examination required by the Alberta (Canada) Department of Education in order for 12th grade students to receive a diploma in French, this booklet contains the 80 multiple choice questions portion of Part B, the language and literature component of the January 1988 tests. Representing the genres of poetry, short story, novel, and…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

28

Actes du colloque: Tendances actuelles de la recherche sur la langue parlee (Conference Presentations: Current Trends in Research on Oral Language).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student papers presented at a sociolinguistics conference include: "La variation phonologique [d'une voyelle] a Hull"; "La force illocutoire des pronoms personnels 'je' et 'tu' en tant qu'insignes des places d'ou parlent les femmes et les hommes"; "L'emploi des modes indicatif et subjonctif dans le francais parle de la ville de Quebec"; "A Study…

Auger, Julie, Ed.

29

Ambiguites Semantiqes dues au contact des deux langues, notamment du grec moderne et du francais (Semantic Ambiguities Resulting from the Contact of Two Languages, in Particular Modern Greek and French).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The difficulties presented by the semantic baggage that a word/phrase carries as it is translated from one language (French) into another language (Greek) are discussed. Numerous examples of these difficulties, drawn from magazines and works of fiction, are provided. The phenomenon of linguistic borrowing is highlighted. (SR)

Teta, Simeonidou-Christidou

30

Le probleme des eleves anglo-dominants dans les ecoles ontariennes de langue francaise: acquisition, emploi et enseignement du francais (The Problem of English-Dominant Students in Ontario French Language Schools: Acquisition, Use, and Teaching of French).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patterns of French acquisition, use, and proficiency among Ontario anglophones are examined, and their implications for changes in both French native language instruction and French second language instruction to support the maintenance and use of French are examined. (MSE)

Mougeon, Raymond; And Others

1984-01-01

31

La pedagogie du francais langue seconde: enrichissement d'un code et pratique en acte et en situation (Teaching French as a Second Language: Enrichment of a Code and Practice in Action and in Situations)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the teaching of French as a second language to Tunisian students. The emphasis is on practicing "in action" and "in situations" so that the language is taught as a means of communication and not as an end in itself. (Text is in French.) (AM)

Blondel, Anne-Marie

1975-01-01

32

Le lexique anglais-francais de l'industrie miniere de l'Office de la langue francaise (The English-French Lexicon of the Mining Industry prepared by the Office of the French Language)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes research methods involved in compiling a lexicon of terms used in the mining industry. This consisted mainly in contrasting terms found in dictionaries with actual usage in spoken and written language. (Text is in French) (AM)

Rousseau, Louis-Jean

1974-01-01

33

L'Apprentissage du Francais Langue Seconde en Classe d'Immersion dans un Milieu Torontois (Learning French as a Second Language in Immersion Classes in a Toronto Environment). Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examples of the spontaneous speech in French of native English speakers, average age 7.6 years, were collected at the end of their second year in a French immersion program. Results show that the native language strongly influences second language speech production. While vocabulary and pronunciation are of course predominantly French, the…

Dumas, Guy; And Others

34

Programme d'etudes du secondaire deuxieme cycle Francais langue premiere, Niveaux 16-26-36 (Curriculum for the Second Year of Secondary Schools with French as a First Language, Levels 16-26-36).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, written in French, represents the final version of the curriculum for the study of French as a first language in Alberta's secondary schools. The curriculum addresses the following skills: Oral communication (listening, interaction, presentation); reading; and writing. An appendix provides a variety of charts, tables,…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

35

Programme d'etudes du secondaire deuxieme cycle Francais langue premiere, Niveaux 13-23-33 (Curriculum for the Second Year of Secondary Schools with French as a First Language, Levels 13-23-33).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, written French, represents the final version of the curriculum for the study of French as a first language in Alberta's secondary schools. The curriculum addresses the following skills: Oral communication (listening, interaction, presentation); reading; and writing. An annex provides a variety of charts, tables, questionnaires, and…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

36

Proceedings: Pacific Northwest Council on Foreign Languages. Volume XXX, Part 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following papers of relevance to second language instruction are compiled here: (1) "Bilingual Math in a Monolingual Classroom: A Field Study," by Elizabeth M. Baricevic; (2) "Ideologie et pedagogie: reflexions sur le manuel de francais au programme de '3e annee secondaire' en Algerie," by Jeanne Adam; (3) "Pedagogic Grammar and Applied…

Mazur, Gertrud S., Ed.

37

Vers une Redefinition de la Comprehension Ecrite en Langue Etrangere (Towards a Redefinition of Reading Comprehension in a Foreign Language). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Up to the present, the Centre de Recherches et d'Applications Pedagogiques en Langues has approached the development of reading comprehension skills in English as a second language in terms of morpho-syntactic development. This article proposes to examine difficulties in reading comprehension based not on morpho-syntax but on the textual and…

Abe, D.; And Others

38

Invatamantul cu Predarea in Limbile Minoritatilor Nationale din Romania. In Anul Scolar 1992/1993 = The Education System in Romania: Tuition in the Languages of Ethnic Minorities. The School Year 1992/1993 = L'enseignement dispense dans les langues des minorites nationales de Roumanie. L'annee scolaire 1992/1993.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Documentation of the Romanian system of language instruction in ethnic minority languages is presented in Romanian, French, and English. It consists of: relevant provisions from the national constitution concerning the rights of ethnic minority members; organization and functioning of the educational system at the elementary, middle, and secondary…

Council for National Minorities, Bucharest (Romania).

39

L'alternance codique chez les professeurs de français langue étrangère pendant des leçons orientées vers le développement des connaissances grammaticales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cet article est fondé sur une étude de l'utilisation de l'alternance codique chez trois professeurs de français langue étrangère dans des écoles secondaires en Australie. Il nous semble que l'alternance codique devient une stratégie pédagogique surtout dans les leçons où les professeurs traitent un point grammatical. Nous avons choisi de nous concentrer sur l'enseignement du passé composé par ces trois

Margaret Gearon

2006-01-01

40

Essais d'application d'un cadre de reference pragmatique a la realisation de materiels d'apprentissage du francais langue etrangere. L'Enseignement de la competence de communication en langues secondes. (An Attempt to Apply a Pragmatic Frame of Reference to the Production of Materials for the Study of French as a Second Language). The Teaching of Communicative Competence in Second Languages. Acts of the Colloquim of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second language learning today requires new materials. One type of learning unit suggested would have a simple format, limited scope and objectives, and diversity of content, form, learning strategies and activities. In spite of the problems involved in the production of this format, such units might be worked out in teacher-training programs, by…

Richterich, Rene

41

Actes du colloque sur la didactique des langues aujourdi'hui: Pratiques et realite. (29 Sept./1 Oct. 1983) [Proceedings of a Colloquium on the Teaching of Modern Languages Today: Practice and Reality. (September 29-October 1, 1983)].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The eight papers in this collection include: "Un enseignant de langues a la recherche de la pierre philosophale" (A Language Teacher in Search of the Philosopher's Stone); "Apprentissage autodirige: Compte rendu d'experience 1978-83" (Self-Directed Learning: Report of Experience 1978-83); "Teaching Without a Language Syllabus But With a Linguistic…

Travaux Neuchatelois de Linguistique (TRANEL), 1984

1984-01-01

42

La Crise est arrivee: la croissance des programmes de francais langue seconde et ses repercussions sur la qualite et le nombre des enseignants (The Crisis Has Arrived: The Growth of French as a Second Language Programs and Repercussions for the Quality and Number of Teachers).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of faculties of education in Canadian universities shows that the quality of French teacher training needs improvement and may run the risk of further deterioration. The tremendous student increase in French-as-a-Second-Language programs is already causing a gradual but serious shortage of French teachers. (Author/MSE)

Obadia, Andre A.

1989-01-01

43

Francais langue etrangere en milieu homoglotte et alloglotte: quels enseignements pour quelles pratiques effectives, quelles pratiques effectives apres quels enseignements? (French as a Foreign Language in Homoglot and Alloglot Environments: What Lessons To Teach for Which Effective Practices, Which Effective Practices Follow What Lessons?)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this volume are based on a survey of language learners carried out at five Swiss universities. The surveys (done through interviews and questionnaires) concern the ways that students encounter their second language (French) outside the classroom, and which of those practices are the most effective in improving their French. The…

Gauthier, Claude, Ed.; Jeanneret, Therese, Ed.

2000-01-01

44

L'Apprentissage de la relativisation en francais par des adolescents de langue italienne (The Learning of Relative Pronouns in French by Italian-Speaking Adolescents). Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin, No. 28.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents an analysis of the successive steps used by Italian-speaking secondary school students to acquire mastery of the relative pronoun in standard French. This structure was chosen for study because the acquisition of the French relative pronoun is a source of difficulty for Italian learners. An analysis was made of the students…

Trevisi, Sandra

45

Tu peux compter sur moi: Guide a l'intention du parent pour l'accompagnement de l'enfant dans son education en francais langue premiere (You Can Count on Me: Guide for Parents for Accompanying Their Child in French as a First Language Education).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook is intended for parents of French-speaking students in Alberta. It describes French-as-a-first-language education in Alberta and provides information to help parents, in collaboration with school personnel and the wider francophone community in Alberta, to preserve and develop their children's identity as speakers of French and as…

Federation des parents francophones de l'Alberta, Edmonton (Canada).

46

L'interdisciplinarite en sciences sociales pour l'etude du contact des langues (Interdisciplinarity in Social Sciences of the Study of the Relationships of Languages). Proceedings of a Colloquium of the International Center for Research on Bilingualism and the Institute for Interethnic and Intercultural Studies and Research (2nd, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, October 1-5, 1984).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers given at an international conference applying the social sciences to the study of the relationships of languages include the following: "Reseaux sociaux et comportements langagiers en milieu de contact des langues" ("Social Networks and Language Behaviors in a Language Contact Setting") by M. Blanc and J. Hamers, with commentary by R.…

Prujiner, Alain, Ed.

47

Francais langue etrangere: l'enseignement de l'orthographe elementaire aux adolescents mal scolarises issus de milieux socio-culturels defavorises. Quelques notes sur une recherche (French as a Foreign Language: The Teaching of Elementary Spelling to Adolescents Who Were Slow Learners and Who Had Come from Disadvantaged Milieux. Some Research Notes). Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin, No. 25.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reflections in this paper represent part of a study of disadvantaged 13 to 15 year-old children of immigrants in Switzerland. This section deals with the process of learning spelling. In order to observe the students' learning, the same dictation was given four times during the school year. The results were studied intuitively and…

Rey-von-Allmen, Micheline

48

Accidents de travail et mesures de prevention - Annee 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ce rapport présente les statistiques relatives aux accidents du travail pour l’année 2001 pour les membres du personnel CERN et les entreprises. Il fournit également des analyses et recommandations relatives à l’ensemble des accidents et met en évidence l’évolution des taux de fréquence et de gravité, la répartition des accidents par cause et par lésion. Ce rapport montre aussi des

A Kerhoas; C Pividori; E Paulat; E Didier-Noel

2002-01-01

49

Traumatismes Oculaires par Petards: Bilan sur Trois Annees  

PubMed Central

Summary Les accidents dus aux pétards sont des accidents graves. Leur recrudescence ces dernières années en Algérie, essentiellement durant les fêtes du Mawlid Ennabaoui (fête de la naissance du prophète), mérite à notre sens d'entreprendre des bilans exhaustifs dont celui-ci dans le but d'une sensibilisation de toutes les compétences concernées. Nous avons réuni sur trois années consécutives (2002, 2003, 2004) 60 dossiers de malades ayant subi des accidents oculaires par pétards. Nos patients sont répartis en 42 consultations pour blessures légères et 18 hospitalisations pour blessures graves. Parmi ces derniers, neuf ont présenté des complications et séquelles graves (cinq cas de cécité par atrophie du globe oculaire, trois cas de cécité cornéenne et un cas de cécité par trou maculaire). Dans tous ces cas l'incapacité permanente partielle est au minimum de 30%. Au vu de ces données nous proposons des mesures d'éducation sanitaire et une sensibilisation du grand public aux traumatismes oculaires, par le biais de mé dias appropriés: radio, télévision, affiches.

Zouaoui-Kesraoui, N.; Derdour, A.

2009-01-01

50

Le Francais quand meme (French Nonetheless).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Political, attitudinal, and administrative problems of teaching compulsory foreign languages in Colombia are described and discussed from the point of view of a French teacher in a system characterized by confusion and lack of student interest. (MSE)

Delautier, Jean-Marie

1983-01-01

51

Programme Spatial Francais (French Space Program).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The French space research program includes astronomy, solar physics, solar system, ionosphere, magnetosphere, meteorology, oceanography, earth resources, space geodesics, material science and life sciences.

1984-01-01

52

Intrahospital transport of critically ill patients (excluding newborns) recommendations of the Soci?t? de R?animation de Langue Fran?aise (SRLF), the Soci?t? Fran?aise d'Anesth?sie et de R?animation (SFAR), and the Soci?t? Fran?aise de M?decine d'Urgence (SFMU)  

PubMed Central

Critically ill adult patients often require multiple examinations in the hospital and need transport from one department to another, or even between hospitals. However, to date, no guidelines exist regarding optimum practices for transport of these fragile patients. We present recommendations for intrahospital transport of critically ill patients, excluding newborns, developed by an expert group of the French-Language Society of Intensive Care (Société de Réanimation de Langue Française (SRLF), the Société Française d’Anesthésie et de Réanimation (SFAR), and the Société Française de Médecine d’Urgence (SFMU). The recommendations cover five fields of application: epidemiology of adverse events; equipment, monitoring, and maintenance; preparation of patient before transport; human resources and training for caregivers involved in transport processes; and guidelines for planning, structure, and traceability of transport processes.

2012-01-01

53

Langues et emplois (Languages and Employment)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Taking France as a case in point, 3 situations are discussed for which organized language instruction seems necessary: 1) the export market, 2) national industry abroad, and 3) foreign workers in the country. These situations show the strong links between second languages and employment and the pragmatic necessity of foreign language education.…

Chotard, Yvon

1975-01-01

54

Amenager la langue francaise (French Language Planning).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of French language planning focuses on two different roles: official, cherished language of France and international language subject to outside influence. Three areas of concern are discussed: borrowing from English; lexical variation outside France; and influence of computer science on language, particularly the use of spell-checking…

Corbeil, Jean-Claude

1991-01-01

55

Roumanie: Le Francais d'abord (Romania: French First).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighty percent of the schools in Iasi, Moldova's capital city, teach French as a second language. The city's French Cultural Center is a focus for educational and cultural information and organization. The center helped upgrade the professional level of teaching following the demise of communism in Eastern Europe. (CNP)

Serren-Rosso, M. L.

1993-01-01

56

Le francais en trois dimensions (Three-Dimensional French).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The different concepts underlying the terms "foreign language,""second language," and "native language" are examined in the context of social change that blurs cultural delineations. The implications for language instruction in a variety of contexts and with a variety of objectives are discussed. (MSE)

Gschwind-Holtzer, Gisele

1988-01-01

57

Les francais de traduction (Different Ways to Translate French Texts).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the variety of language styles with which the translator deals and discusses the esthetic and practical advantages of adapting the language of a text to the sociocultural and communicative habits of a specific linguistic group. (MSE)

Renaud, Gaston R.

1986-01-01

58

Le francais "un et divisible" (French "One and Divisible").  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method for making an intermediate language course at the postsecondary level responsive to the different professional needs of students is discussed. The first segment of the course focuses on the use of the language for communication, and the second teaches, through easily obtained instructional materials, the construction of specialized…

Touitou, Colette-Judith

1991-01-01

59

Vers un nouveau phonetisme francais (Toward a New French Phonetics)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evolutionary changes in French pronunciation have necessitated changes in phonetic representation. The new articulatory phenomena involve modifications in syllabic structure and in consonant/vowel relationship. (Text is in French.) (DB)

Monnot, Michel; Kite, Francoise

1976-01-01

60

Physics 30: Grade 12 Diploma Examination = Physique 30: Examen en vue du diplome 12 annee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, in both English and French versions, is the Physics 30 Grade 12 Diploma Examination from Alberta Education. It is a 2.5 hour closed-book examination consisting of 37 multiple-choice and 12 numerical-response questions of equal value that are worth 70% of the examination, and 2 written-response questions of equal value worth 30% of…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

61

Chemistry 30: Grade 12 Diploma Examination = Chimie 30: Examen en vue du diplome 12 annee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, in both French and English versions, is the Chemistry 30 Grade 12 Diploma Examination from Alberta Education. It is a 2.5 hour closed-book examination consisting of 44 multiple-choice and 12 numerical-response questions of equal value that are worth 70% of the examination, and 2 written-response questions of equal value worth 30% of…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

62

Biology 30: Grade 12 Diploma Examination = Biologie 30: Examen en vue du diplome 12 annee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, in both English and French versions, is the Biology 30 Grade 12 Diploma Examination from Alberta Education. It is a 2.5 hour closed-book examination consisting of 48 multiple-choice and 8 numerical-response questions of equal value that are worth 70% of the examination, and 2 written-response questions of equal value worth 30% of…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

63

LES CORPUS ORAUX EN FRANÇAIS LANGUE ETRANGERE : AUTHENTICITE ET PEDAGOGIE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to explore the potential of spoken French corpora in the teaching and learning of French as a foreign language, with particular reference to publications in this area which relate not only to French but also to other languages. Taking both a theoretical and a practical approach, the article will address two issues: 1) Can corpora be considered

Angela Chambers

64

La situation du Français Langue Étrangère en Espagne  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following article proposes to think about the process and the passage of the students and the teachers in the defense of the French language. The main actors have been the teachers, their associations, their struggles and their discussions with different administrative instances. We want describe the opposing difficulties, as well as the challenges and the overcome obstacles, to propose

Joaquín Díaz-Corralejo Conde

2009-01-01

65

Évaluation des stades de développement en français langue étrangère  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system to define and evaluate stages of development in second language French. The task of identifying such stages can be formulated as identifying the frequency of some lexical and grammatical features in the learners' production and how they vary over time. The problems in this procedure are threefold : identify the relevant features, de- cide on

Jonas GRANFELDT; Pierre NUGUES

66

Demolinguistique et problemes des langues (Demolinguistics and Language Problems)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demolinguistics is a branch of sociolinguistics observing linguistic trends as affected by population distribution and redistribution and by the status of societies. Modern communication techniques favor the spread of the 'big' languages to the disadvantage of the 'small' ones. (Text is in French.) Available from Humanities Press, Inc., Atlantic…

Pohl, Jacques

1972-01-01

67

Langue maternelle et langues etrangeres: vers une pedagogie globale. (Native Language and Foreign Languages: Toward a Global Pedogogy).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although language needs, strategies, and instructional situations vary considerably, some degree of integration of methods for native and second language instruction based on empirical research is recommended. The value of second language instructional methods for native language instruction, instruction for communicative competence, and the place…

Roulet, Eddy

1983-01-01

68

Mathematics & Sciences. Grade 12 Diploma Examinations Program. 1987-88 School Year=Mathematiques & Sciences. Programme des examens--Diplome de 12e annee. Annee scolaire 1987-88.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information is presented about the grade 12 diploma examinations for Mathematics 30, Biology 30, Chemistry 30, and Physics 30 to be administered in 1988. Included are both the French and English language versions of the document. Topics explained include: (1) general format of the examinations (stating the content, emphasis, and time allotments);…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation and Data Processing Branch.

69

A Year of Transitions: 1995 AUCC Activities = Une annee de transitions: 1995 Activites de l'AUCC.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication in English and French versions describes the activities of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC) for 1995; particularly activities in the areas of public policy and advocacy, member services, and contract management. The section on public policy and advocacy describes how deficit reduction and national…

Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

70

Rapport d'Activite Crpe pour l'Annee 1983 (Activities Report in Earth and Planetary Environments Physics).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ion media electrodynamics; natural plasma waves; low and middle atmosphere; electromagnetic communication and propagation theory; and space terrestrial instrumentation and data treatment were studied. The results obtained by the processing of data from Ge...

1984-01-01

71

French Space Program. Report to Cospar Programme Spatial Francais. Rapport au Cospar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A report is presented on French space activities over the period mid-1975 to mid-1976. These activities cover the following main fields: extrasolar system astronomy, solar physics, solar system, lunar rocks, ionospheric and magnetospheric physics, aeronom...

1976-01-01

72

Le francais a l'est de l'Europe (French in Eastern Europe).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The popularity of French second language instruction, the rebirth of bilingual education, and efforts to establish links with French industry locating in Eastern Europe offer an example to France. It is clear that Eastern Europe views bilingualism as a means of revitalizing the region's role in the European community. (MSE)

Ploquin, Francoise

1991-01-01

73

Le francais parle en situation minoritaire: Volume II (Spoken French in a Minority Situation).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a study of the instructional practices, programs, and teacher education in French language schools located in French-speaking communities in Ontario. The five chapters of the study deal with the following aspects of the question: (1) theoretical presuppositions for the teaching of French as a native language, including methodology,…

Cazabon, Benoit; Frenette, Normand

74

Une Experience d'enseignement du francais par ordinateur (An Experiment in Teaching French by Computer).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experimental program for university summer students of French as a second language that provided a computer resource center and a variety of courseware, authoring aids, and other software for student use is described and the problems and advantages are discussed. (MSE)

Bougaieff, Andre; Lefebvre, France

1986-01-01

75

Le Francais des Professions Scientifiques et Techniques (French for the Scientific and Technical Professions).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two sequential courses in scientific and technical French developed as a supplement to third- and fourth-year college French, in response to expressed student and industry demand, had as their objectives to develop a general familiarity with products of the large French industrial companies and their United States affiliates and to develop means…

Muller, Brigitte

76

Une Nouvelle Place pour le francais au Senegal? (A New Place for French in Senegal?)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the role of the French language in Senegal first chronicles language and education policy from the colonial period until 1980, then cites research indicating that French is infrequently used for personal purposes. Recent initiatives to strengthen its status and usage, and obstacles to their success, are outlined. (MSE)

Ka, Omar

1993-01-01

77

Le francais fonde sur la competence, Superieur (Competency Based French, Superior).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional guide in French is intended for training Peace Corps volunteers serving in the Central African Republic. It includes 35 topical units at the superior level, each consisting of briefly stated competency objectives and a number of brief, related situational texts. Unit topics include: explaining how to do something; explaining…

Dimanche, Maurice

78

Il dettato nella "classe de francais" (Dictation in the French Class)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the question of whether to eliminate the longrespected but now disdained dictation from the foreign language classroom. It is concluded that the dictation may be saved if its purpose is changed. (CFM)

Margarito, Maria Grazia

1978-01-01

79

Uruguay: Le francais en quete d'image (Uruguay: French in Search of an Image).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of French language instruction in Uruguay is assessed. Drawing on results of recent surveys, it is observed that French suffers from a lackluster image, and from a lack of confidence among language teachers themselves. (MSE)

Francais dans le Monde, 1993

1993-01-01

80

Lexique anglais-francais du microfilm (Glossary of English-French Microfilm Terminology)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a list of English-French equivalents for terminology dealing with microfilm. Most of the terms listed were taken from technical documents and brochures of the Kodak Company. (Text is in French.) (PP)

Pollett, Ray

1974-01-01

81

Technoscientific French Teaching Guide = Guide pour l'enseignement du Francais technoscientifique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course guide aids university professors in doing research to develop a course in scientific and technical French. The course is intended to aid students in developing communicative skills in French in the context of science and technology. The course introduces students to the culture of France as well as to its industrial and technological…

Muller, Brigitte D.

82

Australie: Pour quelques mots de francais (Australia: For a Little French).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An Australian campaign to promote French second-language instruction uses the motto, "Big Bucks with a Little French." The campaign accompanies publication of the book "French in Australia: New Prospects," which seeks to reinforce and diversify the image of French and its use around the world, for business and pleasure. (MSE)

Monteil, Alain

1991-01-01

83

L'Omission de NE dans le Francais Contemporain (The Omission of NE in Modern French)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrary to the pattern of many changes in French usage, the gradual loss of "ne" follows a continum from speakers who always omit it to those who never do, and considerable divergence may be shown in familiar versus formal language. Qualitative and quantitative perspectives are examined. (Text is in French.) (Author/MSE)

Pohl, Jacques

1975-01-01

84

PROBLEMES D APPRENTISSAGE DU FRANÇAIS LANGUE ETRANGERE (FLE) EN CONTEXTE DE FRANÇAIS LANGUE SECONDE (FLS) : CAS DES APPRENANTS DU CUEF D ABIDJAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article intends to set some problems that the non French-speaking students who learn french as a foreign language meet (FFL) in the African countries using french as a second language. We will be especially interested here by the case of the Côte dIvoire, multilingual country where french has given birth to several endogenous varieties, under the influence of the

Clémentine BROU-DIALLO

85

Le TALN au service de la didactique du français langue étrangère écrit  

Microsoft Academic Search

New text analysis softwares issued from fields of research such as Machine Learning and Natural Languages Processing prove to be relevant tools for the language sciences. Littératron is a new data-processing tool for the automatic extraction of syntactic patterns, designed at LIP6 by Jean-Gabriel Ganascia. Associated with a linear text analyser, it reveals the stylistic peculiarities of a text. We

Isabelle Audras; Jean-Gabriel Ganascia

2006-01-01

86

Boîte à outils TAL pour des langues peu informatisées : le cas du somali  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of corpora is a critical phase of systems of natural language processing based on statistical methods. This point is crucial for less equipped and less computerized languages like African languages. This paper aims to present different tools for Somali language and different scenarios to build corpora for this language : A gathered corpora from the web, Syntex, a

Abdillahi Nimaan; Pascal Nocera; Juan-Manuel Torres-Moreno

2006-01-01

87

Didactique des langues et emploi de revues (Second Language Teaching and the Use of Magazines)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the use of magazines and newspapers as reading materials for second language teaching at the intermediate level, specifically in the teaching of Dutch to native French speakers. (Text is in French.) (CDSH/CLK)

Bergans-Libioul, M.-Cl.

1976-01-01

88

"Traduction" et didactique des langues ("Translation" and Language-Teaching Methodology)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts, through clarification of the term "translation," to define and put in place, from a methodological point of view, the latent tendency to reach back to the native language system, and its effect on the learning of the target language. (Text is in French.) (IFS/WGA)

Besse, Henri

1975-01-01

89

L'Enseignement des langues assiste par ordinateur: nouvelle pedagogie? (Computer Assisted Language Instruction: New Pedagogy?).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent second language instruction computer software focuses almost exclusively on the structures and forms of language, and on programed learning instead of developing communicative skills. Until artificial intelligence changes these old behavioristic principles, computer-assisted language instruction can only play a minor role in language…

Elkabas, Charles

1989-01-01

90

Linguistique et pedagogie des langues etrangeres (Linguistics and Pedagogy of Foreign Languages)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the main issues involved in foreign language teaching methodologies. Particularly discusses how the learner may be affected by the metalanguage used in instruction, when it is composed of traditional grammar terminology or modern linguistic terminology or when none is used. (Text is in French.) (TL)

Ladmiral, Jean-Rene

1975-01-01

91

Les langues minoritaires en contexte; Minderheitensprachen im Kontext (Minority Languages in Context).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles in Italian, English, French, and German address issues in minority languages and minority language groups. They include: "The Role of Italian in Some Changes in Walser Morphosyntax" (article in Italian); "Compensatory Linguistic Strategies in the Gradual Death Process of a Minority Language: Evidence from Some Dying Dialects of Basque";…

Gross, Anna-Alice Dazzi, Ed.; Mondada, Lorenza, Ed.

1999-01-01

92

Le Schwyzertutsch 5e langue nationale? (Is Swiss German a Fifth National Language?)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These papers on the subject of the Swiss German language examine the status and attitudes of the Swiss German speaker, the reaction of other linguistic communities to Swiss German, and the necessity and/or possibility of learning Swiss German. The following articles are included: (1) "Le 'Schwyzertutsch': ecran ou lien? (Is Swiss German a Screen…

Redard, Francoise, Ed.; And Others

1981-01-01

93

L Intercomprehension des langues latines (The Mutual Intelligibility of Romance Languages).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the need to promote mutual comprehension among speakers of Romance languages describes one university program in France and looks at the possibility of extending multilanguage instruction to secondary education. The potential, and problems, of trying to teach students listening comprehension in several related languages are…

Ploquin, Francoise

1991-01-01

94

L’Échelle de développement pubertaire : équivalence en langue française du «Pubertal Development Scale»  

Microsoft Academic Search

L’Échelle de développement pubertaire ( EDP; version française du «Pubertal Development Scale» de Petersen et Crockett, 1985) est une mesure auto-révélée du niveau de maturation pubertaire à l’adolescence. Cette étude visait principalement la validation de l’ EDP auprès d’une population d’élèves du secondaire. L’ EDP a été administrée à trois reprises auprès de 255 élèves lors des deux premières années

Pierrette Verlaan; Stéphane Cantin; Michel Boivin

2001-01-01

95

Editorial: Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition \\/ Éditorial: Acquisition du vocabulaire d'une langue seconde  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the call for papers for this special issue on second language (L2) vocabulary research, we suggested several possible themes for submissions, including formulaic sequences and corpus-based approaches. We are pleased to report that high-quality submissions on these topics arrived – from researchers in Canada and as far away as New Zealand – and that we also received excellent papers

Marlise Horst; Tom Cobb

2006-01-01

96

Utilisation des termes complexes dans un système de recherche d'information en langue arabe  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the performance of information retrieval systems, it seems important to identify key phrases which constitute a better representation of text semantic content than single word terms. In this paper, we adopt the standard method for multi-word term extraction for Arabic. We define the linguistic specifications and develop a term extraction tool. We experiment the term extraction program for

Siham Boulaknadel; Béatrice Daille; Driss Aboutajdine

2008-01-01

97

La Langue francaise en Afrique occidentale francophone (The French Language in West Africa).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a reflection on certain aspects of sociolinguistic and linguistic problems of French in West Africa, particularly in Senegal and the Ivory Coast. The sociolinguistic section discusses the role French has played in Africa and still plays vis-a-vis African languages and English. Conditions in which French is used and attitudes both of…

Kwofie, Emmanuel N.

98

L'Harmonisation des langues maliennes: entre l'Integration nationale et régionale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standardization of Malian languages, which began in the period after independence, has been an educational reform guided more by linguists than by any institutional framework laid down by the political authorities of the country. This situation has permitted the technical application of a scientific strategy, but it has not led to widespread and general acceptance of the formulas which have been worked out. The consequent opposition between technical and political considerations, which have admittedly not always been in conflict, has been complicated by a set of additional factors which have made it difficult to reconcile internal (national) harmonization, dictated by local tendencies and balances between languages, and the need to respect the (regional) ecolinguistics of the country, whose linguistic and sociocultural divisions frequently extend well into other countries of the sub-region. This conflict is illustrated by the example of Malian languages with a wide regional distribution — Bamanan (Bambara) and Fulfulde (Fulani) — and by that of languages with a narrower distribution such as Bomu and Syenara-Mamara. The standardization of orthography and the creation of terminology in the MAPE (Mandingo-Peul) Project are the manifestation of a general acceptance of regionalism, while the choice of central, standard languages has often been made without regard for regional factors.

Ouane, Adama

1991-03-01

99

Etude du comportement sous charges laterales des ossatures de beton arme avec murs de remplissage de maconnerie, construites avant les annees 1960  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reinforced concrete structures with unreinforced masonry infills (BMR) are considered vulnerable to earthquakes. Under seismic actions, infills could fail (causing injuries or death) and cause damages to columns. In Quebec and Canada, most of BMR structures have been constructed prior to the introduction of modern seismic design codes raising question on the contribution of the infill to the structure lateral resistance. The aim of this thesis is to improve modelling technique of BMR structures built in Quebec between 1915 and 1960. This type of structures is found in hospitals or schools buildings, which must comply with some post-earthquake functionality requirements. They could also be residential or office buildings. Actually, practicing engineers usually calculate seismic capacity of BMR structures without considering the infill's structural contribution to the lateral resistance. Yet, this contribution should not be omitted. The first part of the thesis investigates the construction techniques and material properties of the old BMR structures in the Province. The results are the material properties (concrete, reinforcing steel, brick, terra cotta tile, and mortar) and the characteristics of the assemblies (wall section, reinforcement details…). The second part of the thesis presents the results of series of parametric analyses to identify among modelling and geometric parameters, which ones are the most influent on the lateral load response (rigidity, fundamental period, normal modes). Linear and modal analyses were performed. The most influent parameters identified are: number of storeys, number of bays, bay's width, soft storey, openings, upper storeys modelized (instead of being replaced by punctual loads) and the modelization technique of infills panels (strut or shell). Nonlinear static analyses have been performed to identify the most influent parameters to be considered for evaluating the lateral resistance, the capacity (load / displacement) and the yielding sequence (beam versus columns versus infills). The identified parameters are the presence of the infills, the openings and the geometric characteristics of the models (number of storeys and number of bays). One important contribution of this work is the development of an equivalent strut model to represent the action of the infill. The model could be easily implemented in standard analysis software. A central axial hinge reproducing the nonlinear behaviour of the masonry is added to the strut element. This model is a hybridization of existing proposals (FEMA and others) with added innovations by the author. It has been validated with experimental and numerical analyses results from literature. An important conclusion of this thesis is that the contribution of infills to lateral load resisting capacities of BMR structures should be considered for structure of more than one storey. Infills can add up to 51 % to bare frame capacity. The National building code requires that the lateral resistance of existing buildings must be at least 60 % of the equivalent static seismic force (V2005). It is concluded that one storey BMR buildings have a sufficient resistance, while three-storeys structures exhibit plastic deformations for loads under 0,6* V2005.

Lefebvre, Karine

100

A Resource Kit of French Immersion Materials from the Milwaukee Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional materials from the Milwaukee Public School System's elementary school French immersion program are presented. The materials for the Multi-Language School-German/French, are as follows: (1) Summer Reading Booklet, First Grade French Immersion; (2) L'automne: Livret de la premiere annee; (3) L'Halloween: Livret de la premiere annee;…

Geier, Julie, Comp.

101

Etats-Unis: Le Francais a l'ecole elementaire (United States: French in the Elementary School).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of French foreign language instruction in the elementary schools (FLES) in the United States looks at the rationale behind and proliferation of FLES programs and the diversity of program models, including exploratory, traditional second language, and immersion. (MSE)

Egea-Kuchne, Denise

1993-01-01

102

Sur les traces de l'heritage francais en Nouvelle-Angleterre: Boston (Tracing French Heritage in New England: Boston).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet highlights some of the more important elements of the French heritage in the Boston area, particularly during the Revolutionary period and the time of the establishment of many institutions of American life in New England. It is intended for secondary school students in a bilingual education setting who have at least an "intermediate…

Quintal, Claire

103

La Traduction des formes verbales du present francais en bafia (Translation of Verb Forms from the French Present into Bafia).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Translation into Bafia of the French present tense in its different values requires the translator to make some decisions based on semantic values and implied time factors. Specific considerations and problems are discussed with examples given. (MSE)

Aroga Bessong, Dieudonne P.

1982-01-01

104

Vers un renouveau du "mirage americain" dans les lettres francais (Toward a Renewal of the "American Mirage" in French Literature)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social and political commentary on the alternating images of America projected in French writing through the years; revised version of a paper presented at the 25th Annual Kentucky Foreign Language Conference, Lexington, Kentucky, April 28, 1972. (RL)

Huvos, Kornel

1973-01-01

105

Vers Une Analyse systematique de l'interrogation en francais (Toward a Systematic Analysis of the French Interrogative).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A systematic analysis of the French interrogative focuses on the distinction between the syntactic processes (identification of question words, interrogative phrase preposing, and rules of question formation) and phonological processes (intonation patterns) that characterize questions in French. (Author/MSE)

Azoulay-Vicente, Avigail

1988-01-01

106

Dictionnaire contextuel anglais-francais de l'energie solaire (Contextual English-French Dictionary on Solar Energy).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This English-French dictionary on solar energy is intended for translators and purports to contain all the elements necessary for doing quality translations. Each entry contains the following elements: (1) the basic English word with its synonyms and equivalents; (2) the definition in English and reference to its source; and (3) sentences or…

Serre, Robert

107

Le francais c'est le last frontier: The Status of English-Origin Nouns in Acadian French.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Categorization of lone lexical items from one language embedded in another is often difficult due to their ambiguous status as either loanwords or codeswitches. Following variationist principles, a comparative method is used to disambiguate lone English-origin nouns in Acadian-French discourse. (Author/VWL)

Turpin, Danielle

1998-01-01

108

Corps de la Paix Madagascar Livre du Formateur. Langue: Sakalava (Peace Corps Madagascar Teacher's Manual. Language: Sakalava).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's manual for Sakalava, a dialect of Malagasy, is designed for the specific language instruction needs of Peace Corps personnel in Madagascar. It is written primarily in French and Sakalava, with some titles in English. It consists of 29 topical lessons, each geared to a specific domain and competency and containing information on…

Tshiangale, Mupemba Wa

109

Corps de la Paix Madagascar Livre du Stagiare. Langue: Malagasy Ofisialy (Peace Corps Madagascar Volunteer Manual. Language: Official Malagasy).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual for Malagasy is designed for the specific language instruction needs of Peace Corps personnel working in Madagascar. It is written primarily in English and Malagasy, with introductory sections in French. It consists of 29 topical lessons, each geared to a specific domain and competency and containing information on needed materials,…

Tshiangale, Mupemba Wa

110

ASPECTS MOTIVATIONNELS DANS L'APPRENTISSAGE DES LANGUES ÉTRANGÈRES - LE CAS DU FRANÇAIS DANS UNE FACULTÉ DE SCIENCES ÉCONOMIQUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The model provided by Renald Legendre notices the complexity of a pedagogical situation and clarifies perfectly an approach peculiar to the didactics of languages. In the triangulation object of knowledge - teacher - learner there are multifaceted pedagogical relations. In this game of components and relations, motivation is the stimulating and directive factor, which the teacher has to master perfectly

Constantin Felicia

2008-01-01

111

Une approche littératiée: apprendre les sciences et la langue en immersion tardive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrating content and language in French immersion (FI) continues to be a topic of concern and great discussion. Classroom observations suggest that FI teachers tend to focus on teaching content and negotiating meaning in the content-based classroom but often neglect language integration. This article presents the results of a quasi-experimental study that assessed the impact of a literacy-based approach to

Marianne Cormier; Miles Turnbull

2008-01-01

112

La mort d'une langue: le judeo-espagnol (The Death of a Language: The Spanish Spoken by Jews)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Sephardic culture which flourished in the Balkans, Ottoman Empire, and North Africa during the Middle Ages. Suggests the use of Ladino", the language of medieval Spain spoken by the expelled Jews. (DS)

Renard, Raymond

1971-01-01

113

Pedagogie des Langues et Prospective: Reflexions Pour 1984 (Language Instruction and the Future: Reflections for 1984). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1971.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the possible language teaching situation for the generation born in 1964, with a view toward preparing for the challenges that 1984 will bring. A large percentage of the French population will find a second European language indispensable. To this end, secondary education will have to become an arena of linguistic…

Chalon, Y.

114

La politique a propos des langues regionales: cadre historique (Politics as They Relate to Regional Languages: A Historical Perspective)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Furnishes a general historic frame for the studies concerning each language; outlines influences on instruction of the Ancien Regime, of the Revolution, and of conditions and efforts since the Third Republic. (Text is in French.) (MSE)

Giacomo, Mathee

1975-01-01

115

Contact de langues et fonction poetique du changement linguistique (Language Contact and the Poetic Function of Linguistic Change).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following Roman Jakobson, this article attempts to outline the affinity between linguistic change induced by language contact and conflict, and the poetic function of language. This phenomenon can be observed by studying the discourses of trilingual speakers in the Aosta Valley in Northern Italy. The problematic position of French is reflected and…

Jablonka, Frank

2001-01-01

116

Langue francaise: Le plaisir, un marche a prendre (The French Language: The Pleasure, a Step to Take).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of a French-Japanese cultural institute in Japan is examined, and it is noted that, despite its relatively limited appeal within such a different culture, with careful work the institute has uncovered a significant audience who participate in French-related activities simply because they are pleasurable. (MSE)

Julien, Patrice

1994-01-01

117

Le Laboratoire de Langues - Hier, Aujord'hui et Demain (The Language Laboratory: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Observing that the use of the language laboratory has declined during recent years, the author proceeds to explore ways in which interest in language study may be revived and how foreign language instruction may be made more relevant. Discussion of the cognitive-code learning theory and of individualized instruction suggests the use of the…

Blanchet, Alain

118

Talisman: Un Système Multi-Agents Gouverné Par Des Lois Linguistiques Pour Le Traitement De La Langue Naturelle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural language processing raises the problem of ambiguities and multiple solutions which follow from them. The knowledge gained when using the morphosyntactic analyser CRISSTAL showed how necessary it was to overcome this issue. The architecture with sequential levels, in which each module corresponds to a linguistic level (pretreatments, morphology, syntax, semantics) has shown its limits. A sequential architecture does not

Marie-Hélène Stefanini; Alain Berrendonner; Genevieve Lallich; Flávio Oquendo

1992-01-01

119

La Mondialisation et l'Apprentissage d'une Langue de Specialite (Globalization and the Learning of a Specialized Language).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the cultural effects of globalization, a trend that threatens the eradication of some cultures and gives rise to skewed ethnic consciousness and narrow linguistic protectionism. National governments must promote pluralism. Learning a specialty language advances this cause and can provide a lively experience if the teacher adopts flexible…

Belanger, Charles H.

1995-01-01

120

Redefinition du statut des langues en Union Sovietique (Redefinition of the Status of Languages in the Soviet Union).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The language-related constitutional changes made in 10 of the former Soviet republics and in the central Soviet government since 1988 are analyzed from 3 perspectives: unilingualism vs. bilingualism; the relationship between economy and language; and immigration and territoriality as concerns language. Special attention is given to language of…

Maurais, Jacques

1992-01-01

121

Documents Non Didactiques et Formation en Langues (Non-Didactic Documents and Language Training). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1972.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In second language learning, it is often the case that a discrepancy exists between the language of the pedagogical materials and that of the media or of the native speaker. This article discusses the advantages and problems involved in using authentic, non-didactic materials in post-introductory second language instruction, as found in an…

Duda, R.; And Others

122

Traduction et langues de specialite: Approches theoriques et considerations pedagogiques (Translation and Specialty Languages: Theoretical Approaches and Pedagogic Considerations).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essays on the teaching of translation and on specialized translation, all in French, include: "Perspectives d'optimisation de la formation du traducteur: quelques reflexions" ("Perspectives on Optimization of Training of Translation Teachers: Some Reflections") (Egan Valentine); "L'enseignement de la revision pedagogique" ("The Teaching of…

Guevel, Zelie, Ed.; Valentine, Egan, Ed.

123

Sociolinguistic Constraints on Lexical Borrowing in Tarahumara: Explorations in "Langue and Parole" and "Existential Bilingualism"--an Approximation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with patterns of limited borrowing in Tarahumara, or Raramuri, a Uto-Aztecan language in northern Mexico. Probes the sociolinguistic constraints that have apparently caused Raramuri to have borrowed surprisingly little from Spanish. (Author/RM)

Ornstein, Jacob

1976-01-01

124

Interference lexicale dans la langue quebecoise rurale (1900-1950) (Lexical Interference in Rural Quebec's Language, 1900-1950).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of rural Quebec's language showed that by comparison with the urban version, it is less influenced by anglicisms, and the borrowing that has occurred is not solely of terms of civilization designating objects or notions susceptible to exchange between anglophones and francophones in Quebec. Certain anglicisms seem to have become integrated…

Rogers, David-F.

125

Dynamique des entreprises : taux de croissance de l'emploi dans les petites et grandes entreprises au Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le present document vise a determiner si les entreprises canadiennes de differentes tailles (exprimees par l'emploi) affichent des taux de croissance differents d'annee en annee. Les donnees sont tirees du Programme d'analyse longitudinale de l'emploi de Statistique Canada et couvrent la periode de 1999 a 2008. La methodologie est comparable a celle utilisee par Haltiwanger, Jarmin et Miranda (2010) pour

Jay Rollin Anne-Marie Dixon

2012-01-01

126

L'emploi du traitement de texte dans un cours universitaire de premiere annee portant sur la litterature francaise (The Use of Word Processing in a First-Year University Course in French Literature).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined effects of requiring mainly nonfrancophone university freshmen to use word processing in a French literature course. Results showed students learned word processing without harmful effects on course performance, showed greater control over French spelling and grammar, and wrote more syntactically complex French. Increased…

Laing, Donald; And Others

1991-01-01

127

Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Deuxieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 2).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 2 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

128

Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manual a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Sixieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 6).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 6 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning"Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

129

Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Troisieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 3).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 3 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

130

Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Cinquieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 5).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 5 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

131

Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Quatrieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 4).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 4 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

132

Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Premiere annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 1).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 1 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

133

Results of Several Years Experiments on the Absorption of Radioactive Strontium and Cesium by Cultivated Plants; COMPTE RENDU D'EXPERIENCES DE PLUSIEURS ANNEES SUR L'ABSORPTION DU STRONTIUM ET DU CESIUM RADIOACTIES PAR DES PLANTES CULTIVEES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption of cesium-137 and strontium-90 by vines, permanent ; pasture, potatoes, green vegetables, tomatoes, onions, cabbage, and beans in ; France in 1960 is presented. The strontium coefficient has varied very little ; from one year to the next and that of cesium has slightly diminished. The values ; obtained suggest that the concentrations in irrigation water should not

Huguet

1962-01-01

134

La place de la negation syntaxique en francais (The Place of Syntactic Negation in French). Montreal Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a syntactic analysis of standard French negation. The following expressions are described in detail: (1)ne...pas(point), (2)nullement (aucunement), (3)plus, (4)jamais, (5)pas encore, (6)guere, (7)rien, (8)personne, (9)aucun(e), (10)nul(le), (11)ni...ni..., (12)nulle part, (13)que, (14)pas un(e), (15)nul. The negative expressions are…

Paradis, Michel

135

Etat actuel du travail de documentation fondamentale sur les situations de l'enseignement du francais (Updating Basic Information on the State of French Language Instruction).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the results of a world-wide survey on the teaching of French, both as a first and as a second language. States the objectives of the investigation and describes the procedures used to collect the relevant information. The documentation guidelines used to conduct the survey are reproduced in the appendix. (MES)

Tabouret-Keller, Andree

1980-01-01

136

Les Emplois du participe present en francais et en anglais (The Use of the Present Participle in French and in English).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the uses of the French verb forms ending in "-ant" and the English forms ending in "-ing" begins with a discussion of the identification and classification of the various uses (substantive, adjectival, and adverbial) in each language and then compares them. The research finds that the English uses are far more varied than the French.…

Duffley, Patrick J.

137

Promouvoir l'etude et l'emploi du francais dans le monde (Promoting the Study and Use of French in the World).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the current situation regarding the study and use of French in various European countries as well as the United States. It is suggested that French language and culture can best be promoted through the promotion of the study of many languages. (AM)

Van Deth, J. P.

1979-01-01

138

L'emploi des verbes francais par des travailleurs immigres arabophones et portugais (The Use of French Verbs by Arabic-Speaking and Portuguese Immigrant Workers)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the actual knowledge of French of Arabic-speaking and Portuguese immigrants with particular emphasis on their use of French verbs. The aim is to better prepare a methodology for the teaching of standard French to these workers. (Text is in French.) (TL)

Morsly, Dalila; Vasseur, Marie-Therese

1976-01-01

139

Le francais parle dans la ville de Quebec: une etude sociolinguistique (The Spoken French in the City of Quebec: A Sociolinguistic Study). Publication G-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is divided into two major sections. The first, the study of language in a sociolinguistic perspective, includes: (1) an analysis of the attitudes associated with linguistic variation, and a review of (2) studies conducted in French Quebec, (3) the linguistic and cultural deficit theories, (4) the theory of cross-linguistic and…

Deshaies, Denise

140

Le Certificat Pratique de la CCIP et la Traduction dans les Cours de francais Commercial (The CCIP Certificate and Translation in Business French Courses).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of professional translators in the milieu of the European Community and the global economy. The article focuses on the changes occurring within the French educational system in order to accomodate this reality by preparing students for a practical translation test in order to earn a certificate in the translation of…

Cote, Paul Raymond

1996-01-01

141

Variation et heterogeneite de recits en francais de jeunes eleves tunisiens (Variation and Heterogeneity of the French Narrative Productions of Young Tunisian Students).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzes narrative productions in the French of 10 Tunisian pupils selected from 2 schools (1 in an urban area, 1 in a rural area) in Tunisia (Tunis). The purpose of the study was to observe the development of the French language in native Tunisian Arabic speakers. Particular attention is focused on the narrative structure and time…

Anane, Chiraz

2001-01-01

142

Connaissance et Usage d'Anglicismes par des Francais de Paris (Knowledge and Usage of Anglicisms by French People in Paris)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A synthesis of a research project treating the relationship between the comprehension of English words, the ability to use them and their actual usage by members of various social groups in Paris. Topics covered are: methodology, classification of words, reactions of informants and interpretation of data. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

Cartier, Alice

1977-01-01

143

Intonation et syntaxe chez l'enfant francais a partir de dix-huit mois (Intonation and Syntax in the French Child from the Age of 18 months)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study to determine the role of intonation in language acquisition. Related studies are mentioned. Research methods for the study are outlined and two case studies are reviewed. Conclusions show that adult-child interaction influences not only the child's use of intonation but also his acquisition of syntax. (Text is in…

Leroy, Christine

1975-01-01

144

Vers une redefinition de la formation initiale des professeurs de francais? (Towards a Redefinition of Beginning Training for Professors of French)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses teacher training, specifically beginning training for language teachers. Deficiencies are examined, and new directions are suggested, including: curriculum updating to make methodology and applied linguistics part of language training; greater autonomy in learning; and making practical experience in teaching and research part of the…

Coste, Daniel

1975-01-01

145

Vers un nouveau manuel de stylistique comparee du francais et de l'anglais (Toward a New Comparative Style Manual for French and English).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The features necessary in an introductory course on translation are described, and the standard text for this kind of course is evaluated with reference to two critical accounts of it. Differences in general structure between the standard text and one in preparation and some theories needing modification are examined. (Author/MSE)

Kingstone, Basil

1989-01-01

146

Vers une culture des affaires? Mentalites, comportements, representations dans la classe de francais commercial (Toward a Business Culture? Attitudes, Behaviors, and Representations in the Commercial French Classroom).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploration of the nature and range of international expertise necessary for students and users of commercial French attempts to note the points where knowledge of law, politics, culture, and business practice takes over from mere accumulation of facts or linguistic competence to facilitate genuine, productive, and culturally appropriate…

Bousquet, Gilles

1993-01-01

147

Trente ans d'etudes sur les parlers francais de Belgique, 1945-1975 (Thirty Years of Studies on French Usage in Belgium, 1945-1975).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a report on the different types of studies of the regional varieties of French that have been carried out in Belgium from 1945 to the present. The majority of the studies have been done by Belgians, and have to do with regional varieties of French spoken in Belgium. Some, however, examine African or American varieties. Chapter 1 deals with…

Pohl, Jacques

148

Teaching English Language Arts to Francophone Program Students, Grades 3 to 9: Bridging the Francais and English Language Arts (ELA) Programs of Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the first in a 3-part collection titled "Teaching English Language Arts (ELA) to Francophone Program Students" to be used primarily by ELA teachers in their efforts to ensure that francophone program students build on their established French language skills when learning English. It is designed to show that a strong correlation…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

149

Patterns and Policies: The Changing Demographics of Foreign Language Instruction. Issues in Language Program Direction: A Series of Annual Volumes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers is divided into three parts. Part 1, "Changing Patterns: Curricular Implications," includes "Basic Assumptions Revisited: Today's French and Spanish Students at a Large Metropolitan University" (Gail Guntermann, Suzanne Hendrickson, and Carmen de Urioste) and "Le Francais et Mort, Vive le Francais: Rethinking the Function…

Liskin-Gasparro, Judith E., Ed.

150

La Dimension Interculturelle de la Formation des Enseignants de Langues Etrangeres (The Intercultural Dimension of the Training of Foreign Language Teachers).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the cultural aspect of language teacher training looks at the current situation and offers some possible directions for the future. "Cultural" is intended to signify not only the manifestations of group culture, or civilization, but also and more specifically the daily life and common experience of the group. Traditional teacher…

Calliabetsou-Coraca, Popi

151

Les Scénarios dans l'Apprentissage à Distance du Français Langue Étrangère The Scenarios in Teaching French as a Foreign Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The writing and shooting of the scenarios used in the distant education is of utmost importance. Thus, this article aims to study the scenarios which are designed by the Educational Technologies. They meant a lot to the teaching of French in the 6th and 7th grades of primary education by examining the structure, the approach in teaching French as a

Kerime YILMAZ

152

Adaptation de LyText, logiciel d'aide à la compréhension de textes, pour une approche en Français Langue Etrangère  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article is to show how a multimedia environment used to text understanding can be used in teaching and learning French as mother tongue or French as foreign language. LyText (Lycée + Textes) is a computerized environment dedicated to help students understand and interpret French literature. The scientific research team EDUC'atilf from the ATILF laboratory has elaborated

Claire Becker; Karine David

153

Approche inter langue : l'apprentissage de l'anglais dans le primaire Reconsidérer la place de l'écrit en fonction de la parenté lexicale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconsidering the place of reading and writing activities in the light of lexical closeness In France and in Quebec, when you teach English as a foreign language to beginners in the primary school, you are expected to start with oral communication activities. Yet, when you are French, it is easier to read English than to speak it because the two

Michel Lambert; IUFM Poitou-Charentes

2008-01-01

154

Official Languages in Canada: Changing the Language Landscape. New Canadian Perspectives = Les langues officielles au Canada: transformer le paysage linguistique. Nouvelles Perspectives Canadiennes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers an overview of the events surrounding the development of the two official language communities (English and French) of Canada during the last 30 years and the establishment of a model of official bilingualism. The text is provided in both languages. Chapter 1 describes the context of language change: historical origins of…

Churchill, Stacy

155

Emploi du creole comme langue d'enseignement et decreolisation en Haiti (The Use of Creole as Language of Instruction and Decreolization in Haiti).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that Haitian Creole is subject to decreolization, characterized by movement toward French forms. Linguistic conflict and ambivalence on the part of both the bilingual elite and monolingual creole-speaking masses are held responsible. Opposing trends in language standardization and their implications for education are discussed.…

Valdman, Albert

1986-01-01

156

Choix linguistiques, changements et alternances de langue: Les comportements multilingues des italophones de Montreal (Linguistic Choices, Changes, and Code Switching: The Linguistics Behaviors of Italophones of Montreal).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 15 fathers and their 16 sons in an italophone community in Montreal (Canada) focused on the usage of Italian, French, and English in communication between generations and in a variety of activities. Data were drawn from 45 hours of taped conversation in home and work settings, which included 4,848 instances of language contact. Of the…

Labrie, Normand

157

La langue aymara: Des cimes andines a l'intelligence des ordinateurs (The Aymara Language: Andean Peaks for the Intelligence of Computers).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that Aymara, an ancient language still spoken in parts of South America, may be well suited for use as a "bridge" language in translation because of its extremely regular and coherent grammar. A machine translation program using the language has already been developed. (MSE)

Barbin, Christina

1987-01-01

158

Quelques enjeux fondamentaux dans une pedagogie de la communication en langue seconde (Some Basic Aspects of Teaching Communication in a Second Language).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While there are many problems to be resolved concerning the substance of instruction within a communicative approach the manner of teaching must also be considered, including methodology, the linguistic aspect (vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation), norms, and the use of computers. (MSE)

Germain, Claude

1985-01-01

159

La Recherche en Pedagogie des Langues aux Adultes: Compte Rendu d'un Seminaire (Research in Language Teaching to Adults: Conference Report). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the seminar on research in adult language education held in Nancy, France, in June, 1977. It includes reports on the four roundtables and gives details concerning organization and membership, as well as a list of the topics that were discussed. The four roundtables addressed the issues of student needs and motivation,…

Nancy Univ., (France). Centre de Recherches et d'Applications Pedagogiques en Langues.

160

Introduction precoce de la langue seconde. Experience suisse: exemple a suivre? (A Precocious Introduction to a Second Language. The Swiss Experience: An Example to Follow?)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines a Swiss experiment in second language learning before the age of ten, which indicates that pre-puberty second language learning can be successful and can improve first language skills, and that the method used is less important than the training of the teacher. (Text is in French.) (AM)

Pons-Ridler, Suzanne

1977-01-01

161

Denomination et categorisation des modeles d'enseignement des langues: entre institution et pratique (Denomination and Categorization of Language Teaching Models: Between Institution and Practice).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process and issues of labeling language program models is discussed insofar as it may affect the objectives, content, and method of instruction. The first section describes the origins, stated objectives, and implementation of a Neuchatel (Switzerland) school program integrating heritage language and culture into the school curriculum, noting…

Gajo, Laurent; Matthey, Marinette

1998-01-01

162

Tonbander fur den Fremdsprachenunterricht: Katalog 3. Bandes magnetiques pour l'enseignement des langues etrangeres: Catalogue 3 (Tape Recordings for Foreign Language Instruction: Catalogue 3).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This catalogue, written in German and French, lists 24 tape recordings of German, French, Italian, English, and Spanish instructional tapes. The contents of the tapes include exercises in grammar and phonetics. Bibliographical data includes author, title, level of instruction, length, price, and source of availability. A brief description of each…

Commission Interuniversitaire Suisse de Linguistique Appliquee (Switzerland).

163

Logiques des langues europeennes-IV: l'italien et l'estrade (The Logic of European Languages: Italian and the Stage).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fourth in a series of articles on the relationships of European languages to their cultures looks at the role of the theater in Italian culture and the theatricality of the Italian language. (MSE)

Van Lier, Henri

1989-01-01

164

Parler de la pluie et du beau temps en classe de langue (Talking About Rain and Good Weather in Language Class).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of television weather broadcasts is recommended for instruction in both French language and culture. Class activities can focus on geography, comprehension of meteorological terminology, or predicting the weather in different areas based on current charts. Some exercises are suggested. (MSE)

Viallon, Virginie; Jamet, Claude

1996-01-01

165

L'Europe et l'autoformation des enseignants de langues (Europe and Independent In-Service Training of Language Teachers).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A European exchange program for language teachers in which the objective is to create opportunities for professional and pedagogical reflection, refinement of language skills and cultural knowledge, and better understanding of the target culture's school system is described. The program provides two-week visits to a foreign country, during which…

Bertocchinni, Paola; Costanzo, Edvige

1996-01-01

166

Integration des sciences et de la langue: Creation et experimentation d'un modele pedagogique pour ameliorer l'apprentissage des sciences en milieu francophone minoritaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Les faibles resultats en sciences des eleves du milieu francophone minoritaire, lors d'epreuves au plan national et international, ont interpelle la recherche de solutions. Cette these avait pour but de creer et d'experimenter un modele pedagogique pour l'enseignement des sciences en milieu linguistique minoritaire. En raison de la presence de divers degres de francite chez la clientele scolaire de ce

Marianne Cormier

2004-01-01

167

Les linguistes et les questions de langue au Quebec: points de vue (Linguists and Language Questions in Quebec: Points of View).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers, all in French, address four issues concerning linguistics and language in Quebec: language quality and linguistic reality; linguistic politics and the future of French in Quebec; the linguist's role in modern society; and dictionaries. Each section includes an untitled, substantive introduction and several papers. Papers include: "Discours…

Deshaies, Denise, Ed.; Ouellon, Conrad, Ed.

168

Stages de formation et de recyclage des professeurs de langues vivantes a York (Training and Refresher Programs for Professors of Modern Languages at York)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the teacher training and refresher program at York University. A particular feature of the training program is a two week intensive course in a language unknown to the future language teacher. A significant innovation in the refresher course is the English/French "reciprocal course." (Text is in French.) (AM)

Hawkins, Eric

1975-01-01

169

La Formation et la Recyclage des Professeurs de Langues Vivantes an Quebec 1973-1978 (The Training and Retraining of Modern Language Teachers in Quebec, 1973-1978).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plans to improve instruction in English as a second language during a five-year period in Quebec, Canada, are outlined. The observations are based on the program established by the Minister of Education, Mr. Francois Cloutier. The study examines: (1) the current situation; and (2) proposed measures including teacher training, language programs,…

Lavigne, Jean Claude

170

La Presse francaise telle que la connaissent et l'ignorent les etudiants en francais aux Etats-Unis (What Students of French in the United States Know and Don't Know about the French Press).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports and discusses results of a survey of French students in Middlebury College's summer language school concerning their knowledge about and interest in French newpapers and magazines and data on the circulation and readership of those publications, with emphasis on the importance of regional newspapers. (MSE)

Mariet, Francois

1985-01-01

171

World Bank-UNICEF Glossary: Terminology of Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation, English-French (Glossaire Edite Conjointement par la Banque Mondiale et 1'UNICEF: TERMINOLOGIE de 'Approvisionnement en Eau et de 1'Assainissement du Milieu, Francais-Anglais).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The glossary attempts to provide the user with a handy French/English glossary of the terms more frequently used in connection with water supply and environmental sanitation. It is largely based on the descriptions and terminologies used by equipment manu...

P. J. Biron

1987-01-01

172

L'emploi des connecteurs francais dans l'expression d'etudiants chinois: Observation et analyse (The Use of French Connectors in the Expression of Chinese Students: Observation and Analysis).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated patterns of usage of French connectors (e.g., "alors,""mais,""puisque") among Chinese university students of French as a foreign language. The study arose from concern that the lack of connector usage contributed to a lack of coherence in the students' oral and written language. Subjects were 45 second- and third-year…

Zhang, Xue Bin

173

Le "Futur Anterieur" comme temps du passe: Remarques sur un emploi particulier frequent du "futur anterieur" en francais. (The "Futur Anterieur" as Past Tense: Remarks on a Particular Frequent Use of the "Futur Anterieur" in French).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how the "futur anterieur" is often used to indicate past time in French grammar. Using authentic evidence from a news magazine, some hypotheses on the conditions of use of the "futur anterieur" are suggested. Criteria for distinguishing past tense functions from modal functions are also presented. (TR)

Steinmeyer, Georg

1987-01-01

174

De L'Economie des moyens linguistiques en francais et en anglais dans l'usage standard contemporain (On the Economy of Linguistic Means in French and English Standard Contemporary Usage).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conciseness and "ease of use" often attributed to North American English relative to French in standard contemporary usage is explained in terms of English morpho-syntactic structure and of the values of the classical norm and rhetoric affecting French. (Author/MSE)

Calve, Pierre

1989-01-01

175

L'Imparfait, le passe simple, et le passe compose francais et leur traduction en neerlandais (The French Imperfect, Past Definite, and Past Indefinite, and their Translation into Dutch)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are two tenses in Dutch to translate three French past tenses: the "imperfectum" and the "perfectum." When a one-for-one correspondence is impossible, the translator relies on other means, such as auxiliaries, to achieve desired clarity and nuances. Examples of translations and verb correspondences are given. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

Ponette, Jean

1977-01-01

176

Evaluation du systeme de traduction automatique SYSTRAN anglais-Francais, version 1978, de la Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Evaluation of the English-French SYSTRAN Machine Translation System, 19 version, of the Commission of European Communities).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the French-English version of the SYSTRAN machine translation system, used by the Commission of European Communities, and an evaluation study which examined the quality, cost, and weaknesses of the system. The study concluded that this type of system is useful for "pretranslation" and "rough" translation only. (AM)

Van Slype, Georges

1979-01-01

177

Project experimentale sur le bilinguisme Creole-Francais au niveau de l' enseignement primaire en Haiti (Experimental Project on Creole-French Bilingualism at the Primary Level in Haiti).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a progress report on the first year of an experimental bilingual education project for primary education in Haiti, sponsored by the Centre Haitien d' Investigation en Sciences Sociales (CHISS), The center's goal was to carry out a scientific project, to secure the facts from emotional and political prejudice. The point is to show the…

de Ronceray, Hubert; Petit-Frere, Serge

1975-01-01

178

French registry of acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. Age distribution and hemogram analysis of the 4496 cases recorded during 1982-1983 and classified according to FAB criteria. Groupe Francais de Morphologie Hematologique  

SciTech Connect

During 1982 and 1983, 4496 new cases were recorded in the French Registry of acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes by the French Group of Hematologic Morphology. This cooperative group associated members of 37 university centers spread throughout France; these centers handle the overwhelming majority of acute leukemias diagnoses. The cases were all classified according to FAB guidelines. Two thousand four hundred ninety-nine cases of acute myeloid leukemia were recorded, with similar total recruitment and distribution by cytologic subclass for both years. Hemogram data analysis revealed significant differences between different classes for certain parameters, particularly leukocytosis. A greater proportion of the acute myelogenous leukemias (AMLs) secondary to chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy (n = 145) were unclassifiable according to the French-American-British (FAB) system than the de novo AMLs (n = 1954). Eight hundred twenty cases of myelodysplastic syndromes were analyzed. Their frequency was underestimated due to optional reporting during the first year and the less favorable position of the university centers for recruiting these syndromes. The characteristics of the hemograms were established for acquired idiopathic sideroblastic anemia (n = 107), refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) (n = 329), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (n = 129) and RAEB in transformation (n = 65). Analysis of the 1177 acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALLs) recorded showed good stability from one year to the next in terms of numbers of cases and distribution in the subclasses L1, L2, and L3. The distribution among these three subclasses by age also was determined. For L1 and L2 the hemogram data were examined separately for adults and children. The study of 74 cases of type L3 ALL enabled us to detail the hematologic presentation of this rare form of leukemia.

Not Available

1987-09-15

179

Avez-vous vu la meme chose que les Francais? Stereotypes et documents authentiques video. (Did You See the Same Thing as the French? Stereotypes and Authentic Video Documents).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion treats cultural stereotypes as a significant issue in second-language instruction, and examines the role of video documents from the mass media in helping students perceive and understand such stereotypes. (MSE)

Wilczynska, Weronika

1990-01-01

180

Enquete sur le langage de l'enfant francais: Transcriptions de conversations d'enfants de 9 ans (Investigation of the Language of French Children: Transcriptions of Conversations of 9-Year-Olds). Document No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These transcriptions of children living in a suburb of Paris represent and illustrate linguistic behavior and interests of the average nine-year-old French child. Seventy-nine children in groups of three were recorded in 30-minute periods of free conversation and 10-minute periods of play. Analysis reveals more than 30 centers of interest which…

Leclercq, Janine, Comp.

181

Enquete sur le langage de l'enfant francais: Transcriptions de conversations d'enfants de 10 ans (Investigation of the Language of French Children: Transcriptions of Conversations of Ten-Year-Olds). Document No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These transcriptions of conversation illustrate linguistic behavior and interests of the average ten-year-old French child. Patterned after a previously transcribed series of conversations of nine-year olds, the 14 dialogues in this collection serve as a linguistic corpus suitable for educational research and textbook development. A graphic code…

Leclercq, Janine, Comp.

182

Le francais parle: analyse des attitudes des adolescents de la ville de Quebec selon les classes sociales (Spoken French: An Analysis of the Attitudes of Adolescents in Quebec City according to Social Class).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a report on a study of the attitudes of French-speaking young people, aged 10 to 17 years, toward French as it is spoken in two sectors of Quebec City. One sector, Sainte-Foy, is mainly upper middle class; the other, Saint-Sauveur, is economically and socially disadvantaged. The research was carried out on the basis of work in French and…

Noel, Daniele

183

Creation d'emplois selon la taille des entreprises : concentration et persistance des gains et pertes d'emplois dans les entreprises canadiennes  

Microsoft Academic Search

La constatation statistique selon laquelle les petites entreprises ont cree la majorite des nouveaux emplois durant les annees 80 a eu une incidence considerable sur les politiques gouvernementales. Pour encourager la croissance de l'emploi, les gouvernements se sont tournes vers les petites entreprises et ont adopte des politiques favorisant leur expansion. Il ressort toutefois de recherches menees recemment aux Etats-Unis

Richard Picot Garnett Dupuy

1996-01-01

184

Pourquoi l'inegalite des gains hebdomadaires a-t-elle augmente au Canada?  

Microsoft Academic Search

L'inegalite de la remuneration hebdomadaire a connu une croissance durant les annees 80 au Canada, et cette croissance depend de trois faits concourants. En premier lieu, le salaire horaire reel des jeunes travailleurs a chute de plus de 10 %. Deuxiemement, le pourcentage d'employes qui travaillent de 35 a 40 heures par semaine a leur emploi principal a chute, tandis

Rene Morissette

1995-01-01

185

Travaux Neuchatelois de linguistique (TRANEL) (Neuchatel Works in Linguistics). Number 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The five papers in this collection include: "Apprendre a apprendre les langues: 'Mais je veux etre un handicape linguistique!'" (Learning To Learn Languages: But I Want To Be Linguistically Handicapped!) (Richard Duda); "Pedagogie integree des langues maternelle et seconde. La conscience des problemes chez les enseignants et chez les enseignes"…

Travaux Neuchatelois de linguistique (TRANEL), 1985

1985-01-01

186

Homogeneite et heterogeneite de la langue latine selon Varron et Aulu-Gelle: aspects historique, social et fonctionnel (Homogeneity and Heterogeneity in the Latin Language According to Varron and Aulu-Gelle: Historic, Social and Functional Aspects).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of the many Latin texts that provide views on language, and in particular on linguistic change and variation, Varro's "De Lingua Latina" and Gellius'"Noctes Atticae," provide good examples of the perspectives of the stoic philosopher and of the antiquarian philologist. Stoics suggest that language was created as perfect as possible. In this view,…

Amacker, Rene

2001-01-01

187

Sodium, osmolarité plasmatique et volume cérébral 1 Travail présenté aux XXII es Journées de l’Association de neuroanesthésie-réanimation de langue française, Dijon, 23-24 novembre 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under normal physiological conditions, the osmolarity of extracellular fluids (ECFs) and natremia are controlled by two regulatory mechanisms modulating the water balance and sodium outflow from information collected by the osmoreceptors and baroreceptors, respectively. As well, under normal physiological conditions, water and electrolytes of brain ECFs are secreted by the endothelial cells of brain capillaries. Futhermore, isotonicity is present on

G Boulard

2001-01-01

188

David Wood - Uses and Functions of Formulaic Sequences in Second-Language Speech: An Exploration of the Foundations of Fluency - The Canadian Modern Language Review \\/ La revue canadienne des langues vivantes 63:1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formulaic sequences are fixed combinations of words that have a range of functions and uses in speech production and communication, and seem to be cognitively stored and retrieved by speakers as if they were single words. They can facilitate fluency in speech by making pauses shorter and less frequent, and allowing longer runs of speech between pauses. The present study

David Wood

189

L'influence de l'utilisation des moyens audio-visuels sur la pedagogie des langues vivantes (The Influence of the Use of Audiovisuals in the Teaching of Modern Languages)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Revised version of a speech given at a meeting of the Committee on Audiovisual Teaching in Foreign Languages organized by the Council of Europe's Committee on Education and held November 3-8, 1969, in Pont-a-Mousson, France. (DS)

Cureau, Jean

1971-01-01

190

Use of Temporal Adverbials as Segmentation Discourse Markers by Second Language Learners (L'emploi des adverbiaux temporels comme marqueurs de la segmentation par des apprenants d'une langue étrangère)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signaling the structure of a discourse using linguistic devices is at least as important in second language production as in one's mother tongue. Still, very little is known about the difficulties second language learners might encounter in managing these devices. In order to compare non-native and native speakers' use of temporal adverbials to signal the structure of their discourse, 120

Sophie Piérard; Yves Bestgen

191

Enseignement de la langue maternelle a des enfants d'emigrants (Teaching the Native Language to Children of Immigrants). Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin, No. 26.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For several years in Switzerland it had been clear that adolescents with previous learning difficulties in their own country experienced even greater academic problems in Switzerland where they were expected to attend school with native speakers of French. Therefore, an experimental class was organized of Spanish and Italian-speaking children who…

Olmos, Arlette

192

Evaluation d'un aspect du micro-enseignement dans la formation des professeurs de langues etrangeres (The Evaluation of One Aspect of Micro-Teaching in the Formation of Foreign Language Teachers). CILA Bulletin, Number 30.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates the micro-teaching program in use at Universite Bar-Ilan in Israel. Two factors influence this study: (1) the psycho-pedagogical factor, that is, a search for the best procedures for the practical formation of language teachers; and (2) the didactic factor, that is, ways to give the future teachers experience in choosing…

Herzlich, Rivka

193

Evolution de la notion d'acceptabilite a travers les niveaux de langue chez des enfants de 6 a 11 ans (Evolution of the Notion of Acceptability across Language Levels among Children Aged Six to Eleven).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was undertaken to evaluate the child's capacity to judge the acceptability of French interrogative utterances on three levels--familiar, standard, and educated. A second objective was to consider the resulting observations in the light of certain sociocultural parameters. The test, one that had been used for adults in French second…

Jeanneret, Rene; de Pietro, Jean-Francois

194

La conception et le role des materiels pedagogiques dans l'enseignement des langues secondes (The Conception and Role of Instructional Materials in the Teaching of Second Languages). CILA Bulletin, No. 29.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special issue concerns the content, function, and form of instructional materials dealing with second language instruction. The following articles appear: (1) "Deliberate Semantics--an 'Interventionist' Approach to Second Language Teaching Methodology," by A.P.R. Howatt; (2) "Sprechakte und Sprachunterricht (Speech Acts and Language…

Redard, F., Ed.; And Others

195

The Teaching of Russian Language and Literature in Europe = L'enseignement de la langue et de la litterature russes en Europe = Prepodavanie russkogo yaeyka i literatury v Europe. Proceedings of the AIMAV Seminar (17th, Brussels, Belgium, 1986).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers from the Proceedings of the 17th meeting of the AIMAV (Association internationale pour le developpement de la communication interculturelle) are collected in this volume. Conference papers appear either in English, in French, or in Russian. For purposes of this abstract, all titles below have been translated into English. The…

Blankoff, Jean, Ed.; And Others

196

Le Rapport langue-culture dans les organisations internationales: Pour Une Sociologie des organisations internationales (The Relationship between Language and Culture in International Organizations: Toward a Sociology of International Organizations).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the work of international organizations requires an understanding of the relationship between language and culture, a relationship evident in the activities of the international organizations. This relationship is partly responsible for the negative image of such organizations. Research in the sociology of international organizations…

Jastrab de Saint Robert, de Marie-Josee

1988-01-01

197

Michael Lessard-Clouston - Breadth and Depth: Specialized Vocabulary Learning in Theology among Native and Non-native English Speakers - The Canadian Modern Language Review \\/ La revue canadienne des langues vivantes 63:2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a case study on native and non-native English-speaker (NES and NNES) students' knowledge and learning of specialized vocabulary over one academic term in a graduate school of theology. After outlining the collection of baseline data on theological vocabulary and the development of a Test of Theological Language (TTL), the article discusses the five NNES and seven NES

Michael Lessard-Clouston

2006-01-01

198

L'apport des sciences du langage a la diversification des methodes d'enseignement des langues secondes en fonction des caracteristiques des publics vises (Relating Language Sciences to the Diversification of Second Language Teaching)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article criticizes the earliest applications of linguistic theory to second language teaching (behaviorism and structuralism, for example), and presents the major linguistic and pedagogical orientation of the new multi-media methods which focus on the actual needs and abilities of students. (Text is in French.) (CDSH/CLK)

Roulet, E.

1976-01-01

199

La Description des langues naturelles en vue d'applications linguistiques: Actes du colloque (The Description of Natural Languages with a View to Linguistic Applications: Conference Papers). Publication K-10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presentations from a colloquium on applications of research on natural languages to computer science address the following topics: (1) analysis of complex adverbs; (2) parser use in computerized text analysis; (3) French language utilities; (4) lexicographic mapping of official language notices; (5) phonographic codification of Spanish; (6)…

Ouellon, Conrad, Comp.

200

La Lecture de textes scientifiques rediges dans une langue etrangere enseignee a l'aide de manuels programes (Reading of Scientific Texts Edited in a Foreign Language, Taught with the Help of Programmed Textbooks)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article discusses programmed instruction in reading a foreign language to provide students in a specialized discipline with tools they need to understand specialized texts. Recent studies indicate the validity of teaching for reading comprehension only. Two examples of programs in scientific Dutch are attached. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

Blaasch, Hans-W.

1977-01-01

201

La part des nouveaux emplois crees au Canada par les petites entreprises est-elle disproportionnee? Reevaluation des faits  

Microsoft Academic Search

L'observation statistique selon laquelle les petites entreprises ont cree la majorite des nouveaux emplois au cours des annees 1980 a eu une incidence enorme sur la politique officielle. Les gouvernements desireux de favoriser la croissance de l'emploi se sont tournes vers le secteur des petites entreprises et ont preconise l'adoption de politiques visant a accroitre l'expansion de ce secteur. Toutefois,

John R. Dupuy Richard Picot Garnett Baldwin

1994-01-01

202

Actes des journees de linguistique: Colloque sur la recherche etudiante (Proceedings of the Linguistics Conference: Colloquium on Student Research) (Quebec, Canada, March 18-19, 1988).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presentations by students at a colloquium on student research on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the University of Laval's Faculty of Letters, March 18-19, 1988, include: "Une enquete sur la qualite du francais ecrit au Quebec"; "Amenagement linguistique et neologie"; "Analyse syntaxique des 'arrets et retours' en arabe morocain parle";…

Lepage, Danielle, Ed.; Dominik, Annette, Ed.

203

A Comparative Analysis of Information Technology Strategy in American Airlines and French Railways (France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In choosing the computerised reservation system Sabre, SNCF (Societe Nationale des Chemins de Fer Francais) was hoping to benefit from the same strategic advantage this technology brought to American Airlines during the deregulation of US air transport in the 1980s. However, the adoption of a new transport distribution model based on the deregulated US air industry proved to be controversial,

Nathalie N. Mitev

1998-01-01

204

Melanges Pedagogiques (Pedagogical Mixture), 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1985 issue of the journal on second language teaching and learning contains four articles in French and three in English, including: "Lire et comprendre un texte informatif (Reading and understanding an Informative Text)" (Jacqueline Billant, Pascale Fade); "Les nouveaux diplomes de Francais Language Etrangere: Le D.E.L.F. et le D.A.L.F. (The…

Melanges Pedagogiques, 1985

1985-01-01

205

Multilingual Thesauri for the Modern World - No Ideal Solution?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses thesauri as tools for multilingual information retrieval and cross-cultural communication. Considers the need for multilingual thesauri and the importance of explicit conceptual structures, and introduces a pilot thesaurus, InfoDEFT (Information Deutsch-English-Francais Thesaurus), as a possible model for new online thesauri which are…

Jorna, Kerstin; Davies, Sylvie

2001-01-01

206

Travaux du laboratoire de traitement du langage et de la parole (Laboratory Work in the Treatment of Language and Linguistics).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research papers on language and linguistics include: "Enchainement des mots et acces au lexique en francais" ("Word Order and Lexical Access in French") (Besson); "L'apport de la coarticulation dans la perception de consonnes occlusives et constrictives" ("The Contribution of Coarticulation to the Perception of Occlusive and Constrictive…

Grosjean, Francois, Ed.

1994-01-01

207

Melanges, No. 23.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles on second language teaching and learning include: "Ethnographie comparee de la salle de classe en France et en grande-Bretagne" (Comparative Ethnography of the Classroom Environment in France and Great Britain) (F. Carton); "Pour une approche micro et macro du francais parle dans la formation des enseignants de FLE" (Toward a Micro and…

Melanges, 1997

1997-01-01

208

Year-One Evaluation of French in the Elementary Schools. Research Report 75-17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the 1974-1975 school year eight itinerant French teachers travelled among 20 elementary schools teaching oral French to Grade 6 and Grade 7 students. Each teacher was responsible for two or three schools, The course was based on the book Le Francais Partout-Cours Preliminaire (1967) ed.). The study described in this report was initiated to…

Gleadow, N. E.

209

Process and apparatus for cooling and\\/or liquefying a gas or a gas mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process developed by Institut Francais du Petrole, des Carburants et Lubrifiants for cooling or liquefying natural gas greatly reduces the number of compressors and heat exchangers required, and also considerably lowers the necessary heat-exchanger surface area and the flow rate of the cooling fluid found in conventional processes. IFP's process consists of compressing a mixture of gaseous constituents

Rojey

1975-01-01

210

Actes des Journees de linguistique (Proceedings of the Linguistics Conference) (12th, Quebec City, Canada, March 26-27, 1998).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers on language research include: "L'expression de l'opposition en Latin" ("The Expression of Opposition in Latin" (Claude Begin); "Le francais de l'Abitibi: characteristiques phonetiques et origine socio-geographique des locuteurs" ("The French of Abitibi: Phonetic Characteristics and Socio-Geographic Origin of Speakers") (Chantal…

Boissonneault, Chantal, Ed.

211

Melanges Pedagogiques (Pedagogical Mixture), 1986/87.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1986/87 issue of the journal on second language teaching and learning contains seven articles in French and four in English, including: "Learning How To Learn English"; "Socrate est-il un chat? Pratiquer le syllogisme pour apprendre a argumenter (Is Socrates a Cat? Practicing Syllogisms To Learn To Argue)"; "La production orale en francais des…

Melanges Pedagogiques, 1987

1987-01-01

212

Glossary of Water Resource Terms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rapidly developing field of water pollution control already has stimulated its own special language through origination of new terminology and popularization of other vocabulary formerly reserved for highly technical study. Understanding of this langu...

O. A. Titelbaum

1970-01-01

213

Bending of Cylindrical Shells Solution Using Cylindrical Strip Elements (1). Finite Element Analysis of Cylindrical Shells Solution Using Rectangular Circular Cylindrical Elements (2).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses the following topics: Principle of the solution; stiffness matrix of the cylindrical strip element; recurrent form of solution suitable for digital computers; cylindrical shells with longitudinal ribs; standard routines in ALGOL langu...

J. Jirousek

1970-01-01

214

A tool for detecting French-English cognates and false friends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé. Les congénères sont des mots qui ont au moins un sens en commun entre deux langues en plus d'avoir une orthographie semblable. La reconnaissance de ce type de mots permet aux apprenants de langue seconde ou étrangère d'enrichir plus rapidement leur vocabu- laire et d'améliorer leur compréhension écrite. Toutefois, les faux amis sont des paires de mots qui à

Oana FRUNZA; Diana INKPEN

2007-01-01

215

PAR OU POUR : LEQUEL ET DANS QUELS CAS ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Les prépositions sont presque toujours une zone d'ombre dans l'apprentissage d'une langue étrangère, car elles portent non seulement des traits sémantiques, mais aussi des traits culturels, y compris une représentation du monde qu'une description grammaticale n'arrive pas à expliquer. Pour le cas qui nous intéresse, c'est-à-dire, la maîtrise des prépositions du français par des apprenants dont la langue maternelle est

Marta Gonçalves; Sandra de Melo

216

La conscience linguistique de l'élément poétique dans le paysage littéraire francophone en Afrique subsaharienne  

Microsoft Academic Search

L'écriture est tributaire de l'environnement socioculturel et sociolinguistique. Cette écriture pose parfois quelques problèmes du fait qu'elle se matérialise dans une langue qui n'est pas la langue première de l'écrivain. C'est le cas des littératures africaines contemporaines qui sont le produit d'un triple héritage (autochtone, sémitique et gréco-latin.) La plupart des écrivains francophones en Afrique subsaharienne sont profondément marqués par

Rodolphine S. Wamba

2005-01-01

217

Les mammiferes aquatiques: lexique anglais-francais des mammiferes marins actuels ou recemment disparus, y compris les especes d'eau douce des groupes surtout marins (Aquatic Mammals: English-French Glossary of Livinq or Recently Extinct Marine Mammals, Including the Fresh Water Species of Prevalently Marine Groups).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a new glossary of aquatic mammals representing recent taxonomic revisions. Describes its design, which consists of the glossary proper, listing the scientific name of each entry followed by its English and French equivalents, and of two indexes, listing other common names for the same entries referred back to the scientific term. (MES)

Nekrassoff, Vladimir N.

1980-01-01

218

Enjeux et obstacles de la traduction de l'appartenance. Du francais a l'arabe en passant par l'anglais, l'italien, l'allemand et le neerlandais (Stakes and Obstacles in the Interpretation of "Belonging." From French to Arab by Way of English, Italian, German and Dutch).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linguistic and sociocultural issues in the concept of nationality and identification with a community in French and Arab circles are compared, with references to other European national groups. Among the concepts explored and diagrammed are father, mother, land, fatherland, people, nation, state, homeland, national community, and local community.…

Ibrahim, Amr Helmy

1982-01-01

219

Le role des capacites metalinguistiques et de la competence langagiere orale dans l'apprentissage de la lecture en francais langage premiere et seconde (The Role of Metalinguistic Capacities and Oral Language Skills in Learning Reading in French as a First and Second Language).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the role played by oral language skills and by metalinguistic capacities in the reading performance of young beginner readers in French as a second language who are in a situation of successive bilingualism and observing whether differences exist between them and their francophone peers of the same age. (Author/VWL)

Armand, Francoise

2000-01-01

220

L'identite ethnolinguistique et les eleves 16 ans ou plus qui frequentent les ecoles secondaires de langue francaise de l'Ontario. Rapport de recherche (The Ethno-Linguistic Identity of Students Aged 16 Years or Older Attending French-Language Secondary Schools in Ontario. Research Report).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report, written in French, presents the results of a study on the ethno-linguistic identity of students aged 16 years or older attending French language secondary schools in Ontario. Goals of the questionnaire study included the following: (1) gathering demographics on students about to graduate from high school, regarding their gender,…

Duquette, Georges

221

Attitudes et motivation d'etudiants de l'est du Quebec a l'egard de l'apprentissage de l'anglais, langue seconde (Attitudes and Motivation Among Students in Eastern Quebec with regard to the Learning of English as a Second Language). Research Bulletin, No. 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was undertaken to determine motivational factors connected with the learning of English by francophone students living in a milieu where there is little contact with anglophones. Research is reviewed which supports the contention that the attitudinal/motivational dimension, or integrative motivation, bears an important relationship to…

Clement, Richard

222

La Langue francaise dans les pays du Benelux: besoins et exigences (The French Language in Benelux: Needs and Requirements). Colloquium of the International Association for the Research and Diffusion of Audiovisual and Structuro-Global Methods (12th, Brussells, Belgium, February 28-29, 1980).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proceedings of a colloquium examining the status of French in Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg) begin with an overview of the issues concerning the role of French in this multilingual, regional, cooperative union and a brief look at the future of French in the contemporary world. Discussions of the status of French in the six…

Rosseel, Eddy, Ed.

223

Elaboration d'une typologie des activities de simulation d'echanges interpersonnels en pedagogie des langues secondes ou etrangeres (Elaboration of a Typology of Interpersonal Interaction Simulation Activities for Second or Foreign Language Instruction). Tomes 1 and 2. Publications B-210 and B-211.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A typology of role-playing and simulation exercises based on interpersonal interactions, used in second language instruction, is presented. Ten dimensions of such simulations were identified, which can then be used as criteria for classifying the exercises. The dimensions include: the starting point of the simulation; complexity of the…

Perez, Marcel

224

Compte rendu d'une experience pedagogique. L'Enseignement de la competence de communication en langues secondes. (An Account of a Pedagogical Experiment. The Teaching of Communicative Competence in Second Languages). Acts of the Colloguium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three methodological "hypotheses" elaborated by the "Centre interuniversitaire de recherche pour le recyclage des maitres d'italien" are presented here. These hypotheses came from three teams of teachers working from different perspectives on sets of lessons for beginners of all ages. Each team's operative assumptions, type of text, guiding…

Brunet, J.; Jammot, M. T.

225

Entrainement d'etudiants francophones a la negociation d'affaires et au debat public en anglais. L'Enseignement de la competence de communication en langues secondes. (Training of Francophone Students in Business Transactions and Public Speaking in English. The Teaching of Communicative Competence in Second Languages). Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this course is to enable students to negotiate a business transaction directly in English. The proposed setting is a conference room and the interlocutors are upper middle class professional people. The learners are students of business administration in France who already possess some knowledge of English vocabulary and grammar.…

Rivas, Michele

226

Decrire et enseigner une competence de communication: remarques sur quelques solutions de continuite. L'Enseignement de la competence de communication en langues secondes. (Describing and Teaching Communicative Competence: Some Remarks on Solutions of Continuity. The Teaching of Communicative Competence in Second Languages.) Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two projects of the Ecole Normale Superieure de Saint-Cloud (CREDIF) are described and critically analyzed in this paper: the definition of a threshold level, "Niveau-seuil," in French and a learning module, "Looking for Work," intended to teach necessary written French to migrant workers. The threshold level section is a reference document for…

Coste, Daniel

227

The Communicative Approach to Language Teaching in the Framework of a Programme of English for Academic Purposes. L'Enseignement de la competence de communication en langues secondes. (The Teaching of Communicative Competence in Second Languages). Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The materials described here are used to teach English for special purposes at the University of Birmingham. Using the communicative or functional approach to language teaching, they deal with a "common core" of skills, leaving for later in the program special sub-units relating these skills to texts, tasks and problems peculiar to a particular…

Johns, T. F.

228

An Experiment in Teaching Communicative Competence within a Restricted Discourse (The C.A.P.E.S. "Presentation de la Nouvelle"). L'Enseignement de la competence de communication en langues secondes. (The Teaching of Communicative Competence in Second Languages. Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics.) CILA Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The examination for the C.A.P.E.S. (Certificat d'Aptitude Professionnelle a l'Enseignement Secondaire) includes a ten-minute "precise and concise" oral talk on a short story. The presentation is to be prepared in a short time and delivered in a polished manner. Because of the high failure rate, an experimental course is being designed at the…

Riley, Philip

229

Pour une ecole ouverte aux langues. Actes du Collogue organisi par le Centre de Contact Suisses-Immigres (CCSI) (Geneve, Suisse, le 19 novembre, 1994) = Toward a School Open to Languages. Proceedings of a Colloquium of the Centre de Contact Suisses-Immigres (CCSI) (Geneva, Switzerland, November 19, 1994).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proceedings of a Swiss conference on languages in education include: a brief preface about the conference topic; summaries in French, Albanian, German, English, Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese; background information on the conference; statistics on the home and community languages of Swiss elementary and secondary school students; the…

Goumoens, Claire de, Ed.

230

Notional Syllabuses: Theory into Practice. L'enseignement de la competence de communication en langues secondes. Actes du colloque de la Commission interuniversitaire suisse de linguistique appliquee. Bulletin CILA (The Teaching of Communicative Competence in Second Languages. Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the theory and practice of the notional syllabus, three specific problems arising from it, and an experimental course proposed as one way of implementing it. Basically, a notional syllabus aims to organize language teaching in terms of the purposes of communication. Its foundation is a system of notional categories and the…

Wilkins, David

231

L'Apprentissage de la competence de communication au niveau debutant: les documents de travail. L'Enseignement de la competence de communication en langues secondes. (Learning Communicative Competence at the Elementary Level: Working Papers. The Teaching of Communicative Competence in Second Languages). Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials for acquiring minimal communicative competence have to serve a double purpose: learning of comprehension on the one hand and of expression on the other. Because there is so little available data on the exact nature of the communicative function of language, it is difficult to construct authentic communications. CINAO (a beginning course…

Holec, Henri

232

La situation comme co-determinant des formes et des fonctions du langage; comment enseigner cet "art ellipique": parler une langue etrangere (Situation as a Co-determinant of the Form and Function of Language; How to Teach This "Elliptical Art": to Speak a Foreign Language).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses stylistic variation in communication, the elements involved (participants, contact, message, context, and code), and ways in which to incorporate the knowledge of this process in second language instruction. (AM)

Hartveldt, R.

1979-01-01

233

Comprehension ecrite et competence de communication. L'Enseignement de la competence de communication en langues secondes. (Written Comprehension and Communicative Competence. The Teaching of Communicative Competence in Second Languages). Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics, CILA Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The immediate objective of this course in technical English was to enable French-speaking mechanics and technicians to read the instructions for the installation, operation and upkeep of American-made machinery. Although the learners knew very little English, available British and American technical documents were used because of their…

Duda, Richard

234

Methodes d'amas quantiques a temperature finie appliquees au modele de Hubbard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depuis leur decouverte dans les annees 80, les supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique ont suscite beaucoup d'interet en physique du solide. Comprendre l'origine des phases observees dans ces materiaux, telle la supraconductivite, est l'un des grands defis de la physique theorique du solide des 25 dernieres annees. L'un des mecanismes pressentis pour expliquer ces phenomenes est la forte interaction electron-electron. Le modele de Hubbard est l'un des modeles les plus simples pour tenir compte de ces interactions. Malgre la simplicite apparente de ce modele, certaines de ses caracteristiques, dont son diagramme de phase, ne sont toujours pas bien etablies, et ce malgre plusieurs avancements theoriques dans les dernieres annees. Cette etude se consacre a faire une analyse de methodes numeriques permettant de calculer diverses proprietes du modele de Hubbard en fonction de la temperature. Nous decrivons des methodes (la VCA et la CPT) qui permettent de calculer approximativement la fonction de Green a temperature finie sur un systeme infini a partir de la fonction de Green calculee sur un amas de taille finie. Pour calculer ces fonctions de Green, nous allons utiliser des methodes permettant de reduire considerablement les efforts numeriques necessaires pour les calculs des moyennes thermodynamiques, en reduisant considerablement l'espace des etats a considerer dans ces moyennes. Bien que cette etude vise d'abord a developper des methodes d'amas pour resoudre le modele de Hubbard a temperature finie de facon generale ainsi qu'a etudier les proprietes de base de ce modele, nous allons l'appliquer a des conditions qui s'approchent de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique. Les methodes presentees dans cette etude permettent de tracer un diagramme de phase pour l'antiferromagnetisme et la supraconductivite qui presentent plusieurs similarites avec celui des supraconducteurs a haute temperature. Mots-cles : modele de Hubbard, thermodynamique, antiferromagnetisme, supraconductivite, methodes numeriques, larges matrices

Plouffe, Dany

235

A Note on the Vertical Cutoff Rigidities of Cosmic Rays in the Geomagnetic Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

BS>Temporal variations in counting rates were observed at Port aux ; francais, Kerguelen Island, during ihe flare effects of Nov. l2 and l5, l960, ; using a neutron monitor. The dependence of counting-rate enhancement upon ; vertical eutoff rigidity was plotted and compared with calculations of J. J. ; Quenby and W. R. Webber (Phil. Mofofg., 4i 90(l959)). The extrapolations

A. Freon; K. G. McCracken

1962-01-01

236

Honey Characterization and Adulteration Detection by Pattern Recognition Applied on HPAEC-PAD Profiles. 1. Honey Floral Species Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved COFRAC (COmiteFRancais d'ACreditation) method for the analysis and evaluation of the quality of honeys by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography of sugar profiles is proposed. With this method, both minor and major sugars are simultaneously analyzed and the technique is integrated in a new chemometric approach, which uses the entire chromatographic sugars profile of each analyzed sample to characterize honey

Christophe B. Y. Cordella; Julio S. L. T. Militão; Marie-Claude Clément; Daniel Cabrol-Bass

2003-01-01

237

Deployment of the deep sea ROV VICTOR 6000 from board the German research icebreaker POLARSTERN in polar regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the frame of a Franco-Germam co-operation between the German “ Alfred Wegener Institut for Polar and Marine Research” (AWI) and the french “Institut Francais de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer” (IFREMER) the French Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) “VICTOR 6000” was successfully deployed from board R\\/V “POLARSTERN” during the polar expedition ARK XV\\/1 from 23.06 to 18.07.1999 to Fram

M. Nokin; T. Soltwedel; M. Klages

2000-01-01

238

Offshore data base shows decline in rig accidents  

SciTech Connect

Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) has compiled statistical figures on offshore accidents for risk, safety, and reliability studies. IFP calls this data base Platform. It provides a body of essential data for accidents concerning both mobile and stationary offshore drilling rigs. Historical accident data bases are a basic implement for risk assessment of safety and reliability. IFP has built this data base with all available information from 950 actual listings.

Bertrand, A.; Escoffier, L. (Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Maimaison (FR))

1991-09-16

239

Basin evaluation in deltaic series using 2-D numerical modeling a comparison of Mahakam delta and south Louisiana\\/Gulf of Mexico case histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated numerical modeling of petroleum, generation and migration is difficult to apply in deltaic series. Using Institut Francais du Petrole's two-dimensional model TEMISPACK, we tried to simulate the petroleum history along a 70 km long east-west regional section in the Mahakam delta (Indonesia) and a 800 km long north-south section in south Louisiana\\/Gulf of Mexico. The two basins contain thick

J. Burrus; J. G. De Choppin; J. L. Grosjean; J. L. Oudin; T. Schwarzer; F. Schroeder; R. Lander

1993-01-01

240

Study Abroad as Professional Development for FSL Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In July 2009, a group of over 80 FSL teachers from British Columbia (BC) participated in a two-week sojourn at the "Centre d'Approches vivantes des Langues et des Medias" (CAVILAM) in Vichy, France, as part of an initiative to address the critical shortage of qualified French language teachers in the province. After almost four decades of study…

Wernicke, Meike

2010-01-01

241

Pre-AFL (Abstract Family of Languages).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pre-AFL is a family of sets of words closed under certain basic operations. Each pre-AFL contains all regular sets and becomes an abstract family of languages when closed under length-increasing homomorphism. A number of situations in automata and langu...

S. Ginsburg S. Greibach J. Hopcroft

1967-01-01

242

Bureau for International Language Coordination (BILC) Bulletin No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the fourth in a continuing series of bulletins dealing with international approaches and problems in language instruction in the military. Articles contained in this volume include: (1) "Drill Materials for Advanced Students," (2) "Comment un aveugle peut apprendre une langue etrangere"/"How a Blind Man Can Learn a Foreign Language," (3)…

Collins, K. E., Ed.

243

Bilingual signed and spoken language acquisition from birth: implications for the mechanisms underlying early bilingual language acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Divergent hypotheses exist concerning the types of knowledge under- lying early bilingualism, with some portraying a troubled course marred by language delays and confusion, and others portraying one that is largely unremarkable. We studied the extraordinary case of bilingual acquisition across two modalities to examine these hypotheses. Three children acquiring Langues des Signes Que! be! coise and French, and three

LAURA ANN PETITTO; MARINA KATERELOS; BRONNA G. LEVY; KRISTINE GAUNA; KARINE TÉTREAULT; VITTORIA FERRARO

2001-01-01

244

La constitution du TAL Étude historique des dénominations et des concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several terms have been in competition as names for the theoretical and applied discipline that lies in the intersection of linguistics, mathematics, computer sciences and cognitive sciences and which developed out of early experiments in Machine Translation. They include Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing in English, and Traitement automatique des langues, Informatique linguistique and Linguistique informatique in French. This

Marcel Cori; Jacqueline Léon

245

WHAT WILL PEOPLE SAY? SPEECH SYSTEM DESIGN AND LANGUAGE\\/CULTURAL DIFFERENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the effectiveness of three spe ech system design strategies in Pashto, a little-studied langu age of Afghanistan and Pakistan, drawing comparisons with English where possible. The strategies discussed are using (1) prompts at the ends of questions to constrain user responses, (2) specific lexical items in system prompts to encourage user e choing, and (3) introspection as

Kristin Precoda; Robert J. Podesva

246

The passe surcompose regional: Towards a Definition of its Function in Contemporary Spoken French.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the double compound that is a feature of the regional French of the langue d'oc and franco-provencal areas. Analysis suggests that, in addition to the temporal and aspectual properties traditionally attributed to this form, the expressive properties of the surcompose regional are central to any description of its function in…

Carruthers, J.

1994-01-01

247

The Role of Women in Foreign-Language Textbooks: A Collection of Essays. Collection d'"Etudes linguistiques" No. 24.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essays that consider the way that women are portrayed in foreign language textbooks are presented. The selected essays were submitted to a competition sponsored by the Federation Internationale des Professeurs de Langues Vivantes, which requested that language teachers assess such concerns as: (1) whether women were described in a stereotyped way;…

Freudenstein, R., Ed.

248

Views and Workshops of a Master's Class in Intercultural Competence: Mill's Model of Intercultural Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is the result of a participative process in which the students of the Master's Degree "Didactique des Langues" (foreign language didactics) at Universite du Maine (Le Mans, France) explored through whole-class activities the field of intercultural dialog and intercultural competence teaching. Our approach to intercultural teaching…

Ioannitou, Gina

2010-01-01

249

Exploring the Ancestral Roots of American Sign Language: Lexical Borrowing from Cistercian Sign Language and French Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American Sign Language (ASL) is the natural and preferred language of the Deaf community in both the United States and Canada. Woodward (1978) estimated that approximately 60% of the ASL lexicon is derived from early 19th century French Sign Language, which is known as "langue des signes francaise" (LSF). The lexicon of LSF and ASL may be derived…

Cagle, Keith Martin

2010-01-01

250

Grouping Synonyms by Definitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for grouping the synonyms of a lemma according to its dictionary senses. The senses are defined by a large machine read- able dictionary for French, the TLFi (Tresor de la langue francaise informatise) and the syn- onyms are given by 5 synonym dictionaries (also for French). To evaluate the proposed method, we manually constructed a gold

Ingrid Falk; Claire Gardent; Evelyne Jacquey; Fabienne Venant

2009-01-01

251

(Personal version; This article was published in Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7;9: 385-390, Copyright 2003, and is posted with permission from Elsevier.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is langu age the key to number? This article argues that the human language faculty provides the cognitive equipment that enables humans to develop a systematic number concept. Crucially, this concept is based on non -iconic representations that involve relations be tween relations: relations between numbers are linked with relations between objects. In contrast to this, language-independent numerosity concepts provide

Heike Wiese

252

Wspolnoty Europejskie wobec problemow jezykowych (Addressing Language Problems in the European Communities).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Raises questions about the a European Union commissioned report titled "Les Europeens et les langues," which was prepared in accordance with the customary routine used for a series of report on European public opinion. Issues discussed include the omission of several languages, the use of Esperanto, the languages reportedly used by Europeans, and…

Zelazny, Walter

2003-01-01

253

Bilinguisme et biculturalisme: Theories et pratiques professionnelles. Actes du 2eme colloque d'orthophomie/logopedie (Neuchatel, 17-18 septembre, 1992). (Bilingualism and Biculturalism: Theories and Professional Practices. Colloquium on Orthophony/Logopedy (2nd, Neuchatel, Switzerland, September 17-18, 1992)).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conference papers from a colloquium on issues in bilingualism and biculturalism include: "Le bilinguisme et biculturalisme: essai de definition" ("Bilingualism and Biculturalism: Attempt at Definition") (Francois Grosjean); "La variation individuelle dans l'acquisition d'une langue seconde" ("Individual Variation in Second Language…

Py, Bernard, Ed.

1993-01-01

254

Experiments in English for Special Purposes. Melanges Pedagogiques, 1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes four experiments in English for Special Purposes conducted by or involving the Centre de Recherches et d'Applications Pedagogiques en Langues. English for Special Purposes is discussed in relation to language skills, grammatical and functional progression, "autonomization" and individualization of language acquisition, and…

Duda, R.; And Others

255

Melanges Pedagogiques (Pedagogical Mixture), 1984.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1984 issue of the journal on second language teaching and learning contains five articles in French and two in English. These include the following: "Enseignement individuel vs. enseignement de masse (Individual Instruction vs. Large Group Instruction)" (Jacqueline Billant, Pascal Fade); "Systemes 'autonomisants' d'apprentissage des langues

Melanges Pedagogiques, 1984

1984-01-01

256

"I Want to Go Back to the Text": Response Strategies on the Reading Subtest of the New TOEFL[R  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the reading and test-taking strategies that test takers used on the "Reading" section of the "LanguEdge Courseware" (2002) materials developed to familiarize prospective respondents with the new TOEFL. The investigation focused on strategies used to respond to more traditional "single selection" multiple-choice formats (i.e.,…

Cohen, Andrew D.; Upton, Thomas A.

2007-01-01

257

Modèles statistiques pour l'estimation automatique de la difficulté de textes de FLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé. La lecture constitue l'une des tâches essentielles dans l'a pprentissage d'une langue étrangère. Toutefois, la découverte d'un texte port ant sur un sujet précis et qui soit adapté au niveau de chaque apprenant est consommatrice de temps et pourrait être automatisée. Des ex- périences montrent que, pour l'anglais, l'utilisation de c lassifieurs statistiques permet d'estimer automatiquement la difficulté d'un

Thomas François

258

Cartes sur table: échelonnage lexical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ma communication envisage un certain point de vue, celui du lexi- que, au sein de trois ensembles pédagogiques dans le domaine de l'en- seignement\\/apprentissage du français langue étrangère (FLE). Plus pré- cisément, il m'appartient d'analyser les propositions d'un manuel, Car- tes sur table1; il s'agit pour lors de dégager le rôle du sens lexical dans un manuel qui appelle l'attention

SILVIO FERRARI

259

Contribution à la dynamique identitaire du professeur de Français \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé : La centration sur l'enseignant en FLE passe non seulement par la définition de son rôle mais aussi par le renouvellement de son identité professionnelle. Or, « professeur de Français Langue Etrangère » présente aujourd'hui des signes inquiétants d'immobilisme. D'où l'importance d'étudier les facteurs de paralysie ou de dynamisme de l'identité enseignante et de favoriser la prise de conscience

Sophie Aubin

2009-01-01

260

Storing text retrieval systems on CD-ROM: compression and encryption considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of the CD-ROM as a storage medium for full-text databases raises the question of the maximum size database that can be contained by this medium. As an example, the problem of storing the Trésor de la Langue Fran&ccidel;aise on a CD-ROM is examined in this paper. The text alone of this database is 700 megabytes long, more than

Shmuel T. Klein; Abraham Bookstein; Scott C. Deerwester

1989-01-01

261

State-Based Extension of CASL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A state-based extension of the algebraic specification langu- age CASL is presented. It permits the specification of the static\\u000a part of a complex dynamic system by means of CASL and the dynamic part by means of the facilities described in the paper.\\u000a The dynamic system is defined as possessing a number of states and a number of operations (procedures) for

Hubert Baumeister; Alexandre Zamulin

262

Language Teaching with the Help of Multiple Methods. Collection d'"Etudes linguistiques," No. 21.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents articles on language teaching media. Among the titles are: (1) "Il Foreign Language Teaching e l'impiego degli audio-visivi" (Foreign Language Teaching and the Use of Audio Visual Methods) by D'Agostino, (2) "Le role et la nature de l'image dans l'enseignement programme de l'anglais, langue seconde" (The Role and Nature of the…

Nivette, Jos, Ed.

263

Humain behavior  

ScienceCinema

Le Dr.Muriel James est ingénieur, conseiller/consultant dans plusieurs commissions (p.ex.justice criminelle au Japon) et universités et est l'auteur de nombreux livres (11) traduits dans plusieurs langues. Le plus connu de ses ouvrages est "Born to win". Dans son exposé elle se réfère à son livre "O.K.Boss" et parle d'un modèle spécifique du comportement humain et de ses qualités essentielles qui est la base de son travail.

None

2011-04-25

264

HMMs and GMMs based methods for acoustic-to-articulatory speech inversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

RÉSUMÉ Afin de récupérer les mouvements des articulateurs tels que les lèvres, la mâchoire ou la langue, à partir du son de parole, nous avons développé et comparé deux méthodes d'inversion basées l'une sur les modèles de Markov cachés (HMMs) et l'autre sur les modèles de mélanges de gaussiennes (GMMs). Les mouvements des articulateurs sont caractérisés par les coordonnées médiosagittal

Atef Ben Youssef; Viet-Anh Tran; Pierre Badin; Gérard Bailly

2009-01-01

265

A dictionary of Astronomy for the French Sign Language (LSF)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since a few years, the french deaf communauty have access to astronomy at Paris-Meudon observatory through a specific teaching adapted from the French Sign Language (Langue des Signes Françcaise, LSF) including direct observations with the observatory telescopes. From this experience, an encyclopedic dictionary of astronomy The Hands in the Stars is now available, containing more than 200 astronomical concepts. Many of them did not existed in Sign Language and can be now fully expressed and explained.

Proust, Dominique; Abbou, Daniel; Chab, Nasro

2011-06-01

266

Validation de la version canadienne-française du Life Orientation Test–Revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le Life Orientation Test—Revised (LOT-R) est utilisé pour évaluer la disposition à l’optimisme. Ce test est toutefois en anglais et est issu de la culture américaine, ce qui rend difficile son utilisation pour les recherches sur l’optimisme auprès de la population canadienne-française. Après avoir procédé à la traduction en langue française du LOT-R et à l’évaluation de l’équivalence transculturelle, la

Christiane Trottier; Geneviève Mageau; Pierre Trudel; Wayne R. Halliwell

2008-01-01

267

Les cooperatives et l'electrification rurale du Quebec, 1945--1964  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cette these est consacree a l'histoire de l'electrification rurale du Quebec, et, plus particulierement, a l'histoire des cooperatives d'electricite. Fondees par vagues successives a partir de 1945, les cooperatives rurales d'electricite ont ete actives dans plusieurs regions du Quebec et elles ont electrifie une partie significative des zones rurales. Afin de comprendre le contexte de la creation des cooperatives d'electricite, notre these debute (premiere partie) par une analyse du climat sociopolitique des annees precedant la naissance du systeme cooperatif d'electrification rurale. Nous y voyons de quelle facon l'electrification rurale devient progressivement, a partir de la fin des annees 1920, une question d'actualite a laquelle les divers gouvernements qui se succedent tentent de trouver une solution, sans engager---ou si peu---les fonds de l'Etat. En ce sens, la premiere etatisation et la mise sur pied d'Hydro-Quebec, en 1944, marquent une rupture quant au mode d'action privilegie jusque-la. La nouvelle societe d'Etat se voit cependant retirer son mandat d'electrifier le monde rural un an apres sa fondation, car le gouvernement Duplessis, de retour au pouvoir, prefere mettre en place son propre modele d'electrification rurale. Ce systeme repose sur des cooperatives d'electricite, soutenues par un organisme public, l'Office de l'electrification rurale (OER). L'OER suscite de grandes attentes de la part des ruraux et c'est par centaines qu'ils se manifestent. Cet engouement pour les cooperatives complique la tache de l'OER, qui doit superviser de nouvelles societes tout en assurant sa propre organisation. Malgre des hesitations et quelques delais introduits par un manque de connaissances techniques et de personnel qualifie, les commissaires de l'OER se revelent perspicaces et parviennent a mettre sur pied un systeme cooperatif d'electrification rurale qui produit des resultats rapides. Il leur faudra cependant compter sur l'aide des autres acteurs engages dans l'electrification, les organismes publics et les compagnies privees d'electricite. Cette periode de demarrage et d'organisation, traitee dans la deuxieme partie de la these, se termine en 1947-48, au moment ou l'OER et les cooperatives raffermissent leur maitrise du systeme cooperatif d'electrification rurale. Les annees 1948 a 1955 (troisieme partie de these) correspondent a une periode de croissance pour le mouvement cooperatif. Cette partie scrute ainsi le developpement des cooperatives, les vastes chantiers de construction et l'injection de millions de dollars dans l'electrification rurale. Cette troisieme partie prend egalement acte des premiers signes que quelque chose ne va pas si bien dans le monde cooperatif. Nous y verrons egalement les ruraux a l'oeuvre: comme membres, d'abord, mais aussi en tant que benevoles, puis a l'emploi des cooperatives. La quatrieme et derniere partie, les annees 1956 a 1964, aborde les changements majeurs qui ont cours dans l'univers cooperatif; il s'agit d'une ere nouvelle et difficile pour le mouvement cooperatif, dont les reseaux paraissent inadaptes aux changements de profil de la consommation d'electricite des usagers. L'OER sent alors le besoin de raffermir son controle des cooperatives, car il pressent les problemes et les defis auxquels elles auront a faire face. Notre etude se termine par l'acquisition des cooperatives par Hydro-Quebec, en 1963-64. Fondee sur des sources riches et variees, notre demarche propose un eclairage inedit sur une dimension importante de l'histoire de l'electricite au Quebec. Elle permet, ce faisant, de saisir les rouages et l'action de l'Etat sous un angle particulier, avant sa profonde transformation amorcee au cours des annees 1960. De meme, elle apporte quelques cles nouvelles pour une meilleure comprehension de la dynamique des milieux ruraux de cette periode.

Dorion, Marie-Josee

268

First Analysis of the ?_5 Band of DNO_3 (deuterated Nitric Acid) in the 11 ?m Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infrared spectrum of DNO_3 (deuterated nitric acid) was recorded at high resolution (0.0018 cm ^{-1}) in the 800 -1400 cm ^{-1} region on the Bruker IFR 120 HR Fourier transform spectrometer of Wuppertal. The analysis of the ?_5 A-type band of DNO_3 centered at 887.656 cm ^{-1} was performed taking use of the ground state parameters achieved by Drouin et al. This band is perturbed by several resonances. [1] Drouin, Miller, Fry, Petkie, Helminger, Medvedev, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 236 (2006) 29-34 [2] Acknowledgment: The work was supported through the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (research program LC06071) and scholarship of the French government (Bourse du Gouvernement Francais - Bourse de Doctorat en co-tutelle).

Koubek, J.; Perrin, A.; Beckers, H.; Willner, H.

2009-06-01

269

Concrete production floating platforms  

SciTech Connect

The floating production platforms operating in the North Sea are adapted from drilling semisubmersibles which allow only a limited payload capacity. Experience of concrete production platforms constructed for the North Sea has led Sea Tank Co. to propose a floating platform which offers large payload and oil storage capacities similar to those of existing fixed platforms. Sea Tank Co. and Institut Francais du Petrole joined forces in early 1976 to study the feasibility of a concrete floating production platform incorporating the structure and the production riser together. The results of this 3-yr program show that the concrete floating structure is economically attractive for permanent utilization on a production site. Furthermore, concrete has definite advantages over other materials, in its long term behavior.

Letourneur, O.; Falcimaigne, J.

1981-01-01

270

Sonic imaging reveals new plate boundary structures offshore New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent bathymetry and sonar imagery studies of offshore portions of the plate boundary transecting New Zealand allow the first confident mapping of detailed tectonic and sedimentary patterns of the region. Working in late 1993 aboard the R/V L'Atalante of the Institut Francais de Recherche pour l' Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), we recorded soundings of a wide swath of seabed to elucidate major structural transitions along the plate boundary. Results of the study, part of the GEODYNZ-SUD program developed jointly by institutions in France and New Zealand, will be complemented by New Zealand cruises to the Puysegur and Hikurangi margins. The total data set will be processed and interpreted during the next two years.

Collot, J.-Y.; Delteil, J.; Herzer, R. H.; Wood, R.; Lewis, K.

271

[Inhalation therapy: inhaled corticosteroids in ENT, development and technical challenges of powder inhalers, nebulisers synchronized with breathing and aerosol size distribution. GAT aerosolstorming, Paris 2012].  

PubMed

The working group on aerosol therapy (GAT) of the Société de Pneumologie de Langue Française (SPLF) has organized its third Aerosolstorming in 2012. During one single day, different aspects of inhaled therapies have been treated and are detailed in two articles, this one being the second. This text deals with the indications of inhaled corticosteroids in ENT, the development and technical challenges of powder inhalers, the advantages and disadvantages of each type of technologies to measure the particle sizes of inhaled treatments. PMID:24182652

Le Guen, P; Peron, N; Durand, M; Pourchez, J; Cavaillon, P; Reychler, G; Vecellio, L; Dubus, J-C

2013-10-01

272

Sur la nature des absorbeurs dans l'interpretation transactionnelle de la mecanique quantique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'interpretation transactionnelle de la mecanique quantique est l'une des plus recentes propositions de description des phenomenes du microcosme. En accord avec les predictions de la mecanique quantique standard, l'interpretation transactionnelle propose une alternative a celle de Copenhague. Son principal avantage est qu'elle permet de visualiser les mecanismes sous-jacents a l'echange d'energie, de quantite de mouvement ou d'autres quantites quantiques entre un emetteur et un absorbeur. Ces echanges sont le resultat, a l'instar de la theorie de l'absorbeur de Wheeler et Feynman, de l'utilisation autant d'ondes avancees que retardees. Bien que l'interpretation transactionnelle n'ait pas attire la plus grande attention scientifique, plusieurs critiques lui ont ete adressees. Dans les annees 1990, differentes experiences a mesure sans interaction ont ete concues. Depuis, il a ete avance que la version originale de l'interpretation transactionnelle pouvait difficilement rendre compte de ce type d'experience et meme qu'elle n'est pas compatible avec le concept d'univers quadridimensionnel. La recherche de ce memoire par article consiste a montrer que lorsque l'on utilise systematiquement l'interpretation transactionnelle en considerant la configuration totale des absorbeurs (incluant l'absorbeur universel), il n'est pas necessaire de faire appel a une hierarchie de transactions comme certains l'ont propose.

Boisvert, Jean-Sebastien

273

Extracorporeal life support for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: report of a Consensus Conference  

PubMed Central

The influenza H1N1 epidemics in 2009 led a substantial number of people to develop severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and refractory hypoxemia. In these patients, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was used as rescue oxygenation therapy. Several randomized clinical trials and observational studies suggested that extracorporeal membrane oxygenation associated with protective mechanical ventilation could improve outcome, but its efficacy remains uncertain. Organized by the Société de Réanimation de Langue Française (SRLF) in conjunction with the Société Française d’Anesthésie et de Réanimation (SFAR), the Société de Pneumologie de Langue Française (SPLF), the Groupe Francophone de Réanimation et d’Urgences Pédiatriques (GFRUP), the Société Française de Perfusion (SOFRAPERF), the Société Française de Chirurgie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire (SFCTV) et the Sociedad Española de Medecina Intensiva Critica y Unidades Coronarias (SEMICYUC), a Consensus Conference was held in December 2013 and a jury of 13 members wrote 65 recommendations to answer the five following questions regarding the place of extracorporeal life support for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: 1) What are the available techniques?; 2) Which patients could benefit from extracorporeal life support?; 3) How to perform extracorporeal life support?; 4) How and when to stop extracorporeal life support?; 5) Which organization should be recommended? To write the recommendations, evidence-based medicine (GRADE method), expert panel opinions, and shared decisions taken by all the thirteen members of the jury of the Consensus Conference were taken into account.

2014-01-01

274

Evolution des quasiparticules nodales du cuprate supraconducteur YBa2Cu3Oy en conductivite thermique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ce memoire presente des mesures de conductivite thermique sur les supraconducteurs YBCO et Tl-2201 afin de statuer sur la presence possible d'un point critique quantique (QCP) dans le diagramme de phase de cuprates. Ce point critique quantique serait a l'origine de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi, d'un large cylindre de trous en de petites poches de trous et d'electrons. La conductivite thermique dans le regime T ? 0 permet d'extraire une quantite purement electronique liee aux vitesses de Fermi et du gap, au noeud. Une discontinuite dans cette quantite pourrait signaler la traversee du dopage critique qui reconstruit la surface de Fermi. Plusieurs sondes experimentales distinguent une transition de phase ou un crossover a T* a temperature finie. D'autres sondes mettent en evidence une transition de phase sous l'effet d'un champ magnetique. La presence ou non de cet ordre, a temperature et champ magnetique nul questionne la communaute depuis plusieurs annees. Dans cette etude, nous detectons une variation brusque de kappa0/T a p = 0.18 dans YBCO et a p = 0.20 dans Tl-2201. Ces sauts sont interpretes comme un signe de la transition a temperature nulle et sont en faveur d'un QCP. Le manque de donnees d'un meme materiau a ces dopages ne permet pas de valider hors de tout doute l'existence d'un point critique quantique. Le modele theorique YRZ decrit aussi bien les donnees de conductivite thermique. Des pistes de travaux experimentaux a poursuivre sont proposees pour determiner la presence ou non du QCP de facon franche. Mots-cles : Supraconducteurs, cuprates, conductivite thermique, point critique quantique.

Rene de Cotret, Samuel

275

Elf well turns 90/degree/- and stays there  

SciTech Connect

As part of an intensive research program, the French association IFP (Institut Francais du Petrole) and Elf-Aquitaine have drilled the first European horizontal hole. The well was spudded conventionally and then deviated so that its final path was horizontal, 2,198 ft (670 m) below the surface. More than 330 ft (100 m) were drilled between 89/degree/ and 92/degree/ of inclination. The project started with reservoir engineering studies aimed at demonstrating, on mathematical models, the effectiveness of a horizontal drain hole in areas where hydrocarbon recovery is poor or unsatisfactory, due to gas or water coning, poor flooding patterns, intersection of fractures in tight but fractured producing formations, or other causes. This technique has a number of potential applications both in and out of the oil industry. The well was drilled in 44 days. Horizontal displacement was 2,192 ft (668 m) with a total vertical depth of 2,198 ft (670 m). To accomplish this, it was necessary to drill 3,563 ft (1,086 m) of hole. In the 17/one-half/-in. hole, 73/4-in. drill collars and 5-in. heavy weight drill pipe were run above the bent sub and the monel collar. While reaming the hole, the drill string was rotated conventionally, one near bit and one stabilizer (30 ft above) being included in the string.

Astier, B.; Jourdan, A.; Baron, G.

1981-01-01

276

Satisfaction survey in general hospital personnel involved in blood transfusion: implementation of the ISO 9001: 2000 standard.  

PubMed

As part of its policy of constant quality improvement, Etablissement francais du sang (EFS) des pays de la Loire (Pays de la Loire Regional Blood Transfusion Centre) carried out a satisfaction survey among the hospital personnel involved in prescribing and using immunohaematological tests and labile blood products (LBP). The polling tool selected by agreement between the Saint Nazaire's hospital management and Quality Assurance (QA) Department was a questionnaire that permitted item rating and free commentary. It addressed the personnel's perception of the quality of erythrocyte immunohaematological (EIH) testing and of the products administered, as well as their perception of the quality of communications with the local EFS. The questionnaire was sent to 26 physicians and 32 senior nurses in 15 hospital departments. The reply rate was 60% and expressed an 85% overall satisfaction level. Dissatisfaction causes were more specifically analysed, the main one involving LBP distribution in emergency situations. A joint undertaking by the EFS and the hospital led to the implementation of corrective measures, including the writing and implementation of a common standard operating procedure for emergency transfusion management. The results obtained demonstrated the feasibility of this type of survey and the interest, to a blood transfusion centre and the hospital personnel involved in transfusion, of assessing their very own perception of service quality. PMID:15564097

Chord-Auger, S; Tron de Bouchony, E; Moll, M C; Boudart, D; Folléa, G

2004-10-01

277

Variability of the wind field in the tropical oceans as observed by satellite sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wind stress is the primary force driving the tropical oceans from daily to interannual time scales. Conventional measurements from ships of the wind vectors are not available with a sufficient quality regarding data accuracy as well as their coverage. Satellite observations of the surface wind over the sea are now available on a routine basis at the Institut Francais de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), derived from the European Remote Sensing-1 (ERS-1) scatterometer and altimeter and from the radiometer special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I). More than 3 years of weekly stress fields (1991-1994) with a resolution of one degree in latitude and longitude are produced using an objective analysis method. The accuracy of these gridded winds was evaluated by comparison with TAO buoys in the tropical Pacific area (Riou, 1995). The root mean square differences are of the order of 1.2 m/s and 15 degrees. The greatest differences are observed in the TOGA/COARE region where the wind variability is largest on the weekly scale. The low frequencies (monthly to interannual) of the wind variability are discussed and compared to those obtained from the TAO buoys. In this paper the time and space scales of the sea surface wind are described using a complex EOF analysis. One of the most interesting results is that the weekly averaged wind fields derived from ERS-1 scatterometer are useful to depict a 30-50 day oscillation over the tropical Pacific Ocean.

Grima, N.; Bentamy, A.; Quilfen, Y.

1995-12-01

278

Development of a New Stratigraphic Trap Exploration Using Elastic-Wave Seismic Technology  

SciTech Connect

Vecta acquired 9 square miles of 9-C seismic data in Mountrail County, North Dakota with the Mission Canyon shoreline as a primary target. Vecta contracted the Institute Francais du Petrole in order to co-develop a more rigorous multicomponent seismic interpretation product. The final interpretation was very unique in that it utilized not only the 9-C seismic data but also the new jointly developed software. A Mission Canyon anomaly was developed in 2006; however, it was of insufficient size to be a commercial target at the time. Therefore, Vecta analyzed the shear data for anisotropy within the Bakken formation and successfully reentered an abandoned producer within the project area and drilled a horizontal leg through the anomalous zones of the middle member of the Bakken formation. The well was open hole completed, swab tested, sand fraced, and swab tested some more. No shows of oil were ever seen from the Bakken formation, but the well yielded considerable amounts of formation water. The well has been abandoned as non-commercial. From the swab tests, one may conclude considerable permeability exists in the formation, thus confirming the utility of the shear wave to detect fractures within the targeted formation.

Bryan DeVault

2008-02-05

279

Oil viscosity limitation on dispersibility of crude oil under simulated at-sea conditions in a large wave tank.  

PubMed

This study determined the limiting oil viscosity for chemical dispersion of oil spills under simulated sea conditions in the large outdoor wave tank at the US National Oil Spill Response Test Facility in New Jersey. Dispersant effectiveness tests were completed using crude oils with viscosities ranging from 67 to 40,100 cP at test temperature. Tests produced an effectiveness-viscosity curve with three phases when oil was treated with Corexit 9500 at a dispersant-to-oil ratio of 1:20. The oil viscosity that limited chemical dispersion under simulated at-sea conditions was in the range of 18,690 cP to 33,400 cP. Visual observations and measurements of oil concentrations and droplet size distributions in the water under treated and control slicks correlated well with direct measurements of effectiveness. The dispersant effectiveness versus oil viscosity relationship under simulated at sea conditions at Ohmsett was most similar to those from similar tests made using the Institut Francais du Pétrole and Exxon Dispersant Effectiveness (EXDET) test methods. PMID:20723943

Trudel, Ken; Belore, Randy C; Mullin, Joseph V; Guarino, Alan

2010-09-01

280

Management of thrombocytopenia in the ICU (pregnancy excluded)  

PubMed Central

Thrombocytopenia is a very frequent disorder in the intensive care unit. Many etiologies should be searched, and therapeutic approaches differ according to these different causes. However, no guideline exists regarding optimum practices for these situations in critically ill patients. We present recommendations for the management of thrombocytopenia in intensive care unit, excluding pregnancy, developed by an expert group of the French-Language Society of Intensive Care (Société de Réanimation de Langue Française (SRLF), the French Language Group of Paediatric Intensive Care and Emergencies (GFRUP) and of the Haemostasis and Thrombosis Study Group (GEHT) of the French Society of Haematology (SFH). The recommendations cover six fields of application: definition, epidemiology, and prognosis; diagnostic approach; therapeutic aspects; thrombocytopenia and sepsis; iatrogenic thrombocytopenia, with a special focus on heparin-induced thrombocytopenia; and thrombotic microangiopathy.

2012-01-01

281

Floridas Miami Tequesta Indian Site, Its Calusa Indian Locations, the Matacumbe Keys, and Orlandos Wikiwa Springs Generate Environmentally Significant EMFs.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Florida purchased the Tequesta ([Langue] doc Christ Spirit-signal) Indian site along the Miami River site that vigorously pulsates with even minor rainstorms entering or leaving the area. Although there is a laughable chimera of a fountain of youth associated with Ponce de Leons discovery of the Florida peninsula in about AD 1513, the Calusa (Royal Christ Jesus Spirit-signal) Indian Nation has an associated significance with EMF signals they possibly monitored throughout their area of activity. Our efforts have also led to the investigation of cultural and other influences implied by the Matacumbe Keys that indicate a shared commonality of awareness with Native Americans of the northeast such as Metacomet, or regions like Maines Grand Lake Matagamon and its associated electromagnetic Spirit Signal. Wikiwa Springs near Orlando shares much with Massachusetts (adherent of serpent Jesus Christ Spirit-signal) Natick, and New Hampshires Naticook Island. These are the locales of environmentally sensitive instrumentation.

Mac Dougall, Jean S.; Mc Leod, Roger D.; Mc Leod, David M.

2003-10-01

282

[Inhalation therapy: inhaled generics, inhaled antidotes, the future of anti-infectives and the indications of inhaled pentamidine. GAT aerosolstorming, Paris 2012].  

PubMed

The working group on aerosol therapy (GAT) of the Société de pneumologie de langue française (SPLF) organized its third "Aerosolstorming" in 2012. During the course of one day, different aspects of inhaled therapy were discussed, and these will be treated separately in two articles, this one being the first. Inhaled products represent a large volume of prescriptions both in the community and in hospital settings and they involve various specialties particularly ENT and respiratory care. Technical aspects of the development of these products, their mode of administration and compliance with their indications are key elements for the effective therapeutic use of inhaled treatments. In this first article, we will review issues concerning generic inhaled products, the existence of inhaled antidotes, new anti-infective agents and indications for inhaled pentamidine. PMID:24314707

Peron, N; Le Guen, P; Andrieu, V; Bardot, S; Ravilly, S; Oudyi, M; Dubus, J-C

2013-12-01

283

Recommendations regarding obesity surgery.  

PubMed

In France, 1,000 obese persons per month undergo a bariatric operation. Obesity surgery requires coordination and monitoring of aftercare. The French public health-care insurer asked the medical associations involved in obesity management to provide guidelines for obesity surgery. The recommendations were developed by the national associations of Obesity, Nutrition and Diabetes: the Association Française d'Etudes et de Recherches sur l'Obésité (AFERO), member of the EASO and IASO; the Association de Langue Française pour l'Etude du Diabète et des Maladies Métaboliques (ALFEDIAM); the Société Française de Nutrition (SFN); and the Société Française de Chirurgie de l'Obésité (SOFCO). This article presents the short version of the guidelines. PMID:16354530

Laville, M; Romon, M; Chavrier, G; Guy-Grand, B; Krempf, M; Chevallier, J M; Marmuse, J P; Basdevant, A

2005-01-01

284

Evaluation d'un ecosysteme pastoral sahelien: Apport de la geomatique (Oursi, Burkina Faso)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'objectif principal de cette recherche est la mise au point d'une architecture d'integration de donnees socio-bio-geographiques et de donnees satellitales dans un Systeme d'Information Geographique (SIG) en vue d'une aide a la prise de decisions dans un environnement semi-aride au nord du Burkina Faso. Elle repond a la question fondamentale de l'interpretation des effets des facteurs climatiques et socioeconomiques sur le milieu pastoral. La recherche s'est appuyee sur plusieurs hypotheses de travail: possibilite d'utilisation de modele de simulation, d'approche multicritere et de donnees de teledetection dans un cadre de systeme d'information geographique. L'evolution spatiotemporelle des parametres de productivite du milieu a ete evaluee par approche dynamique selon le modele de Wu et al. (1996) qui modelise les interactions entre le climat, le milieu physique, le vegetal et l'animal pour mieux quantifier la biomasse primaire. A ce modele, quatre parametres ont ete integres par approche floue et multicritere afin de prendre en compte la dimension socioeconomique de la productivite pastorale (apport majeur de la recherche): la sante, l'education, l'agriculture et l'eau. La teledetection (imagerie SPOT) a permis de definir la production primaire a partir de laquelle les simulations ont ete realisees sur 10 annees. Les resultats obtenus montrent une bonne correlation entre biomasse primaire in situ et celle calculee pour les deux modeles, avec toutefois une meilleure efficacite du modele modifie (4 fois plus) dans les zones de forte productivite ou l'on note un taux de surexploitation agricole eleve. A cause de la variabilite spatiale de la production primaire in situ, les erreurs des resultats de simulation (8 a 11%) sont acceptables et montrent la pertinence de l'approche grace a l'utilisation des SIG pour la spatialisation et l'integration des differents parametres des modeles. Les types de production secondaire preconises (production de lait pendant 7 mois ou de viande pendant 6 mois) sont bases sur les besoins de l'UBT et le disponible fourrager qui est de qualite mediocre en saison seche. Dans les deux cas de figure, un deficit fourrager est observe. Deux types de transhumance sont proposes afin d'assurer une production durable selon deux scenarios: exploitation rationnelle des unites pastorales selon un plan de rotation annuelle et mise en defens a moyen terme des zones degradees pour une regeneration. Les zones potentielles pour la transhumance ont ete determinees selon les limites acceptables des criteres d'exploitation durable des milieux saheliens definis par Kessler (1994) soit 0,2 UBT.ha-1.

Kabore, Seraphine Sawadogo

285

Le changement comme tradition dans la recherche et la formation a la recherche en biotechnologie et en peripherie Etude de cas en sciences de la sante, sciences naturelles et genie  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Le champ de la recherche scientifique et de la formation a la recherche est traverse depuis quelques dizaines d'annees par plusieurs courants et discours associes au changement, mais peu de travaux empiriques permettent de comprendre ce qui change concretement. C'est la contribution originale de cette these au champ de l'education, plus specifiquement a l'etude sociologique de l'enseignement superieur ou sont concentrees les activites liees a la triade thematique du programme doctoral dans lequel elle a ete produite : recherche, formation et pratique. L'enquete-terrain a ete realisee en 2009 et 2010 aupres de 808 repondants affilies a 60 etablissements au Quebec et a produit un vaste materiau de nature mixte (donnees quantitatives et qualitatives). Un portrait de la nebuleuse biotechnologique qui touche les secteurs des sciences de la sante, des sciences naturelles et du genie a ete realise. Ce domaine concerne des dizaines de disciplines et se revele de nature transdisciplinaire, mais les pratiques n'y sont pas davantage marquees par le changement que celles d'autres domaines connexes. Les dynamiques sociales ont fait l'objet d'analyses comparatives dans quatre contextes: le choix des programmes, des objets et des methodes, le financement, la diffusion et la planification de la carriere. Les resultats indiquent que les echanges entre les agents traditionnellement situes au coeur des activites de recherche dominent ces dynamiques dans tous les contextes etudies. L'etude des representations au fondement des pratiques a revele l'existence de trois ecoles de pensee qui coexistent dans le champ scientifique: academique, pragmatique et economiste. Ces ecoles permettent de categoriser les agents en fonction des zones de fractures qui marquent leurs oppositions tout en identifiant ce qu'ils ont en commun. Les representations et les pratiques liees a la formation temoignent d'un habitus plutot homogene, alors que les contradictions semblent plus souvent ancrees dans des luttes universitaires que scientifiques, concentrees sur la negociation du capital scientifique, symbolique et economique en jeu dans la formation doctorale, dans les carrieres auxquelles elle mene, et dans les qualites du titre de Ph.D. Au final, la confusion entre des logiques opposees peut etre reduite en reinterpretant le changement comme tradition du champ scientifique. Mots-cles Sociologie, education, enseignement superieur, science et technologie, biotechnologie, formation doctorale, champ scientifique, reseaux sociaux

Bourque, Claude Julie

286

Analyse des transferts de chaleur et de masse transitoires dans un arena a l'aide de la methode zonale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cette these presente les resultats d'une etude sur le mouvement de l'air et les transferts thermiques et massiques dans les arenas en regime transitoire et en 3D. Pour la partie aeraulique, il a ete question de developper un modele base sur la methode zonale qui permet de calculer les debits de l'air (dus a la ventilation et aux gradients de temperature) et de l'humidite entre les differentes zones du batiment et de determiner l'age de l'air dans chacune des zones. Pour la partie thermique, un modele de calcul du rayonnement entre les surfaces interieures du batiment qui a ete couple a TRNSYS afin de calculer sur une base annuelle les charges de chauffage et de refrigeration; ces dernieres tiennent compte des transferts radiatif et convectif, de la chaleur latente due a la condensation de l'humidite sur la glace et du surfacage. Le document presente est constitue de 7 chapitres qui peuvent etre resumes comme suit: Les chapitres 1, 2 et 3 sont consacres respectivement: a l'introduction generale, a la revue bibliographique et a la description du batiment modelise. Le chapitre 4 decrit l'approche developpee et la contribution importante qui y est apportee. Il presente l'utilisation de la methode zonale comme une alternative pratique aux methodes CFD car elle permet de realiser des simulations dynamiques sur une annee avec des temps de simulation tres courts et une precision acceptable. Il s'agit d'une approche intermediaire entre les modeles CFD et les modeles a un noeud d'air (considerant la temperature homogene dans un local). Le chapitre 5 est consacre a la methode de resolution numerique. L'outil de simulation a ete developpe en utilisant l'interface du logiciel TRNSYS: Le type 56 de ce logiciel a ete adopte comme modele energetique tandis que les autres modeles ont ete developpes et programmes en utilisant le logiciel MATLAB. Le chapitre 6 presente les resultats de simulation pour un arena sans faux plafond et avec un faux plafond et les resultats de mesures effectuees a l'arena de Camilien Houde pour la validation de son modele. Le chapitre 7 est consacre a l'etude de l'influence de certains parametres sur la charge thermique transmise a la glace et sur le confort thermique des spectateurs.

Daoud, Ahmed

287

Interdiffusion de puits quantiques controlee par irradiation laser excimere pour l'integration de composants photoniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'integration de composants discrets sur un systeme unique, tel une puce electronique, augmente les performances totales du systeme, fait apparaitre de nouvelles fonctionnalites et diminue les couts associes a la fabrication des dispositifs. Ces ameliorations, appliquees au secteur de la microelectronique, sont grandement responsables des avancements importants qu'ont connus les technologies de l'information et des communications au cours des dernieres annees. Puisque la fabrication de circuits photoniques integres necessite l'integration de structures ayant des bandes interdites differentes a partir d'une meme puce semiconductrice, leur niveau d'integration est bien inferieur que celui atteint pour un microprocesseur standard. Parmi les techniques ayant le potentiel de fabriquer des circuits photoniques integres monolithiquement, l'interdiffusion de puits quantique post-expitaxial controlee spatialement augmente la bande interdite d'une heterostructure semiconductrice a l'interieur de regions definies. Le processus d'interdiffusion, active thermiquement, est accelere par la diffusion d'impuretes et de defauts ponctuels tels que les lacunes et les interstitiels. L'hypothese de depart de mes travaux de doctorat suppose que la radiation laser ultra-violette module la diffusion et la generation de defauts ponctuels dans les heterostructures reposant sur les technologies a base de GaAs et d'InP et, consequemment, controle spatialement l'interdiffusion de puits quantiques. Nous avons demontre que lorsque appliquee sur des heterostructures a base de GaAs, l'irradiation laser excimere l'interdiffusion en favorisant la croissance d'un stresseur de surface qui empeche la diffusion des defauts ponctuels vers les puits quantiques. Nous avons souligne l'influence de la vapeur d'eau physisorbee sur la croissance du stresseur et avons determine la resolution spatiale de la technique. Dans les heterostructures basees sur les technologies InP, meme sous le seuil d'ablation, l'absorption des impulsions laser UV favorise la desorption des atomes de surface ce qui genere des defauts ponctuels en concentration excedentaire. Lors d'un recuit thermique, ces defauts ponctuels augmentent la vitesse de l'interdiffusion sous les regions irradiees. Mots cles : Interdiffusion de puits quantique, integration potonique, laser excimere, semiconducteur, InP, GaAs.

Genest, Jonathan

288

Diffraction et Deflection dans le Tellurium pour le Laser Carbon-Dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cette these fait suite au travail realise ces dix dernieres annees relatif aux effets acoustooptiques (AO) dans les materiaux, ainsi qu'a une premiere observation indiquant que le tellurium possede une valeur de merite (M) exceptionnellement elevee a la longueur d'onde 10.6 ?m du laser CO_2, pour une certaine configuration de l'onde acoustique et optique. Une analyse plus generale et plus complete de la diffraction et de la deflection a des frequences acoustiques simples et multiples est presentee ainsi que pour la premiere fois, les resultats d'une analyse experimentale et quantitative de la diffraction et de la deflection AO pour les configurations birefringentes et isotropiques qui couvrent l'espace entier du crystal. L'expression de l'efficacite de diffraction est derivee pour les interactions du premier-ordre, pour une condition generale de propagation acoustique et optique. Une expression complete de la valeur de merite est par consequent obtenue. La relation entre les angles de Bragg incidents et diffractes en fonction de la frequence acoustique est egalement obtenue. Ces dernieres relations permettent de calculer les bandes passantes de diffraction et les angles de deflection correspondants, en prenant en consideration l'activite optique lorsque les faisceaux optiques se propagent pres de l'axe OZ. Un programme experimental detaille a ete entrepris afin de mesurer les coefficients inconnus du tenseur photoelastique du tellurium et les caracteristiques de diffraction AO dans des cas typiques particulierement choisis des plans d'interaction et des parametres optiques et acoustiques. Utilisant le comportement acoustique connu du tellurium et le tenseur photoelastique complet, nous avons fait fonctionner pour la premiere fois un programme d'ordinateur, dont le but est de calculer toutes les valeurs de (M) et en particulier celles qui sont les plus elevees, dans tout l'espace du crystal, pour les interactions isotropiques et birefringentes. Les configurations optimuns pour la deflection et la modulation du laser CO_2 ont ete analysees. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.).

Souilhac, Dominique Jacques

289

Analyse des interactions energetiques entre un arena et son systeme de refrigeration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La presente these s'inscrit dans le cadre d'un projet strategique sur les arenas finance par le CRSNG (Conseil de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles et en Genie du Canada) qui a pour but principal le developpement d'un outil numerique capable d'estimer et d'optimiser la consommation d'energie dans les arenas et curlings. Notre travail s'inscrit comme une suite a un travail deja realise par DAOUD et coll. (2006, 2007) qui a developpe un modele 3D (AIM) en regime transitoire de l'arena Camilien Houde a Montreal et qui calcule les flux de chaleur a travers l'enveloppe du batiment ainsi que les distributions de temperatures et d'humidite durant une annee meteorologique typique. En particulier, il calcule les flux de chaleur a travers la couche de glace dus a la convection, la radiation et la condensation. Dans un premier temps nous avons developpe un modele de la structure sous la glace (BIM) qui tient compte de sa geometrie 3D, des differentes couches, de l'effet transitoire, des gains de chaleur du sol en dessous et autour de l'arena etudie ainsi que de la temperature d'entree de la saumure dans la dalle de beton. Par la suite le BIM a ete couple le AIM. Dans la deuxieme etape, nous avons developpe un modele du systeme de refrigeration (REFSYS) en regime quasi-permanent pour l'arena etudie sur la base d'une combinaison de relations thermodynamiques, de correlations de transfert de chaleur et de relations elaborees a partir de donnees disponibles dans le catalogue du manufacturier. Enfin le couplage final entre l'AIM +BIM et le REFSYS a ete effectue sous l'interface du logiciel TRNSYS. Plusieurs etudes parametriques on ete entreprises pour evaluer les effets du climat, de la temperature de la saumure, de l'epaisseur de la glace, etc. sur la consommation energetique de l'arena. Aussi, quelques strategies pour diminuer cette consommation ont ete etudiees. Le considerable potentiel de recuperation de chaleur au niveau des condenseurs qui peut reduire l'energie requise par le systeme de ventilation de l'arena a ete mis en evidence. Mots cles. Arena, Systeme de refrigeration, Consommation d'energie, Efficacite energetique, Conduction au sol, Performance annuelle.

Seghouani, Lotfi

290

The 1994 EUROMET collection of micrometeorites at Cap-Prudhomme, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advance funding from IFRTP (Institut Francais pour la Recherche et pour la Technique Polaire) for micrometeorite collection at Cap-Prudhomme has allowed construction of a new micrometeorite 'factory,' conceived to greatly reduce contamination of the ultraclean ice by our activities. The potential problems include fly ash, rust grains, fuel spills 'sticking to the shoes,' and trace elements from the plasticizers used in plastic tubing. In the new factory, intended to produce and then cycle 10-15 tons of melt ice water per day, all parts exposed to water were replaced by either stainless steel or teflon. After examination with a microscope and their transfer into teflon and or glass vials, all samples were frozen the day of their collection. The factory operated from December 15, 1993, through February 6, 1994. Problems included injuries as well as very bad weather conditions, characterized by both the heaviest snow falls observed and unexpected gusts from a blizzard. Also, several new components of the factory did not function properly under the extreme conditions of Antarctica. Our major objective was to obtain the 'cleanest' and 'purest' 25-50 microns micrometeorites ever collected in Antarctica, for comparison with stratospheric Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs). We could not fulfill this premise, but we recovered the best 100-400-micron-size fraction of 'giant' micrometeorites ever collected on Earth. Our 26 daily collections are listed,refering to an 'index of quality.' Aliquots of these daily collections will be distributed to major institutions in Austria, England, the U.S.A., and Japan, to be preserved for future generations. The Antarctica ice sheet is truly a gigantic, ultraclean, and inexhaustible micrometeorite collector, but it is very tricky to recover 'ultraclean' micrometeorites from it.

Maurette, M.; Immel, G.; Engrand, C.; Kurat, G.; Pillinger, C. T.

1994-07-01

291

Motivational beliefs, cognitive engagement, and achievement in language and mathematics in elementary school children.  

PubMed

The contextual differences in the patterns of relations among various motivational, cognitive, and metacognitive components of self-regulated learning and performance in two key curriculum subject areas, language and mathematics, were examined in a sample of 263 Greek primary school children of fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms. Age and gender differences were also investigated. Students were asked to complete the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich & De Groot, 1990 ), which comprised five factors: (a) Self-efficacy, (b) Intrinsic Value, (c) Test Anxiety, (d) Cognitive Strategy Use, and (e) Self-regulation Strategies. They responded to the statements of the questionnaire on a 7-point Likert scale in terms of their behaviour in mathematics and language classes, respectively. Moreover, their teachers were asked to evaluate each of their students' academic achievement in Greek language and mathematics on a 1- to 20-point comparative scale in relation to the rest of the class. The results of the study indicated very few differences in the pattern of relations among self-regulated components within and across the two subject areas and at the same time revealed a context-specific character of self-regulated components at a mean level differences. Further, the current study (a) confirmed the mediatory role of strategies in the motivation-performance relation, (b) stressed the differential role of cognitive and regulatory strategies in predicting performance in subject areas that differ in their structural characteristics of the content, and (c) pointed out the key motivational role of self-efficacy. In fact, self-efficacy proved the most significant predictor not only of performance but of cognitive and regulatory strategy use as well. Gender differences in motivation and strategy use were not reported, while motivation was found to vary mainly with age. The usefulness of these findings for promoting greater clarity among motivational and metacognitive frameworks and ideas for future research are discussed. Cette étude porte sur les différences contextuelles dans les patrons relationnels entre les diverses composantes motivationnelle, cognitive et métacognitive de l'apprentissage et de la performance auto-régulés dans deux domaines d'étude clé du programme, soit la langue et les mathématiques. Ces différences contextuelles ont été examinées dans un échantillon de 263 d'enfants d'une école primaire grecque (of) en cinquième et sixième année. Les différences sexuelles et les différences d'âge ont été aussi étudiées. Les élèves ont été priés de compléter le «Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire» (Pintrich & De Groot, 1990 ) qui comprend cinq facteurs: (a) l'auto-efficacité, (b) la valeur intrinsèque, (c) un test d'anxiété, (d) l'utilisation d'une stratégie cognitive et (e) les stratégies d'auto-régulation. Ils ont répondu aux énoncés du questionnaire sur une échelle de type Likert à 7 points en termes de leur comportement en classe de langue et en classe de mathématiques séparément. De plus, les enseignants ont été priés d'évaluer chaque résultat de leurs élèves dans la langue grecque et en mathématique sur une échelle allant de 1 à 20 points en comparaison au reste de la classe. Les résultats de l'étude ont indiqué très peu de différences dans les patrons relationnels entre les composantes auto-régulées à l'intérieur et entre les domaines d'étude. En même temps, les résultats ont révélé un caractère contextuel spécifique des composantes auto-regulées. De plus, la présente étude (a) a confirmé le rôle médiateur des stratégies dans la relation motivation-performance, (b) a souligné le rôle différé des stratégies cognitive et régulatoire dans la prédiction de la performance dans les domaines d'étude qui diffèrent dans leurs caractéristiques structurelles du contenu et (c) a souligné le rôle motivationnel clé de l'auto-efficacité. En effet, l'auto-efficacité s'est avérée être le prédicteur le plus sign

Metallidou, Panagiota; Vlachou, Anastasia

2007-02-01

292

Geoheritage promotion of Thonon-les-Bains (Fr) region by the development of a geotourism product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2012, the Chablais region (only in France) has acquired the Geopark label. This Geopark contributes to sustainable economic development of the region through geotourism. Moreover, the three Chablais (figure 1) are concerned by an Interreg IV program since 2009 (program of cooperation between European countries). The main objective of this program is to enhance the heritage resources (nature, culture and lifestyle of the region) (www.interreg-francesuisse.org). Therefore, the geotourism offer in this area just waiting to expand. The geodidactics models like the simplification of the scientific content are essential for geoheritage promotion, because this content must be available to a wide audience, allowing thereby the geoheritage recognition. The geotourism permits to apply different models (Cayla et al. 2010, Sellier, 2009) through a wide range of geotourism products, like guide, educational panels, thematic hikes and recently developed, new medias (website, smartphone applications). A geotourism product is based on four areas of questioning and was developed by Martin et al. (2010): (1) site (choice of sites to be valued), (2) public (a family public, good example of heterogeneous public), (3) contents (reasoning on geodidactics models) and (4) support (smartphone application). These four areas are very fundamental before the creation of any geotourism product. These reflexions aim to obtain a mediation product that integrates into geotourism offer of a region and contributes to its development and meets public expectations. New media, such as digital media - smartphone, tablets, website - become geotourism products more and more attractive. In addition, the necessary technologies to develop new media help to integrate a high interactivity potential with the public and thus get their attention. The architecture of this geotourism product is based on the new application developed by the Institute of Geography and sustainability, and the Bureau Relief. One of the thematic itineraries is focused on the discovery of different natural resources by explaining their formation and their use by society, allowing to enhance a selection of geoheritage. The itinerary is entitled: In the footsteps of the exploitation of natural resources... a history of water and rock. Keywords: Promotion, geoheritage, geotourism products, public, geodidactics models. REFERENCES Cayla, N., Hobléa, F., & Gasquet, D. (2010). Guide des bonnes pratiques de médiation des géosciences sur le terrain. Géologie de la France (1), pp. 47-55. Disponible sur : http://geolfrance.brgm.fr/article.asp?annee=2010&revue=1&article=8 (consulté le 4.02.2013). Martin, S., Regolini-Bissig, G., Perret, A., & Kozlik, L. (2010). Elaboration et évaluation des produits géotouristiques. Téoros, 29-2/2010. Disponible sur : http://teoros.revues.org/898 (consulted the 13.12.2012). Sellier D. (2009). La vulgarisation du patrimoine géomorphologique. Objets, moyens et perspectives. Bulletin de l'Association des Géographes Français, 1, pp. 67-81.

Fanguin, Pauline

2014-05-01

293

Traitements didactiques preventifs d'un type de conceptions erronees en sciences physiques chez des eleves du secondaire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dans un contexte constructiviste, les connaissances anterieures d'un individu sont essentielles a la construction de nouvelles connaissances. Quelle qu'en soit la source (certaines de ces connaissances ont ete elaborees en classe, d'autres ont ete elaborees par interaction personnelle de l'individu avec son environnement physique et social), ces connaissances, une fois acquises, constituent les matieres premieres de l'elaboration des nouvelles conceptions de cet individu. Generalement, cette influence est consideree comme positive. Cependant, dans un milieu scolaire ou l'apprentissage de certaines conceptions enchassees dans un programme d'etudes et enterinees par l'ensemble d'une communaute est obligatoire, certaines connaissances anterieures peuvent entraver la construction des conceptions exigees par la communaute. La litterature abonde de tels exemples. Cependant, certaines connaissances anterieures, en soi tout a fait conformes a l'Heritage, peuvent aussi, parce qu'utilisees de facon non pertinente, entraver la construction d'une conception exigee par la communaute. Ici, la litterature nous donne peu d'exemples de ce type, mais nous en fournirons quelques-uns dans le cadre theorique, et ce sera un d'entre eux qui servira de base a nos propos. En effet, une grande proportion d'eleves inscrits a un cours de sciences physiques de la quatrieme secondaire, en reponse a un probleme deja solutionne durant l'annee et redonne lors d'un examen sommatif, "Pourquoi la Lune nous montre-t-elle toujours la meme face?", attribue principalement la cause de ce phenomene a la rotation de la Terre sur son axe. En tant que responsable de l'enseignement de ce programme d'etudes, plusieurs questions nous sont venues a l'esprit, entre autres, comment, dans un contexte constructiviste, est-il possible de reduire chez un eleve, l'impact de cette connaissance anterieure dans l'elaboration de la solution et ainsi prevenir la construction d'une conception erronee? Nous avons teste nos hypotheses avec la cohorte suivante d'eleves chez qui se repetaient les memes conditions d'apprentissage. Nous avons utilise le design de recherche "posttest only" de Campbell et Stanley. En mai, apres le moment prevu dans la planification du programme pour donner le probleme aux eleves, nous avons suggere deux facons differentes de reviser la solution de ce probleme. Les eleves du premier groupe experimental ont revise sans que soit activee la connaissance anterieure apprehendee de la rotation de la Terre. Les eleves du deuxieme groupe experimental ont ete confrontes, par des questions et une simulation, au fait que la rotation de la Terre n'est pas une connaissance pertinente pour resoudre le probleme. Les groupes temoins et les groupes experimentaux ont ete choisis au hasard dans le bassin des ecoles secondaires de la commission scolaire. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Blondin, Andre

294

Effet Hall et Magnetisme des Alliages Amorphes Nickel-Zirconium Fabriques Par Pulverisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cette these se situe dans le cadre d'une etude des proprietes electroniques et structurales des alliages metalliques amorphes, en cours depuis quelques annees a l'Universite de Montreal. Ce programme nous a entre autres amene a caracteriser la magnetoresistivite et l'effet Hall d'alliages FeZr, CoZr et NiZr, ce qui a permis de mettre en evidence deux caracteristiques de l'effet Hall: Dans les alliages amorphes ferromagnetiques, la resistivite elevee engendre un effet Hall extraordinaire beaucoup plus important que celui enregistre dans les metaux cristallins. La polarisation des spins entrai ne une asymetrie de la diffusion qui, tant dans les phases cristalline et amorphe, est tenue responsable de cette contribution. L'autre particularite du comportement de Hall de ces systemes est le renversement de signe du coefficient de Hall ordinaire, qui passe du negatif au positif dans les echantillons plus riches en zirconium. Dans les metaux cristallins, un modele d'electrons libres predit un signe negatif a moins que la conduction ne soit dominee par les trous. Or, dans un milieu desordonne les memes concepts sont difficilement applicables et de nouvelles theories ont du etre elaborees pour expliquer ce phenomene. Jusqu'a maintenant, l'etude des alliages amorphes nickel-zirconium s'est faite surtout a partir d'echantillons fabriques par trempe sur roue. Malheureusement cette technique ne permet pas la fabrication d'alliages contenant plus de 70% de nickel, a l'exception du seul compose Ni _{90}Zr_{10 }. Pour pallier a cette lacune et etendre nos connaissance a l'ensemble de la gamme de compositions, nous avons fabrique par pulverisation cathodique des echantillons NiZr amorphes--et quelques alliages cristallins tres riches en nickel--couvrant une bonne partie de la gamme interdite par la technique de trempe sur roue. Dans un premier temps, par comparaison avec les resultats connus nous avons mis en evidence les similitudes et les differences entre les alliages obtenus par l'une et l'autre methode de fabrication. Il s'avere que le comportement intrinseque n'est pas different, mais que les echantillons pulverises sont plus sensibles a certaines anomalies de la structure que nous avons relevees et tente d'expliquer. L'etude des echantillons paramagnetiques permet de verifier que dans ces alliages le comportement de l'effet Hall apparent est la somme des contributions ordinaire, consequence de la force de Lorentz, et extraordinaire, etant donnee la tres forte valeur de coefficient de Hall extraordinaire notee dans ces systemes. Dans les alliages ferromagnetiques, l'etude systematique de l'aimantation en fonction de la temperature et de la composition est menee par le biais de la mesure de la resistivite de Hall. Elle permet de definir les principaux parametres magnetiques--temperature de Curie et aimantation--et de mettre en evidence le caractere itinerant du magnetisme et la contribution des fluctuations de spins. Ces mesures de resistivite de Hall dans les amorphes ferromagnetiques mettent aussi en lumiere un effet Hall extraordinaire qui se superpose a un effet Hall ordinaire semblable en grandeur a celui des cristallins. Il appert aussi que l'effet Hall extraordinaire est l'effet dominant, y compris qu dessus de la temperature de Curie. Cette etude du comportement de Hall et de quelques proprietes magnetiques des alliages amorphes NiZr contenant plus de 70% de nickel nous a donc permis de verifier que malgre la faible aimantation l'effet Hall extraordinaire est l'effet dominant, que l'effet Hall ordinaire est semblable a celui trouve dans les cristallins, et que l'ensemble de ces manifestations pouvait etre explique sans faire appel aux modeles quantiques.

Morel, Robert

295

Fabrication de transistors mono-electroniques en silicium pour le traitement classique et quantique de l'information: une approche nanodamascene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Les transistors mono-electroniques (SETs) sont des dispositifs ayant un grand potentiel d'applications, comme la detection de charge ultra-sensible, la logique a basse consommation de puissance, la memoire ou la metrologie. De plus, la possibilite de pieger un seul electron et de manipuler son etat de spin pourrait permettre des applications en informatique quantique. Le silicium est un materiau interessant pour fabriquer l'ilot d'un SET. Son gap semi-conducteur permet le fonctionnement du dispositif dans le regime a un seul electron ou trou et pourrait permettre d'etendre la plage d'operation du SET en temperature en augmentant l'energie d'addition du diamant central de la valeur du gap. En outre, le silicium beneficie de plus de quarante annees d'expertise en microfabrication et d'une compatibilite avec la technologie metal--oxyde--semi-conducteur complementaire (CMOS). Cependant, la fabrication de ces dispositifs fait face a de serieuses limitations a cause de la taille nanometrique requise pour l'ilot. A ce jour, les procedes de fabrication proposes permettant l'operation a la temperature ambiante sont trop peu reproductibles pour permettre des applications a grande echelle. Dans ce memoire de maitrise, la fabrication de transistors mono-electroniques en silicium (Si-SETs) pour le traitement classique et quantique de l'information est realisee avec un procede nanodamascene. Le polissage chimico-mecanique (CMP) est introduit comme etape clef de la fabrication du transistor, permettant le controle au nanometre pres (nanodamascene) de l'epaisseur du transistor. Cet outil permet la fabrication de dispositifs ayant une geometrie auparavant impossible a realiser et ouvre la porte a l'innovation technologique. De plus, un procede de gravure du silicium par plasma a couplage inductif (ICP) est developpe pour permettre la fabrication de nanostructures de silicium sur une nanotopographie alliant le nano et le 3D. Les Si-SETs fabriques sont caracterises a basse temperature et demontrent du blocage de Coulomb avec une energie de charge de plus de 100 meV, soit quatre fois la temperature ambiante. De plus, le regime a un seul electron et les effets quantiques du confinement dans ce regime sont observes. Pour la premiere fois, le gap complet du silicium et les premiers diamants sont mesures sur un dispositif fabrique avec un procede reproductible et industrialisable. Le diamant central voit son energie d'addition augmentee de la valeur du gap du silicium, pour un total de plus de 1200 meV, soit 46 fois la temperature ambiante. Cette caracteristique pourrait ouvrir la porte a des applications en logique basse puissance dans un mode de transport a plusieurs electrons laissant circuler dix fois plus de courant dans l'etat ouvert, tout en conservant le bas courant dans l'etat ferme d'un SET. Mots clefs : transistor mono-electronique, silicium, operation a temperature ambiante, logique basse puissance, informatique quantique, nanoelectronique, polissage chimico-mecanique, gravure plasma, nanofabrication.

Harvey-Collard, Patrick

296

Physical Properties of Sediment Related to Gas Hydrate in the Northern Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eighteen giant piston cores, up to 38-m long, were recovered during July 2002 to determine the distribution of gas hydrate in widely different geologic environments of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Physical properties, including electrical resistivity, three different shear strengths, P-wave velocity, and thermal conductivity were measured on split and whole-round cores at sea. Water content, grain density, and related properties are being determined in a shore-based laboratory from shipboard-acquired subsamples. These physical property data are important for two primary reasons: (1) to relate the presence of gas hydrate to the natural host sediment; and (2) to correlate with shallow seismic reflection records so they can be interpreted more accurately within and below the depth of coring. Preliminary results indicate that porosity and water content typically decrease rapidly to a subbottom depth of about 8 to 9 m, but then decrease at a much lower rate to the base of the core - often 30 or more mbsf. Although higher water contents are measured in the sediments that were recovered in association with gas hydrates, they are probably an artifact of post-sampling hydrate dissociation rather than an in-situ characteristic. The hydrate recovered during the cruise, was present either as particles distributed throughout the sediment or as massive chunks that filled the entire 10-cm diameter of the core liner. The sediments immediately adjacent to the recovered gas hydrates are visually similar to surrounding sediments, and thus primary lithologic differences do not appear to control the distribution of these gas hydrates. Vane shear strength measurements correlate better to subbottom depth than to water content. The strength values typically increase from less than 10 kPa near the seafloor to as much as 80 to 90 kPa at the base of some cores. Electrical resistivity appears to be related to water content (and probably porewater salinity) since a break in slope with depth is often recorded in the upper 8 to 15 m of sediment. Electrical resistivity typically increases from about 0.4 to 0.5 ohm-m near the top of many cores, to about 0.7 ohm-m near the base of the deeper recovered sediment. These values are typical for clay-rich fine-grained sediment with high water content. Although the amount of gas hydrate in the natural environment is enormous, little is known about its distribution in sea-floor sediment or even exactly how it forms. A goal of this cruise was to find evidence for the existence of gas hydrate away from obvious seafloor gas-hydrate mounds and at depth in the sediment. This international, multi-discipline coring cruise was conducted jointly by the Institut Polaire Francais, Paul-Emile Victor (IPEV) and the USGS aboard the 120-m-long French research vessel, Marion Dufresne. Partial funding was provided by the U.S. Dept. of Energy and considerable at-sea help was provided by an international group of about 40 scientists under the IMAGES (International Marine Past Global Changes Study) and PAGE (Paleoceanography of the Atlantic and Geochemistry) programs.

Winters, W. J.; Novosel, I.; Boldina, O. M.; Waite, W. F.; Lorenson, T. D.; Paull, C. K.; Bryant, W.

2002-12-01

297

EGS Richardson AGU Chapman NVAG3 Conference: Nonlinear Variability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. The conference The third conference on "Nonlinear VAriability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes" (NVAG 3) was held in Cargese, Corsica, Sept. 10-17, 1993. NVAG3 was joint American Geophysical Union Chapman and European Geophysical Society Richardson Memorial conference, the first specialist conference jointly sponsored by the two organizations. It followed NVAG1 (Montreal, Aug. 1986), NVAG2 (Paris, June 1988; Schertzer and Lovejoy, 1991), five consecutive annual sessions at EGS general assemblies and two consecutive spring AGU meeting sessions. As with the other conferences and workshops mentioned above, the aim was to develop confrontation between theories and experiments on scaling/multifractal behaviour of geophysical fields. Subjects covered included climate, clouds, earthquakes, atmospheric and ocean dynamics, tectonics, precipitation, hydrology, the solar cycle and volcanoes. Areas of focus included new methods of data analysis (especially those used for the reliable estimation of multifractal and scaling exponents), as well as their application to rapidly growing data bases from in situ networks and remote sensing. The corresponding modelling, prediction and estimation techniques were also emphasized as were the current debates about stochastic and deterministic dynamics, fractal geometry and multifractals, self-organized criticality and multifractal fields, each of which was the subject of a specific general discussion. The conference started with a one day short course of multifractals featuring four lectures on a) Fundamentals of multifractals: dimension, codimensions, codimension formalism, b) Multifractal estimation techniques: (PDMS, DTM), c) Numerical simulations, Generalized Scale Invariance analysis, d) Advanced multifractals, singular statistics, phase transitions, self-organized criticality and Lie cascades (given by D. Schertzer and S. Lovejoy, detailed course notes were sent to participants shortly after the conference). This was followed by five days with 8 oral sessions and one poster session. Overall, there were 65 papers involving 74 authors. In general, the main topics covered are reflected in this special issue: geophysical turbulence, clouds and climate, hydrology and solid earth geophysics. In addition to AGU and EGS, the conference was supported by the International Science Foundation, the Centre Nationale de Recherche Scientifique, Meteo-France, the Department of Energy (US), the Commission of European Communities (DG XII), the Comite National Francais pour le Programme Hydrologique International, the Ministere de l'Enseignement Superieur et de la Recherche (France). We thank P. Hubert, Y. Kagan, Ph. Ladoy, A. Lazarev, S.S. Moiseev, R. Pierrehumbert, F. Schmitt and Y. Tessier, for help with the organization of the conference. However special thanks goes to A. Richter and the EGS office, B. Weaver and the AGU without whom this would have been impossible. We also thank the Institut d' Etudes Scientifiques de Cargese whose beautiful site was much appreciated, as well as the Bar des Amis whose ambiance stimulated so many discussions. 2. Tribute to L.F. Richardson With NVAG3, the European geophysical community paid tribute to Lewis Fry Richardson (1881-1953) on the 40th anniversary of his death. Richardson was one of the founding fathers of the idea of scaling and fractality, and his life reflects the European geophysical community and its history in many ways. Although many of Richardson's numerous, outstanding scientific contributions to geophysics have been recognized, perhaps his main contribution concerning the importance of scaling and cascades has still not received the attention it deserves. Richardson was the first not only to suggest numerical integration of the equations of motion of the atmosphere, but also to attempt to do so by hand, during the First World War. This work, as well as a presentation of a broad vision of future developments in the field, appeared in his famous, pioneering book "Weather prediction by numerical processes" (1922). As

Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

298

[Communication, language and the brain: from past anterior to near future].  

PubMed

The goal of this article is to share some reflection on the astonishing evolution of the ideas in communication neuroscience and neurolinguistics over the last 30 years, since the founding of the société de neuropsychologie de langue française. in particular, a number of conceptual and methodological advancements have characterized this period, many of which have been lead or heavily contributed by french-speaking research groups in that field. among the advances discussed, are (a) the widening to discourse and pragmatic components of the concept of language, as well as the theoretical and clinical implication of this conceptual extension, (b) the unique contribution of anatomical and functional neuroimaging, (c) the massive impact of the cognitive revolution on theoretical frameworks of language components, and its influence on therapy, (d) the disappearance and the re-appearance of the brain in the main stream research on language over this period, (e) the new perspectives offered though attention put on social aspects of language and the social participation of the individual with language disorders, (f) the emergence of a genuine science of aphasia rehabilitation, and (g) the rediscovery of inter-individual characteristics both genetically- and environmentally- determined. The authors then risk themselves in trying to envision what could characterize the evolution in the field for the next 30 years. Though perilous, this speculative exercise allowed to pinpoint to a number of anticipated advancements including (a) a probable reconciliation between cognitive and connectionist models to the benefit of both visions, (b) an increased contribution of social and emotional neurosciences, (c) some inescapable technological advancements, including light portable neuroimaging devices which will allow to study the neurobiological bases of communication in natural contexts, (d) the integration between communication and aging in cognitive neuroscience and (e) the development of new research fields at some unexpected cross-roads (e.g., physical activity and communication ?) as well as the description of new types of aphasia (e.g., towards a chat aphasia !). Taken together, the advancements made over the 30 last years, and the perspective of future development, confirms the premier role of cognitive neuroscience of language and neurolinguistics in setting the pace through innovative approaches that allow unveiling the mysteries of the mutual relationships between brain and cognition. PMID:18675052

Joanette, Y; Ansaldo, A I; Carbonnel, S; Ska, B; Kahlaoui, K; Nespoulous, J-L

2008-05-01

299

Le transfert de connaissances entre les mathematiques et les sciences. Une etude exploratoire aupres d'eleves de 4e secondaire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Au moment ou dans plusieurs pays on travaille a refondre les programmes d'etudes, tant au primaire qu'au secondaire, l'interet pour le transfert renait. Un des concepts fondamentaux en apprentissage consiste en l'habilete a reutiliser de facon consciente et efficace un acquis d'une situation a une autre situation. Cette recherche emane de preoccupations professionnelles au moment ou le chercheur etait enseignant au secondaire. Au cours de ces annees, il lui a ete possible de constater que plusieurs eleves percevaient difficilement les liens presents entre les disciplines mathematiques et scientifiques. Des travaux en psychologie cognitive et plus particulierement selon une perspective du traitement de l'information ont servi de cadre de reference pour evaluer et analyser les capacites de transfert aupres d'eleves de 4e secondaire. Ce cadre de reference permet de formuler le principal objectif qui est de mieux comprendre le processus de transfert chez des eleves en situation de resolution de problemes scientifiques. Cette these s'interesse donc au transfert en tant que phenomene important du processus d'apprentissage au sens de l'integration. La methode de recherche choisie, de nature qualitative, est principalement axee sur l'evaluation de la capacite a transferer des connaissances lors d'une epreuve et d'un entretien. Pour evaluer ce potentiel de transfert, nous avons elabore deux outils: une epreuve en mathematiques et en sciences et un guide d'entretien. Pour la passation de l'epreuve, le chercheur a pu compter sur la collaboration de 130 sujets provenant de deux ecoles. L'entretien complete la prise de donnees avec 13 sujets ayant accepte de poursuivre l'etude. Les donnees recueillies par ces instruments font ensuite l'objet d'une analyse de contenu. En premier lieu, les verbatims de l'epreuve et de l'entretien ont ete transcrits, puis codifies. La correction des reponses fournies pour les problemes resolus s'est faite a partir d'une grille d'analyse qualitative et adaptee de la litterature (Thouin, 1995). Une seconde serie d'analyses permettant de categoriser les reponses selon la typologie des connaissances declaratives, procedurales et conditionnelles complete la prise de donnees. Nos resultats indiquent que les sujets sont tres influences par des elements de surface, principalement lorsqu'il s'agit de problemes auxquels ils ne sont pas habitues. En l'absence de connaissances de base, plusieurs sujets vont tendre vers des propositions de solution "pratico-pratique" provenant de leur vecu: cela nous apparait d'importance d'un point de vue didactique et en matiere de transfert. Lors des entretiens realises un mois plus tard, les sujets ont eprouve de la difficulte a se rappeler le contenu de l'epreuve. Et lorsqu'il y avait un rappel, celui-ci etait superficiel et surtout axe sur le contenu ou le contexte d'un probleme. La plupart des sujets ne pouvait nommer que deux ou trois elements (des problemes en mathematiques, en sciences physiques, le probleme de la fenetre, le probleme du laser, etc.). Nos resultats confirment ce que plusieurs chercheurs (Julo, 1995, Jonnaert et Vander Borght, 1999; Richard et al., 1990) qui s'interessent aux questions de l'apprentissage admettent aujourd'hui: l'eleve ne travaille jamais sur la situation proposee par l'enseignant, mais bien sur la representation qu'il s'en est construite. Au plan methodologique, cette recherche est interessante par la variete des sources de collecte de donnees utilisees, par l'application d'outils methodologiques et d'analyses originaux tires de la recherche et de la pratique. Du cote theorique, il resulte de cette etude une meilleure comprehension du processus de transfert des connaissances mathematiques vers les sciences physiques. Finalement, aux plans didactique et pedagogique, cette recherche alimente la reflexion sur l'apprentissage et l'enseignement des sciences au secondaire. Elle fait ressortir que les mathematiques sont importantes dans la mobilisation de certaines connaissances scientifiques et que l'enseignant peut et devrait jouer un

Samson, Ghislain

2003-06-01

300

Contribution a la comprehension de la durabilite a l'ecaillage des betons contenant de la cendre volante et du laitier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'incorporation des ajouts cimentaires dans le beton est connue pour ses avantages technologiques et environnementaux. Pour assurer une plus grande utilisation des ajouts cimentaires, il faut accroitre la connaissance dans ce domaine surtout les facteurs relatifs a la durabilite des ouvrages construits avec les betons contenant des ajouts mineraux. Jusqu'a present, la plupart des etudes sur les betons contenant de la cendre volante et du laitier semble s'accorder sur leur moins bonne durabilite a l'ecaillage surtout lorsqu'on les compare au beton ordinaire. Les raisons de cette moins bonne performance ne sont pas toutes connues et cela limite bien des fois l'incorporation de la cendre volante et de laitier dans le beton pour des ouvrages fortement exposes aux cycles de gel-degel en presence de sels fondants. Cette these vise la comprehension des problematiques de la durabilite a l'ecaillage des betons contenant des ajouts cimentaires tels la cendre volante et le laitier. Les objectifs sont de mieux comprendre la representativite et la severite relative des essais normalises ASTM C672 et NQ 2621-900 pour l'evaluation de la durabilite a l'ecaillage de ces betons, d'etudier l'influence de la methode de murissement sur la durabilite a l'ecaillage et d'etudier la relation entre la durabilite a l'ecaillage et la sorptivite des surfaces de beton ainsi que la particularite de la microstructure des betons contenant de la cendre volante. Cinq types de betons a air entraine contenant 25% et 35% de cendre volante et laitier ainsi que 1% et 2% de fumee de silice ont ete produits, muris selon differentes methodes et soumis a des essais acceleres selon les deux procedures normalisees ainsi qu'un essai de sorptivite. Les differentes methodes de murissement sont choisies de facon a mettre en evidence aussi bien l'influence des parametres des essais que celle de la methode de murissement elle-meme. La durabilite en laboratoire des betons testes a ete comparee avec celle de betons similaires apres 4 et 6 annees de service. La microstructure des betons en service a ete analysee au moyen du microscope a balayage electronique (MEB). Les resultats montrent que la qualite du murissement influence grandement la durabilite a l'ecaillage des betons contenant de la cendre volante et de laitier surtout lorsqu'ils sont soumis ' aux essais acceleres en laboratoire. La duree du pretraitement humide est un parametre cle de la durabilite a l'ecaillage des betons testes en laboratoire. Le pretraitement humide correspond a la duree totale du murissement humide (100% HR) et de la periode de presaturation. Pour les deux methodes d'essai, l'allongement du pretraitement humide a 28 jours ameliore la resistance a l'ecaillage de tous les types de betons et en particulier celle des betons avec cendres volantes. Pour les deux methodes d'essai, l'allongement du pretraitement humide a 28 jours ameliore la resistance a l'ecaillage de tous les types de betons et en particulier celle des betons avec cendres volantes. La periode de presaturation de 7 jours de la procedure NQ 2621-900 a un effet similaire a celui d'un murissement humide de meme longueur. Un murissement humide de 28 jours apparait optimal et conduit a une estimation plus realiste de la resistance a l'ecaillage reelle des betons. Pour une meme duree de pretraitement humide, les procedures NQ 2621-900 et ASTM C672 donnent des resultats equivalents. L'utilisation d'un moule a fond drainant n'a pas d'effet sur la resistance a l'ecaillage des betons de cette etude. Bien que le murissement dans l'eau saturee de chaux offre toute l'eau requise pour favoriser le developpement des proprietes du beton et l'amelioration de sa durabilite a l'ecaillage, elle lessive cependant les ions alcalins ce qui diminue defavorablement l'alcalinite et le pH de la solution interstitielle de la pate de ciment pres de la surface exposee. L'utilisation d'un agent de murissement protege mieux les betons contenant de la cendre volante et ameliore significativement leurs resistances a l'ecaillage mais elle a tendance a reduire la durabi

Houehanou, Ernesto C.

301

Les reseaux de politique publique comme facteur d'influence du choix des instruments de politique energetique canadienne a des fins environnementales de 1993 a nos jours  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Au cours de la derniere decennie, les modes de la gouvernance ont pris place dans un contexte totalement different de celui qu'ils avaient auparavant. Les gouvernements modernes se rendent compte qu'ils perdent de plus en plus leur capacite a elaborer et a gerer les changements d'une maniere autonome. Ainsi, les fonctions et les activites traditionnellement accomplies exclusivement par le gouvernement engagent de nos jours une gamme d'acteurs etatiques et non etatiques. A l'encontre du concept traditionnel de l'Etat controleur, la gouvernance contemporaine est ainsi devenue moins une question d'offre de service et davantage une gestion indirecte des reseaux de politique publique. Dans cette entreprise, les gouvernements contemporains, cherchant plus d'information, de soutien et de legitimite en matiere de formulation des decisions, ont besoin d'etablir des relations avec les divers groupes d'interet qui, a leur tour, voulaient plus de promotion et de protection en faveur de leurs interets a travers leur implication au processus de l'elaboration et de la mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques. Ainsi, l'approche des reseaux de politique publique represente aujourd'hui un courant considerable au sein du champ d'analyse des politiques publiques. Toutefois, les preoccupations des chercheurs pour cette approche, dans le domaine des politiques energetiques a des fins environnementales, semblent recentes, et les etudes realisees sont encore trop peu nombreuses. Au Canada, au debut des annees 1990, le gouvernement ainsi que plusieurs groupes d'interets, des differents secteurs energetique, industriel et environnemental, ont commence a intensifier leurs efforts pour s'attaquer au probleme du changement climatique d'origine energetique, genere surtout par le secteur de l'industrie. Au cours de la derniere decennie, la question touchant plutot le sujet du developpement energetique durable represente le plus important domaine des politiques publiques ayant surgi recemment dans l'agenda politique du pays. Notre projet de recherche, par le truchement de l'approche des reseaux de politique publique, s'attarde a decrire et a expliquer le processus de la formulation d'une politique particuliere, soit la politique energetique a des fins de protection de l'environnement, elaboree en 1993. Il s'agit de mettre en evidence les facteurs affectant le choix des instruments de ces politiques publiques dans leur contexte national. Ainsi, la question generale de cette recherche est: Comment les phases evolutives de la formation d'un reseau de politique, en l'occurrence le Conseil canadien de l'energie (CCE), menent a des caracteristiques particulieres a ce reseau; et comment celles-ci determinent-elles les types des instruments de politique publique choisis, particulierement ceux de la recente orientation des politiques energetiques canadiennes a des fins environnementales elaborees en 1993? Afin d'atteindre l'objectif de notre recherche, deux facteurs primordiaux sont utilises, soit la circulation de l'information et l'exercice du controle sur les ressources des acteurs. L'analyse des caracteristiques du reseau en fonction des liens forts et des liens faibles autant que la presence ou l'absence des trous structuraux nous permettent de bien identifier les positions des differents acteurs, etatiques et non etatiques, sur le plan de l'information et du controle, qui a leur tour, nous semble-t-il, constituent des facteurs affectant les types des instruments des politiques publiques choisis: instruments substantifs, qui indiquent le degre de l'intervention du gouvernement, et instruments proceduraux, qui mettent plutot l'accent sur le degre de l'influence du gouvernement sur les acteurs non etatiques. L'etude soutient que l'approche des reseaux se distingue notamment par son potentiel a expliquer l'interrelation relative entre idees, interets et institutions, ce qui a son tour est susceptible de permettre une meilleure comprehension des processus de l'elaboration des politiques energetiques et environnementales canadiennes. Qui plus est, le fait de rec

Fathy El Dessouky, Naglaa

302

Une alternative au cobalt pour la synthese de nanotubes de carbone monoparoi par plasma inductif thermique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Les nanotubes de carbone de type monoparoi (C-SWNT) sont une classe recente de nanomateriaux qui ont fait leur apparition en 1991. L'interet qu'on leur accorde provient des nombreuses proprietes d'avant-plan qu'ils possedent. Leur resistance mecanique serait des plus rigide, tout comme ils peuvent conduire l'electricite et la chaleur d'une maniere inegalee. Non moins, les C-SWNT promettent de devenir une nouvelle classe de plateforme moleculaire, en servant de site d'attache pour des groupements reactifs. Les promesses de ce type particulier de nanomateriau sont nombreuses, la question aujourd'hui est de comment les realiser. La technologie de synthese par plasma inductif thermique se situe avantageusement pour la qualite de ses produits, sa productivite et les faibles couts d'operation. Par contre, des recherches recentes ont permis de mettre en lumiere des risques d'expositions reliees a l'utilisation du cobalt, comme catalyseur de synthese; son elimination ou bien son remplacement est devenu une preoccupation importante. Quatre recettes alternatives ont ete mises a l'essai afin de trouver une alternative plus securitaire a la recette de base; un melange catalytique ternaire, compose de nickel, de cobalt et d'oxyde d'yttrium. La premiere consiste essentiellement a remplacer la proportion massique de cobalt par du nickel, qui etait deja present dans la recette de base. Les trois options suivantes contiennent de nouveaux catalyseurs, en remplacement au Co, qui sont apparus dans plusieurs recherches scientifiques au courant des dernieres annees: le dioxyde de zircone (ZrO2), dioxyde de manganese (MnO2) et le molybdene (Mo). La methode utilisee consiste a vaporiser la matiere premiere, sous forme solide, dans un reacteur plasma a haute frequence (3 MHz) a paroi refroidi. Apres le passage dans le plasma, le systeme traverse une section dite de "croissance", isolee thermiquement a l'aide de graphite, afin de maintenir une certaine plage de temperature favorable a la synthese de C-SWNT. Le produit final est par la suite recolte sur des filtres metalliques poreux, une fois le systeme mis a l'arret. Dans un premier temps, une analyse thermodynamique, calculee avec le logiciel Fact-Sage, a permis de mettre en lumiere l'etat des differentes produits et reactifs, tout au long de leur passage dans le systeme. Elle a permis de reveler la similitude de composition de la phase liquide du melange catalytique ternaire de base, avec celui du melange binaire, avec nickel et oxyde d'yttrium. Par la suite, une analyse du bilan d'energie, a l'aide d'un systeme d'acquisition de donnees, a permis de determiner que les conditions operatoires des cinq echantillons mis a l'essai etaient similaires. Au total, le produit final a ete caracterise a l'aide de six methodes de caracterisations differentes : l'analyse thermogravimetrique, la diffraction de rayons X, la microscopie electronique a balayage a haute resolution (HRSEM), la microscopie electronique a transmission (MET), la spectroscopie RAMAN, ainsi que la mesure de la surface specifique (BET). Les resultats de ces analyses ont permis de constater, de facon coherente, que le melange a base de molybdene etait celui qui produisait la moins bonne qualite de produit. Ensuite, en ordre croissant, s'en suivait du melange a base de MnO2 et de ZrO2. Le melange de reference, a base de cobalt, est au deuxieme rang en matiere de qualite. La palme revient au melange binaire, dont la proportion est double en nickel. Les resultats de ce travail de recherche permettent d'affirmer qu'il existe une alternative performante au cobalt pour effectuer la synthese de nanotubes de carbone monoparoi, par plasma inductif thermique. Cette alternative est l'utilisation d'un melange catalytique binaire a base de nickel et d'oxyde d'yttrium. Il est suggere que les performances plus faibles des recettes alternatives, moins performantes, pourraient etre expliquees par le profil thermique fixe du reacteur. Ceci pourrait favoriser certains melanges, au detriment des autres, qui possedent des proprietes thermodynamiqu

Carrier, Jean-Francois