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Sample records for annual area burned

  1. Analysis of daily, monthly, and annual burned area using the fourth-generation global fire emissions database (GFED4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglio, Louis; Randerson, James T.; Werf, Guido R.

    2013-03-01

    Abstract We describe the fourth generation of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED4) <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data set, which provides global monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> at 0.25 spatial resolution from mid-1995 through the present and daily <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> for the time series extending back to August 2000. We produced the full data set by combining 500 m MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps with active fire data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) family of sensors. We found that the global <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> for the years 1997 through 2011 varied from 301 to 377Mha, with an average of 348Mha. We assessed the interannual variability and trends in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> on the basis of a region-specific definition of fire years. With respect to trends, we found a gradual decrease of 1.7Mhayr - 1 ( - 1.4%yr - 1) in Northern Hemisphere Africa since 2000, a gradual increase of 2.3Mhayr - 1 (+1.8%yr - 1) in Southern Hemisphere Africa also since 2000, a slight increase of 0.2Mhayr - 1 (+2.5%yr - 1) in Southeast Asia since 1997, and a rapid decrease of approximately 5.5Mhayr - 1 ( - 10.7%yr - 1) from 2001 through 2011 in Australia, followed by a major upsurge in 2011 that exceeded the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in at least the previous 14 years. The net trend in global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from 2000 to 2012 was a modest decrease of 4.3Mhayr - 1 ( - 1.2%yr - 1). We also performed a spectral analysis of the daily <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> time series and found no vestiges of the 16 day MODIS repeat cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6447O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6447O"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> across a precipitation gradient in northwestern patagonia steppe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oddi, Facundo; Ghermandi, Luciana; Lasaponara, Rosa</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Fire is one of the most important disturbances on the Earth affecting most terrestrial ecosystems. Evidence suggests that since the last glaciations there has been a substantial interaction among climate, vegetation and fire. In fact fire is recognized as an emergent property of climate and vegetation type, which determine that distinct regions are differently affected by wildfires. For instance, it has been suggest that relative roles of weather/climate and fuel on fire activity change along the global productivity/aridity (intermediate fire-productivity hypothesis). At one extreme of the gradient we find dry-unproductive regions (deserts) where fire is absent owing to very low fuel loads, while at the other extreme we have wet-productive environments (rain forest) with fire being unlikely due to high fuel moisture. Environments located around middle of the gradient, such as Mediterranean ecosystems, have a high fire activity but is difficult to predict if the fuel moisture conditions are a stronger constrain on the fire regime or it is constrained by biomass production (i.e. fuel load). The intermediate fire-productivity hypothesis has been tested in recent works at global scale. However, data resolution at global scale is coarse and thus is not possible know the fire variability occurring at scales of more spatial detail. Therefore, it is necessary to complement the information obtained at global scale with studies at finer scales exploring fire-productivity/aridity relationships in particular portions of the gradient. We elaborate fire cartography from Landsat temporal series (1973-2011) for a portion (560250 ha - regional scale) of northwestern Patagonian steppe. The study zone corresponds to a Mediterranean environment and is part of a gradient defined by a sharp drop in the precipitation regime (600mm to 280mm). This environmental gradient predisposes a change in fuel load and fuel moisture and therefore could be affecting the fire regime. We divided the study <span class="hlt">area</span> in relation to precipitation gradient establishing two zones (wet and xeric). To delimit <span class="hlt">area</span> of wildfires on Landsat scenes we used the NBR index. Then, we calculated the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in each zone, compared the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> between zones and also explored relationships between that variable of the fire regime and precipitation/temperature data. We expect to contribute to the discussions about the importance of drought/fuel on the fire activity across the productivity/aridity gradient, specifically on Mediterranean environments. Finally, with this work we expect to improve future management and conservation practices in Northwestern Patagonia grasslands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511222R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511222R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, active fires and biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> - approaches to account for emissions from fires in Tanzania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruecker, Gernot; Hoffmann, Anja; Leimbach, David; Tiemann, Joachim; Ng'atigwa, Charles</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Eleven years of data from the globally available MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and the MODS Active Fire Product have been analysed for Tanzania in conjunction with GIS data on land use and cover to provide a baseline for fire activity in this East African country. The total radiated energy (FRE) emitted by fires that were picked up by the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and active fire product is estimated based on a spatio-temporal clustering algorithm over the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, and integration of the fire radiative power from the MODIS Active Fires product over the time of <span class="hlt">burning</span> and the <span class="hlt">area</span> of each <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> cluster. Resulting biomass combusted by unit <span class="hlt">area</span> based on Woosteŕs scaling factor for FRE to biomass combusted is compared to values found in the literature, and to values found in the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). Pyrogenic emissions are then estimated using emission factors. According to our analysis, an average of 11 million ha <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">annually</span> (ranging between 8.5 and 12.9 million ha) in Tanzania corresponding to between 10 and 14 % of Tanzaniás land <span class="hlt">area</span>. Most <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is recorded in the months from May to October. The land cover types most affected are woodland and shrubland cover types: they comprise almost 70 % of Tanzania's average <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> or 6.8 million ha. Most <span class="hlt">burning</span> occurs in gazetted land, with an <span class="hlt">annual</span> average of 3.7 million ha in forest reserves, 3.3 million ha in game reserves and 1.46 million ha in national parks, totalling close to 8.5 million ha or 77 % of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> average <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> of Tanzania. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> variability of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is moderate for most of the analysed classes, and in most cases there is no clear trend to be detected in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, except for the Lindi region were <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> appears to be increasing. Preliminary results regarding emissions from fires show that for larger fires that <span class="hlt">burn</span> over a longer time, biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span> derived through the FRP method compares well to literature values, while the integration over smaller fires with fewer observations yields unstable results due to undersampling issues and uncertainty in the start and end time of the fire events. Options for mitigating these issues using ancillary data such as fire weather information are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JGRD..10914S03T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JGRD..10914S03T"><span id="translatedtitle">Vegetation <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the year 2000: Global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates from SPOT VEGETATION data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tansey, Kevin; GrGoire, Jean-Marie; Stroppiana, Daniela; Sousa, AdLia; Silva, JoO.; Pereira, Jos M. C.; Boschetti, Luigi; Maggi, Marta; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro; Fraser, Robert; Flasse, StPhane; Ershov, Dmitry; Binaghi, Elisabetta; Graetz, Dean; Peduzzi, Pascal</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>The scientific community interested in atmospheric chemistry, gas emissions from vegetation fires, and carbon cycling is currently demanding information on the extent and timing of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> at the global scale. In fact, the <span class="hlt">area</span> and type of vegetation that is <span class="hlt">burned</span> on a monthly or <span class="hlt">annual</span> basis are two of the parameters that provide the greatest uncertainty in the calculation of gas and aerosol emissions and <span class="hlt">burned</span> biomass. To address this need, an inventory of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> at monthly time periods for the year 2000 at a resolution of 1 km2 has been produced using satellite data and has been made freely available to the scientific community. In this paper, estimates of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and number of <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars for four broad vegetation classes and reported at the country level for the year 2000 are presented using data taken from the inventory. Over 3.5 million km2 of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> were detected in the year 2000, of which approximately 80% occurred in <span class="hlt">areas</span> described as woodlands and shrublands. Approximately 17% of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> occurred in grasslands and croplands, the remaining 3% occurred in forests. Almost 600,000 separate <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars were detected. Descriptions of vegetation <span class="hlt">burning</span> activity are given for ten regions. Finally, monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates are presented for the Central African Republic to illustrate the usefulness of these data for understanding, monitoring and managing vegetation <span class="hlt">burning</span> activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9f4011B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9f4011B"><span id="translatedtitle">Is proportion <span class="hlt">burned</span> severely related to daily <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Birch, Donovan S.; Morgan, Penelope; Kolden, Crystal A.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Smith, Alistair M. S.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The ecological effects of forest fires <span class="hlt">burning</span> with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity for individual daily <span class="hlt">areas</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily <span class="hlt">areas</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> from which we calculated the proportions of each of three <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized <span class="hlt">burn</span> ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity project. We found that the proportion of high <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity was weakly correlated (Kendall τ = 0.299) with size of daily <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> (DAB). <span class="hlt">Burn</span> severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in a day.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRG..117.4012R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRG..117.4012R"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions from small fires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> by computing the difference normalized <span class="hlt">burn</span> ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other <span class="hlt">areas</span>, however, we observed many active fires outside of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity analyses of key model parameters caused estimates of global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> increases from small fires to vary between 24% and 54%. Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> carbon emissions increased by 35% at a global scale when small fires were included in GFED3, from 1.9 Pg C/yr to 2.5 Pg C/yr. The contribution of tropical forest fires to year-to-year variability in carbon fluxes increased because small fires amplified emissions from Central America, South America and Southeast Asiaregions where drought stress and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> varied considerably from year to year in response to El Nino-Southern Oscillation and other climate modes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140000253','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140000253"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> and Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Emissions from Small Fires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> by computing the difference normalized <span class="hlt">burn</span> ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other <span class="hlt">areas</span>, however, we observed many active fires outside of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity analyses of key model parameters caused estimates of global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> increases from small fires to vary between 24% and 54%. Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> carbon emissions increased by 35% at a global scale when small fires were included in GFED3, from 1.9 Pg C/yr to 2.5 Pg C/yr. The contribution of tropical forest fires to year-to-year variability in carbon fluxes increased because small fires amplified emissions from Central America, South America and Southeast Asia-regions where drought stress and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> varied considerably from year to year in response to El Nino-Southern Oscillation and other climate modes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC33E0569L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC33E0569L"><span id="translatedtitle">Inter-<span class="hlt">Annual</span> Variability of <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> in Brazil Based on a Synergistic use of Information Derived from MODIS and Landsat-TM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Libonati, R.; Dacamara, C. C.; Setzer, A. W.; Morelli, F.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A procedure is presented that allows using information from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to improve the quality of monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates over Brazil. The method integrates MODIS derived information from two sources; the NASA MCD64A1 Direct Broadcast Monthly <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Product and INPE's Monthly <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> MODIS product (AQM-MODIS). The latter product relies on an algorithm that was specifically designed for ecosystems in Brazil, taking advantage of the ability of MIR reflectances to discriminate <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Information from both MODIS products is incorporated by means of a linear regression model where an optimal estimate of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is obtained as a linear combination of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates from MCD64A1 and AQM-MODIS. The linear regression model is calibrated using as optimal estimates values of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> derived from Landsat TM during 2005 and 2006 over Jalapão, a region of Cerrado covering an <span class="hlt">area</span> of 187 x 187 km2. Obtained values of coefficients for MCD64A1 and AQM-MODIS were 0.51 and 0.35, respectively and the root mean square error was 7.6 km2. Robustness of the model was checked by calibrating the model separately for 2005 and 2006 and cross-validating with 2006 and 2005; coefficients for 2005 (2006) were 0.46 (0.54) for MCD64A1 and 0.35 (0.35) for AQM-MODIS and the corresponding root mean square errors for 2006 (2005) were 7.8 (7.4) km2. The linear model was then applied to Brazil as well as to the six Brazilian main biomes, namely Cerrado, Amazônia, Caatinga, Pantanal, Mata Atlântica and Pampa. As to be expected the interannual variability based on the proposed synergistic use of MCD64A1, AQM-MODIS and Landsat Tm data for the period 2005-2010 presents marked differences with the corresponding amounts derived from MCD64A1 alone. For instance during the considered period, values (in 103 km2) from the proposed approach (from MCD64A1) are 399 (142), 232 (62), 559 (259), 274 (73), 219 (31) and 415 (251). Values obtained with the proposed approach may be viewed as an improved alternative to the currently available products over Brazil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/05_01_2014_dIYk05Nba7_05_01_2014_0','SCIGOVIMAGE-USGS'); return false;" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/05_01_2014_dIYk05Nba7_05_01_2014_0"><span id="translatedtitle">Beaver Creek <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Precipitation Gage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>During August 2013, the Beaver Creek wildfire <span class="hlt">burned</span> more than 114,000 acres near the south-central Idaho communities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, and Hailey. Partnering with Blaine County, the USGS installed a network of real-time precipitation gages in the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Real-time information from the gage...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999GBioC..13..933B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999GBioC..13..933B"><span id="translatedtitle">An assessment of vegetation fire in Africa (1981-1991): <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, <span class="hlt">burned</span> biomass, and atmospheric emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barbosa, Paulo Marinho; Stroppiana, Daniela; GréGoire, Jean-Marie; Cardoso Pereira, José Miguel</p> <p>1999-12-01</p> <p>This paper presents the first published time series of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps of Africa, covering an 8 year period, 1981-1983 and 1985-1991. These maps were derived from the analysis of the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) global <span class="hlt">area</span> coverage (GAC) images at 5 km resolution. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps for the period 1985-1991 were used with biomass density and <span class="hlt">burning</span> efficiency figures, to estimate the quantity of <span class="hlt">burned</span> biomass during this 6 year period. Emission factors were further used to estimate the trace gas and aerosol emissions produced by vegetation fires. Biomass density was estimated based on values found in the literature and on the accumulated normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as derived from the remote sensing images. <span class="hlt">Burning</span> efficiency was assessed with a dryness index that was based on the relative greenness index (RGI), also derived from the NDVI. Average emission factors were retrieved from the literature. The uncertainties in the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, biomass density, combustion efficiency, and emission factors were considered, with a total error of 51% for the <span class="hlt">burned</span> biomass and 58% for the emission estimates. The results obtained for the <span class="hlt">burned</span> biomass in Africa were compared with other values found in the literature and showed values lower by a factor of 1.1-3.3. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> biomass from vegetation fires in Africa on average was estimated between 704 and 2168 Tg . In the same way, the atmospheric emissions on average ranges are as follows: CO2 (990-3726 Tg), CO (40-151 Tg), CH4 (1.2-4.4 Tg), NOx (2.8-10.6 Tg), and PM (< 2.5 μm) (3.3-12.4Tg).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23064248','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23064248"><span id="translatedtitle">The impact of antecedent fire <span class="hlt">area</span> on <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in southern California coastal ecosystems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Price, Owen F; Bradstock, Ross A; Keeley, Jon E; Syphard, Alexandra D</p> <p>2012-12-30</p> <p>Frequent wildfire disasters in southern California highlight the need for risk reduction strategies for the region, of which fuel reduction via prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> is one option. However, there is no consensus about the effectiveness of prescribed fire in reducing the <span class="hlt">area</span> of wildfire. Here, we use 29 years of historical fire mapping to quantify the relationship between <span class="hlt">annual</span> wildfire <span class="hlt">area</span> and antecedent fire <span class="hlt">area</span> in predominantly shrub and grassland fuels in seven southern California counties, controlling for <span class="hlt">annual</span> variation in weather patterns. This method has been used elsewhere to measure leverage: the reduction in wildfire <span class="hlt">area</span> resulting from one unit of prescribed fire treatment. We found little evidence for a leverage effect (leverage = zero). Specifically our results showed no evidence that wildfire <span class="hlt">area</span> was negatively influenced by previous fires, and only weak relationships with weather variables rainfall and Santa Ana wind occurrences, which were variables included to control for inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variation. We conclude that this is because only 2% of the vegetation <span class="hlt">burns</span> each year and so wildfires rarely encounter <span class="hlt">burned</span> patches and chaparral shrublands can carry a fire within 1 or 2 years after previous fire. Prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> is unlikely to have much influence on fire regimes in this <span class="hlt">area</span>, though targeted treatment at the urban interface may be effective at providing defensible space for protecting assets. These results fit an emerging global model of fire leverage which position California at the bottom end of a continuum, with tropical savannas at the top (leverage = 1: direct replacement of wildfire by prescribed fire) and Australian eucalypt forests in the middle (leverage ~ 0.25). PMID:23064248</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A11G0144D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A11G0144D"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> on African seasonal climate in regional modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Sales, F.; Xue, Y.; Okin, G. S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The WRF/SSiB2 model has been employed on a series of regional simulations to investigate the impact of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> associated with wildfires on African seasonal climate and surface energy balances. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> are characterized by deposits of charcoal and ash, removal of vegetation, and alteration of the vegetation structure. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> information for the experiments was based on the MODIS <span class="hlt">burn</span> date maps with an 8-day interval on 500m spatial resolution. Monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps averaged over 2000-2011, and aggregated from the MODIS resolution, were created and incorporated in the regional model (50km resolution), whereby vegetation was reduced according to the percentage of grid cell <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> and ground albedo was reduced to 0.1 for a 10-day period after <span class="hlt">burning</span> to reproduce the ground darkening associated with the amount of grid cell <span class="hlt">burned</span>. Control (unburned) and <span class="hlt">burned</span> preliminary experiments were carried out between 01 Oct 2010 and 31 Sep 2011 and compared to examine the sensitivity of different wildfire parameters on precipitation and surface fluxes; including sensitivity to ground albedo recovery time and vegetation resistance to fire. Vegetation cover, greenness, and LAI information were taken from the Fourier-Adjusted, Sensor and Solar zenith angle corrected, Interpolated, Reconstructed data set. Analysis of <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps revealed extensive <span class="hlt">burning</span>, especially in the Sahel and between latitudes 0 and 15S (Central Africa), with both regions exhibiting 50% or more of the <span class="hlt">area</span> of a grid cell <span class="hlt">burned</span>. Most of <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Sahel occurred between November and February, while in the southern hemisphere it took place between June and September. Extensive <span class="hlt">burning</span> was also found along eastern South Africa and Mozambique between 25 and 40 W, where some grid cells were 10% to 30% <span class="hlt">burned</span> in August and September. Preliminary results indicated that the WRF/SSiB2 is sensitive to the land degradation associated with the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. <span class="hlt">Areas</span> with widespread <span class="hlt">burning</span> experienced a reduction in evapotranspiration in the Sahel especially during the pre-monsoon months, and during monsoon withdrawal. In the Central and Southern Africa, the largest difference took place between January and April, and later August. In general, the impact on sensible heat flux was of opposite sign and significantly weaker than that of evapotranspiration in the Sahel. Changes to surface albedo in the model depends on two distinct processes; ground darkening associated with <span class="hlt">burning</span> (direct effect) and changes in soil moisture associated with precipitation variability (indirect effect). The patterns of precipitation change resulting from <span class="hlt">burn</span> degradation were complex, with <span class="hlt">areas</span> of positive and negative changes within both regions. On average, <span class="hlt">annual</span> precipitation was reduced in the Sahel by approximately 3.5%. Most of the change occurred during the monsoon season. In contrast, Central and Southern Africa experienced increase in rainfall in the austral winter but decrease in the summer months, resulting in nearly no <span class="hlt">annual</span> change. Results also revealed that vegetation resistance to fire and ground albedo recovery time are important factors that must be accounted for to realistically simulate the impact of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036234','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036234"><span id="translatedtitle">Fire frequency, <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, and severity: A quantitative approach to defining a normal fire year</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lutz, J.A.; Key, C.H.; Kolden, C.A.; Kane, J.T.; van Wagtendonk, J.W.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Fire frequency, <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, and fire severity are important attributes of a fire regime, but few studies have quantified the interrelationships among them in evaluating a fire year. Although <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> is often used to summarize a fire season, <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> may not be well correlated with either the number or ecological effect of fires. Using the Landsat data archive, we examined all 148 wildland fires (prescribed fires and wildfires) >40 ha from 1984 through 2009 for the portion of the Sierra Nevada centered on Yosemite National Park, California, USA. We calculated mean fire frequency and mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> from a combination of field- and satellite-derived data. We used the continuous probability distribution of the differenced Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio (dNBR) values to describe fire severity. For fires >40 ha, fire frequency, <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, and cumulative severity were consistent in only 13 of 26 years (50 %), but all pair-wise comparisons among these fire regime attributes were significant. Borrowing from long-established practice in climate science, we defined "fire normals" to be the 26 year means of fire frequency, <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, and the <span class="hlt">area</span> under the cumulative probability distribution of dNBR. Fire severity normals were significantly lower when they were aggregated by year compared to aggregation by <span class="hlt">area</span>. Cumulative severity distributions for each year were best modeled with Weibull functions (all 26 years, r2 ??? 0.99; P < 0.001). Explicit modeling of the cumulative severity distributions may allow more comprehensive modeling of climate-severity and <span class="hlt">area</span>-severity relationships. Together, the three metrics of number of fires, size of fires, and severity of fires provide land managers with a more comprehensive summary of a given fire year than any single metric.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770010316','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770010316"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and port volume in complex <span class="hlt">burning</span> regions of a solid rocket motor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kingsbury, J. A.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>An analysis of the geometry of the <span class="hlt">burning</span> in both star-cylindrical port interface regions and regions of partially inhibited slots is presented. Some characteristics parameters are defined and illustrated. Methods are proposed for calculating <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> which functionally depend only on the total distance <span class="hlt">burned</span>. According to this method, several points are defined where abrupt changes in geometry occur, and these are tracked throughout the <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Equations are developed for computing port perimeter and port <span class="hlt">area</span> at pre-established longitudinal positions. Some common formulas and some newly developed formulas are then used to compute <span class="hlt">burning</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span> and port volume. Some specific results are presented for the solid rocket motor committed to the space shuttle project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25831541','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25831541"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in the western United States is unaffected by recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hart, Sarah J; Schoennagel, Tania; Veblen, Thomas T; Chapman, Teresa B</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In the western United States, mountain pine beetles (MPBs) have killed pine trees across 71,000 km(2) of forest since the mid-1990s, leading to widespread concern that abundant dead fuels may increase <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> and exacerbate fire behavior. Although stand-level fire behavior models suggest that bark beetle-induced tree mortality increases flammability of stands by changing canopy and forest floor fuels, the actual effect of an MPB outbreak on subsequent wildfire activity remains widely debated. To address this knowledge gap, we superimposed <span class="hlt">areas</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> on <span class="hlt">areas</span> infested by MPBs for the three peak years of wildfire activity since 2002 across the western United States. Here, we show that the observed effect of MPB infestation on the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in years of extreme fire appears negligible at broad spatial extents. Contrary to the expectation of increased wildfire activity in recently infested red-stage stands, we found no difference between observed <span class="hlt">area</span> and expected <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in red-stage or subsequent gray-stage stands during three peak years of wildfire activity, which account for 46% of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> during the 2002-2013 period. Although MPB infestation and fire activity both independently increased in conjunction with recent warming, our results demonstrate that the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in the western United States has not increased in direct response to bark beetle activity. Therefore, policy discussions should focus on societal adaptation to the effects of recent increases in wildfire activity related to increased drought severity. PMID:25831541</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4394269','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4394269"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in the western United States is unaffected by recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hart, Sarah J.; Schoennagel, Tania; Veblen, Thomas T.; Chapman, Teresa B.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In the western United States, mountain pine beetles (MPBs) have killed pine trees across 71,000 km2 of forest since the mid-1990s, leading to widespread concern that abundant dead fuels may increase <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> and exacerbate fire behavior. Although stand-level fire behavior models suggest that bark beetle-induced tree mortality increases flammability of stands by changing canopy and forest floor fuels, the actual effect of an MPB outbreak on subsequent wildfire activity remains widely debated. To address this knowledge gap, we superimposed <span class="hlt">areas</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> on <span class="hlt">areas</span> infested by MPBs for the three peak years of wildfire activity since 2002 across the western United States. Here, we show that the observed effect of MPB infestation on the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in years of extreme fire appears negligible at broad spatial extents. Contrary to the expectation of increased wildfire activity in recently infested red-stage stands, we found no difference between observed <span class="hlt">area</span> and expected <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in red-stage or subsequent gray-stage stands during three peak years of wildfire activity, which account for 46% of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> during the 2002–2013 period. Although MPB infestation and fire activity both independently increased in conjunction with recent warming, our results demonstrate that the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in the western United States has not increased in direct response to bark beetle activity. Therefore, policy discussions should focus on societal adaptation to the effects of recent increases in wildfire activity related to increased drought severity. PMID:25831541</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26915244','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26915244"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Burns</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arai, Takao</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Burns</span> extending deep into the skin and those affecting a wide surface <span class="hlt">area</span> trigger various responses in the body and pose a serious threat to life. Therefore, the degree of severity needs to be determined accurately, and appropriate transfusion and local management should be provided accordingly. Systematic and meticulous management that considers not just the risk of death but also functional prognosis is essential from the early stage of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. Such management requires comprehensive care by a medical team concerning infections, nutrition and rehabilitation. This article outlines the current status of intensive care for severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:26915244</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13G3266D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13G3266D"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> on the northern African seasonal climate from the perspective of regional modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Sales, F.; Xue, Y.; Okin, G. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>This study presents an investigation of the impact of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> on the surface energy balance and monthly precipitation in the northern Africa as simulated by a state-of-the-art regional model. Mean <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> fraction derived from MODIS approximate date of <span class="hlt">burning</span> product were implemented in a set of 1-year long WRF/NMM/SSiB2 model simulations. Vegetation cover fraction and LAI were degraded daily based on mean <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> fraction and on the survival rate for each vegetation land cover type. Additionally, ground darkening associated with wildfire-induced ash and charcoal deposition was temporarily imposed through lower ground albedo for a period of 10 days after <span class="hlt">burning</span>. In general, wildfire-induced vegetation and ground degradation increased surface albedo by exposing the brighter bare ground of the region, which in turn caused a decrease in surface net radiation and evapotranspiration in northern sub-saharan Africa. A decrease in atmospheric moisture flux convergence was simulated in the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> experiments, which plays a dominant role in reducing precipitation over the <span class="hlt">area</span>, especially in the months preceding the West African monsoon onset. The <span class="hlt">areas</span> with largest impacts were those covered by forests and savanna, where <span class="hlt">annual</span> precipitation decreased by 4.2% and 3.6%, respectively. This study suggests the cooling and drying of atmosphere induced by <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> led to strengthening of subsidence during pre-onset and weakening of upward motion during onset and mature stages of the monsoon leading to a waning of convective instability and precipitation. Monthly vertical wind over the <span class="hlt">area</span> showed a strengthening of downward motion in winter and spring seasons, and weakening of upward movement during the rainy months. Furthermore, precipitation energy analysis revealed that most of precipitation decrease originated from convective events, especially for those with daily precipitation rates above 2.0 mm day-1, which substantiates the hypothesis of convective instability decreasing resultant from <span class="hlt">burned-area</span>-induced land degradation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13C3176D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13C3176D"><span id="translatedtitle">Inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> changes of Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> and Desert Dust and their impact over East Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>DONG, X.; Fu, J. S.; Huang, K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Impact of mineral dust and biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosols on air quality has been well documented in the last few decades, but the knowledge about their interactions with anthropogenic emission and their impacts on regional climate is very limited (IPCC, 2007). While East Asia is greatly affected by dust storms in spring from Taklamakan and Gobi deserts (Huang et al., 2010; Li et al., 2012), it also suffers from significant biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emission from Southeast Asia during the same season. Observations from both surface monitoring and satellite data indicated that mineral dust and biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosols may approach to coastal <span class="hlt">area</span> of East Asia simultaneously, thus have a very unique impact on the local atmospheric environment and regional climate. In this study, we first investigated the inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variations of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and dust aerosols emission for 5 consecutive years from 2006-2010 to estimate the upper and lower limits and correlation with meteorology conditions, and then evaluate their impacts with a chemical transport system. Our preliminary results indicated that biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> has a strong correlation with precipitation over Southeast Asia, which could drive the emission varying from 542 Tg in 2008 to 945 Tg in 2010, according to FLAMBE emission inventory (Reid et al., 2009). Mineral dust also demonstrated a strong dependence on wind filed. These inter-<span class="hlt">annual/annual</span> variations will also lead to different findings and impacts on air quality in East Asia. Reference: Huang, K., et al. (2010), Mixing of Asian dust with pollution aerosol and the transformation of aerosol components during the dust storm over China in spring 2007, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 115. IPCC (2007), Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, New York. Li, J., et al. (2012), Mixing of Asian mineral dust with anthropogenic pollutants over East Asia: a model case study of a super-duststorm in March 2010, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 7591-7607.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........34B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........34B"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectral Characterization of Agricultural <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Areas</span> for Satellite Mapping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boren, Erik J.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> detection with remotely sensed satellite data in agricultural landscapes is not only necessary for the estimation of global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions, but also has gained attention from managers interested in improved methods for the quantification of local scale emissions which affect air quality and human health. Mapping agricultural <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> accurately, precisely and reliably, with methods that can be applied globally, is difficult because of the spectral and temporal characteristics of agricultural regions and prescribed cropland fires. These challenges have not been fully addressed by the scientific literature. Chapter 1 of this thesis presents an extensive literature review on the methods currently used for agricultural <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping. Chapter 2 presents original research on the spectral characterization of agricultural <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, using field data and mixture models to analyze the response of spectral indices to the changes induced by fire and agricultural practices. The conclusions summarize the significance of the presented research for understanding the potential and limits of satellite data for agricultural <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> monitoring, and outline the directions for future work.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li class="active"><span>1</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_1 --> <div id="page_2" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="21"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5157017','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5157017"><span id="translatedtitle">Trash <span class="hlt">burns</span>, turns into $120,000 in <span class="hlt">annual</span> savings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Smith, W.A.</p> <p>1981-09-01</p> <p>A plan was developed to generate a major portion of the energy required for heating and air conditioning by <span class="hlt">burning</span> factory trash instead of using natural gas and electricity. Trash from the Rockwell Int'l. plant, including broken wood pallets, cardboard packing materials and office waste paper, amounted to 1,000 tons per year. Previously, a contractor was being paid to come to the plant several times a week, pick up the trash and haul it to a landfill. To supplement the 1,000 tons of usable waste generated by the plant <span class="hlt">annually</span>, the additional 500 tons of similar trash needed to operate the system are received from other industries in the vicinity. Besides accepting waste from other plants, the Marysville facility stockpiles and uses refuse corn stalks harvested from 50 acres of Rockwell-owned land adjacent to the plant. The incinerator featuring a pyrolytic heat recovery system is presented and its operation is illustrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1040013','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1040013"><span id="translatedtitle">Interim Status Closure Plan Open <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Treatment Unit Technical <span class="hlt">Area</span> 16-399 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Tray</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R.</p> <p>2012-05-07</p> <p>This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open <span class="hlt">burning</span> treatment units at Technical <span class="hlt">Area</span> (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open <span class="hlt">burning</span> treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B13I0629A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B13I0629A"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary assessment of the Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> accuracy for shrub-steppe wildfires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Argona, A. K.; Sparks, A. M.; Tinkham, W.; Smith, A. M.; Boschetti, L.; Newingham, B. A.; Lannom, K. O.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Fire is a common disturbance in shrub-steppe, but unlike other ecosystems, few studies have specifically tested <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping methods in these semi-arid to arid environments. The Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity (MTBS) project is an initiative by the United States Forest Service (USFS) and United States Geological Survey (USGS) aimed at mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> perimeters and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity for the entire territory of the United States. We conducted a preliminary assessment of the accuracy of the MTBS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> perimeters on wildfires that exhibited varying degrees of within-fire patch heterogeneity. We cross-compared the MTBS perimeters with a classification produced using both the Relativised differenced Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Index (RdNBR) and the mid-infrared <span class="hlt">burn</span> index (MIRBI). Overall, MIRBI provided the most consistent accuracies, with only small commission errors. The MTBS-based fire perimeters had high <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> commission errors, primarily due to inclusion of unburned islands and fingers within the fire perimeter. The RdNBR <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps exhibited very high commission errors, however, when constrained by the MTBS perimeter provided accuracies comparable to MIRBI. Studies seeking to use MTBS data for assessing trends in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> should use spectral indices able to discriminate <span class="hlt">burned</span> versus unburned pixels and constrain them by the MTBS perimeters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-06-06/pdf/2013-13459.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-06-06/pdf/2013-13459.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 34031 - <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Emergency Response, Forest Service</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-06-06</p> <p>...The Forest Service is issuing an interim directive to guide its employees in revised procedures for <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Emergency Response. The interim directive provides direction and guidance specific to assessing, planning and implementing post-fire emergency response actions on National Forest System (NFS) lands to ensure consistent and adequate analyses for evaluating post-fire risks and......</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.439a2038M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.439a2038M"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative analysis of mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> from landsat TM images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mazher, A.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Remote sensing is a major source of mapping the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> caused by forest fire. The focus in this application is to map a single class of interest, i.e. <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. In this study, three different data combinations were classified using different classifiers and quantitatively compared. The adopted classifiers are Support Vector Data Description (SVDD), a one-class classifier, Binary classifier Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and traditional Maximum Likelihood classifier (ML). At first, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to extract the best possible features form the original multispectral image (OMI) and calculated spectral indices (SI). Then the resulting subset of features was applied to the classifiers. The comparative study has undertaken to find firstly, the best possible set of features (data combination) and secondly, an effective classifier to map the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The best possible set of features was attained by data combination- II (i.e., OMI information). Furthermore, the results of the SVM showed the high classification accuracies than ML. Experimental results demonstrate that even though the SVDD for mapping the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> doesn't showed the higher classification accuracy than SVM, but it shows the suitability for the cases with few or poorly represented labelled samples available. The parameters should be further optimized through the use of intelligent training for improving the accuracy of SVDD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3975098','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3975098"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McLoughlin, E; Crawford, J D</p> <p>1985-02-01</p> <p>The authors present an extensive review of <span class="hlt">burn</span> epidemiology. They review sources of <span class="hlt">burns</span>, preventive tools, emergency behaviors to reduce severity, and rehabilitation. Ways are sketched in which the pediatrician can be an effective advocate against <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. PMID:3975098</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112661H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112661H"><span id="translatedtitle">Using MODIS time series for <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huesca, M.; Palacios-Orueta, A.; Merino-de-Miguel, S.; Litago, J.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Wildfire significantly impacts forest ecosystems throughout the world. At the regional scale, wildfire affects a wide range of ecological, economic and social values related to forests. At the global scale, forest fire emissions of greenhouse gases, particulates and aerosols emissions into the atmosphere, direct and significantly impacts on atmospheric and biogeochemical cycles and the Earth radiative budget. The assessment of the timing and spatial extent of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>, as needed for different tasks, is a mission that nowadays is only affordable using remote sensing techniques. Since forest fires are a major cause of surface change mainly due to vegetation combustion, <span class="hlt">burn</span> are mapping is a task that can be achieved as a change detection process. The present study describes an algorithm developed to map fire-affected <span class="hlt">areas</span> at regional scale (Spain) using MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series data. In particular, we used MODIS surface reflectance data (MOD09A product) as well as MODIS hotspot data for two fires seasons. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps as resulted from this work were compared to official fire statistics and perimeters from the Spanish Ministry of Environment. Results were also tested against <span class="hlt">burns</span> perimeters as derived from finer spatial resolution satellite images. Reached results showed that this method would be of great interest at regional to national scales, since it was proved to be quick, accurate and cost-effective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/644726','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/644726"><span id="translatedtitle">Data Summary Report D-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Palmer, E.R.</p> <p>1994-10-01</p> <p>The purpose of this report is to verify that all analytical data collected at the D-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits at the Savannah River Site for use in developing risk assessment and potential remediation procedures have been validated at the appropriate level. Any discrepancies or reasons why the data should be rejected for this purpose will be addressed. This report documents the data validation procedures used by Environmental Monitoring Section, Exploration Resources, and RUST Environment {ampersand} Infrastructure for Assigning qualifiers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy..tmp...64D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy..tmp...64D"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> on the northern African seasonal climate from the perspective of regional modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Sales, Fernando; Xue, Yongkang; Okin, Gregory S.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>This study investigates the impact of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> on the surface energy balance and monthly precipitation in northern Africa as simulated by a state-of-the-art regional model. Mean <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> fraction derived from MODIS date of <span class="hlt">burning</span> product was implemented in a set of 1-year long WRF-NMM/SSiB2 model simulations. Vegetation cover fraction and LAI were degraded daily based on mean <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> fraction and on the survival rate for each vegetation land cover type. Additionally, ground darkening associated with wildfire-induced ash and charcoal deposition was imposed through lower ground albedo for a period after <span class="hlt">burning</span>. In general, wildfire-induced vegetation and ground condition deterioration increased mean surface albedo by exposing the brighter bare ground, which in turn caused a decrease in monthly surface net radiation. On average, the wildfire-season albedo increase was approximately 6.3 % over the Sahel. The associated decrease in surface available energy caused a drop in surface sensible heat flux to the atmosphere during the dry months of winter and early spring, which gradually transitioned to a more substantial decrease in surface evapotranspiration in April and May that lessened throughout the rainy season. Overall, post-fire land condition deterioration resulted in a decrease in precipitation over sub-Saharan Africa, associated with the weakening of the West African monsoon progression through the region. A decrease in atmospheric moisture flux convergence was observed in the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> simulations, which played a dominant role in reducing precipitation in the <span class="hlt">area</span>, especially in the months preceding the monsoon onset. The <span class="hlt">areas</span> with the largest precipitation impact were those covered by savannas and rainforests, where <span class="hlt">annual</span> precipitation decreased by 3.8 and 3.3 %, respectively. The resulting precipitation decrease and vegetation deterioration caused a drop in gross primary productivity in the region, which was strongest in late winter and early spring. This study suggests the cooling and drying of atmosphere induced by <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> caused the strengthening of subsidence during pre-onset and weakening of upward atmospheric motion during onset and mature stages of the monsoon leading to a waning of convective instability and precipitation. Monthly mid-tropospheric vertical wind showed a strengthening of downward motion in winter and spring seasons, and weakening of upward movement during the rainy months. Furthermore, precipitation energy analysis revealed that most of precipitation decrease originated from convective events, which supports the hypothesis of reduced convective instability due to wildfires.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.emergencycareforyou.org/Emergency-101/Emergencies-A-Z/Burns/','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.emergencycareforyou.org/Emergency-101/Emergencies-A-Z/Burns/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... doing so puts you in danger as well. Chemical and Electrical <span class="hlt">Burns</span> For chemical and electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span>, ... putting a child in the bathtub. Cover unused electric outlets with safety caps, and replace damaged, frayed ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/burns.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/burns.html"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A <span class="hlt">burn</span> is damage to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight or radiation. Scalds from hot ... and gases are the most common causes of <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Another kind is an inhalation injury, caused by ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A11F0104P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A11F0104P"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating the accuracy of a MODIS direct broadcast algorithm for mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> over Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petkov, A.; Hao, W. M.; Nordgren, B.; Corley, R.; Urbanski, S. P.; Ponomarev, E. I.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Emission inventories for open <span class="hlt">area</span> biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> rely on <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates as a key component. We have developed an automated algorithm based on MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite instrument data for estimating <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from biomass fires. The algorithm is based on active fire detections, <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars from MODIS calibrated radiances (MOD02HKM), and MODIS land cover classification (MOD12Q1). Our <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product combines active fires and <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar detections using spatio-temporal criteria, and has a resolution of 500 x 500 meters. The algorithm has been used for smoke emission estimates over the western United States. We will present the assessed accuracy of our algorithm in different regions of Russia with intense wildfire activity by comparing our results with the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product from the Sukachev Institute of Forest (SIF) of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Krasnoyarsk, Russia, as well as <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars extracted from Landsat imagery. Landsat <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> extraction was based on threshold classification using the Jenks Natural Breaks algorithm to the histogram for each singe scene Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio (NBR) image. The final evaluation consisted of a grid-based approach, where the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in each 3 km x 3 km grid cell was calculated and compared with the other two sources. A comparison between our <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates and those from SIF showed strong correlation (R2=0.978), although our estimate is approximately 40% lower than the SIF <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The linear fit between the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from Landsat scenes and our MODIS algorithm over 18,754 grid cells resulted with a slope of 0.998 and R2=0.7, indicating that our algorithm is suitable for mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> for fires in boreal forests and other ecosystems. The results of our <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> algorithm will be used for estimating emissions of trace gasses and aerosol particles (including black carbon) from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Northern Eurasia for the period of 2002-2011.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nigms.nih.gov/Education/Pages/Factsheet_Burns.aspx','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nigms.nih.gov/Education/Pages/Factsheet_Burns.aspx"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... complete destruction of the skin to its full depth and damage to underlying tissues. How does the body react to a severe <span class="hlt">burn</span>? The swelling and blistering characteristic of <span class="hlt">burns</span> is caused by the loss of fluid from damaged blood vessels. In severe cases, such fluid loss can cause shock . <span class="hlt">Burns</span> often ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/201144','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/201144"><span id="translatedtitle">Methodology for estimating <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from AVHRR reflectance data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Razafimpanilo, H.; Frouin, R.; Iacobellis, S.F.; Somerville, R.C.J.</p> <p>1995-12-01</p> <p>It is well recognized that global fire activity needs to be monitored closely, because of its potential impact on climate and the environment. Two methods are described to determined <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The first method, or the linear method, employs Channel 2 reflectance, R{sub 2}, and is based on the nearly linear relationship between the fraction of pixel <span class="hlt">burned</span>, P, and R{sub 2}. The second method, or the nonlinear method, employs the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from Channels 1 and 2 reflectances, and is based on the nonlinear relationship P = f(NDVI), a polynomial of order 2 in NDVI. The coefficients of the polynomial are parameterized as a function of the NDVI of the background before the fire event. Radiative transfer simulations indicate that the linear method, unlike the nonlinear method, must be applied to top-of-atmosphere reflectances that have been corrected for atmospheric influence. Sensitivity studies suggest that the methods are subject to some limitations. To avoid discontinuity problems, the original background (just before the fire) must be characterized by a Channel 2 reflectance above 0.07 and by a positive NDVI. To separate the useful signal from atmospheric effects, the fire scar must occupy at least 20% and 12% of the pixel <span class="hlt">area</span> in the case of savanna and green vegetation (e.g., forest), respectively. When applied to uniform pixels, the mean relative error on the fraction of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> is about 20% for the linear method and 10% for the nonlinear method. The linear method gives better results for nonuniform pixels, but neither method can be used when the pixel contains low reflectance backgrounds (e.g., water).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-98PC-0768&hterms=Burns&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBurns','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-98PC-0768&hterms=Burns&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBurns"><span id="translatedtitle">A fire <span class="hlt">burns</span> in a wooded <span class="hlt">area</span> on KSC property</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A wooded section of the southeast corner of Kennedy Space Center <span class="hlt">burns</span> on Monday, June 22, after lightning touched off three different fires Sunday evening in and around Tel IV, Ransom Road and Pine Island Road. This <span class="hlt">area</span> is part of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge operated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The fires were a short distance from operational facilities at the space center and forced the closing of Florida State Route 3. The fires are being contained by firefighters from Kennedy Space Center and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-98PC-0767&hterms=Burns&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBurns','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-98PC-0767&hterms=Burns&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBurns"><span id="translatedtitle">A fire <span class="hlt">burns</span> in a wooded <span class="hlt">area</span> on KSC property</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A fire <span class="hlt">burns</span> in the background as members of the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service operate firefighting equipment soaking the grass and underbrush in an attempt to keep the fire away from Kennedy Parkway and the wooded <span class="hlt">area</span> on the other side of the road. Lightning touched off three different fires Sunday evening in and around Kennedy Space Center at Tel IV, Ransom Road and Pine Island Road. This <span class="hlt">area</span> is part of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge operated by the service. The fires were a short distance from operational facilities at the space center and forced the closing of Florida State Route 3. The fires are being contained by firefighters from Kennedy Space Center and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/604384','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/604384"><span id="translatedtitle">Tanks focus <span class="hlt">area</span>. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Frey, J.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management is tasked with a major remediation project to treat and dispose of radioactive waste in hundreds of underground storage tanks. These tanks contain about 90,000,000 gallons of high-level and transuranic wastes. We have 68 known or assumed leaking tanks, that have allowed waste to migrate into the soil surrounding the tank. In some cases, the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in the safest possible condition until their eventual remediation to reduce the risk of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. Science and technology development for safer, more efficient, and cost-effective waste treatment methods will speed up progress toward the final remediation of these tanks. The DOE Office of Environmental Management established the Tanks Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span> to serve as the DOE-EM`s technology development program for radioactive waste tank remediation in partnership with the Offices of Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. The Tanks Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span> is responsible for leading, coordinating, and facilitating science and technology development to support remediation at DOE`s four major tank sites: the Hanford Site in Washington State, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in Idaho, Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank. Safety is integrated across all the functions and is a key component of the Tanks Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span> program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/961218','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/961218"><span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Asia : <span class="hlt">annual</span> and seasonal estimates and atmospheric emissions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Streets, D. G.; Yarber, K. F.; Woo, J.-H.; Carmichael, G. R.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Iowa</p> <p>2003-10-15</p> <p>Estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Asia are developed to facilitate the modeling of Asian and global air quality. A survey of national, regional, and international publications on biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is conducted to yield consensus estimates of 'typical' (i.e., non-year-specific) estimates of open <span class="hlt">burning</span> (excluding biofuels). We conclude that 730 Tg of biomass are <span class="hlt">burned</span> in a typical year from both anthropogenic and natural causes. Forest <span class="hlt">burning</span> comprises 45% of the total, the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of crop residues in the field comprises 34%, and 20% comes from the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of grassland and savanna. China contributes 25% of the total, India 18%, Indonesia 13%, and Myanmar 8%. Regionally, forest <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Southeast Asia dominates. National, <span class="hlt">annual</span> totals are converted to daily and monthly estimates at 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} spatial resolution using distributions based on AVHRR fire counts for 1999--2000. Several adjustment schemes are applied to correct for the deficiencies of AVHRR data, including the use of moving averages, normalization, TOMS Aerosol Index, and masks for dust, clouds, landcover, and other fire sources. Good agreement between the national estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and adjusted fire counts is obtained (R{sup 2} = 0.71--0.78). Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> amounts are converted to atmospheric emissions, yielding the following estimates: 0.37 Tg of SO{sub 2}, 2.8 Tg of NO{sub x}, 1100 Tg of CO{sub 2}, 67 Tg of CO, 3.1 Tg of CH{sub 4}, 12 Tg of NMVOC, 0.45 Tg of BC, 3.3 Tg of OC, and 0.92 Tg of NH{sub 3}. Uncertainties in the emission estimates, measured as 95% confidence intervals, range from a low of {+-}65% for CO{sub 2} emissions in Japan to a high of {+-}700% for BC emissions in India.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21305885','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21305885"><span id="translatedtitle">Remote sensing-based estimates of <span class="hlt">annual</span> and seasonal emissions from crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the contiguous United States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McCarty, Jessica L</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> is an extensive agricultural practice in the contiguous United States (CONUS). This analysis presents the results of a remote sensing-based study of crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions in the CONUS for the time period 2003-2007 for the atmospheric species of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2), PM2.5 (particulate matter [PM] < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter), and PM10 (PM < or = 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter). Cropland <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and associated crop types were derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products. Emission factors, fuel load, and combustion completeness estimates were derived from the scientific literature, governmental reports, and expert knowledge. Emissions were calculated using the bottom-up approach in which emissions are the product of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, fuel load, and combustion completeness for each specific crop type. On average, <span class="hlt">annual</span> crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the CONUS emitted 6.1 Tg of CO2, 8.9 Gg of CH4, 232.4 Gg of CO, 10.6 Gg of NO2, 4.4 Gg of SO2, 20.9 Gg of PM2.5, and 28.5 Gg of PM10. These emissions remained fairly consistent, with an average interannual variability of crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions of +/- 10%. The states with the highest emissions were Arkansas, California, Florida, Idaho, Texas, and Washington. Most emissions were clustered in the southeastern United States, the Great Plains, and the Pacific Northwest. Air quality and carbon emissions were concentrated in the spring, summer, and fall, with an exception because of winter harvesting of sugarcane in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. Sugarcane, wheat, and rice residues accounted for approximately 70% of all crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> and associated emissions. Estimates of CO and CH4 from agricultural waste <span class="hlt">burning</span> by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were 73 and 78% higher than the CO and CH4 emission estimates from this analysis, respectively. This analysis also showed that crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions are a minor source of CH4 emissions (< 1%) compared with the CH4 emissions from other agricultural sources, specifically enteric fermentation, manure management, and rice cultivation. PMID:21305885</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000030.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000030.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... of <span class="hlt">burns</span> from most to least common are: Fire/flame Scalding from steam or hot liquids Touching ... can be the result of: House and industrial fires Car accidents Playing with matches Faulty space heaters, ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26117890','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26117890"><span id="translatedtitle">[Estimating Biomass <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Areas</span> from Multispectral Dataset Detected by Multiple-Satellite].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Chao; Chen, Liang-fu; Li, Shen-shen; Tao, Jin-hua; Su, Lin</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> makes up an important part of both trace gases and particulate matter emissions, which can efficiently degrade air quality and reduce visibility, destabilize the global climate system at regional to global scales. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is one of the primary parameters necessary to estimate emissions, and considered to be the largest source of error in the emission inventory. Satellite-based fire observations can offer a reliable source of fire occurrence data on regional and global scales, a variety of sensors have been used to detect and map fires in two general approaches: <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar mapping and active fire detection. However, both of the two approaches have limitations. In this article, we explore the relationship between hotspot data and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> for the Southeastern United States, where a significant amount of biomass <span class="hlt">burnings</span> from both prescribed and wild fire took place. MODIS (Moderate resolution imaging spectrometer) data, which has high temporal-resolution, can be used to monitor ground biomass. <span class="hlt">burning</span> in time and provided hot spot data in this study. However, pixel size of MODIS hot spot can't stand for the real ground <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Through analysis of the variation of vegetation band reflectance between pre- and post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>, we extracted the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from Landsat-5 TM (Thematic Mapper) images by using the differential normalized <span class="hlt">burn</span> ratio (dNBR) which is based on TM band4 (0.84 ?m) and TM band 7(2.22 ?m) data. We combined MODIS fire hot spot data and Landsat-5 TM <span class="hlt">burned</span> scars data to build the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimation model, results showed that the linear correlation coefficient is 0.63 and the relationships vary as a function of vegetation cover. Based on the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), we built <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimation model over different vegetation cover, and got effective <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> per fire pixel, values for forest, grassland, shrub, cropland and wetland are 0.69, 1.27, 0.86, 0.72 and 0.94 km2 respectively. We validated the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates by using the ground survey data from National interagency Fire Center (NIFC), our results are more close to the ground survey data than <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) and MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product (MCD45), which omitted many small prescribed fires. We concluded that our model can provide more accurate <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> parameters for developing fire emission inventory, and be better for estimating emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>. PMID:26117890</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B14C..01R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B14C..01R"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving global fire carbon emissions estimates by combining moderate resolution <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and active fire observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; Giglio, L.; Rogers, B. M.; van der Werf, G.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>In several important biomes, including croplands and tropical forests, many small fires exist that have sizes that are well below the detection limit for the current generation of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products derived from moderate resolution spectroradiometers. These fires likely have important effects on greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and regional air quality. Here we developed an approach for combining 1km thermal anomalies (active fires; MOD14A2) and 500m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> observations (MCD64A1) to estimate the prevalence of these fires and their likely contribution to <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and carbon emissions. We first estimated active fires within and outside of 500m <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars in 0.5 degree grid cells during 2001-2010 for which MCD64A1 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> observations were available. For these two sets of active fires we then examined mean fire radiative power (FRP) and changes in enhanced vegetation index (EVI) derived from 16-day intervals immediately before and after each active fire observation. To estimate the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> associated with sub-500m fires, we first applied <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> to active fire ratios derived solely from within <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> perimeters to active fires outside of <span class="hlt">burn</span> perimeters. In a second step, we further modified our sub-500m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates using EVI changes from active fires outside and within of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> (after subtracting EVI changes derived from control regions). We found that in northern and southern Africa savanna regions and in Central and South America dry forest regions, the number of active fires outside of MCD64A1 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> increased considerably towards the end of the fire season. EVI changes for active fires outside of <span class="hlt">burn</span> perimeters were, on average, considerably smaller than EVI changes associated with active fires inside <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars, providing evidence for <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars that were substantially smaller than the 25 ha <span class="hlt">area</span> of a single 500m pixel. FRP estimates also were lower for active fires outside of <span class="hlt">burn</span> perimeters. In our analysis we quantified how including sub-500m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> influenced global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, carbon emissions, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in different continental regions using the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) biogeochemical model. We conclude by discussing validation needs using higher resolution visible and thermal imagery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJMPC..2450053L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJMPC..2450053L"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate Effect on Wildfire <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> in Alberta (1961-2010)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Hung-I.; Wang, Shih-Luen; Li, Sai-Ping</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>The spread and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> of wildfires in Alberta, Canada during a 50 year period, from 1961 through 2010 are studied here. Meteorological factors that control the spread and <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> have been discussed for a long time. In this paper, we analyze the temperature rise that could drastically enhance the spread and average <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> of wildfires. A simple lattice model that mimics meteorological factors is also introduced to simulate the temperature effect on the spread and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> of wildfires. The numerical results demonstrate the temperature effects on wildfires when compared to the empirical data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040161152&hterms=deforestation+rates&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Ddeforestation%2Brates','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040161152&hterms=deforestation+rates&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Ddeforestation%2Brates"><span id="translatedtitle">Forest Understory Fire in the Brazilian Amazon in ENSO and Non-ENSO Years: <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burned</span> and Committed Carbon Emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Alencar, A.; Nepstad, D.; Ver-Diaz, M. Del. C.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>"Understory fires" that <span class="hlt">burn</span> the floor of standing forests are one of the most important types of forest impoverishment in the Amazon, especially during the severe droughts of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes. However, we are aware of no estimates of the areal extent of these fires for the Brazilian Amazon and, hence, of their contribution to Amazon carbon fluxes to the atmosphere. We calculated the <span class="hlt">area</span> of forest understory fires for the Brazilian Amazon region during an El Nino (1998) and a non El Nino (1995) year based on forest fire scars mapped with satellite images for three locations in eastern and southern Amazon, where deforestation is concentrated. The three study sites represented a gradient of both forest types and dry season severity. The <span class="hlt">burning</span> scar maps were used to determine how the percentage of forest that <span class="hlt">burned</span> varied with distance from agricultural clearings. These spatial functions were then applied to similar forest/climate combinations outside of the study sites to derive an initial estimate for the Brazilian Amazon. Ninety-one percent of the forest <span class="hlt">area</span> that <span class="hlt">burned</span> in the study sites was within the first kilometer of a clearing for the non ENSO year and within the first four kilometers for the ENSO year. The <span class="hlt">area</span> of forest <span class="hlt">burned</span> by understory forest fire during the severe drought (ENSO) year (3.9 millions of hectares) was 13 times greater than the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> during the average rainfall year (0.2 million hectares), and twice the <span class="hlt">area</span> of <span class="hlt">annual</span> deforestation rate. Dense forest was, proportionally, the forest <span class="hlt">area</span> most affected by understory fires during the El Nino year, while understory fires were concentrated in transitional forests during the year of average rainfall. Our estimate of aboveground tree biomass killed by fire ranged from 0.06 Pg to 0.38 Pg during the ENSO and from 0,004 Pg to 0,024 Pg during the non ENSO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3865302','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3865302"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationships between Human Population Density and <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> at Continental and Global Scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bistinas, Ioannis; Oom, Duarte; Sá, Ana C. L.; Harrison, Sandy P.; Prentice, I. Colin; Pereira, José M. C.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We explore the large spatial variation in the relationship between population density and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, using continental-scale Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) based on 13 years of satellite-derived <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps from the global fire emissions database (GFED) and the human population density from the gridded population of the world (GPW 2005). Significant relationships are observed over 51.5% of the global land <span class="hlt">area</span>, and the <span class="hlt">area</span> affected varies from continent to continent: population density has a significant impact on fire over most of Asia and Africa but is important in explaining fire over < 22% of Europe and Australia. Increasing population density is associated with both increased and decreased in fire. The nature of the relationship depends on land-use: increasing population density is associated with increased <span class="hlt">burned</span> are in rangelands but with decreased <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in croplands. Overall, the relationship between population density and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is non-monotonic: <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> initially increases with population density and then decreases when population density exceeds a threshold. These thresholds vary regionally. Our study contributes to improved understanding of how human activities relate to <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, and should contribute to a better estimate of atmospheric emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>. PMID:24358108</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17046310','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17046310"><span id="translatedtitle">Fatal <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Manipal <span class="hlt">area</span>: a 10 year study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumar, Virendra; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar; Kanth, Sarita</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate the causes and the magnitude of the fatal <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries retrospectively. An analysis of autopsy records revealed 19.4% cases of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries amongst the total autopsies done over 10years period (1993-2002) in the mortuary of the department of Forensic Medicine of Kasturba medical College, Manipal. The majority of deaths (78.5%) occurred between 11 and 40years of age group with preponderance of females (74.8%). The flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> were seen in 94.1% of the victims followed by scalds and electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> in 2.8% and 2.5% cases, respectively. The majority of <span class="hlt">burn</span> incidents were accidental (75.8%) in nature followed by suicidal (11.5%) and homicidal (3.1%) deaths. The percentage of <span class="hlt">burn</span> (TBSA) over 40% were observed in most of the cases (92.5%). The majority of deaths occurred within a week (69.87%) and most the victims died because of septicemia (50.9%). PMID:17046310</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESS..14...53B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESS..14...53B"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the predictability of fire occurrence and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> across phytoclimatic regions in Spain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bedia, J.; Herrera, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Most fire protection agencies throughout the world have developed forest fire risk forecast systems, usually building upon existing fire danger indices and meteorological forecast data. In this context, the daily predictability of wildfires is of utmost importance in order to allow the fire protection agencies to issue timely fire hazard alerts. In this study, we address the predictability of daily fire occurrence using the components of the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) System and related variables calculated from the latest ECMWF (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts) reanalysis, ERA-Interim. We develop daily fire occurrence models in peninsular Spain for the period 1990-2008 and, considering different minimum <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> thresholds for fire definition, assess their ability to reproduce the inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> fire frequency variability. We based the analysis on a phytoclimatic classification aiming the stratification of the territory into homogeneous units in terms of climatic and fuel type characteristics, allowing to test model performance under different climate/fuel conditions. We then extend the analysis in order to assess the predictability of monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The sensitivity of the models to the level of spatial aggregation of the data is also evaluated. Additionally, we investigate the gain in model performance with the inclusion of socioeconomic and land use/land cover (LULC) covariates in model formulation. Fire occurrence models have attained good performance in most of the phytoclimatic zones considered, being able to faithfully reproduce the inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability of fire frequency. Total <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> has exhibited some dependence on the meteorological drivers, although model performance was poor in most cases. We identified temperature and some FWI system components as the most important explanatory variables, highlighting the adequacy of the FWI system for fire occurrence prediction in the study <span class="hlt">area</span>. The results were improved when using aggregated data across regions compared to when data were sampled at the grid-box level. The inclusion of socioeconomic and LULC covariates contributed marginally to the improvement of the models, and in most cases attained no relevant contribution to total explained variance - excepting northern Spain, where anthropogenic factors are known to be the major driver of fires. Models of monthly fire counts performed better in the case of fires larger than 0.1 ha, and for the rest of the thresholds (1, 10 and 100 ha) the daily occurrence models improved the predicted inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability, indicating the added value of daily models. Fire frequency predictions may provide a preferable basis for past fire history reconstruction, long-term monitoring and the assessment of future climate impacts on fire regimes across regions, posing several advantages over <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> as a response variable. Our results leave the door open to the development a more complex modelling framework based on daily data from numerical climate model outputs based on the FWI system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-01-09/pdf/2013-00235.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-01-09/pdf/2013-00235.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 1833 - <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Surveys in the Manufacturing <span class="hlt">Area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-09</p> <p>... Bureau of the Census <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Surveys in the Manufacturing <span class="hlt">Area</span> AGENCY: Bureau of the Census, Department of... the 2013 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Surveys in the Manufacturing <span class="hlt">Area</span>. The 2013 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Surveys consist of the <span class="hlt">Annual</span>..., Manufacturing and Construction Division at (301) 763-4587 or by email at...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-13/pdf/2013-27177.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-13/pdf/2013-27177.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 68023 - <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Surveys in the Manufacturing <span class="hlt">Area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-11-13</p> <p>... Bureau of the Census <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Surveys in the Manufacturing <span class="hlt">Area</span> AGENCY: Bureau of the Census, Department of... the 2014 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Surveys in the Manufacturing <span class="hlt">Area</span>. The 2014 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Surveys consist of the <span class="hlt">Annual</span>.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mendel D. Gayle, Chief, Manufacturing and Construction Division...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032401','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032401"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the response of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> to changing climate in western boreal North America using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Balshi, M. S.; McGuire, A.D.; Duffy, P.; Flannigan, M.; Walsh, J.; Melillo, J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Fire is a common disturbance in the North American boreal forest that influences ecosystem structure and function. The temporal and spatial dynamics of fire are likely to be altered as climate continues to change. In this study, we ask the question: how will <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in boreal North America by wildfire respond to future changes in climate? To evaluate this question, we developed temporally and spatially explicit relationships between air temperature and fuel moisture codes derived from the Canadian Fire Weather Index System to estimate <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> at 2.5?? (latitude ?? longitude) resolution using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS) approach across Alaska and Canada. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was substantially more predictable in the western portion of boreal North America than in eastern Canada. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was also not very predictable in <span class="hlt">areas</span> of substantial topographic relief and in <span class="hlt">areas</span> along the transition between boreal forest and tundra. At the scale of Alaska and western Canada, the empirical fire models explain on the order of 82% of the variation in <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> for the period 1960-2002. July temperature was the most frequently occurring predictor across all models, but the fuel moisture codes for the months June through August (as a group) entered the models as the most important predictors of <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. To predict changes in the temporal and spatial dynamics of fire under future climate, the empirical fire models used output from the Canadian Climate Center CGCM2 global climate model to predict <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> through the year 2100 across Alaska and western Canada. Relative to 1991-2000, the results suggest that average <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> per decade will double by 2041-2050 and will increase on the order of 3.5-5.5 times by the last decade of the 21st century. To improve the ability to better predict wildfire across Alaska and Canada, future research should focus on incorporating additional effects of long-term and successional vegetation changes on <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> to account more fully for interactions among fire, climate, and vegetation dynamics. ?? 2009 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESASP.704E..32Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESASP.704E..32Z"><span id="translatedtitle">A Semi-Automated Methodology for <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Mapping Using HJ-CCD Data in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Xi; Qin, Xianlin; Yang, Fei; Hu, Bo; Casanova, Jose-Luis</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study focused on the development of a semi-automated methodology for <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping using HJ-CCD image. The method can be divided into two main phases. First, to minimize commission errors, a semi-adaptable threshold has been used to extract more severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> pixels as core pixels based on spectral reflectance and vegetation indices (VI).Then, to minimize omission errors and to enlarge the severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patches previously, a logistic regression model has been made built on the information of multi-temporal vegetation indices and spectral channels. The core pixels extracted in the first phase have been processed to apply a region grow algorithm constrained by the result of canny edge detection algorithm, and the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> can be shaped. The results showed this approach using HJ-CCD sensor produced promising results for study <span class="hlt">areas</span> and could be suitable for <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/797471','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/797471"><span id="translatedtitle">Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>K. B. Campbell</p> <p>2002-04-01</p> <p>Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). CAU 490 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and includes for Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) Fire Training <span class="hlt">Area</span> (CAS 03-56-001-03BA); (2) Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> (CAS RG-56-001-RGBA); (3) Sandia Service Yard (CAS 03-58-001-03FN); and (4) Gun Propellant <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> (CAS 09-54-001-09L2).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.106..154H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.106..154H"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparative analysis of potential impact <span class="hlt">area</span> of common sugar cane <span class="hlt">burning</span> methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hiscox, A. L.; Flecher, S.; Wang, J. J.; Viator, H. P.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The negative effects of agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span> are well-known, although the actual impact <span class="hlt">area</span> of different activities has not previously been quantified. An elastic backscatter lidar system was used to examine the impact-<span class="hlt">area</span> size and dispersion of smoke generated from different types of sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span> activities; pre-harvest (standing) <span class="hlt">burning</span> and post-harvest (ground) <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Experiments were conducted in the sugarcane harvest season of 2010 and 2011 at two locations in Louisiana, USA. Current dispersion theory would suggest that the primary difference between <span class="hlt">burn</span> types would be primarily in the initial plume rise, but that the overall plume shape would remain the same. However, remotely sensed lidar data with the capability to measure plume dispersion and the short time dynamics of plume location showed pre-harvest (standing) <span class="hlt">burning</span> produced a larger plume with greater rise and more spread within the 300 m of the plume, but a decrease in dispersion, but not concentration further downwind. Post-harvest (ground) <span class="hlt">burning</span> produced a more traditional plume shape, but still exceeded impact <span class="hlt">area</span> predictions near the source. Moreover, large changes in plume size can occur with small increases in wind speed. These are the first instrumented measurements of the meteorological effects of the different types of sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span>. These results indicate that ground <span class="hlt">burning</span> is preferable, but should be avoided in lower wind speed conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......299B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......299B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> severity and <span class="hlt">areas</span> of daily fire growth for 42 forest fires in Idaho and Montana, 2005 - 2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Birch, Donovan Shayne</p> <p></p> <p>This work consisted of two studies of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity using infrared perimeter maps and satellite-inferred <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity data, differenced Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio, from 42 wildland fires from central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007, and 2011. Study 1 examined the proportion of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity categories for individual daily <span class="hlt">areas</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. We defined 2,697 <span class="hlt">areas</span>, from which we calculated the proportion of three <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity classes. The proportion of high severity was weakly correlated with size of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. Large <span class="hlt">areas</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> do not consistently produced larger proportions of high severity. Study 2 analyzed <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity relative to 20 environmental variables using the Random Forest machine learning algorithm. We used ten daily weather observations, eight 34-yr climate percentiles, seven topographical index measurements, and four vegetation characteristics from 10,819 randomly located points. We found that higher percentage existing vegetation cover had larger influences on changes in <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN53A3786M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN53A3786M"><span id="translatedtitle">A Spatio-temporal Data Mining Approach to Global scale <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mithal, V.; Khandelwal, A.; Nayak, G.; Kumar, V.; Nemani, R. R.; Oza, N.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We present a novel technique for <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping in forests using the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from the MODIS 16-day Level 3 1km Vegetation Indices (MOD13A2) and the Active Fire (AF) from the MODIS 8-day Level 3 1km Thermal Anomalies and Fire products (MOD14A2). The proposed method leverages the spatial and temporal co-occurrence of thermal anomalies and vegetation loss caused due to forest fires to detect <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Our approach derives features from Enhanced Vegetation Index that target locations which show an abrupt change in their vegetation time series that take at least several months to recover. One unique aspect of our approach is that it uses data from multiple months around the fire event and is therefore more robust to issues in data quality. Comparison with other <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products show that our approach detects several large previously undetected <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> across multiple geographical regions. In particular, we found that our approach detects several large <span class="hlt">burned</span> regions in the tropical forests of Indonesia and South America that had been missed by the state-of-arts <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> approaches. For example, using our approach in Indonesia we discovered that the state-of-the-art MODIS <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product had missed around 20,000 sq. km. of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> (nearly as much <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> as it has reported). We show that all these previously unreported <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> detected by our approach are actually significant fires which suffered a large, abrupt loss in their vegetation at the time of the fire event and take at least several months to recover back to their normal vegetation. To evaluate these <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> we compared the Landsat-based composites before and after the date of the event. Our Landsat analysis shows that the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> detected by the proposed approach are true <span class="hlt">burns</span> with a very small error of commission. We believe our work has the potential to provide a scalable approach to global forest monitoring as well as reduce the uncertainty in quantifying the carbon emissions from forests due to fire activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020034899&hterms=wildland+fire&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dwildland%2Bfire','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020034899&hterms=wildland+fire&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dwildland%2Bfire"><span id="translatedtitle">Brazil Fire Characterization and <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Estimation Using the Airborne Infrared Disaster Assessment (AIRDAS) System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brass, J. A.; Riggan, P. J.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Lockwood, R. N.; Pereira, J. A.; Higgins, R. G.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Remotely sensed estimations of regional and global emissions from biomass combustion have been used to characterize fire behavior, determine fire intensity, and estimate <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Highly temporal, low resolution satellite data have been used to calculate estimates of fire numbers and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. These estimates of fire activity and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> have differed dramatically, resulting in a wide range of predictions on the ecological and environmental impacts of fires. As part of the Brazil/United States Fire Initiative, an aircraft campaign was initiated in 1992 and continued in 1994. This multi-aircraft campaign was designed to assist in the characterization of fire activity, document fire intensity and determine <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> over prescribed, agricultural and wildland fires in the savanna and forests of central Brazil. Using a unique, multispectral scanner (AIRDAS), designed specifically for fire characterization, a variety of fires and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> were flown with a high spatial and high thermal resolution scanner. The system was used to measure flame front size, rate of spread, ratio of smoldering to flaming fronts and fire intensity. In addition, long transects were flown to determine the size of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> within the cerrado and transitional ecosystems. The authors anticipate that the fire activity and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates reported here will lead to enhanced information for precise regional trace gas prediction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70157328','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70157328"><span id="translatedtitle">Timing constraints on remote sensing of wildland fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in the southeastern US</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Picotte, Joshua J.; Robertson, Kevin</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Remote sensing using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery is increasingly used for mapping wildland fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, owing to its frequency of collection, relatively high resolution, and availability free of charge. However, rapid response of vegetation following fire and frequent cloud cover pose challenges to this approach in the southeastern US. We assessed these timing constraints by using a series of Landsat TM images to determine how rapidly the remotely sensed <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar signature fades following prescribed <span class="hlt">burns</span> in wet flatwoods and depression swamp community types in the Apalachicola National Forest, Florida, USA during 2006. We used both the Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio (NBR) of reflectance bands sensitive to vegetation and exposed soil cover, as well as the change in NBR from before to after fire (dNBR), to estimate <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. We also determined the average and maximum amount of time following fire required to obtain a cloud-free image for <span class="hlt">burns</span> in each month of the year, as well as the predicted effect of this time lag on percent accuracy of <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar estimates. Using both NBR and dNBR, the detectable <span class="hlt">area</span> decreased linearly 9% per month on average over the first four months following fire. Our findings suggest that the NBR and dNBR methods for monitoring <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in common southeastern US vegetation community types are limited to an average of 7890% accuracy among months of the year, with individual <span class="hlt">burns</span> having values as low as 38%, if restricted to use of Landsat 5 TM imagery. However, the majority of <span class="hlt">burns</span> can still be mapped at accuracies similar to those in other regions of the US, and access to additional sources of satellite imagery would improve overall accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036042','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036042"><span id="translatedtitle">Timing constraints on remote sensing of wildland fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in the southeastern US</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Picotte, J.J.; Robertson, K.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Remote sensing using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery is increasingly used for mapping wildland fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, owing to its frequency of collection, relatively high resolution, and availability free of charge. However, rapid response of vegetation following fire and frequent cloud cover pose challenges to this approach in the southeastern US. We assessed these timing constraints by using a series of Landsat TM images to determine how rapidly the remotely sensed <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar signature fades following prescribed <span class="hlt">burns</span> in wet flatwoods and depression swamp community types in the Apalachicola National Forest, Florida, USA during 2006. We used both the Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio (NBR) of reflectance bands sensitive to vegetation and exposed soil cover, as well as the change in NBR from before to after fire (dNBR), to estimate <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. We also determined the average and maximum amount of time following fire required to obtain a cloud-free image for <span class="hlt">burns</span> in each month of the year, as well as the predicted effect of this time lag on percent accuracy of <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar estimates. Using both NBR and dNBR, the detectable <span class="hlt">area</span> decreased linearly 9% per month on average over the first four months following fire. Our findings suggest that the NBR and dNBR methods for monitoring <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in common southeastern US vegetation community types are limited to an average of 78-90% accuracy among months of the year, with individual <span class="hlt">burns</span> having values as low as 38%, if restricted to use of Landsat 5 TM imagery. However, the majority of <span class="hlt">burns</span> can still be mapped at accuracies similar to those in other regions of the US, and access to additional sources of satellite imagery would improve overall accuracy. ?? 2011 by the authors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..71..115V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..71..115V"><span id="translatedtitle">Methane emissions from 2000 to 2011 wildfires in Northeast Eurasia estimated with MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vasileva, Anastasia; Moiseenko, Konstantin</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Estimates of methane wildfire emissions from Northeast Eurasia for years 2000-2011 are reported on the basis of satellite <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS MCD45 data product) and ecosystem-dependent fire emission parameters. Average (with standard deviations) emissions are 1.0 0.2 Tg CH4 year-1, with interannual variations of 0.4-2.3 Tg CH4 year-1. Most of the emissions are located within 48-55N, in the southern part of the boreal forest zone, mostly in Siberia and Far East. The largest discrepancies among independent present-day estimates are found in the sub-polar regions of West Siberia and Far East (60-65N). Compared to the methane wetland emissions reported in literature, the wildfire emissions in the south add about 5-20% to their estimated average <span class="hlt">annual</span> values and are compared with the magnitudes of their interannual variability. Average seasonal cycle peaks in April-May and July-August, which partially overlaps the summertime peak in wetland emissions. The independent estimates from version 3 of Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) are by 50% higher (compared to this study) for average <span class="hlt">annual</span> emissions over the decade (which is quite good regarding the uncertainties) and showed larger differences for individual years. Possible applications of the results are considered for climate research and inverse modeling studies, as well as for assessment of the uncertainties in the present-day wildfire emission estimates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL8.1429S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL8.1429S"><span id="translatedtitle">Automated <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Delineation Using IRS AWiFS satellite data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singhal, J.; Kiranchand, T. R.; Rajashekar, G.; Jha, C. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>India is endowed with a rich forest cover. Over 21% of country's <span class="hlt">area</span> is covered by forest of varied composition and structure. Out of 67.5 million ha of Indian forests, about 55% of the forest cover is being subjected to fires each year, causing an economic loss of over 440 crores of rupees apart from other ecological effects. Studies carried out by Forest Survey of India reveals that on an average 53% forest cover of the country is prone to fires and 6.17% of the forests are prone to severe fire damage. Forest Survey of India in a countrywide study in 1995 estimated that about 1.45 million hectares of forest are affected by fire <span class="hlt">annually</span>. According to Forest Protection Division of the Ministry of Environment and Forest (GOI), 3.73 million ha of forests are affected by fire <span class="hlt">annually</span> in India. Karnataka is one of the southern states of India extending in between latitude 110 30' and 180 25' and longitudes 740 10' and 780 35'. As per Forest Survey of India's State of Forest Report (SFR) 2009, of the total geographic <span class="hlt">area</span> of 191791sq.km, the state harbors 38284 sq.km of recorded forest <span class="hlt">area</span>. Major forest types occurring in the study <span class="hlt">area</span> are tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen, tropical moist and dry deciduous forests along with tropical scrub and dry grasslands. Typical forest fire season in the study <span class="hlt">area</span> is from February-May with a peak during March-April every year, though sporadic fire episodes occur in other parts of the year sq.km, the state harbors 38284 sq.km of recorded forest <span class="hlt">area</span>. Major forest types occurring in the study <span class="hlt">area</span> are tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen, tropical moist and dry deciduous forests along with tropical scrub and dry grasslands. Significant <span class="hlt">area</span> of the deciduous forests, scrub and grasslands is prone to recurrent forest fires every year. In this study we evaluate the feasibility of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping over a large <span class="hlt">area</span> (Karnataka state, India) using a semi-automated detection algorithm applied to medium resolution multi spectral data from the IRS AWiFS sensor. The method is intended to be used by non-specialist users for diagnostic rapid burnt <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-11-05/pdf/2010-28085.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-11-05/pdf/2010-28085.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 68323 - <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Surveys in the Manufacturing <span class="hlt">Area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-11-05</p> <p>... Bureau of the Census <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Surveys in the Manufacturing <span class="hlt">Area</span> AGENCY: Bureau of the Census, Department of... the 2010 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Surveys in the Manufacturing <span class="hlt">Area</span>. The 2010 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Surveys consist of the Current..., Washington, DC 20233-0101. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mendel D. Gayle, Chief, Manufacturing...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B53B0182K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B53B0182K"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> and Severity with MODIS Satellite Images and Spatial Autocorrelation Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaya, S.; Kavzoglu, T.; Tonbul, H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Effects of forest fires and implications are one of the most important natural disasters all over the world. Statistical data observed that forest fires had a variable structure in the last century in Turkey, but correspondingly the population growth amount of forest fires and <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> increase widely in recent years. Depending on this, erosion, landslides, desertification and mass loss come into existence. In addition; after forest fires, renewal of forests and vegetation are very important for land management. Classic methods used for detection of <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and severity requires a long and challenging process due to time and cost factors. Thanks to advanced techniques used in the field of Remote Sensing, <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and severity can be determined with high detail and precision. The purpose of this study based on blending MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectradiometer) satellite images and spatial autocorrelation techniques together, thus detect <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and severity absolutely. In this context, spatial autocorrelation statistics like Moran's I and Get is-Ord Local Gi indexes were used to measure and analyze to <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> characteristics. Prefire and postfire satellite images were used to determine fire severity depending on spectral indexes corresponding to biomass loss and carbon emissivity intensities. Satellite images have used for identification of fire damages and risks in terms of fire management for a long time. This study was performed using prefire and postfire satellite images and spatial autocorrelation techniques to determining and analyzing forest fires in Antalya, Turkey region which serious fires occurred. In this context, this approach enables the characterization of distinctive texture of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and helps forecasting more precisely. Finally, it is observed that mapping of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and severity could be performed from local scale to national scale. Key Words: Spatial autocorrelation, MODIS, Fire, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1737c/plate-1.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1737c/plate-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineral Resources of the Black Mountains North and <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Areas</span>, Mohave County, Arizona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Conrad, James E.; Hill, Randall H.; Jachens, Robert C.; Neubert, John T.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, approximately 19,300 acres of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> (AZ-020-009) and 23,310 acres of the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> (AZ-02D-010) were evaluated for mineral resources and mineral resource potential. In this report, the <span class="hlt">area</span> studied is referred to, collectively or individually, as the 'wilderness study <span class="hlt">area</span>' or simply 'the study <span class="hlt">area</span>'; any reference to the Black Mountains North or <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Areas</span> refers only to that part of the wilderness study <span class="hlt">area</span> for which a mineral survey was requested by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. The study <span class="hlt">area</span> is located in western Arizona, about 30 mi northwest of Kingman. There are no identified resources in the study <span class="hlt">area</span>. An <span class="hlt">area</span> surrounding the Portland mine and including the southern part of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> and the extreme northwestern part of the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> has high resource potential for gold and moderate resource potential for silver, lead, and mercury. The <span class="hlt">area</span> surrounding this and including much of the northern part of the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> has moderate potential for gold, silver, and lead. The northeastern corner of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> has moderate potential for gold and low potential for silver, copper, and molybdenum resources. The central part, including the narrow strip of land just west of the central part, of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> and the southern and extreme eastern parts of the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> have low resource potential for gold. The central and southern parts of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> and all but the southwestern part of the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> have moderate resource potential for perlite. Moderate resource potential for zeolites is assigned to a large <span class="hlt">area</span> around the Portland mine that includes parts of both study <span class="hlt">areas</span>, to a narrow strip of land just west of the central part of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span>, and to all but the southwest corner of the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span>. There is no potential for oil and gas in either study <span class="hlt">area</span>. Sand and gravel are present in both study <span class="hlt">areas</span>, but abundant quantities of these resources are available closer to existing markets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3683486','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3683486"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comparative Analysis of <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Datasets in Canadian Boreal Forest in 2000</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nez-Casillas, Laia; Moreno-Ruiz, Jos Andrs</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The turn of the new millennium was accompanied by a particularly diverse group of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> datasets from different sensors in the Canadian boreal forests, brought together in a year of low global fire activity. This paper provides an assessment of spatial and temporal accuracy, by means of a fire-by-fire comparison of the following: two <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> datasets obtained from SPOT-VEGETATION (VGT) imagery, a MODIS Collection 5 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> dataset, and three different datasets obtained from NOAA-AVHRR. Results showed that <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data from MODIS provided accurate dates of <span class="hlt">burn</span> but great omission error, partially caused by calibration problems. One of the VGT-derived datasets (L3JRC) represented the largest number of fire sites in spite of its great overall underestimation, whereas the GBA2000 dataset achieved the best <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> quantification, both showing delayed and very variable fire timing. Spatial accuracy was comparable between the 5?km and the 1?km AVHRR-derived datasets but was remarkably lower in the 8?km dataset leading, us to conclude that at higher spatial resolutions, temporal accuracy was lower. The probable methodological and contextual causes of these differences were analyzed in detail. PMID:23818817</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AcO....30..407B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AcO....30..407B"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil physiochemical changes following 12 years of <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burning</span> in a humid--subtropical tallgrass prairie: a hypothesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brye, Kristofor R.</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Burning</span> is known to stimulate growth of grassland vegetation, promote species diversity, and inhibit natural invasion by woody plants. However, the frequency at which grasslands are <span class="hlt">burned</span> as part of their management can affect soil nutrient content and, ultimately, productivity. The objective of this study was to characterize changes in soil physical and chemical properties in a native tallgrass prairie after 12 years of <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burning</span>. In 1989, five soil samples from the 0 to 10 cm depth were collected along a transect through a 3 ha parcel of native tallgrass prairie in central Arkansas. Soil sampling was repeated in 2001 to assess changes over time. Results showed that soil bulk density, electrical conductivity, extractable P, Na, Fe, and Mn decreased significantly ( P < 0.05), while soil organic matter, total N and C, and the C/N ratio increased significantly ( P < 0.05) within the 12-year period during which <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burning</span> was the only imposed management practice. Mean extractable K, Ca, Mg, S, and Zn levels were all lower in 2001 than in 1989, but differences were not significant, while soil pH did not change. The results of this study indicate that <span class="hlt">annual</span> export of several essential plant nutrients during prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> of relatively small, remnant prairie fragments exceeds <span class="hlt">annual</span> imports from atmospheric deposition and/or organic matter mineralization. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> may be too frequent to maintain optimal ecosystem functioning and productivity. Decreasing the frequency of prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> for native grassland management may help to retain more soil nutrients to sustain a higher level of productivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25178190','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25178190"><span id="translatedtitle">Itch in <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> after skin transplantation: patient characteristics, influencing factors and therapy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuipers, Hester C; Bremer, Marco; Braem, Leen; Goemanne, Anne-Sofie; Middelkoop, Esther; van Loey, Nancy E E</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Pruritus is a frequently encountered symptom following <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Higher intensity of itching has been associated with depth of the wounds and specific body locations but these differences are not well understood. Our aim was to investigate the intensity of post <span class="hlt">burn</span> pruritus in grafted and non-grafted <span class="hlt">burns</span> across anatomic <span class="hlt">areas</span> and to report on itch-inducing factors and applied treatments. The study included 226 patients prospectively followed for 18 months. Results showed that grafted patients and non-grafted patients reported similar overall itch intensity in-hospital. At 3 months post <span class="hlt">burn</span>, grafted patients had higher overall itch scores, a difference that was found robust across the study period. Grafted wounds were found to produce higher mean itch intensity at 3 months post <span class="hlt">burn</span> but this difference disappeared at 12 months post <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Differences in itch prevalence rates were found across anatomic <span class="hlt">areas</span>, but only in non-grafted <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The differences in itch intensity on patient level versus wound level suggest that on the longer run, peripheral mechanism do not explain the higher itch scores in grafted patients. PMID:25178190</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESD...1.4891B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESD...1.4891B"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling fire frequency and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> across phytoclimatic regions in Spain using reanalysis data and the Canadian Fire Weather Index System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bedia, J.; Herrera, S.; Gutirrez, J. M.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>We develop fire occurrence and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> models in peninsular Spain, an <span class="hlt">area</span> of high variability in climate and fuel types, for the period 1990-2008. We based the analysis on a phytoclimatic classification aiming to the stratification of the territory into homogeneous units in terms of climatic and fuel type characteristics, allowing to test model performance under different climatic and fuel conditions. We used generalized linear models (GLM) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) as modelling algorithms and temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and wind speed, taken from the ERA-Interim reanalysis, as well as the components of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System as predictors. We also computed the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) as an additional predictor for the models of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. We found two contrasting fire regimes in terms of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> and number of fires: one characterized by a bimodal <span class="hlt">annual</span> pattern, characterizing the Nemoral and Oro-boreal phytoclimatic types, and another one exhibiting an unimodal <span class="hlt">annual</span> cycle, with the fire season concentrated in the summer months in the Mediterranean and Arid regions. The fire occurrence models attained good skill in most of the phytoclimatic zones considered, yielding in some zones notably high correlation coefficients between the observed and modelled inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> fire frequencies. Total <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> also exhibited a high dependence on the meteorological drivers, although their ability to reproduce the observed <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> time series was poor in most cases. We identified temperature and some FWI system components as the most important explanatory variables, and also SPEI in some of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> models, highlighting the adequacy of the FWI system for fire modelling applications and leaving the door opened to the development a more complex modelling framework based on these predictors. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential usefulness of ERA-Interim reanalysis data for the reconstruction of historical fire-climate relationships at the scale of analysis. Fire frequency predictions may provide a preferable basis for past fire history reconstruction, long-term monitoring and the assessment of future climate impacts on fire regimes across regions, posing several advantages over <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> as response variable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/962481','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/962481"><span id="translatedtitle">Sagebrush Flat Wildlife <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2008 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Peterson, Dan</p> <p>2008-11-03</p> <p>The Sagebrush Flat Wildlife <span class="hlt">Area</span> is a 12,718 acre complex located in Douglas County, Washington. Four distinct management units make up the <span class="hlt">area</span>: Bridgeport, Chester Butte, Dormaier and Sagebrush Flat. The four Units are located across a wide geographic <span class="hlt">area</span> within Douglas County. The Units are situated roughly along a north/south line from Bridgeport in the north to the Douglas/Grant county line in the south, 60 miles away. The wildlife <span class="hlt">area</span> was established to conserve and enhance shrubsteppe habitat for the benefit shrubsteppe obligate and dependent wildlife species. In particular, the Sagebrush Flat Wildlife <span class="hlt">Area</span> is managed to promote the recovery of three state-listed species: Columbian sharp-tailed grouse (threatened), greater sage grouse (threatened) and the pygmy rabbit (endangered). The US Fish and Wildlife Service also list the pygmy rabbit as endangered. Wildlife <span class="hlt">area</span> staff seeded 250 acres of old agricultural fields located on the Sagebrush Flat, Dormaier and Chester Butte units. This has been a three project to reestablish high quality shrubsteppe habitat on fields that had either been abandoned (Dormaier) or were dominated by non-native grasses. A mix of 17 native grasses and forbs, most of which were locally collected and grown, was used. First year maintenance included spot spraying Dalmatian toadflax on all sites and mowing <span class="hlt">annual</span> weeds to reduce competition. Photo points were established and will be integral to long term monitoring and evaluation. Additional monitoring and evaluation will come from existing vegetation transects. This year weed control efforts included spot treatment of noxious weeds, particularly Dalmatian toadflax, in previously restored fields on the Bridgeport Unit (150 acres). Spot treatment also took place within fields scheduled for restoration (40 acres) and in <span class="hlt">areas</span> where toadflax infestations are small and relatively easily contained. Where toadflax is so widespread that chemical treatment would be impractical, we use the bioagent Mecinus janthinus, available through Professor Gary Piper of Washington State University. This year we released 4,000 M. janthinus on the Bridgeport Unit at 6 separate locations. Since 2002 we have released approximately 14,400 of these insects, 80% of these on the Bridgeport Unit. Additional weed control activities included mowing and spot spraying more than 32 miles of roads, cutting and removal of <span class="hlt">annual</span> weeds within fenced deer exclosures. We upgraded the solar powered irrigation system that supplies water to a stand of water birch trees planted in 2002. Wildlife <span class="hlt">area</span> staff designed and built a new solar array and installed a higher capacity pump. The increased capacity will ensure that these trees receive adequate water through the hot summer months and allow us to create at least one additional stand. This project is an important part in our effort to expand the available winter habitat for sharp-tailed grouse on the Bridgeport Unit. Maintenance of fences, parking <span class="hlt">areas</span> and roads continued during throughout the year. Two parking <span class="hlt">areas</span>, at Chester Butte and Bridgeport, were graded and additional gravel added. Roads on the Bridgeport Unit were graded and repaired following spring runoff. Trespass and dumping issues have increased in recent years on the Bridgeport Unit. To address these problems we constructed four steel gates at access points on this unit. Each gate is tubular steel attached to 8-inch diameter steel posts, 10 feet long that are cemented into the ground. Two gates allow access to BPA substation facilities and power-line right-of ways so placement, construction and locking issues had to be coordinated with BPA's Real Estate staff in Spokane. Environmental Compliance Documentation issues were addressed again this year. This process has the potential to cause delays the completion of projects within the fiscal year. With this in mind and an eye toward the future, we requested that several projects planned for the coming years be surveyed this year. Beginning in August of 2007, <span class="hlt">area</span> staff worked with BPA staff to identify work elements that had the potential to disturb cultural resources. Subsequently, in April of 2008, BPA staff archaeologists surveyed numerous sites and several miles of fence line. Final clearance to proceed was granted in August of 2008. This year we submitted and were awarded a grant from the state Recreation and Conservation Office. This grant will provide funding to restore native shrubsteppe habitat on 335 acres of old CRP fields located on the Bridgeport Unit. These fields were planted to non-native grasses in 1988 and currently have marginal habitat values for shrubsteppe obligate and dependent wildlife. Assuming that the state legislature allocates the funds, which, given the state's financial condition is not a sure thing, work on this project can begin late in the summer of 2009.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GBioC..29..207P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GBioC..29..207P"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of global terrestrial carbon cycle dynamics to variability in satellite-observed <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poulter, Benjamin; Cadule, Patricia; Cheiney, Audrey; Ciais, Philippe; Hodson, Elke; Peylin, Philippe; Plummer, Stephen; Spessa, Allan; Saatchi, Sassan; Yue, Chao; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Fire plays an important role in terrestrial ecosystems by regulating biogeochemistry, biogeography, and energy budgets, yet despite the importance of fire as an integral ecosystem process, significant advances remain to improve its prognostic representation in carbon cycle models. To recommend and to help prioritize model improvements, this study investigates the sensitivity of a coupled global biogeography and biogeochemistry model, LPJ, to observed <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> measured by three independent satellite-derived products, GFED v3.1, L3JRC, and GlobCarbon. Model variables are compared with benchmarks that include pantropical aboveground biomass, global tree cover, and CO2 and CO trace gas concentrations. Depending on prescribed <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product, global aboveground carbon stocks varied by 300 Pg C, and woody cover ranged from 50 to 73 Mkm2. Tree cover and biomass were both reduced linearly with increasing <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, i.e., at regional scales, a 10% reduction in tree cover per 1000 km2, and 0.04-to-0.40 Mg C reduction per 1000 km2. In boreal regions, satellite <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> improved simulated tree cover and biomass distributions, but in savanna regions, model-data correlations decreased. Global net biome production was relatively insensitive to <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, and the long-term land carbon sink was robust, ~2.5 Pg C yr-1, suggesting that feedbacks from ecosystem respiration compensated for reductions in fuel consumption via fire. CO2 transport provided further evidence that heterotrophic respiration compensated any emission reductions in the absence of fire, with minor differences in modeled CO2 fluxes among <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products. CO was a more sensitive indicator for evaluating fire emissions, with MODIS-GFED <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> producing CO concentrations largely in agreement with independent observations in high latitudes. This study illustrates how ensembles of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data sets can be used to diagnose model structures and parameters for further improvement and also highlights the importance in considering uncertainties and variability in observed <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data products for model applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B41D0441B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B41D0441B"><span id="translatedtitle">MODIS-Landsat data fusion for automated continental 30 m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.; Baraldi, A.; Humber, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Satellite data have been used to monitor fire for more than three decades using computer algorithms that detect the location of active fires at the time of satellite overpass and the spatial extent of the <span class="hlt">areas</span> affected by fire. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors have dedicated fire monitoring capabilities and their data are used to systematically generate daily global 1km active fire and monthly 500m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products. Neither MODIS product can detect the incidence or extent of fire reliably at the scale of 10's of meters. The free Landsat data policy now provides the opportunity for continental to global scale Landsat 30m resolution processing. We present a multi-temporal methodology to fuse the MODIS active fire and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products with Landsat data to map <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> at 30m on a temporally rolling basis. To demonstrate the methodology, 30m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps of the Western United States are generated using the freely available Web Enabled Landsat (WELD) mosaics (http://landsat.usgs.gov/WELD.php). Validation is conducted by systematic comparison with fire perimeter vectors provided by the USGS Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity project. Prospects for future development and continental application are discussed. The methodology demonstrates the potential use of the Landsat archive to generate a long term 30m fire data record.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC21C0855K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC21C0855K"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting high severity fire occurrence and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in a changing climate for three regions in the Western US</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Keyser, A.; Westerling, A. L.; Milostan, J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A long history of fire suppression in the western United States has interrupted the fire regimes of many forest types. This interruption has significantly changed forest structure and ecological function and led to increasingly uncharacteristic fires in terms of size and severity. Research has shown that climate variability drives the occurrence of large fires and is important to predicting fire severity. We found that Western US <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in high severity fire can be accurately predicted using a generalized Pareto distribution model with covariates of climate, weather, topography, and vegetation. Our model was robust in all but the most extreme fire years, e.g. 1988, 2000, 2002, and 2003, where <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in high severity was significantly greater than in other years. We modeled the Northern Rocky Mountains, the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and the Southwestern US to determine if regional differences in controls on severity were at play in extreme years. The regional analysis improved model performance by capturing extreme fire years and identified regionally unique covariates. For the Northern Rocky Mountains the addition of elevation and fire regime condition class improved the prediction in extreme years. In the Southwest relative humidity and moisture deficit in the month of fire and total fire size were critical to capturing extreme fire years. The Sierra Nevada model had the most complex set of covariates that included: vegetation, moisture deficit, evapotranspiration, precipitation, and fire regime condition class. By incorporating regionally specific variables, our models were robust in prediction of high severity <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in all years. For this work, we will apply high and low CO2 emission scenarios from three general circulation models to our regional statistical models to predict probability of high severity fire occurrence as well as <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in high severity for the period 1950-2099. We used the downscaled climate as an input into the VIC hydrologic model to generate independent variable sets for each future scenario. The modeling output will allow us to identify potential changes in the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> with high severity fire under future climate as well as <span class="hlt">areas</span> where the probable occurrence of high severity fires might increase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.burninstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/ScaldBurns-factsheet.pdf','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.burninstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/ScaldBurns-factsheet.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Scald <span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Safety Tips & Info Scald <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Thousands of scald <span class="hlt">burns</span> occur <span class="hlt">annually</span>, and ALL are preventable! The two high-risk populations are children under the age ... the single most important factor in preventing scald <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Increased awareness is the key to scald prevention! ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMIN52B..06B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMIN52B..06B"><span id="translatedtitle">Design-based validation of the MODIS Global <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Product</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.; Stehman, S. V.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The potential research, policy and management applications of satellite products place a high priority on providing statements about their accuracy. Product comparison with independent reference data is needed to determine product accuracy. Design-based accuracy assessment methods select the independent reference data using a probability sampling and are preferred as the reference data can subsequently be used to compute accuracy metrics that explicitly take into account the sampling probability. To date, no global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product has been validated using a design-based methodology due to the technical challenges of designing an appropriate independent reference data sampling strategy, and, until recently, due to the high cost of independent reference data collection. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product errors are not randomly distributed in space and time and tend to be linked to seasonal phenomena that can be confused with <span class="hlt">burning</span>. This paper describes the design-based sampling strategy developed for the validation of the MODIS Global <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Products using more than 200 globally distributed multi-temporal pairs of Landsat scenes, processed following the recommendations of the CEOS Cal/Val <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Validation Protocol. The sampling design is illustrated and the advantages of the design-based sampling discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESASP.734...41A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESASP.734...41A"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of PROBA-V Data for Discriminating <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Areas</span> in Minas Gerais State, Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arantes Pereira, Allan; Pereira, J. M. C.; Oom, Duarte; Tavares de Carvalho, Luis Marcelo</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>High spatio-temporal resolution optical remote sensing data provides opportunities to monitor and discriminate <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in a accurate way. This study has the purpose to assess the discriminatory performance of multi-spectral reflectance values of PROBA-V sensor and on normalized difference spectral indices (NDSIs), such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in <span class="hlt">burned</span> land discrimination a in different land-cover types across Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The M separability index was calculated in each land-cover type including Cerrado (Tropical Savanna), Atlantic Forest, agricultural crops, and pastures, to determine the most powerful band(s) combinations among the PROBA-V reflective bands for discrimination between burnt and unburnt <span class="hlt">areas</span> The results showed that the BLUE channel is potentially effective for burntarea discrimination in the majority of all land cover types ,. Moreover results showed that spectral indexes used for discriminating <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> are vegetation type dependant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC21C0843F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC21C0843F"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the Spatial Pattern of Wildfire Ignition and <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> in Southern Californian Mediterranean Ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Faivre, N.; Jin, Y.; Goulden, M.; Randerson, J. T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Wildfire ignition requires a combination of an ignition source and suitable weather and fuel conditions. Models of fire occurrence and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> provide a good understanding of the physical and climatic factors that constrain and promote fire spread and recurrence, but information on how humans influence ignition patterns and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is still lacking at a scale compatible with integrated fire management. We first investigated the relative importance of the physical, climatic, and human factors regulating ignition probability across Southern California. A 30-year exploratory analysis of one-way relationships indicated that distance to roads, distance to housing, and topographic slope were the major determinants of ignition occurrence and frequency. A logistic regression model explained 70% of spatial variability in ignition occurrence (presence or absence of an ignition in each 3 km grid cell) whereas a Poisson-type regression model explained 45% of the spatial variability in ignition frequency in national forests across Southern California. Predicted ignition probability was a key indicator of the spatial variability of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, explaining approximately 9% of the variance for Santa Ana fires and 21% of the variance for non-Santa Ana fires across Southern California. In a second step we combined the previous ignition modeling framework with other data sources to model the spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Preliminary results showed that average wind speed alone explained approximately 30% of the spatial variation in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from Santa Ana fires. Further integration of the effects of fuel continuity, moisture, and accumulation and their interaction with wind speed and direction improved our spatial assessment of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> risk in Southern California. Our results may have implications for strategic fire management in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B51M0587B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B51M0587B"><span id="translatedtitle">MODIS-Landsat data fusion for continental scale <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Satellite data have been used to monitor fire for more than two decades using computer algorithms that detect the location of active fires at the time of satellite overpass, and in the last decade using <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping algorithms that map the spatial extent of the <span class="hlt">areas</span> affected by fires. Until the successful launch of the polar-orbiting NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors there were no environmental satellite systems with dedicated fire monitoring capabilities. The MODIS design includes bands specifically selected for fire detection and MODIS data are being used to systematically generate the daily global 1km active fire and the monthly 500m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products. However, neither MODIS product can detect fires reliably at the scale of 10's of meters. The recent U.S. free Landsat data policy now provides the opportunity for continental to global scale Landsat 30m resolution processing. This paper presents a multi-temporal methodology to fuse the MODIS active fire and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products with Landsat data to map <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> at 30m on a temporally rolling basis. To demonstrate the fusion methodology, 30m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps of the conterminous United States (CONUS) are generated using the freely available Web Enabled Landsat (WELD) ETM+ mosaics (http://landsat.usgs.gov/WELD.php). Validation is conducted by systematic comparison with the fire perimeter vectors provided by the USGS Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity project. Prospects for future developments and continental application are discussed. The presented methodology demonstrates the potential for the fusion of the planned NPP/NPOESS VIIRS active fire product with reflectance data sensed by the planned Landsat Data Continuity missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880050191&hterms=flint&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dflint%252C','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880050191&hterms=flint&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dflint%252C"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiative surface temperatures of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> and unburned <span class="hlt">areas</span> in a tallgrass prairie</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Asrar, G.; Harris, T. R.; Lapitan, R. L.; Cooper, D. I.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>This study was conducted in a natural tallgrass prairie <span class="hlt">area</span> in the Flint Hills of Kansas. The objective was to evaluate the surface radiative temperatures of <span class="hlt">burned</span> and unburned treatments of the grassland as a means of delineating the <span class="hlt">areas</span> covered by each treatment. <span class="hlt">Burning</span> is used to remove the senescent vegetation resulting from the previous year's growth. Surface temperatures were obtained in situ and by an airborne scanner. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> and unburned grass canopies had distinctly different diurnal surface radiative temperatures. Measurements of surface energy balance components revealed a difference in partitioning of the available energy between the two canopies, which resulted in the difference in their measured surface temperatures. The magnitude of this difference is dependent on the time of measurements and topographic conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......168M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......168M"><span id="translatedtitle">Accuracy assessment of photogrammetric digital elevation models generated for the Schultz Fire <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muise, Danna K.</p> <p></p> <p>This paper evaluates the accuracy of two digital photogrammetric software programs (ERDAS Imagine LPS and PCI Geomatica OrthoEngine) with respect to high-resolution terrain modeling in a complex topographic setting affected by fire and flooding. The site investigated is the 2010 Schultz Fire <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, situated on the eastern edge of the San Francisco Peaks approximately 10 km northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona. Here, the fire coupled with monsoon rains typical of northern Arizona drastically altered the terrain of the steep mountainous slopes and residential <span class="hlt">areas</span> below the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. To quantify these changes, high resolution (1 m and 3 m) digital elevation models (DEMs) were generated of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> using color stereoscopic aerial photographs taken at a scale of approximately 1:12000. Using a combination of pre-marked and post-marked ground control points (GCPs), I first used ERDAS Imagine LPS to generate a 3 m DEM covering 8365 ha of the affected <span class="hlt">area</span>. This data was then compared to a reference DEM (USGS 10 m) to evaluate the accuracy of the resultant DEM. Findings were then divided into blunders (errors) and bias (slight differences) and further analyzed to determine if different factors (elevation, slope, aspect and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity) affected the accuracy of the DEM. Results indicated that both blunders and bias increased with an increase in slope, elevation and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity. It was also found that southern facing slopes contained the highest amount of bias while northern facing slopes contained the highest proportion of blunders. Further investigations compared a 1 m DEM generated using ERDAS Imagine LPS with a 1 m DEM generated using PCI Geomatica OrthoEngine for a specific region of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. This <span class="hlt">area</span> was limited to the overlap of two images due to OrthoEngine requiring at least three GCPs to be located in the overlap of the imagery. Results indicated that although LPS produced a less accurate DEM, it was much more flexible than OrthoEngine. It was also determined that the most amount of difference between the DEMs occurred in unburned <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the fire while the least amount of difference occurred in <span class="hlt">areas</span> that were highly <span class="hlt">burned</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21703768','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21703768"><span id="translatedtitle">A system for 3D representation of <span class="hlt">burns</span> and calculation of burnt skin <span class="hlt">area</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prieto, María Felicidad; Acha, Begoña; Gómez-Cía, Tomás; Fondón, Irene; Serrano, Carmen</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>In this paper a computer-based system for burnt surface <span class="hlt">area</span> estimation (BAI), is presented. First, a 3D model of a patient, adapted to age, weight, gender and constitution is created. On this 3D model, physicians represent both <span class="hlt">burns</span> as well as <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth allowing the burnt surface <span class="hlt">area</span> to be automatically calculated by the system. Each patient models as well as photographs and <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimation can be stored. Therefore, these data can be included in the patient's clinical records for further review. Validation of this system was performed. In a first experiment, artificial known sized paper patches were attached to different parts of the body in 37 volunteers. A panel of 5 experts diagnosed the extent of the patches using the Rule of Nines. Besides, our system estimated the <span class="hlt">area</span> of the "artificial <span class="hlt">burn</span>". In order to validate the null hypothesis, Student's t-test was applied to collected data. In addition, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated and a value of 0.9918 was obtained, demonstrating that the reliability of the program in calculating the <span class="hlt">area</span> is of 99%. In a second experiment, the burnt skin <span class="hlt">areas</span> of 80 patients were calculated using BAI system and the Rule of Nines. A comparison between these two measuring methods was performed via t-Student test and ICC. The hypothesis of null difference between both measures is only true for deep dermal <span class="hlt">burns</span> and the ICC is significantly different, indicating that the <span class="hlt">area</span> estimation calculated by applying classical techniques can result in a wrong diagnose of the burnt surface. PMID:21703768</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN11B3607B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN11B3607B"><span id="translatedtitle">Validation of the 2008 Landsat <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Ecv Product for North America Using Stratified Random Sampling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brunner, N. M.; Mladinich, C. S.; Caldwell, M. K.; Beal, Y. J. G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The U.S. Geological Survey is generating a suite of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) products, as defined by the Global Climate Observing System, from the Landsat data archive. Validation protocols for these products are being established, incorporating the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Land Product Validation Subgroup's best practice guidelines and validation hierarchy stages. The sampling design and accuracy measures follow the methodology developed by the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative Fire Disturbance (fire_cci) project (Padilla and others, 2014). A rigorous validation was performed on the 2008 <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> ECV (BAECV) prototype product, using a stratified random sample of 48 Thiessen scene <span class="hlt">areas</span> overlaying Landsat path/rows distributed across several terrestrial biomes throughout North America. The validation reference data consisted of fourteen sample sites acquired from the fire_cci project and the remaining new samples sites generated from a densification of the stratified sampling for North America. The reference <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> polygons were generated using the ABAMS (Automatic <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Mapping) software (Bastarrika and others, 2011; Izagirre, 2014). Accuracy results will be presented indicating strengths and weaknesses of the BAECV algorithm.Bastarrika, A., Chuvieco, E., and Martín, M.P., 2011, Mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> from Landsat TM/ETM+ data with a two-phase algorithm: Balancing omission and commission errors: Remote Sensing of Environment, v. 115, no. 4, p. 1003-1012.Izagirre, A.B., 2014, Automatic <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Mapping Software (ABAMS), Preliminary Documentation, Version 10 v4,: Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, University of Basque Country, p. 27.Padilla, M., Chuvieco, E., Hantson, S., Theis, R., and Sandow, C., 2014, D2.1 - Product Validation Plan: UAH - University of Alcalá de Henares (Spain), 37 p.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=145670','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=145670"><span id="translatedtitle">BIG SAGEBRUSH LEAF <span class="hlt">AREA</span> DYNAMICS ON A <span class="hlt">BURNED</span>, GRAZED AND CONTROL SITE IN THE SAGEBRUSH STEPPE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) is an important shrub for wildlife habitat and carbon sequestration in the western U.S. The effects of fire and grazing on leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> development of big sagebrush were investigated in plots established on a 16-ha <span class="hlt">burned</span> site, a 12-ha grazed site and 16-ha c...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023939','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023939"><span id="translatedtitle">Long lead statistical forecasts of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in western U.S. wildfires by ecosystem province</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Westerling, A.L.; Gershunov, A.; Cayan, D.R.; Barnett, T.P.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A statistical forecast methodology exploits large-scale patterns in monthly U.S. Climatological Division Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) values over a wide region and several seasons to predict <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in western U.S. wildfires by ecosystem province a season in advance. The forecast model, which is based on canonical correlations, indicates that a few characteristic patterns determine predicted wildfire season <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. Strong negative associations between anomalous soil moisture (inferred from PDSI) immediately prior to the fire season and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> dominate in most higher elevation forested provinces, while strong positive associations between anomalous soil moisture a year prior to the fire season and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> dominate in desert and shrub and grassland provinces. In much of the western U.S., above- and below-normal fire season forecasts were successful 57% of the time or better, as compared with a 33% skill for a random guess, and with a low probability of being surprised by a fire season at the opposite extreme of that forecast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/630832','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/630832"><span id="translatedtitle">Baseline Risk Assessment for the F-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits and Rubble Pit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Palmer, E.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>This document provides an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a description of the F-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (BRPs) and Rubble Pit (RP) unit. It also describes the objectives and scope of the baseline risk assessment (BRA).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23500819','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23500819"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating future <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> under changing climate in the EU-Mediterranean countries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Amatulli, Giuseppe; Camia, Andrea; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jess</p> <p>2013-04-15</p> <p>The impacts of climate change on forest fires have received increased attention in recent years at both continental and local scales. It is widely recognized that weather plays a key role in extreme fire situations. It is therefore of great interest to analyze projected changes in fire danger under climate change scenarios and to assess the consequent impacts of forest fires. In this study we estimated <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the European Mediterranean (EU-Med) countries under past and future climate conditions. Historical (1985-2004) monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in EU-Med countries were modeled by using the Canadian Fire Weather Index (CFWI). Monthly averages of the CFWI sub-indices were used as explanatory variables to estimate the monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in each of the five most affected countries in Europe using three different modeling approaches (Multiple Linear Regression - MLR, Random Forest - RF, Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines - MARS). MARS outperformed the other methods. Regression equations and significant coefficients of determination were obtained, although there were noticeable differences from country to country. Climatic conditions at the end of the 21st Century were simulated using results from the runs of the regional climate model HIRHAM in the European project PRUDENCE, considering two IPCC SRES scenarios (A2-B2). The MARS models were applied to both scenarios resulting in projected <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in each country and in the EU-Med region. Results showed that significant increases, 66% and 140% of the total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, can be expected in the EU-Med region under the A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. PMID:23500819</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC24A..07K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC24A..07K"><span id="translatedtitle">Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Evaluation of Uncertainties in <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burned</span>, Land Cover, and Fuel Consumption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kukavskaya, E.; Soja, A. J.; Ivanova, G. A.; Petkov, A.; Ponomarev, E. I.; Conard, S. G.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Wildfire is one of the main disturbance factors in the boreal zone of Russia. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russia vary substantially due to differences in ecosystem classification and mapping, <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> calculations, and estimates of fuel consumption. We examined uncertainties in different parameters used to estimate biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions. Several fire datasets (Institute of Forest <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product, MCD45, MCD64, MOD14/MYD14, official data) were compared to estimate uncertainties in <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in Siberia. <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> was found to differ significantly by data source, with satellite data being by an order of magnitude greater than ground-based data. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted on the basis of five land cover maps (GLC-2000, Globcover-2009, MODIS Collection 4 and 5 Global Land Cover, and the Digitized Ecosystem map of the Former Soviet Union) to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. The examination of land cover maps showed that estimates of relative proportion of fire by ecosystem type varied substantially for the same year from map to map. Fuel consumption remains one of the main uncertainties in estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions in Siberia. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Global climate change is expected to result in increase of fire hazard and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, leading to impacts on global air quality and human health. Accurate emission estimates are required by air quality agencies to calculate local emissions and to develop strategies to mitigate negative smoke impacts. This research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, Fulbright Program, and Russian Academy of Sciences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/910952','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/910952"><span id="translatedtitle">Design of an Actinide <span class="hlt">Burning</span>, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor That Produces Low Cost Electricty - FY-02 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo</p> <p>2002-10-01</p> <p>The purpose of this collaborative Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project is to investigate the suitability of lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. Work has been accomplished in four major <span class="hlt">areas</span> of research: core neutronic design, plant engineering, material compatibility studies, and coolant activation. The publications derived from work on this project (since project inception) are listed in Appendix A. This is the third in a series of <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Reports for this project, the others are also listed in Appendix A as FY-00 and FY-01 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Reports.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/770999','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/770999"><span id="translatedtitle">Tanks Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> report FY2000</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-12-01</p> <p>The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation effort with tanks containing hazardous and radioactive waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials. With some 90 million gallons of waste in the form of solid, sludge, liquid, and gas stored in 287 tanks across the DOE complex, containing approximately 650 million curies, radioactive waste storage tank remediation is the nation's highest cleanup priority. Differing waste types and unique technical issues require specialized science and technology to achieve tank cleanup in an environmentally acceptable manner. Some of the waste has been stored for over 50 years in tanks that have exceeded their design lives. The challenge is to characterize and maintain these contents in a safe condition and continue to remediate and close each tank to minimize the risks of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) created a group of integrated, multiorganizational teams focusing on specific <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the EM cleanup mission. These teams have evolved into five focus <span class="hlt">areas</span> managed within EM's Office of Science and Technology (OST): Tanks Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span> (TFA); Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span>; Nuclear Materials Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span>; Subsurface Contaminants Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span>; and Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.7115C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.7115C"><span id="translatedtitle">Dissolved organic carbon in rainwater from <span class="hlt">areas</span> heavily impacted by sugar cane <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coelho, C. H.; Francisco, J. G.; Nogueira, R. F. P.; Campos, M. L. A. M.</p> <p></p> <p>This work reports on rainwater dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from Ribeirão Preto (RP) and Araraquara over a period of 3 years. The economies of these two cities, located in São Paulo state (Brazil), are based on agriculture and related industries, and the region is strongly impacted by the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of sugar cane foliage before harvesting. Highest DOC concentrations were obtained when air masses traversed sugar cane fields <span class="hlt">burned</span> on the same day as the rain event. Significant increases in the DOC volume weighted means (VWM) during the harvest period, for both sites, and a good linear correlation ( r = 0.83) between DOC and K (a biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> marker) suggest that regional scale organic carbon emissions prevail over long-range transport. The DOC VWMs and standard deviations were 272 ± 22 μmol L -1 ( n = 193) and 338 ± 40 μmol L -1 ( n = 80) for RP and Araraquara, respectively, values which are at least two times higher than those reported for other regions influenced by biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>, such as the Amazon. These high DOC levels are discussed in terms of agricultural activities, particularly the large usage of biogenic fuels in Brazil, as well as the analytical method used in this work, which includes volatile organic carbon when reporting DOC values. Taking into account rainfall volume, estimated <span class="hlt">annual</span> rainwater DOC fluxes for RP (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1) and Araraquara (5.4 g C m -2 yr -1) were close to that previously found for the Amazon region (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1). This work also discusses whether previous calculations of the global rainwater carbon flux may have been underestimated, since they did not consider large inputs from biomass combustion sources, and suffered from a possible analytical bias.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A11H0140A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A11H0140A"><span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> plume modeling with WRF-Chem in tropical forest regions to evaluate the added benefit of active fire detections over <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> datasets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Fires are routinely monitored from space, either by detecting fires that <span class="hlt">burn</span> at the time of overpass or by investigating satellite time series to map <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. While <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> datasets have largely replaced active fires as the preferential product to use when mapping the spatial extent of fires, they have limited success in detecting small fires, such as agricultural <span class="hlt">burns</span>. In addition, late season fires may be more easily detected using active fires. Here we investigated whether including active fires that are not associated with <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> improved the match between bottom-up fire emissions modeling and top-down constraints. We used the WRF-Chem model to transport several modified versions of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) into the atmosphere and used observation of MOPITT carbon monoxide as a top-down constraint. We focus on emissions over Indonesia and the Amazon, and show that including active fires leads to a longer modeled fire season, which is in better correspondence with top-down constraints. In the future, merging both datasets may lead to a better representation of fire emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513633M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513633M"><span id="translatedtitle">Dominating soil typologies in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> of Dzu kija National Park (Lithuania)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martin-Gallego, David; Lapele, Mindaugas; Pereira, Paulo</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>A big part of the scientific community consider fire disturbance as an ecological factor which becomes an integral part of the structure and dynamics of the biotic components of forests. In Dz?kija National Park, likewise occurs in other boreal forests, fire perturbation has become over time one of the main natural components which models and structures the landscape. It is indeed know that park's forest territory presents a high sensitivity to wildfire and soil typologies could have certain implications when evaluating vulnerability to fire. To carry out this study, a total of 28 <span class="hlt">burned</span>-stands were explored. Information collected in the forest related to fire concurrence as well as current dominating overgrowing were registered. In this way, interpretation of field work results was aimed to elucidate dominating soils in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> which potentially are more prone to wildfire. The majority of fire-affected stands were found on soils of type "Na" -78% of total sites-, a few ones of "Nb" -18% of <span class="hlt">burned</span> plots- and, eventually, fire was also evidenced in "Lb" soils -4%. "Na" typology belongs to very dry and unfertilized soils and, thus, very sensitive to fire, with dominating community of Cladonio-pinetum sylvestris. In "Nb" stands there are more fertilized soils with Vaccinium vitis-idaea in some cases with transitional associations of Vaccinium myrtillus. "Lb" typology refers to wetter soils with undergrown of Vaccinium myrtillus. Overall, fire has regularly been occurring in dried and non-fertilized soils, were preconditions for <span class="hlt">burning</span> increase; whereas <span class="hlt">burned</span> stands within more humid environments were rarely found.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26700877','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26700877"><span id="translatedtitle">Standardised mortality ratio based on the sum of age and percentage total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> is an adequate quality indicator in <span class="hlt">burn</span> care: An exploratory review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Steinvall, Ingrid; Elmasry, Moustafa; Fredrikson, Mats; Sjoberg, Folke</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) based on generic mortality predicting models is an established quality indicator in critical care. <span class="hlt">Burn</span>-specific mortality models are preferred for the comparison among patients with <span class="hlt">burns</span> as their predictive value is better. The aim was to assess whether the sum of age (years) and percentage total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> (which constitutes the Baux score) is acceptable in comparison to other more complex models, and to find out if data collected from a separate <span class="hlt">burn</span> centre are sufficient for SMR based quality assessment. The predictive value of nine <span class="hlt">burn</span>-specific models was tested by comparing values from the <span class="hlt">area</span> under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) and a non-inferiority analysis using 1% as the limit (delta). SMR was analysed by comparing data from seven reference sources, including the North American National <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Repository (NBR), with the observed mortality (years 1993-2012, n=1613, 80 deaths). The AUC values ranged between 0.934 and 0.976. The AUC 0.970 (95% CI 0.96-0.98) for the Baux score was non-inferior to the other models. SMR was 0.52 (95% CI 0.28-0.88) for the most recent five-year period compared with NBR based data. The analysis suggests that SMR based on the Baux score is eligible as an indicator of quality for setting standards of mortality in <span class="hlt">burn</span> care. More advanced modelling only marginally improves the predictive value. The SMR can detect mortality differences in data from a single centre. PMID:26700877</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC33E0565B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC33E0565B"><span id="translatedtitle">Continental scale 30m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping: demonstration and validation for the conterminous United States and Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Fire products derived from coarse (500m to 1km) spatial resolution satellite data have become an important source of information for the fire science and applications communities. There is however a demand for moderate spatial resolution <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps that are systematically generated at regional to global scale. This paper presents a multi-temporal methodology to fuse the MODIS 1km active fire product with Landsat data to map <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> at 30m on a temporally rolling basis. A multistage mapping approach is used, with an initial per-pixel change detection on Landsat 30m time series to identify candidate <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The candidate <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> objects are then either retained or discarded by comparison with contemporaneous MODIS active fire detections. Results are illustrated showing 30m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps of the conterminous United States and Alaska for two years (2002 and 2008) generated from weekly Web Enabled Landsat (WELD) Landsat mosaics and daily Terra and Aqua MODIS active fire detections. Validation is conducted by systematic comparison with all the fire perimeter vectors provided by the USGS Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity project. The presented methodology pathfinds the use of the Landsat archive to contribute to a long term <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data record. Prospects for future developments and global application are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/610270','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/610270"><span id="translatedtitle">Subsurface Contaminants Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> report 1997</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>In support of its vision for technological excellence, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span> (SCFA) has identified three strategic goals. The three goals of the SCFA are: Contain and/or stabilize contamination sources that pose an imminent threat to surface and ground waters; Delineate DNAPL contamination in the subsurface and remediate DNAPL-contaminated soils and ground water; and Remove a full range of metal and radionuclide contamination in soils and ground water. To meet the challenges of remediating subsurface contaminants in soils and ground water, SCFA funded more than 40 technologies in fiscal year 1997. These technologies are grouped according to the following product lines: Dense Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids; Metals and Radionuclides; Source Term Containment; and Source Term Remediation. This report briefly describes the SCFA 1997 technologies and showcases a few key technologies in each product line.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H31B1154C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H31B1154C"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrologic Impact of Straw Mulch On Runoff from a <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> for Various Soil Water Content</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carnicle, M. M.; Moody, J. A.; Ahlstrom, A. K.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Mountainous watersheds often exhibit increases in runoff and flash floods after wildfires. During 11 days of September 2010, the Fourmile Canyon wildfire <span class="hlt">burned</span> 2500 hectares of the foothills of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado. In an effort to minimize the risk of flash floods after the wildfire, Boulder County aerially applied straw mulch on high-risk <span class="hlt">areas</span> selected primarily on the basis of their slopes and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severities. The purpose of this research is to investigate the hydrologic response, specifically runoff, of a <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> where straw mulch is applied. We measured the runoff, at different soil water contents, from 0.8-m diameter plots. Paired plots were installed in June 2011 in a basin <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Fourmile Canyon Fire. Two sets of bounded, paired plot (two control and two experimental plots) were calibrated for 35 days without straw on either plot by measuring volumetric soil water content 2-3 times per week and measuring total runoff from each storm. Straw (5 cm thick) was added to the two experimental plots on 19 July 2011 and also to the funnels of two visual rain gages in order to measure the amount of rainfall absorbed by the straw. Initial results during the calibration period showed nearly linear relations between the volumetric soil water content of the control and experimental plots. The regression line for the runoff from the control versus the runoff from the experiment plot did not fit a linear trend; the variability may have been caused by two intense storms, which produced runoff that exceeded the capacity of the runoff gages. Also, during the calibration period, when soil water content was low the runoff coefficients were high. It is anticipated that the final results will show that the total runoff is greater on plots with no straw compared to those with straw, under conditions of various antecedent soil water content. We are continuing to collect data during the summer of 2011 to test this hypothesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19544740','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19544740"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate and wildfire <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in western U.S. ecoprovinces, 1916-2003.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Littell, Jeremy S; McKenzie, Donald; Peterson, David L; Westerling, Anthony L</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>The purpose of this paper is to quantify climatic controls on the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by fire in different vegetation types in the western United States. We demonstrate that wildfire <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> (WFAB) in the American West was controlled by climate during the 20th century (1916-2003). Persistent ecosystem-specific correlations between climate and WFAB are grouped by vegetation type (ecoprovinces). Most mountainous ecoprovinces exhibit strong year-of-fire relationships with low precipitation, low Palmer drought severity index (PDSI), and high temperature. Grass- and shrub-dominated ecoprovinces had positive relationships with antecedent precipitation or PDSI. For 1977-2003, a few climate variables explain 33-87% (mean = 64%) of WFAB, indicating strong linkages between climate and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. For 1916-2003, the relationships are weaker, but climate explained 25-57% (mean = 39%) of the variability. The variance in WFAB is proportional to the mean squared for different data sets at different spatial scales. The importance of antecedent climate (summer drought in forested ecosystems and antecedent winter precipitation in shrub and grassland ecosystems) indicates that the mechanism behind the observed fire-climate relationships is climatic preconditioning of large <span class="hlt">areas</span> of low fuel moisture via drying of existing fuels or fuel production and drying. The impacts of climate change on fire regimes will therefore vary with the relative energy or water limitations of ecosystems. Ecoprovinces proved a useful compromise between ecologically imprecise state-level and localized gridded fire data. The differences in climate-fire relationships among the ecoprovinces underscore the need to consider ecological context (vegetation, fuels, and seasonal climate) to identify specific climate drivers of WFAB. Despite the possible influence of fire suppression, exclusion, and fuel treatment, WFAB is still substantially controlled by climate. The implications for planning and management are that future WFAB and adaptation to climate change will likely depend on ecosystem-specific, seasonal variation in climate. In fuel-limited ecosystems, fuel treatments can probably mitigate fire vulnerability and increase resilience more readily than in climate-limited ecosystems, in which large severe fires under extreme weather conditions will continue to account for most <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. PMID:19544740</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1370/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1370/"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Logistic Regression to Predict the Probability of Debris Flows in <span class="hlt">Areas</span> <span class="hlt">Burned</span> by Wildfires, Southern California, 2003-2006</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rupert, Michael G.; Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Helsel, Dennis R.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Logistic regression was used to develop statistical models that can be used to predict the probability of debris flows in <span class="hlt">areas</span> recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> by wildfires by using data from 14 wildfires that <span class="hlt">burned</span> in southern California during 2003-2006. Twenty-eight independent variables describing the basin morphology, <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, rainfall, and soil properties of 306 drainage basins located within those <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> were evaluated. The models were developed as follows: (1) Basins that did and did not produce debris flows soon after the 2003 to 2006 fires were delineated from data in the National Elevation Dataset using a geographic information system; (2) Data describing the basin morphology, <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, rainfall, and soil properties were compiled for each basin. These data were then input to a statistics software package for analysis using logistic regression; and (3) Relations between the occurrence or absence of debris flows and the basin morphology, <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated, and five multivariate logistic regression models were constructed. All possible combinations of independent variables were evaluated to determine which combinations produced the most effective models, and the multivariate models that best predicted the occurrence of debris flows were identified. Percentage of high <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity and 3-hour peak rainfall intensity were significant variables in all models. Soil organic matter content and soil clay content were significant variables in all models except Model 5. Soil slope was a significant variable in all models except Model 4. The most suitable model can be selected from these five models on the basis of the availability of independent variables in the particular <span class="hlt">area</span> of interest and field checking of probability maps. The multivariate logistic regression models can be entered into a geographic information system, and maps showing the probability of debris flows can be constructed in recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> of southern California. This study demonstrates that logistic regression is a valuable tool for developing models that predict the probability of debris flows occurring in recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> landscapes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GMDD....7.2377Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GMDD....7.2377Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling fires in the terrestrial carbon balance by incorporating SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE - Part 1: Simulating historical global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and fire regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Cadule, P.; Thonicke, K.; Archibald, S.; Poulter, B.; Hao, W. M.; Hantson, S.; Mouillot, F.; Friedlingstein, P.; Maignan, F.; Viovy, N.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Fire is an important global ecological process that determines the distribution of biomes, with consequences for carbon, water, and energy budgets. The modelling of fire is critical for understanding its role in both historical and future changes in terrestrial ecosystems and the climate system. This study incorporates the process-based prognostic fire module SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE, which was then used to simulate the historical <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and the fire regime for the 20th century. For 2001-2006, the simulated global spatial extent of fire occurrence agrees well with that given by the satellite-derived <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> datasets (L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, GFED3.1) and captures 78-92% of global total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> depending on which dataset is used for comparison. The simulated global <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is 329 Mha yr-1, which falls within the range of 287-384 Mha yr-1 given by the three global observation datasets and is close to the 344 Mha yr-1 given by GFED3.1 data when crop fires are excluded. The simulated long-term trends of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> agree best with the observation data in regions where fire is mainly driven by the climate variation, such as boreal Russia (1920-2009), and the US state of Alaska and Canada (1950-2009). At the global scale, the simulated decadal fire trend over the 20th century is in moderate agreement with the historical reconstruction, possibly because of the uncertainties of past estimates, and because land-use change fires and fire suppression are not explicitly included in the model. Over the globe, the size of large fires (the 95th quantile fire size) is systematically underestimated by the model compared with the fire patch data as reconstructed from MODIS 500 m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data. Two case studies of fire size distribution in boreal North America and southern Africa indicate that both the number and the size of big fires are underestimated, which could be related with too low fire spread rate (in the case of static vegetation) and fire duration time. Future efforts should be directed towards building consistent spatial observation datasets for key parameters of the model in order to constrain the model error at each key step of the fire modelling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJAEO..38...25H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJAEO..38...25H"><span id="translatedtitle">Semi-automated mapping of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in semi-arid ecosystems using MODIS time-series imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hardtke, Leonardo A.; Blanco, Paula D.; Valle, Hctor F. del; Metternicht, Graciela I.; Sione, Walter F.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Understanding spatial and temporal patterns of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> at regional scales, provides a long-term perspective of fire processes and its effects on ecosystems and vegetation recovery patterns, and it is a key factor to design prevention and post-fire restoration plans and strategies. Remote sensing has become the most widely used tool to detect fire affected <span class="hlt">areas</span> over large tracts of land (e.g., ecosystem, regional and global levels). Standard satellite <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and active fire products derived from the 500-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) are available to this end. However, prior research caution on the use of these global-scale products for regional and sub-regional applications. Consequently, we propose a novel semi-automated algorithm for identification and mapping of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> at regional scale. The semi-arid Monte shrublands, a biome covering 240,000 km2 in the western part of Argentina, and exposed to seasonal bushfires was selected as the test <span class="hlt">area</span>. The algorithm uses a set of the normalized <span class="hlt">burned</span> ratio index products derived from MODIS time series; using a two-phased cycle, it firstly detects potentially <span class="hlt">burned</span> pixels while keeping a low commission error (false detection of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>), and subsequently labels them as seed patches. Region growing image segmentation algorithms are applied to the seed patches in the second-phase, to define the perimeter of fire affected <span class="hlt">areas</span> while decreasing omission errors (missing real <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>). Independently-derived Landsat ETM+ <span class="hlt">burned-area</span> reference data was used for validation purposes. Additionally, the performance of the adaptive algorithm was assessed against standard global fire products derived from MODIS Aqua and Terra satellites, total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> (MCD45A1), the active fire algorithm (MOD14); and the L3JRC SPOT VEGETATION 1 km GLOBCARBON products. The correlation between the size of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> detected by the global fire products and independently-derived Landsat reference data ranged from R2 = 0.01-0.28, while our algorithm performed showed a stronger correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.96). Our findings confirm prior research calling for caution when using the global fire products locally or regionally.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10k4009L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10k4009L"><span id="translatedtitle">Fire history reconstruction in grassland ecosystems: amount of charcoal reflects local <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leys, Bérangère; Brewer, Simon C.; McConaghy, Scott; Mueller, Joshua; McLauchlan, Kendra K.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Fire is one of the most prevalent disturbances in the Earth system, and its past characteristics can be reconstructed using charcoal particles preserved in depositional environments. Although researchers know that fires produce charcoal particles, interpretation of the quantity or composition of charcoal particles in terms of fire source remains poorly understood. In this study, we used a unique four-year dataset of charcoal deposited in traps from a native tallgrass prairie in mid-North America to test which environmental factors were linked to charcoal measurements on three spatial scales. We investigated small and large charcoal particles commonly used as a proxy of fire activity at different spatial scales, and charcoal morphotypes representing different types of fuel. We found that small (125–250 μm) and large (250 μm–1 mm) particles of charcoal are well-correlated (Spearman correlation = 0.88) and likely reflect the same spatial scale of fire activity in a system with both herbaceous and woody fuels. There was no significant relationship between charcoal pieces and fire parameters <500 m from the traps. Moreover, local <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> (<5 km distance radius from traps) explained the total charcoal amount, and regional <span class="hlt">burning</span> (200 km radius distance from traps) explained the ratio of non arboreal to total charcoal (NA/T ratio). Charcoal variables, including total charcoal count and NA/T ratio, did not correlate with other fire parameters, vegetation cover, landscape, or climate variables. Thus, in long-term studies that involve fire history reconstructions, total charcoal particles, even of a small size (125–250 μm), could be an indicator of local <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. Further studies may determine relationships among amount of charcoal recorded, fire intensity, vegetation cover, and climatic parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6586629','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6586629"><span id="translatedtitle">Permitting a wood-<span class="hlt">burning</span> boiler in a major metropolitan <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Foster, K.L.; Scherr, R.C.; Dickson, R.E.</p> <p>1982-08-01</p> <p>With the cost of fuel continuing to fluctuate, alternate energy sources continue to be examined. In 1980, The Procter and Gamble Company began investigating the feasibility of <span class="hlt">burning</span> wood waste as an alternate fuel source. The paper describes the necessary steps and data required to obtain federal, state, and local air construction permits for this modification. The first step was to determine the regulatory classification for the Staten Island <span class="hlt">area</span>. It was nonattainment for CO, HC, and attainment for TSP, NO/sub x/, and SO/sub x/. The second step was to determine the wood-<span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions. This was done after an extensive literature search was completed. The result was a significant reduction in the pollutant factors from those published earlier by EPA. The next step was to analyze the air quality impact from the change in pollutant emissions. Due to the projected increase in TSP and CO in excess of 100 tpy, the modification was classified as major under current PSD and nonattainment rules. New York had no approved SIP for CO, so construction of the modification was blocked by the construction moratorium under the 1977 Clean Air Act. After lengthy negotiations with the state and federal agencies, efforts were begun to redesignate the <span class="hlt">area</span> for CO through modeling. Redesignation and final permit approvals were received by Feb. 1, 1982.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/922680','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/922680"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Transverse Spatial-Hole <span class="hlt">Burning</span> on Beam Quality in Large-Mode-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Yb-Doped Fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jiang, Z.; Marciante, J.R.</p> <p>2008-01-30</p> <p>The beam-quality factor of an amplified spontaneous emission source based on an ytterbium-doped, large-mode-<span class="hlt">area</span>, multi-mode fiber was found to be optimized when the gain became saturated. A model using spatially resolved gain and transverse-mode decomposition of the optical field showed that transverse spatial-hole <span class="hlt">burning</span> was responsible for the observed behavior. A simplified model without transverse spatial-hole <span class="hlt">burning</span> failed to predict the observed behavior of beam quality. A comparison of both models shows transverse spatial-hole <span class="hlt">burning</span> is also critical for properly modeling beam quality in LMA fiber amplifiers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=35239&keyword=ethylene+AND+oxide&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=61525432&CFTOKEN=84279348','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=35239&keyword=ethylene+AND+oxide&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=61525432&CFTOKEN=84279348"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ANNUAL</span> REPORT ON PERFORMANCE AUDIT RESULTS FOR POHC TESTING DURING TRIAL <span class="hlt">BURNS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Audit materials containing Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHCs) have been developed by AREAL for use by federal, state, and local agencies or their contractors to assess the accuracy of measurement methods during RCRA trial <span class="hlt">burn</span> tests. Audit materials are currently av...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26741544','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26741544"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical and toxicological effects of medicinal Baccharis trimera extract from coal <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Menezes, Ana Paula S; da Silva, Juliana; Fisher, Camila; da Silva, Fernanda R; Reyes, Juliana M; Picada, Jaqueline N; Ferraz, Alice G; Corrêa, Dione S; Premoli, Suziane M; Dias, Johnny F; de Souza, Claudia T; Ferraz, Alexandre de B F</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The entire process of power generation, extraction, processing and use of coal strongly impact water resources, soil, air quality and biota leads to changes in the fauna and flora. Pollutants generated by coal <span class="hlt">burning</span> have been contaminating plants that grow in <span class="hlt">area</span> impacted by airborne pollution with high metal contents. Baccharis trimera is popularly consumed as tea, and is widely developed in Candiota (Brazil), one of the most important coal <span class="hlt">burning</span> regions of the Brazil. This study aims to investigate the phytochemical profile, in vivo genotoxic and mutagenic potential of extracts of B. trimera collected from an exposed region to pollutants generated by coal <span class="hlt">burning</span> (Candiota City) and other unexposed region (Bagé City), using the Comet assay and micronucleus test in mice and the Salmonella/microsome short-term assay. The HPLC analyses indicated higher levels of flavonoids and phenolic acids for B. trimera aqueous extract from Bagé and absence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for both extracts. The presence of toxic elements such as cobalt, nickel and manganese was statistically superior in the extract from Candiota. For the Comet assay and micronucleus test, the mice were treated with Candiota and Bagé B. trimera aqueous extracts (500-2000 mg/kg). Significant genotoxicity was observed at higher doses treated with B. trimera aqueous extract from Candiota in liver and peripheral blood cells. Micronuclei were not observed but the results of the Salmonella/microsome short-term assay showed a significant increase in TA98 revertants for B. trimera aqueous extract from Candiota. The extract of B. trimera from Candiota bioacumulated higher levels of trace elements which were associated with the genotoxic effects detected in liver and peripheral blood cells. PMID:26741544</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16824578','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16824578"><span id="translatedtitle">Trace elements in atmospheric particulate matter over a coal <span class="hlt">burning</span> power production <span class="hlt">area</span> of western Macedonia, Greece.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petaloti, Christina; Triantafyllou, Athanasios; Kouimtzis, Themistoklis; Samara, Constantini</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Total suspended particle (TSP) concentrations were determined in the Eordea basin (western Macedonia, Greece), an <span class="hlt">area</span> with intensive lignite <span class="hlt">burning</span> for power generation. The study was conducted over a one-year period (November 2000-November 2001) at 10 sites located at variable distances from the power plants. Ambient TSP samples were analyzed for 27 major, minor and trace elements. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> means of TSP concentrations ranged between 47+/-33 microg m(-3) and 110+/-50 microg m(-3) at 9 out of the 10 sites. Only the site closest to the power stations and the lignite conveyor belts exhibited <span class="hlt">annual</span> TSP levels (210+/-97 microg m(-3)) exceeding the European standard (150 microg m(-3), 80/779/EEC). Concentrations of TSP and almost all elemental components exhibited significant spatial variations; however, the elemental profiles of TSP were quite similar among all sites suggesting that they are affected by similar source types. At all sites, statistical analysis indicated insignificant (P<0.05) seasonal variation for TSP concentrations. Some elements (Cl, As, Pb, Br, Se, S, Cd) exhibited significantly higher concentrations at certain sites during the cold period suggesting more intense emissions from traffic, domestic heating and other combustion sources. On the contrary, concentrations significantly higher in the warm period were found at other sites mainly for crustal elements (Ti, Mn, K, P, Cr, etc.) suggesting stronger influence from soil resuspension and/or fly ash in the warm months. The most enriched elements against local soil or road dust were S, Cl, Cu, As, Se, Br, Cd and Pb, whereas negligible enrichment was found for Ti, Mn, Mg, Al, Si, P, Cr. At most sites, highest concentrations of TSP and elemental components were associated with low- to moderate-speed winds favoring accumulation of emissions from local sources. Influences from the power generation were likely at those sites located closest to the power plants and mining activities. PMID:16824578</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title50-vol11/pdf/CFR-2014-title50-vol11-part300-subpartE-app2-id310.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title50-vol11/pdf/CFR-2014-title50-vol11-part300-subpartE-app2-id310.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR Table 2 to Subpart E of... - Determination of Commission Regulatory <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3A <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Commercial Allocation From the <span class="hlt">Annual</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3A <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Commercial Allocation From the <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Combined Catch Limit for Halibut 2 Table 2 to...Determination of Commission Regulatory <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3A <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Commercial Allocation From the <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Combined Catch Limit for Halibut If the <span class="hlt">area</span> 3A <span class="hlt">annual</span> combined catch limit (CCL) in net pounds is: then the <span class="hlt">area</span> 3A...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title50-vol11/pdf/CFR-2014-title50-vol11-part300-subpartE-app1-id309.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title50-vol11/pdf/CFR-2014-title50-vol11-part300-subpartE-app1-id309.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart E of... - Determination of Commission Regulatory <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2C <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Commercial Allocation From the <span class="hlt">Annual</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2C <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Commercial Allocation From the <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Combined Catch Limit for Halibut 1 Table 1 to... Determination of Commission Regulatory <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2C <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Commercial Allocation From the <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Combined Catch Limit for Halibut If the <span class="hlt">area</span> 2C <span class="hlt">annual</span> combined catch limit (CCL) in net pounds is: then the <span class="hlt">area</span> 2C...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title50-vol11/pdf/CFR-2014-title50-vol11-part300-subpartE-app4-id312.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title50-vol11/pdf/CFR-2014-title50-vol11-part300-subpartE-app4-id312.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR Table 4 to Subpart E of... - Determination of Commission Regulatory <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3A <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Charter Halibut Allocation From the <span class="hlt">Annual</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3A <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Charter Halibut Allocation From the <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Combined Catch Limit 4 Table 4 to Subpart E...Determination of Commission Regulatory <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3A <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Charter Halibut Allocation From the <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Combined Catch Limit If the <span class="hlt">area</span> 3A <span class="hlt">annual</span> combined catch limit (CCL) for halibut in net pounds is: then the <span class="hlt">area</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title50-vol11/pdf/CFR-2014-title50-vol11-part300-subpartE-app3-id311.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title50-vol11/pdf/CFR-2014-title50-vol11-part300-subpartE-app3-id311.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR Table 3 to Subpart E of... - Determination of Commission Regulatory <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2C <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Charter Halibut Allocation From the <span class="hlt">Annual</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2C <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Charter Halibut Allocation From the <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Combined Catch Limit 3 Table 3 to Subpart E...Determination of Commission Regulatory <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2C <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Charter Halibut Allocation From the <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Combined Catch Limit If the <span class="hlt">area</span> 2C <span class="hlt">annual</span> combined catch limit for halibut in net pounds is: then the <span class="hlt">area</span> 2C...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10169422','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10169422"><span id="translatedtitle">Geophysical investigation of <span class="hlt">burn</span> pit, 128-H-1, 100-H <span class="hlt">Area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Szwartz, G.J.</p> <p>1994-07-11</p> <p>The 128-H-1 <span class="hlt">burn</span> pit is located in the northeast corner of 100-H <span class="hlt">Area</span>. The objective of the survey was to delineate subsurface features in the 128-H-1 <span class="hlt">burn</span> pit that may affect the emplacement of soil-gas probes. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) were the two techniques used in the investigation. The methods were selected because they are non-intrusive, relatively fast, economical, and have been used successfully in other geophysical investigations on the Hanford Site. The GPR system used for this work utilized a 300-MHz antenna to transmit the Em energy into the ground. The transmitted energy is reflected back to a receiving antenna where variations in the return signal are recorded. Common reflectors include natural geologic conditions such as bedding, cementation, moisture, and clay, or man-made objects such as pipes, barrels, foundations, and buried wires. The studied depth, which varies from site to site, was 0--11 ft for this survey. The method is limited in depth by transmit power, receiver sensitivity, and attenuation of the transmitted energy. Depth of investigation is influenced by highly conductive material, such as metal drums, which reflect all the energy back to the receiver. Therefore, the method cannot ``see`` below such objects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960026667','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960026667"><span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pinto, Joseph P.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> may be the overwhelming regional or continental-scale source of methane (CH4) as in tropical Africa and a significant global source of CH4. Our best estimate of present methane emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is about 51.9 Tg/yr, or 10% of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> methane emissions to the atmosphere. Increased frequency of fires that may result as the Earth warms up may result in increases in this source of atmospheric methane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AtmEn..39.6430S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AtmEn..39.6430S"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical mass balance source apportionment of TSP in a lignite-<span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> of Western Macedonia, Greece</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Samara, Constantini</p> <p></p> <p>Total suspended particle mass concentrations (TSP) were determined in the Kozani-Ptolemais-Florina basin (western Macedonia, Greece), an <span class="hlt">area</span> with intensive lignite <span class="hlt">burning</span> for power generation. The study was conducted over a 1-year period (November 2000-November 2001) at 10 receptor sites located at variable distances from the power plants. Ambient TSP samples were analyzed for 27 major, minor and trace elements. Particulate emissions were also collected from a variety of sources including fly ash, lignite dust, automobile traffic, domestic heating, and open-air <span class="hlt">burning</span> of agricultural biomass and refuse, and analyzed for the same chemical components. Ambient and source chemical profiles were used for source identification and apportionment of TSP by employing a chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. Diesel <span class="hlt">burning</span> in vehicular traffic and in the power plants for generator start up was found to be the major contributor to ambient TSP levels at all 10 sites. Other sources with significant contributions were domestic coal <span class="hlt">burning</span>, vegetative <span class="hlt">burning</span> (wood combustion and agricultural <span class="hlt">burns</span>) and refuse open-air <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Fly ash escaping the electrostatic precipitators of the power plants was a minor contributor to ambient TSP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24477336','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24477336"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and spatial variation of organic tracers for biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in PM1 aerosols from highly insolated urban <span class="hlt">areas</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Drooge, B L; Fontal, M; Bravo, N; Fernández, P; Fernández, M A; Muñoz-Arnanz, J; Jiménez, B; Grimalt, J O</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>PM1 aerosol characterization on organic tracers for biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> (levoglucosan and its isomers and dehydroabietic acid) was conducted within the AERTRANS project. PM1 filters (N = 90) were sampled from 2010 to 2012 in busy streets in the urban centre of Madrid and Barcelona (Spain) at ground-level and at roof sites. In both urban <span class="hlt">areas</span>, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> was not expected to be an important local emission source, but regional emissions from wildfires, residential heating or biomass removal may influence the air quality in the cities. Although both <span class="hlt">areas</span> are under influence of high solar radiation, Madrid is situated in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, while Barcelona is located at the Mediterranean Coast and under influence of marine atmospheres. Two extraction methods were applied, i.e. Soxhlet and ASE, which showed equivalent results after GC-MS analyses. The ambient air concentrations of the organic tracers for biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> increased by an order of magnitude at both sites during winter compared to summer. An exception was observed during a PM event in summer 2012, when the atmosphere in Barcelona was directly affected by regional wildfire smoke and levels were four times higher as those observed in winter. Overall, there was little variation between the street and roof sites in both cities, suggesting that regional biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> sources influence the urban <span class="hlt">areas</span> after atmospheric transport. Despite the different atmospheric characteristics in terms of air relative humidity, Madrid and Barcelona exhibit very similar composition and concentrations of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> organic tracers. Nevertheless, levoglucosan and its isomers seem to be more suitable for source apportionment purposes than dehydroabietic acid. In both urban <span class="hlt">areas</span>, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> contributions to PM were generally low (2 %) in summer, except on the day when wildfire smoke arrive to the urban <span class="hlt">area</span>. In the colder periods the contribution increase to around 30 %, indicating that regional biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> has a substantial influence on the urban air quality. PMID:24477336</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title18-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title18-vol1-sec141-51.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title18-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title18-vol1-sec141-51.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Electric Balancing Authority <span class="hlt">Area</span> and Planning <span class="hlt">Area</span> Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>..., <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Electric Balancing Authority <span class="hlt">Area</span> and Planning <span class="hlt">Area</span> Report. 141.51 Section 141.51 Conservation of...) § 141.51 FERC Form No. 714, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Electric Balancing Authority <span class="hlt">Area</span> and Planning <span class="hlt">Area</span> Report. (a) Who... Policies Act, 16 U.S.C. 2602, operating a balancing authority <span class="hlt">area</span>, and any group of electric...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title18-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title18-vol1-sec141-51.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title18-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title18-vol1-sec141-51.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Electric Balancing Authority <span class="hlt">Area</span> and Planning <span class="hlt">Area</span> Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>..., <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Electric Balancing Authority <span class="hlt">Area</span> and Planning <span class="hlt">Area</span> Report. 141.51 Section 141.51 Conservation of...) § 141.51 FERC Form No. 714, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Electric Balancing Authority <span class="hlt">Area</span> and Planning <span class="hlt">Area</span> Report. (a) Who... Policies Act, 16 U.S.C. 2602, operating a balancing authority <span class="hlt">area</span>, and any group of electric...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/137417','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/137417"><span id="translatedtitle">P-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Reactor 1993 <span class="hlt">annual</span> groundwater monitoring report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-11-01</p> <p>Groundwater was sampled and analyzed during 1993 from wells monitoring the water table at the following locations in P <span class="hlt">Area</span>: well P 24A in the eastern section of P <span class="hlt">Area</span>, the P-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Acid/Caustic Basin, the P-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Coal Pile Runoff Containment Basin, the P-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Disassembly Basin, the P-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pit, and the P-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Seepage Basins. During 1993, pH was above its alkaline standard in well P 24A. Specific conductance was above its standard in one well each from the PAC and PCB series. Lead exceeded its 50 {mu}g/L standard in one well of the PDB series during one quarter. Tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene were detected above their final primary drinking water standards in one well of the PRP well series. Tritium was consistently above its DWS in the PDB and PSB series. Also during 1993, radium-228 exceeded the DWS for total radium in three wells of the PAC series and one well of the PCB series; total alpha-emitting radium exceeded the same standard in a different PCB well. These results are fairly consistent with those from previous years. Unlike results from past years, however, no halogenated volatiles other than trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene exceeded DWS in the PRP well series although gas chromatographic volatile organic analyses were performed throughout the year. Some of the regulated units in P <span class="hlt">Area</span> appear to need additional monitoring by new wells because there are insufficient downgradient wells, sometimes because the original well network, installed prior to regulation, included sidegradient rather than downgradient wells. No monitoring wells had been installed through 1993 at one of the RCRA/CERCLA units named in the Federal Facilities Agreement, the Bingham Pump Outage Pits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B33D0513W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B33D0513W"><span id="translatedtitle">Multidecadal trends in <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity and patch size in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness <span class="hlt">Area</span>, 1900-2007</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wells, A.; Morgan, P.; Smith, A. M.; Hudak, A. T.; Hicke, J. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>How the proportion of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> severely has changed over time is critical to understanding trends in the ecological effects of fire, but most assessments over large <span class="hlt">areas</span> are limited to 30 years of satellite data. Little is known about multidecadal trends in <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, patch size, and implications for species diversity. Our objective was to analyze the change in proportion of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> severely and patch size across 346,304 ha in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness <span class="hlt">Area</span> in Idaho and Montana, USA. We used 30-meter fire perimeters and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity classes inferred from 1984-2007 satellite imagery from the Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity project and 1900-2000 aerial photography. We also analyzed the effect of patch size on species diversity of understory vegetation from field data collected from 20 sites <span class="hlt">burned</span> in 2000, a year of widespread fires in the region. Fires occurred in 38 out of the 107 years in the record; 13 of these in the early period (1900-1934), 4 in the middle (1935-1974), and 21 in the late (1975-2007). Although 78% (270,918 ha) <span class="hlt">burned</span> at least once and 48% (131,198) of the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> severely with >70% tree mortality, there was no trend in total <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> severely through time (n=38, Spearman's Rank Correlation r = -0.14, p = 0.39), nor in proportion of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> severely through time (n=38, Spearman's Rank Correlation r = -00.27, p = 0.09). Median patch size decreased through time (n= 38, Spearman's Rank Correlation r = -0.73 and p<0.01) and the number of high severity patches increased (n = 38, Spearman's Rank Correlation r = 0.35 and p = 0.02). Median perimeter-to-<span class="hlt">area</span> ratio of high severity patches increased (n = 38, Spearman's Rank Sum Test r = 0.79 and p <.01); the greater perimeter-to-<span class="hlt">area</span> ratio and shorter distance to the unburned edge through time is not an artifact of satellite data as patch size inferred from aerial photography 1900-2000 decreased (n= 31, Spearman's Rank, r = -0.42 and p <0.01), but did not for satellite data 1984-2007(n = 16, Spearman's Rank Correlation r = -0.12 and p = 0.64). Total tree seedling density 12 years post-fire was lower in large patches (Kruskal Wallis ANOVA p = 0.005) with fewer trees at 40 m and 80 m than at 10 m from unburned edges in severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patches (respectively, Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test p = 0.03 and 0.01). Understory species richness and diversity did not differ with distance from unburned edge, likely because many species resprout or establish from existing seed banks. Understanding how proportion of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> severely is changing over multiple decades will help ecologists and land managers better understand where, when, and why fires <span class="hlt">burn</span> severely and their past, present, and future consequences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B21A0033C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B21A0033C"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and Enhanced Vegetation Index in <span class="hlt">Areas</span> <span class="hlt">Burned</span> by the Jasper Wildfire of Black Hills South Dakota</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, X.; Zhu, Z.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The Jasper wildfire of August and September 2000 was the largest fire to occur in the Black Hills in at least a century. The disturbance on ecosystem characteristics will be widespread and long-term. Monitoring postfire vegetation changes using remote sensing data can provide unique and timely information about ecosystem dynamics. In this study, the Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio (NBR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data were derived from Landsat imagery and compared before and after the Jasper fire. Landsat 5 images acquired on June 2, 2000 (preburn), and June 5, 2001 (10 months postburn), were analyzed. In addition, a Landsat 7 image acquired on May 31, 2002 (22 months postburn), was used in the study. Landsat data were converted to at-sensor reflectance, and NBR, NDVI, and EVI values were calculated for low, moderate, and high <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity <span class="hlt">areas</span> defined by using the difference of NBR between 2001 and 2000. NBR values in <span class="hlt">areas</span> characterized as low <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity changed very little between 2001 and 2002. Meanwhile, <span class="hlt">areas</span> characterized as moderate or high severity showed substantial increases in NBR values between 2001 and 2002, implying some ecosystem recovery occurring for these <span class="hlt">areas</span> over a relatively short time. EVI and NDVI show similar patterns of change, but it was found that EVI and NBR indices are more sensitive than is NDVI for capturing vegetation cover changes during the early postfire years. Further research is planned to use Landsat and MODIS imagery to assess spectral trends as a function of time in <span class="hlt">areas</span> affected by fire.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B23E0263C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B23E0263C"><span id="translatedtitle">The Development and Application of a Harmonized <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Data Set for North America to Assess the Effects of Fire Disturbance on the Continental Carbon Budget</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, G.; Hayes, D. J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Fires <span class="hlt">burn</span> an <span class="hlt">annual</span> average of about 40,000 km2 in Canada and the U.S., making it an important feature of North American ecosystems through renewing ecosystem conditions and vegetation dynamics. Fire disturbances substantially modify ecosystem carbon dynamics both temporally and spatially. Ecosystems generally lose carbon for several years to decades following fire disturbance, but our understanding of the duration and dynamics of post-disturbance carbon fluxes remains limited. Owing to the prevailing collection of inventory data for fire <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, intensity, distribution, and associated carbon-related parameters in North America, we are able to more accurately estimate carbon dynamics following fire disturbances. In our study, we integrated four major fire datasets (i.e., U.S. Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity dataset, Bureau of Land Management Alaska Fire Service dataset, and Canadian National Fire Database, and GFEDv3.1 fire dataset) and other auxiliary data to generate a comprehensive and continuous <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> history dataset, which covers the 1920 to 2012 time period and is gridded at quarter-degree resolution for the North American continent. Driven by this new dataset, we used the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM6.0) to simulate the impacts of fire disturbance on carbon dynamics across North American ecosystems. The results indicate that large amount of carbon was emitted due to fire disturbances during the study period, especially for the boreal ecosystems with slow recovery. The modeling results were also evaluated with the field measurements along a fire chronosequence and compared to estimates from other approaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.3579V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.3579V"><span id="translatedtitle">Daily <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and carbon emissions from boreal fires in Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Veraverbeke, S.; Rogers, B. M.; Randerson, J. T.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Boreal fires <span class="hlt">burn</span> into carbon-rich organic soils, thereby releasing large quantities of trace gases and aerosols that influence atmospheric composition and climate. To better understand the factors regulating boreal fire emissions, we developed a statistical model of carbon consumption by fire for Alaska with a spatial resolution of 450 m and a temporal resolution of 1 day. We used the model to estimate variability in carbon emissions between 2001 and 2012. Daily <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was mapped using imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer combined with perimeters from the Alaska Large Fire Database. Carbon consumption was calibrated using available field measurements from black spruce forests in Alaska. We built two nonlinear multiplicative models to separately predict above- and belowground carbon consumption by fire in response to environmental variables including elevation, day of <span class="hlt">burning</span> within the fire season, pre-fire tree cover and the differenced normalized <span class="hlt">burn</span> ratio (dNBR). Higher belowground carbon consumption occurred later in the season and for mid-elevation forests. Topographic slope and aspect did not improve performance of the belowground carbon consumption model. Aboveground and belowground carbon consumption also increased as a function of tree cover and the dNBR, suggesting a causal link between the processes regulating these two components of carbon consumption. Between 2001 and 2012, the median carbon consumption was 2.54 kg C m-2. <span class="hlt">Burning</span> in land-cover types other than black spruce was considerable and was associated with lower levels of carbon consumption than for pure black spruce stands. Carbon consumption originated primarily from the belowground fraction (median = 2.32 kg C m-2 for all cover types and 2.67 kg C m-2 for pure black spruce stands). Total carbon emissions varied considerably from year to year, with the highest emissions occurring during 2004 (69 Tg C), 2005 (46 Tg C), 2009 (26 Tg C), and 2002 (17 Tg C) and a mean of 15 Tg C year-1 between 2001 and 2012. Mean uncertainty of carbon consumption for the domain, expressed as 1 standard deviation (SD), was 0.50 kg C m-2. Uncertainties in the multiplicative regression model used to estimate belowground consumption in black spruce stands and the land-cover classification were primary contributors to uncertainty estimates. Our analysis highlights the importance of accounting for the spatial heterogeneity of fuels and combustion when extrapolating emissions in space and time, and the need for of additional field campaigns to increase the density of observations as a function of tree cover and other environmental variables influencing consumption. The daily emissions time series from the Alaskan Fire Emissions Database (AKFED) presented here creates new opportunities to study environmental controls on daily fire dynamics, optimize boreal fire emissions in biogeochemical models, and quantify potential feedbacks from changing fire regimes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10116025','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10116025"><span id="translatedtitle">R-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Reactor 1993 <span class="hlt">annual</span> groundwater monitoring report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>Groundwater was sampled and analyzed during 1993 from wells monitoring the following locations in R <span class="hlt">Area</span>: Well cluster P20 east of R <span class="hlt">Area</span> (one well each in the water table and the McBean formation), the R-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Acid/Caustic Basin (the four water-table wells of the RAC series), the R-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Ash Basin/Coal Pile (one well of the RCP series in the Congaree formation and one in the water table), the R-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Disassembly Basin (the three water-table wells of the RDB series), the R-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (the four water-table wells of the RRP series), and the R-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Seepage Basins (numerous water-table wells in the RSA, RSB, RSC, RSD, RSE, and RSF series). Lead was the only constituent detected above its 50{mu}g/L standard in any but the seepage basin wells; it exceeded that level in one B well and in 23 of the seepage basin wells. Cadmium exceeded its drinking water standard (DWS) in 30 of the seepage basin wells, as did mercury in 10. Nitrate-nitrite was above DWS once each in two seepage basin wells. Tritium was above DWS in six seepage basin wells, as was gross alpha activity in 22. Nonvolatile beta exceeded its screening standard in 29 wells. Extensive radionuclide analyses were requested during 1993 for the RCP series and most of the seepage basin wells. Strontium-90 in eight wells was the only specific radionuclide other than tritium detected above DWS; it appeared about one-half of the nonvolatile beta activity in those wells.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1992/4134/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1992/4134/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrology of, and water quality in, the open <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and vicinity, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, 1989-90</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Storck, D.A.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This report presents the results of a study to determine whether shallow ground water at Picatinny Arsenal Morris County, New Jersey, has been con- taminated as a result of operations at the open <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, which is used for <span class="hlt">burning</span> of waste explosives and materials contaminated with explosives. Results of previous investigations indicate that the soil in this <span class="hlt">area</span> is contaminated with metals and organic compounds. Twenty-seven wells were sampled for analysis for inorganic constituents, nutrients, and explosive compounds. Selected wells also were sampled for analysis for base/neutral- and acid-extractable compounds, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and dioxin and furan compounds. Surface-water and streambed- material samples were collected at three sites in Green Pond Brook. Water-level measurements indicate that ground-water flow generally is nearly horizontal and toward Green Pond Brook. The average velocity of the ground water is estimated to be 0.03 to 1.8 feet per day. Concentrations of iron and manganese in ground-water samples from the unconfined aquifer were consistently greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary drinking-water regulations. Because similarly high concentrations of these constituents have been found in ground-water samples at the arsenal, they are not considered to be a consequence of activities at the open <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Contaminants from the open <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> appear to be contributing to elevated concentratons of lead, zinc, and explosive com- pounds found in the streambed material. Other trace element and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons probably are derived from both the open <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and upstream sources. Volatile organic compounds were detected in surface-water samples at low concentrations, although most were found upstream from the open <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. No inorganic or organic constituents were detected in ground-water or surface-water samples in concentrations that exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water regulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/243444','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/243444"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of soil contamination at the Riot Control <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Pit <span class="hlt">area</span> in J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Ying-Ya; Yuen, C.R.; Martino, L.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>A remedial investigation was conducted to identify soil contamination in the Riot Control <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Pit <span class="hlt">area</span> in J-field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The investigation included geophysical surveys to delineate the filled section of the pit, soil-gas surveys to locate the organic contamination <span class="hlt">area</span>, field X-ray fluorescence measurements along the <span class="hlt">burning</span> pit to identify the major metal contamination, and surface and subsurface soil analyses to investigate the nature and extent of contamination. This paper presents the results of this investigation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16837134','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16837134"><span id="translatedtitle">Hemostasis by means of a cautery knife equipped with an air spray for <span class="hlt">burns</span> over a large <span class="hlt">area</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Satoh, Kaneshige; Hosaka, Yoshiaki</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>In operations in which debridement is performed over a large <span class="hlt">area</span> (e.g., surgery for whole-body <span class="hlt">burns</span>), it is necessary to keep the length of the operation short and the amount of blood loss as small as possible to minimize stress to the patient's body. In this study, we developed a cautery knife to which an air spray is attached for surgical procedures in which debridement is performed as treatment for <span class="hlt">burns</span> over a large <span class="hlt">area</span>. We have demonstrated herein that this device is very effective for reducing both blood loss and the duration of surgery as well as for simplifying the achievement of hemostasis. PMID:16837134</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26171986','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26171986"><span id="translatedtitle">History, Epidemic Evolution, and Model <span class="hlt">Burn</span>-In for a Network of <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Invasion: Soybean Rust.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sanatkar, M R; Scoglio, C; Natarajan, B; Isard, S A; Garrett, K A</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Ecological history may be an important driver of epidemics and disease emergence. We evaluated the role of history and two related concepts, the evolution of epidemics and the <span class="hlt">burn</span>-in period required for fitting a model to epidemic observations, for the U.S. soybean rust epidemic (caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi). This disease allows evaluation of replicate epidemics because the pathogen reinvades the United States each year. We used a new maximum likelihood estimation approach for fitting the network model based on observed U.S. epidemics. We evaluated the model <span class="hlt">burn</span>-in period by comparing model fit based on each combination of other years of observation. When the miss error rates were weighted by 0.9 and false alarm error rates by 0.1, the mean error rate did decline, for most years, as more years were used to construct models. Models based on observations in years closer in time to the season being estimated gave lower miss error rates for later epidemic years. The weighted mean error rate was lower in backcasting than in forecasting, reflecting how the epidemic had evolved. Ongoing epidemic evolution, and potential model failure, can occur because of changes in climate, host resistance and spatial patterns, or pathogen evolution. PMID:26171986</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1158/OF12-1158.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1158/OF12-1158.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Probability and volume of potential postwildfire debris flows in the 2012 Waldo Canyon <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> near Colorado Springs, Colorado</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Verdin, Kristine L.; Dupree, Jean A.; Elliott, John G.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the 2012 Waldo Canyon fire near Colorado Springs in El Paso County, Colorado. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and potential volume of debris flows along the drainage network of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and to estimate the same for 22 selected drainage basins along U.S. Highway 24 and the perimeter of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Input data for the models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm (29 millimeters); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm (42 millimeters); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm (48 millimeters). Estimated debris-flow probabilities at the pour points of the the drainage basins of interest ranged from less than 1 to 54 percent in response to the 2-year storm; from less than 1 to 74 percent in response to the 10-year storm; and from less than 1 to 82 percent in response to the 25-year storm. Basins and drainage networks with the highest probabilities tended to be those on the southern and southeastern edge of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> where soils have relatively high clay contents and gradients are steep. Nine of the 22 drainage basins of interest have greater than a 40-percent probability of producing a debris flow in response to the 10-year storm. Estimated debris-flow volumes for all rainfalls modeled range from a low of 1,500 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters. Estimated debris-flow volumes increase with basin size and distance along the drainage network, but some smaller drainages were also predicted to produce substantial volumes of material. The predicted probabilities and some of the volumes predicted for the modeled storms indicate a potential for substantial debris-flow impacts on structures, reservoirs, roads, bridges, and culverts located both within and immediately downstream from the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. U.S. Highway 24, on the southern edge of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, is also susceptible to impacts from debris flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19647857','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19647857"><span id="translatedtitle">The spatial and temporal distribution of crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the contiguous United States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McCarty, Jessica L; Korontzi, Stefania; Justice, Christopher O; Loboda, Tatiana</p> <p>2009-10-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Burning</span> crop residue before and/or after harvest is a common farming practice however; there is no baseline estimate for cropland <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in the contiguous U.S. (CONUS). We present the results of a study, using five years of remotely sensed satellite data to map the location and areal extent of crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the CONUS. Our <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> approach combines 500 m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio (dNBR) data, with 1 km MODIS active fire counts calibrated using coincident high resolution satellite data to generate <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates. Our results show that cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> is an extensive and recurring <span class="hlt">annual</span> event in several states in the CONUS. On average, 1,239,000 ha of croplands <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">annually</span>, which is equivalent to 43% of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> average <span class="hlt">area</span> of wildland fires in the U.S., as reported by the United States Forest Service for the same period. Several states experience high levels (>30,000 ha yr(-1)) of crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span>, including Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Kansas, Louisiana, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, and Washington. Validation with high resolution <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar imagery and GPS data collected during targeted field campaigns showed a moderate to high-level accuracy for our <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates, ranging from 78 to 90%. Our approach provides a more consistent methodology for quantifying cropland <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> at regional scales than the previously available U.S. national and state-level statistics on crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span>. PMID:19647857</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21639045','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21639045"><span id="translatedtitle">Scale-dependent controls on the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in the boreal forest of Canada, 1980-2005.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parisien, Marc-Andr; Parks, Sean A; Krawchuk, Meg A; Flannigan, Mike D; Bowman, Lynn M; Moritz, Max A</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>In the boreal forest of North America, as in any fire-prone biome, three environmental factors must coincide for a wildfire to occur: an ignition source, flammable vegetation, and weather that is conducive to fire. Despite recent advances, the relative importance of these factors remains the subject of some debate. The aim of this study was to develop models that identify the environmental controls on spatial patterns in <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> for the period 1980-2005 at several spatial scales in the Canadian boreal forest. Boosted regression tree models were built to relate high-resolution data for <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> to an array of explanatory variables describing ignitions, vegetation, and long-term patterns in fire-conducive weather (i.e., fire climate) at four spatial scales (10(2) km2, 10(3) km2, 10(4) km2, and 10(5) km2). We evaluated the relative contributions of these controls on <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, as well as their functional relationships, across spatial scales. We also assessed geographic patterns of the influence of wildfire controls. The results indicated that extreme temperature during the fire season was a top control at all spatial scales, followed closely by a wind-driven index of ease of fire spread. However, the contributions of some variables differed substantially among the spatial scales, as did their relationship to <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. In fact, for some key variables the polarity of relationships was inverted from the finest to the broadest spatial scale. It was difficult to unequivocally attribute values of relative importance to the variables chosen to represent ignitions, vegetation, and climate, as the interdependence of these factors precluded clear partitioning. Furthermore, the influence of a variable on patterns of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> often changed enormously across the biome, which supports the idea that fire-environment relationships in the boreal forest are complex and nonstationary. PMID:21639045</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/961853','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/961853"><span id="translatedtitle">Forrest Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> : Management & Implementation FY 2004 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Smith, Brent</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes) acquired the Forrest Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> during July of 2002. The property is located in the Upper John Day subbasin within the Columbia basin. The property consists of two parcels comprising 4,232 acres. The Mainstem parcel consists of 3,445 acres and is located 1/2 mile to the east of Prairie City, Oregon on the mainstem John Day River. The Middle Fork parcel consists of 786 acres and is located one mile to the west of the town of Austin, OR on the Middle Fork John Day River. The Forrest Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> is under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to provide an <span class="hlt">annual</span> written report generally describing the real property interests of the project and management activities undertaken or in progress. Acquisition of the Forrest Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> was funded by BPA as part of their program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife habitat affected by hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The intent of the Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> is to partially mitigate fish and wildlife impacts for the John Day Dam on the Columbia River as outlined in the Northwest Power Planning Council's Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, {section}11.1, {section}7.6). While the Tribes hold fee-title to the property, the BPA has assured a level of management funding for the protection and restoration of fish and wildlife habitat through a memorandum of agreement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9625244','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9625244"><span id="translatedtitle">Successful recovery of 14 patients afflicted with full-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> for more than 70 per cent body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Y P; Zhou, Z H; Zhou, W M; Ren, J L; Wu, Y H; Rong, X Z; Yang, L</p> <p>1998-03-01</p> <p>Fourteen cases suffering full-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> of more than 70 per cent total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) have been successfully treated during the last 8 years (1988-1995). Among these patients, 10 cases suffered from <span class="hlt">burns</span> of more than 90 per cent TBSA. Five cases had full-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> of 80-90 per cent TBSA. Escharectomy, followed by coverage of wounds with a homograft to the lower surface of which, adjacent to the wound bed, microautoskin grafts had been attached was employed to close wounds in the early stages after <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The remaining non-surgically treated wound was treated by exposure and topical silver sulfadiazine. The temperature and humidity of the ward was controlled by air conditioning and dehumidification. Aggressive excision of eschar and auto-skingrafting was carried out 3 weeks post-injury. Strictly limiting the uncovered wound to less than 5 per cent appeared to be the major effective measure in preventing <span class="hlt">burn</span> infection. PMID:9625244</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....9.7853M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....9.7853M"><span id="translatedtitle">Satellite-based assessment of climate controls on US <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Wang, D.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Chen, Y.</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Climate regulates fire activity through the buildup and drying of fuels and the conditions for fire ignition and spread. Understanding the dynamics of contemporary climate-fire relationships at national and sub-national scales is critical to assess the likelihood of changes in future fire activity and the potential options for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we conducted the first national assessment of climate controls on US fire activity using two satellite-based estimates of monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> (BA), the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED, 1997-2010) and Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity (MTBS, 1984-2009) BA products. For each US National Climate Assessment (NCA) region, we analyzed the relationships between monthly BA and potential evaporation (PE) derived from reanalysis climate data at 0.5° resolution. US fire activity increased over the past 25 yr, with statistically significant increases in MTBS BA for entire US and the Southeast and Southwest NCA regions. Monthly PE was strongly correlated with US fire activity, yet the climate driver of PE varied regionally. Fire season temperature and shortwave radiation were the primary controls on PE} and fire activity in the Alaska, while water deficit (precipitation - PE) was strongly correlated with fire activity in the Plains regions and Northwest US. BA and precipitation anomalies were negatively correlated in all regions, although fuel-limited ecosystems in the Southern Plains and Southwest exhibited positive correlations with longer lead times (6-12 months). Fire season PE increased from the 1980s-2000s, enhancing climate-driven fire risk in the southern and western US where PE-BA correlations were strongest. Spatial and temporal patterns of increasing fire season PE and BA during the 1990s-2000s highlight the potential sensitivity of US fire activity to climate change in coming decades. However, climate-fire relationships at the national scale are complex, based on the diversity of fire types, ecosystems, and ignition sources within each NCA region. Changes in the seasonality or magnitude of climate anomalies are therefore unlikely to result in uniform changes in US fire activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGeo...10..247M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGeo...10..247M"><span id="translatedtitle">Satellite-based assessment of climate controls on US <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Wang, D.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Chen, Y.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Climate regulates fire activity through the buildup and drying of fuels and the conditions for fire ignition and spread. Understanding the dynamics of contemporary climate-fire relationships at national and sub-national scales is critical to assess the likelihood of changes in future fire activity and the potential options for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we conducted the first national assessment of climate controls on US fire activity using two satellite-based estimates of monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> (BA), the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED, 1997-2010) and Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity (MTBS, 1984-2009) BA products. For each US National Climate Assessment (NCA) region, we analyzed the relationships between monthly BA and potential evaporation (PE) derived from reanalysis climate data at 0.5° resolution. US fire activity increased over the past 25 yr, with statistically significant increases in MTBS BA for the entire US and the Southeast and Southwest NCA regions. Monthly PE was strongly correlated with US fire activity, yet the climate driver of PE varied regionally. Fire season temperature and shortwave radiation were the primary controls on PE and fire activity in Alaska, while water deficit (precipitation - PE) was strongly correlated with fire activity in the Plains regions and Northwest US. BA and precipitation anomalies were negatively correlated in all regions, although fuel-limited ecosystems in the Southern Plains and Southwest exhibited positive correlations with longer lead times (6-12 months). Fire season PE increased from the 1980's-2000's, enhancing climate-driven fire risk in the southern and western US where PE-BA correlations were strongest. Spatial and temporal patterns of increasing fire season PE and BA during the 1990's-2000's highlight the potential sensitivity of US fire activity to climate change in coming decades. However, climate-fire relationships at the national scale are complex, based on the diversity of fire types, ecosystems, and ignition sources within each NCA region. Changes in the seasonality or magnitude of climate anomalies are therefore unlikely to result in uniform changes in US fire activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120013612','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120013612"><span id="translatedtitle">Satellite-based Assessment of Climate Controls on US <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Wang, D.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Chen, Y.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Climate regulates fire activity through the buildup and drying of fuels and the conditions for fire ignition and spread. Understanding the dynamics of contemporary climate-fire relationships at national and sub-national scales is critical to assess the likelihood of changes in future fire activity and the potential options for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we conducted the first national assessment of climate controls on US fire activity using two satellite-based estimates of monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> (BA), the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED, 1997 2010) and Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity (MTBS, 1984 2009) BA products. For each US National Climate Assessment (NCA) region, we analyzed the relationships between monthly BA and potential evaporation (PE) derived from reanalysis climate data at 0.5 resolution. US fire activity increased over the past 25 yr, with statistically significant increases in MTBS BA for entire US and the Southeast and Southwest NCA regions. Monthly PE was strongly correlated with US fire activity, yet the climate driver of PE varied regionally. Fire season temperature and shortwave radiation were the primary controls on PE and fire activity in the Alaska, while water deficit (precipitation PE) was strongly correlated with fire activity in the Plains regions and Northwest US. BA and precipitation anomalies were negatively correlated in all regions, although fuel-limited ecosystems in the Southern Plains and Southwest exhibited positive correlations with longer lead times (6 12 months). Fire season PE in creased from the 1980s 2000s, enhancing climate-driven fire risk in the southern and western US where PE-BA correlations were strongest. Spatial and temporal patterns of increasing fire season PE and BA during the 1990s 2000s highlight the potential sensitivity of US fire activity to climate change in coming decades. However, climatefire relationships at the national scale are complex, based on the diversity of fire types, ecosystems, and ignition sources within each NCA region. Changes in the seasonality or magnitude of climate anomalies are therefore unlikely to result in uniform changes in US fire activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H33H..06C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H33H..06C"><span id="translatedtitle">Bare soil erosion modelling with rainfall simulations: experiments on crop and recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Catani, F.; Menci, S.; Moretti, S.; Keizer, J.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The use of numerical models is of fundamental importance in the comprehension and prediction of soil erosion. At the very basis of the calibration process of the numerical models are the direct measurements of the governing parameters, carried out during field or laboratory tests. To measure and model soil erosion rainfall simulations can be used, that allow the reproduction of project rainfall having chosen characteristics of intensity and duration. The main parameters that rainfall simulators can measure are hydraulic conductivity, parameters of soil erodibility, rate and features of splash erosion, discharge coefficient and sediment yield. Other important parameters can be estimated during the rainfall simulations through the use of photogrammetric instruments able to memorize high definition stereographic models of the soil plot under analysis at different time steps. In this research rainfall simulator experiments (rse) were conducted to measure and quantify runoff and erosion processes on selected bare soil plots. The selected plots are located in some vineyards, olive groves and crops in central Italy and in some recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in north-central Portugal, affected by a wildfire during early July 2005 and, at the time, largely covered by commercial eucalypt plantations. On the Italian crops the choice of the rainfall intensities and durations were performed on the basis of the previous knowledge of the selected test <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The procedure was based on an initial phase of soil wetting and a following phase of 3 erosion cycles. The first should reproduce the effects of a normal rainfall with a return time of 2 years (23 mm/h). The second should represent a serious episode with a return time of 10 years (34 mm/h). The third has the objective to reproduce and understand the effects of an intense precipitation event, with a return time of 50 years (41 mm/h). During vineyards experiments some photogrammetric surveys were carried out as well. In the Portugal <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, to measure the influence of rain intensities, two rainfall simulations have been carried out simultaneously, one with an intensity of 45 mm/h and one with 85 mm/h. In both cases, before the experiments, soil and vegetation cover description have been made and soil samples have been taken. During the simulations soil samples leaving the parcels were taken at suitable time intervals to measure the sediment yield and the runoff. The rse data have been thought to provide a sufficient basis for erosion modelling at the small-plot scale and, through upscaling, for predicting erosion rates at the slope scale. For this purpose two soil erosion models, WEPP and MEFIDIS, have been selected and then compared. The comparison has shown a certain degree of uncertainty in numeric erosion prediction, due to the non linearity of the overland erosion processes, and to technical and conceptual difficulties, including the data collection. In the following laboratory phase high resolution (2 by 2 mm) DEMs of the vineyards plot are being produced for each meaningful processing phase. The digital elevation models will then be analysed to asses calibration parameters such as soil roughness (expressed by standard deviation of elevations, fractal dimension and local relief energy), soil and sediment transfer (hypsometric curves, local elevation and volume differences) and rill network evolution (Horton ordering, stream lengths, contributing <span class="hlt">area</span>, drainage density, Hack's law)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=310084&keyword=biomass&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55730589&CFTOKEN=31845970','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=310084&keyword=biomass&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55730589&CFTOKEN=31845970"><span id="translatedtitle">Emissions from Combustion of Open <span class="hlt">Area</span> Sources: Prescribed Forest and Agricultural <span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Emissions from wildfires and prescribed forest and agricultural <span class="hlt">burns</span> generate a variety of emissions that can cause adverse health effects for humans, contribute to climate change, and decrease visibility. Only limited pollutant data are available for these sources, particularly...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4525846','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4525846"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of systemic inflammation response and vital organ damage induced by severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> in different <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Lingying; Li, Xiao; Yang, Jing; Chai, Jiake; Yu, Yonghui; Duan, Hongjie; Song, Huifeng; Feng, Rui; Wang, Tongming; Yin, Huinan; Hu, Quan; Wang, Shaoxia; Du, Jundong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: In this study, we will establish a stable and optimized rat model that can meet strictly diagnosed criteria and serve as a tool to investigate the potential of novel therapeutics in this preclinical model through comparative analysis of systemic alterations, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum and infiltrated numbers of inflammatory cells in distant organ between 30% and 50% TBSA with a full-thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Materials and methods: The adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following groups: control group, 30% TBSA with a full-thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span> group, and 50% TBSA with a full-thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span> group. The blood and serum samples in the 3 groups were collected and detected by blood routine examination and biochemical detection at 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h post <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in serum were detected by ELISA. The sections of lung, renal, liver and heart were analyzed by H&E and immunohistochemical staining detection. Results: Our results showed that temperature in 50% TBSA with a full-thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span> group was always hypothermia, and lower than 36°C at defined timepoints post <span class="hlt">burn</span>, that was in 30% TBSA with a full-thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span> group was lower than 36°C only at 48 h post <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly increased in 30% and 50% groups at 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h post <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The apoptosis in distant organs and the biochemical parameters such as ALT, AST, troponin, CK, CK-MB, LDH, urea and creatinine in 30% and 50% groups were also increased at different degrees at defined timepoints after <span class="hlt">burn</span>, but changes in 50% group were more obvious than that in 30% group. Conclusion: We choose 50% TBSA with a full-thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span> to establish a stable and optimized rat model that can meet strictly diagnosed criteria and serve as a tool to investigate the potential of novel therapeutics in this preclinical model. PMID:26261512</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.6033F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.6033F"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationships between <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, forest cover loss, and land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon based on satellite data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fanin, T.; van der Werf, G. R.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Fires are used as a tool in the deforestation process. Yet, the relationship between fire and deforestation may vary temporally and spatially depending on the type of deforestation and climatic conditions. This study evaluates spatiotemporal dynamics of deforestation and fire represented by <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> over the 2002-2012 period in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. As a first step, we compared newly available Landsat-based maps of gross forest cover loss from the Global Forest Change (GFC) project with maps of deforestation extent from the Amazon Deforestation Monitoring Project (PRODES) produced by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). As a second step, we rescaled the Landsat-based data to the 500 m resolution of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data (MCD64A1) and stratified this using MODIS land cover data to study the role of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in forest cover loss and deforestation. We found that while GFC forest cover loss and PRODES deforestation generally agreed on spatial and temporal dynamics, there were several key differences between the data sets. Both showed a decrease in the extent of forest cover loss or deforestation after 2004, but the drop was larger and more continuous in PRODES than in GFC. The observed decrease in forest cover loss or deforestation rates over our study period was mainly due to lower clearing rates in the evergreen broadleaf forests in the states of Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia. GFC indicated anomalously high forest cover loss in the years 2007 and 2010, which was not reported by PRODES. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data indicated that this was predominantly related to increased <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> occurring outside of the tropical forest <span class="hlt">area</span> during these dry years, mainly in Pará. This indicated that fire and forest loss dynamics in woodlands or secondary forests may be equally important as deforestation in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In addition to the decrease in forest cover loss rates, we also found that post-deforestation fire use declined; <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> within 5 years after forest cover loss decreased from 54 to 39 % during our study period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B13B0555K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B13B0555K"><span id="translatedtitle">Reclassified Cropland Active Fire and <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Detections by the MODIS 1 km Sensor in Canadian Provinces by land cover type, 2001 - 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kerr, T. F.; Ernst, C. L.; McCarty, J. L.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Fire is a primary disturbance agent in Canadian ecosystems and has significant social, environmental, and economic consequences. Accurate location and identification of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is critical to understanding the transfer of gases and particles into earth's atmosphere, especially in Northern latitudes. This data is an important aid in producing accurate atmospheric models that estimate black carbon (BC) deposition on arctic snow. Previous research has indicated that cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> contributes to BC distribution in the arctic which alters the balance in snow-albedo reflectance and radiation transmission in the atmosphere. The locations and numbers of fires were identified using the 1km MODIS Active Fire Product and the 500m MODIS <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Product. Land cover type was assigned based on the 1 km MODIS Land Cover Product, to the post-processed active fire points. They were then reclassified into seven (7) classes: Croplands, Forest, Grasslands, Urban, Water Bodies, Wetlands, and Barren. The results show that Forest, Cropland, and Grassland land cover types are the main sources of active fire detections in Canada from 2001 to 2010. The peak fire months are April, May, September, and October for Cropland active fire <span class="hlt">burns</span> in all Canadian Provinces from 2001 to 2010. By province, Saskatchewan and Manitoba are the leading sources of Cropland detected active fires. Cropland <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimations were calculated using the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> pixel count (post-processing of MODIS <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Product) within cropland identified by the 1 km MODIS Land Cover data set (LC-12) for the years 2003-2010. Cropland <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> detection was most significant in 2003 during which 27.3% of all detected hectares <span class="hlt">burned</span> from 2003 to 2010 occurred. The year with least impact was 2004 in which 3.5% of all detected hectares <span class="hlt">burned</span>. The peak months for Cropland <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> detections were May, September, and October across all Canadian Provinces from 2003 to 2010. Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Alberta are the leading sources for Cropland <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> detections. Field research conducted during April of 2011 in the Peace River Agricultural <span class="hlt">Area</span> in British Columbia and Alberta revealed that cropland identified by the MODIS 1 km Land Cover Product appeared to be undergoing land-use conversion. Scrubland and mixed forest tree lines are being cleared to create more field space during the winter months. However, these woody brush piles are <span class="hlt">burned</span> in the middle of fallow fields and as such are detected as Cropland <span class="hlt">burnings</span>. From this analysis of fire activity in Canadian provinces we can identify the major land cover sources of <span class="hlt">burn</span> and provide an in-depth look at cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span>'s temporal and spatial patterns over the last decade based on data from the MODIS sensor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11..890M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11..890M"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of vegetation spatial heterogeneity on soil enzyme activity in <span class="hlt">burned</span> Mediterranean <span class="hlt">areas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mayor, Á. G.; Goirán, S.; Bautista, S.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly considered resilient to wildfires. However, depending on fire severity and recurrence, post-fire climatic conditions and plant community type, the recovery rate of the vegetation can greatly vary. Often, the post-fire vegetation cover remains low and sparsely distributed many years after the wildfire, which could have profound impacts on ecosystem functioning. In this work, we studied the influence of vegetation patchiness on soil enzyme activity (acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase and urease), at the patch and landscape scales, in degraded dry Mediterranean shrublands affected by wildfires. At the patch scale, we assessed the variation in soil enzyme between bare soils and vegetation patches. At the landscape scale, we studied the relationships between soil enzyme activity and various landscape metrics (total patch cover, average interpatch length, average patch width, and patch density). The study was conducted in 19 sites in the Valencia Region (eastern Spain), which had been affected by large wildfires in 1991. Site selection aimed at capturing a wide range of the variability of post-fire plant recovery rates in Mediterranean <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The activities of the three enzymes were significantly higher in soils under the vegetation canopies than in adjacent bare <span class="hlt">areas</span>, which we attributed to the effect of plants on the soil amount of both enzyme substrates and enzymes. The differences between bare and plant microsites were larger in the case of the acid phosphatase and less marked for urease. The activity of acid phosphatase was also higher under patches of resprouter species than under patches of seeder species, probably due to the faster post-fire recovery and older age of resprouter patches in fire-prone ecosystems. Soil enzyme activities of β-glucosidase and urease in both bare soils and vegetation patches showed no relationships with any of the landscape metrics analysed. However, the activity of acid phosphatase increased linearly with the total cover of vegetation patches, which is consistent with the strong effect of plant patches on the activity of this enzyme. According to our results, variations in the cover and composition of vegetation patches may have profound impacts on the soil enzyme activity and associated nutrient cycling processes in <span class="hlt">burned</span> Mediterranean <span class="hlt">areas</span>, particularly in the case of phosphorus. Keywords: wildfires, landscape metrics, Mediterranean shrublands, soil enzyme activity, resprouter species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/911594','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/911594"><span id="translatedtitle">Engineering and Physics Optimization of Breed and <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Fast Reactor Systems: <span class="hlt">Annual</span> and Final Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kevan D. Weaver; Theron Marshall; James Parry</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) contribution to the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project number 2002-005 was divided into reactor physics, and thermal-hydraulics and plant design. The research targeted credible physics and thermal-hydraulics models for a gas-cooled fast reactor, analyzing various fuel and in-core fuel cycle options to achieve a true breed and <span class="hlt">burn</span> core, and performing a design basis Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) analysis on that design. For the physics analysis, a 1/8 core model was created using different enrichments and simulated equilibrium fuel loadings. The model was used to locate the hot spot of the reactor, and the peak to average energy deposition at that location. The model was also used to create contour plots of the flux and energy deposition over the volume of the reactor. The eigenvalue over time was evaluated using three different fuel configurations with the same core geometry. The breeding capabilities of this configuration were excellent for a 7% U-235 model and good in both a plutonium model and a 14% U-235 model. Changing the fuel composition from the Pu fuel which provided about 78% U-238 for breeding to the 14% U-235 fuel with about 86% U-238 slowed the rate of decrease in the eigenvalue a noticeable amount. Switching to the 7% U-235 fuel with about 93% U-238 showed an increase in the eigenvalue over time. For the thermal-hydraulic analysis, the reactor design used was the one forwarded by the MIT team. This reactor design uses helium coolant, a Brayton cycle, and has a thermal power of 600 MW. The core design parameters were supplied by MIT; however, the other key reactor components that were necessary for a plausible simulation of a LOCA were not defined. The thermal-hydraulic and plant design research concentrated on determining reasonable values for those undefined components. The LOCA simulation was intended to provide insights on the influence of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS), the containment building, and a Decay Heat Removal System (DHRS) on the natural circulation heat transfer of the core's decay heat. A baseline case for natural circulation had to be established in order to truly understand the impact of the added safety systems. This baseline case did not include a DHRS, although the current MIT design does have a DHRS that features the highly efficient Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHEs). The initial LOCA analysis revealed that the RCCS was insufficient to maintain the reactor core below the fuel matrix decomposition temperature. A guard containment was added to the model in order to maintain a prescribed backpressure during the LOCA to enhance the natural circulation. The backpressure approach did provide satisfactory natural convection during the LOCA. The necessary backpressure was 1.8 MPa, which was not especially different from the values reported by other gas fast reactor researchers. However, as the model evolved to be more physically representative of a nuclear reactor, i.e., it included radial peaking factors, inlet plenum orificing, and the degradation of SiC thermal properties as a result of irradiation, the LOCA-induced fuel temperatures were not consistently below the decomposition limit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....913407J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....913407J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> particle flux observations over a heterogeneous urban <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jrvi, L.; Rannik, .; Mammarella, I.; Sogachev, A.; Aalto, P. P.; Keronen, P.; Siivola, E.; Kulmala, M.; Vesala, T.</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Long-term eddy covariance (EC) particle number flux measurements for the size range 6 nm to 5 ?m were performed at the SMEAR III station over urban <span class="hlt">area</span> in Helsinki, Finland. Heterogeneous urban environment allowed us to study the effect of different land-use classes in different wind directions on the measured fluxes. The particle fluxes were observed to be the highest from the road direction during weekdays with day-time median flux 0.8109 m-2 s-1. Particle fluxes showed a~clear dependence on traffic rates and mixing conditions of the boundary layer. In the direction of road, the larger particle fluxes were dominated by smaller sizes. Footprint analysis was performed by using numerical modeling and emission rate of particles from road was estimated to be 0.81012 s-1 m-1 during day-time. With typical traffic rate of 2500 vehicles per hour this corresponds to average emission rate of 1.21015 vehicles-1 km-1. The particle fluxes from vegetated <span class="hlt">area</span> were the lowest with daytime median fluxes below 0.2109 m-2 s-1. During weekends and nights the particle fluxes were low from all land use sectors being in the order of 0.02-0.1109 m-2 s-1. On <span class="hlt">annual</span> scale, the highest fluxes were measured in winter when emissions from stationary combustion sources are higher.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H53D0661Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H53D0661Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Debris Flows Generated in Adjacent Unburned and Recently-<span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Areas</span>, Coronado National Memorial, Arizona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Youberg, A.; Pearthree, P. A.; Baker, V. R.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>An extreme precipitation sequence that set up over Arizona in late July, 2006, generated numerous debris flows in several <span class="hlt">areas</span> in southern Arizona. A weak but persistent cut-off low pressure system centered in eastern-central Arizona interacted with a moist monsoon flow from the south to trigger a series of rain events in late July. These increasingly wet storms culminated on July 31, when floods of record occurred and debris flows were generated at numerous mountain locations throughout southeastern Arizona. Intense precipitation in the Coronado National Memorial near the international border generated more than 20 debris flows in steep mountain drainages. Coronado NM encompasses 1924 ha, of which approximately 135 ha were <span class="hlt">burned</span> by a wildfire in May, 2006. Debris flows of various sizes were generated in both unburned and recently-<span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, providing an opportunity to evaluate the influence of wildfires on debris-flow generation. We mapped each debris flow, identified probable initiation mechanisms, and, for selected debris flows, surveyed channels or fans to estimate debris-flow volumes. Preliminary observations suggest that debris flows in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> initiated by intense runoff and failures in multiple small hillslope rills, whereas most debris flows in unburned <span class="hlt">areas</span> initiated as discrete shallow failures of colluvium over bedrock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/ofr03500/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/ofr03500/"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Logistic Regression To Predict the Probability of Debris Flows Occurring in <span class="hlt">Areas</span> Recently <span class="hlt">Burned</span> By Wildland Fires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rupert, Michael G.; Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Logistic regression was used to predict the probability of debris flows occurring in <span class="hlt">areas</span> recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> by wildland fires. Multiple logistic regression is conceptually similar to multiple linear regression because statistical relations between one dependent variable and several independent variables are evaluated. In logistic regression, however, the dependent variable is transformed to a binary variable (debris flow did or did not occur), and the actual probability of the debris flow occurring is statistically modeled. Data from 399 basins located within 15 wildland fires that <span class="hlt">burned</span> during 2000-2002 in Colorado, Idaho, Montana, and New Mexico were evaluated. More than 35 independent variables describing the <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, geology, land surface gradient, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated. The models were developed as follows: (1) Basins that did and did not produce debris flows were delineated from National Elevation Data using a Geographic Information System (GIS). (2) Data describing the <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, geology, land surface gradient, rainfall, and soil properties were determined for each basin. These data were then downloaded to a statistics software package for analysis using logistic regression. (3) Relations between the occurrence/non-occurrence of debris flows and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, geology, land surface gradient, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated and several preliminary multivariate logistic regression models were constructed. All possible combinations of independent variables were evaluated to determine which combination produced the most effective model. The multivariate model that best predicted the occurrence of debris flows was selected. (4) The multivariate logistic regression model was entered into a GIS, and a map showing the probability of debris flows was constructed. The most effective model incorporates the percentage of each basin with slope greater than 30 percent, percentage of land <span class="hlt">burned</span> at medium and high <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity in each basin, particle size sorting, average storm intensity (millimeters per hour), soil organic matter content, soil permeability, and soil drainage. The results of this study demonstrate that logistic regression is a valuable tool for predicting the probability of debris flows occurring in recently-<span class="hlt">burned</span> landscapes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112829N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112829N"><span id="translatedtitle">Can post-wildfire <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Emergency Response treatments mitigate watershed degradation?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neary, D.; Ffolliott, P.; Bautista, S.; Wittenberg, L.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Wildfire is a natural phenomenon that began with the development of terrestrial vegetation in a lightning-filled atmosphere 350 million years ago. As human populations developed in the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs, mankind transformed fire into one of its oldest tools. A negative impact of prime concern in the 21st Century is desertification. This term refers to land degradation, not the immediate creation of classical deserts. It is about the loss of the land's proper hydrologic function and biological productivity as a result of human activities and climate change. It affects 33% of the earth's surface and over a billion people. Fire-related desertification has a number of environmental, social, and economic consequences. The two key environmental consequences are soil erosion and exotic plant invasions. Wildfires typically have exotic plant species abundances ten times that of undisturbed forests (Neary et al. 2003). Seeding has been used for many years in the USA as a prime <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Emergency Response (BAER) treatment. Until recently, this seeding contributed to exotic plant invasions since fast-growing, but non native plants seeds were used. The use of native plant seeds and sterile hybrids has reduced this problem somewhat. Erosion after wildfires documented in the USA can be in the range of <1 to 370 Mg/ha, depending on fire severity, degree of water repellency, slope, and post-fire rainfall events. Soil losses in the high end of that range definitely exceed soil loss tolerances and contribute to desertification. Soil disturbance and degradation after wildfires is a function of fire severity, and the impacts can range from the minimal to catastrophic and long-lasting. The most obvious impact is the loss of organic matter from combustion of the forest floor. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties with high-severity wildfire can produce water repellency, aggravating rainfall runoff and erosion. Since soils take long times to form (50 to 75,000 years), degradation as a result of wildfire-related erosion or soil property changes can result in severe and rapid desertification. Soil degradation is a "one-way street" not easily reversed. Although trees can be replanted on <span class="hlt">burned</span> sites, soil lost in erosion is rarely replaced, just rehabilitated. There are techniques to rehabilitate these degraded soils but they are quite expensive. Disruptions to soil micro-fauna and micro-flora can also reduce post-fire site vegetation productivity. An environmental consequence of wildfire related to soil disturbance, is the loss of hydrologic function. Again, the level of hydrologic function loss is related to fire severity. Although this ecosystem function tends to recover within 5 - 10 years after wildfire as vegetation cover returns, the immediate impacts can be considerable. The removal of the protective layer of the forest floor by combustion, and the development of water repellent layers in the soil combine to aggrevate flood potentials. Flood peak flows after wildfires with high percentages of high severity wildfire (>30%) commonly have increases of 10-fold. Higher increases (20 to 2,000 fold) have been measured as the percentage of high-severity soil damage approaches 100%. The other side of high flood runoff is the reduction in baseflow that sustains stream flow due to the reduction in rainfall infiltration. This has water supply implications for forested watersheds that are sources for municipal water supplies. In addition, post-wildfire ash slurry flows can substantially degrade the quality of municipal water sources. Although this phenomenon is relatively short lived (<2 years), it can have serious supply impacts. This paper examines the capabilities of BAER treatments in dealing with this problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/269024','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/269024"><span id="translatedtitle">Focused feasibility study for surface soil at the main pits and pushout <span class="hlt">area</span>, J-field toxic <span class="hlt">burning</span> pits <span class="hlt">area</span>, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Patton, T.; Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Butler, J.</p> <p>1996-06-01</p> <p>The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study of the J-Field <span class="hlt">area</span> at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). J-Field is located within the Edgewood <span class="hlt">Area</span> of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood <span class="hlt">Area</span> have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open <span class="hlt">burning</span>/open detonation. Portions of J-Field continue to be used for the detonation and disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by open <span class="hlt">burning</span>/open detonation under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPRS...79..199P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPRS...79..199P"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of spectral reflectance values to different <span class="hlt">burn</span> and vegetation ratios: A multi-scale approach applied in a fire affected <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pleniou, Magdalini; Koutsias, Nikos</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The aim of our study was to explore the spectral properties of fire-scorched (<span class="hlt">burned</span>) and non fire-scorched (vegetation) <span class="hlt">areas</span>, as well as <span class="hlt">areas</span> with different <span class="hlt">burn</span>/vegetation ratios, using a multisource multiresolution satellite data set. A case study was undertaken following a very destructive wildfire that occurred in Parnitha, Greece, July 2007, for which we acquired satellite images from LANDSAT, ASTER, and IKONOS. Additionally, we created spatially degraded satellite data over a range of coarser resolutions using resampling techniques. The panchromatic (1 m) and multispectral component (4 m) of IKONOS were merged using the Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening method. This very high-resolution imagery served as the basis to estimate the cover percentage of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, bare land and vegetation at pixel level, by applying the maximum likelihood classification algorithm. Finally, multiple linear regression models were fit to estimate each land-cover fraction as a function of surface reflectance values of the original and the spatially degraded satellite images. The main findings of our research were: (a) the Near Infrared (NIR) and Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) are the most important channels to estimate the percentage of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, whereas the NIR and red channels are the most important to estimate the percentage of vegetation in fire-affected <span class="hlt">areas</span>; (b) when the bi-spectral space consists only of NIR and SWIR, then the NIR ground reflectance value plays a more significant role in estimating the percent of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, and the SWIR appears to be more important in estimating the percent of vegetation; and (c) semi-<span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> comprising 45-55% <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and 45-55% vegetation are spectrally closer to <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the NIR channel, whereas those <span class="hlt">areas</span> are spectrally closer to vegetation in the SWIR channel. These findings, at least partially, are attributed to the fact that: (i) completely <span class="hlt">burned</span> pixels present low variance in the NIR and high variance in the SWIR, whereas the opposite is observed in completely vegetated <span class="hlt">areas</span> where higher variance is observed in the NIR and lower variance in the SWIR, and (ii) bare land modifies the spectral signal of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> more than the spectral signal of vegetated <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the NIR, while the opposite is observed in SWIR region of the spectrum where the bare land modifies the spectral signal of vegetation more than the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> because the bare land and the vegetation are spectrally more similar in the NIR, and the bare land and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> are spectrally more similar in the SWIR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21950526','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21950526"><span id="translatedtitle">Mercury emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Xin; Li, Mengmeng; Friedli, Hans R; Song, Yu; Chang, Di; Zhu, Lei</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> covers open fires (forest and grassland fires, crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in fields, etc.) and biofuel combustion (crop residues and wood, etc., used as fuel). As a large agricultural country, China may produce large quantities of mercury emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>. A new mercury emission inventory in China is needed because previous studies reflected outdated biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> with coarse resolution. Moreover, these studies often adopted the emission factors (mass of emitted species per mass of biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span>) measured in North America. In this study, the mercury emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in China (excluding small islands in the South China Sea) were estimated, using recently measured mercury concentrations in various biomes in China as emission factors. Emissions from crop residues and fuelwood were estimated based on <span class="hlt">annual</span> reports distributed by provincial government. Emissions from forest and grassland fires were calculated by combining moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product with combustion efficiency (ratio of fuel consumption to total available fuels) considering fuel moisture. The average <span class="hlt">annual</span> emission from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> was 27 (range from 15.1 to 39.9) Mg/year. This inventory has high spatial resolution (1 km) and covers a long period (2000-2007), making it useful for air quality modeling. PMID:21950526</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....12.8235F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....12.8235F"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationships between <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, forest cover loss and land use change in the Brazilian Amazon based on satellite data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fanin, T.; van der Werf, G. R.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Fires are used as a tool in the deforestation process. Yet, the relationship between fire and deforestation may vary temporally and spatially depending on the type of deforestation and climatic conditions. This study evaluates spatiotemporal dynamics of deforestation and fire represented by <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> over the 2002-2012 period in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. As a first step, we compared newly available Landsat-based maps of gross forest cover loss from the Global Forest Change (GFC) project with maps of deforestation extent from the Amazon Deforestation Monitoring Project (PRODES) produced by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). As a second step, we rescaled the Landsat-based data to the 500 m resolution of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data (MCD64A1) and stratified this using MODIS land cover data to study the role of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in forest cover loss and deforestation. We found that while GFC forest cover loss and PRODES deforestation generally agreed on spatial and temporal dynamics, there were several key differences between the datasets. Both showed a decrease in the extent of forest cover loss or deforestation after 2004, but the drop was larger and more continuous in PRODES than in GFC. The observed decrease in forest cover loss or deforestation rates over our study period was mainly due to lower clearing rates in the evergreen broadleaf forests in the states of Mato Grosso, Pará and Rondônia. GFC indicated anomalous high forest cover loss in the years 2007 and 2010 not reported by PRODES. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data showed that this was predominantly related to increased fire activity occurring outside of the tropical forest <span class="hlt">area</span> during these dry years, mainly in Pará. This indicates that fire and forest loss dynamics in woodlands or secondary forests may be equally important as deforestation in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In addition to the decrease in forest cover loss rates, we also found that post-deforestation fire use declined; <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> within 5 years after forest cover loss decreased from 54 to 39% during our study period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.169..271U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.169..271U"><span id="translatedtitle">Organic aerosols in a Brazilian agro-industrial <span class="hlt">area</span>: Speciation and impact of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Urban, R. C.; Alves, C. A.; Allen, A. G.; Cardoso, A. A.; Campos, M. L. A. M.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>This work presents the first comprehensive organic characterization of atmospheric aerosols from an agro-industrial region (São Paulo State, Brazil) highly impacted by biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The organic speciation was performed using different solvents of increasing polarity, enabling the identification and quantification of 172 different organic species by GC-MS. The mass of organic compounds reached 123 μg m- 3 in an aerosol sample collected during the sugar cane harvest period compared with 0.82 μg m- 3 in the non-harvest period. The samples most impacted by biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> were those with the highest percentages of non-polar compounds (n-alkanes; up to 96%). However, in absolute terms, the total mass of polar compounds in such samples was greater than for samples less impacted by this activity. Retene (a marker for biomass combustion) was the most abundant of the 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons quantified, corresponding to 14%-84%. This work shows that biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> was responsible for a benzo(a)pyrene equivalent index value that exceeded the recommendation of the World Health Organization. Principal component analysis indicated that agricultural biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and emissions from crop processing facilities explained 42% of the variance of the data, while 37% was explained by urban emissions, 10% by vehicle emissions, and 10% by biogenic sources. This study provides insights into the emissions of a suite of organic compounds that could participate in anthropic alteration of regional cloud formation and precipitation patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACP.....9.7847J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACP.....9.7847J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> particle flux observations over a heterogeneous urban <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jrvi, L.; Rannik, .; Mammarella, I.; Sogachev, A.; Aalto, P. P.; Keronen, P.; Siivola, E.; Kulmala, M.; Vesala, T.</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Long-term eddy covariance particle number flux measurements for the diameter range 6 nm to 5 ?m were performed at the SMEAR III station over an urban <span class="hlt">area</span> in Helsinki, Finland. The heterogeneity of the urban measurement location allowed us to study the effect of different land-use classes in different wind directions on the measured fluxes. The particle number fluxes were highest in the direction of a local road on weekdays, with a daytime median flux of 0.8109 m-2 s-1. The particle fluxes showed a clear dependence on traffic rates and on the mixing conditions of the boundary layer. The measurement footprint was estimated by the use of both numerical and analytical models. Using the crosswind integrated form of the footprint function, we estimated the emission factor for the mixed vehicle fleet, yielding a median particle number emission factor per vehicle of 3.01014 # km-1. Particle fluxes from the vegetated <span class="hlt">area</span> were the lowest with daytime median fluxes below 0.2109 m-2 s-1. During weekends and nights, the particle fluxes were low from all land use sectors being in the order of 0.02-0.1109 m-2 s-1. On an <span class="hlt">annual</span> scale the highest fluxes were measured in winter, when emissions from stationary combustion sources are also highest. Particle number fluxes were compared with the simultaneously measured CO2 fluxes and similarity in their sources was distinguishable. For CO2, the median emission factor of vehicles was estimated to be 370 g km-1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1257/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1257/"><span id="translatedtitle">Postwildfire debris flows hazard assessment for the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the 2011 Track Fire, northeastern New Mexico and southeastern Colorado</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In June 2011, the Track Fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> 113 square kilometers in Colfax County, northeastern New Mexico, and Las Animas County, southeastern Colorado, including the upper watersheds of Chicorica and Raton Creeks. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Track Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. The models incorporate measures of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of post-fire debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 38 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence-interval), the probability of debris flow estimated for basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Track fire ranged between 2 and 97 percent, with probabilities greater than 80 percent identified for the majority of the tributary basins to Raton Creek in Railroad Canyon; six basins that flow into Lake Maloya, including the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins; two tributary basins to Sugarite Canyon, and an unnamed basin on the eastern flank of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 30 cubic meters to greater than 100,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 100,000 cubic meters) were estimated for Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins, which drain into Lake Maloya. The Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Ranking identifies the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins as having the highest probability of producing the largest debris flows. This finding indicates the greatest post-fire debris-flow impacts may be expected to Lake Maloya. In addition, Interstate Highway 25, Raton Creek and the rail line in Railroad Canyon, County road A-27, and State Highway 526 in Sugarite Canyon may also be affected where they cross drainages downstream from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> basins. Although this assessment indicates that a rather large debris flow (approximately 42,000 cubic meters) may be generated from the basin above the City of Raton (basin 9) in response to the design storm, the probability of such an event is relatively low (approximately 10 percent). Additional assessment is necessary to determine if the estimated volume of material is sufficient to travel into the City of Raton. In addition, even small debris flows may affect structures at or downstream from basin outlets and increase the threat of flooding downstream by damaging or blocking flood mitigation structures. The maps presented here may be used to prioritize <span class="hlt">areas</span> where erosion mitigation or other protective measures may be necessary within a 2- to 3-year window of vulnerability following the Track Fire.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GMD.....7.2747Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GMD.....7.2747Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling the role of fires in the terrestrial carbon balance by incorporating SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE - Part 1: simulating historical global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and fire regimes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Cadule, P.; Thonicke, K.; Archibald, S.; Poulter, B.; Hao, W. M.; Hantson, S.; Mouillot, F.; Friedlingstein, P.; Maignan, F.; Viovy, N.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Fire is an important global ecological process that influences the distribution of biomes, with consequences for carbon, water, and energy budgets. Therefore it is impossible to appropriately model the history and future of the terrestrial ecosystems and the climate system without including fire. This study incorporates the process-based prognostic fire module SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE, which was then used to simulate <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> over the 20th century. Special attention was paid to the evaluation of other fire regime indicators such as seasonality, fire size and fire length, next to <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. For 2001-2006, the simulated global spatial extent of fire agrees well with that given by satellite-derived <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data sets (L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, GFED3.1), and 76-92% of the global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is simulated as collocated between the model and observation, depending on which data set is used for comparison. The simulated global mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is 346 Mha yr-1, which falls within the range of 287-384 Mha yr-1 as given by the three observation data sets; and is close to the 344 Mha yr-1 by the GFED3.1 data when crop fires are excluded. The simulated long-term trend and variation of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> agree best with the observation data in regions where fire is mainly driven by climate variation, such as boreal Russia (1930-2009), along with Canada and US Alaska (1950-2009). At the global scale, the simulated decadal fire variation over the 20th century is only in moderate agreement with the historical reconstruction, possibly because of the uncertainties of past estimates, and because land-use change fires and fire suppression are not explicitly included in the model. Over the globe, the size of large fires (the 95th quantile fire size) is underestimated by the model for the regions of high fire frequency, compared with fire patch data as reconstructed from MODIS 500 m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data. Two case studies of fire size distribution in Canada and US Alaska, and southern Africa indicate that both number and size of large fires are underestimated, which could be related with short fire patch length and low daily fire size. Future efforts should be directed towards building consistent spatial observation data sets for key parameters of the model in order to constrain the model error at each key step of the fire modelling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....1217817S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....1217817S"><span id="translatedtitle">Prescribed-<span class="hlt">burning</span> vs. wildfire: management implications for <span class="hlt">annual</span> carbon emissions along a latitudinal gradient of Calluna vulgaris-dominated vegetation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santana, V. M.; Alday, J. G.; Lee, H.; Allen, K. A.; Marrs, R. H.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>A~present challenge in fire ecology is to optimize management techniques so that ecological services are maximized and C emissions minimized. Here, we model the effects of different prescribed-<span class="hlt">burning</span> rotation intervals and wildfires on carbon emissions (present and future) in British moorlands. Biomass-accumulation curves from four Calluna-dominated ecosystems along a north-south, climatic gradient in Great Britain were calculated and used within a matrix-model based on Markov Chains to calculate above-ground biomass-loads, and <span class="hlt">annual</span> C losses under different prescribed-<span class="hlt">burning</span> rotation intervals. Additionally, we assessed the interaction of these parameters with an increasing wildfire return interval. We observed that litter accumulation patterns varied along the latitudinal gradient, with differences between northern (colder and wetter) and southern sites (hotter and drier). The accumulation patterns of the living vegetation dominated by Calluna were determined by site-specific conditions. The optimal prescribed-<span class="hlt">burning</span> rotation interval for minimizing <span class="hlt">annual</span> carbon losses also differed between sites: the rotation interval for northern sites was between 30 and 50 years, whereas for southern sites a hump-backed relationship was found with the optimal interval either between 8 to 10 years or between 30 to 50 years. Increasing wildfire frequency interacted with prescribed-<span class="hlt">burning</span> rotation intervals by both increasing C emissions and modifying the optimum prescribed-<span class="hlt">burning</span> interval for C minimum emission. This highlights the importance of studying site-specific biomass accumulation patterns with respect to environmental conditions for identifying suitable fire-rotation intervals to minimize C losses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25487951','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25487951"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> <span class="hlt">burning</span> of a tallgrass prairie inhibits C and N cycling in soil, increasing recalcitrant pyrogenic organic matter storage while reducing N availability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Soong, Jennifer L; Cotrufo, M Francesca</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Grassland ecosystems store an estimated 30% of the world's total soil C and are frequently disturbed by wildfires or fire management. Aboveground litter decomposition is one of the main processes that form soil organic matter (SOM). However, during a fire biomass is removed or partially combusted and litter inputs to the soil are substituted with inputs of pyrogenic organic matter (py-OM). Py-OM accounts for a more recalcitrant plant input to SOM than fresh litter, and the historical frequency of <span class="hlt">burning</span> may alter C and N retention of both fresh litter and py-OM inputs to the soil. We compared the fate of these two forms of plant material by incubating (13) C- and (15) N-labeled Andropogon gerardii litter and py-OM at both an <span class="hlt">annually</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> and an infrequently <span class="hlt">burned</span> tallgrass prairie site for 11months. We traced litter and py-OM C and N into uncomplexed and organo-mineral SOM fractions and CO2 fluxes and determined how fire history affects the fate of these two forms of aboveground biomass. Evidence from CO2 fluxes and SOM C:N ratios indicates that the litter was microbially transformed during decomposition while, besides an initial labile fraction, py-OM added to SOM largely untransformed by soil microbes. Additionally, at the N-limited <span class="hlt">annually</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> site, litter N was tightly conserved. Together, these results demonstrate how, although py-OM may contribute to C and N sequestration in the soil due to its resistance to microbial degradation, a long history of <span class="hlt">annual</span> removal of fresh litter and input of py-OM infers N limitation due to the inhibition of microbial decomposition of aboveground plant inputs to the soil. These results provide new insight into how fire may impact plant inputs to the soil, and the effects of py-OM on SOM formation and ecosystem C and N cycling. PMID:25487951</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1188/ofr2012-1188_pl2.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1188/ofr2012-1188_pl2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimated probability of postwildfire debris flows in the 2012 Whitewater-Baldy Fire <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, southwestern New Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Tillery, Anne C.; Matherne, Anne Marie; Verdin, Kristine L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In May and June 2012, the Whitewater-Baldy Fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> approximately 1,200 square kilometers (300,000 acres) of the Gila National Forest, in southwestern New Mexico. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 128 basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Whitewater-Baldy Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed by using data from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> basins throughout the intermountain Western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows along the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> drainage network and for selected drainage basins within the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. The models incorporate measures of areal <span class="hlt">burned</span> extent and severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall intensity to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to the 2-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, modeling indicated that four basins have high probabilities of debris-flow occurrence (greater than or equal to 80 percent). For the 10-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, an additional 14 basins are included, and for the 25-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, an additional eight basins, 20 percent of the total, have high probabilities of debris-flow occurrence. In addition, probability analysis along the stream segments can identify specific reaches of greatest concern for debris flows within a basin. Basins with a high probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in the west and central parts of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, including tributaries to Whitewater Creek, Mineral Creek, and Willow Creek. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from about 3,000-4,000 cubic meters (m3) to greater than 500,000 m3 for all design storms modeled. Drainage basins with estimated volumes greater than 500,000 m3 included tributaries to Whitewater Creek, Willow Creek, Iron Creek, and West Fork Mogollon Creek. Drainage basins with estimated debris-flow volumes greater than 100,000 m3 for the 25-year-recurrence event, 24 percent of the basins modeled, also include tributaries to Deep Creek, Mineral Creek, Gilita Creek, West Fork Gila River, Mogollon Creek, and Turkey Creek, among others. Basins with the highest combined probability and volume relative hazard rankings for the 25-year-recurrence rainfall include tributaries to Whitewater Creek, Mineral Creek, Willow Creek, West Fork Gila River, West Fork Mogollon Creek, and Turkey Creek. Debris flows from Whitewater, Mineral, and Willow Creeks could affect the southwestern New Mexico communities of Glenwood, Alma, and Willow Creek. The maps presented herein may be used to prioritize <span class="hlt">areas</span> where emergency erosion mitigation or other protective measures may be necessary within a 2- to 3-year period of vulnerability following the Whitewater-Baldy Fire. This work is preliminary and is subject to revision. It is being provided because of the need for timely "best science" information. The assessment herein is provided on the condition that neither the U.S. Geological Survey nor the U.S. Government may be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the assessment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.5260C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.5260C"><span id="translatedtitle">Wet deposition of major ions in a rural <span class="hlt">area</span> impacted by biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coelho, Cidelmara H.; Allen, Andrew G.; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Orlando, Eduardo A.; Grigoletto, Tahuana L. B.; Campos, M. Lucia A. M.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>This work concerns the influence of industrialized agriculture in the tropics on precipitation chemistry. A total of 264 rain events were sampled using a wet-only collector in central São Paulo State, Brazil, between January 2003 and July 2007. Electroneutrality balance calculations (considering H +, K +, Na +, NH4+, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Cl -, NO3-, SO42-, F -, PO43-, H 3CCOO -, HCOO -, CO42- and HCO3-) showed that there was an excess of cations (˜15%), which was attributed to the presence of unmeasured organic anion species originating from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and biogenic emissions. On average, the three ions NH4+, NO 3- and H + were responsible for >55% of the total ion concentrations in the rainwater samples. Concentrations (except of H +) were significantly higher ( t-test; P = 0.05), by between two to six-fold depending on species, during the winter sugar cane harvest period, due to the practice of pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span> of the crop. Principal component analysis showed that three components could explain 88% of the variance for measurements made throughout the year: PC1 (52%, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and soil dust resuspension); PC2 (26%, secondary aerosols); PC3 (10%, road transport emissions). Differences between harvest and non-harvest periods appeared to be mainly due to an increased relative importance of road transport/industrial emissions during the summer (non-harvest) period. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of ammonium (23.4 μmol L -1) and nitrate (17.5 μmol L -1) in rainwater samples collected during the harvest period were similar to those found in rainwater from São Paulo city, which emphasizes the importance of including rural agro-industrial emissions in regional-scale atmospheric chemistry and transport models. Since there was evidence of a biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> source throughout the year, it appears that rainwater composition will continue to be affected by vegetation fires, even after sugar cane <span class="hlt">burning</span> is phased out as envisaged by recent São Paulo State legislation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510247O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510247O"><span id="translatedtitle">Fire spatial heterogeneity, fire seasonality and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping accuracy in the tropical savannas of Northern Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oliveira, Sofia L. J.; Campagnolo, Manuel L.; Pereira, Jose M. C.; Russell-Smith, Jeremy</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Accurate <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping from remotely sensed data should be able to identify spatial heterogeneity within a fire perimeter, for an improved representation of fire effects as experienced by plants and animals. In order to derive a very high spatial resolution characterization of fire patterns in the tropical savannas of the Northern Territory, Australia, we walked 38.2km of line transects, sampling the presence/absence of <span class="hlt">burning</span> evidence at 1m intervals, in 35 different fires that occurred between 2009 and 2011. Transects were sampled in the early and in the late dry season, and in five dominant vegetation classes. We used lacunarity analysis and spatial autocorrelation to assess the dominant scale of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> patches, which turns out to be approximately 200m. Lacunarity analysis also suggests that burnt <span class="hlt">areas</span> exhibit a clustered pattern and that fire heterogeneity is more pronounced in the early dry season. This is consistent with our observation that patches in the late dry season tend to be smaller and more randomly distributed. Finally, we used our high resolution data date to simulate remote sensing detection of burnt <span class="hlt">areas</span> for a range of spatial resolutions. We quantify the omission error for each sensor and conclude that if resolution is lower than the dominant scale, then the error tends to be small. Our results also suggest that sensors with spatial resolution higher than the dominant scale have similar omission errors over a broad range of resolution values. The forthcoming Sentinel-2 satellites, which combine 5-day revisit, and systematic acquisition of all land surfaces at 10-20 m spatial resolution, with a large number of spectral bands, ought to allow for very accurate and timely mapping of fire heterogeneity, for improved assessment of fire impacts on biodiversity and pyrogenic emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AcO....49....1M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AcO....49....1M"><span id="translatedtitle">Responses of a small-mammal community to habitat management through controlled <span class="hlt">burning</span> in a protected Mediterranean <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Fire is widely used as a management tool to achieve conservation goals. However, the consequences of such management on non-target species are frequently neglected and unknown. This study examines the effects of traditional management practices of scrubland clearance by controlled <span class="hlt">burning</span> to improve menaced carnivores on non-target species: rodent and insectivores in Doñana National Park (SW of Iberian Peninsula). We used capture-recapture methods to examine changes in abundance in <span class="hlt">areas</span> that were burnt one and three years ago, compared with unburnt <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Results showed that burnt <span class="hlt">areas</span> had higher species abundances, but mainly on the ecotonal boundaries. Species abundances showed dramatic seasonal differences with high abundances in autumn and winter, and very low abundance in summer. Our study revealed that scrubland management by controlled fires increases the abundance of small mammal species, mainly Mus spretus and Apodemus sylvaticus. We found only four small mammal species between the different treatments. However, some species that were formerly abundant in Doñana, such as Elyomis quercinus, were found only in burnt <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Our results suggest that controlled <span class="hlt">burning</span> is not contributing to the current loss of biotic diversity in this community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/prevention-wellness/staying-healthy/first-aid/first-aid-burns.printerview.all.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/prevention-wellness/staying-healthy/first-aid/first-aid-burns.printerview.all.html"><span id="translatedtitle">First Aid: <span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... You can get <span class="hlt">burned</span> by heat, fire, radiation, sunlight, electricity, chemicals or hot or boiling water. There ... skin. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> will be sensitive to sunlight for up to one year, so you should ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1308/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1308/"><span id="translatedtitle">Postwildfire preliminary debris flow hazard assessment for the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the 2011 Las Conchas Fire in north-central New Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Las Conchas Fire during the summer of 2011 was the largest in recorded history for the state of New Mexico, <span class="hlt">burning</span> 634 square kilometers in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 321 basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Las Conchas Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> basins throughout the intermountain western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. The models incorporate measures of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 28.0 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence interval), the probabilities of debris flows estimated for basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Las Conchas Fire were greater than 80 percent for two-thirds (67 percent) of the modeled basins. Basins with a high (greater than 80 percent) probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in tributaries to Santa Clara and Rio del Oso Canyons in the northeastern part of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>; some steep <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, Los Alamos, and Guaje Canyons in the east-central part of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>; tributaries to Peralta, Colle, Bland, and Cochiti canyons in the southwestern part of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>; and tributaries to Frijoles, Alamo, and Capulin Canyons in the southeastern part of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> (within Bandelier National Monument). Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 400 cubic meters to greater than 72,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 40,000 cubic meters) were estimated for basins in Santa Clara, Los Alamos, and Water Canyons, and for two basins at the northeast edge of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> tributary to Rio del Oso and Vallecitos Creek. The Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Rankings identify the <span class="hlt">areas</span> of highest probability of the largest debris flows. Basins with high Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Rankings include upper Santa Clara Canyon in the northern section of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar, and portions of Peralta, Colle, Bland, Cochiti, Capulin, Alamo, and Frijoles Canyons in the southern section of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar. Three basins with high Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Rankings also occur in <span class="hlt">areas</span> upstream from the city of Los Alamos—the city is home to and surrounded by numerous technical sites for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Potential debris flows in the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> could affect the water supply for Santa Clara Pueblo and several recreational lakes, as well as recreational and archeological resources in Bandelier National Monument. Debris flows could damage bridges and culverts along State Highway 501 and other roadways. Additional assessment is necessary to determine if the estimated volume of material is sufficient to travel into <span class="hlt">areas</span> downstream from the modeled basins along the valley floors, where they could affect human life, property, agriculture, and infrastructure in those <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Additionally, further investigation is needed to assess the potential for debris flows to affect structures at or downstream from basin outlets and to increase the threat of flooding downstream by damaging or blocking flood mitigation structures. The maps presented here may be used to prioritize <span class="hlt">areas</span> where erosion mitigation or other protective measures may be necessary within a 2- to 3-year window of vulnerability following the Las Conchas Fire.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=298829','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=298829"><span id="translatedtitle">USDA <span class="hlt">area</span>-wide project for <span class="hlt">annual</span> grasses: outcomes and impacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This document provides a record of the research, outreach, education and technology transfer that was completed as part of the <span class="hlt">area</span>-wide project for invasive <span class="hlt">annual</span> grasses from 2007-2012. The overall goal of the project was to catalyze a holistic integrated management program for invasive <span class="hlt">annual</span> g...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title18-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title18-vol1-sec141-51.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title18-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title18-vol1-sec141-51.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Electric Balancing Authority <span class="hlt">Area</span> and Planning <span class="hlt">Area</span> Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false FERC Form No. 714, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Electric Balancing Authority <span class="hlt">Area</span> and Planning <span class="hlt">Area</span> Report. 141.51 Section 141.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND PUBLIC UTILITY...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.burninstitute.org/','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.burninstitute.org/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> Institute</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Now Help keep local seniors safe from fire! <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Survivor Support If you are reading this, chances ... year – a <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Learn more Fire and <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Prevention Each year, the <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Institute provides fire ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033781','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033781"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent acceleration of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and carbon losses in Alaskan forests and peatlands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Turetsky, M.R.; Kane, E.S.; Harden, J.W.; Ottmar, R.D.; Manies, K.L.; Hoy, E.; Kasischke, E.S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Climate change has increased the <span class="hlt">area</span> affected by forest fires each year in boreal North America. Increases in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and fire frequency are expected to stimulate boreal carbon losses. However, the impact of wildfires on carbon emissions is also affected by the severity of <span class="hlt">burning</span>. How climate change influences the severity of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> has proved difficult to assess. Here, we examined the depth of ground-layer combustion in 178 sites dominated by black spruce in Alaska, using data collected from 31 fire events between 1983 and 2005. We show that the depth of <span class="hlt">burning</span> increased as the fire season progressed when the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> was small. However, deep <span class="hlt">burning</span> occurred throughout the fire season when the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> was large. Depth of <span class="hlt">burning</span> increased late in the fire season in upland forests, but not in peatland and permafrost sites. Simulations of wildfire-induced carbon losses from Alaskan black spruce stands over the past 60 years suggest that ground-layer combustion has accelerated regional carbon losses over the past decade, owing to increases in <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and late-season <span class="hlt">burning</span>. As a result, soils in these black spruce stands have become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere, with carbon emissions far exceeding decadal uptake.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24906348','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24906348"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> care in South Africa: a micro cosmos of Africa.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rode, H; Cox, S G; Numanoglu, A; Berg, A M</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Burn</span> injuries in Africa are common with between 300,000 and 17.5 million children under 5 years sustaining <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries <span class="hlt">annually</span>, resulting in a high estimated fatality rate. These <span class="hlt">burns</span> are largely environmentally conditioned and therefore preventable. The Western Cape Province in South Africa can be regarded as a prototype of paediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> seen on the continent, with large numbers, high morbidity and mortality rates and an <span class="hlt">area</span> inclusive of all factors contributing to this extraordinary burden of injury. Most of the mechanisms to prevent <span class="hlt">burns</span> are not easily modified due to the restraint of low socio-economic homes, overcrowding, unsafe appliances, multiple and complex daily demands on families and multiple psycho-social stressors. Children <4 years are at highest risk of <span class="hlt">burns</span> with an average <span class="hlt">annual</span> rate of 6.0/10,000 child-years. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> care in South Africa is predominantly emergency driven and variable in terms of organization, clinical management, facilities and staffing. Various treatment strategies were introduced. The management of HIV positive children poses a problem, as well as the conflict of achieving equity of <span class="hlt">burn</span> care for all children. Without alleviating poverty, developing minimum standards for housing, <span class="hlt">burn</span> education, safe appliances and legislation, we will not be able to reduce the "curse of poor people" and will continue to treat the consequences. PMID:24906348</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4186812','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4186812"><span id="translatedtitle">To <span class="hlt">Burn</span> or Not to <span class="hlt">Burn</span>? Effect of Management Strategy on North American Prairie Vegetation for Public Urban <span class="hlt">Areas</span> in Germany</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schmithals, Anja; Khn, Norbert</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>North American prairie vegetation has been a role model for designing highly attractive plantings for German urban green spaces for the past decade. In combination with gravel mulch top layers on planting sites and non-selective maintenance techniques like mowing or <span class="hlt">burning</span>, prairie plantings are considered to be cost-effective and low-maintenance. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of different maintenance strategies and especially the necessity of fire management on the development success of ornamental prairie plantings in central Europe. A four factorial split-plot-block design was set up for investigation of different mixtures of prairie species under varying management conditions (mow-only, mowing plus selective weeding, mowing plus weeding and <span class="hlt">burning</span>) on two differing soil types (in-situ topsoil and in-situ topsoil with a graywacke gravel mulch top layer) over three years. Significant effects of maintenance strategy on mortality rates and vitality were documented for a number of target species, which responded species specifically, either being slightly affected by the <span class="hlt">burning</span> or thriving on it. Those effects were mostly restricted to topsoil sites. A strong impact on weed species presence and abundance and resulting maintenance times was found on both soil types. On topsoil sites, mow-only treatment resulted in a short-term loss of the original planting due to extensive weed growth. Corresponding gravel mulch sites were generally less colonised and visually dominated by weeds. Differences between weeded and weeded plus <span class="hlt">burned</span> sites were minor. Unexpectedly, weed species populations were mostly unaffected by the additional <span class="hlt">burning</span> treatment, while maintenance times and costs increased. No overall benefit of fire management for the establishment of prairie plantings was documented. The most effective management combination proved to be mowing plus regular selective weeding measures on gravel mulched planting sites. PMID:25286061</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25286061','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25286061"><span id="translatedtitle">To <span class="hlt">burn</span> or not to <span class="hlt">burn</span>? Effect of management strategy on North American prairie vegetation for public urban <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Germany.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmithals, Anja; Khn, Norbert</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>North American prairie vegetation has been a role model for designing highly attractive plantings for German urban green spaces for the past decade. In combination with gravel mulch top layers on planting sites and non-selective maintenance techniques like mowing or <span class="hlt">burning</span>, prairie plantings are considered to be cost-effective and low-maintenance. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of different maintenance strategies and especially the necessity of fire management on the development success of ornamental prairie plantings in central Europe. A four factorial split-plot-block design was set up for investigation of different mixtures of prairie species under varying management conditions (mow-only, mowing plus selective weeding, mowing plus weeding and <span class="hlt">burning</span>) on two differing soil types (in-situ topsoil and in-situ topsoil with a graywacke gravel mulch top layer) over three years. Significant effects of maintenance strategy on mortality rates and vitality were documented for a number of target species, which responded species specifically, either being slightly affected by the <span class="hlt">burning</span> or thriving on it. Those effects were mostly restricted to topsoil sites. A strong impact on weed species presence and abundance and resulting maintenance times was found on both soil types. On topsoil sites, mow-only treatment resulted in a short-term loss of the original planting due to extensive weed growth. Corresponding gravel mulch sites were generally less colonised and visually dominated by weeds. Differences between weeded and weeded plus <span class="hlt">burned</span> sites were minor. Unexpectedly, weed species populations were mostly unaffected by the additional <span class="hlt">burning</span> treatment, while maintenance times and costs increased. No overall benefit of fire management for the establishment of prairie plantings was documented. The most effective management combination proved to be mowing plus regular selective weeding measures on gravel mulched planting sites. PMID:25286061</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=38009&keyword=ethylene+AND+oxide&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=61525432&CFTOKEN=84279348','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=38009&keyword=ethylene+AND+oxide&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=61525432&CFTOKEN=84279348"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ANNUAL</span> REPORT ON PERFORMANCE AUDIT RESULTS FOR POHC TESTING DURING RCRA TRIAL <span class="hlt">BURNS</span>--STATUS REPORT #2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Audit materials containing Principal organic Hardous Constituents (P0HCs) have been developed by AREAL for use by federal, state, and local agencies or their contractors to assess the accuracy of measurement methods during RCA trial <span class="hlt">burn</span> tests. Audit materials are currently avail...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/273755','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/273755"><span id="translatedtitle">An optimized groundwater extraction system for the toxic <span class="hlt">burning</span> pits <span class="hlt">area</span> of J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Quinn, J.J.; Johnson, R.L.; Patton, T.L.; Martino, L.E.</p> <p>1996-06-01</p> <p>Testing and disposal of chemical warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals at the J-Field <span class="hlt">area</span> of the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) have resulted in contamination of soil and groundwater. The discharge of contaminated groundwater to on-site marshes and adjacent estuaries poses a potential risk to ecological receptors. The Toxic <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Pits (TBP) <span class="hlt">area</span> is of special concern because of its disposal history. This report describes a groundwater modeling study conducted at J-Field that focused on the TBP <span class="hlt">area</span>. The goal of this modeling effort was optimization of the groundwater extraction system at the TBP <span class="hlt">area</span> by applying linear programming techniques. Initially, the flow field in the J-Field vicinity was characterized with a three-dimensional model that uses existing data and several numerical techniques. A user-specified border was set near the marsh and used as a constraint boundary in two modeled remediation scenarios: containment of the groundwater and containment of groundwater with an impermeable cap installed over the TBP <span class="hlt">area</span>. In both cases, the objective was to extract the minimum amount of water necessary while satisfying the constraints. The smallest number of wells necessary was then determined for each case. This optimization approach provided two benefits: cost savings, in that the water to be treated and the well installation costs were minimized, and minimization of remediation impacts on the ecology of the marsh.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://newsinhealth.nih.gov/issue/Dec2013/Feature2','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://newsinhealth.nih.gov/issue/Dec2013/Feature2"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Issue: Handling Household <span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... hot objects or liquid, fire, friction, the sun, electricity, or certain chemicals. Each year, about a half- ... infant or elderly. the <span class="hlt">burn</span> was caused by electricity, which can lead to “invisible” <span class="hlt">burns</span>. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> <span class="hlt">Burns</span> ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575152','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575152"><span id="translatedtitle">Early excision and grafting versus delayed excision and grafting of deep thermal <span class="hlt">burns</span> up to 40% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>: a comparison of outcome</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Saaiq, M.; Zaib, S.; Ahmad, S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Summary This is a study of 120 patients of either sex and all ages who had sustained deep <span class="hlt">burns</span> of up to 40% of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>. Half the patients underwent early excision and skin autografting (i.e., within 4-7 days of sustaining <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury) while the rest underwent delayed excision and skin autografting (i.e., within 1-4 weeks post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>). Significant differences were found in favour of the early excision and grafting group with regard to the various <span class="hlt">burn</span> management outcome parameters taken into consideration, i.e. culture positivity of wounds, graft take, duration of post-graft hospitalization, and mortality. PMID:23467391</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.4024C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.4024C"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of emissions from open biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Tropical Asia during 2000-2007</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, D.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in tropical Asia emits large amounts of trace gases and particulate matters to atmosphere, which have significant influence in climate change and atmospheric chemistry. Emissions from open biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in tropical Asia are estimated during seven fire years 2000-2006 (i.e., April 1st 2000-March 31st 2007), using newly released L3JRC <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product and MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product (MCD45A1). Over seven fire years, both <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> and fire emissions showed clearly spatial and inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variations. The L3JRC <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged from 31.3×103 km2 for fire year 2005 to 57.5×103 km2 for 2000, while the MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged from 64.9×103 km2 for fire year 2002 to 127.0×103 km2 for 2004. We compared the total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> and forest <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> derived from the two separate products with publication data for several typical countries and found that the L3JRC results were comparable to previous studies and the MODIS results showed significant overestimation. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> average L3JRC-based emissions were 29915, 1948, 90, 30, 12, 105, and 871 Gg yr-1 for CO2, CO, CH4, NOx, BC, OC, and PM2.5 respectively, while MODIS-based emissions were 86740, 5222, 230, 83, 33, 296, and 2188 Gg yr-1, 60.2%-65.5% higher than L3JRC. Forest fires were the largest contributor to fire emissions, though <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> within forest biomes only constituted a minority of total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Fire emissions were mainly concentrated in Myanmar, Cambodia and India. Furthermore, the seasonal distribution of fire emissions was in good agreement with that of total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24823340','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24823340"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> therapist contributions to the American <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Association and the Journal of <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Care and Research: a 45th anniversary review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Richard, Reginald</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The year 2013 marked the 45th anniversary of American <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Association (ABA) <span class="hlt">annual</span> meetings. At this significant juncture, a review of contributions of its members is appropriate to celebrate this milestone. Since the first ABA <span class="hlt">annual</span> meeting and the initiation of the Journal of <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Care and Research (JBCR), <span class="hlt">burn</span> therapists, including both occupational and physical therapists, have grown to become integral members of the ABA, and their contributions among all members are highlighted. A systematic manual review of both ABA <span class="hlt">annual</span> meeting proceedings and the JBCR was performed. The contributions of <span class="hlt">burn</span> therapists to the ABA as a whole were classified, cataloged, and hand counted. <span class="hlt">Areas</span> included: 1) quantifying ABA abstract and JBCR articles on authorship and subject matter, 2) representation on ABA committees; 3) participation in special activities; and 4) other recognitions. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> therapists comprise 9.7% of ABA members overall. During the course of the first 44 ABA meetings, 8381 abstracts have been presented. Of this number, 634 (7.6%) have been delivered by <span class="hlt">burn</span> therapists as lead authors. Through the end of 2011, no less than 3207 publications by all disciplines have appeared in JBCR. The vast majority of articles have been written by physicians, followed by doctorate-trained professionals. One hundred-forty therapists have 249 publications (7.8%) to their credit. For both abstracts and articles, the top three subject matter topics have been: scarring, splints and casts, and outcomes. Numerous <span class="hlt">burn</span> therapists have served as faculty and moderators at ABA <span class="hlt">annual</span> meetings and on ABA committees including JBCR. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> therapists have made significant contributions to the JBCR and in support of the ABA and its <span class="hlt">annual</span> meetings over the past 45 years from the clinical, scientific, and Association perspectives. PMID:24823340</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18650705','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18650705"><span id="translatedtitle">Economics of pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bass, Michael J; Phillips, Linda G</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>Sustaining a <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury sets in motion a cycle of pain, disfigurement, and a search for survival. In pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span>, the injury extends to the parents where fear, ignorance, and helplessness forever change their lives. Pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries are caused by fire, hot liquids, clothing irons, hair curlers, caustic substances like drain cleaner, the grounding of an electrical source, and exposure to radiation. Efficiency in the delivery of pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> care is critical. Maximizing resource utilization means continual self-evaluation and economic analysis of therapeutic modalities. Griffiths et al found that most childhood <span class="hlt">burns</span> are due to scalds, which can be treated for $1061 per percent <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Paddock et al reduced the cost of treating superficial pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> and reduced the length of stay in hospital using silver-impregnated gauze over traditional methods. Barrett et al found improved cosmesis of skin grafts using cultured epithelial autografts but at a substantially increased cost. Corpron et al showed that pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> units that treat <span class="hlt">burns</span> >10% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> and operative treatment of pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> regardless of size generate positive revenue. There is a paucity of evidentiary pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> economic data. More research is needed to address <span class="hlt">areas</span> of pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> care inefficiency. Improving knowledge of cost in all health care endeavors will create competition and drive down expenditures. PMID:18650705</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED202638.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED202638.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Portland <span class="hlt">Area</span> Office Bureau of Indian Affairs: 1980 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Portland, OR.</p> <p></p> <p>In 1980 the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Portland <span class="hlt">Area</span> Office served 43,500 Indians of 33 federally recognized tribes, bands, and groups living on or near 4 million acres of reservation land in Idaho, Washington, and Oregon. Highlights of the fiscal 1980 BIA/tribal partnership included the joint review of overall Office operations and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20131108','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20131108"><span id="translatedtitle">Postwildfire debris-flow hazard assessment of the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the 2012 Little Bear Fire, south-central New Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Tillery, Anne C.; Matherne, Anne Marie</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A preliminary hazard assessment was developed of the debris-flow potential from 56 drainage basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Little Bear Fire in south-central New Mexico in June 2012. The Little Bear Fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> approximately 179 square kilometers (km2) (44,330 acres), including about 143 km2 (35,300 acres) of National Forest System lands of the Lincoln National Forest. Within the Lincoln National Forest, about 72 km2 (17,664 acres) of the White Mountain Wilderness were <span class="hlt">burned</span>. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> also included about 34 km2 (8,500 acres) of private lands. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> severity was high or moderate on 53 percent of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. The <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> is at risk of substantial postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. A postwildfire debris-flow hazard assessment of the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Little Bear Fire was performed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Lincoln National Forest. A set of two empirical hazard-assessment models developed by using data from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> drainage basins throughout the intermountain Western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows along the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> drainage network and for selected drainage basins within the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. The models incorporate measures of areal <span class="hlt">burn</span> extent and severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall intensity to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. Relative hazard rankings of postwildfire debris flows were produced by summing the estimated probability and volume ranking to illustrate those <span class="hlt">areas</span> with the highest potential occurrence of debris flows with the largest volumes. The probability that a drainage basin could produce debris flows and the volume of a possible debris flow at the basin outlet were estimated for three design storms: (1) a 2-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall of 27 millimeters (mm) (a 50 percent chance of occurrence in any given year); (2) a 10-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall of 42 mm (a 10 percent chance of occurrence in any given year); and (3) a 25-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall of 51 mm (a 4 percent chance of occurrence in any given year). Thirty-nine percent of the 56 drainage basins modeled have a high (greater than 80 percent) probability of debris flows in response to the 2-year design storm; 80 percent of the modeled drainage basins have a high probability of debris flows in response to the 25-year design storm. For debris-flow volume, 7 percent of the modeled drainage basins have an estimated debris-flow volume greater than 100,000 cubic meters (m3) in response to the 2-year design storm; 9 percent of the drainage basins are included in the greater than 100,000 m3 category for both the 10-year and the 25-year design storms. Drainage basins in the greater than 100,000 m3 volume category also received the highest combined hazard ranking. The maps presented herein may be used to prioritize <span class="hlt">areas</span> where emergency erosion mitigation or other protective measures may be needed prior to rainstorms within these drainage basins, their outlets, or <span class="hlt">areas</span> downstream from these drainage basins within the 2- to 3-year period of vulnerability. This work is preliminary and is subject to revision. The assessment herein is provided on the condition that neither the U.S. Geological Survey nor the U.S. Government may be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the assessment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10155946','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10155946"><span id="translatedtitle">TNX-<span class="hlt">Area</span> groundwater monitoring report. 1993 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>During 1993, samples from well cluster P 26 and the TBG, TNX, XSB, and YSB well series at the TNX <span class="hlt">Area</span> were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Seven parameters exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Dichloromethane (methylene chloride), a common laboratory contaminant, nitrate, and trichloroethylene exceeded PDWS most frequently. Four wells in this <span class="hlt">area</span> currently are part of the Purge Water Contaminant Program due to high trichloroethylene concentrations. Carbon tetrachloride, gross alpha, lead, and tetrachloroethylene were elevated sporadically in one or more wells during the year. Groundwater flow directions and rates in the Unconfined Aquifer were similar from quarter to quarter during the year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7562','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7562"><span id="translatedtitle">1998 Comprehensive TNX <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chase, J.</p> <p>1999-06-02</p> <p>Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX <span class="hlt">Area</span> at the Savannah River Site has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride. The Interim Action T-1 Air Stripper System began operation on September 16, 1996. A comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. The Interim Action is meeting its objectives and is capable of continuing to do so until the final groundwater remedial action is in place.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/962482','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/962482"><span id="translatedtitle">Scotch Creek Wildlife <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2007-2008 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Olson, Jim</p> <p>2008-11-03</p> <p>The Scotch Creek Wildlife <span class="hlt">Area</span> is a complex of 6 separate management units located in Okanogan County in North-central Washington State. The project is located within the Columbia Cascade Province (Okanogan sub-basin) and partially addresses adverse impacts caused by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee hydroelectric dams. With the acquisition of the Eder unit in 2007, the total size of the wildlife <span class="hlt">area</span> is now 19,860 acres. The Scotch Creek Wildlife <span class="hlt">Area</span> was approved as a wildlife mitigation project in 1996 and habitat enhancement efforts to meet mitigation objectives have been underway since the spring of 1997 on Scotch Creek. Continuing efforts to monitor the threatened Sharp-tailed grouse population on the Scotch Creek unit are encouraging. The past two spring seasons were unseasonably cold and wet, a dangerous time for the young of the year. This past spring, Scotch Creek had a cold snap with snow on June 10th, a critical period for young chicks just hatched. Still, adult numbers on the leks have remained stable the past two years. Maintenance of BPA funded enhancements is necessary to protect and enhance shrub-steppe and to recover and sustain populations of Sharp-tailed grouse and other obligate species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/207068','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/207068"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of global, regional, and national <span class="hlt">annual</span> CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel <span class="hlt">burning</span>, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boden, T.A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R.J.</p> <p>1995-12-01</p> <p>This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national <span class="hlt">annual</span> estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel <span class="hlt">burning</span>, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/942116','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/942116"><span id="translatedtitle">Shillapoo Wildlife <span class="hlt">Area</span>, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report 2006-2007.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Calkins, Brian</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>This report summarizes accomplishments, challenges and successes on WDFW's Shillapoo Wildlife <span class="hlt">Area</span> funded under Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wildlife Mitigation Program (BPA project No.2003-012-00) during the Fiscal Year 07 contract period October 1, 2006-September 30, 2007. The information presented here is intended to supplement that contained in BPA's PISCES contract development and reporting system. The organization below is by broad categories of work but references are made to individual work elements in the PISCES Statement of Work as appropriate. The greatest success realized during this contract period was significant positive changes in the vegetative community in several wetland basins throughout the wildlife <span class="hlt">area</span>. This major goal is being achieved in part by new equipment and operation capability funded under the BPA contract, state capital and migratory bird stamp funds, and the past or ongoing investment of other partners including Ducks Unlimited, The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Clark Public Utilities and others. We continue to be challenged by requirements under the archaeological and historic preservation act necessary to protect many sensitive sites known to occur within the wildlife <span class="hlt">area</span>. The problems encountered to date have been largely administrative in nature and those experienced this year were unforeseen and probably unavoidable. Early in the contract period, WDFW and BPA had agreed to have a BPA staff archaeologist perform the survey and reporting work. Unexpectedly, just prior to the expected start date for the surveys, the employee resigned leaving BPA's staff short handed and necessitated contracting the work with an archaeological consultant. This delay caused us to forego work on several projects that are now deferred until the next contract period. The most notable projects impacted by this unfortunate circumstance are those involving the construction or repair of fences.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/501521','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/501521"><span id="translatedtitle">TNX <span class="hlt">area</span> groundwater monitoring report. 1996 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>During 1996, samples from selected wells of well cluster P 26 and the TBG, TIR, TNX, TRW, XSB, and YSB well series at the TNX <span class="hlt">Area</span> of the Savannah River Plant were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Sixteen parameters exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Trichloroethylene exceeded the final PDWS most frequently. Antimony, arsenic beryllium, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chromium, copper, dichloromethane, gross alpha, lead, mercury, nitrate, nitrate-nitrite, tetrachloroethylene, or trichloroethylene were evaluated in one or more wells during the year. Groundwater flow directions and rates in the Unconfined Aquifer were similar from quarter to quarter during the year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRG..120.2256W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRG..120.2256W"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in Europe to climate change, atmospheric CO2 levels, and demography: A comparison of two fire-vegetation models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Minchao; Knorr, Wolfgang; Thonicke, Kirsten; Schurgers, Guy; Camia, Andrea; Arneth, Almut</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Global environmental changes and human activity influence wildland fires worldwide, but the relative importance of the individual factors varies regionally and their interplay can be difficult to disentangle. Here we evaluate projected future changes in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> at the European and sub-European scale, and we investigate uncertainties in the relative importance of the determining factors. We simulated future <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> with LPJ-GUESS-SIMFIRE, a patch-dynamic global vegetation model with a semiempirical fire model, and LPJmL-SPITFIRE, a dynamic global vegetation model with a process-based fire model. Applying a range of future projections that combine different scenarios for climate changes, enhanced CO2 concentrations, and population growth, we investigated the individual and combined effects of these drivers on the total <span class="hlt">area</span> and regions affected by fire in the 21st century. The two models differed notably with respect to the dominating drivers and underlying processes. Fire-vegetation interactions and socioeconomic effects emerged as important uncertainties for future <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in some European regions. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> of eastern Europe increased in both models, pointing at an emerging new fire-prone region that should gain further attention for future fire management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881500','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881500"><span id="translatedtitle">Explanation of Significant Difference (ESD) for the A-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (731-A/1A) and Rubble Pit (731-2A) (U)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Morgan, Randall</p> <p>2000-11-17</p> <p>The A-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (731-A/1A) and Rubble Pit (731-2A) (ABRP) operable unit (OU) is located in the northwest portion of Savannah River Site (SRS), approximately 2.4 kilometers (1.5 miles) south of the A/M <span class="hlt">Area</span> operations. Between 1951 and 1973, Pits 731-A and 731-1A were used to <span class="hlt">burn</span> paper, plastics, wood, rubber, rags, cardboard, oil, degreasers, and solvents. Combustible materials were <span class="hlt">burned</span> monthly. After <span class="hlt">burning</span> was discontinued in 1973, Pits 731-A and 731-1A were also converted to rubble pits and used to dispose of concrete rubble, bricks, tile, asphalt, plastics, metal, wood products, and rubber until about 1978. When the pits were filled to capacity, there were covered with compacted clay-rich native soils and vegetation was established. Pit 731-2A was only used as a rubble pit until 1983 after which the <span class="hlt">area</span> was backfilled and seeded. Two other potential source <span class="hlt">areas</span> within the OU were investigated and found to be clean. The water table aquifer (M-<span class="hlt">Area</span> aquifer) was also investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/942117','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/942117"><span id="translatedtitle">Shillapoo Wildlife <span class="hlt">Area</span>, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report 2004-2005.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Calkins, Brian</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>This report summarizes accomplishments, challenges and successes on WDFW's Shillapoo Wildlife <span class="hlt">Area</span> funded under Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wildlife Mitigation Program (BPA project No.2003-012-00) during the Fiscal Year 05 contract period October 1, 2004-September 30, 2005. The information presented here is intended to supplement that contained in BPA's PISCES contract development and reporting system. The organization below is by broad categories of work but references are made to individual work elements in the PISCES Statement of Work as appropriate. The greatest success realized during this contract period was completion of the water system that will provide water to wetland basins within the Vancouver Lake Unit and three independent basins on adjoining Clark County owned lands. The water system paid for by Clark Public Utilities was designed and built under the direction of Ducks Unlimited. Having a reliable water supply for these <span class="hlt">areas</span> has allowed us for the first time to begin making significant progress toward our wetland vegetation management goals on this unit. A reduction in the density of reed canary grass has already been noted and increased levels of native plant occurrence have been observed. Our most notable setback was an increase in the infestation of purple loosestrife within a portion of the Shillapoo Lakebed including parts of the North and South Units. A great deal of effort and time was spent on addressing the problem including hand cutting and spraying individual plants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/630837','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/630837"><span id="translatedtitle">1997 Comprehensive TNX <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chase, J.</p> <p>1998-04-01</p> <p>Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX <span class="hlt">Area</span> at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and carbon tetrachloride. In November 1994, an Interim Record of Decision (IROD) was agreed to and signed by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the South Carolina Department of Health {ampersand} Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The Interim Record of Decision requires the installation of a hybrid groundwater corrective action (HGCA) to stabilize the plume of groundwater contamination and remove CVOCs dissolved in the groundwater. The hybrid groundwater corrective action included a recovery well network, purge water management facility, air stripper, and an airlift recirculation well. The recirculation well was dropped pursuant to a test that indicated it to be ineffective at the TNX <span class="hlt">Area</span>. Consequently, the groundwater corrective action was changed from a hybrid to a single action, pump-and-treat approach. The Interim Action (IA) T-1 air stripper system began operation on September 16, 1996. a comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. As of December 31, 1997, the system has treated 32 million gallons of contaminated groundwater removed 32 pounds of TCE. The recovery well network created a `capture zone` that stabilized the plume of contaminated groundwater.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23644947','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23644947"><span id="translatedtitle">Concentrations and source apportionment of PM10 and associated elemental and ionic species in a lignite-<span class="hlt">burning</span> power generation <span class="hlt">area</span> of southern Greece.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Argyropoulos, G; Grigoratos, Th; Voutsinas, M; Samara, C</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Ambient concentrations of PM10 and associated elemental and ionic species were measured over the cold and the warm months of 2010 at an urban and two rural sites located in the lignite-fired power generation <span class="hlt">area</span> of Megalopolis in Peloponnese, southern Greece. The PM10 concentrations at the urban site (44.2 ± 33.6 μg m(-3)) were significantly higher than those at the rural sites (23.7 ± 20.4 and 22.7 ± 26.9 μg m(-3)). Source apportionment of PM10 and associated components was accomplished by an advanced computational procedure, the robotic chemical mass balance model (RCMB), using chemical profiles for a variety of local fugitive dust sources (power plant fly ash, flue gas desulfurization wet ash, feeding lignite, infertile material from the opencast mines, paved and unpaved road dusts, soil), which were resuspended and sampled through a PM10 inlet onto filters and then chemically analyzed, as well as of other common sources such as vehicular traffic, residential oil combustion, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>, uncontrolled waste <span class="hlt">burning</span>, marine aerosol, and secondary aerosol formation. Geological dusts (road/soil dust) were found to be major PM10 contributors in both the cold and warm periods of the year, with average <span class="hlt">annual</span> contribution of 32.6 % at the urban site vs. 22.0 and 29.0 % at the rural sites. Secondary aerosol also appeared to be a significant source, contributing 22.1 % at the urban site in comparison to 30.6 and 28.7 % at the rural sites. At all sites, the contribution of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> was most significant in winter (28.2 % at the urban site vs. 14.6 and 24.6 % at the rural sites), whereas vehicular exhaust contribution appeared to be important mostly in the summer (21.9 % at the urban site vs. 11.5 and 10.5 % at the rural sites). The highest contribution of fly ash (33.2 %) was found at the rural site located to the north of the power plants during wintertime, when winds are favorable. In the warm period, the highest contribution of fly ash was found at the rural site located to the south of the power plants, although it was less important (7.2 %). Moderate contributions of fly ash were found at the urban site (5.4 and 2.7 % in the cold and the warm period, respectively). Finally, the mine field was identified as a minor PM10 source, occasionally contributing with lignite dust and/or deposited wet ash dust under dry summer conditions, with the summertime contributions ranging between 3.1 and 11.0 % among the three sites. The non-parametric bootstrapped potential source contribution function analysis was further applied to localize the regions of sources apportioned by the RCMB. For the majority of sources, source regions appeared as being located within short distances from the sampling sites (within the Peloponnesse Peninsula). More distant Greek <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the NNE sector also appeared to be source regions for traffic emissions and secondary calcium sulfate dust. PMID:23644947</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6675112','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6675112"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Greenberg, J.P.; Zimmerman, P.R.; Heidt, L.; Pollock, W.</p> <p>1984-02-20</p> <p>Field measurements of hydrocarbon emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the cerrado (grasslands) and selva (tropical forest) regions of Brazil in 1979 and 1980 are characterized and quantified here. Regional consequences of <span class="hlt">burning</span> activities include increased background mixing ratios of carbon monoxide and ozone, as well as reduced visibility, over extensive <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Global extrapolation of the emission rate of hydrocarbons from these fires indicates that 6 x 10/sup 13/ g C of gas phase hydrocarbons and 8 x 10/sup 14/ g CO may be released <span class="hlt">annually</span> from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>. These emissions contribute significantly to the global budgets of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/biomass-burning','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/biomass-burning"><span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-07-27</p> <p>Projects:  Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Definition/Description:  Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span>: This data set represents the geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span>. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/942115','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/942115"><span id="translatedtitle">Shillapoo Wildlife <span class="hlt">Area</span>, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report 2007-2008.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Calkins, Brian</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>This report summarizes accomplishments, challenges and successes on WDFW's Shillapoo Wildlife <span class="hlt">Area</span> funded under Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wildlife Mitigation Program (BPA project No.2003-012-00) during the Fiscal Year 08 contract period October 1, 2007-September 30, 2008. The information presented here is intended to supplement that contained in BPA's PISCES contract development and reporting system. The organization below is by broad categories of work but references are made to individual work elements in the PISCES Statement of Work as appropriate. Significant progress was realized in almost all major work types. Of particular note was progress made in tree plantings and pasture rehabilitation efforts. This year's tree planting effort included five sites detailed below and in terms of the number of plants was certainly the largest effort on the wildlife <span class="hlt">area</span> to date in one season. The planting itself took a significant amount of time, which was anticipated. However, installation of mats and tubes took much longer than expected which impacted planned fence projects in particular. Survival of the plantings appears to be good. Improvement to the quality of waterfowl pasture habitats is evident on a number of sites due to replanting and weed control efforts. Continuing long-term weed control efforts will be key in improving this particular type of habitat. A prolonged cold, wet spring and a number of equipment breakdowns presented stumbling blocks that impacted schedules and ultimately progress on planned activities. The unusual spring weather delayed fieldwork on pasture planting projects as well as weed control and slowed the process of maintaining trees and shrubs. This time lag also caused the continued deferral of some of our fencing projects. The large brush hog mower had the driveline break twice and the smaller tractor had an engine failure that caused it to be down for over a month. We have modified our budget plan for next year to include a temporary employee that will work primarily on tree maintenance and fencing projects to make sure that we make progress in these <span class="hlt">areas</span> and we will be investigating whether a heavier duty driveline can be obtained for the mower.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/82463','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/82463"><span id="translatedtitle">Work plan for focused feasibility study of the toxic <span class="hlt">burning</span> pits <span class="hlt">area</span> at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Biang, C.; Benioff, P.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field <span class="hlt">area</span> at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCIA). J-Field is within the Edgewood <span class="hlt">Area</span> of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood <span class="hlt">Area</span> have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open <span class="hlt">burning</span> and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood <span class="hlt">Area</span> conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA)(predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-0021355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in which data were collected to model groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today-</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26081738','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26081738"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting <span class="hlt">annual</span> average particulate concentration in urban <span class="hlt">areas</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Progiou, Athena G; Ziomas, Ioannis C</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Particulate matter concentrations are in most cities a major environmental problem. This is also the case in Greece where, despite the various measures taken in the past, the problem still persists. In this aspect, a cost efficient, comprehensive method was developed in order to help decision makers to take the most appropriate measures towards particulates pollution abatement. The method is based on the source apportionment estimation from the application of 3D meteorological and dispersion modeling and is validated with the use of 10 years (2002-2012) PM10 monitoring data, in Athens, Greece, as well as using PM10 emission data for the same <span class="hlt">area</span> and time period. It appears that the methodology can be used for estimating yearly average PM10 concentrations in a quite realistic manner, giving thus the decision makers the possibility to evaluate ex ante the effectiveness of specific abatement measures. PMID:26081738</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988SPIE..914..500A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988SPIE..914..500A"><span id="translatedtitle">Multispectral Imaging Of <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Wounds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Afromowitz, Martin A.; Callis, James B.; Heimbach, David M.; DeSoto, Larry A.; Norton, Mary K.</p> <p>1988-06-01</p> <p>This research program successfully developed a real-time video imaging system (the Imaging <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Depth Indicator, or IBDI) which can discriminate <span class="hlt">areas</span> of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds expected to heal in three weeks or less from the day of injury from those <span class="hlt">areas</span> not expected to heal in that time period. The analysis can be performed on or about the third day post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> on debrided <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds. Early evaluation of <span class="hlt">burn</span> healing probability is a crucial factor in the decision to tangentially excise the <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound. The IBDI measures the reflectivity of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound in the red, green, and near infrared wavelength bands, which data correlate with <span class="hlt">burn</span> healing probability. The instrument uses an algorithm established in an earlier study to translate the optical data into <span class="hlt">burn</span> healing probabilities. The IBDI produces two types of images: a true-color image of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> and a false-color image of the <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The false-color image consists of up to four colors, each of which indicates a distinct range of probability that the <span class="hlt">area</span> of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> so colored will heal within 21 days. Over 100 <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound sites were studied. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> sites were evaluated on day three post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> by our instrument and by the attending physician. Of 55 sites considered to be of intermediate depth, the IBDI predicted the healing outcome accurately in 84% of the cases. By comparison, the predictions of <span class="hlt">burn</span> surgeons supervising the care of these patients were accurate in 62% of the cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1442M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1442M"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of the vegetation cover in a <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> 22-years ago using remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis (Sierra de las Nieves, South of Spain).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martnez-Murillo, Juan F.; Remond, Ricardo; Ruiz-Sinoga, Jos D.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The study aim was to characterize the vegetation cover in a <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> 22-years ago considering the previous situation to wildfire in 1991 and the current one in 2013. The objectives were to: (i) compare the current and previous vegetation cover to widlfire; (ii) evaluate whether the current vegetation has recovered the previous cover to wildfire; and (iii) determine the spatial variability of vegetation recovery after 22-years since the wildfire. The study <span class="hlt">area</span> is located in Sierra de las Nieves, South of Spain. It corresponds to an <span class="hlt">area</span> affected by a wildfire in August 8th, 1991. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was equal to 8156 ha. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity was spatially very high. The main geographic features of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> are: mountainous topography (altitudes ranging from 250 m to 1500 m; slope gradient >25%; exposure mainly southfacing); igneous (peridotites), metamorphic (gneiss) and calcareous rocks (limestones); and predominant forest land use (Pinus pinaster sp. woodlands, 10%; pinus opened forest + shrubland, 40%; shrubland, 35%; and bare soil + grassland, 15%). Remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis has been applied to achieve the objectives. Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images were used: July 13th, 1991 and July 1st, 2013, for the previous wildfire situation and 22-years after, respectively. The 1990 CORINE land cover was also considered to map 1991 land uses prior the wildfire. Likewise, the Andaluca Regional Government wildfire historic records were used to select the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and its geographical limit. 1991 and 2013 land cover map were obtained by means of object-oriented classifications. Also, NDVI and PVI1 vegetation indexes were calculated and mapped for both years. Finally, some images transformations and kernel density images were applied to determine the most recovered <span class="hlt">areas</span> and to map the spatial concentration of bare soil and pine cover <span class="hlt">areas</span> in 1991 and 2013, respectively. According to the results, the combination of remote sensing and GIS analysis let map the most recovered <span class="hlt">areas</span> affected by the wildfire in 1991. The vegetation indexes indicated that the vegetation cover in 2013 was still lower than that mapped just before the 1991 widlfire in most of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> after 22-years. This result was also confirmed by other techniques applied. Finally, the kernel density surface let identify and locate the most recovered <span class="hlt">areas</span> of pine cover as well as those <span class="hlt">areas</span> that still remain totally or partially uncovered (bare soil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/626453','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/626453"><span id="translatedtitle">D-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (431-D and 431-1D) Corrective Measures Study/Focused Feasibility Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Palmer, E.R.; Mason, J.T.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>The purpose of this report is to determine alternatives which may be used to remediate the D-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (DBRP). An objective of this process is to provide decision makers adequate information to compare alternatives, select an appropriate remediation for the DBRP, and demonstrate the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements in the Record of Decision.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70155970','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70155970"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring boreal forest leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> index across a Siberian <span class="hlt">burn</span> chronosequence: a MODIS validation study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cheng, X.; Vierling, Lee; Deering, D.; Conley, A.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Landscapes containing differing amounts of ecological disturbance provide an excellent opportunity to validate and better understand the emerging Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) vegetation products. Four sites, including 1?year post?fire coniferous, 13?year post?fire deciduous, 24?year post?fire deciduous, and >100 year old post?fire coniferous forests, were selected to serve as a post?fire chronosequence in the central Siberian region of Krasnoyarsk (57.3N, 91.6E) with which to study the MODIS leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> index (LAI) and vegetation index (VI) products. The collection 4 MODIS LAI product correctly represented the summer site phenologies, but significantly underestimated the LAI value of the >100 year old coniferous forest during the November to April time period. Landsat 7?derived enhanced vegetation index (EVI) performed better than normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to separate the deciduous and conifer forests, and both indices contained significant correlation with field?derived LAI values at coniferous forest sites (r2=0.61 andr2=0.69, respectively). The reduced simple ratio (RSR) markedly improved LAI prediction from satellite measurements (r2=0.89) relative to NDVI and EVI. LAI estimates derived from ETM+ images were scaled up to evaluate the 1km resolution MODIS LAI product; from this analysis MODIS LAI overestimated values in the low LAI deciduous forests (where LAI<5) and underestimated values in the high LAI conifer forests (where LAI>6). Our results indicate that further research on the MODIS LAI product is warranted to better understand and improve remote LAI quantification in disturbed forest landscapes over the course of the year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1619461','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1619461"><span id="translatedtitle">Preventing tap water <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Baptiste, M S; Feck, G</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Based on a 1974-1975 survey of hospital records in upstate New York, we estimate that 347 tap water <span class="hlt">burns</span> will require inpatient treatment <span class="hlt">annually</span>, with children and the elderly at increased risk. The number and severity of <span class="hlt">burns</span> from tap water makes them an important prevention priority. Reducing the temperature of household hot water supplies could be a practical and effective prevention measure. PMID:7386711</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70146795','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70146795"><span id="translatedtitle">Desert tortoise use of <span class="hlt">burned</span> habitat in the Eastern Mojave desert</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Drake, Karla K.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Defalco, Lesley; Scoles, Sara; Modlin, Andrew T.; Medica, Philip A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Wildfires <span class="hlt">burned</span> 24,254 ha of critical habitat designated for the recovery of the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in southern Nevada during 2005. The proliferation of non-native <span class="hlt">annual</span> grasses has increased wildfire frequency and extent in recent decades and continues to accelerate the conversion of tortoise habitat across the Mojave Desert. Immediate changes to vegetation are expected to reduce quality of critical habitat, yet whether tortoises will use <span class="hlt">burned</span> and recovering habitat differently from intact unburned habitat is unknown. We compared movement patterns, home-range size, behavior, microhabitat use, reproduction, and survival for adult desert tortoises located in, and adjacent to, <span class="hlt">burned</span> habitat to understand how tortoises respond to recovering <span class="hlt">burned</span> habitat. Approximately 45% of home ranges in the post-fire environment contained <span class="hlt">burned</span> habitat, and numerous observations (n = 12,223) corroborated tortoise use of both habitat types (52% unburned, 48% <span class="hlt">burned</span>). Tortoises moved progressively deeper into <span class="hlt">burned</span> habitat during the first 5 years following the fire, frequently foraging in <span class="hlt">burned</span> habitats that had abundant <span class="hlt">annual</span> plants, and returning to adjacent unburned habitat for cover provided by intact perennial vegetation. However, by years 6 and 7, the live cover of the short-lived herbaceous perennial desert globemallow (Sphaeralcea ambigua) that typically re-colonizes <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> declined, resulting in a contraction of tortoise movements from the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Health and egg production were similar between <span class="hlt">burned</span> and unburned <span class="hlt">areas</span> indicating that tortoises were able to acquire necessary resources using both <span class="hlt">areas</span>. This study documents that adult Mojave desert tortoises continue to use habitat <span class="hlt">burned</span> once by wildfire. Thus, continued management of this <span class="hlt">burned</span> habitat may contribute toward the recovery of the species in the face of many sources of habitat loss. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJAEO..36...94A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJAEO..36...94A"><span id="translatedtitle">Satellite-based automated <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> detection: A performance assessment of the MODIS MCD45A1 in the Brazilian savanna</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Araújo, Fernando Moreira De; Ferreira, Laerte G.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Burnings</span>, which cause major changes to the environment, can be effectively monitored via satellite data, regarding both the identification of active fires and the estimation of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Among the many orbital sensors suitable for mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> on global and regional scales, the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), on board the Terra and Aqua platforms, has been the most widely utilized. In this study, the performance of the MODIS MCD45A1 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product was thoroughly evaluated in the Brazilian savanna, the second largest biome in South America and a global biodiversity hotspot, characterized by a conspicuous climatic seasonality and the systematic occurrence of natural and anthropogenic fires. Overall, September MCD45A1 polygons (2000-2012) compared well to the Landsat-based reference mapping (r2 = 0.92) and were closely accompanied, on a monthly basis, by MOD14 and MYD14 hotspots (r2 = 0.89), although large omissions errors, linked to landscape patterns, structures, and overall conditions depicted in each reference image, were observed. In spite of its spatial and temporal limitations, the MCD45A1 product proved instrumental for mapping and understanding fire behavior and impacts on the Cerrado landscapes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/766540','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/766540"><span id="translatedtitle">Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office</p> <p>2000-06-09</p> <p>This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training <span class="hlt">Area</span> (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near <span class="hlt">Areas</span> 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> was used from the 1960s to 1980s to <span class="hlt">burn</span> excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the <span class="hlt">area</span> was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve the question of whether or not potentially hazardous wastes were generated at three of the four CASs within CAU 490, and whether or not potentially hazardous and radioactive wastes were generated at the fourth CAS in CAU 490 (CAS 09-54-001-09L2). Suspected CAS-specific COPCs include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, explosives, and uranium and plutonium isotopes. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3187958','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3187958"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> and Diabetes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shalom, A.; Friedman, T.; Wong, L.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Summary Diabetes is often considered a risk factor for poor wound healing and increased complication rates for plastic surgery procedures. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> injury in diabetic patients may have implications for the length of stay and number of operations required. We therefore we examined the characteristics of diabetic patients admitted to our <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit and the impact of their condition on their hospital course. Charts of all patients with diabetes admitted to the <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit from 1995 to 2000 were reviewed (n = 73). Demographic data, percent body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, anatomical location of the <span class="hlt">burn</span>, number of surgical procedures required, length and cost of stay, and outcome were noted. The control population included 150 consecutive patients without diabetes treated during the same period. Diabetic patients were older and underwent a higher number of surgical procedures, with increased length of stay and increased mortality, despite an equivalent body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. They had a higher incidence of scald <span class="hlt">burns</span> in the lower extremities than the non-diabetic population. This work shows that diabetic patients constitute a unique group. They are significantly older, have an increased rate of surgical interventions, increased hospital stay, and significantly increased mortality compared to a control group with similar surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burns</span>. This group is also more likely to have scald <span class="hlt">burns</span> in the lower extremities, mostly due to diabetic neuropathy. This work emphasizes the importance of education and prevention programmes directed towards this group of patients, in order to decrease morbidity, mortality, and hospital costs. PMID:21990975</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/787386','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/787386"><span id="translatedtitle">Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, February 2001)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>DOE /NV</p> <p>2001-02-23</p> <p>This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended Corrective Action Alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 490 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range and the Tonopah Test Range and is approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training <span class="hlt">Area</span> (located southwest of <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> (located west of Main Lake); 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard (located north of the northwest corner of <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3); and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> (located south of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 9 Compound on the TTR). A Corrective Action Investigation was performed in July and August 2000, and analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified in soil at the Gun Propellant <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> or the Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>; therefore, there is no need for corrective actions at these two sites. Five soil samples at the Fire Training <span class="hlt">Area</span> and seven at the Sandia Service Yard exceeded PALs for total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel. Upon the identification of COCs specific to CAU 490, Corrective Action Objectives were developed based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the TTR, with the following three CAAs under consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure In Place - No Further Action With Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based on the results of this evaluation, the preferred choice for CAU 490 was Alternative 3. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site, and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at this site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..77..725L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..77..725L"><span id="translatedtitle">Fluoride and sulfur dioxide indoor pollution situation and control in coal-<span class="hlt">burning</span> endemic <span class="hlt">area</span> in Zhaotong, Yunnan, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Yonglin; Luo, Kunli; Li, Ling; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The presented study aims to investigate the gaseous fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution level in the kitchen, traditional flue-curing barn and outdoor environment and to find economically feasible method to reduce fluorine and sulfur release. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentrations in air of outdoor environment, kitchen and traditional flue-curing barn were determined in 56 households in coal-<span class="hlt">burning</span> endemic fluorosis <span class="hlt">areas</span> of Zhaotong. Among these, 21 households in Yujiawan Village, Zhenxiong County, Zhaotong City were chosen for this experiment to reduce gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in traditional flue-curing barn air by using calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone (CDSL) instead of clay mixed with coal. The result showed that: (1) gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the outdoor air in Mangbu Township <span class="hlt">area</span> was 0.51 ?g dm-2?day and <0.05 mg m-3, respectively and in Xiaolongdong Township was 2.7 ?g dm-2 day and <0.05 mg m-3, respectively while in Zhaotong City these concentration were lower than the ambient air standard (3 ?g dm-2?day and 0.5 mg m-3, respectively). (2) The indoor gaseous fluoride concentration (3.7 ?g m-3) in air of kitchen with the improved coal stove was within the reference value (10 ?g m-3); SO2 concentration (0.94 mg m-3) in kitchen air had decline, but its concentration was still higher than indoor air quality standard (0.5 mg m-3). (3) Average concentration of gaseous fluoride and SO2 in air of traditional flue-curing barn of Xiaolongdong Township was 7.2 ?g m-3 and 6.8 mg m-3 respectively, and in Yujiawan village were 10.1 ?g m-3 and 14.4 mg m-3, respectively. (4) After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air decreased of 45% and 91%, respectively. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 pollution in the traditional flue-curing barn is very serious. The corn and chili baked by open stoves in traditional flue-curing barn (baking room) was also seriously polluted by fluoride and sulfur. After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air have declined markedly. The way of adding calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay as a binder for briquette-making is an economically feasible way to control the indoor pollution of fluorine and sulfur in coal-<span class="hlt">burning</span> endemic in Zhaotong, Yunnan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6476367','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6476367"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J. . Plasma Physics Lab.); Sigmar, D.J. )</p> <p>1990-10-01</p> <p>The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three <span class="hlt">areas</span> of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-<span class="hlt">burning</span> phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-<span class="hlt">burning</span> projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R D <span class="hlt">areas</span> that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613380L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613380L"><span id="translatedtitle">Slash and <span class="hlt">burn</span> versus "agronegcio". Tales of forest degradation in the maroon <span class="hlt">area</span> of Vila Bela da SantssimaTrindade, Mato Grosso, Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leite, Jos C.; Ferreira, Antnio A. J.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Over the last four decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the <span class="hlt">area</span> known as the "arcof deforestation", an extensive geographical <span class="hlt">area</span> located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. The deforestation process replaces the forest and the slash and <span class="hlt">burn</span> agriculture systems by modern intensive agriculture systems targeted at the production of cash crops like cotton, maize or soybeans, and to graze cattle.The so called "agronegcio" system. The reduction of pristine forest <span class="hlt">areas</span> where traditional (indigenous, maroons and riverside) population conduct slash and <span class="hlt">burn</span> agriculture, reduces the recovery time of the abandoned fields after exhaustion by agriculture crops, reason why the return to the same spots for another cycle of slash and <span class="hlt">burn</span> occurs before the forest recovers completely from the previous cycle. In fact, the frequency of the cycles is increasing with the expansion of farm land and the reduction of available forest. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of the deforestation trends in the Vila Bela da SantssimaTrindade, near the Bolivian border of Mato Grosso in Brazil, over a time span of four decades. The arc of deforestation has passed the region in the 1980's, leaving yet a large <span class="hlt">area</span> of pristine forest where the traditional communities kept practicing a slash and <span class="hlt">burn</span> agriculture system. Nevertheless, due to the reduction of available <span class="hlt">area</span>, and specially due to the exposure of traditional communities to the "western civilization culture", there is an increasing abandonment of the traditional systems and associated culture and knowledge. In this context, the traditional communities may become a deforestation/degradation factor. To prevent this situation, the GUYAGROFOR project was implemented, to value traditional knowledge, identify bottlenecks in the increase of added value to the local traditional products, and to test methodologies to maintain and if possible improve soil fertility near the small households. The deforestation/degradation processes and the impacts of the proposed mitigation action are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-10-05/pdf/2010-24990.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-10-05/pdf/2010-24990.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 61553 - National Transit Database: Amendments to the Urbanized <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Reporting Manual and to the...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-05</p> <p>...This notice provides interested parties with the opportunity to comment on changes to the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) National Transit Database (NTD) reporting requirements, including amendments to the 2011 Urbanized <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Reporting Manual (<span class="hlt">Annual</span> Manual). Pursuant to 49 U.S.C. 5335, FTA requires recipients or beneficiaries of FTA Urbanized <span class="hlt">Area</span> Formula Grants to provide an......</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5382053','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5382053"><span id="translatedtitle">Physical Sciences Program <span class="hlt">area</span>: 1987 research status report. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> summary report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1987-07-01</p> <p>The 1987 <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary of the research funded and managed by GRI's Physical Sciences Department discusses the status of ongoing and planned activities in thirteen research <span class="hlt">areas</span> grouped according to the elements of GRI's mission: Gas Supply Options (Gasification Chemistry, Geosciences, and Biological Sciences); End Use (Combustion, Heat and Mass Transfer Science, Electrochemistry, High Temperature Materials, Methane Reaction Science, and Bioengineering Sciences); Operations (Piping Materials Research and Gas Flow Research); Fundamental Sciences (Properties Research); and Exploratory Research (Exploratory Concepts). Presented are objectives and goals, accomplishments, strategy and basis for each project <span class="hlt">area</span>, and a status review sheet for projects within the project <span class="hlt">area</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26648640','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26648640"><span id="translatedtitle">Minor <span class="hlt">burn</span> management: potions and lotions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hyland, Ela J; Connolly, Siobhan M; Fox, Jade A; Harvey, John G</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The first aid for <span class="hlt">burns</span> is to run cold water over the <span class="hlt">burn</span> for 20 minutes. This is effective for up to three hours after the injury. Assess the affected body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> using the rule of nines. Consult a <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit if more than 5% of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> is burnt in a child or if more than 10% in an adult. Extensive or deep <span class="hlt">burns</span> and <span class="hlt">burns</span> to special <span class="hlt">areas</span>, such as the hands, should be referred. Chemical or electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> should also be assessed by a <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit. For minor <span class="hlt">burns</span>, antimicrobial dressings are recommended, but oral antibiotics should be avoided unless there are signs of infection. As <span class="hlt">burns</span> are tetanus prone, check the patient's immunisation status. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> that become infected or are slow to heal should be discussed with a <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit can also provide advice if there are uncertainties about how to manage a patient. PMID:26648640</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4653976','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4653976"><span id="translatedtitle">Minor <span class="hlt">burn</span> management: potions and lotions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hyland, Ela J; Connolly, Siobhan M; Fox, Jade A; Harvey, John G</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Summary The first aid for <span class="hlt">burns</span> is to run cold water over the <span class="hlt">burn</span> for 20 minutes. This is effective for up to three hours after the injury. Assess the affected body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> using the rule of nines. Consult a <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit if more than 5% of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> is burnt in a child or if more than 10% in an adult. Extensive or deep <span class="hlt">burns</span> and <span class="hlt">burns</span> to special <span class="hlt">areas</span>, such as the hands, should be referred. Chemical or electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> should also be assessed by a <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit. For minor <span class="hlt">burns</span>, antimicrobial dressings are recommended, but oral antibiotics should be avoided unless there are signs of infection. As <span class="hlt">burns</span> are tetanus prone, check the patients immunisation status. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> that become infected or are slow to heal should be discussed with a <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit can also provide advice if there are uncertainties about how to manage a patient. PMID:26648640</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/656906','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/656906"><span id="translatedtitle">Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan for the F-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (231-F, 231-1F, and 231-2F)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Palmer, E.</p> <p>1996-08-01</p> <p>The purpose of this source unit Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan is to describe the preferred alternative for addressing the F-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (231-F and 231-1F) and Rubble Pit (231-2F) (FBRP) source unit located at SRS, in southwestern Aiken County, South Carolina and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPRS...69...88S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPRS...69...88S"><span id="translatedtitle">A method for extracting <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> from Landsat TM/ETM+ images by soft aggregation of multiple Spectral Indices and a region growing algorithm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stroppiana, D.; Bordogna, G.; Carrara, P.; Boschetti, M.; Boschetti, L.; Brivio, P. A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Since fire is a major threat to forests and wooded <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the Mediterranean environment of Southern Europe, systematic regional fire monitoring is a necessity. Satellite data constitute a unique cost-effective source of information on the occurrence of fire events and on the extent of the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. Our objective is to develop a (semi-)automated algorithm for mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> from medium spatial resolution (30 m) satellite data. In this article we present a multi-criteria approach based on Spectral Indices, soft computing techniques and a region growing algorithm; theoretically this approach relies on the convergence of partial evidence of <span class="hlt">burning</span> provided by the indices. Our proposal features several innovative aspects: it is flexible in adapting to a variable number of indices and to missing data; it exploits positive and negative evidence (bipolar information) and it offers different criteria for aggregating partial evidence in order to derive the layers of candidate seeds and candidate region growing boundaries. The study was conducted on a set of Landsat TM images, acquired for the year 2003 over Southern Europe and pre-processed with the LEDAPS (Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System) processing chain for deriving surface spectral reflectance ?i in the TM bands. The proposed method was applied to show its flexibility and the sensitivity of the accuracy of the resulting <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps to different aggregation criteria and thresholds for seed selection. Validation performed over an entire independent Landsat TM image shows the commission and omission errors to be below 21% and 3%, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/1078.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/1078.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> (image)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> damage the outer layer of skin (epidermis) and cause pain, redness and swelling (erythema). Second degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> damage the epidermis and the inner layer, the dermis, causing erythema ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/910985','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/910985"><span id="translatedtitle">Design of an Actinide <span class="hlt">Burning</span>, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor that Produces Low Cost Electricity FY-01 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report, October 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Herring, James Stephen; Loewen, Eric Paul; Smolik, Galen Richard; Weaver, Kevan Dean; Todreas, N.</p> <p>2001-10-01</p> <p>The purpose of this collaborative Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project is to investigate the suitability of lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. Work has been accomplished in four major <span class="hlt">areas</span> of research: core neutronic design, plant engineering, material compatibility studies, and coolant activation. The publications derived from work on this project (since project inception) are listed in Appendix A.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr78219','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr78219"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak discharges from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Montana through September 1977</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Omang, R.J.; Hull, J.A.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak stage and stream-discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 191 stations in 1977. Data are tabulated for 336 sites throughout the period of record. (Woodard-USGS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1982/0270/plate-2.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1982/0270/plate-2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak discharges from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Montana through September 1981</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Omang, R.J.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 172 stations maintained in 1981. Data in the report are tabulated for the period of record. (USGS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr79522','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr79522"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak discharges from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Montana through September 1978</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Omang, R.J.; Parrett, C.; Hull, J.A.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 173 stations maintained in 1978. Data are tabulated for the period of record. (Woodard-USGS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr80340','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr80340"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak discharges from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Montana through September 1979</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Omang, R.J.; Parrett, C.; Hull, J.A.</p> <p>1955-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 173 stations maintained in 1979. Data in the report are tabulated for the period of record. (USGS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1981/0332/plate-2.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1981/0332/plate-2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak discharges from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Montana through September 1980</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Omang, R.J.; Parrett, Charles; Hull, J.A.</p> <p>1955-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 172 stations maintained in 1980. Data in the report are tabulated for the period of record. (USGS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/09_19_2011_yETg83Jwv6_09_19_2011_1','SCIGOVIMAGE-USGS'); return false;" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/09_19_2011_yETg83Jwv6_09_19_2011_1"><span id="translatedtitle">Controlled <span class="hlt">Burn</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>GULF OF MEXICO — Dark clouds of smoke and fire emerge as oil <span class="hlt">burns</span> during a controlled <span class="hlt">burn</span> in the Gulf of Mexico. The U.S. Coast Guard working in partnership with BP PLC, local residents, and other Federal agencies conducted the controlled <span class="hlt">burn</span> to aid in preventing the spread of oil following...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr77172','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr77172"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak discharges from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Montana through September 1976</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Johnson, M.V.; Omang, R.J.; Hull, J.A.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak discharge from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> is tabulated for 336 sites in Montana. The 1976 additions included data collected at 206 sites. The program which investigates the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Montana, was begun July 1, 1955. Originally 45 crest-stage gaging stations were established. The purpose of the program is to collect sufficient peak-flow data, which through analysis could provide methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods at any point in Montana. The ultimate objective is to provide methods for estimating the 100-year flood with the reliability needed for road design. (Woodard-USGS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25435154','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25435154"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> diversity of seasonal agricultural <span class="hlt">area</span> using multi-temporal resourcesat data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sreenivas, K; Sekhar, N Seshadri; Saxena, Manoj; Paliwal, R; Pathak, S; Porwal, M C; Fyzee, M A; Rao, S V C Kameswara; Wadodkar, M; Anasuya, T; Murthy, M S R; Ravisankar, T; Dadhwal, V K</p> <p>2015-09-15</p> <p>The present study aims at analysis of spatial and temporal variability in agricultural land cover during 2005-6 and 2011-12 from an ongoing program of <span class="hlt">annual</span> land use mapping using multidate Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) data aboard Resourcesat-1 and 2. About 640-690 multi-temporal AWiFS quadrant data products per year (depending on cloud cover) were co-registered and radiometrically normalized to prepare state (administrative unit) mosaics. An 18-fold classification was adopted in this project. Rule-based techniques along with maximum-likelihood algorithm were employed to deriving land cover information as well as changes within agricultural land cover classes. The agricultural land cover classes include - kharif (June-October), rabi (November-April), zaid (April-June), <span class="hlt">area</span> sown more than once, fallow lands and plantation crops. Mean kappa accuracy of these estimates varied from 0.87 to 0.96 for various classes. Standard error of estimate has been computed for each class <span class="hlt">annually</span> and the <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates were corrected using standard error of estimate. The corrected estimates range between 99 and 116Mha for kharif and 77-91Mha for rabi. The kharif, rabi and net sown <span class="hlt">area</span> were aggregated at 10kmנ10km grid on <span class="hlt">annual</span> basis for entire India and CV was computed at each grid cell using temporal spatially-aggregated <span class="hlt">area</span> as input. This spatial variability of agricultural land cover classes was analyzed across meteorological zones, irrigated command <span class="hlt">areas</span> and administrative boundaries. The results indicate that out of various states/meteorological zones, Punjab was consistently cropped during kharif as well as rabi seasons. Out of all irrigated commands, Tawa irrigated command was consistently cropped during rabi season. PMID:25435154</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1984/0577/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1984/0577/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> ground-water use in the Twin Cities metropolitan <span class="hlt">area</span>, Minnesota, 1970-79</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Horn, M.A.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Annual</span> groundwater use in the Twin Cities Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Area</span> from 1970-79 is presented by aquifer and type of use. Most groundwater is withdrawn from wells in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer and major uses of the water are for self-supplied industry and public supplies. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> groundwater-use data are presented by county for each of the five major aquifers; Prairie du Chien-Jordan, Mount Simon-Hinckley, Ironton-Galesville, St. Peter, and drift. The data also are presented by county for each major use type including public supply, self-supplied industry, commercial air-conditioning, irrigation, lake-level maintenance, and dewatering. The data were collected initially by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and were supplemented by data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey. (USGS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11307683','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11307683"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> and military clothing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McLean, A D</p> <p>2001-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Burn</span> injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Over the last hundred years, the <span class="hlt">burn</span> threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of <span class="hlt">burn</span>, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of <span class="hlt">burn</span> casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from <span class="hlt">burns</span> is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of <span class="hlt">burn</span>--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a <span class="hlt">burn</span>. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a <span class="hlt">burn</span> threat. This paper explores the incidence of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash <span class="hlt">burns</span>; the most vulnerable <span class="hlt">areas</span> are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under high heat loads in the laboratory, combat clothing can ignite, but there is little evidence that clothing ignition is a common occurrence in military <span class="hlt">burn</span> casualties. Thermoplastic materials have many benefits in civil and military clothing. There is little objective evidence that they exacerbate <span class="hlt">burns</span>, or complicate <span class="hlt">burn</span> management. Their use in military clothing must be based on objective evidence, not hearsay. PMID:11307683</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1345939','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1345939"><span id="translatedtitle">Clothing <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Canadian children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stanwick, Richard S.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A Canadian survey of 11 tertiary care pediatric centres with specialized <span class="hlt">burn</span> facilities revealed that an estimated 37 children up to 9 years of age are admitted <span class="hlt">annually</span> to such hospitals because of clothing <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Sleepwear accounts for an estimated 21 such <span class="hlt">burns</span> per year. Girls were found to suffer the most severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> and represented eight of the nine children in the series who died. Loose and flowing garments dominated the girls' styles. The results of multiple-regression analysis confirmed that style of clothing (loose and flowing as opposed to snug) was the most significant predictor of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, length of hospital stay, the need for skin grafting and survival. The ignition situation (avoidance of parental supervision at the time of injury) was the only other important predictor. The success of regulatory actions in other countries in reducing the incidence of severe clothing <span class="hlt">burns</span> is reviewed, and preventive strategies for Canada are explored. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:3995433</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25749620','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25749620"><span id="translatedtitle">PCDD/Fs in air and soil around an e-waste dismantling <span class="hlt">area</span> with open <span class="hlt">burning</span> of insulated wires in south China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ren, M; Tang, Y H; Peng, P A; Cai, Y</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in ambient air and farmland soil sampled in 2006 around an e-waste dismantling <span class="hlt">area</span> with open <span class="hlt">burning</span> of insulated wires in Longtang in south China were investigated. The total toxic equivalent concentrations of PCDD/Fs were 3.2-31.7 pg/m(3) in air and 5.8 12.4 ng/kg in farmland soil at an e-waste site and 0.063-0.091 pg/m(3) in air at a background site. PCDD/Fs in the air at the e-waste site were characterized with dominant 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF and OCDF and higher concentrations of furans than dioxins, suggesting open <span class="hlt">burning</span> of insulated wires was likely to be the main source of PCDD/Fs. Compared with the results in this study, the level of PCDD/F tended to lessen with the average TEQ concentration decreasing by 41 % and the pattern changed to be dominated by OCDD in the air of Longtang in 2010 when insulated wires were openly <span class="hlt">burned</span> in only a small scale. Our results indicate that the lower chlorinated congeners with higher vapor pressures have enhanced atmospheric transport tendencies. PMID:25749620</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1039309','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1039309"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical <span class="hlt">Area</span> 54, <span class="hlt">Area</span> G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>French, Sean B.; Shuman, Rob</p> <p>2012-05-22</p> <p>As a condition to the Disposal Authorization Statement issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) on March 17, 2010, a comprehensive performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program must be implemented for the Technical <span class="hlt">Area</span> 54, <span class="hlt">Area</span> G disposal facility. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> determinations of the adequacy of the performance assessment and composite analysis are to be conducted under the maintenance program to ensure that the conclusions reached by those analyses continue to be valid. This report summarizes the results of the fiscal year 2011 <span class="hlt">annual</span> review for <span class="hlt">Area</span> G. Revision 4 of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> G performance assessment and composite analysis was issued in 2008 and formally approved in 2009. These analyses are expected to provide reasonable estimates of the long-term performance of <span class="hlt">Area</span> G and, hence, the disposal facility's ability to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) performance objectives. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> disposal receipt reviews indicate that smaller volumes of waste will require disposal in the pits and shafts at <span class="hlt">Area</span> G relative to what was projected for the performance assessment and composite analysis. The future inventories are projected to decrease modestly for the pits but increase substantially for the shafts due to an increase in the amount of tritium that is projected to require disposal. Overall, however, changes in the projected future inventories of waste are not expected to compromise the ability of <span class="hlt">Area</span> G to satisfy DOE performance objectives. The <span class="hlt">Area</span> G composite analysis addresses potential impacts from all waste disposed of at the facility, as well as other sources of radioactive material that may interact with releases from <span class="hlt">Area</span> G. The level of knowledge about the other sources included in the composite analysis has not changed sufficiently to call into question the validity of that analysis. Ongoing environmental surveillance activities are conducted at, and in the vicinity of, <span class="hlt">Area</span> G. However, the information generated by many of these activities cannot be used to evaluate the validity of the performance assessment and composite analysis models because the monitoring data collected are specific to operational releases or address receptors that are outside the domain of the performance assessment and composite analysis. In general, applicable monitoring data are supportive of some aspects of the performance assessment and composite analysis. Several research and development (R and D) efforts have been initiated under the performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program. These investigations are designed to improve the current understanding of the disposal facility and site, thereby reducing the uncertainty associated with the projections of the long-term performance of <span class="hlt">Area</span> G. The status and results of R and D activities that were undertaken in fiscal year 2011 are discussed in this report. Special analyses have been conducted to determine the feasibility of disposing of specific waste streams, to address proposed changes in disposal operations, and to consider the impacts of changes to the models used to conduct the performance assessment and composite analysis. These analyses are described and the results of the evaluations are summarized in this report. The <span class="hlt">Area</span> G disposal facility consists of Material Disposal <span class="hlt">Area</span> (MDA) G and the Zone 4 expansion <span class="hlt">area</span>. To date, all disposal operations at <span class="hlt">Area</span> G have been confined to MDA G. Material Disposal <span class="hlt">Area</span> G is scheduled to undergo final closure in 2015; disposal of waste in the pits and shafts is scheduled to end in 2013. In anticipation of the closure of MDA G, plans are being made to ship the majority of the waste generated at LANL to off-site locations for disposal. It is not clear at this time if waste that will be disposed of at LANL will be placed in Zone 4 or if disposal operations will move to a new location at the Laboratory. Separately, efforts to optimize the final cover used in the closure of MDA G are underway; a final cover design different than that adopted for the performance assessment and composite analysis will likely emerge from that investigation. All of these changes will require re-examination of the assumptions upon which the performance assessment and composite analysis are based and, in all likelihood, revision of those analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26107433','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26107433"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Individual Doses for Evacuees Returning Home to <span class="hlt">Areas</span> Affected by the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yajima, Kazuaki; Kurihara, Osamu; Ohmachi, Yasushi; Takada, Masashi; Omori, Yasutaka; Akahane, Keiichi; Kim, Eunjoo; Torikoshi, Masami; Yonehara, Hidenori; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>To contribute to the reconstruction and revitalization of Fukushima Prefecture following the 2011 nuclear power disaster, <span class="hlt">annual</span> individual doses were estimated for evacuees who will return home to Tamura City, Kawauchi Village, and Iitate Village in Fukushima. Ambient external dose rates and individual doses obtained with personal dosimeters were measured at many residential and occupational sites throughout the study <span class="hlt">areas</span> to obtain fundamental data needed for the estimation. The measurement results indicated that the ratio of individual dose based on a personal dosimeter to the ambient external dose measurement was 0.7 with 10% uncertainty. Multiplying the ambient external dose by 0.7 may be an appropriate measure of the effective dose to an individual in the investigated <span class="hlt">area</span>. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> individual doses were estimated for representative lifestyles and occupations based on the ambient external dose rates at the measurement sites, taking into account the relationship between the ambient external dose and individual dose. The results were as follows: 0.6-2.3 mSv y in Tamura, 1.1-5.5 mSv y in Kawauchi, and 3.8-17 mSv y in Iitate. For all <span class="hlt">areas</span> investigated, the estimated dose to outdoor workers was higher than that to indoor workers. Identifying ways to reduce the amount of time that an outdoor worker spends outdoors would provide an effective measure to reduce dose. PMID:26107433</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7169215','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7169215"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between <span class="hlt">annual</span> runoff and watershed <span class="hlt">area</span> for the eastern United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rochelle, B.P.; Church, M.R.; Gebert, W.A.; Graczyk, D.J.; Krug, W.R. )</p> <p>1988-02-01</p> <p>As part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's effort to determine the long-term effects of acidic deposition on surface water chemistry, <span class="hlt">annual</span> runoff was estimated for about 1000 ungaged sites in the eastern US using runoff contour maps. One concern in using contour maps was that a bias may be introduced in the runoff estimates due to the size of the 1000 ungaged sites relative to the size of the watersheds used in developing the maps. To determined if a bias was present the relationship between the <span class="hlt">annual</span> runoff (expressed as depth) and the watershed <span class="hlt">area</span> for the Northeast (NE) and Southern Blue Ridge Province (SBRP) was tested using five regional data bases. One short-term data base (1984 Water Year, n = 531) and two long-term data bases (1940-57, n = 134 and 1951-80, n =342) were used in the NE. In the SBRP one short-term data base (1984 Water Year, n = 531) and one long-term data base (1951-80, n = 60) were used. For the NE and the SBRP, runoff was not directly correlated with watershed <span class="hlt">area</span> using the five regional data bases. Also, runoff normalized by precipitation was not related to watershed <span class="hlt">area</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5192252','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5192252"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between <span class="hlt">annual</span> runoff and watershed <span class="hlt">area</span> for the eastern United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rochelle, B.P.; Church, M.R.; Gebert, W.A.; Graczyk, D.J.; Krug, W.R.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's effort to determine the long-term effects of acidic deposition on surface-water chemistry, <span class="hlt">annual</span> runoff was estimated for about 1000 ungaged sites in the eastern U.S. using runoff contour maps. One concern in using contour maps was that a bias may be introduced in the runoff estimates due to the size of the 1000 ungaged sites relative to the size of the watersheds used in developing the maps. To determine if a bias was present the relationship between the <span class="hlt">annual</span> runoff (expressed as depth) and the watershed <span class="hlt">area</span> for the Northeast (NE) and Southern Blue Ridge Province (SBRP) was tested using five regional data bases. One short-term data base (1984 Water Year, n = 531), and two long-term data bases (1940-57, n = 134 and 1951-80, n = 342) was used in the NE. In the SBRP one short-term data base (1984 Water Year, n = 531) and one long-term data base (1951-80, n = 60) were used. For the NE and the SBRP, runoff was not directly correlated with watershed <span class="hlt">area</span> using the five regional data bases. Also, runoff normalized by precipitation was not related to watershed <span class="hlt">area</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26204384','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26204384"><span id="translatedtitle">Review of <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Research for Year 2014.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina; Greenhalgh, David</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Management of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries requires treatments and interventions from many disciplines. Worldwide, <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients suffer from physical and psychological challenges that impact their lives socially and economically. In this review, we will highlight a handful of the numerous articles published in multiple <span class="hlt">areas</span> of <span class="hlt">burn</span> care. The <span class="hlt">areas</span> of <span class="hlt">burn</span> care addressed in the article are: epidemiology; <span class="hlt">burn</span> resuscitation, critical care, and infection; nutrition and metabolism; pain and rehabilitation; prevention and firefighter safety; psychology; and reconstruction and wounds. PMID:26204384</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr79510','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr79510"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak discharges from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Montana for stations discontinued before 1978</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Omang, R.J.; Hull, J.A.; Parrett, Charles</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak stage and discharge data have been tabulated for crest-stage gage sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from samll drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 172 stations maintained in 1978. From 1955 to 1978, 156 stations have been discontinued. This report is a tabulation of the stage and discharge data for the discontinued stations. (Woodard-USGS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6525537','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6525537"><span id="translatedtitle">'Therapeutic' <span class="hlt">burns</span> (Maqua).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baruchin, A M</p> <p>1984-12-01</p> <p>Cauterization of the skin by a red-hot iron, a pinch of hot cinder or a <span class="hlt">burning</span> coal, is a form of 'treatment' used by lay healers in some parts of Africa and the Middle East. The <span class="hlt">burns</span> are limited to small circular <span class="hlt">areas</span>, and are usually full-thickness skin loss. Most frequently, the patients do not seek medical treatment and the <span class="hlt">burns</span> heal by secondary intention. Sometimes, however, disastrous complications such as infectious osteomyelitis, septicaemia and death may occur. PMID:6525537</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20131273','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20131273"><span id="translatedtitle">Post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment of the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near Hailey, central Idaho</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Skinner, Kenneth D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A preliminary hazard assessment was developed for debris-flow hazards in the 465 square-kilometer (115,000 acres) <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the 2013 Beaver Creek fire near Hailey in central Idaho. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> covers all or part of six watersheds and selected basins draining to the Big Wood River and is at risk of substantial post-fire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> basins throughout the Intermountain Region in Western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence, potential volume of debris flows, and the combined debris-flow hazard ranking along the drainage network within the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and to estimate the same for analyzed drainage basins within the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Input data for the empirical models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm (13 mm); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm (19 mm); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm (22 mm). Estimated debris-flow probabilities for drainage basins upstream of 130 selected basin outlets ranged from less than 1 to 78 percent with the probabilities increasing with each increase in storm magnitude. Probabilities were high in three of the six watersheds. For the 25-year storm, probabilities were greater than 60 percent for 11 basin outlets and ranged from 50 to 60 percent for an additional 12 basin outlets. Probability estimates for stream segments within the drainage network can vary within a basin. For the 25-year storm, probabilities for stream segments within 33 basins were higher than the basin outlet, emphasizing the importance of evaluating the drainage network as well as basin outlets. Estimated debris-flow volumes for the three modeled storms range from a minimal debris flow volume of 10 cubic meters [m3]) to greater than 100,000 m3. Estimated debris-flow volumes increased with basin size and distance downstream. For the 25-year storm, estimated debris-flow volumes were greater than 100,000 m3 for 4 basins and between 50,000 and 100,000 m3 for 10 basins. The debris-flow hazard rankings did not result in the highest hazard ranking of 5, indicating that none of the basins had a high probability of debris-flow occurrence and a high debris-flow volume estimate. The hazard ranking was 4 for one basin using the 10-year-recurrence storm model and for three basins using the 25-year-recurrence storm model. The maps presented herein may be used to prioritize <span class="hlt">areas</span> where post-wildfire remediation efforts should take place within the 2- to 3-year period of increased erosional vulnerability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17925649','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17925649"><span id="translatedtitle">Healthcare resource utilization and epidemiology of pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span>-associated hospitalizations, United States, 2000.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shields, Brenda J; Comstock, R Dawn; Fernandez, Soledad A; Xiang, Huiyun; Smith, Gary A</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology and financial burden of <span class="hlt">burn</span>-associated hospitalizations for children younger than 18 years in the United States. Retrospective data analysis of pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span>-associated hospitalizations was done using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database for 2000. An estimated 10,000 children younger than 18 years were hospitalized for <span class="hlt">burn</span>-associated injuries in the United States in 2000. These children spent an estimated 66,200 days in the hospital with associated hospital charges equal to USD 211,772,700. Total charges and length of stay for pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span>-associated hospitalizations in the United States during 2000 were associated with degree of <span class="hlt">burn</span>, percentage of total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, child's age, region of the United States, hospital location, and hospital type. Children 2 years old or younger were more likely to be nonwhite, be hospitalized for <span class="hlt">burns</span>, and <span class="hlt">burn</span> their hands/wrists, compared with children 3 to 17 years of age. Male children in both age groups were more likely to be hospitalized for <span class="hlt">burns</span> than female children. Children 2 years old or younger were more likely to be <span class="hlt">burned</span> by hot liquids/vapors and contact with hot substances/objects, while children 3 to 17 years were more likely to be <span class="hlt">burned</span> by fire/flames. This study is the first national study on healthcare resource utilization for pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span>-associated hospitalizations to utilize the KID database. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> are a major source of pediatric morbidity and are associated with significant national healthcare resource utilization <span class="hlt">annually</span>. Future <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention efforts should emphasize implementing passive injury prevention strategies, especially for young children who are nonwhite and live in low-income communities. PMID:17925649</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23799482','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23799482"><span id="translatedtitle">Lightning <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Russell, Katie W; Cochran, Amalia L; Mehta, Sagar T; Morris, Stephen E; McDevitt, Marion C</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We present the case of a lightning-strike victim. This case illustrates the importance of in-field care, appropriate referral to a <span class="hlt">burn</span> center, and the tendency of lightning <span class="hlt">burns</span> to progress to full-thickness injury. PMID:23799482</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12792547','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12792547"><span id="translatedtitle">Ball lightning <span class="hlt">burn</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Selvaggi, Gennaro; Monstrey, Stan; von Heimburg, Dennis; Hamdi, Mustapha; Van Landuyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip</p> <p>2003-05-01</p> <p>Ball lightning is a rare physical phenomenon, which is not yet completely explained. It is similar to lightning but with different, peculiar characteristics. It can be considered a mix of fire and electricity, concentrated in a fireball with a diameter of 20-cm that most commonly appears suddenly, even in indoor conditions, during a thunderstorm. It moves quickly for several meters, can change direction, and ultimately disappears. During a great storm, a 28-year-old man and his 5-year-old daughter sustained <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds after ball lightning came from the outdoors through a chimney. These two patients demonstrated signs of fire and electrical injuries. The father, who lost consciousness, sustained superficial second-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds bilaterally on the zygomatic <span class="hlt">area</span> and deep second-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds on his right hand (total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, 4%). His daughter demonstrated superficial second-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds on the left part of the face and deep second-degree and third-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds (total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, 30%) on the left neck, both upper arms, and the back. In this article, the authors report the first two cases of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries resulting from ball lightning contact indoors. The literature on this rare phenomenon is reviewed to elucidate the nature of ball lightning. Emphasis is placed on the nature of injuries after ball lightning contact, the therapy used, and the long-term complications. PMID:12792547</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/831230','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/831230"><span id="translatedtitle">Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bechel Nevada</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> (Tonopah Test Range). CAU 484 consists of sites located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 484 consists of the following six Corrective Action Sites: (1) CAS RG-52-007-TAML, Davis Gun Penetrator Test; (2) CAS TA-52-001-TANL, NEDS Detonation <span class="hlt">Area</span>; (3) CAS TA-52-004-TAAL, Metal Particle Dispersion Test; (4) CAS TA-52-005-TAAL, Joint Test Assembly DU Sites; (5) CAS TA-52-006-TAPL, Depleted Uranium Site; and (6) CAS TA-54-001-TANL, Containment Tank and Steel Structure</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....919599C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....919599C"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions in tropical Asia based on satellite-derived data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, D.; Song, Y.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in tropical Asia emits large amounts of trace gases and particulate matters into the atmosphere, which has significant implications for atmospheric chemistry and climatic change. In this study, emissions from open biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> over tropical Asia were evaluated during seven fire years from 2000-2006 (1 April 2000-31 March 2007). <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> were estimated from newly published 1-km L3JRC and 500-m MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products (MCD45A1). Available fuel loads and emission factors were assigned for each vegetation type in a GlobCover characterisation map, and fuel moisture content was taken into account when calculating combustion factors. Over the whole period, both <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> and fire emissions clearly showed spatial and seasonal variations. The L3JRC <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged from 31 165 km2 in fire year 2005 to 57 313 km2 in 2000, while the MCD45A1 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged from 54 260 km2 in fire year 2001 to 127 068 km2 in 2004. Comparisons of L3JRC and MCD45A1 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> with ground-based measurements and other satellite information were constructed in several major <span class="hlt">burning</span> regions, and results suggested that MCD45A1 performed better in most <span class="hlt">areas</span> than L3JRC did although with a certain degree of underestimation of <span class="hlt">burned</span> forest <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The average <span class="hlt">annual</span> L3JRC-based emissions were 125, 12, 0.98, 1.91, 0.11, 0.89, 0.044, 0.022, 0.42, 3.40, and 3.68 Tg yr<sup-1 for CO2, CO, CH4, NMHCs, NOx, NH3, SO2, BC, OC, PM2.5, and PM10, respectively, while MCD45A1-based emissions were 130, 9.79, 0.65, 1.14, 0.12, 0.56, 0.046, 0.036, 0.42, 3.21, and 3.49 Tg yr-1. Forest <span class="hlt">burning</span> was determined as the major source of the fire emissions due to the high carbon density. Although agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span> was the second important contributor, a great deal of crop residue combustion could probably be missed by satellite observations when compared to previously published data, which may be because of its small <span class="hlt">burning</span> size. Fire emissions were mainly concentrated in Indonesia, India, Myanmar, and Cambodia. Furthermore, the peak in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was generally found in the early fire season, while the maximum fire emissions often occurred in the late fire season.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-09-07/pdf/2012-22010.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-09-07/pdf/2012-22010.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 55143 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-09-07</p> <p>..., Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation... established for <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Fireworks Displays within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility... requirements listed in 33 CFR 165.1332, which can be found in the Federal Register (75 FR 33700) published...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-11-16/pdf/2011-29561.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-11-16/pdf/2011-29561.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 70882 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-11-16</p> <p>..., Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY... Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility... Register of October 4, 2011, in FR Doc. 2011-25344, on page 61263, contained an incorrect Docket...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMNS31A1217K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMNS31A1217K"><span id="translatedtitle">Geothermal, Geochemical and Geomagnetic Mapping Of the <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Coal Seam in Fire- Zone 18 of the Coal Mining <span class="hlt">Area</span> Wuda, Inner Mongolia, PR China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kessels, W.; Han, J.; Halisch, M.; Lindner, H.; Rueter, H.; Wuttke, M. W.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Spontaneous combustion of coal has become a world wide problem caused by and affecting technical operations in coal mining <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The localization of the <span class="hlt">burning</span> centre is a prerequisite for any planning of fire fighting operations. In the German - Chinese coal fire project sponsored by the German Ministry of Science and Technologies (Grant No. 0330490K) the so called fire zone 18 of the coal mining <span class="hlt">area</span> of Wuda (InnerMongolia, PR China) serves as a test <span class="hlt">area</span> for geophysical measurements. For the geothermal and geochemical mapping 25 up to 1m deep boreholes with a diameter of approx. 30 mm are distributed over the particular fire-zone with an extension of 320 × 180 m2. To avoid the highly dynamic gas flow processes in fire induced fractures caused by weather conditions, all boreholes were situated in the undisturbed rock compartments. In these boreholes, plastic tubes of 12 mm diameter provide access to the borehole ground filled with highly permeable gravel. The boreholes are otherwise sealed to the atmosphere by clay. The geothermal observations consist of measurements of temperature profiles in the boreholes and thermal conductivity measurement on rock samples in the lab. For depths greater then 0.2 m diurnal variations in the temperature gradient were neglected. The derived heat flow with maximum values of 80 W/m2 is more then three orders of magnitude higher than the natural undisturbed heat flow. The high heat flow suggests that the dominant heat transport is gas convection through the system of porous rock and fractures. Any temperature anomaly caused by the <span class="hlt">burning</span> coal in a depth of more than 18 m would need years to reach the surface by a heat transport restricted to conduction. The geochemical soil gas probing is performed by gas extraction from the boreholes. Measured are the concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, H2S and CH4. The O2 deficit in the soil air and the concentrations of the other combustion products compared to the concentrations in the free atmosphere are related to the combustion <span class="hlt">area</span>. The magnetic mapping with point distances of 2 m and profile-distances of 3 to 4 m covered an <span class="hlt">area</span> of 350 × 300m with 7913 points. The detected anomalies lie in a range between -130 and 176 nT. The maxima are most likely caused by heating of the top sandstones by <span class="hlt">burning</span> coal, the origin for the high magnetization being the conversion of pyrite and markasit into maghemite, hematite and magnetite. Susceptibility measurements of clinkers in firezone 18 demonstrate this effect. Therefore the identified patches with high magnetic anomalies should have a direct connection to ranges with <span class="hlt">burning</span> coal within firezone 18. Al the discussed geophysical measurements together allow an integrated interpretation. Each result can be related to the combustion process with a particular likelihood for the vertical projection to the combustion centre. Probability calculations with chosen weight factors for each observation method are discussed. References: Kessels, W., Wuttke, M. W., Wessling, S., and Li, X. Coalfires between self ignition and fire fighting: Numerical modeling and basic geophysical measurements. In ERSEC Ecological Book Series - 4 on Coal Fire Research (2007).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2465679','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2465679"><span id="translatedtitle">Air pollution from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and asthma hospital admissions in a sugar cane plantation <span class="hlt">area</span> in Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Martins, Lourdes Conceio; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Arbex, Flvio Ferlin; Canado, Jos Eduardo Delfini; Saldiva, Paulo Hilrio Nascimento; Braga, Alfsio Lus Ferreira</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Objective To evaluate the association between the total suspended particles (TSPs) generated from preharvest sugar cane <span class="hlt">burning</span> and hospital admission due to asthma (asthma hospital admissions) in the city of Araraquara. Design An ecological time?series study. Total daily records of asthma hospital admissions (ICD 10th J15) were obtained from one of the main hospitals in Araraquara, So Paulo State, Brazil, from 23 March 2003 to 27 July 2004. The daily concentration of TSP (?g/m3) was obtained using Handi?vol equipment (Energtica, Brazil) placed in downtown Araraquara. The local airport provided the daily mean figures of temperature and humidity. The daily number of asthma hospital admissions was considered as the dependent variable in Poisson's regression models and the daily concentration of TSP was considered the independent variable. The generalised linear model with natural cubic spline was adopted to control for long?time trend. Linear terms were used for weather variables. Results TSP had an acute effect on asthma admissions, starting 1?day after TSP concentrations increased and remaining almost unchanged for the next four days. A 10??g/m3 increase in the 5?day moving average (lag15) of TSP concentrations was associated with an increase of 11.6% (95% CI 5.4 to 17.7) in asthma hospital admissions. Conclusion Increases in TSP concentrations were definitely associated with asthma hospital admissions in Araraquara and, despite using sugar cane alcohol to reduce air pollution from automotive sources in large Brazilian urban centres, the cities where sugar cane is harvested pay a high toll in terms of public health. PMID:17435205</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881498','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881498"><span id="translatedtitle">Interim Record of Decision Remedial Alternative Selection for the A-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (731-A/1A) and Rubble Pit (731-2A) (U)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Morgan, Randall</p> <p>2000-11-17</p> <p>The A-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (731-A/1A) and Rubble Pit (731-2A) Operable Unit (OU)(ABRP) is listed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3004(u) Solid Waste Management Unit/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) unit in Appendix C of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken County, South Carolina. The following media are associated with this OU: surface soil and groundwater. An SRS RCRA permit modification is not required at this time since this is an interim action. However, the final permit modification will (1) include the final selection of remedial alternatives under RCRA, (2) be sought for the entire ABRP with the final Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan (SB/PP), and (3) will include the necessary public involvement and regulatory approvals. This Interim Record of Decision (IROD) also satisfies the RCRA requirements for an Interim Measures Work Plan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25167821','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25167821"><span id="translatedtitle">The daily fluorine and arsenic intake for residents with different dietaries and fluorosis risk in coal-<span class="hlt">burning</span> fluorosis <span class="hlt">area</span>, Yunnan, Southwest China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Ling; Luo, Kun-Li; Tang, Yue-Gang; Liu, Yong-Lin</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The daily fluorine (F)/arsenic (As) intake (DFI/DAsI) for residents at different ages with different dietaries and dietary changes was investigated to analyze the fluorosis risk in coal-<span class="hlt">burning</span> fluorosis <span class="hlt">area</span> in Yunnan, Southwest China. The DFI for residents with a dietary of roasted corn and roasted chili was 5.06, 9.60, and 14.38 mg for age groups 3-7, 8-15, and over 15 years, respectively. Over 90 % of DFI was from roasted foodstuffs. The DFI for residents of the same age group living on rice and roasted chili was 1.94, 3.50, and 4.95 mg, respectively, which were less than that for the former dietary type, and 65 % of DFI was from roasted chili. The main sources for their DFI are roasted foodstuffs. Both were higher than the dietaries with non-roasted foodstuffs and the recommended daily allowances (RDAs) for USA and China at different levels. The DAsI for all residents ranged from 25 to 135 ?g, and at this level of DAsI, it would not influence human health. However, As pollution of roasted foodstuffs might have an important influence for the fluorosis. Residents are changing their staple food from roasted corn to rice, and especially, younger people are more focused on quality life. However, even if residents change their staple food, the habit of eating chili will not change, which also may cause them getting fluorosis. Developing economy, changing dietary types, and changing the habit of drying and keeping chili will help to reduce the fluorosis risk in coal-<span class="hlt">burning</span> fluorosis <span class="hlt">area</span> of Southwest China. PMID:25167821</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3860670','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3860670"><span id="translatedtitle">Mortality and Morbidity of Fireworks-Related <span class="hlt">Burns</span> on the <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Last Wednesday of the Year Festival (Charshanbeh Soori) in Iran: An 11-Year Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vaghardoost, Reza; Ghavami, Yaser; Sobouti, Behnam; Mobayen, Mohammad Reza</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Management of firework-related injuries is costly for the patient, society, and government. Objectives Evaluating effective factors yielding to such injuries may lead to better management of patients and decreased costs and morbidities. Patients and Materials This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients referred to Shahid Motahari <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Hospital on Charshanbeh Soori day festival during the period extending from March 2000 to March 2011 (11 days in an 11-year period). Demographic data, causes of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury, severity, and affected body parts were recorded. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results There were164 patients in the study with a mean age of 18.34 ± 9.31 years; 87% (145/164) were male. Homemade grenades were the most frequent cause of injury. Hand injury was reported in 56% (92/164) of the cases. Amputation was executed in 7 (4.3%) cases, and 6 (3.7%) patients died due to severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries and facial damage. Conclusions Fireworks- related injuries during Charshanbeh Soori ceremony causes significant morbidities and damage to different body parts (especially upper limbs and face), and some of these injuries will lead to life time disabilities, amputations, and even death. As most of the injured patients are young teenagers and children, special consideration must be taken into account to prevent long term morbidities. PMID:24350158</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910040176&hterms=Agricultural+Waste&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DAgricultural%2BWaste','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910040176&hterms=Agricultural+Waste&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DAgricultural%2BWaste"><span id="translatedtitle">The consequences of global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Levine, Joel S.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> encompasses forest <span class="hlt">burning</span> for land clearing, the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burning</span> of grasslands, the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burning</span> of agricultural stubble and waste after harvests, and the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of wood as fuel. These activities generate CO2, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, CO, H2, NO, NH3, and CH3Cl; of these, CO, CH4 and the hydrocarbons, and NO, are involved in the photochemical production of tropospheric O3, while NO is transformed to NO2 and then to nitric acid, which falls as acid rain. Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is also a major source of atmospheric particulates and aerosols which affect the transmission of incoming solar radiation and outgoing IR radiation through the atmosphere, with significant climatic effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B41C0066T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B41C0066T"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of residual biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on CO2 flux at a paddy field in Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taniguchi, Y.; Iwata, T.; Nakaya, K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Paddy field is one of the most important ecosystem in monsoon Asia, and takes a great important role in CO2 uptake. Carbon budget in agricultural fields is largely influenced by some artificial managements. After the harvest of crops, residual biomass is <span class="hlt">burned</span> on fields, brought out from fields, or left and plowed into paddy soils. If the open <span class="hlt">burning</span> is conducted on fields, one part of biomass carbon would be emitted to atmosphere as CO2, and the other part would be plowed into soils. In this study, an experimental paddy field was divided into two <span class="hlt">areas</span> to investigate what impact is brought on the <span class="hlt">annual</span> CO2 flux by the difference of disposal management of residual biomass after the harvest. At the one <span class="hlt">area</span>, residual biomass was <span class="hlt">burned</span> and plowed into soils after the harvest in late November 2011, 2012, and 2013. At the other <span class="hlt">area</span>, residue was not <span class="hlt">burned</span> and plowed into soils as usual. From three-years average of sampling surveys, carbon content of residue plowed into soils after the harvest was estimated 2931 and 22036 g C m-2 at no-<span class="hlt">burned</span> and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, respectively. Continuous eddy-covariance measurements of CO2 fluxes at each <span class="hlt">area</span> were conducted for three years. A little bit of difference in CO2 flux between two <span class="hlt">areas</span> was shown during rice season.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/burns.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/burns.html"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> (For Parents)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... these steps until medical personnel arrive: Keep your child lying down with the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> elevated. Follow the instructions ... morning, when it's had a chance to cool down during the night. Remove your child's safety seat or stroller from the hot sun ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Burns&pg=2&id=EJ748543','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Burns&pg=2&id=EJ748543"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Man</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cech, Scott J.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Former Baltimore cop and teacher Ed <span class="hlt">Burns</span> isn't a masochist. The writer-producer for "The Wire," a critically applauded HBO series about life and death on the streets of Baltimore, is just feverishly trying to save public schools. He thinks American education is hopelessly screwed up, but that it's also the country's only hope. So it makes sense…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/01_19_2016_i41Ph76gfa_01_19_2016_8','SCIGOVIMAGE-USGS'); return false;" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/01_19_2016_i41Ph76gfa_01_19_2016_8"><span id="translatedtitle">Prescribed <span class="hlt">Burn</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Iowa State Grad students Devan McGranahan and Torre Hovick, along with DNR private land specialist Josh Rusk and ISU Research Technician Shannon Rusk ignite a prescribed fire on a patch-<span class="hlt">burn</span> grazing research pasture in southern Iowa. The goals of the prescribed fire include reducing invasive eastern...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11722304P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11722304P"><span id="translatedtitle">Emission ratio of carbonaceous aerosols observed near crop residual <span class="hlt">burning</span> sources in a rural <span class="hlt">area</span> of the Yangtze River Delta Region, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pan, X. L.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z. F.; Taketani, F.; Tanimoto, H.; Irie, H.; Takashima, H.; Inomata, S.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Intensive open crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> (OCRB) has a great impact on regional air quality and climate. A field observation campaign in a rural <span class="hlt">area</span> of the Yangtze River Delta Region (YRDR) was performed during the harvest season, and Elemental carbon (ECa), organic carbon (OC), black carbon (BCe), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and PM2.5mass were concurrently measured. During the observation period, urban pollution and OCRB-impact episodes were classified. The emission ratio of ECa mass (defined as the ΔECa/ΔCO ratio) from OCRB was estimated to be 18.2 ± 4.6 ng/m3/ppbv, much higher than that (3.0 ± 0.3 ng/m3/ppbv) of urban pollution from the YRDR. A significant amount of OC was emitted from OCRB with ΔOC/ΔCO ratio of 101.3 ± 41.6 ng/m3/ppbv. The value found in the present study was near the upper limit of OC emission ratios in the literature, implying great impacts from combustion conditions, types of biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span> and subsequent evolution. Regarding urban pollution episodes, the ΔOC/ΔCO ratio was found to be 23.7 ± 2.4 ng/m3/ppbv, and secondary organics accounted for the major fraction of OC mass. Combustions phases of OCRB were classified according to a modified combustion efficiency (MCE, defined as ΔCO2/(ΔCO + ΔCO2)). Our results support the view that ECa tend to be produced in flaming combustions (MCE > 0.95) than in smoldering combustions (MCE < 0.95), whereas OC is emitted preferentially from smoldering combustions. Based on our observed carbonaceous aerosol correlations, we estimate that the ECa and OC emissions from OCRB in East Asia might be underestimated by at least 50%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/963088','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/963088"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxbow Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span>; Middle Fork John Day River, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report 2003-2004.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cochran, Brian</p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an '<span class="hlt">annual</span> written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The project during 2003 was crippled due to the aftermath of the BPA budget crisis. Some objectives were not completed during the first half of this contract because of limited funds in the 2003 fiscal year. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were utilized only in the early, high water season and only from diversion points with functional fish screens. After July 1, all of the OCA water rights were put instream. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks continued to promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Hundreds of willow, dogwood, Douglas-fir, and cottonwood were planted along the Middle Fork John Day River. Livestock grazing on the property was carefully managed to ensure the protection of fish and wildlife habitat, while promoting meadow vigor and producing revenue for property taxes. Monitoring of property populations, resources, and management activities continued in 2003 to build a database for future management of this and other properties in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..SHK.G7003R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..SHK.G7003R"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the Asymmetric <span class="hlt">Burning</span> of Agglomerate Particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Richmond, Clinton</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>A model has been developed to describe asymmetric <span class="hlt">burning</span> effects due to oxide caps or other substances on the surface of agglomerate particles. The model accounts for the <span class="hlt">burning</span> behavior of single particles when they are combined together in an agglomerate of particles. The model calculates the available surface <span class="hlt">area</span> that is exposed to <span class="hlt">burning</span> by the geometric formation of the agglomerate of the combining particles. Averaging analytic techniques are applied to the <span class="hlt">burning</span> behavior of the agglomerate of particles so that its <span class="hlt">burning</span> effects can be compared to the <span class="hlt">burning</span> effects from the uncombined, single particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..955..861R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..955..861R"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the Asymmetric <span class="hlt">Burning</span> of Agglomerate Particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Richmond, Clinton T.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>A model has been developed to describe asymmetric <span class="hlt">burning</span> effects on the surface of particles in agglomerate. The model calculates the surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of the particles that is available to <span class="hlt">burning</span> from the geometric formation of the agglomerate. Average diameter of particles bonded in agglomerate is shown to have a <span class="hlt">burning</span> time commensurate to the <span class="hlt">burning</span> time of a single particle. Nevertheless, the <span class="hlt">burning</span> time of agglomerate formed by the coalescing of liquid droplets, is shown to be greater than the <span class="hlt">burning</span> time of a single particle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..MAR.S1160D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..MAR.S1160D"><span id="translatedtitle">Fluorescence Measurement of <span class="hlt">Burned</span> Skin Tissues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Pedro, Hector Michael; Chang, Chuan-I.; Nguyen, Hue; Malko, Anton; Zarnani, Faranak; Glosser, Robert; Maas, D.; Idris, A.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Early removal of affected tissues from <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients can significantly increase the success of their recovery, since <span class="hlt">burns</span> continue to spread and damage surrounding tissues after hours of injury. The rationale behind this procedure is that <span class="hlt">burns</span> trigger the body's immune system to overreact, causing additional damage. Therefore it is important to locate and identify the <span class="hlt">burn</span> (<span class="hlt">area</span> and thickness) so that it can be removed as quickly as possible. Our project explores the use of autofluorescence as a tool to identify the <span class="hlt">burned</span> tissues from healthy ones. Here we present that our fluorescence results show differences between <span class="hlt">burned</span> and normal skin in both its spectra and lifetime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-05-27/pdf/2011-13286.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-05-27/pdf/2011-13286.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 30997 - National Transit Database: Amendments to Urbanized <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Reporting Manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-05-27</p> <p>... Federal Register (73 FR 7361) inviting comments on proposed amendments to the 2011 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Manual. This... Federal Register (75 FR 192) inviting comments on proposed amendments to the 2011 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Manual. FTA... transit agency in a different city, and a mid- sized transit agency in a third city, objected to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4396790','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4396790"><span id="translatedtitle">Smartphones and <span class="hlt">burn</span> size estimation: Rapid <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Assessor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kamolz, L.P.; Lumenta, D.B.; Parvizi, D.; Dirnberger, J.; Owen, R.; Hller, J.; Giretzlehner, M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Summary Estimation of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> (%TBSA) following a <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury is used in determining whether to transfer the patient to a <span class="hlt">burn</span> center and the required fluid resuscitation volumes. Unfortunately, the commonly applied methods of estimation have revealed inaccuracies, which are mostly related to human error. To calculate the %TBSA (quotient), it is necessary to divide the <span class="hlt">burned</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (<span class="hlt">Burned</span> BSA) (numerator in cm2) by the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (Total BSA) (denominator in cm2). By using everyday objects (eg. credit cards, smartphones) with well-defined surface <span class="hlt">areas</span> as reference for estimations of <span class="hlt">Burned</span> BSA on the one hand and established formulas for Total BSA calculation on the other (eg. Mosteller), we propose an approximation method to assess %TBSA more accurately than the established methods. To facilitate distribution, and respective user feedback, we have developed a smartphone app integrating all of the above parameters, available on popular mobile device platforms. This method represents a simple and ready-to-use clinical decision support system which addresses common errors associated with estimations of <span class="hlt">Burned</span> BSA (=numerator). Following validation and respective user feedback, it could be deployed for testing in future clinical trials. This study has a level of evidence of IV and is a brief report based on clinical observation, which points to further study. PMID:26170784</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26170784','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26170784"><span id="translatedtitle">Smartphones and <span class="hlt">burn</span> size estimation: "Rapid <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Assessor".</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kamolz, L P; Lumenta, D B; Parvizi, D; Dirnberger, J; Owen, R; Hller, J; Giretzlehner, M</p> <p>2014-06-30</p> <p>Estimation of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> (%TBSA) following a <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury is used in determining whether to transfer the patient to a <span class="hlt">burn</span> center and the required fluid resuscitation volumes. Unfortunately, the commonly applied methods of estimation have revealed inaccuracies, which are mostly related to human error. To calculate the %TBSA (quotient), it is necessary to divide the <span class="hlt">burned</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (<span class="hlt">Burned</span> BSA) (numerator in cm2) by the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (Total BSA) (denominator in cm2). By using everyday objects (eg. credit cards, smartphones) with well-defined surface <span class="hlt">areas</span> as reference for estimations of <span class="hlt">Burned</span> BSA on the one hand and established formulas for Total BSA calculation on the other (eg. Mosteller), we propose an approximation method to assess %TBSA more accurately than the established methods. To facilitate distribution, and respective user feedback, we have developed a smartphone app integrating all of the above parameters, available on popular mobile device platforms. This method represents a simple and ready-to-use clinical decision support system which addresses common errors associated with estimations of <span class="hlt">Burned</span> BSA (=numerator). Following validation and respective user feedback, it could be deployed for testing in future clinical trials. This study has a level of evidence of IV and is a brief report based on clinical observation, which points to further study. PMID:26170784</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/822594','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/822594"><span id="translatedtitle">Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Pits, and Storage <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision No. 0</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office</p> <p>2003-10-17</p> <p>This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140: Waste Dumps, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Pits, and Storage <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in <span class="hlt">Areas</span> 5, 22, and 23 of the NTS, CAU 140 consists of nine corrective action sites (CASs). Investigation activities were performed from November 13 through December 11, 2002, with additional sampling to delineate the extent of contaminants of concern (COCs) conducted on February 4 and March 18 and 19, 2003. Results obtained from the investigation activities and sampling indicated that only 3 of the 9 CASs at CAU 140 had COCs identified. Following a review of existing data, future land use, and current operations at the NTS, the following preferred alternatives were developed for consideration: (1) No Further Action - six CASs (05-08-02, 05-17-01, 05-19-01, 05-35-01, 05-99-04, and 22-99-04); (2) Clean Closure - one CAS (05-08-01), and (3) Closure-in-Place - two CASs (05-23-01 and 23-17-01). These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, the alternatives meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 140.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/presentations/100213_1.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/presentations/100213_1.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Minor <span class="hlt">burn</span> - first aid - series (image)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>To treat a minor <span class="hlt">burn</span>, run cool water over the <span class="hlt">area</span> of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> or soak it in a cool water bath (not ice water). ... flushing or soaking for several minutes, cover the <span class="hlt">burn</span> with a sterile bandage or a clean cloth. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1001684','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1001684"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span> on nesting waterfowl</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fritzell, E.K.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span> in an intensively farmed region within Manitoba's pothole district is shown to affect the nesting activities of ground-nesting ducks. All species, except Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), preferred unburned nest cover, although success was higher in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, where predators may have exerted less influence. Attitudes of farmers, <span class="hlt">burning</span> chronology, and nest destruction by fires are also reported.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJAEO..26...64M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJAEO..26...64M"><span id="translatedtitle">Ten years of global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products from spaceborne remote sensing-A review: Analysis of user needs and recommendations for future developments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mouillot, Florent; Schultz, Martin G.; Yue, Chao; Cadule, Patricia; Tansey, Kevin; Ciais, Philippe; Chuvieco, Emilio</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Early global estimates of carbon emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> were based on empirical assumptions of fire return interval in different biomes in the 1980s. Since then, significant improvements of spaceborne remote sensing sensors have resulted in an increasing number of derived products characterizing the detection of active fire or the subsequent <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> (GFED, MODIS MCD45A1, L3JRC, Globcarbon, GBS, GLOBSCAR, GBA2000). When coupled with global land cover and vegetation models allowing for spatially explicit fuel biomass estimates, the use of these products helps to yield important information about the spatial and the temporal variability of emission estimates. The availability of multi-year products (>10 years) leads to a better understanding of uncertainties in addition to increasing accuracy. We surveyed a wide range of users of global fire data products whilst also undertaking a review of the latest scientific literature. Two user groups were identified, the first being global climate and vegetation modellers and the second being regional land managers. Based on this review, we present here the current needs covering the range of end-users. We identified the increasing use of BA products since the year 2000 with an increasing use of MODIS as a reference dataset. Scientific topics using these BA products have increased in diversity and <span class="hlt">area</span> of application, from global fire emissions (for which BA products were initially developed) to regional studies with increasing use for ecosystem management planning. There is a significant need from the atmospheric science community for low spatial resolution (gridded, 1/2 degree cell) and long time series data characterized with supplementary information concerning the accuracy in timing of the fire and reductions of omission/commission errors. There is also a strong need for precisely characterizing the perimeter and contour of the fire scar for better assimilation with land cover maps and fire intensity. Computer and earth observation facilities remain a significant gap between ideal accuracies and the realistic ones, which must be fully quantified and comprehensive for an actual use in global fire emissions or regional land management studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/803837','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/803837"><span id="translatedtitle">Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Pits, and Storage <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, July 2002, Rev. No. 0</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>NNSA /NV</p> <p>2002-07-18</p> <p>This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 140 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-08-01, Detonation Pits; 05-08-02, Debris Pits; 05-17-01, Hazardous Waste Accumulation Site (Buried); 05-19-01, Waste Disposal Site; 05-23-01, Gravel Gertie; 05-35-01, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Pit; 05-99-04, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Pit; 22-99-04, Radioactive Waste Dump; 23-17-01, Hazardous Waste Storage <span class="hlt">Area</span>. All nine of these CASs are located within <span class="hlt">Areas</span> 5, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. This CAU is being investigated because disposed waste may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present or migrating at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The NTS has been used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. The CASs in CAU 140 were used for testing, material storage, waste storage, and waste disposal. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution criteria and resolve the decision statements. Phase I will determine if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels. This data will be evaluated at all CASs. Phase II will determine the extent of the contaminant(s) of concern (COCs). This data will only be evaluated for CASs with a COC identified during Phase I. Based on process knowledge, the COPCs for CAU 140 include volatile organics, semivolatile organics, petroleum hydrocarbons, explosive residues, herbicides, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and radionuclides. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1011463','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1011463"><span id="translatedtitle">2010 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Summary Report for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Management Sites at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>NSTec Environmental Management</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office performed an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) Performance Assessments (PAs) and Composite Analyses (CAs) in fiscal year (FY) 2010. This <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2010 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..99..446F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..99..446F"><span id="translatedtitle">Pre-harvest sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span> emission inventories based on remote sensing data in the state of São Paulo, Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>França, Daniela; Longo, Karla; Rudorff, Bernardo; Aguiar, Daniel; Freitas, Saulo; Stockler, Rafael; Pereira, Gabriel</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The state of São Paulo is the largest sugarcane producer in Brazil, with a cultivated <span class="hlt">area</span> of about 5.4 Mha in 2011. Approximately 2 Mha were harvested <span class="hlt">annually</span> from 2006 to 2011 with the pre-harvest straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice, which emits trace gases and particulate material to the atmosphere. The development of emission inventories for sugarcane straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> is crucial in order to assess its environmental impacts. This study aimed to estimate <span class="hlt">annual</span> emissions associated with the pre-harvest sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice in the state of São Paulo based on remote sensing maps and emission and combustion factors for sugarcane straw <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Average estimated emissions (Gg/year) were 1130 ± 152 for CO, 26 ± 4 for NOx, 16 ± 2 for CH4, 45 ± 6 for PM2.5, 120 ± 16 for PM10 and 154 ± 21 for NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons). An intercomparison among <span class="hlt">annual</span> emissions from this study and <span class="hlt">annual</span> emissions from four other different approaches indicated that the estimates obtained by satellite fire detection or low spatial resolution approaches tend to underestimate sugarcane <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, due to unique characteristics of this type of biomass fire. Overall, our results also indicated that government actions to reduce sugarcane straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions are becoming effective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B11D0769K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B11D0769K"><span id="translatedtitle">Geostatistical Modeling of Forest Fire <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koziol, B. W.; French, N. H.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Connecting remotely sensed measures of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity (i.e. Differenced Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio [DNBR]) with fuel properties during a <span class="hlt">burn</span> is important for biomass consumption estimation. Results from a step-wise geostatistical analysis designed to measure the relative influence of physiographic and climatic factors affecting forest fire <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity are presented. Universal and co-kriging inverse methods were used to assess spatial covariance and generate DNBR predictions and error assessments. Inputs to the model include topography, <span class="hlt">annual</span> direct incident radiation, fire weather (i.e. temperature, relative humidity), and fuel loading. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> direct incident radiation and fire weather exhibited correlations with <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity implying a link with fuel moisture. Inclusion of mechanistic fuel moisture models is suggested to supplement the proximate measures used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/962978','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/962978"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxbow Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span>; Middle Fork John Day River, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report 2002-2003.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cochran, Brian; Smith, Brent</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an '<span class="hlt">annual</span> written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The 2002 contract period was well funded and the second year of the project. A new manager started in April, allowing the previous manager to focus his efforts on the Forrest Ranch acquisition. However, the Oxbow Habitat manager's position was vacant from October through mid February of 2003. During this time, much progress, mainly O&M, was at a minimum level. Many of the objectives were not completed during this contract due to both the size and duration needed to complete such activities (example: dredge mine tailings restoration project) or because budget crisis issues with BPA ending accrual carryover on the fiscal calendar. Although the property had been acquired a year earlier, there were numerous repairs and discoveries, which on a daily basis could pull personnel from making progress on objectives for the SOW, aside from O&M objectives. A lack of fencing on a portion of the property's boundary and deteriorating fences in other <span class="hlt">areas</span> are some reasons much time was spent chasing trespassing cattle off of the property. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were used seldom in the summer of 2002, with minor irrigation water diverted from only Granite Boulder Creek. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks help promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Trees planted in this and past years are growing and will someday provide cover fish and wildlife. Even grazing on the property was carefully managed to ensure the protection of fish and wildlife habitat. Monitoring of property populations, resources, and management activities continued in 2002 to build a database for future management of this and other properties in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..77..959S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..77..959S"><span id="translatedtitle">Particle-induced oxidative damage of indoor PM10 from coal <span class="hlt">burning</span> homes in the lung cancer <span class="hlt">area</span> of Xuan Wei, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shao, Longyi; Hu, Ying; Wang, Jing; Hou, Cong; Yang, Yuanyuan; Wu, Mingyuan</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The lung cancer mortality rate in the rural <span class="hlt">area</span> of the Xuan Wei, Yunnan, is among the highest in China, especially in women. In this paper, the coal-<span class="hlt">burning</span> indoor and corresponding outdoor PM10 samples were collected at the Hutou village, representing the case of high lung cancer rate, and the Xize village, representing the case of low lung cancer rate. Plasmid scission assay was used to investigate the bioreactivity of the PM10. The inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was employed to investigate the trace element compositions of the PM10. The results showed that the oxidative damage caused by both indoor and outdoor PM10 at the Hutou village was obviously higher than that at the Xize village, with the indoor PM10 having higher oxidative damage than corresponding outdoors. Among all analyzed samples, the indoor night PM10 samples from the Hutou village have the highest oxidative capacity. The levels of total water-soluble elements had a higher level in the PM10 of the Hutou village than that of the Xize village. It is interesting that the levels of water-soluble As, Cd, Cs, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn in PM10 had better positive correlation with DNA damage rates, implying that these elements in their water-soluble state should be one of the main factors responsible for the high oxidative capacity of PM10, thus possibly the higher lung cancer rates, at the Hutou village.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113219L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113219L"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying intra and inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variation of MODIS derived leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> index time-series 2000-2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lanorte, A.; de Santis, F.; Lasaponara, R.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a key instrument aboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites. Terra MODIS and Aqua MODIS image the entire Earth's surface every one to two days and provide vital information for global-change research. MODIS derived leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> index (LAI) is an important parameter for describing vegetation canopy structure in the terrestrial ecosystem on the global, continental, and regional scales. In this study we analyse intra and inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variation of MODIS derived leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> index time-series 2000-2008 data for Mediterranean ecosystems of Southern Italy. The objective is to explore seasonal trends in the phenology of southern Italy woodlands and shrublands and inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> long-term variations related to plant's photosynthesis process or growth status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A11A0002M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A11A0002M"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of residual biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on the CO2 flux from a paddy field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murakami, H.; Kunishio, A.; Akaike, Y.; Kawamoto, Y.; Ono, K.; Iwata, T.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Paddy field is one of the most important eco-system in monsoon Asia, and takes a great important role in CO2 uptake. Carbon budget in agricultural field is influenced by some artificial management. After the harvest, residual biomass is <span class="hlt">burned</span> on fields, brought out from fields, or remained and harrowed into the fields. If open <span class="hlt">burning</span> was conducted in a field, one part of biomass carbon is emitted into atmosphere as CO2, and the other part is harrowed into soils. In this study, quantity of lost carbon according to <span class="hlt">burning</span> of residual biomass were investigated at a single rice cropping field in western Japan, in which long-term continuous CO2 flux (NEE) measurement by the eddy-covariance technique was conducted. In addition, an experimental paddy field was divided into two <span class="hlt">areas</span> to investigate what impact is brought on the <span class="hlt">annual</span> CO2 flux by the difference of disposal management of residual biomass after the harvest. Residual biomass was <span class="hlt">burned</span> and plowed into soil at the one <span class="hlt">area</span> on Nov. 29th, 2011, and residue was not <span class="hlt">burned</span> and directly plowed into soil at the other <span class="hlt">area</span> as usual. We illustrate some results for the control term before the <span class="hlt">burning</span> experiment, and for the comparison term after the experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26813057','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26813057"><span id="translatedtitle">[The Treatment of Major <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Injuries].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Yu-Hsun; Lin, Hsiu-Hua; Shi, Li-Ping; Yeong, Eng-Kean</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Major <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries constitute a systemic disease. In addition to completely understanding the mechanisms of wound healing, precise <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth and <span class="hlt">area</span> assessment is critical to the successful management of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. The recent advancements in post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> fluid resuscitation, tangential <span class="hlt">burn</span> excision and grafting, effective enteral tube feeding, and aggressive sepsis treatment have helped greatly increase the survival rates for major <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. However, the restricted joint motion that results from hypertrophic scar contracture remains the main challenge facing <span class="hlt">burn</span> survivors. In conclusion, as the course of the treatment and rehabilitation is prolonged and multifaceted, a complete treatment plan is always necessary in addition to teamwork among physicians, nurses, social workers, physical therapists, and psychologists. Finally, social return is the final goal of treatment and may be achieved only through mutual support and understanding among the members of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> treatment and rehabilitation team. PMID:26813057</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21422938','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21422938"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology of U.K. military <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Foster, Mark Anthony; Moledina, Jamil; Jeffery, Steve L A</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The authors review the etiology of U.K. military <span class="hlt">burns</span> in light of increasing hybrid warfare. Analysis of the nature of these injured personnel will provide commanders with the evidence to plan for on-going and future operations. Case notes of all U.K. Armed Forces <span class="hlt">burn</span> injured patients who were evacuated to the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine were reviewed. Demographics, <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, pattern, and mortality details were included. There were 134 U.K. military personnel with <span class="hlt">burns</span> requiring return to the United Kingdom during 2001-2007. The median age was 27 (20-62) years. Overall, 60% of <span class="hlt">burns</span> seen were "accidental." <span class="hlt">Burning</span> waste, misuse or disrespect of fuel, and scalds were the most prevalent noncombat <span class="hlt">burns</span>. <span class="hlt">Areas</span> commonly <span class="hlt">burned</span> were the face, legs, and hands. During 2006-2007 in the two major conflicts, more than 59% (n = 36) of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients evacuated to the United Kingdom were injured during combat. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> sustained in combat represent 5.8% of all combat casualties and were commonly associated with other injuries. Improvised explosive device, minestrike, and rocket-propelled grenade were common causes. The mean TBSA affected for both groups was 5% (1-70). The majority of combat <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries have been small in size. Greater provision of flame retardant equipment and clothing may reduce the extent and number of combat <span class="hlt">burns</span> in the future. The numbers of noncombat <span class="hlt">burns</span> are being reduced by good military discipline. PMID:21422938</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920055003&hterms=Agricultural+Waste&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DAgricultural%2BWaste','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920055003&hterms=Agricultural+Waste&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DAgricultural%2BWaste"><span id="translatedtitle">Global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> - Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Levine, Joel S.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>On a global scale, the total biomass consumed by <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burning</span> is about 8680 million tons of dry material; the estimated total biomass consumed by the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of savanna grasslands, at 3690 million tons/year, exceeds all other biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> (BMB) components. These components encompass agricultural wastes <span class="hlt">burning</span>, forest <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and fuel wood <span class="hlt">burning</span>. BMB is not restricted to the tropics, and is largely anthropogenic. Satellite measurements indicate significantly increased tropospheric concentrations of CO and ozone associated with BMB. BMB significantly enhances the microbial production and emission of NO(x) from soils, and of methane from wetlands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/963044','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/963044"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxbow Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span>; Middle Fork John Day River, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report 2001-2002.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Robertson, Shaun; Smith, Brent; Cochran, Brian</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Middle Fork Oxbow Ranch. Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an '<span class="hlt">annual</span> written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. This report is to be provided to the BPA by 30 April of each year. This is the first <span class="hlt">annual</span> report filed for the Oxbow Ranch property.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMNH41D..04H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMNH41D..04H"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparative evaluation of MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER) data and <span class="hlt">burn</span> indices for mapping southern California fires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harris, S. L.; Hook, S. J.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Large fires occur <span class="hlt">annually</span> in southern California, producing impacts at a number of scales, from local impacts on vegetation, hydrology and microclimates, to global impacts such as emissions, affecting atmospheric chemistry, air quality, radiation balance and biogeochemical cycling. As a consequence fires are routinely mapped using various sensors and <span class="hlt">burn</span> indices. However, the indices employed for mapping these fires have not been developed and optimized for mapping southern California <span class="hlt">burned</span> surfaces. Therefore, this study utilizes the high spatial and spectral resolution imagery from the MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER) to identify the most effective bands and indices specifically for <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping of the southern California region. The fire perimeter is based on the <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Reflectance Classification (BARC) map created by the United States Forest Service (USFS), Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC) and a supervised classification which defines the <span class="hlt">burned</span> and unburned regions. A separability index is employed to identify the bands and indices that can best distinguish between classes. The results identify a range of well performing indices, such as the Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio (NBR) and the Vegetation Index based on mid-infrared spectral region (VI3), and some poor performing indices, such as the Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI) and the <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Index (BAI). Additionally this study highlights the indices that perform better over certain vegetation types. These results are useful for understanding the application of remotely sensed data for mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> surfaces. Improved <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping capabilities are essential for informing land managers when identifying regions susceptible to hazards (such as debris and flood flows) and for deciding where to allocate time and resources in recovery efforts. Additionally, these results can be used to validate other sensors that are used to map <span class="hlt">burned</span> surfaces on greater spatial and temporal scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B53D0424M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B53D0424M"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon and Air Quality Emissions from Crop Residue <span class="hlt">Burning</span> in the Contiguous United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCarty, J. L.; Korontzi, S.; Justice, C. O.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> is a global agricultural activity that is a source of carbon and air quality emissions. Carbon and air quality emissions from crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the contiguous U.S. (CONUS) were estimated for a five-year period, 2003 through 2007, using multispectral remote sensing-derived products. The atmospheric species that comprise the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were selected as air quality emissions. CO2 emissions were also calculated due to its importance to global climate change. This analysis utilized multiple remote sensing data sets and products to quantify crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in CONUS, including multi-year crop type maps, an 8-day difference Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio product, and calibrated <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates of cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> from 1 km MODIS Active Fire Points. Remote sensing products were combined in a GIS to quantify the location of cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span>, <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> size, and associated crop type. A crop-specific emission factor database was compiled from the scientific literature. Fuel loads and combustion efficiency estimates were derived from the literature as well as from in-field collaborators. These data were combined to estimate crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions using the bottom-up methodology developed by Seiler and Crutzen (1980). This analysis found that an average of 1,239,000 ha of croplands <span class="hlt">burn</span> each year in the CONUS. Florida, Arizona, Idaho, Utah, Washington, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oregon, California, and Colorado accounted for approximately 61% of the total crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> is a significant fire activity in the CONUS, averaging 43% of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> reported for wildland fires in the U.S. (including Alaska and Hawaii). Crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> was also found to be a significant source of emissions that negatively impacted air quality. Crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions occurred most often in summer and fall, with the exception of winter and early spring emission peaks in sugarcane growing <span class="hlt">areas</span>. On average, crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the CONUS emitted 6.1 Tg of CO2, 8.9 Gg of CH4, 232.4 Gg of CO, 28.5 Gg of PM10, 20.9 Gg of PM2.5, 10.6 Gg of NO2, and 4.4 Gg of SO2 <span class="hlt">annually</span>. Lead emissions were negligible (< 0.3 Gg), which warrants further investigation due to the lack of emission factors for lead. On average, air quality and carbon emissions from crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the CONUS varied less than 10% interannually. The majority of emissions from crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> originated in six states: Arkansas, California, Florida, Idaho, Texas, and Washington. Overlaying population data with average <span class="hlt">annual</span> emissions by county showed that approximately 13.8%, 17.3%, 17.5%, 17.9%, 25%, and 46.6% of the total population of Texas, California, Washington, Florida, Arkansas, and Idaho, respectively, lives in counties with the highest emissions from crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The results of this analysis are important for the refinement of the National Emissions Inventory and the Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks as well as for national and state policy makers concerned with rural air quality and agricultural carbon management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GBioC..28..480O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GBioC..28..480O"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of remote sensing to understanding fire regimes and biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions of the tropical Andes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oliveras, Immaculada; Anderson, Liana O.; Malhi, Yadvinder</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>In the tropical Andes, there have been very few systematic studies aimed at understanding the biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> dynamics in the <span class="hlt">area</span>. This paper seeks to advance on our understanding of <span class="hlt">burning</span> regimes in this region, with the first detailed and comprehensive assessment of fire occurrence and the derived gross biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions of an <span class="hlt">area</span> of the Peruvian tropical Andes. We selected an <span class="hlt">area</span> of 2.8 million hectares at altitudes over 2000 m. We analyzed fire occurrence over a 12 year period with three types of satellite data. Fire dynamics showed a large intra-<span class="hlt">annual</span> and interannual variability, with most fires occurring May-October (the period coinciding with the dry season). Total <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> decreased with increasing rainfall until a given rainfall threshold beyond which no relationship was found. The estimated fire return interval (FRI) for the <span class="hlt">area</span> is 37 years for grasslands, which is within the range reported for grasslands, and 65 years for forests, which is remarkably shorter than other reported FRI in tropical moist forests. The greatest contribution (60-70%, depending on the data source) to biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions came from <span class="hlt">burned</span> montane cloud forests (4.5 million Mg CO2 over the study period), despite accounting for only 7.4-10% of the total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Gross aboveground biomass emissions (7.55 2.14 Tg CO2; 0.43 0.04 Tg CO; 24,012 2685 Mg CH4 for the study <span class="hlt">area</span>) were larger than previously reported for the tropical Andes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1527..587M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1527..587M"><span id="translatedtitle">Overview of the South American biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morgan, W. T.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Darbyshire, E.; Hodgson, A.; Johnson, B. T.; Haywood, J. M.; Freitas, S.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, which results in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious negative impacts on public health. Globally, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect of 0.03 Wm-2, however the uncertainty is 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in <span class="hlt">areas</span> such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent <span class="hlt">burning</span> occurs on an <span class="hlt">annual</span> basis for several months (usually from August-October). Furthermore, a growing number of people live within the Amazon region, which means that they are subject to the deleterious effects on their health from exposure to substantial volumes of polluted air. Initial results from the South American Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil, are presented here. A suite of instrumentation was flown on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft and was supported by ground based measurements, with extensive measurements made in Porto Velho, Rondonia. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions with sampling of fresh biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> layers within the free troposphere. The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on regional air quality, weather and climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.5318B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.5318B"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of a forest sapwood <span class="hlt">area</span> index to explain long-term variability in mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> evapotranspiration and streamflow in moist eucalypt forests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benyon, Richard G.; Lane, Patrick N. J.; Jaskierniak, Dominik; Kuczera, George; Haydon, Shane R.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Mean sapwood thickness, measured in fifteen 73 year old Eucalyptus regnans and E. delegatensis stands, correlated strongly with forest overstorey stocking density (R2 0.72). This curvilinear relationship was used with routine forest stocking density and basal <span class="hlt">area</span> measurements to estimate sapwood <span class="hlt">area</span> of the forest overstorey at various times in 15 research catchments in undisturbed and disturbed forests located in the Great Dividing Range, Victoria, Australia. Up to 45 years of <span class="hlt">annual</span> precipitation and streamflow data available from the 15 catchments were used to examine relationships between mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> loss (evapotranspiration estimated as mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> precipitation minus mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> streamflow), and sapwood <span class="hlt">area</span>. Catchment mean sapwood <span class="hlt">area</span> correlated strongly (R2 0.88) with catchment mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> loss. Variation in sapwood <span class="hlt">area</span> accounted for 68% more variation in mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> streamflow than precipitation alone (R2 0.90 compared with R2 0.22). Changes in sapwood <span class="hlt">area</span> accounted for 96% of the changes in mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> loss observed after forest thinning or clear-cutting and regeneration. We conclude that forest inventory data can be used reliably to predict spatial and temporal variation in catchment <span class="hlt">annual</span> losses and streamflow in response to natural and imposed disturbances in even-aged forests. Consequently, recent advances in mapping of sapwood <span class="hlt">area</span> using airborne light detection and ranging will enable high resolution spatial and temporal mapping of mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> loss and mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> streamflow over large <span class="hlt">areas</span> of forested catchment. This will be particularly beneficial in management of water resources from forested catchments subject to disturbance but lacking reliable long-term (years to decades) streamflow records.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7771D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7771D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> measurement of size resolved particle fluxes over an urban <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deventer, Malte Julian; Griessbaum, Frank; Klemm, Otto</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Urban <span class="hlt">areas</span> exhibit a multitude of well-known particle sources. Therefore, most flux studies over bigger cities detected almost exclusively upward fluxes or aerosol particles. In most of these studies, the total particle number concentration was measured for a broad size range, e.g. PM2.5or PM10. However, source apportionment and analytical studies suggest that particles within such wide size ranges may vary in their origin, longevity, and chemical composition. The scope of this study is to directly quantify turbulent exchange of atmospheric aerosol particles (AAP) of 16 different size classes. Aerosol dynamics are analyzed in combination with the exchange fluxes of sensible heat, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. Furthermore, <span class="hlt">annual</span> time series are analyzed for seasonal trends. We employed the Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS) and a Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP-X2), both manufactured by Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, Colorado (USA). This setup covers the aerosol particle size range between 0.6 μm and 10 μm diameters in up to 140 size bins. In order to reach acceptable counting statistics and to minimize random flux errors, we combine the initial 140 bins into 16 wider size bins. Nevertheless, the measurement yields a considerable improvement in terms of sizing information in comparison to that in previous studies. The measurements are conducted at a 65 m high telecommunication tower in the city of Münster (population ~ 275.000), NW Germany, throughout the year of 2012 and beyond. The results confirm the hypothesis that urban <span class="hlt">areas</span> can act both as sources and sinks for AAP at the same time. We regularly observe bi-directional fluxes as a function of particle size. While smaller particles typically exhibit (upward) emission fluxes, the larger particles show deposition (downward fluxes). The tipping point (TP) between mostly up- and downward transported particles lies in the accumulation mode at about 180 nm diameter. Large numbers of particles smaller than the TP are emitted out of the city, leading to positive daily number fluxes of 2 - 4.8 ? 108# m-2 d-1. Comparatively few particles bigger than the TP deposit into the city, often causing a negative daily mass flux of -0.1 - -0.7 μg m-2 d-1. Number fluxes show typical daily patterns, which are correlated to traffic activity and turbulence characteristics. Spring- and summer fluxes are up to two times as high as the winter fluxes, which can be attributed to the considerably less developed turbulence within the boundary layer during the cold season. Accordingly, particle concentrations are nearly doubled during winter. The presentation will further deepen the size differentiated analysis of particle fluxes and concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3219295','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3219295"><span id="translatedtitle">Severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury in europe: a systematic review of the incidence, etiology, morbidity, and mortality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Introduction <span class="hlt">Burn</span> injury is a serious pathology, potentially leading to severe morbidity and significant mortality, but it also has a considerable health-economic impact. The aim of this study was to describe the European hospitalized population with severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury, including the incidence, etiology, risk factors, mortality, and causes of death. Methods The systematic literature search (1985 to 2009) involved PubMed, the Web of Science, and the search engine Google. The reference lists and the Science Citation Index were used for hand searching (snowballing). Only studies dealing with epidemiologic issues (for example, incidence and outcome) as their major topic, on hospitalized populations with severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury (in secondary and tertiary care) in Europe were included. Language restrictions were set on English, French, and Dutch. Results The search led to 76 eligible studies, including more than 186,500 patients in total. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> incidence of severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> was 0.2 to 2.9/10,000 inhabitants with a decreasing trend in time. Almost 50% of patients were younger than 16 years, and ~60% were male patients. Flames, scalds, and contact <span class="hlt">burns</span> were the most prevalent causes in the total population, but in children, scalds clearly dominated. Mortality was usually between 1.4% and 18% and is decreasing in time. Major risk factors for death were older age and a higher total percentage of <span class="hlt">burned</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, as well as chronic diseases. (Multi) organ failure and sepsis were the most frequently reported causes of death. The main causes of early death (<48 hours) were <span class="hlt">burn</span> shock and inhalation injury. Conclusions Despite the lack of a large-scale European registration of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury, more epidemiologic information is available about the hospitalized population with severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury than is generally presumed. National and international registration systems nevertheless remain necessary to allow better targeting of prevention campaigns and further improvement of cost-effectiveness in total <span class="hlt">burn</span> care. PMID:20958968</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...1222891L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...1222891L"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the impacts of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on air quality in and around Mexico City</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lei, W.; Li, G.; Molina, L.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> on ground-level ozone (O3) and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Area</span> (MCMA) and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> organic aerosol (BBOA), and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA) were consistent with many observation-based estimates. We did not detect significant effects of open fires and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> on surface O3 concentrations in the MCMA and surrounding region. In contrast, they had important influences on OA and elemental carbon (EC), contributing about 60, 22, 33, and 22% to primary OA (POA), secondary OA (SOA), total OA (TOA), and EC, respectively, on both the local and regional scales. Although the emissions of trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> are substantially lower than those from open fires, trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> made slightly smaller but comparable contributions to OA as open fires did, and exerted an even higher influence on EC. SOA formation due to the open fires and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> enhanced the OA concentration by about 10 and 5% in the MCMA, respectively. On the <span class="hlt">annual</span> basis and taking the biofuel use emissions into consideration, we estimated that biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> contributed about 60, 30, and 25%, respectively, to the loadings of POA, SOA and EC in both the MCMA and its surrounding region, with about 35, 18, and 15% from open fires and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> impacts in this study may contain considerable uncertainties due to the uncertainties in their emission estimates, extrapolations and the nature of spot comparison. More observation and modeling studies are needed to accurately assess the impacts of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on tropospheric chemistry, regional and global air quality, and climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..TSF.H1023D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..TSF.H1023D"><span id="translatedtitle">Polarized Reflectance Measurement of <span class="hlt">Burned</span> Skin Tissues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Pedro, Hector Michael; Chang, Chuan-I.; Zarnani, Faranak; Glosser, Robert; Maas, D.; Idris, A.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>In the US, there are over 400,000 <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims with 3,500 deaths in 2010. Recent evidence suggests that early removal of <span class="hlt">burn</span> tissues can significantly increase the success of their recovery, since <span class="hlt">burns</span> continue to spread and damage surrounding tissues after hours of injury. The rationale behind this procedure is that <span class="hlt">burns</span> trigger the body's immune system to overreact, causing additional damage. Therefore, it is important to distinguish <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> so that it can be removed. The problem with this is that it is difficult to recognize the margins of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. In our project, we use polarized reflectance as a tool to identify the <span class="hlt">burned</span> tissues from unburned ones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17967624','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17967624"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> surgery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tenenhaus, Mayer; Rennekampff, Hans Oliver</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>The challenges posed by thermal injury often are daunting emotionally and physically for the survivor, family, and staff. Morbidity and mortality have improved with advances in emergent and multidisciplinary care; the establishment of dedicated <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers; and increased education, prevention, and experience. The role of surgery in the treatment of these complex injury patterns continues to evolve, incorporating refined concepts of tissue preservation, wound bed preparation, and early attention to functional and esthetic parameters. Societal reintegration, psychosocial support, and new pain control strategies have dramatically improved the quality of life for our patients during and after the acute course of care. With improved survivability and a changing demographic, fundamental reconstructive surgical principles have found increased applicability and are instituted at the time of admission whenever possible. PMID:17967624</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/815201','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/815201"><span id="translatedtitle">Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 90: <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Bitcutter Containment <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>K. K. Knapp</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Bitcutter and Post-Shot Containment Wells Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 90 Post-Closure Monitoring requirements are described in Section VII.B.8.b of the Nevada Test Site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Number NEV HW009, Section VII, Revision 1, March 2003. Post-closure care consists of the following: Semiannual inspections of the unit using an inspection checklist; Photographic documentation; Field note documentation; and Preparation and submittal of an <span class="hlt">annual</span> report. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> report consists of copies of the inspection checklist, repair records (if any), photographs, and recommendations and conclusions for the period December 2002 to June 2003. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are provided in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is provided in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are provided in Attachment C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150019792','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150019792"><span id="translatedtitle">Launch Complex 39 Observation Gantry <span class="hlt">Area</span> (SWMU# 107) <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Long-Term Monitoring Report (Year 1) Kennedy Space Center, Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, Jill W.; Towns, Crystal</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This document has been prepared by Geosyntec Consultants, Inc. (Geosyntec) to present and discuss the findings of the 2014 and 2015 Long-Term Monitoring (LTM) activities that were completed at the Launch Complex 39 (LC39) Observation Gantry <span class="hlt">Area</span> (OGA) located at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida (Site). The remainder of this report includes: (i) a description of the Site location; (ii) summary of Site background and previous investigations; (iii) description of field activities completed as part of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> LTM program at the Site; (iv) groundwater flow evaluation; (v) presentation and discussion of field and analytical results; and (vi) conclusions and recommendations. Applicable KSC Remediation Team (KSCRT) Meeting minutes are included in Attachment A. This <span class="hlt">Annual</span> LTM Letter Report was prepared by Geosyntec Consultants (Geosyntec) for NASA under contract number NNK12CA13B, Delivery Order NNK13CA39T project number PCN ENV2188.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1001500','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1001500"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of <span class="hlt">burn</span> season effects on nesting birds in North Dakota mixed-grass prairie</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Higgins, K.F.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>During 1982-1985, the effects of single spring and fall <span class="hlt">burn</span> treatments on ground nesting birds and residual cover were studied on five paired <span class="hlt">areas</span> of native mixed-grass prairie in northwestern Stutsman County, ND. <span class="hlt">Annually</span>, visual obstruction readings to index the height-density of residual cover were taken once and nest searches were made four times on each <span class="hlt">area</span>. Residual nesting cover on fall <span class="hlt">burn</span> plots averaged taller and denser than on spring <span class="hlt">burn</span> plots during post-fire growing years 2-4. A total of 259 duck nests and 63 nests of non-passerine birds were found during the four years. Duck nesting success was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in fall <span class="hlt">burn</span> plots than in spring <span class="hlt">burn</span> plots for all species and years combined. Too few nests of other bird species were found for valid comparisons. Results suggest that vegetation structure and duck nesting response to spring and fall <span class="hlt">burns</span> became similar again by the third post-fire growing season.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21555169','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21555169"><span id="translatedtitle">Mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> (222)Rn concentration in homes located in different geological regions of Poland: first approach to whole country <span class="hlt">area</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Przylibski, Tadeusz A; Zebrowski, Adam; Karpińska, Maria; Kapała, Jacek; Kozak, Krzysztof; Mazur, Jadwiga; Grządziel, Dominik; Mamont-Cieśla, Kalina; Stawarz, Olga; Kozłowska, Beata; Kłos, Barbara; Dorda, Jerzy; Wysocka, Małgorzata; Olszewski, Jerzy; Dohojda, Marek</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The paper presents the results of year-long measurements of radon ((222)Rn) concentration inside 129 buildings in Poland in relation to the geological conditions of their foundation. The authors took into account the division of the country into tectonic units, as well as the lithology of the rocks forming the bedrock of these buildings. As expected, the highest value of mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> (222)Rn concentration (845 Bq/m(3)) was recorded in a building situated in the <span class="hlt">area</span> of the Sudetes, while the highest geometric mean (characteristic of the expected log-normal data distribution) was calculated based on measurements from buildings located within the East-European craton, in the <span class="hlt">area</span> of Mazury-Podlasie monocline, where it reached 231 Bq/m(3). Such results reflect geological conditions - the occurrence of crystalline rocks (especially U- and Ra-enriched granites and orthogneisses) on the surface in the Sudetes, and of young post-glacial sediments containing fragments of Scandinavian crystalline rocks, also enriched with U and Ra, in the <span class="hlt">area</span> of Mazury-Podlasie monocline. However, the least expected result of the investigations was finding out that, contrary to the hitherto widespread belief, none of the major tectonic units of Poland can be excluded from the list of those containing buildings with mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> (222)Rn concentration exceeding 200 Bq/m(3). The mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> concentration of radon for all the buildings were much higher than the mean concentration value (49.1 Bq/m(3)) of indoor radon in Poland quoted so far. These results cast a completely new light on the necessity to perform measurements of radon concentration in residential buildings in Poland, no more with reference to small <span class="hlt">areas</span> with outcrops of crystalline rocks (especially the Sudetes, being the Polish fragment of the European Variscan belt), but for all the major tectonic units within Poland. PMID:21555169</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/injuries-emergencies/Pages/Treating-and-Preventing-Burns.aspx','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/injuries-emergencies/Pages/Treating-and-Preventing-Burns.aspx"><span id="translatedtitle">Treating and Preventing <span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Text Size Email Print Share Treating and Preventing <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Page Content Article Body <span class="hlt">Burns</span> are divided into three categories , according to their severity. First-degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> are the mildest and cause redness and perhaps ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030011413&hterms=RAMS&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DRAMS','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030011413&hterms=RAMS&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DRAMS"><span id="translatedtitle">Ram <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Observations (RAMBO)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Ram <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Observations (RAMBO) is a Department of Defense experiment that observes shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System engine <span class="hlt">burns</span> for the purpose of improving plume models. On STS-107 the appropriate sensors will observe selected rendezvous and orbit adjust <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.usfa.fema.gov/downloads/pdf/focus/feb_2013_burns.pdf','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.usfa.fema.gov/downloads/pdf/focus/feb_2013_burns.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> and Scald Prevention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Burn</span> and Scald Prevention Approximately 450,000 <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries medical require treatment each year. NAamtieornicaalnBBurunrnRAepsososictioartyion (2011 report) Prevent <span class="hlt">burns</span> and scalds in the kitchen: Place objects so that they cannot be pulled ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3038404','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3038404"><span id="translatedtitle">Rehabilitation of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> patient</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Procter, Fiona</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of <span class="hlt">burn</span> treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Rehabilitation incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these <span class="hlt">areas</span> following a <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of <span class="hlt">burn</span> rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration PMID:21321643</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11020046','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11020046"><span id="translatedtitle">Lawn mower-related <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Still, J; Orlet, H; Law, E; Gertler, C</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Lawn mower-related injuries are fairly common and are usually caused by the mower blades. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> may also be associated with the use of power lawn mowers. We describe 27 lawn mower-related <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries of 24 male patients and 3 female patients. Three of the patients with <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries were children. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> sizes ranged from 1% to 99% of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (mean, 18.1%). Two of the patients died. The hospital stay ranged from 1 day to 45 days. Twenty-six injuries involved gasoline, which is frequently associated with refueling accidents. Safety measures should involve keeping children away from lawn mowers that are being used. The proper use and storage of gasoline is stressed. PMID:11020046</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25282279','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25282279"><span id="translatedtitle">Association between <span class="hlt">annual</span> river flood pulse and paediatric hospital admissions in the Mekong Delta <span class="hlt">area</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Phung, Dung; Huang, Cunrui; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Wang, Xiaoming; Nguyen, Minh</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The Mekong Delta is the most vulnerable region to extreme climate and hydrological conditions however the association between these conditions and children's health has been little studied. We examine the association between <span class="hlt">annual</span> river flood pulse and paediatric hospital admissions in a Vietnam Mekong Delta city. Daily paediatric hospital admissions (PHA) were collected from the City Paediatric Hospital, and daily river water level (RWL) and meteorological data were retrieved from the Southern Regional Hydro-Meteorological Centre from 2008 to 2011. We evaluated the association between <span class="hlt">annual</span> river flood pulse (>=90th percentile of RWL) and PHA using the Poisson distributed lag model, controlling for temperature, relative humidity, day of week, seasonal and long-term trends. The seasonal pattern of PHA was examined using harmonic and polynomial regression models. The cumulative risk ratios estimated for a 15-day period following an extreme RWL was 1.26 (95%CI, 1.2-1.38) for all age groups, 1.27 (95%CI, 1.23-1.30) for under five-years and 1.15 (95%CI, 1.07-1.20) for school-aged children, 1.24 (95%CI, 1.21-1.27) for all-causes, 1.18 (95%CI, 1.12-1.21) for communicable infection, 1.66 (95%CI, 1.57-1.74) for respiratory infection and 1.06 (95%CI, 1.01-1.1) for other diseases. The peak PHA risk is in the September-October period corresponding to the highest RWL, and the PHA-RWL association was modified by temperature. An increase in PHA is significantly associated with <span class="hlt">annual</span> river flood, and the pattern of PHA is seasonally correspondent to the RWL. These findings combined with projected changes in climate conditions suggest important implications of climate change for human health in the Mekong Delta region. PMID:25282279</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.jstor.org/stable/3796604','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.jstor.org/stable/3796604"><span id="translatedtitle">Wood mouse and box turtle populations in an <span class="hlt">area</span> treated <span class="hlt">annually</span> with DDT for five years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stickel, L.F.</p> <p>1951-01-01</p> <p>A 117-acre <span class="hlt">area</span> of dense woodland on the Patuxent Research Refuge received an aerial application of DDT in oil at the rate of 2 pounds per acre gnnually for five years. DDT reached ground level in a much smaller amount (thousandths to hundredths of a pound per acre). Treatment was made during the first week of June of each year from 1945 through 1949. Field studies of the wood mouse population in DDT and check <span class="hlt">areas</span> showed no significant differences in the two <span class="hlt">areas</span> before and after the 1949 DDT treatment. There was no significant difference between trapping samples taken in DDT and check <span class="hlt">areas</span> in 1945 and those taken in 1949. Field studies of the box turtles in DDT and check <span class="hlt">areas</span> in 1945 and 1949 showed no significant difference in population size. Growth of the four young turtles taken in the DDT <span class="hlt">area</span> in both 1945 and 1949 appeared to be normal in comparison with growth of check <span class="hlt">area</span> turtles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20843540','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20843540"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of anthropogenic and biogenic compounds on atmospheric aerosol collected in urban, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and forest <span class="hlt">areas</span> in So Paulo, Brazil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vasconcellos, Prola C; Souza, Davi Z; Sanchez-Ccoyllo, Odon; Bustillos, Jos Oscar V; Lee, Helena; Santos, Fernando C; Nascimento, Katia H; Arajo, Maria P; Saarnio, Karri; Teinil, Kimmo; Hillamo, Risto</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>This study was conducted at three sites of different characteristics in So Paulo State: So Paulo (SPA), Piracicaba (PRB) and Mata Atlntica Forest (MAT). PM(10), n-alkanes, pristane and phytane, PAHs, water-soluble ions and biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> tracers like levoglucosan and retene, were determined in quartz fiber filters. Samplings occurred on May 8th to August 8th, 2007 at the MAT site; on August 15th to 29th in 2007 and November 10th to 29th in 2008 at the PRB site and, March 13th to April 4th in 2007 and August 7th to 29th in 2008 at the SPA site. Aliphatic compounds emitted biogenically were less abundant at the urban sites than at the forest site, and its distribution showed the influence of tropical vascular plants. Air mass transport from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> regions is likely to impact the sites with specific molecular markers. The concentrations of all species were variable and dependent of seasonal changes. In the most dry and polluted seasons, n-alkane and cation total concentrations were similar between the megacity and the biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> site. PAHs and inorganic ion abundances were higher at So Paulo than Piracicaba, yet, the site influenced by biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> seems to be the most impacted by the organic anion abundance in the atmosphere. Pristane and phytane confirm the contamination by petroleum residues at urban sites; at the MAT site, biological activity and long range transport of pollutants might influence the levels of pristane. PMID:20843540</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JGRD..111.6304J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JGRD..111.6304J"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions for reactive greenhouse gases (CO, NMHCs, and NOx) and CO2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jain, Atul K.; Tao, Zhining; Yang, Xiaojuan; Gillespie, Conor</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>Open fire biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and domestic biofuel <span class="hlt">burning</span> (e.g., cooking, heating, and charcoal making) algorithms have been incorporated into a terrestrial ecosystem model to estimate CO2 and key reactive GHGs (CO, NOx, and NMHCs) emissions for the year 2000. The emissions are calculated over the globe at a 0.5 0.5 spatial resolution using tree density imagery, and two separate sets of data each for global <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> and land clearing for croplands, along with biofuel consumption rate data. The estimated global and <span class="hlt">annual</span> total dry matter (DM) <span class="hlt">burned</span> due to open fire biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> ranges between 5221 and 7346 Tg DM/yr, whereas the resultant emissions ranges are 6564-9093 Tg CO2/yr, 438-568 Tg CO/yr, 11-16 Tg NOx/yr (as NO), and 29-40 Tg NMHCs/yr. The results indicate that land use changes for cropland is one of the major sources of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>, which amounts to 25-27% (CO2), 25 -28% (CO), 20-23% (NO), and 28-30% (NMHCs) of the total open fire biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions of these gases. Estimated DM <span class="hlt">burned</span> associated with domestic biofuel <span class="hlt">burning</span> is 3,114 Tg DM/yr, and resultant emissions are 4825 Tg CO2/yr, 243 Tg CO/yr, 3 Tg NOx/yr, and 23 Tg NMHCs/yr. Total emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> are highest in tropical regions (Asia, America, and Africa), where we identify important contributions from primary forest cutting for croplands and domestic biofuel <span class="hlt">burning</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25055004','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25055004"><span id="translatedtitle">Outcomes of outpatient management of pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown, Matthew; Coffee, Tammy; Adenuga, Paul; Yowler, Charles J</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The literature surrounding pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> has focused on inpatient management. The goal of this study is to characterize the population of <span class="hlt">burned</span> children treated as outpatients and assess outcomes validating this method of <span class="hlt">burn</span> care. A retrospective review of 953 patients treated the <span class="hlt">burn</span> clinic and <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit of a tertiary care center. Patient age, <span class="hlt">burn</span> etiology, <span class="hlt">burn</span> characteristics, <span class="hlt">burn</span> mechanism, and referral pattern were recorded. The type of wound care and incidence of outcomes including subsequent hospital admission, infection, scarring, and surgery served as the primary outcome data. Eight hundred and thirty children were treated as outpatients with a mean time of 1.8 days for the evaluation of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury in our clinic. Scalds accounted for 53% of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> mechanism, with <span class="hlt">burns</span> to the hand/wrist being the most frequent <span class="hlt">area</span> involved. The mean percentage of TBSA was 1.4% for the outpatient cohort and 8% for the inpatient cohort. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> in the outpatient cohort healed with a mean time of 13.4 days. In the outpatient cohort, nine (1%) patients had subsequent admissions and three (0.4%) patients had concern for infection. Eight patients from the outpatient cohort were treated with excision and grafting. The vast majority of pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> are small, although they may often involve more critical <span class="hlt">areas</span> such as the face and hand. Outpatient wound care is an effective treatment strategy which results in low rates of complications and should become the standard of care for children with appropriate <span class="hlt">burn</span> size and home support. PMID:25055004</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25501787','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25501787"><span id="translatedtitle">Recovery trajectories after <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury in young adults: does <span class="hlt">burn</span> size matter?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ryan, Colleen M; Lee, Austin; Kazis, Lewis E; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Sheridan, Robert L; Meyer, Walter J; Palmieri, Tina; Pidcock, Frank S; Reilly, Debra; Tompkins, Ronald G</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The impact of <span class="hlt">burn</span> size on mortality is well known, but the association of <span class="hlt">burn</span> size with the trajectories of long-term functional outcomes remains poorly studied. This prospective multi-center study included <span class="hlt">burned</span> adults ages 19 to 30 years who completed the Young Adult <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Outcome Questionnaire at initial baseline contact, 2 weeks, and at 6 and 12 months after initial questionnaire administration. Non-<span class="hlt">burned</span> adults of comparable ages also completed the questionnaire as a reference group. The association between functional recovery and TBSA <span class="hlt">burned</span> was analyzed longitudinally using generalized linear models with the generalized estimation equation technique. Functional status was characterized in 15 domains: physical function, fine motor function, pain, itch, social function limited by physical function, perceived appearance, social function limited by appearance, sexual function, emotion, family function, family concern, satisfaction with symptom relief, satisfaction with role, work reintegration, and religion. Scores were standardized to a mean of 50 and a SD of 10 based on non-<span class="hlt">burned</span> controls. There were 153 <span class="hlt">burned</span> and 112 non-<span class="hlt">burned</span> subjects with a total of 620 questionnaires. TBSA <span class="hlt">burned</span> was 11 14% (mean SD); 31% had face involvement and 57% had hand involvement. The lag time from <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury to questionnaire administration was on average 7 7.7 months, with a maximum of 36 months. Lower recovery levels were associated with increasing <span class="hlt">burn</span> size for physical function, pain, itch, work reintegration, emotion, satisfaction with symptom relief, satisfaction with role, family function, and family concern (P value ranged from .04-<.0001). No significant differences in recovery levels were found with increasing <span class="hlt">burn</span> size for fine motor function, social function limited by physical function, sexual function, and religion; these <span class="hlt">areas</span> tracked toward the age-matched non-<span class="hlt">burned</span> group regardless of <span class="hlt">burn</span> size. Perceived appearance and social function limited by appearance remained below the non-<span class="hlt">burn</span> levels throughout the 3-year period regardless of <span class="hlt">burn</span> size. Three-year recovery trajectories of survivors with larger <span class="hlt">burn</span> size showed improvements in most <span class="hlt">areas</span>, but these improvements lagged behind those with smaller <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Poor perceived appearance was persistent and prevalent regardless of <span class="hlt">burn</span> size and was found to limit social function in these young adult <span class="hlt">burn</span> survivors. Expectations for multidimensional recovery from <span class="hlt">burns</span> in young adults can be benchmarked based on <span class="hlt">burn</span> size with important implications for patient monitoring and intervening in clinical care. PMID:25501787</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.122..705C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.122..705C"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial estimation of PM2.5 emissions from straw open <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Tianjin from 2001 to 2012</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Guanyi; Guan, Yanan; Tong, Ling; Yan, Beibei; Hou, Li'an</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Straw open <span class="hlt">burning</span> in suburban <span class="hlt">areas</span> contributes to an important proportion of air pollution threatening air quality of neighbouring highways and airports. This paper presents the characteristics of straw open <span class="hlt">burning</span>-derived air pollution to understand its impact mechanism and take effective control measurements. In this study, PM2.5 emissions inventory from straw open <span class="hlt">burning</span> was established at a high spatial resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° in Tianjin using geographic information systems (GIS) for the period of 2001-2012. PM2.5 emissions increased by 209.15% in the past nine years at an <span class="hlt">annual</span> average rate of 23.24% from 2.95 Gg in 2002 to 6.17 Gg in 2010. WuQing District covering 13.17% of Tianjin land contributed to PM2.5 emission of 28.21% of total PM2.5 emissions from straw open <span class="hlt">burning</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25816683','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25816683"><span id="translatedtitle">[Prospective methods of combat <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury treatment].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ivchenko, E V; Golota, A S; Krassi?, A B; Sechin, A A</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The current article briefly reviews the projects of development of combat <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury treatment as they have been presented in the US Armed Forces Institute of Regenerative Medicine 2013 <span class="hlt">annual</span> report. Eleven projects have been reviewed, in particular: P12 polypeptide for limiting <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury progression, gamma keratose gelfor enhancement skin cell survival, starch-polyurethane iodophor dressing effective against the most common <span class="hlt">burn</span> infection, microorganisms, autologous stem and progenitor cells for single cell cytotransplantation by "skin gun" spray device or 3D skin bioprinting, a bioreactor for skin autotransplant expansion. PMID:25816683</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AtmEn..35.1773P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AtmEn..35.1773P"><span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> losses of carbon estimated from ecosystem modeling and satellite data analysis for the Brazilian Amazon region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Potter, Christopher; Brooks Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Bobo, Matthew; Torregrosa, Alicia</p> <p></p> <p>To produce a new daily record of gross carbon emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> events and post-<span class="hlt">burning</span> decomposition fluxes in the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), 1991. Anuario Estatistico do Brasil, Vol. 51. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil pp. 1-1024). We have used vegetation greenness estimates from satellite images as inputs to a terrestrial ecosystem production model. This carbon allocation model generates new estimates of regional aboveground vegetation biomass at 8-km resolution. The modeled biomass product is then combined for the first time with fire pixel counts from the advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) to overlay regional <span class="hlt">burning</span> activities in the Amazon. Results from our analysis indicate that carbon emission estimates from <span class="hlt">annual</span> region-wide sources of deforestation and biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the early 1990s are apparently three to five times higher than reported in previous studies for the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Houghton et al., 2000. Nature 403, 301-304; Fearnside, 1997. Climatic Change 35, 321-360), i.e., studies which implied that the Legal Amazon region tends toward a net-zero <span class="hlt">annual</span> source of terrestrial carbon. In contrast, our analysis implies that the total source fluxes over the entire Legal Amazon region range from 0.2 to 1.2 Pg C yr -1, depending strongly on <span class="hlt">annual</span> rainfall patterns. The reasons for our higher <span class="hlt">burning</span> emission estimates are (1) use of combustion fractions typically measured during Amazon forest <span class="hlt">burning</span> events for computing carbon losses, (2) more detailed geographic distribution of vegetation biomass and daily fire activity for the region, and (3) inclusion of fire effects in extensive <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the Legal Amazon covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. The total <span class="hlt">area</span> of rainforest estimated <span class="hlt">annually</span> to be deforested did not differ substantially among the previous analyses cited and our own.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25054540','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25054540"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling fire frequency in a Cerrado savanna protected <span class="hlt">area</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pereira Jnior, Alfredo C; Oliveira, Sofia L J; Pereira, Jos M C; Turkman, Maria Antnia Amaral</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world's most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997-2008) for the Jalapo State Park, a protected <span class="hlt">area</span> in the north of the Cerrado, based on <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps derived from Landsat imagery. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of <span class="hlt">burning</span> distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an <span class="hlt">area</span> equivalent to four times the size of Jalapo State Park <span class="hlt">burned</span> and the mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic <span class="hlt">burning</span> may be used to reduce the extent of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> and the severity of fire effects. PMID:25054540</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4108356','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4108356"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling Fire Frequency in a Cerrado Savanna Protected <span class="hlt">Area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C.; Oliveira, Sofia L. J.; Pereira, José M. C.; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world’s most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997–2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected <span class="hlt">area</span> in the north of the Cerrado, based on <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps derived from Landsat imagery. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of <span class="hlt">burning</span> distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an <span class="hlt">area</span> equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park <span class="hlt">burned</span> and the mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic <span class="hlt">burning</span> may be used to reduce the extent of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> and the severity of fire effects. PMID:25054540</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5399342','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5399342"><span id="translatedtitle">Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF <span class="hlt">burning</span> program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Niemann, K.; Campbell, J.</p> <p>1982-03-01</p> <p>The Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Program was conceived to promote the utilization of refuse-derived fuels (RDF) as a supplement to existing fossil fuel sources in industrial-sized boilers. The program explores the design, development, and eventual construction of densified-RDF (d-RDF) for use in boiler combustion testing as a supplement to stoker coal or wood wastes. The equipment would be mounted on trailers and assembled and operated at preselected sites throughout the country where approximately 750 tons of RDF would be produced and test <span class="hlt">burned</span> in a local boiler. The equipment, to include a transportable RDF boiler metering and feed system, would then be moved and operated at two to three test sites <span class="hlt">annually</span>. The program is intended to encourage the construction of permanent resource recovery facilities by involving local waste handling groups in operating the equipment and producing fuel, and potential local fuel users in testing the fuel in their boilers. The Mobilizable Program was developed from two separate tasks. The first task developed the concept behind the program and defined its operational and organizational structure. The second task, a follow-up to the first, was intended principally to finalize test locations, develop equipment designs and specifications, and formalize a management program. This report summarizes the principal findings of both tasks. It identifies the criteria used to identify test locations, outlines the program's management structure, presents design and performance specifications for both the fuel production equipment and boiler fuel feed systems, and provides a detailed evaluation of the parameters involved in <span class="hlt">burning</span> RDF in industrial-sized boilers. Final conclusions and recommendations identify problem <span class="hlt">areas</span> encountered in the program, and discuss possible future directions for such a program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25085088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25085088"><span id="translatedtitle">Special problems in <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sheridan, Robert L; Greenhalgh, David</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Burn</span> units provide a unique set of resources to patients with complex wounds, sepsis, and organ failures. This resource set is useful in a number of traumatic, infectious, and medical conditions as well. Further, many <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients have sustained simultaneous non-<span class="hlt">burn</span> trauma which will be managed in <span class="hlt">burn</span> programs. PMID:25085088</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC31B0473X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC31B0473X"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Changes of Paddy Rice Planting <span class="hlt">Areas</span> in Northeastern Asia from MODIS images in 2000-2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiao, X.; Zhang, G.; Dong, J.; Menarguez, M. A.; Kou, W.; Jin, C.; Qin, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, J.; Moore, B., III</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Knowledge of the <span class="hlt">area</span> and spatial distribution of paddy rice is important for assessment of food security, management of water resources, estimation of greenhouse gas (methane) emissions, and understanding avian influenza virus transmission. Over the past two decades, paddy rice cultivation has expanded northward in temperate and cold temperate zones, particularly in Northeastern China. There is a need to quantify and map changes in paddy rice planting <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Northeastern Asia (Japan, North and South Korea, and northeast China) at <span class="hlt">annual</span> interval. We developed a pixel- and phenology-based image analysis system, MODIS-RICE, to map the paddy rice in Northeastern Asia by using multi-temporal MODIS thermal and surface reflectance imagery. Paddy rice fields during the flooding and transplanting phases have unique physical and spectral characteristics, which make it possible for the development of an automated and robust algorithm to track flooding and transplanting phases of paddy rice fields over time. In this presentation, we will show the MODIS-based <span class="hlt">annual</span> maps of paddy rice planting <span class="hlt">area</span> in the Northeastern Asia from 2000-2014 (500-m spatial resolution). Accuracy assessments using high-resolution images show that the resultant paddy rice map of Northeastern Asia had a comparable accuracy to the existing products, including 2010 Landsat-based National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) of China, the 2010 RapidEye-based paddy rice map in North Korea, and the 2010 AVNIR-2-based National Land Cover Dataset in Japan in terms of both <span class="hlt">area</span> and spatial pattern of paddy rice. This study has demonstrated that our novel MODIS-Rice system, which use both thermal and optical MODIS data over a year, are simple and robust tools to identify and map paddy rice fields in temperate and cold temperate zones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16566547','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16566547"><span id="translatedtitle">Coin and currency <span class="hlt">burn</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bhatti, Asif Zubair; Chapman, William Thomas; Naveed, Masroor; McDiarmid, James R</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>We describe a case of <span class="hlt">burns</span> purposefully sustained in a patient performing a bizarre pub game while under the influence of alcohol. Full-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> were sustained through contact with a 50-p UK currency coin essentially heated with <span class="hlt">burning</span> paper. We discuss the nature and ease by which such <span class="hlt">burns</span> can be sustained in the community and the increasing awareness of alcohol abuse as a factor in a significant proportion of such self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:16566547</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21350781','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21350781"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of size and mass distribution of particulate matter due to crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> with seasonal variation in rural <span class="hlt">area</span> of Punjab, India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Awasthi, Amit; Agarwal, Ravinder; Mittal, Susheel K; Singh, Nirankar; Singh, Khem; Gupta, Prabhat K</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Emission from field <span class="hlt">burning</span> of agricultural crop residue is a common environmental hazard observed in northern India. It has a significant potential health risk for the rural population due to respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM). A study on eight stage size segregated mass distribution of RSPM was done for 2 wheat and 3 rice crop seasons. The study was undertaken at rural and agricultural sites of Patiala (India) where the RSPM levels remained close to the National Ambient Air quality standards (NAAQS). Fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) contributed almost 55% to 64% of the RSPM, showing that, in general, the smaller particles dominated during the whole study period with more contribution during the rice crop as compared to that of wheat crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Fine particulate matter content in the total RSPM increased with decrease in temperature. Concentration levels of PM(10) and PM(2.5) were higher during the winter months as compared to that in the summer months. Background concentration levels of PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(10-2.5) were found to be around 97 21, 57 15 and 40 6 ?g m(-3), respectively. The levels increased up to 66, 78 and 71% during rice season and 51, 43 and 61% during wheat crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span>, respectively. Extensive statistical analysis of the data was done by using pair t-test. Overall results show that the concentration levels of different size particulate matter are greatly affected by agricultural crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> but the total distribution of the particulate matter remains almost constant. PMID:21350781</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/468536','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/468536"><span id="translatedtitle">Z-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Saltstone Disposal Facility groundwater monitoring report. 1996 <span class="hlt">annual</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>The Z-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Saltstone Disposal Facility is located in the Separations <span class="hlt">Area</span>, north of H and S <span class="hlt">Areas</span>, at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The facility permanently disposes of low-level radioactive waste. The facility blends low-level radioactive salt solution with cement, slag, and flyash to form a nonhazardous cementitious waste that is pumped to aboveground disposal vaults. Z <span class="hlt">Area</span> began these operations in June 1990. Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Industrial Solid Waste Permit {number_sign}025500-1603 (formerly IWP-217). During second quarter 1996, lead was reported above the SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standard in one well. No other constituents were reported above SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standards for final Primary Drinking Water Standards during first, second, or third quarters 1996. Antimony was detected above SRS flagging criteria during third quarter 1996. In the past, tritium has been detected sporadically in the ZBG wells at levels similar to those detected before Z <span class="hlt">Area</span> began radioactive operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESASP.731E..40S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESASP.731E..40S"><span id="translatedtitle">Processing Optical and SAR Data for <span class="hlt">Burned</span> Forests Mapping: An Integrated Framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stroppiana, Daniela; Azar, Ramin; Calo, Fabiana; Pepe, Antonio; Imperatore, Pasquale; Boschetti, Mirco; Silva, Joao M. N.; Brivio, Pietro A.; Lanari, Riccardo</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The application of an integrated monitoring tool to assess and understand the effects of <span class="hlt">annually</span> occurring forest fires is presented, with special emphasis to Mediterranean and Temperate Continental zones of Europe. The distinctive features of the information conveyed by optical and microwave remote sensing data have been firstly investigated, and pertinent information have been subsequently combined to identify <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> at the regional scale. We therefore propose a fuzzy-based multisource framework for <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping, in order to overcome the limitations inherent to the use of only optical data (which can be severely affected by cloud cover or include low albedo surface targets). The relevant experimental validation has been carried out on an extensive <span class="hlt">area</span>, thus quantitatively demonstrating how our approach successes in identifying <span class="hlt">areas</span> affected by fires. Furthermore, the proposed methodological framework can also be profitably applied to ESA Sentinel (optical and SAR) data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PIAHS.370...29S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PIAHS.370...29S"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysing the impact of urban <span class="hlt">areas</span> patterns on the mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> flow of 43 urbanized catchments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salavati, B.; Oudin, L.; Furusho, C.; Ribstein, P.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>It is often argued that urban <span class="hlt">areas</span> play a significant role in catchment hydrology, but previous studies reported disparate results of urbanization impacts on stream flow. This might stem either from the difficulty to quantify the historical flow changes attributed to urbanization only (and not climate variability) or from the inability to decipher what type of urban planning is more critical for flows. In this study, we applied a hydrological model on 43 urban catchments in the United States to quantify the flow changes attributable to urbanization. Then, we tried to relate these flow changes to the changes of urban/impervious <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the catchments. We argue that these spatial changes of urban <span class="hlt">areas</span> can be more precisely characterized by landscape metrics, which enable analysing the patterns of historical urban growth. Landscape metrics combine the richness (the number) and evenness (the spatial distribution) of patch types represented on the landscape. Urbanization patterns within the framework of patch analysis have been widely studied but, to our knowledge, previous research works had not linked them to catchments hydrological behaviours. Our results showed that the catchments with larger impervious <span class="hlt">areas</span> and larger mean patch <span class="hlt">areas</span> are likely to have larger increase of runoff yield.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EurSS..48..871Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EurSS..48..871Q"><span id="translatedtitle">Winter soil CO2 efflux and its contribution to <span class="hlt">annual</span> soil respiration in different ecosystems of Ebinur Lake <span class="hlt">Area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qin, L.; Lv, G. H.; He, X. M.; Yang, J. J.; Wang, H. L.; Zhang, X. N.; Ma, H. Y.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Arid and semiarid <span class="hlt">areas</span> account for about one-third of the total land surface, and which play an important role in the global carbon cycle and climate system. However, up to now, compare with plenty knowledge information on winter soil efflux of forest ecosystems in mid-latitude ecosystems, winter soil efflux of arid <span class="hlt">areas</span> at mid-latitude ecosystems is scare, Ebinur Lake <span class="hlt">Area</span>, which is the study <span class="hlt">area</span> of the present study, is located in arid regions of Northern China, with a vulnerable ecological environment suffering from extreme weather and climate. The objectives of this study were: (1) measure the winter soil respiration rate in our study <span class="hlt">area</span> and determine its major environmental factors; (2) determine the winter soil CO2 efflux and its contribution to <span class="hlt">annual</span> soil CO2 efflux in different ecosystems; and (3) discuss the estimated method of soil respiration that is most suitable to arid <span class="hlt">areas</span>. We measured winter soil CO2 efflux and the associated environment factors in a farmland ecosystem (50a and 9a cotton fields), an abandoned land ecosystem (7a and 3a abandoned lands) and desert ecosystem ( Populus euphratica, Phragmites australis communities and sandy desert) in Ebinur Lake <span class="hlt">Area</span>, China. The average winter soil respiration rate in the arid <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the mid-latitude was 0.063 μmol m-2 s-1 to 0.730 μmol m-2 s-1. Specifically, the average winter soil respiration rate in the farmland ecosystems, abandoned land ecosystems and desert ecosystems were 0.686 μmol m-2 s-1, 0.443 μmol m-2 s-1 and 0.276 μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. Range of <span class="hlt">annual</span> Q 10 (known as the increase in soil respiration rate per 10°C increase in temperature) in the three ecosystems were 0.989 to 4.962, 1.971 to 2.096 and 0.947 to 5.173, respectively. The relatively higher Q 10 values in the different ecosystems were all obtained in winter. We found that water (in the form of soil moisture or atmospheric humidity) was the primary factor that affected the change of soil respiration rate in the winter. Winter soil CO2 efflux were 9 g C m-2 to 132 g C m-2 and 19 g C m-2 to 130 g C m-2 by the observed and modelled method for soil respiration, respectively. The average winter soil CO2 efflux were 79.4 and 78.7 g C m-2, reLspectively. The contributions of winter soil CO2 efflux to <span class="hlt">annual</span> one were 4% to 31% and 4% to 30%. In the study <span class="hlt">area</span>, the model using the observed ecosystem-specific response equations between soil respiration and water-temperature simulated the soil respiration rate was the most suitable ones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3733043','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3733043"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiologic Characteristics of Occupational <span class="hlt">Burns</span> in Yazd, Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Kazemeini, Kazem; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objective: Occupational <span class="hlt">burns</span> are among the important causes of work-related fatalities and absenteeism. Epidemiologic assessment of these injuries is important to define high-risk jobs. We designed this study to evaluate the epidemiology of occupational <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Yazd, an industrial province in Iran. Methods: This is a prospective study on work-related <span class="hlt">burns</span> in a 1-year period (2008-2009). A questionnaire was completed for them about the characteristics of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Results: Three Hundred and Thirty Eight patients with occupational <span class="hlt">burns</span> were identified. Their mean age was 29.64 years. Most <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims were male workers in the metal industry. The most common job was smelting. Most <span class="hlt">burns</span> were happened in the morning. Thermal <span class="hlt">burns</span> were observed more than chemical and electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Mean total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> was 6.5%. The most common cause of <span class="hlt">burn</span> was hot fluid, followed by hot object and flame. There was no any significant relationship between <span class="hlt">burn</span> type, and <span class="hlt">burn</span> degree or <span class="hlt">burned</span> body surface. Conclusions: The highest incidence of occupational <span class="hlt">burns</span> was in 21-30 year-old workers. There was a male preponderance in work-related <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Metal industry had the most injured workers and among them, smelters were more frequently injured. PMID:23930193</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23466950','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23466950"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology of paediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Iran.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karimi, H; Montevalian, A; Motabar, A R; Safari, R; Parvas, M S; Vasigh, M</p> <p>2012-09-30</p> <p>We surveyed the epidemiology of the patients in a tertiary <span class="hlt">burn</span> care centre (the Motahari <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Hospital) in Tehran in the 4-yr period 2005-2009. Scalding was the major cause of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury for patients under the age of 6, while there were many more flame and electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> in late childhood. Males were mainly affected (male to female ratio, 1.7:1). Most <span class="hlt">burns</span> occurred in the summer, probably due to older children's increased outdoor activities during school vacations. Most of the injuries took place in the kitchen. Age was directly related to the higher total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> and mortality rate. Explosion of propane gas at home had a high incidence. Length of hospital stay increased in relation to the <span class="hlt">burn</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span>. Infants were found to be at greatest risk for <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries, while older children were at higher risk for severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Before arriving at the hospital, 22 patients had received traditional therapy in the home which was not effective and caused some problems. Pre-hospital care by emergency medicine service personnel was complete and effective. 374 patients had positive results for wound culture (42.9%). The most frequent bacteria found in <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound cultures was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (66.8%). Blood culture was positive in 12% of the patients with positive <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound culture and the most frequent bacteria in blood culture was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The overall mortality rate was 10.6%. Treatment and prevention programmes should target high risk groups. Important criteria include older age, flame <span class="hlt">burn</span>, presence of inhalation injury, total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> above 40%, and sepsis. PMID:23466950</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575143','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575143"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology of paediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Karimi, H.; Montevalian, A.; Motabar, A.R.; Safari, R.; Parvas, M.S.; Vasigh, M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Summary We surveyed the epidemiology of the patients in a tertiary <span class="hlt">burn</span> care centre (the Motahari <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Hospital) in Tehran in the 4-yr period 2005-2009. Scalding was the major cause of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury for patients under the age of 6, while there were many more flame and electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> in late childhood. Males were mainly affected (male to female ratio, 1.7:1). Most <span class="hlt">burns</span> occurred in the summer, probably due to older children’s increased outdoor activities during school vacations. Most of the injuries took place in the kitchen. Age was directly related to the higher total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> and mortality rate. Explosion of propane gas at home had a high incidence. Length of hospital stay increased in relation to the <span class="hlt">burn</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span>. Infants were found to be at greatest risk for <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries, while older children were at higher risk for severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Before arriving at the hospital, 22 patients had received traditional therapy in the home which was not effective and caused some problems. Pre-hospital care by emergency medicine service personnel was complete and effective. 374 patients had positive results for wound culture (42.9%). The most frequent bacteria found in <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound cultures was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (66.8%). Blood culture was positive in 12% of the patients with positive <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound culture and the most frequent bacteria in blood culture was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The overall mortality rate was 10.6%. Treatment and prevention programmes should target high risk groups. Important criteria include older age, flame <span class="hlt">burn</span>, presence of inhalation injury, total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> above 40%, and sepsis. PMID:23466950</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17618054','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17618054"><span id="translatedtitle">A survey on 30 months electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Hospital.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Amini, Masoud; Mehrabani, Davood; Kiani, Zohreh; Seddigh, Azam</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Electrical <span class="hlt">burn</span> is less common nowadays but still has complications and requires therapeutic interventions especially in developing countries. It occurs more in males and in industrial sites. The importance of electrical <span class="hlt">burn</span> led us to study a 30 months history of electrical <span class="hlt">burn</span> in Shiraz, Southern Iran. In a cross-sectional retrospective study, 1352 patients were surveyed for 30 months in relation to the cause, time, demographic information, therapeutic measures and prognosis of the electrical <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Among <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients, 4.73% were due to electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> (mean age, 30.5 years) and 95.3% were male. The mean hospitalization period was 11.5 days and the mean <span class="hlt">burn</span> extent was 27.5%. Half of the victims were employees and 59.3% of the electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> occurred at their work site. 67.2% of <span class="hlt">burns</span> were due to high voltage electrical current (more than 1000 V) and 4.6% of the patients died due to the direct cause of electrical <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The high prevalence of electrical <span class="hlt">burn</span> in males and workers emphasizes on the essence of standardization of occupational <span class="hlt">areas</span> and use of trained workers to prevent electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:17618054</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr72317','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr72317"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> compilation and analysis of hydrologic data for urban studies in the Bryan, Texas, metropolitan <span class="hlt">area</span>, 1969</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Robbins, W.D.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Hydrologic investigations of urban <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. These studies are now in progress in Austin, Houston, Dallas, Dallas County, Fort Worth, San Antonio, and Bryan. Hydrologic investigations of urban <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. These studies are now in progress in Austin, Houston, Dallas, Dallas County, Fort Worth, San Antonio, and Bryan. 1. To determine, on the basis of historical data and hydrologic analyses, the magnitude and frequency of floods. 2. To document and define the areal extent of floods of greater than ordinary magnitude. 3. To determine the effect of urban development on flood peaks and volume. 4. To provide applied research facilities for studies at Texas A & M University at College Stations. This report, the first in a series of reports to be published <span class="hlt">annually</span>, is primarily applicable to objectives 2, 3, and 4. The report presents the basic hydrologic data collected in two study <span class="hlt">areas</span> during the 1969 water year (October 1, 1968, to September 30, 1969) and basic hydrologic data collected during part of the 1968 water year (April 5, 1968, to September 30, 1968). The locations of the two basins within the study <span class="hlt">area</span>, Burton Creek and Hudson Creek, are shown on figure 1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6750','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6750"><span id="translatedtitle">Z-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Saltstone Disposal Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report (1998 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wells, D.</p> <p>1999-04-27</p> <p>In accordance with SRS Z-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Saltstone Industrial Solid Waste Permit, wells ZBG-1, ZBG-1A and ZBG-2 are monitored for the parameters listed in this document. Sampling was done during the first and third quarters of 1998. Additional Analyses were also run. The analytical results appear in Appendix 1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26808770','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26808770"><span id="translatedtitle">Intracompartmental Sepsis With <span class="hlt">Burn</span>: A Case Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chou, Chieh; Lee, Su-Shin; Wang, Hui-Min; Hsieh, Tung-Ying; Lee, Hsiao-Chen; Chang, Chih-Hau; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Chang, Kao-Ping; Lin, Sin-Daw; Huang, Shu-Hung</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Intracompartmental sepsis (IS) is a rare complication in patients with <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Intracompartmental sepsis presents in patients with inadequate perfusion of intracompartmental tissues and subsequent ischemic necrosis and infection. Contributing factors include high-volume resuscitation, delayed escharotomies, and previous bacteremia. We describe a case of massive <span class="hlt">burns</span> from a gas explosion and the subsequent development of IS in our intensive care <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit. The patient presented with a 75% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burn</span> on admission, with 39% superficial, deep partial-thickness and 26% full-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Intracompartmental sepsis was diagnosed 45 days after admission. Anterior compartment muscles, including the tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, and extensor digitorum longus, were necrotic with relatively fair nerve and vascular structures. Intracompartmental sepsis is an overwhelming, infectious complication that appears late and can occur easily in patients with major <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Early diagnosis and management are a must for improving outcomes. PMID:26808770</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5288325','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5288325"><span id="translatedtitle">Large <span class="hlt">area</span> silicon sheet by EFG. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1980-03-14</p> <p>The progress which has been made in 1978/1979 to evolve systems designs for growth stations which produce multiple silicon ribbons by the EFG process is reported. This progress culminated in the demonstration of five ribbon multiple growth in May 1979 and in recent advances toward improved electronic quality of ribbons grown from these machines. These advances were made in large measure by studies in which the composition of the gas environment around the meniscus <span class="hlt">area</span> was varied. By introducing gases such as CO/sub 2/, CO, and CH/sub 4/ into this region, reproducible increases in diffusion length and cell performance have been realized, with the best large <span class="hlt">area</span> (5 cm x 10 cm) cells exceeding 11% (AM1) efficiency.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/586987','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/586987"><span id="translatedtitle">Z-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Saltstone Disposal Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Roach, J.L. Jr.</p> <p>1997-12-01</p> <p>Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Industrial Solid Waste Permit {number_sign}025500-1603 (formerly IWP-217). No constituents were reported above SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standards or final Primary Drinking Water Standards during first or third quareters 1997. No constituents were detected above SRS flagging criteria during first or third quarters 1997.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/14215','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/14215"><span id="translatedtitle">Columbia River : Select <span class="hlt">Area</span> Fishery Evaluation project : 1995-96 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Reports.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hirose, Paul; Miller, Marc; Hill, Jim</p> <p>1998-06-01</p> <p>Water quality monitoring was conducted from November 1994 through October 1996 at five Oregon and three Washington select <span class="hlt">area</span> study sites in the lower Columbia River. Physicochemical monitoring and aquatic biomonitoring programs were established to profile baseline parameters at each study site and document differences between study sites. Data collected at study sites where fish rearing operations were initiated indicate a potential negative impact on the surrounding benthic invertebrate communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/788443','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/788443"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Bitcutter and Post-Shot Injection Wells: Corrective Action Unit 90 Post-Closure Inspection <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>D. L. Gustafason</p> <p>2000-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Bitcutter and Post-Shot Containment Shop Injection Wells Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 90 Post-Closure Monitoring requirements are described in section V.B.8.b of the Nevada Test Site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility No. NEV HW009, modified May 31, 1997, Revision 3. Post-closure care consists of the following: Semiannual inspections of the unit using an inspection checklist; Photographic documentation; Field note documentation; and Preparation and submittal of an <span class="hlt">annual</span> report. The report includes copies of the inspection checklist, photographs, and recommendations and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and a copy of the inspection photographs is found in Attachment C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6721','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6721"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Bitcutter and Postshot Injection Wells Corrective Action Unit 90 Post-Closure Inspection <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bechtel Nevada</p> <p>1999-08-01</p> <p>A Post-Closure Program was agreed upon in the 1996 Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Report <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Bitcutter and Postshot Containment Shops Injection Wells Corrective Action Unit 90, Report No. DOE/NV--461. Post Closure care consists of: Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; Verify that the site is secure and the gates are locked; Note any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; Remedy those deficiencies within 60 days of discovery; Discuss them in the <span class="hlt">annual</span> report. The report included an executive summary, copies of the inspection checklist, and recommendations and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A and a copy of the field notes are found in Attachment B.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/790043','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/790043"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Bitcutter and Post-Shot Injection Wells Corrective Action Unit 90 Post-Closure Inspection <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>D. S. Tobiason</p> <p>2001-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Bitcutter and Post-Shot Containment Wells Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 90 Post-Closure Monitoring requirements are described in {section} VIIB.8.b of the Nevada Test Site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility No. NEV HW009, reissued November 20, 2000, Revision 4. Post-closure care consists of the following: Semiannual inspections of the unit using an inspection checklist; photographic documentation; field note documentation; and preparation and submittal of an <span class="hlt">annual</span> report. The report includes copies of the inspection checklist, photographs, and recommendations and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and a copy of the inspection photographs is found in Attachment C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....1217177J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....1217177J"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of water table level on <span class="hlt">annual</span> carbon and greenhouse gas balances of a restored peat extraction <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Järveoja, J.; Peichl, M.; Maddison, M.; Soosaar, K.; Vellak, K.; Karofeld, E.; Teemusk, A.; Mander, Ü.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Peatland restoration may provide a potential after-use option to mitigate the negative climate impact of abandoned peat extraction <span class="hlt">areas</span>; currently, however, knowledge about restoration effects on the <span class="hlt">annual</span> balances of carbon (C) and greenhouse gas (GHG) exchanges is still limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of contrasting water table levels (WTL) on the <span class="hlt">annual</span> C and GHG balances of restoration treatments with high (Res-H) and low (Res-L) WTL relative to an unrestored bare peat (BP) site. Measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes were conducted over a full year using the closed chamber method and complemented by measurements of abiotic controls and vegetation cover. Three years following restoration, the difference in the mean WTL resulted in higher bryophyte and lower vascular plant cover in Res-H relative to Res-L. Consequently, greater gross primary production and autotrophic respiration associated with greater vascular plant cover were observed in Res-L compared to Res-H. However, the means of the measured net ecosystem CO2 exchanges (NEE) were not significantly different between Res-H and Res-L. Similarly, no significant differences were observed in the respective means of CH4 and N2O exchanges in Res-H and Res-L, respectively. In comparison to the two restored sites, greater net CO2, similar CH4 and greater N2O emissions occurred in BP. On the <span class="hlt">annual</span> scale, Res-H, Res-L and BP were C sources of 111, 103 and 268 g C m-2 yr-1 and had positive GHG balances of 4.1, 3.8 and 10.2 t CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Thus, the different WTLs had a limited impact on the C and GHG balances in the two restored treatments three years following restoration. However, the C and GHG balances in Res-H and Res-L were considerably lower than in BP owing to the large reduction in CO2 emissions. This study therefore suggests that restoration may serve as an effective method to mitigate the negative climate impacts of abandoned peat extraction <span class="hlt">areas</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ameriburn.org/','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.ameriburn.org/"><span id="translatedtitle">American <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Association</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... and Activities Educational Resources Prevention Posters Awards FAQs <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Awareness Week About IAC Accomplishments IAC Members Membership ... About Verification Verification Step by Step ACS Resources <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Chapter Verification Criteria - Effective 1/1/2015 New! ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.safekids.org/sites/default/files/documents/skw_burns_fact_sheet_feb_2015.pdf','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.safekids.org/sites/default/files/documents/skw_burns_fact_sheet_feb_2015.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> and Fire Safety</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... were seen in emergency rooms for fire and <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries in 2013. 1 Additional Statistics Working smoke alarms ... Medical costs for hospital admissions for unintentional fire/<span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries in children 19 and under average $14,498 ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6472E..0ND','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6472E..0ND"><span id="translatedtitle">Terahertz imaging of <span class="hlt">burned</span> tissue</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dougherty, Joseph P.; Jubic, Gregory D.; Kiser, William L., Jr.</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>There are over 2 million reported <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries each year in the United States with 75,000 of these incidents resulting in hospitalization. Current medical imaging modalities have limited capabilities to assess initial <span class="hlt">burn</span> damage and monitor healing progress. Some of these limitations can be attributed to modality occlusion from bandages, dried tissue and/or blood and inflammation. Since terahertz radiation can see through textiles and bandages1, previous studies 2,3 suggested that terahertz radiation, in a reflectance configuration, could be used for non-invasive analysis of tissue thermal damage and healing status. In this study, we perform an analysis of the terahertz absorption and reflection properties of the tissue constituents comprising a wound <span class="hlt">area</span>, and provide a feasibility assessment of the capabilities of terahertz imaging to provide a clinical tool for initial <span class="hlt">burn</span> analysis and healing progress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1659790','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1659790"><span id="translatedtitle">The endocrine response after <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matsui, M; Kudo, T; Kudo, M; Ishihara, H; Matsuki, A</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>To identify the dynamic response of hormones after <span class="hlt">burns</span> with special reference to ANP during shock and the subsequent period, plasma concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), aldosterone, cortisol, arginine vasopressin (AVP), corticotropin, (ACTH), plasma renin activities (PRA), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) were measured from the day of ICU admission and for 7 days following <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Plasma AVP levels were highest on ICU admission and correlated with size of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury ranged from 20-60 percent of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>. Between the 5th and 6th postburn day plasma ANP levels elevated while plasma AVP levels returned to normal. Urine sodium concentrations decreased from the 3rd day. Plasma aldosterone levels declined after the 2nd day. Mean epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) levels elevated on admission and remained elevated throughout the study. These results suggest that ANP plays important role for restoring fluid homeostasis by improving edema in <span class="hlt">burned</span> tissues during refilling periods in <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:1659790</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2050719','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2050719"><span id="translatedtitle">Preventing postoperative <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound aspergillosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Levenson, C; Wohlford, P; Djou, J; Evans, S; Zawacki, B</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Between January 1, 1984, and December 31, 1988, 35 patients at the Los Angeles County + University of Southern California <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center had postoperative cultures from their <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds that grew Aspergillus species; clinical <span class="hlt">burn</span>-wound aspergillosis occurred in 66% of these cases and death occurred in 53% of these cases. Beginning in November 1984, several modifications in the air-conditioning system and topical antimicrobial wound therapy were undertaken. Cleaning and 8Cu-quinolinolate treatment of air ducts every 2 months did not reliably clear Aspergillus species from the air in patient care <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Several changes in topical therapeutic regimen failed to prevent both <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound culture positivity and clinical aspergillosis. Finally, installation of high-efficiency particulate air filters, installation of new air ducts, and inception of wound irrigation with a solution of mafenide hydrochloride plus nystatin both during and after operation were associated with a reduction in wound culture positivity rate to one occurrence in 1988 (Poisson probability less than 0.01 versus the rate in 1984) and no occurrences during the 18 months after the false ceiling of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> ward was sealed. PMID:2050719</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fire+AND+child+AND+education&pg=4&id=EJ556002','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fire+AND+child+AND+education&pg=4&id=EJ556002"><span id="translatedtitle">Learn Not To <span class="hlt">Burn</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>English, Nancy; Hendricks, Charlotte M.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Describes the "Learn Not to <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Preschool Program," a low-cost fire safety awareness and <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention curriculum for young children. The program promotes eight <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention methods--including practicing an escape plan--using developmentally appropriate learning objectives to increase children's fire safety knowledge, skill, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7671090','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7671090"><span id="translatedtitle">[Multiple trauma and <span class="hlt">burns</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carsin, H; Dutertre, G; Le Bever, H; Ainaud, P; Le Rveill, R; Rives, J M</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>In peace time, <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury combined with traumatic, chemical or radioactive casualties is rarely encountered and often unrecognized; during disasters, <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury is unlikely the only trauma. The authors try to bring out the main pathophysiological, diagnostic and therapeutic characteristics of changes induced by combined lesions on <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury and vice-versa. PMID:7671090</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://kidshealth.org/parent/firstaid_safe/sheets/burns_sheet.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://kidshealth.org/parent/firstaid_safe/sheets/burns_sheet.html"><span id="translatedtitle">First Aid: <span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... clothing stuck to the skin. Run cool (not cold) water over the <span class="hlt">burn</span> until the pain eases. Lightly apply a gauze bandage. If your child is awake and alert, offer ibuprofen or acetaminophen for pain. Do not put any ointments, butter, or other remedies on the <span class="hlt">burn</span> these can make the <span class="hlt">burn</span> ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A41B0081D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A41B0081D"><span id="translatedtitle">Pre-Harvest Sugarcane <span class="hlt">Burning</span>: Determination of emission factors through laboratory measurements and quantification of emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Azeredo Franca, D.; Maria Longo, K.; Gomes Soares Neto, T.; Carlos dos Santos, J.; Rudorf, B. F.; Alves de Aguiar, D.; Freitas, S.; Vieira Cortez, E.; Stockler S. Lima, R.; S. Gacita, M.; Anselmo, E.; A. Carvalho, J., Jr.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Sugarcane is a relevant crop to Brazilian economy and roughly 50% of its production is used to produce ethanol. So Paulo state is the largest producer of sugarcane in Brazil being responsible for almost 60% of its production in a cultivated <span class="hlt">area</span> of 4.5 Mha in 2010. Sugarcane harvest practice can be performed either with green harvest or with pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span>. A "Green Ethanol" Protocol is underway to eliminate the pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice by 2014 in most of the sugarcane cultivated land in So Paulo state. During the last five years close to 2 Mha were <span class="hlt">annually</span> harvested with the pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice. This practice emits particulate material, greenhouse gases, and tropospheric ozone precursors to the atmosphere. Even with policies to eliminate the <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice in the near future there is still a significant environmental damage due to the pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice of sugarcane. Thus the generation of reliable inventories of emissions due to this activity is crucial in order to assess the environmental impact. Presently the official Brazilian emissions inventories do not include the sugarcane pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span> contribution. Therefore, this work aims to estimate the <span class="hlt">annual</span> emissions (from 2006 to 2010) associated with pre-harvest sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice in So Paulo state, including the determination of emission factors for some trace gases and particulate material smaller than 2.5 ?m. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> remote sensing based mappings of <span class="hlt">burned</span> sugarcane fields throughout the harvest season in each crop year made in the context of Canasat Project (http://www.dsr.inpe.br/laf/canasat/en/) were added to the Brazilian Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Emission Model (3BEM) in order to estimate trace gases and aerosols emissions. Two laboratory combustion experiments were carried out to determine the emission factors estimation. Samples of different varieties of sugarcane were harvested in dry weather conditions and in distinct sites in the state of So Paulo to assure a good representativeness. In each experiment a fraction of a specific sample was put on a <span class="hlt">burning</span> tray with <span class="hlt">area</span> equal to 1 m2 inside a combustion chamber and <span class="hlt">burned</span> under controlled conditions. The bottom's tray was covered with a layer of soil with some branches aiming to reproduce the <span class="hlt">burning</span> condition in the field. The smoke emitted was conducted to trace gas and aerosol particles analyzers measuring the excess mixing ratios for CO2, CO, NOX, UHC (unburned hydrocarbons) and PM2.5, allowing the estimation of their respective emission factors. Average values for emission factors estimated (g kg -1 of <span class="hlt">burned</span> dry biomass) were 1303 218 for CO2, 65 14 for CO, 1.5 0.4 for NOX, 16 6 for UHC, and 2.5 1.7 for PM2.5. These emission factors can be used to generate more realistic emission inventories and, therefore, to improve the results of quality air models. Currently, enhanced emission inventories of So Paulo state are obtained with the emission model 3BEM, available at CPTEC-INPE, by the inclusion of these improvements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/162169','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/162169"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of <span class="hlt">area</span> of review variance opportunities for the East Texas field. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Warner, D.L.; Koederitz, L.F.; Laudon, R.C.; Dunn-Norman, S.</p> <p>1995-05-01</p> <p>The East Texas oil field, discovered in 1930 and located principally in Gregg and Rusk Counties, is the largest oil field in the conterminous United States. Nearly 33,000 wells are known to have been drilled in the field. The field has been undergoing water injection for pressure maintenance since 1938. As of today, 104 Class II salt-water disposal wells, operated by the East Texas Salt Water Disposal Company, are returning all produced water to the Woodbine producing reservoir. About 69 of the presently existing wells have not been subjected to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency <span class="hlt">Area</span>-of-Review (AOR) requirements. A study has been carried out of opportunities for variance from AORs for these existing wells and for new wells that will be constructed in the future. The study has been based upon a variance methodology developed at the University of Missouri-Rolla under sponsorship of the American Petroleum Institute and in coordination with the Ground Water Protection Council. The principal technical objective of the study was to determine if reservoir pressure in the Woodbine producing reservoir is sufficiently low so that flow of salt-water from the Woodbine into the Carrizo-Wilcox ground water aquifer is precluded. The study has shown that the Woodbine reservoir is currently underpressured relative to the Carrizo-Wilcox and will remain so over the next 20 years. This information provides a logical basis for a variance for the field from performing AORs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/52809','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/52809"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization and monitoring of 300 <span class="hlt">Area</span> facility liquid waste streams: 1994 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Riley, R.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Evans, J.C.; Julya, J.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Ozanich, R.M.; Thompson, C.J.; Vogel, H.R.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during calendar year 1994: liquid waste streams from Buildings 306, 320, 324, 326, 331, and 3720 in the 300 <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Hanford Site and managed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory; treated and untreated Columbia River water (influent); and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Data were collected from March to December before the sampling system installation was completed. Data from this initial part of the program are considered tentative. Samples collected were analyzed for chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. In general, the concentrations of chemical and radiological constituents and parameters in building wastewaters which were sampled and analyzed during CY 1994 were similar to historical data. Exceptions were the occasional observances of high concentrations of chloride, nitrate, and sodium that are believed to be associated with excursions that were occurring when the samples were collected. Occasional observances of high concentrations of a few solvents also appeared to be associated with infrequent building r eases. During calendar year 1994, nitrate, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and gross beta exceeded US Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3187994','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3187994"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> in Epileptics: Experience from Enugu, Nigeria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jiburum, B.C.; Olaitan, P.B.; Otene, C.I.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Summary We present <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries sustained by epileptics and managed in our <span class="hlt">burns</span> centre over a period of 10 years. There were a total of 18 patients who sustained <span class="hlt">burns</span> as a result of epileptic attacks during the study period. This constituted 3.7% of the 485 <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients seen during the period. There were 10 males and 8 females. Sixteen of them (88.9%) were known epileptics, while two had their first seizures when they sustained the <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. Only seven of the patients (38.9%) had attempted any form of treatment for epilepsy prior to the <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries - four of these were on native herbal medications while three had seen orthodox medical practitioners but did not comply with their medications. Sixteen of the patients (88.9%) had flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> and two (11.1%) had scald injuries. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> surface <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged between 5 and 80%, with a mean of 21.0%. Most of the injuries were full thickness, necessitating wound cover. One patient had amputation of the right hand digits, while another had an above-elbow amputation. We submit that sociocultural beliefs about epileptics and epilepsy constitute a significant problem in this group of patients in our environment. Education of the people will reduce <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries in such patients. PMID:21990997</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26170779','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26170779"><span id="translatedtitle">Pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Mosul: an epidemiological study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Al-Zacko, S M; Zubeer, H G; Mohammad, A S</p> <p>2014-06-30</p> <p>A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the characteristics and case fatality rate of pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Mosul, Iraq. The study group was <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients aged 14 years and under who were admitted to the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Unit in Al-Jamhoori Teaching Hospital from the 1(st) of March 2011 to the 1(st) of March 2012. Of the 459 emergency <span class="hlt">burn</span> admissions, 209 (45.53%) were pediatric patients up to 14 years of age, with a mean age of 4.733.61 years. Scald was the most common type of <span class="hlt">burn</span> and occurred mainly in domestic settings. The mean total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) <span class="hlt">burned</span> was 19.7317.15%. Thirty-five patients died during the study period, giving a case fatality rate of 16.75%. The maximum number of deaths occurred in the 2-4 years age group. The case fatality rate was high in patients having more than 40% TBSA involvement. Flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> were significantly more fatal than scalds, with a fatality rate of 35.35% and 12.05% respectively; (p=0.0001). In conclusion, given that most pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> accidents occur at home, <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention should be focused on improving living conditions and on providing an educational program for parents. PMID:26170779</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4396798','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4396798"><span id="translatedtitle">Pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Mosul: an epidemiological study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Al-Zacko, S.M.; Zubeer, H.G.; Mohammad, A.S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Summary A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the characteristics and case fatality rate of pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Mosul, Iraq. The study group was <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients aged 14 years and under who were admitted to the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Unit in Al-Jamhoori Teaching Hospital from the 1st of March 2011 to the 1st of March 2012. Of the 459 emergency <span class="hlt">burn</span> admissions, 209 (45.53%) were pediatric patients up to 14 years of age, with a mean age of 4.73±3.61 years. Scald was the most common type of <span class="hlt">burn</span> and occurred mainly in domestic settings. The mean total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) <span class="hlt">burned</span> was 19.73±17.15%. Thirty-five patients died during the study period, giving a case fatality rate of 16.75%. The maximum number of deaths occurred in the 2-4 years age group. The case fatality rate was high in patients having more than 40% TBSA involvement. Flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> were significantly more fatal than scalds, with a fatality rate of 35.35% and 12.05% respectively; (p=0.0001). In conclusion, given that most pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> accidents occur at home, <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention should be focused on improving living conditions and on providing an educational program for parents. PMID:26170779</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1184418','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1184418"><span id="translatedtitle">Western <span class="hlt">Area</span> Power Administration <span class="hlt">annual</span> site environmental report for calendar year 2005</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-12-31</p> <p>This document outlines the accomplishments and status of the environmental program of the Western <span class="hlt">Area</span> Power Administration (Western) for calendar year 2005. In 2005, Western submitted 190 reports to state and local emergency response personnel and had 60 California Hazardous Materials Business Plans in place as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. These reports identify the hazardous substances contained at these sites. At sites where potential oil spills could harm surrounding ecosystems and waterways, Western prepares Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) plans. These plans identify measures to prevent spills from harming the environment, such as identifying the need for secondary containment at facilities. Western currently has SPCC plans for 154 facilities in 13 states. In 2005, Western updated 19 SPCC plans and prepared one new plan. Western operated under 107 environmental permits in 2005. Western evaluates the impact of its planned actions on the environment by preparing National Environmental Policy Act documentation. In 2005, Western completed or was working on 60 categorical exclusions, 18 environmental assessments and eight environmental impact statements, issued six Findings of No Significant Impact, and prepared four Mitigation Action Plans. Western held several public workshops/meetings and consulted with 70 American Indian Tribes for various projects. In 2005, Western was working on or had completed 11 Section 7 consultations under the Endangered Species Act. In 2005, Western recycled more than 3,600 metric tons of electrical equipment, mineral oil dielectric fluid, asphalt, fluorescent and metal halide light bulbs, wood poles and crossarms, and other items as well as office waste. Western made $437,816 worth of purchases containing recovered content materials. Western met the requirement of Executive Order 13148, Greening the Government through Leadership in Environmental Management to have its Environmental Management System in place by December 31, 2005.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B33E0214F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B33E0214F"><span id="translatedtitle">Using satellite image-based maps to improve sugarcane straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> emission estimates in the state of São Paulo, Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>França, D.; Longo, K.; Rudorff, B.; Aguiar, D.; Freitas, S. R.; Stockler, R.; Pereira, G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Since the last decade, the global demand for biofuel production has been increasing every year due to the growing need for energy supply security and mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHG). Currently, sugarcane ethanol is one of the most widely used biofuels and Brazil is already the world's largest sugarcane producer, devoting almost 50% of it to ethanol production. The state of São Paulo is the major sugarcane producer in this country, with a cultivated <span class="hlt">area</span> of about 5.4 Mha in 2011. Approximately 2 million hectares were harvested <span class="hlt">annually</span> from 2006 to 2011 with the pre-harvest straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice, which emits trace gases and particulate material to the atmosphere. The assessment and monitoring of sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span> impacts are fundamental in order to mitigate the negative impacts of pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span> and consolidate the environmental benefits of sugarcane ethanol. Although some official inventories created by the Brazilian government have indicated the prevalence of emissions from sugarcane straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> in total agricultural residue emissions, specific information about emissions of gases and aerosols during pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span> of sugarcane is still scarce in Brazil. This study aimed to contribute to the improvement of estimates of emissions from sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span> through the use of specific parameters for sugarcane straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> and a method which has avoided underestimations resulting from the unique characteristics of this type of biomass fire. In this investigation, emissions of several air pollutants released by sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span> during the harvest season were estimated through the integrated use of remote sensing based maps of sugarcane <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and a numerical tool for the state of São Paulo from 2006 to 2011. Average estimated emissions (Gg/year) were 1,130 ± 152 for CO, 26 ± 4 for NOX, 16 ± 2 for CH4, 45 ± 6 for PM2.5, 120 ± 16 for PM10 and 154 ± 21 for NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons). An intercomparison among <span class="hlt">annual</span> emissions from this study and <span class="hlt">annual</span> emissions from four other different approaches indicated that the estimates obtained by satellite fire detection or low spatial resolution approaches tend to underestimate sugarcane <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Overall, our results also indicated that government actions to reduce sugarcane straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions are becoming effective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2935806','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2935806"><span id="translatedtitle">Topical Antimicrobials for <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Wound Infections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Hashmi, Javad T.; Kurup, Divya B.; Hamblin, Michael R.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Throughout most of history, serious <span class="hlt">burns</span> occupying a large percentage of body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the <span class="hlt">burn</span> milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the <span class="hlt">burned</span> skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make <span class="hlt">burns</span> particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to <span class="hlt">burns</span>, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat <span class="hlt">burn</span> infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating <span class="hlt">burn</span> infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active <span class="hlt">area</span> of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for <span class="hlt">burns</span> that will battle against growing multi-drug resistance. PMID:20429870</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4620122','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4620122"><span id="translatedtitle">Shivlilik <span class="hlt">burns</span>: injuries resulting from traditional celebrations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gündüz, Metin; Çiftçi, İlhan; Sekmenli, Tamer</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: In Konya, Turkey, the community celebrates the traditional ceremony of Shivlilik, which occurs on the first day of the seventh month in the lunar-based Hijri calendar. In the evening, people light bonfires of tires in the streets, and children and young people attempt to jump over the flames. Flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> regularly occur due to falling. Attention should be given to preventing injuries such as these that are caused by social and regional customs. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out using data from the Konya Education and Research Hospital <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Unit. Patients admitted to our hospital between June, 2009, and May, 2012, was evaluated. Results: Eleven patients were admitted to hospital with flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> caused by jumping over fires on the days when the traditional Shivlilik ceremony was celebrated. The clinical data evaluated included the patient’s age and sex, the depth of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury, the total <span class="hlt">burned</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA), and the distribution of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Conclusions: Serious flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> occur because of the traditional Shivlilik ceremony. We must promote some changes in this ceremony in order to prevent these <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:26550532</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3793879','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3793879"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology of major <span class="hlt">burns</span> at the Lebanese <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center in Geitawi, Lebanon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ghanimé, G.; Rizkallah, N.; Said, J.M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Summary <span class="hlt">Burn</span> care is one of the few <span class="hlt">areas</span> in medicine considered both medically and surgically challenging, with <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries affecting people of all ages and both sexes. Between May 1992 and March 2012, 1,524 patients were admitted to the Lebanese <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center in Geitawi, with an average length of stay (LOS) of 36.5 days. The most frequently encountered injuries were thermal <span class="hlt">burns</span>, generally resulting from domestic accidents. Of our patients, 47% were from rural <span class="hlt">areas</span> and <span class="hlt">burned</span> body surface (BBS) was the most serious factor, with 36% of all those admitted having suffered <span class="hlt">burns</span> of 20% to 40% of their total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA). Our team of experienced physicians, nurses, nutritionists and physical therapists was essential to successful <span class="hlt">burn</span> care and outcomes were improved with adequate early fluid intake. The main causes of death were multiple organ failure due to hemodynamic instability, followed by respiratory failure from inhalation injury. A week after the injury, risk of infection was the main threat to the <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims. Although this threat was compounded by malnutrition and immunodeficiency, excessive use of antibiotics was not justified. The fatality rate was about 18% and correlates with higher TBSA <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:24133397</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.2335C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.2335C"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions in tropical Asia based on satellite-derived data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, D.; Song, Y.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in tropical Asia emits large amounts of trace gases and particulate matter into the atmosphere, which has significant implications for atmospheric chemistry and climatic change. In this study, emissions from open biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> over tropical Asia were evaluated during seven fire years from 2000 to 2006 (1 March 2000-31 February 2007). The size of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> was estimated from newly published 1-km L3JRC and 500-m MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products (MCD45A1). Available fuel loads and emission factors were assigned to each vegetation type in a GlobCover characterisation map, and fuel moisture content was taken into account when calculating combustion factors. Over the whole period, both <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> and fire emissions showed clear spatial and seasonal variations. The size of the L3JRC <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged from 36 031 km2 in fire year 2005 to 52 303 km2 in 2001, and the MCD45A1 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged from 54 790 km2 in fire year 2001 to 148 967 km2 in 2004. Comparisons of L3JRC and MCD45A1 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> using ground-based measurements and other satellite data were made in several major <span class="hlt">burning</span> regions, and the results suggest that MCD45A1 generally performed better than L3JRC, although with a certain degree of underestimation in forest <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The average <span class="hlt">annual</span> L3JRC-based emissions were 123 (102-152), 12 (9-15), 1.0 (0.7-1.3), 1.9 (1.4-2.6), 0.11 (0.09-0.12), 0.89 (0.63-1.21), 0.043 (0.036-0.053), 0.021 (0.021-0.023), 0.41 (0.34-0.52), 3.4 (2.6-4.3), and 3.6 (2.8-4.7) Tg yr-1 for CO2, CO, CH4, NMHCs, NOx, NH3, SO2, BC, OC, PM2.5, and PM10, respectively, whereas MCD45A1-based emissions were 122 (108-144), 9.3 (7.7-11.7), 0.63 (0.46-0.86), 1.1 (0.8-1.6), 0.11 (0.10-0.13), 0.54 (0.38-0.76), 0.043 (0.038-0.051), 0.033 (0.032-0.037), 0.39 (0.34-0.47), 3.0 (2.6-3.7), and 3.3 (2.8-4.0) Tg yr-1. Forest <span class="hlt">burning</span> was identified as the major source of the fire emissions due to its high carbon density. Although agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span> was the second highest contributor, it is possible that some crop residue combustion was missed by satellite observations. This possibility is supported by comparisons with previously published data, and this result may be due to the small size of the field crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Fire emissions were mainly concentrated in Indonesia, India, Myanmar, and Cambodia. Furthermore, the peak in the size of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was generally found in the early fire season, whereas the maximum fire emissions often occurred in the late fire season.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.fort.usgs.gov/Products/Publications/21521/21521.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.fort.usgs.gov/Products/Publications/21521/21521.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">2004 <span class="hlt">annual</span> progress report: Stratton Sagebrush Hydrology Study <span class="hlt">Area</span>: establishment of a long-term research site in a high-elevation sagebrush steppe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Schoenecker, Kate; Lange, Bob; Calton, Mike</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>In 2004 the U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Rawlins Field Office (RFO), began a cooperative effort to reestablish the Stratton Sagebrush Hydrology Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> (Stratton) as a research location, with the goal of making it a site for long-term research on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecology. No other long-term research sites in high-elevation sagebrush habitat currently exist, and the Stratton <span class="hlt">area</span>, with its 30+ year history of research and baseline data, was a logical location to restart investigations aimed at answering pertinent and timely questions about sagebrush ecology and sagebrush-obligate species. During the first year of the study, USGS scientists conducted an in-depth literature search to locate publications from research conducted at Stratton. We contacted previous researchers to acquire literature and unpublished reports of work conducted at Stratton. Collated papers and published manuscripts were presented in an annotated bibliography (Burgess and Schoenecker, 2004). A second goal was to establish Stratton as a host location for researchers interested in sagebrush ecology investigations. We contacted staff and professors from Colorado State University and Wyoming and Montana universities to notify them of the opportunities at Stratton. Several institutions showed interest in the <span class="hlt">area</span> and the potential of such a research site. A major advantage of the Stratton site is the ability of BML to coordinate activities on the land, manipulate grazing in cooperation with permit holders, and direct other activities to accommodate appropriate long-term experimental designs. A third goal was to evaluate grazing management after a prescribed <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The BLM widely uses prescribed <span class="hlt">burns</span> as a tool for land management and grazing management. In general, BLM policy restricts grazing after a wildfire for two or more years. Some BLM offices allow no grazing after a wildfire or prescribed treatment for at least two years. Conversely, the RFO often allows grazing following a prescribed <span class="hlt">burn</span> directly after the peak growing season the following year. This procedure is used for two years post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>, after which grazing management is directed by local conditions and goals. We are investigating this practice to evaluate the effects on plant production and nutrient cycling. The RFO specifically wants to know if there are any negative effects from grazing one season after a prescribed <span class="hlt">burn</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3655731','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3655731"><span id="translatedtitle">Facial <span class="hlt">Burns</span> - Our Experience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zatriqi, Violeta; Arifi, Hysni; Zatriqi, Skender; Duci, Shkelzen; Rrecaj, Sh.; Martinaj, M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Facial <span class="hlt">burns</span> are generally considered severe. This is due to the possibility of respiratory complications. First responders check the nostrils for singed hairs. In severe cases there may be soot around the nose and mouth and coughing may produce phlegm that includes ash. Facial and inhalational <span class="hlt">burns</span> compromise airways. They pose difficulties in pre-hospital resuscitation and are challenge to clinicians managing surviving <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims in the intensive care setting. Management problems – resuscitation, airway maintenance and clinical treatment of facial injuries are compounded if the victim is child. Inhalational <span class="hlt">burns</span> reduce survivability, certainly in adult victim. In our retrospective study we found that facial <span class="hlt">burns</span> dominated in male gender, liquids and scalds are the most common causes of facial <span class="hlt">burns</span> in children whereas the flame and electricity were the most common causes of facial <span class="hlt">burns</span> in adults. We came to the conclusion in our study that surgical treatment minimizes complications and duration of recovery. PMID:23687458</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP12B..07L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP12B..07L"><span id="translatedtitle">Extreme peat <span class="hlt">burning</span> along peatland-upland interfaces of the Western Boreal Plain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lukenbach, M.; Hokanson, K.; Devito, K. J.; Kettridge, N.; Thompson, D.; Petrone, R. M.; Waddington, J. M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands in the Western Boreal Forest, releasing 4700 Gg C a-1 over ~1500 km2 <span class="hlt">annually</span>. Under future climate scenarios the amount of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in this region is forecast to increase by 25-100%, potentially converting these ecosystems into a regional net source of carbon to the atmosphere. During wildfire, the majority of carbon released from peatlands is attributable to peat smouldering with <span class="hlt">burn</span> depths generally ranging from 5 - 20 cm of peat. However, no study has documented the incidence of an extreme smouldering event and the conditions necessary for such an event to occur. Here we report on a smouldering event during the Utikuma Complex forest fire (SWF-060, ~90,000 ha) in May, 2011 at the Utikuma Lake Research Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> (URSA) in Alberta's Western Boreal Plain, where peat <span class="hlt">burn</span> depths exceeded one meter along a peatland-upland interface (range = 0.12 to 1.10 m, mean = 0.54 m). We applied the Peat Smouldering and Ignition model (PSI) at an adjacent unburned peatland-upland interface to characterize the hydrological and hydrophysical conditions necessary for these extreme <span class="hlt">burn</span> depths. Model outputs indicate that the coupling of dense peat (bulk density > 150 kg m-3) and low peat moisture (GWC < 250%) allow for severe smouldering to propagate deep into the peat profile. We argue that peatland-upland interfaces, which likely release ten times more carbon per meter squared than peatland centers, are hotspots for peat smouldering due to dynamic hydrological conditions that reduce the moisture content of high-density peat during dry periods. We suggest the hydrogeological setting of peatlands is essential for identifying peatland-upland interfaces as <span class="hlt">areas</span> highly vulnerable to smouldering and for assisting fire managers and scientists in predicting and mitigating the effects of extreme peat <span class="hlt">burning</span> events. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> peatland-upland interface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.......333M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.......333M"><span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate solid composite propellants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Manship, Timothy D.</p> <p></p> <p>High <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate propellants help maintain high levels of thrust without requiring complex, high surface <span class="hlt">area</span> grain geometries. Utilizing high <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate propellants allows for simplified grain geometries that not only make production of the grains easier, but the simplified grains tend to have better mechanical strength, which is important in missiles undergoing high-g accelerations. Additionally, high <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate propellants allow for a higher volumetric loading which reduces the overall missile's size and weight. The purpose of this study is to present methods of achieving a high <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate propellant and to develop a composite propellant formulation that <span class="hlt">burns</span> at 1.5 inches per second at 1000 psia. In this study, several means of achieving a high <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate propellant were presented. In addition, several candidate approaches were evaluated using the Kepner-Tregoe method with hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-based propellants using <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate modifiers and dicyclopentadiene (DCPD)-based propellants being selected for further evaluation. Propellants with varying levels of nano-aluminum, nano-iron oxide, FeBTA, and overall solids loading were produced using the HTPB binder and evaluated in order to determine the effect the various ingredients have on the <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate and to find a formulation that provides the <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate desired. Experiments were conducted to compare the <span class="hlt">burn</span> rates of propellants using the binders HTPB and DCPD. The DCPD formulation matched that of the baseline HTPB mix. Finally, GAP-plasticized DCPD gumstock dogbones were attempted to be made for mechanical evaluation. Results from the study show that nano-additives have a substantial effect on propellant <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate with nano-iron oxide having the largest influence. Of the formulations tested, the highest <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate was a 84% solids loading mix using nano-aluminum nano-iron oxide, and ammonium perchlorate in a 3:1(20 micron: 200 micron) ratio which achieved a <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate of 1.2 inches per second at 1000 psia. In addition, DCPD propellant was shown to <span class="hlt">burn</span> at twice the rate of HTPB propellant, most likely a result of its lower decomposition temperature. A high <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate DCPD propellant was developed, but due to poor wetting, the resulting propellant was brittle and fragmented during strand <span class="hlt">burn</span> testing. Lastly, GAP-plasticized DCPD gumstocks were not able to be produced most likely due to an interaction between GAP and the cure catalyst for DCPD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10217016','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10217016"><span id="translatedtitle">Facial <span class="hlt">burns</span> in children: a series analysis with implications for resuscitation and forensic odontology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Acton, C; Nixon, J; Pearn, J; Williams, D; Leditschke, F</p> <p>1999-03-01</p> <p>This study comprises a continuous (1981-1995) unselected series of all children who died from thermal injuries in the State of Queensland, Australia. One hundred and six children, so identified, died from incineration (35 per cent), respiratory <span class="hlt">burns</span> with smoke or carbon monoxide inhalation (33 per cent), body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burns</span> comprising greater than 60 per cent (9 per cent) and electrocution (20 per cent). The <span class="hlt">burn</span> fatality rate was 0.98 per hundred thousand children (0-14 years) per year, with no secular trend and, specifically, no reduction in the <span class="hlt">annual</span> rate of such fatalities. Eighty-two children (49 males) had concomitant facial injuries, both thermal and nonthermal; of whom 55 per cent were under the age of five years. Sixty (73 per cent) child <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims died in house fires. Forensic odontology is important in confirming the age of such victims in single incinerations but is of limited value when larger numbers of children are incinerated, because of the relative lack of dental restorations in the infant and pre-school age group. Of the 82 children with facial and airway injuries, 12 per cent had only mild or superficial facial damage and only seven (8 per cent) were alive or resuscitable at the time of rescue from the conflagration or <span class="hlt">burning</span> injury. child deaths from <span class="hlt">burns</span> contributed an <span class="hlt">annual</span> loss rate of 506 years of potential life lost (YPLL) in a population of 3 million of whom 21.5 per cent were children under the age of 15 years. Airway management and resuscitation, in the context of managing surviving <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims of any age with facial injuries, pose special difficulties. Inhalational <span class="hlt">burns</span> (smoke and the gases of conflagration) result in a mortality greater than 60 per cent. Although 81 per cent of children showed evidence of airway obstruction, analysis of current data indicates that a maximum of 8 per cent could have survived with airway maintenance and protection. Inhalational <span class="hlt">burns</span> (to both upper and lower airways) grossly reduce survivability. Primary prevention would seem vital and thus remains a major challenge to reduce the incidence of such deaths. Some strategies include advocacy to promote the compulsory installation of smoke alarms, family drills to practise escape and the teaching of 'first aid for all' PMID:10217016</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25958356','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25958356"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential PM2.5 impacts of festival-related <span class="hlt">burning</span> and other inputs on air quality in an urban <span class="hlt">area</span> of southern Taiwan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsai, Ying I; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; Kuo, Su-Ching; Yu, Sung-Po</p> <p>2015-09-15</p> <p>The Mid-Autumn Festival (MAF), or Moon Festival, is a harvest festival in Taiwan, celebrated by families across the island with evening barbecues outside. This study investigated the potential impact of these activities on the air quality in Tainan, a city in southern Taiwan. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was examined in the period leading up to the MAF (pre-MAF), during the Festival (MAF), after the Festival (post-MAF), and in the period after this (a period of moderate air quality: MAQ). Gaseous pollutants in PM2.5 were, from highest to lowest mean concentration, NH3, SO2, HCl, HNO3, HNO2, and oxalic acid, while inorganic salts were mainly in the form of the photochemical products SO4(2-), NH4(+), and NO3(-). These inorganic salts accounted for 37.6%-44.5% of the PM2.5 mass concentration, while a further 26.3%-42.8% of the PM2.5 mass was total carbon (TC). TC was mostly composed of organic carbon (OC) produced by photochemical reactions. Of this, 9.8%-14.9% was carboxylates, of which oxalate was the most abundant compound, accounting for 22.8%-31.9% of carboxylates. The presence of phthalates in the PM2.5 indicated emissions from the plastics industry. Although a noticeable amount of aerosol was produced by festival activities and <span class="hlt">burning</span> of softwood and hardwood, onshore air currents during the festival prevented potential high aerosol loading. During the moderate air quality period following post-MAF, the concentration of total carbohydrates was 1.44-2.64 times the amount during the festival. Levoglucosan and myo-inositol accounted for 81.7%-89.6% of the total carbohydrate concentration. The average Levo/Manno ratio was 18.64 5.24. The concentration of levoglucosan was closely related to that of PO4(3-), erythritol, and galactose. Backward trajectories indicated that biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in China affected the air quality of Tainan City. PMID:25958356</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1030912','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1030912"><span id="translatedtitle">FY2010 <span class="hlt">ANNUAL</span> REVIEW E-<span class="hlt">AREA</span> LOW-LEVEL WASTE FACILITY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AND COMPOSITE ANALYSIS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Butcher, T.; Swingle, R.; Crapse, K.; Millings, M.; Sink, D.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The E-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) consists of a number of disposal units described in the Performance Assessment (PA)(WSRC, 2008b) and Composite Analysis (CA)(WSRC, 1997; WSRC, 1999): Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Vault, Intermediate Level (IL) Vault, Trenches (Slit Trenches [STs], Engineered Trenches [ETs], and Component-in-Grout [CIG] Trenches), and Naval Reactor Component Disposal <span class="hlt">Areas</span> (NRCDAs). This <span class="hlt">annual</span> review evaluates the adequacy of the approved 2008 ELLWF PA along with the Special Analyses (SAs) approved since the PA was issued. The review also verifies that the Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 low-level waste (LLW) disposal operations were conducted within the bounds of the PA/SA baseline, the Savannah River Site (SRS) CA, and the Department of Energy (DOE) Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS). Important factors considered in this review include waste receipts, results from monitoring and research and development (R&D) programs, and the adequacy of controls derived from the PA/SA baseline. Sections 1.0 and 2.0 of this review are a summary of the adequacy of the PA/SA and CA, respectively. An evaluation of the FY2010 waste receipts and the resultant impact on the ELLWF is summarized in Section 3.1. The results of the monitoring program, R&D program, and other relevant factors are found in Section 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4, respectively. Section 4.0 contains the CA <span class="hlt">annual</span> determination similarly organized. SRS low-level waste management is regulated under DOE Order 435.1 (DOE, 1999a) and is authorized under a DAS as a federal permit. The original DAS was issued by the DOE-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) on September 28, 1999 (DOE, 1999b) for the operation of the ELLWF and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The 1999 DAS remains in effect for the regulation of the SDF. Those portions of that DAS applicable to the ELLWF were superseded by revision 1 of the DAS on July 15, 2008 (DOE, 2008b). The 2008 PA and DAS were officially implemented by the facility on October 31, 2008 and are the authorization documents for this FY2010 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Review. Department of Energy Headquarters approval of the 2008 DAS was subject to numerous conditions specified in the document. Two of those conditions are to update the ELLWF closure plan and monitoring plan to align with the conceptual model analyzed in the PA. Both of these conditions were met with the issuance of the PA Monitoring Plan (Millings, 2009a) and the Closure Plan (Phifer et al, 2009a). The PA Monitoring Plan was approved by DOE on July 22, 2009 and the Closure Plan was approved by DOE on May 21, 2009. Both will be updated as needed to remain consistent with the PA. The DAS also specifies that the maintenance plan include activities to resolve each of the secondary issues identified in the DOEHQ review of the 2008 PA that were not completely addressed either with supplemental material provided to the review team or in final revisions to the PA. These outstanding issues were originally documented in the 2008 update of the PA/CA Maintenance Plan (WSRC, 2008a) and in subsequent PA/CA Maintenance Plans (most recently SRNS, 2010a) as required and are actively being worked.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title50-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title50-vol9-part679-app16-id504.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title50-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title50-vol9-part679-app16-id504.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR Table 16 to Part 679 - <span class="hlt">Area</span> Codes and Descriptions for Use With State of Alaska ADF&G Commercial Operator's <span class="hlt">Annual</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Area</span> Codes and Descriptions for Use With State of Alaska ADF&G Commercial Operator's <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report (COAR) 16 Table 16 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10458','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10458"><span id="translatedtitle">Data Summary Report for the <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Fourmile Branch and F- and H-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Seeplines, Appendix IX Metals and Radionuclides, 1998</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Koch, J.</p> <p>1999-08-23</p> <p>This report presents a summary of the definitive data validation and verification for the 1998 RFI/RI <span class="hlt">annual</span> Appendix IX metals and radionuclides survey for Fourmile Branch and the F- and H-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Seeplines. The validation process began with project mobilization and continued through the delivery of EDDs and this report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9750581','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9750581"><span id="translatedtitle">[Management of severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> during the 1st 72 hours].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gueugniaud, P Y</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Early and efficient management of severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients facilitates outcome improvement. Pre-hospital care includes fluid loading with 2 mL.kg-1/% <span class="hlt">burn</span> over the first six hours, sedation and analgesia, prevention of hypothermia and ventilatory support for either critically <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients or facial, cervical or pulmonary <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. The transient stay in a general hospital before transfer to a <span class="hlt">burn</span> centre allows extension of initial care, the critical investigation for associated injuries (intoxication, multiple trauma) and to perform initial local treatment with sterile coverage or vaseline gauze after a revised assessment of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> skin <span class="hlt">area</span>, and possibly escharotomies. The main aim of care in the <span class="hlt">burn</span> centre is to control hypovolaemia and to obtain maximal tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery to <span class="hlt">burned</span> tissues, as well as to healthy organs. To manage the <span class="hlt">burn</span> shock (initially hypovolemic and later on hyperdynamic) catecholamines are often indicated when appropriate fluid loading remains insufficient. Mechanical ventilation is indicated in case of either a deep extensive <span class="hlt">burn</span> over 60% of total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, or facial and cervical <span class="hlt">burns</span> or severe pulmonary <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury from smoke inhalation, carbon monoxide intoxication, tracheobronchial thermal injury and blast injury. Because of the severity of <span class="hlt">burn</span>-related pain, and the stimulus linked to intensive care, continuous sedation is usually required. Early surgical treatment such as escharotomies, excision and grafting, which cause significant pain as well as blood loss, and hydrotherapy, often require general anaesthesia. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> injury can modify the volume of distribution and the pharmacokinetics of anaesthetic agents. Finally, chemical or electrical <span class="hlt">burn</span>, radiation, associated CO intoxication or multiple trauma, as well as <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury in infants, raise specific problems. With improvement in early intensive care, the survival rate of the most severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients is obviously improving. New techniques in skin substitution will probably further improve the final outcome. PMID:9750581</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1649807','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1649807"><span id="translatedtitle">Project <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Prevention: outcome and implications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McLoughlin, E; Vince, C J; Lee, A M; Crawford, J D</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Project <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Prevention was designed and implemented to determine the ability of a public education program to increase awareness about <span class="hlt">burn</span> hazards and reduce the incidence and severity of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. Media messages were transmitted to residents of a large metropolitan <span class="hlt">area</span>; separate school and community interventions were implemented in two demographically similar communities within the Standard Metropolitan Statistical <span class="hlt">Area</span> (SMSA). A second metropolitan <span class="hlt">area</span> and two of its communities served as control sites. Messages for specific, high-risk age groups emphasized flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> because of their severity and scalds because of their frequency. Knowledge gains were demonstrable only as a result of the school program. Neither the school program nor the media campaign reduced <span class="hlt">burn</span> incidence or severity; the community intervention may have brought about a moderate, temporary reduction in injuries. Multiplicity of messages, brevity of the campaign, and separation of the interventions are among possible reasons for the program's failure to significantly reduce <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. Education for personal responsibility is not sufficient. Product modification and environmental redesign must be instituted through education and legislation for successful control of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. PMID:7058963</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10812279','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10812279"><span id="translatedtitle">Bizarre paediatric facial <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ho, W S; Ying, S Y; Wong, T W</p> <p>2000-08-01</p> <p>Child abuse and neglect account for a significant number of paediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. It is of great importance because of the high mortality, high frequency of repeated abuse, as well as the physical, psychological and social sequelae that it causes. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> abuse is often under-recognized and under-reported because it is difficult to define non-accidental injury. On the other hand, false accusation of <span class="hlt">burn</span> abuse is extremely damaging to the family. Bizarre and unusual <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries can be caused by accident and should not automatically be assumed to be deliberate injury. Three boys of age 1-7 years with bizarre facial <span class="hlt">burns</span> were admitted to the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Unit at the Prince of Wales Hospital between February 1995 and July 1999. One was <span class="hlt">burned</span> by his baby-sitter with hot water steam and the other two were <span class="hlt">burned</span> by their mothers with hot boiled eggs. The unusual causes of their <span class="hlt">burns</span> raised the suspicion of child abuse and formal investigations were carried out by the Social Services Department. Detail assessment including a developmental history of the child and the psychosocial assessment of the family revealed that these three boys were <span class="hlt">burned</span> because of poor medical advice and innocent cultural belief. PMID:10812279</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5227005','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5227005"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> emissions and air-quality impacts of an urban <span class="hlt">area</span> district-heating system: Boston case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bernow, S.S.; McAnulty, D.R.; Buchsbaum, S.; Levine, E.</p> <p>1980-02-01</p> <p>A district-heating system, based on thermal energy from power plants retrofitted to operate in the cogeneration mode, is expected to improve local air quality. This possibility has been examined by comparing the emissions of five major atmospheric pollutants, i.e., particulates, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, from the existing heating and electric system in the City of Boston with those from a proposed district heating system. Detailed, spatial distribution of existing heating load and fuel mix is developed to specify emissions associated with existing heating systems. Actual electric-power-plant parameters and generation for the base year are specified. Additional plant fuel consumption and emissions resulting from cogeneration operation have been estimated. Six alternative fuel-emissions-control scenarios are considered. The average <span class="hlt">annual</span> ground-level concentrations of sulfur oxides are calculated using a modified form of the EPA's Climatological Dispersion Model. This report describes the methodology, the results and their implications, and the <span class="hlt">areas</span> for extended investigation. The initial results confirm expectations. Average sulfur oxides concentrations at various points within and near the city drop by up to 85% in the existing fuels scenarios and by 95% in scenarios in which different fuels and more-stringent emissions controls at the plants are used. These reductions are relative to concentrations caused by fuel combustion for heating and large commercial and industrial process uses within the city and Boston Edison Co. electric generation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/977189','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/977189"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ANNUAL</span> REPORT FOR THE FINAL GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION, TEST <span class="hlt">AREA</span> NORTH, OPERABLE UNIT 1-07B, FISCAL YEAR 2009</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>FORSYTHE, HOWARD S</p> <p>2010-04-14</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report presents the data and evaluates the progress of the three-component remedy implemented for remediation of groundwater contamination at Test <span class="hlt">Area</span> North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Overall, each component is achieving progress toward the goal of total plume remediation. In situ bioremediation operations in the hot spot continue to operate as planned. Progress toward the remedy objectives is being made, as evidenced by continued reduction in the amount of accessible residual source and decreases in downgradient contaminant flux, with the exception of TAN-28. The injection strategy is maintaining effective anaerobic reductive dechlorination conditions, as evidenced by complete degradation of trichloroethene and ethene production in the biologically active wells. In the medial zone, the New Pump and Treat Facility operated in standby mode. Trichloroethene concentrations in the medial zone wells are significantly lower than the historically defined concentration range of 1,000 to 20,000 μg/L. The trichloroethene concentrations in TAN-33, TAN-36, and TAN-44 continue to be below 200 μg/L. Monitoring in the distal zone wells outside and downgradient of the plume boundary demonstrate that some plume expansion has occurred, but less than the amount allowed in the Record of Decision Amendment. Additional data need to be collected for wells in the monitored natural attenuation part of the plume to confirm that the monitored natural attenuation part of the remedy is proceeding as predicted in the modeling.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12927984','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12927984"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology of hospitalized <span class="hlt">burns</span> patients in Taiwan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chien, Wu-Chien; Pai, Lu; Lin, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Heng-Chang</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>Previous studies based on either single hospital data or sampling of specific groups of hospitalized <span class="hlt">burns</span> victims in Taiwan have provided only minimal epidemiological information. The study is designed to provide additional data on the epidemiology of hospitalized <span class="hlt">burns</span> patients in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Injury Information System (BIIS), which brings together information supplied by 34 contracted hospitals. The study time course spanned a 2-year period from July 1997 to June 1999. Patient characteristics (age, sex, education level, etc.), causes and severity of injuries, and medical care measures were explored. A total of 4741 patients were registered with BIIS over the study period. The majority of hospitalized patients (67%) were male. The age distribution of <span class="hlt">burns</span> patients showed peaks occurring at the age groups of 0-5 and 35-44 years. Over the time course of a day, <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries occurred more frequently from 10:00 to 12:00 h and 16:00 to 18:00 h. Injuries suspected as the result of suicide, homicide or child abuse accounted for 4.8% of hospitalized cases. More than 48% of the <span class="hlt">burns</span> occurred in the home. The leading type of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury was scalding, followed by naked flame, explosion, electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span>, and chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> due to caustic or corrosive substances. The mean percent total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (%TBSA) for adults was 19%, and for young children was 12%. The average length of hospital stay was 18 days. In conclusion, children under 5 years and adults between 35 and 44 years of age are two high-risk groups for <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. Corresponding to meal preparation time, hot substances such as boiling water, hot soup, etc. are the most common agents responsible for scalds. Prevention programs for reducing the risk of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries during cooking and eating are required, especially for parents with young children. PMID:12927984</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3387177','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3387177"><span id="translatedtitle">Myocardial Autophagy after Severe <span class="hlt">Burn</span> in Rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Qiong; Shi, Xiao-hua; Huang, Yue-sheng</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Autophagy plays a major role in myocardial ischemia and hypoxia injury. The present study investigated the effects of autophagy on cardiac dysfunction in rats after severe <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Methods Protein expression of the autophagy markers LC3 and Beclin 1 were determined at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 h post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> in Sprague Dawley rats subjected to 30% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> 3rd degree <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Autophagic, apoptotic, and oncotic cell death were evaluated in the myocardium at each time point by immunofluorescence. Changes of cardiac function were measured in a Langendorff model of isolated heart at 6 h post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>, and the autophagic response was measured following activation by Rapamycin and inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA). The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat, the angiotensin receptor I blocker losartan, and the reactive oxygen species inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) were also applied to the ex vivo heart model to examine the roles of these factors in post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> cardiac function. Results Autophagic cell death was first observed in the myocardium at 3 h post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>, occurring in 0.008 0.001% of total cardiomyocytes, and continued to increase to a level of 0.022 0.005% by 12 h post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>. No autophagic cell death was observed in control hearts. Compared with apoptosis, autophagic cell death occurred earlier and in larger quantities. Rapamycin enhanced autophagy and decreased cardiac function in isolated hearts 6 h post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>, while 3-MA exerted the opposite response. Enalaprilat, losartan, and DPI all inhibited autophagy and enhanced heart function. Conclusion Myocardial autophagy is enhanced in severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> and autophagic cell death occurred early at 3 h post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>, which may contribute to post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> cardiac dysfunction. Angiotensin II and reactive oxygen species may play important roles in this process by regulating cell signaling transduction. PMID:22768082</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11a4014Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11a4014Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Contributions of open crop straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions to PM2.5 concentrations in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Libo; Liu, Yongqiang; Hao, Lu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>PM2.5 inventories have been developed in major Chinese cities to quantify the contributions from various sources based on <span class="hlt">annual</span> emissions. This approach, however, could substantially underestimate the contribution from open straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> during the harvest or other active <span class="hlt">burning</span> periods. This study examines this issue by estimating monthly and <span class="hlt">annual</span> straw-<span class="hlt">burning</span> PM2.5 emissions in China and comparing with them with the corresponding emissions from other anthropogenic sources. <span class="hlt">Annually</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> straw PM2.5 emissions during 1997 ∼ 2013 for 31 China provinces were calculated based on crop and related <span class="hlt">burning</span> information for 12 months based on satellite detection of agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> emissions from other anthropogenic sources were collected from the literature and allocated to monthly values using air pollution index measurements. The results indicate that the <span class="hlt">annual</span> PM2.5 emissions from open straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> in China were 1.036 m tons. The monthly PM2.5 emission ratios of straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> to other anthropogenic sources during June, the harvest period for many regions, were several times larger than the <span class="hlt">annual</span> ratios at national, regional, and province levels, suggesting that, in contrast to <span class="hlt">annual</span> emissions that were used in the PM2.5 inventories in Chinese cities to assess the contributions from other sources, monthly emissions should be used to assess the contributions from straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> during the harvest or other active <span class="hlt">burning</span> periods. The larger contributions from straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> shown in this study also suggest that substantial reduction of open field straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> would dramatically improve air quality in many Chinese regions during the harvest or other active <span class="hlt">burning</span> periods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11827368','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11827368"><span id="translatedtitle">Skin resurfacing for the <span class="hlt">burned</span> patient.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stanton, Ryan A; Billmire, David A</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>It has been estimated that 2 million people per year have <span class="hlt">burns</span> requiring medical attention in the United States. The available and expert clinicians in dedicated <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers around the country have cared successfully for these patients and given them a second chance at a functional life. It still behooves current-day plastic surgeons to be knowledgeable and adept in their care, not only because they may be called upon at times to manage some of the smaller acute <span class="hlt">burns</span>, but also because many of the general principles of <span class="hlt">burn</span> reconstruction and wound management are relevant to other <span class="hlt">areas</span> of general plastic surgery. Acute <span class="hlt">burns</span> should be dealt with like any other major trauma with the ABCs of aggressive resuscitation and airway management. Like any other wound, debridement and nutrition are important (i.e., early escharectomy of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound and enteral nutrition during the hypermetabolic state). Early coverage of the open wound is essential to limit bacterial colonization and prevent infection and to reduce fluid and electrolyte and heat loss. If autografts are not available immediately, temporary coverage with one of the above-mentioned barrier materials should be used. Still, autografts, when available, should be the <span class="hlt">burn</span> surgeon's first choice. Donor sites may be reharvested to provide more autograft than was anticipated with large-percentage TBSA <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Physicians should keep in mind the advantages (and disadvantages) of using the scalp and back. As far as research and technological advances in the <span class="hlt">area</span> of plastic surgery, <span class="hlt">burn</span> surgery may be the most progressive, with the evolution of biologic tissue-engineered skin substitutes and the research of growth factors in healing. Further improvements in tissue engineering and technology should result in even more effective skin substitutes and hence better functional and aesthetic outcomes with economic efficiency in large <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:11827368</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3576016','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3576016"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span>: an update on current pharmacotherapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rojas, Yesinia; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S.; Herndon, David N.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Introduction The world-wide occurrence of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries remains high despite efforts to reduce injury incidence through public awareness campaigns and improvements in living conditions. In 2004, almost 11 million people experienced <span class="hlt">burns</span> severe enough to warrant medical treatment. Advances over the past several decades in aggressive resuscitation, nutrition, excision, and grafting have reduced morbidity and mortality. Incorporation of pharmacotherapeutics into treatment regimens may further reduce complications of severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. <span class="hlt">Areas</span> covered Severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries, as well as other forms of stress and trauma, trigger a hypermetabolic response that, if left untreated, impedes recovery. In the past two decades, use of anabolic agents, beta adrenergic receptor antagonists, and anti-hyperglycemic agents has successfully counteracted post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> morbidities including catabolism, the catecholamine-mediated response, and insulin resistance. Here we review the most up-to-date information on currently used pharmacotherapies in the treatment of these sequelae of severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> and the insights that have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Expert opinion Existing drugs offer promising advances in the care of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. Continued gains in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving the hypermetabolic response will enable the application of additional existing drugs to be broadened to further attenuate the hypermetabolic response. PMID:23121414</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6027207','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6027207"><span id="translatedtitle">Global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> - Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Levine, J.S. )</p> <p>1990-09-01</p> <p>Topics discussed at the March 1990 American Geophysical Union's Conference on biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> which was attended by more than 175 participants representing 19 countries are presented. Conference highlights include discussion of remote sensing data concerning biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> (BB), gaseous and particle emissions resulting from BB in the tropics, BB in temperate and boreal ecosystems, the historic and prehistoric perspectives on BB, BB and global budgets for carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, and the BB and the greenhouse effect. Global estimates of <span class="hlt">annual</span> amounts of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and of the resulting release of carbon to the atmosphere and the mean gaseous emission ratios for fires in wetlands, chaparral, and boreal ecosystems are given. An overview is presented of some conference discussions including global <span class="hlt">burning</span> from 1850-1980, the global impact of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>, the great Chinese/Soviet fire of 1987, and <span class="hlt">burning</span> and biogenic emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910035582&hterms=chaparral&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dchaparral','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910035582&hterms=chaparral&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dchaparral"><span id="translatedtitle">Global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> - Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Levine, Joel S.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Topics discussed at the March 1990 American Geophysical Union's Conference on biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> which was attended by more than 175 participants representing 19 countries are presented. Conference highlights include discussion of remote sensing data concerning biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> (BB), gaseous and particle emissions resulting from BB in the tropics, BB in temperate and boreal ecosystems, the historic and prehistoric perspectives on BB, BB and global budgets for carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, and the BB and the greenhouse effect. Global estimates of <span class="hlt">annual</span> amounts of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and of the resulting release of carbon to the atmosphere and the mean gaseous emission ratios for fires in wetlands, chaparral, and boreal ecosystems are given. An overview is presented of some conference discussions including global <span class="hlt">burning</span> from 1850-1980, the global impact of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>, the great Chinese/Soviet fire of 1987, and <span class="hlt">burning</span> and biogenic emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/951601','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/951601"><span id="translatedtitle">2008 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Summary Report for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada: Review of the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>NSTec Environmental Management</p> <p>2009-03-30</p> <p>The Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site requires an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review to assess the adequacy of the Performance Assessments (PAs) and Composite Analyses (CAs) for each of the facilities, with the results submitted <span class="hlt">annually</span> to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters. The Disposal Authorization Statements for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) also require that such reviews be made and that secondary or minor unresolved issues be tracked and addressed as part of the maintenance plan. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) performed an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review in fiscal year (FY) 2008 by evaluating operational factors and research results that impact the continuing validity of the PAs and CAs. This <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2008 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada Test Site relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..71..158S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..71..158S"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial variation of chemical constituents from the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of commonly used biomass fuels in rural <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saud, T.; Saxena, M.; Singh, D. P.; Saraswati; Dahiya, Manisha; Sharma, S. K.; Datta, A.; Gadi, Ranu; Mandal, T. K.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>In the present paper, we have determined emission factor of chemical composition of the emission from the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of biomass (e.g. Dung cake, Acacia, Neem, Mulberry, Indian Rosewood, Pigeon pea etc.) commonly used as a residential fuel in the rural sector of Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) (Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal), India. For comparison, we have selected only those biomass fuels, which are used in at least three of the above mentioned states. Dung cake from all the states reports highest emission of particulate matter (PM) (15.68 g kg-1), Organic Carbon (OC) (4.32 g kg-1) and Elemental Carbon (EC) (0.51 g kg-1). Among all biomass fuels studied, agricultural residue reports substantial amount of emission of Na+ (104 mg kg-1), K+ (331 mg kg-1) and Cl- (447 mg kg-1) particularly in Pigeon pea and Mustard stem. Eucalyptus (fuel wood) emits large amounts of Ca2+ (21.47 mg kg-1) and NO3- (614 mg kg-1). The emission of PM from dung cake is higher in Delhi (19.31 g kg-1) and followed by Uttar Pradesh (17.58 g kg-1) > Haryana (15.46 g kg-1) > Bihar (14.99 g kg-1) > Punjab (12.06 g kg-1) > West Bengal (5.90 g kg-1). Carbonaceous aerosols (OC and EC) and dominant Ionic species (Cl-, K+, SO42-, NO3- and PO43-) are altogether contributing 40-70% of total emissions. Characteristics and ratios of chemical species of emissions may help to develop a methodology of discriminating the sources of ambient particulate matter. Using a laboratory determined emission factor of chemical species, we have determined the emission budget over IGP, India.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25085094','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25085094"><span id="translatedtitle">Outpatient <span class="hlt">burn</span> management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Warner, Petra M; Coffee, Tammy L; Yowler, Charles J</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Most <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients have injuries that may be treated on an outpatient basis. Newer silver-based dressings and improved medications for the treatment of pain and pruritus have led to further growth of outpatient care. The final barrier of distance from the <span class="hlt">burn</span> center will decrease with the growth of telemedicine. It is incumbent for <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers to develop outpatient guidelines to facilitate this growth of outpatient care. PMID:25085094</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA......454L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA......454L"><span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosol in the State of So Paulo (Southeastern Brazil)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lara, L. L. S.; Artaxo, P.; Martinelli, L. A.; Camargo, P. B.; Ferraz, E. S. B.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>A detailed aerosol source apportionment study has been performed in three sites in State of So Paulo with different land-use: sugarcane crops, cattle, urban <span class="hlt">area</span> and forest. During the summer and winter, the period when sugarcane is <span class="hlt">burned</span> every year, PM10 has been sampled during day and night in a period of 48 hours, using stacked filters units collecting fine and coarse particulate mode, providing mass, BC and elemental concentration for each aerosol mode. The concentrations of around 20 elements were determined using particle induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE). Ion chromatography was used to determine up to 11 water-soluble ion components. Highest levels of pollutants have been measured around the sugarcane crops, where the <span class="hlt">annual</span> PM10 concentration (57.1"45.2gm-3) exceeds of the other urban and industrialized <span class="hlt">areas</span> and the BC concentration is significantly higher during the sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span> period (4.2"2.2 gm-3) than the rest of the year (2.0"1.0 gm-3). The main sources of the aerosol are correlated to the land cover. Factor and cluster analysis showed the main source int the State of So Paulo is biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>, followed by soil dust, biogenic emissions and industrial emissions. The sampling and analytical procedures applied in this study showed the sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span> and agricultural practices are the main source of inhalable particulate, possibly altering the aerosol concentration in some places of the State of So Paulo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/wri034323/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/wri034323/"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrologic Effects of the 1988 Galena Fire, Black Hills <span class="hlt">Area</span>, South Dakota</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet M.; Ohlen, Donald O.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The Galena Fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> about 16,788 acres of primarily ponderosa pine forest during July 5-8, 1988, in the Black Hills <span class="hlt">area</span> of South Dakota. The fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> primarily within the Grace Coolidge Creek drainage basin and almost entirely within the boundaries of Custer State Park. A U.S. Geological Survey gaging station with streamflow records dating back to 1977 was located along Grace Coolidge Creek within the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. About one-half of the gaging station's 26.8-square-mile drainage <span class="hlt">area</span> was <span class="hlt">burned</span>. The drainage basin for Bear Gulch, which is tributary to Grace Coolidge Creek, was <span class="hlt">burned</span> particularly severely, with complete deforestation occurring in nearly the entirety of the <span class="hlt">area</span> upstream from a gaging station that was installed in 1989. A study to evaluate effects of the Galena Fire on streamflow, geomorphology, and water quality was initiated in 1988. The geomorphologic and water-quality components of the study were completed by 1990 and are summarized in this report. A data-collection network consisting of streamflow- and precipitation-gaging stations was operated through water year 1998 for evaluation of effects on streamflow characteristics, including both <span class="hlt">annual</span>-yield and peak-flow characteristics, which are the main focus of this report. Moderately <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> did not experience a substantial increase in the rate of surface erosion; however, severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> underwent surficial erosion nearly twice that of the unburned <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The sediment production rate of Bear Gulch estimated 8 to 14 months after the fire was 870 ft3/acre (44 tons/acre). Substantial degradation of stream channels within the severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> headwater <span class="hlt">areas</span> of Bear Gulch was documented. Farther downstream, channel aggradation resulted from deposition of sediments transported from the headwater <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The most notable water-quality effect was on concentrations of suspended sediment, which were orders of magnitude higher for Bear Gulch than for the unburned control <span class="hlt">area</span>. Effects on several other water-quality constituents, such as organic carbon and nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient constituents, probably were influenced by the large concentrations of suspended matter that were documented in initial post-fire, storm-flow events. The first post-fire stormflow produced the highest measured concentrations of specific conductance, nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, calcium, magnesium, potassium, manganese, and sulfate in the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. For most constituents sampled, differences in concentrations between <span class="hlt">burned</span> and unburned <span class="hlt">areas</span> were no longer discernible within about 1 year following the Galena Fire. The effects of the Galena Fire on <span class="hlt">annual</span>-yield characteristics of Grace Coolidge Creek were evaluated primarily from comparisons with long-term streamflow records for Battle Creek, which is hydrogeologically similar and is located immediately to the north. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> yield for Grace Coolidge Creek increased by about 20 percent as a result of the fire. This estimate was based on relations between <span class="hlt">annual</span> yield for Grace Coolidge Creek and Battle Creek for pre- and post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> periods. Many of the post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> data points are well beyond the range of the pre-<span class="hlt">burn</span> data, which is a source of uncertainty for this estimate. Substantial increases in peak-flow characteristics for severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> drainages were visually apparent from numerous post-fire field observations. Various analyses of streamflow data indicated substantial increases in peak-flow response for <span class="hlt">burned</span> drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span>; however, quantification of effects was particularly difficult because peak-flow response diminished quickly and returned to a generally pre-<span class="hlt">burn</span> condition by about 1991. Field observations of vegetation and analysis of remotely sensed data indicated that establishment of grasses and forbs occurred within a similar timeframe. Comparison of pre-fire peak flows to post-1991 peak flows indicates that these grasses and forbs were equally effective in suppressing peak flows</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1471990','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1471990"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> Wound Infections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Church, Deirdre; Elsayed, Sameer; Reid, Owen; Winston, Brent; Lindsay, Robert</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Burns</span> are one of the most common and devastating forms of trauma. Patients with serious thermal injury require immediate specialized care in order to minimize morbidity and mortality. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immunosuppression that predisposes <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients to infectious complications. A current summary of the classifications of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound infections, including their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, is given. Early excision of the eschar has substantially decreased the incidence of invasive <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound infection and secondary sepsis, but most deaths in severely <span class="hlt">burn</span>-injured patients are still due to <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound sepsis or complications due to inhalation injury. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> patients are also at risk for developing sepsis secondary to pneumonia, catheter-related infections, and suppurative thrombophlebitis. The introduction of silver-impregnated devices (e.g., central lines and Foley urinary catheters) may reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections due to prolonged placement of these devices. Improved outcomes for severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients have been attributed to medical advances in fluid resuscitation, nutritional support, pulmonary and <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound care, and infection control practices. PMID:16614255</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13.2299L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13.2299L"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the impacts of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on air quality in and around Mexico City</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lei, W.; Li, G.; Molina, L. T.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> on ground-level ozone (O3) and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Area</span> (MCMA) and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> organic aerosol (BBOA), and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA) were consistent with many observation-based estimates. We did not detect significant effects of open fires and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> on surface O3 concentrations in the MCMA and surrounding region. In contrast, they had important influences on OA and elemental carbon (EC), increasing primary OA (POA) by ~60%, secondary OA (SOA) by ~22%, total OA (TOA = POA + SOA) by ~33%, and EC by ~22%, on both the local (urban) and regional scales. Although the emissions of trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> are substantially lower than those from open fires, trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> made slightly smaller but comparable contributions to OA as open fires did, and exerted an even higher influence on EC. Of the ~22% enhancement in SOA concentrations (equivalent to a ~15% increase in TOA) simulated, about two third was attributed to the open fires and one-third to the trash <span class="hlt">burning</span>. On the <span class="hlt">annual</span> basis and taking the biofuel use emissions into consideration, we estimated that open fires, trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> and biofuel use together contributed about 60% to the loading of POA, 30% to SOA, and 25% to EC in both the MCMA and its surrounding region, of which the open fires and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> contributed about 35% to POA, 18% to SOA, and 15% to EC. The estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> impacts in this study may contain considerable uncertainties due to the uncertainties in their emission estimates in magnitude, temporal and spatial distribution, extrapolations and the nature of spot comparison. More observation and modeling studies are needed to accurately assess the impacts of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on tropospheric chemistry, regional and global air quality, and climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21107271','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21107271"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep partial scald <span class="hlt">burn</span> in a neonate: a case report of the first documented domestic neonatal <span class="hlt">burn</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Al-Ahdab, Maher; Al-Omawi, Maimouna</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>No previous publication about domestic neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span> exists in the literature. The authors have treated a 16-day-old baby boy for deep partial-thickness scalds that happened at home. The case report is followed by a literature review and discussion of the data previously published on neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Special considerations to domestic neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span> are highlighted. A 16-day-old baby boy presented to our emergency room secondary to an 18% TBSA scald <span class="hlt">burn</span> by hot tea. The patient was resuscitated and admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. Topical wound care, although started with fusidic acid ointment, was changed to Aquacel Ag Hydrofiber dressing once the final depth assessment was performed. The child's wounds, although deep at some <span class="hlt">areas</span>, healed by day 11 without the need for skin grafting. Neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span> have been previously described as iatrogenic injuries caused by various thermal sources. Part of the challenge in managing <span class="hlt">burns</span> is their extremely thin skin. Possibility of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> being inflicted should always be raised for such young victims. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> wounds are tetanus-prone wounds; however, no previous recommendation regarding tetanus immunoglobulin administration exists for neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Aquacel Ag's efficacy in the management of pediatric partial-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> has been documented extensively and from our limited experience, it seems appropriate for managing neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Although neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span> need some special considerations during treatment, the cornerstones of pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> management still apply. The role of tetanus immunoglobulin still needs to be studied. PMID:21107271</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4117529','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4117529"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecological Consequences of Shifting the Timing of <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Tallgrass Prairie</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Towne, E. Gene; Craine, Joseph M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In the Kansas Flint Hills, grassland <span class="hlt">burning</span> is conducted during a relatively narrow window because management recommendations for the past 40 years have been to <span class="hlt">burn</span> only in late spring. Widespread prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> within this restricted time frame frequently creates smoke management issues downwind. A potential remedy for the concentrated smoke production in late spring is to expand <span class="hlt">burning</span> to times earlier in the year. Yet, previous research suggested that <span class="hlt">burning</span> in winter or early spring reduces plant productivity and cattle weight gain while increasing the proportion of undesirable plant species. In order to better understand the ecological consequences of <span class="hlt">burning</span> at different times of the year, plant production and species abundance were measured for 20 years on ungrazed watersheds <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">annually</span> in autumn, winter, or spring. We found that there were no significant differences in total grass production among the <span class="hlt">burns</span> on either upland or lowland topographic positions, although spring <span class="hlt">burned</span> watersheds had higher grass culm production and lower forb biomass than autumn and winter <span class="hlt">burned</span> watersheds. <span class="hlt">Burning</span> in autumn or winter broadened the window of grass productivity response to precipitation, which reduces susceptibility to mid-season drought. <span class="hlt">Burning</span> in autumn or winter also increased the phenological range of species by promoting cool-season graminoids without a concomitant decrease in warm-season grasses, potentially widening the seasonal window of high-quality forage. Incorporating autumn and winter <span class="hlt">burns</span> into the overall portfolio of tallgrass prairie management should increase the flexibility in managing grasslands, promote biodiversity, and minimize air quality issues caused by en masse late-spring <span class="hlt">burning</span> with little negative consequences for cattle production. PMID:25077487</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25077487','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25077487"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecological consequences of shifting the timing of <span class="hlt">burning</span> tallgrass prairie.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Towne, E Gene; Craine, Joseph M</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In the Kansas Flint Hills, grassland <span class="hlt">burning</span> is conducted during a relatively narrow window because management recommendations for the past 40 years have been to <span class="hlt">burn</span> only in late spring. Widespread prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> within this restricted time frame frequently creates smoke management issues downwind. A potential remedy for the concentrated smoke production in late spring is to expand <span class="hlt">burning</span> to times earlier in the year. Yet, previous research suggested that <span class="hlt">burning</span> in winter or early spring reduces plant productivity and cattle weight gain while increasing the proportion of undesirable plant species. In order to better understand the ecological consequences of <span class="hlt">burning</span> at different times of the year, plant production and species abundance were measured for 20 years on ungrazed watersheds <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">annually</span> in autumn, winter, or spring. We found that there were no significant differences in total grass production among the <span class="hlt">burns</span> on either upland or lowland topographic positions, although spring <span class="hlt">burned</span> watersheds had higher grass culm production and lower forb biomass than autumn and winter <span class="hlt">burned</span> watersheds. <span class="hlt">Burning</span> in autumn or winter broadened the window of grass productivity response to precipitation, which reduces susceptibility to mid-season drought. <span class="hlt">Burning</span> in autumn or winter also increased the phenological range of species by promoting cool-season graminoids without a concomitant decrease in warm-season grasses, potentially widening the seasonal window of high-quality forage. Incorporating autumn and winter <span class="hlt">burns</span> into the overall portfolio of tallgrass prairie management should increase the flexibility in managing grasslands, promote biodiversity, and minimize air quality issues caused by en masse late-spring <span class="hlt">burning</span> with little negative consequences for cattle production. PMID:25077487</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH23C1543W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH23C1543W"><span id="translatedtitle">RECOVER - An Automated <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Emergency Response Decision Support System for Post-fire Rehabilitation Management of Savanna Ecosystems in the Western US</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weber, K.; Schnase, J. L.; Carroll, M.; Brown, M. E.; Gill, R.; Haskett, G.; Gardner, T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In partnership with the Department of Interior's Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Idaho Department of Lands (IDL), we are building and evaluating the RECOVER decision support system. RECOVER - which stands for Rehabilitation Capability Convergence for Ecosystem Recovery - is an automatically deployable, context-aware decision support system for savanna wildfires that brings together in a single application the information necessary for post-fire rehabilitation decision-making and long-term ecosystem monitoring. RECOVER uses state-of-the-art cloud-based data management technologies to improve performance, reduce cost, and provide site-specific flexibility for each fire. The RECOVER Server uses Integrated Rule-Oriented Data System (iRODS) data grid technology deployed in the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). The RECOVER Client is an Adobe Flex web map application that is able to provide a suite of convenient GIS analytical capabilities. In a typical use scenario, the RECOVER Server is provided a wildfire name and geospatial extent. The Server then automatically gathers Earth observational data and other relevant products from various geographically distributed data sources. The Server creates a database in the cloud where all relevant information about the wildfire is stored. This information is made available to the RECOVER Client and ultimately to fire managers through their choice of web browser. The Server refreshes the data throughout the <span class="hlt">burn</span> and subsequent recovery period (3-5 years) with each refresh requiring two minutes to complete. Since remediation plans must be completed within 14 days of a fire's containment, RECOVER has the potential to significantly improve the decision-making process. RECOVER adds an important new dimension to post-fire decision-making by focusing on ecosystem rehabilitation in semiarid savannas. A novel aspect of RECOVER's approach involves the use of soil moisture estimates, which are an important but difficult-to-obtain element of post-fire rehabilitation planning. We will use downscaled soil moisture data from three primary observational sources to begin evaluation of soil moisture products and build the technology needed for RECOVER to use future SMAP products. As a result, RECOVER, BLM, and the fire applications community will be ready customers for data flowing out of new NASA missions, such as NPP, LDCM, and SMAP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7034807','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7034807"><span id="translatedtitle">Getting beyond <span class="hlt">burning</span> dirt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mahoney, R.J. )</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>To fix and make the nation's Superfund law work, two related questions must be answered. First, where will the innovative technology come from the clean up Superfund and other waste sites <span class="hlt">Burning</span> dirt--the best technology currently available--is an expensive nonsolution. Second, can man muster the political will to make Superfund a waste cleanup law instead of an expanding welfare program for lawyers Under the sponsorship of EPA, a number of companies and other groups are participating in the Remediation Technology Development Forum, focusing on the <span class="hlt">areas</span> where the real breakthroughs might occur and the most promising collaborations. Currently, this effort is focused on bioremediation, the lasagna process, soil flushing, and characterization. Another <span class="hlt">area</span> of investigation is stabilization technology--stabilizing a site to keep contaminants from flowing away. Some scientists, for example, are looking at vitrification technology, which fuses contaminated soil into a glass-like brick. And still other technology efforts include air flushing of contaminated sites and vapor extraction and heating processes. A number of groups and consortia have been working on waste remediation technologies. For the first time since 1980, when Superfund became law, one can give positive answers to the two critical questions. Groups are finding innovative technologies to clean up Superfund and other waste sites. And, as a nation, Americans are exercising the political will to create a Superfund law that will work effectively and fairly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3793881','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3793881"><span id="translatedtitle">Possible risk factors associated with <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound colonization in <span class="hlt">burn</span> units of Gaza strip hospitals, Palestine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Al Laham, N.A.; Elmanama, A.A.; Tayh, G.A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Summary The epidemiological pattern and risk factors of <span class="hlt">burns</span> and <span class="hlt">burn</span> infections varies widely in different parts of the world. This study aims to determine the epidemiologic pattern of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries and possible risk factors associated with <span class="hlt">burn</span> infections in <span class="hlt">burn</span> units of Gaza strip hospitals. A total of 118 patients were included in the study. The data collected included: patient age and gender, the causes, site, degree, and TBSA of the <span class="hlt">burns</span>, as well as surgical operations, length of hospital stay, and microbiological profile of samples collected from patients, the environment, and from health care staff. Pediatric and adult patients accounted for 72% and 28% respectively. 58.5% of all patients were male and 41.5% were female. The most common etiological factors in children were scalding, while in adults these were open fire and flammable liquids. The mean TBSA was 12% with a range from 190%. Second and third degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> accounted for 78% and 22% respectively. The <span class="hlt">area</span> of the body most often affected was the torso (39%), followed by the lower limb (29.7%), and upper limb (17.8%). The predominant microorganisms isolated from <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp. and Staphylococcus spp. The study showed the highest risk groups to be children and males, and enabled us to identify possible risk factors that can help in future efforts toward prevention and minimizing nosocomial infections in <span class="hlt">burn</span> units of Gaza strip hospitals. PMID:24133399</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18036975','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18036975"><span id="translatedtitle">The NIDRR <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury rehabilitation model system program: selected findings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Patterson, David R</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The NIDRR <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury rehabilitation model system program: selected findings. The quality of <span class="hlt">burn</span> care has improved over the past few decades, and consequently many more survivors with large-<span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries have long-term rehabilitation needs. The National Institute on Disability Rehabilitation Research recognized that the rehabilitation of people with <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries has been underaddressed and established model systems of care for this population in 1994. This special supplement to the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation reports on some of the research that has been generated by the <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Rehabilitation Model Systems over the past 13 years. PMID:18036975</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://kidshealth.org/parent/firstaid_safe/emergencies/burns.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://kidshealth.org/parent/firstaid_safe/emergencies/burns.html"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> (For Parents)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... fluid can be used) or hold a clean, cold compress on the <span class="hlt">burn</span> for approximately 3-5 minutes ( do not use ice, as it may cause more destruction to the injured skin ). Do not apply butter, grease, powder, or any other remedies to the <span class="hlt">burn</span>, as these can make the ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18950947','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18950947"><span id="translatedtitle">"Understanding <span class="hlt">burns</span>": research project <span class="hlt">Burn</span>Case 3D--overcome the limits of existing methods in <span class="hlt">burns</span> documentation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haller, H L; Dirnberger, J; Giretzlehner, M; Rodemund, C; Kamolz, L</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Understanding <span class="hlt">burns</span> means knowing what is necessary for the successful treatment of <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Nobody in science, economics, or quality control can comprehend this issue's complexity without thorough documentation of the work involved. <span class="hlt">Burn</span>Case 3D is a non-profit research project whose aim, achieved through software of the same name, is a thorough and accurate <span class="hlt">burn</span>-treatment documentation schema, facilitated by three-dimensional digital models tracked over time. Adapting these models on the basis of gender, height, weight, and body shape avoids systemic errors. Superimposing photos of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> on the model prevents individual error and can be combined with methods of <span class="hlt">burn</span>-depth evaluation. The program includes automatic encoding of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Model resolution is 1cm(2) and finer, so that even small scars' locations and extents can be documented, thus enabling registration of long-term results. The program's status as a multilingual data-collection tool brings together multiple international efforts in data collection, and makes it suitable for e-medicine and disaster relief. In its basic form, it provides essential functions in <span class="hlt">burn</span> documentation, photo documentation, and reporting. The four-dimensional database allows registration of interactions over time and can demonstrate the influence of location, timing, and intervention on outcome. PMID:18950947</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25653184','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25653184"><span id="translatedtitle">Hand chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> make up a small proportion of all skin <span class="hlt">burns</span>, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span>, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span>, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes. PMID:25653184</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4768453','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4768453"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Mouth Syndrome</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kamala, KA; Sankethguddad, S; Sujith, SG; Tantradi, Praveena</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome (BMS) is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by <span class="hlt">burning</span> and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral <span class="hlt">burning</span> is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral <span class="hlt">burning</span> and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral <span class="hlt">burning</span> associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS. PMID:26962284</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510314M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510314M"><span id="translatedtitle">Physiochemical characterisation of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> plumes in Brazil during SAMBBA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morgan, William; Allan, James; Flynn, Michael; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Hodgson, Amy; Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Artaxo, Paulo; Coe, Hugh</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, which results in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious negative impacts on public health. Globally, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect of 0.03 Wm-2, however the uncertainty is 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in <span class="hlt">areas</span> such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent <span class="hlt">burning</span> occurs on an <span class="hlt">annual</span> basis for several months (usually from August-October). Furthermore, a growing number of people live within the Amazon region, which means that they are subject to the deleterious effects on their health from exposure to substantial volumes of polluted air. Results are presented here from the South American Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Analysis (SAMBBA), which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil. A suite of instrumentation was flown on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft. Measurements from the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) form the major part of the analysis presented here. The aircraft sampled several fires in close proximity (approximately 150m above the most intense fires) in different <span class="hlt">areas</span> of Brazil. This included two extensive <span class="hlt">areas</span> of <span class="hlt">burning</span>, which occurred in the states of Rondonia and Tocantins. The Rondonia fire was largely dominated by smouldering combustion of a huge single <span class="hlt">area</span> of rainforest with a visible plume of smoke extending approximately 80km downwind. The Tocantins example contrasted with this as it was a collection of a large number of smaller fires, with flaming combustion being more prevalent. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was largely made up of agricultural land in a cerrado (savannah-like) region of Brazil. Initial results suggest that the chemical nature of these fires differed markedly, with BC concentrations being an order of magnitude greater in the Tocantins case (up to 50 μg m-3 of BC) compared with the Rondonia case (up to 5 μg m-3 of BC). Organic matter (OM) concentrations were similar in both cases, with maximum concentrations peaking between 4-5 mg m-3. Such concentrations are approximately more than 100 times greater than those sampled in the "background" regional haze. This variation of BC to OM ratio has potentially large implications for the radiative balance in the respective regions, as BC represents the major absorbing component of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosol. Further analysis will compare the aerosol mass concentrations with gas phase species, as well as probing the chemical and physical evolution of the aerosol as it advects downwind and is diluted with regional air. In particular, such analyses will focus upon the aging of the organic aerosol component as well as examining how the mixing state of the BC particles evolves. Such properties have important implications for the life cycle and formation of particulate material, which governs its subsequent impacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2015/1060/pdf/ofr2015-1060.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2015/1060/pdf/ofr2015-1060.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A 30-year chronosequence of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Arizona: effects of wildfires on vegetation in Sonoran Desert Tortoise (Gopherus morafkai) habitats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Shryock, Daniel F.; Esque, Todd C.; Chen, Felicia C.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Fire is widely regarded as a key evolutionary force in fire-prone ecosystems, with effects spanning multiple levels of organization, from species and functional group composition through landscape-scale vegetation structure, biomass, and diversity (Pausas and others, 2004; Bond and Keeley 2005; Pausas and Verdu, 2008). Ecosystems subjected to novel fire regimes may experience profound changes that are difficult to predict, including persistent losses of vegetation cover and diversity (McLaughlin and Bowers, 1982; Brown and Minnich, 1986; Brooks, 2012), losses to seed banks (Esque and others, 2010a), changes in demographic processes (Esque and others, 2004; DeFalco and others, 2010), increased erosion (Soulard and others, 2013), changes in nutrient availability (Esque and others, 2010b), increased dominance of invasive species (Esque and others, 2002; Brooks and others, 2004), and transitions to alternative community states (Davies and others, 2012). In the deserts of the Southwestern United States, fire size and frequency have increased substantially over the last several decades because of an invasive grass/fire feedback cycle (Schmid and Rogers, 1988; D’Antonio and Vitousek, 1992; Swantek and others, 1999; Brooks and Matchett, 2006; Esque and others, 2010a), in which invasive <span class="hlt">annual</span> species are able to establish fuel loads capable of sustaining large-scale wildfires following years of high rainfall (Esque and Schwalbe, 2002). Native perennial vegetation is not well-adapted to fire in these environments, and widespread, physiognomically dominant species such as creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia), giant saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea), and paloverde (Parkinsonia spp.) may be reduced or eliminated (Brown and Minnich, 1986; Esque and others, 2006; DeFalco and others, 2010), potentially affecting wildlife populations including the Sonoran and federally threatened Mojave Desert Tortoises (Gopherus morafkai and Gopherus agassizii, respectively; Brooks and Esque, 2002; Esque and others, 2003; Drake and others, in press).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5518641','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5518641"><span id="translatedtitle">Sources of methane in China: A program to estimate emissions from rice paddy fields, bio-gas pits, and urban <span class="hlt">areas</span>: <span class="hlt">Annual</span> progress report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rasmussen, R.A.; Khalil, M.A.K.</p> <p>1987-11-30</p> <p>We are measuring methane from rice paddy fields and bio-gas pits. The project has produced new results that we are using to sharply focus the present study. We measured ambient concentrations at Minqin, Beijing, and Chendu. We obtained flux measurements from bio-gas pits, and flux measurements from rice paddy fields. Minqin is a background site with no large local sources of methane such as rice fields or urban <span class="hlt">areas</span>. It serves as control for the experiment. Beijing is representative of a large industrialized Chinese city not affected by rice agriculture but heavily dependent on <span class="hlt">burning</span> coal for cooking and heating. Chendu is in the heart of the rice producing <span class="hlt">areas</span> of China where rice paddies cover millions of acres and methane from bio-gas pits is an important source of energy. Further progress was impeded by a lack of a formal agreement between the US and PRC, which was not signed until August 1987. 9 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/359257','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/359257"><span id="translatedtitle">Care of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yarborough, M F</p> <p>1978-10-01</p> <p>The initial therapy of thermal injuries is directed at removal of loose debris and necrotic epidermis, alleviation of pain, and prevention of infection. Following initial wound debridement, bacterial growth in the wound itself is controlled primarily through the use of tropical antibiotic agents and daily hydrotherapy to clean the wounds and remove any loose eschar. Effectiveness of topical therapy is monitored by quantitative <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound biopsy cultures; growth of greater than 10(4) micro-organisms per gram of tissue indicates invasive <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound sepsis. Such bacterial invasion may be further controlled through the adjunctive use of antibiotics administered into the sub-eschar space. Once eschar separation has exposed healthy granulation tissue, the <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound must be covered with suitable biologic dressings prior to autografting. All open wounds may then be autografted with sheet grafts to the face, neck, and <span class="hlt">areas</span> exposed to trauma or by expansion mesh grafts to cover large <span class="hlt">areas</span> from limited donor sites. Upon completion of autografting, a vigorous physical therapy program is necessary to rehabilitate victims of massive thermal injury to a functional existence. PMID:359257</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.phoenix-society.org/','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.phoenix-society.org/"><span id="translatedtitle">Phoenix Society for <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Survivors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Our Programs Phoenix SOAR Phoenix Online Community Phoenix World <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Congress Phoenix Kids & Teens Online Learning Phoenix ... Phoenix Education Grant <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Support Magazine Collaborators Phoenix World <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Congress Location & Registration Attendee Scholarships Youth and ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9568331','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9568331"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> during pregnancy: a gloomy outcome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mabrouk, A R; el-Feky, A E</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The effect of <span class="hlt">burns</span> on fetal and maternal survival is known to be detrimental. This prospective study describes the performance of pregnant <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients who were managed and followed up for fetal and maternal outcomes at Ain Shams University's <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit and Maternity Hospital during the period from October 1995 to September 1996. During the 12-month period, 27 pregnant <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients were managed. Fetal and maternal mortality correlated with the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) <span class="hlt">burned</span>, the mortality rate being 63 per cent for both mothers and fetuses in the 25-50 per cent TBSA group. A fetal loss of 56 per cent with no maternal loss were recorded in the 15-25 per cent TBSA group. Experience in dealing with pregnant <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients proves that early surgical excision and skin grafting, with timely termination of pregnancy are the best lines of treatment. Prevention or minimizing the effects of the <span class="hlt">burns</span> may be achieved by proper education and guidance of the pregnant woman. PMID:9568331</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4700878','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4700878"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center Volume on Mortality in a Pediatric Population: An Analysis of the National <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Repository</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hodgman, Erica I.; Saeman, Melody R.; Subramanian, Madhu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The effect of <span class="hlt">burn</span> center volume on mortality has been demonstrated in adults. The authors sought to evaluate whether such a relationship existed in <span class="hlt">burned</span> children. The National <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Repository, a voluntary registry sponsored by the American <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Association, was queried for all data points on patients aged 18 years or less and treated from 2002 to 2011. Facilities were divided into quartiles based on average <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burn</span> volume. Demographics and clinical characteristics were compared across groups, and univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to evaluate relationships between facility volume, patient characteristics, and mortality. The authors analyzed 38,234 patients admitted to 88 unique facilities. Children under age 4 years or with larger <span class="hlt">burns</span> were more likely to be managed at high-volume and very highvolume centers (57.12 and 53.41%, respectively). Overall mortality was low (0.85%). Comparing mortality across quartiles demonstrated improved unadjusted mortality rates at the low- and high-volume centers compared with the medium-volume and very highvolume centers although univariate logistic regression did not find a significant relationship. However, multivariate analysis identified <span class="hlt">burn</span> center volume as a significant predictor of decreased mortality after controlling for patient characteristics including age, mechanism of injury, <span class="hlt">burn</span> size, and presence of inhalation injury. Mortality among pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients is low and was primarily related to patient and injury characteristics, such as <span class="hlt">burn</span> size, inhalation injury, and <span class="hlt">burn</span> cause. Average <span class="hlt">annual</span> admission rate had a significant but small effect on mortality when injury characteristics were considered. PMID:26146907</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26146907','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26146907"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center Volume on Mortality in a Pediatric Population: An Analysis of the National <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Repository.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hodgman, Erica I; Saeman, Melody R; Subramanian, Madhu; Wolf, Steven E</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The effect of <span class="hlt">burn</span> center volume on mortality has been demonstrated in adults. The authors sought to evaluate whether such a relationship existed in <span class="hlt">burned</span> children. The National <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Repository, a voluntary registry sponsored by the American <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Association, was queried for all data points on patients aged 18 years or less and treated from 2002 to 2011. Facilities were divided into quartiles based on average <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burn</span> volume. Demographics and clinical characteristics were compared across groups, and univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to evaluate relationships between facility volume, patient characteristics, and mortality. The authors analyzed 38,234 patients admitted to 88 unique facilities. Children under age 4 years or with larger <span class="hlt">burns</span> were more likely to be managed at high-volume and very high-volume centers (57.12 and 53.41%, respectively). Overall mortality was low (0.85%). Comparing mortality across quartiles demonstrated improved unadjusted mortality rates at the low- and high-volume centers compared with the medium-volume and very high-volume centers although univariate logistic regression did not find a significant relationship. However, multivariate analysis identified <span class="hlt">burn</span> center volume as a significant predictor of decreased mortality after controlling for patient characteristics including age, mechanism of injury, <span class="hlt">burn</span> size, and presence of inhalation injury. Mortality among pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients is low and was primarily related to patient and injury characteristics, such as <span class="hlt">burn</span> size, inhalation injury, and <span class="hlt">burn</span> cause. Average <span class="hlt">annual</span> admission rate had a significant but small effect on mortality when injury characteristics were considered. PMID:26146907</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A11H0155K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A11H0155K"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of "open <span class="hlt">burning</span>" on the greenhouse gas exchange from a single-rice paddy field in Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kawamoto, Y.; Akaike, Y.; Kunishio, A.; Murakami, H.; Ono, K.; Hayashi, K.; Iwata, T.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Paddy fields are artificially maintained wetland and are one of the large source of CH4. Besides, a large quantity of N2O is emitted from the soil surface due to the decomposition of inorganic fertilizer. A long term continuous measurement of GHG fluxes between atmosphere and paddy ecosystem is effective method to clarify the contribution of paddy fields to recent rapid increase of GHG concentration. In this study, three techniques for flux measurement (eddy covariance, aerodynamic gradient, and chamber techniques) were applied to investigate the <span class="hlt">annual</span> variation of three GHG (CO2, CH4 and N2O) exchanges at a single-rice paddy field for two years. An observational site is located on reclaimed land in the southern part of Okayama Prefecture, Japan. In addition, an experimental paddy field was divided into two <span class="hlt">areas</span> to investigate what impact is brought on the <span class="hlt">annual</span> GHG fluxes by the difference of disposal management of residual biomass after the harvest. Residual biomass was <span class="hlt">burned</span> and plowed into soil at the one <span class="hlt">area</span> on Nov. 29th, 2011, and residue was not <span class="hlt">burned</span> and directly plowed into soil at the other <span class="hlt">area</span> as usual. We illustrate some results for the control term before the <span class="hlt">burning</span> experiment, and for the comparison term after the experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/979388','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/979388"><span id="translatedtitle">2009 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Summary Report for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada: Review of the Performance Assessments and Composite Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>NSTec Environmental Management</p> <p>2010-03-15</p> <p>The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office performed an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Wate Management Site (RWMS) Performance Assessments (PAs) and Composite Analyses (CAs) in fiscal year (FY) 2009. This <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2009 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada Test Site relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1135917','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1135917"><span id="translatedtitle">2013 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Summary Report for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada; Review of the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shott, Gregory</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site (National Security Technologies, LLC 2007a) requires an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review to assess the adequacy of the performance assessments (PAs) and composite analyses (CAs), with the results submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management. The Disposal Authorization Statements for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) also require that such reviews be made and that secondary or minor unresolved issues be tracked and addressed as part of the maintenance plan (DOE 1999a, 2000). The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office performed an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS PAs and CAs for fiscal year (FY) 2013. This <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2013 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs. Important developments in FY 2013 include the following: • Development of a new <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS closure inventory estimate based on disposals through FY 2013 • Evaluation of new or revised waste streams by special analysis • Development of version 4.115 of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS GoldSim PA/CA model The <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS has been in inactive status since July 1, 2006, with the last shipment received in April 2006. The FY 2013 review of operations, facility design, closure plans, monitoring results, and R&D results for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS indicates no changes that would impact PA validity. The conclusion of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> review is that all performance objectives can be met and the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS PA remains valid. There is no need to the revise the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS PA. Review of <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS operations, design, closure plans, monitoring results, and R&D activities indicates that no significant changes have occurred. The FY 2013 PA results, generated with the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS v4.115 GoldSim PA model, indicate that there continues to be a reasonable expectation of meeting all performance objectives. The results and conclusions of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS PA are judged valid, and there is no need to the revise the PA. A review of changes potentially impacting the CAs indicates that no significant changes occurred in FY 2013. The continuing adequacy of the CAs was evaluated with the new models, and no significant changes that would alter the CAs results or conclusions were found. The revision of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS CA, which will include the Yucca Flat Underground Test <span class="hlt">Area</span> (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 97) source term, is scheduled for FY 2024, following the completion of the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan in FY 2015. Inclusion of the Frenchman Flat Underground Test <span class="hlt">Area</span> (CAU 98) results in the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS CA is scheduled for FY 2016, pending the completion of the CAU 98 Closure Report in FY 2015. Near-term R&D efforts will focus on continuing development of the PA, CA, and inventory models for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/797309','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/797309"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report RCRA Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspections for CAU 112: <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, for the period October 2000-July 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>D. S. Tobiason</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">annual</span> Neutron Soil Moisture Monitoring report provides an analysis and summary for site inspections, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture monitoring data obtained at the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) unit, located in <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, during the October 2000--July 2001 monitoring period. Inspections of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches RCRA unit are conducted to determine and document the physical condition of the covers, facilities, and any unusual conditions that could impact the proper operation of the waste unit closure. Physical inspections of the closure were completed quarterly and indicated that the site is in good condition with no significant findings noted. An <span class="hlt">annual</span> subsidence survey of the elevation markers was conducted in July 2001. There has been no subsidence at any of the markers since monitoring began eight years ago. Precipitation for the period October 2000 through July 2001 was 9.42 centimeters (cm) (3.71 inches [in]) (U.S. National Weather Service, 2001). The prior year <span class="hlt">annual</span> rainfall (January 2000 through December 2000) was 10.44 cm (4.1 1 in.). The recorded average <span class="hlt">annual</span> rainfall for this site from 1972 to January 2000 is 14.91 cm (5.87 in.). The objective of the neutron logging program is to monitor the soil moisture conditions along 30 neutron access tubes and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement at a point located directly beneath each trench. All monitored access tubes are within the compliance criteria of less than 5 percent residual volumetric moisture content at the compliance point directly beneath each respective trench. Soil conditions remain dry and stable underneath the trenches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22325849','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22325849"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology of <span class="hlt">burns</span> throughout the World. Part II: intentional <span class="hlt">burns</span> in adults.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peck, Michael D</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>A significant number of <span class="hlt">burns</span> and deaths from fire are intentionally wrought. Rates of intentional <span class="hlt">burns</span> are unevenly distributed throughout the world; India has a particularly high rate in young women whereas in Europe rates are higher in men in mid-life. Data from hospitalized <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients worldwide reveal incidence rates for assault by fire and scalds ranging from 3% to 10%. The average proportion of the body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in an assault by fire or scalds is approximately 20%. In different parts of the world, attempted <span class="hlt">burning</span> of others or oneself can be attributed to different motives. Circumstances under which assaults occur fall largely into the categories of interpersonal conflict, including spousal abuse, elder abuse, or interactions over contentious business transactions. Contributing social factors to assaults by <span class="hlt">burning</span> include drug and alcohol abuse, non-constructive use of leisure time, non-participation in religious and community activities, unstable relationships, and extramarital affairs. Although the incidence of self-mutilation and suicide attempts by <span class="hlt">burning</span> are relatively low, deliberate self-harm carries a significant risk of death, with an overall mortality rate of 65% worldwide. In those who resort to self-immolation, circumstantial themes reflect domestic discord, family dysfunction, and the social ramifications of unemployment. Preventing injurious <span class="hlt">burn</span>-related violence requires a multifaceted approach, including legislation and enforcement, education, and advocacy. Better standardized assessment tools are needed to screen for risks of abuse and for psychiatric disorders in perpetrators. PMID:22325849</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3865453','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3865453"><span id="translatedtitle">Two-year hospital records of <span class="hlt">burns</span> from a referral center in Western Iran: March 2010-March 2012</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ahmadijouybari, Touraj; Najafi, Farid; Moradinazar, Mehdi; Karami-matin, Behzad; Karami-matin, Reza; Ataie, Maria; Hatami, Masoumeh; Purghorbani, Samira; Amee, Vahid</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Abstract: Background: <span class="hlt">Burns</span> are among the most common injuries affecting a great number of people worldwide <span class="hlt">annually</span>. In Iran, especially in its western region and in Kermanshah province, <span class="hlt">burns</span> have a relatively high incidence. The present study was aimed at investigating epidemiological characteristics in Western Iran. Methods: Within a cross-sectional study, the data on all patients attending the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Center at Imam Khomeini Hospital (Kermanshah, Iran) during 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 (24 months) were collected. Then, age, gender, cause of <span class="hlt">burns</span>, total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, and time of the occurrence were extracted from the hospital records. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical package (Version 19, for Windows). We used chi-squared test when we compared the categorical responses between two or more groups. For comparing means between two groups we used t-test. In addition, trends were investigated using linear regression. Results: Overall 13 248 people were referred to the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Center at Imam Khomeini Hospital (Kermanshah, Iran) during the period of study, including 328 cases of self-immolation. The mean age of the patients was 27±19 years and 29±13 years for unintentional <span class="hlt">burns</span> and self-immolation respectively. Out of the total number of unintentional cases, 6 519 (50.5%) were men, while the corresponding percentage of men among the self-immolation cases was 16.6% (p less than 0.001). Trends in the number of cases were cyclic, with the highest and lowest number of <span class="hlt">burns</span> cases being in March and May. Overall, hot liquids and flammable materials were the two most important causes of unintentional <span class="hlt">burns</span>. However, flammable materials were the main cause of <span class="hlt">burns</span> among self-immolation cases. During hospital admission, 168 (51%) self-immolation victims and 43 (0.33%) unintentional <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims died. Conclusions: While major preventive measures are not adequately used in developing countries, <span class="hlt">burns</span> and their burden can be significantly reduced by increasing public awareness and by applying simple preventive measures. PMID:23831739</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11714201Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11714201Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Near-real-time global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions product from geostationary satellite constellation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Xiaoyang; Kondragunta, Shobha; Ram, Jessica; Schmidt, Christopher; Huang, Ho-Chun</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Near-real-time estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions are crucial for air quality monitoring and forecasting. We present here the first near-real-time global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emission product from geostationary satellites (GBBEP-Geo) produced from satellite-derived fire radiative power (FRP) for individual fire pixels. Specifically, the FRP is retrieved using WF_ABBA V65 (wildfire automated biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> algorithm) from a network of multiple geostationary satellites. The network consists of two Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) which are operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Meteosat second-generation satellites (Meteosat-09) operated by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, and the Multifunctional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency. These satellites observe wildfires at an interval of 15-30 min. Because of the impacts from sensor saturation, cloud cover, and background surface, the FRP values are generally not continuously observed. The missing observations are simulated by combining the available instantaneous FRP observations within a day and a set of representative climatological diurnal patterns of FRP for various ecosystems. Finally, the simulated diurnal variation in FRP is applied to quantify biomass combustion and emissions in individual fire pixels with a latency of 1 day. By analyzing global patterns in hourly biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions in 2010, we find that peak fire season varied greatly and that <span class="hlt">annual</span> wildfires <span class="hlt">burned</span> 1.33 1012 kg dry mass, released 1.27 1010 kg of PM2.5 (particulate mass for particles with diameter <2.5 ?m) and 1.18 1011kg of CO globally (excluding most parts of boreal Asia, the Middle East, and India because of no coverage from geostationary satellites). The biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions were mostly released from forest and savanna fires in Africa, South America, and North America. Evaluation of emission result reveals that the GBBEP-Geo estimates are comparable with other FRP-derived estimates in Africa, while the results are generally smaller than most of the other global products that were derived from <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and fuel loading. However, the daily emissions estimated from GOES FRP over the United States are generally consistent with those modeled from GOES <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) fuel loading, which produces an overall bias of 5.7% and a correlation slope of 0.97 0.2. It is expected that near-real-time hourly emissions from GBBEP-Geo could provide a crucial component for atmospheric and chemical transport modelers to forecast air quality and weather conditions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22867734','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22867734"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology and outcome of <span class="hlt">burns</span>: early experience at the country's first national <span class="hlt">burns</span> centre.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Iqbal, Tariq; Saaiq, Muhammad; Ali, Zahid</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>This study aims to document the epidemiologic pattern and outcome of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries in the country's first national <span class="hlt">burn</span> centre. This case series study was conducted over a 2-year period at <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Care Centre (BCC), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad. The study included all <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury patients who primarily presented to and were managed at the centre. Those patients who presented more than 24 h after injury or those who were initially managed at some other hospital were excluded from the study. Initial assessment and diagnosis was made by thorough history, physical examination and necessary investigations. Patients with major <span class="hlt">burns</span>, high voltage electric <span class="hlt">burns</span> and those needing any surgical interventions were admitted for indoor management. Patients with minor <span class="hlt">burns</span> were discharged home after necessary emergency management, home medication and follow-up advice. The sociodemographic profile of the patients, site of sustaining <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury, type and extent (total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA), skin thickness involved and associated inhalational injury) of <span class="hlt">burn</span> and outcome in terms of survival or mortality, etc., were all recorded on a proforma. The data were subjected to statistical analysis. Out of a total of 13,295 patients, there were 7503 (56.43%) males and 5792 (43.56%) females. The mean age for adults was 33.6310.76 years and for children it was 6.713.47 years. The household environment constituted the commonest site of <span class="hlt">burns</span> (68%). Among all age groups and both genders, scalds were the commonest <span class="hlt">burns</span> (42.48%), followed by flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> (39%) and electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> (9.96%). The affected mean TBSA was 10.6411.45% overall, while for the hospitalised subset of patients the mean TBSA was 38.0415.18%. Most of the <span class="hlt">burns</span> were partial thickness (67%). Inhalation injury was found among 149 (1.12%) patients. Most of the <span class="hlt">burns</span> were non-intentional and only 96 (0.72%) were intentional. A total of 1405 patients (10.58%) were admitted while the remainder 11890 patients (89.43%) were managed on an outdoor basis. The mean hospital stay was 12.166.07 days (range 2-73 days). There were 197 deaths among the hospitalised patients constituting a 14% mortality rate for the hospitalised subset of patients, while there was an overall mortality rate of 1.48% for the entire study population. PMID:22867734</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=212836','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=212836"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report 2007 Multi-state research project on "Irrigation Management for Humid and Sub-Humid <span class="hlt">Areas</span>" S1018.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This report summarizes the <span class="hlt">annual</span> results from scientists at the Application and Production Technology Research Unit in Stoneville, as members of the multi-state research project on irrigation and water management S1018. The multi-state research project has four key objectives, three of which the St...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-09/pdf/2011-14330.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-09/pdf/2011-14330.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 33646 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-06-09</p> <p>..., call or e-mail ENS Anthony P. LaBoy, Sector Puget Sound Waterways Management, Coast Guard; telephone... Radius Liberty Bay Fireworks Liberty Bay........ 47 43.917' N 122 39.133' W 300 Deer Harbor <span class="hlt">Annual</span>... Radius Port Angeles Chamber of Commerce. Port Angeles Harbor 48 07.033' N 123 24.967' W 300...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22ray+bradbury%22&id=EJ540630','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22ray+bradbury%22&id=EJ540630"><span id="translatedtitle">New Fashioned Book <span class="hlt">Burning</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gardner, Robert</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book <span class="hlt">burning</span> as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/patientinstructions/000662.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/patientinstructions/000662.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Minor <span class="hlt">burns</span> - aftercare</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... put a thin layer of ointment, such as petroleum jelly or aloe vera, on the <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The ointment ... and pressure with a sterile non-stick gauze (petrolatum or Adaptic-type) lightly taped or wrapped over ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05869&hterms=Burns&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBurns','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05869&hterms=Burns&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBurns"><span id="translatedtitle">'<span class="hlt">Burns</span> Cliff' Beckons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><p/> This approximate true-color image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity highlights a feature called '<span class="hlt">Burns</span> Cliff' within the impact crater known as 'Endurance.' Scientists are eager to explore this layered ridge for clues to the red planet's past. The only problem is its location: <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Cliff is a vertical drop, which poses an interesting challenge for rover planners. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Cliff was named after the late scientist Roger <span class="hlt">Burns</span>, who was one of the first to correctly propose the importance of sulfate and jarosite to the study of Mars' geologic history. <p/> This image is a portion of a larger mosaic taken with the panoramic camera's 480-, 530- and 750-nanometer filters on sols 97 and 98.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16053','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16053"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> of the foot.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Achauer, B M; Bartlett, R H; Wilson, L F</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The most severe trauma a patient can sustain is a major <span class="hlt">burn</span>. When a person is seriously <span class="hlt">burned</span>, initial care begins with maintaining an adequate airway and adequate blood volume and urinary output by intravenous fluids. After the patient has been stabilized, the wound is of primary importance, and postage stamp split thickness grafts are used for skin coverage. When these are secure and a maximal range of motion has been obtained, reconstructive procedures should be started. PMID:16053</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EL-1996-00212&hterms=marketing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmarketing','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EL-1996-00212&hterms=marketing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmarketing"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> Depth Monitor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EL-1996-00210&hterms=marketing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmarketing','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EL-1996-00210&hterms=marketing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmarketing"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> Depth Monitor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the companyused technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EL-1996-00211&hterms=marketing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmarketing','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EL-1996-00211&hterms=marketing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmarketing"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> Depth Monitor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3698..103H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3698..103H"><span id="translatedtitle">Infrared imaging of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds to determine <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hargroder, Andrew G.; Davidson, James E., Sr.; Luther, Donald G.; Head, Jonathan F.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>Determination of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound depth is at present left to the surgeons visual examination. Many <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds are obviously, by visual inspection, superficial 2 degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> or true 3 degree <span class="hlt">burns</span>. However, those <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds that fall between the obvious depth <span class="hlt">burns</span> are difficult to assess visually, and therefore wound depth determination often requires waiting 5 to 7 days postburn. Initially, 10 <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients underwent IR imaging at various times during the evaluation of their <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds. These patients were followed to either healing or skin grafting. The IR images were then reviewed to determine their accuracy in determining the depth of the wound. IR imaging of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds with focal plane staring array midrange IR systems appears promising in determination of <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth one to two days postburn. This will allow clinical decision regarding operative or nonoperative intervention to be made earlier, thus decreasing hospital stays and time to healing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3770758','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3770758"><span id="translatedtitle">Increased expression of atrogenes and TWEAK family members after severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury in non-<span class="hlt">burned</span> human skeletal muscle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Merritt, Edward K.; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna; Cross, James M.; Windham, Samuel T.; Thomas, Steven J.; Bamman, Marcas M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> induces rapid skeletal muscle proteolysis after the injury that persists for up to one year and results in skeletal muscle atrophy despite dietary and rehabilitative interventions. The purpose of this research was to determine acute changes in gene expression of skeletal muscle mass regulators post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of a non-<span class="hlt">burned</span> leg of eight <span class="hlt">burned</span> subjects (6M, 2F: 34.8 ± 2.7 years: 29.9 ± 3.1% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burn</span>) at 5.1 ± 1.1 days post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> injury and from matched controls. mRNA expression of cytokines and receptors in the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) families, and the ubiquitin proteasome E3 ligases, atrogin-1 and MuRF1, was determined. TNF receptor 1A was over 3.5 fold higher in <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Expression of TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis and its receptor were over 1.6 and 6.0-fold higher in <span class="hlt">burn</span>. IL-6, IL-6 receptor, and glycoprotein 130, were elevated in <span class="hlt">burned</span> subjects with IL-6 receptor over 13-fold higher. Suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 was also elevated in <span class="hlt">burn</span> nearly 6-fold. Atrogin-1 and MuRF1, were more than 4- and 3-fold higher in <span class="hlt">burn</span>. These results demonstrate for the first time that severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> in humans has a remarkable impact on gene expression in skeletal muscle of a non-<span class="hlt">burned</span> limb of genes that promote inflammation and proteolysis. Because these changes likely contribute to the acute skeletal muscle atrophy in <span class="hlt">areas</span> not directly affected by the <span class="hlt">burn</span>, in the future it will be important to determine the responsible systemic cues. PMID:23816995</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/945557','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/945557"><span id="translatedtitle">PBXN-110 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Rate Estimate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Glascoe, E</p> <p>2008-08-11</p> <p>It is estimated that PBXN-110 will <span class="hlt">burn</span> laminarly with a <span class="hlt">burn</span> function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this <span class="hlt">burn</span> behavior was estimated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12792237','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12792237"><span id="translatedtitle">The media glorifying <span class="hlt">burns</span>: a hindrance to <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> and <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with <span class="hlt">burns</span> and <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to <span class="hlt">burns</span>, risk of <span class="hlt">burning</span>, or disrespect for the consequences of <span class="hlt">burns</span> were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of <span class="hlt">burns</span>, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Most <span class="hlt">burn</span>-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or <span class="hlt">burns</span>. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:12792237</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20423752','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20423752"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of elderly Japanese patients with severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morita, Seiji; Higami, Shigeo; Yamagiwa, Takeshi; Iizuka, Shinichi; Nakagawa, Yoshihide; Yamamoto, Isotoshi; Inokuchi, Sadaki</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>In this study, we report the clinical characteristics of elderly Japanese patients with severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>. We studied the clinical features of 76 adult patients with severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>, 35 of whom (46.1%) were ?65 years old. We evaluated the characteristics of patients with respect to each type of <span class="hlt">burn</span>. In addition, we studied the rate of death and survival in the elderly and also between the elderly and non-elderly patients. The following parameters were either assessed or compared between the elderly and non-elderly: gender, average age, vital signs (Glasgow Coma Scale, systolic blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate) and PaO(2)/FiO(2) (P/F) ratio at admission, cause of <span class="hlt">burn</span> and a history of physical or psychiatric disease. Further, we investigated whether the <span class="hlt">burn</span> was caused by attempting suicide and determined the percent total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (%TBSA), second- and third-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, <span class="hlt">burn</span> index (BI), prognostic <span class="hlt">burn</span> index (PBI), presence of tracheal <span class="hlt">burns</span>, presence of alcohol intoxication and overdose poisoning, presence of tracheal intubation, outcome and cause of death. The male:female ratio of the elderly patients was 17:18 (average age, 78.1 (8.2) years). <span class="hlt">Burns</span> were mostly caused by flame (26/35), followed by scalding (8/35). Ten patients had attempted suicide. The %TBSA, second-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, third-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, BI and PBI, respectively were 46.6% (26.7%), 15.3% (19.0%), 35.6% (26.0%), 41.1 (25.2) and 119.2 (25.9). Of the 35 patients, 23 died. The notable characteristics of the elderly patients who died were flame as the cause of the <span class="hlt">burns</span>: high %TBSA, BI and PBI, and a high rate of tracheal intubation. Elderly patients constituted approximately 45% of our study population. Most <span class="hlt">burns</span> were caused by flames. The incidence of accidental bathtub-related <span class="hlt">burns</span> was higher and that of suicide attempts was lower in the elderly patients, as compared with the non-elderly patients. Severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> were fatal for elderly patients. Therefore, elderly Japanese people should be educated on how to prevent non-intentional <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:20423752</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B53E..07H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B53E..07H"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping and monitoring cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> in European Russia: a multi-sensor approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hall, J.; Loboda, T. V.; Mccarty, G.; McConnell, L.; Woldemariam, T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Short lived aerosols and pollutants transported from high northern latitudes have amplified the short term warming in the Arctic region. Specifically, black carbon (BC) is recognized as the second most important human emission in regards to climate forcing, behind carbon dioxide with a total climate forcing of +1.1Wm-2. Early studies have suggested that cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> may be a high contributor to the BC emissions which are directly deposited above the Arctic Circle. However, accurate monitoring of cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> from existing active fire and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products is limited. Most existing algorithms are focused on mapping hotter and larger wildfire events. The timing of cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> differs from wildfire events and their transient nature adds a further challenge to the product development. In addition, the analysis of multi-year cloud cover over Russian croplands, using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily surface reflectance data showed that on average early afternoon observations from MODIS/ Aqua provided 68 clear views per growing period (defined 1st March 2003 - 30th November 2012) with a range from 30 to 101 clear views; whereas MODIS/Terra provided 75 clear views per growing period (defined 1st March 2001 - 30th November 2012) with a range from 37 to 113 clear views. Here we present a new approach to <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping in croplands from satellite imagery. Our algorithm is designed to detect <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> only within croplands and does not have the requirements to perform well outside those. The algorithm focuses on tracking the natural intra-<span class="hlt">annual</span> development curve specific for crops rather than natural vegetation and works by identifying the subtle spectral nuances between varieties of cropland field categories. Using a combination of the high visual accuracy from very high resolution (VHR, defined as spatial resolution < 5m) imagery and the temporal trend of MODIS data, we are able to differentiate between <span class="hlt">burned</span> and plowed cropland fields in European Russia. The VHR imagery allows for more accurate identification of field condition (<span class="hlt">burned</span>, bare, residue) through visual interpretation and by the incorporation of the 1km MODIS Active Fire (MCD14) dataset as a means of independent validation for the selection of <span class="hlt">burned</span> training and validation samples. Confirmed by active fire and visual assessment, these fields then serve as a subset of training data to extract a larger sample set of <span class="hlt">burned</span> fields from VHR imagery, using the Near Infrared (NIR) band (760-900 nm). NIR showed the largest statistical differences between the <span class="hlt">burned</span> and unburned field samples using ANOVA and post-hoc statistics with an f value (625.8) far exceeding the critical F-value of 2.665 at p < 0.05. Early-stage validation of the algorithm has shown notable improvement in accuracy over the existing MODIS-based global (MCD64 and MCD45) and regional approaches. Large confusion is found over the mollisol (dark-soil) regions compared to the lighter soil <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the north. Further algorithm improvements, which rely on in situ observations and other auxiliary sources of information, are underway. In the future, we plan to expand applications of this algorithm to cover all Russian croplands between 2001 and 2013.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030949','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030949"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Alaskan <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity patterns using remotely sensed data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Duffy, P.A.; Epting, J.; Graham, J.M.; Rupp, T.S.; McGuire, A.D.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Wildland fire is the dominant large-scale disturbance mechanism in the Alaskan boreal forest, and it strongly influences forest structure and function. In this research, patterns of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity in the Alaskan boreal forest are characterised using 24 fires. First, the relationship between <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> is quantified using a linear regression. Second, the spatial correlation of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity as a function of topography is modelled using a variogram analysis. Finally, the relationship between vegetation type and spatial patterns of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity is quantified using linear models where variograms account for spatial correlation. These results show that: 1) average <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity increases with the natural logarithm of the <span class="hlt">area</span> of the wildfire, 2) <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity is more variable in topographically complex landscapes than in flat landscapes, and 3) there is a significant relationship between <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity and vegetation type in flat landscapes but not in topographically complex landscapes. These results strengthen the argument that differential flammability of vegetation exists in some boreal landscapes of Alaska. Additionally, these results suggest that through feedbacks between vegetation and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, the distribution of forest vegetation through time is likely more stable in flat terrain than it is in <span class="hlt">areas</span> with more complex topography. ?? IAWF 2007.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26771933','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26771933"><span id="translatedtitle">RECENT ADVANCES IN BIOMARKERS IN SEVERE <span class="hlt">BURNS</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ruiz-Castilla, Mireia; Roca, Oriol; Masclans, Joan R; Barret, Joan P</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The pathophysiology of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries is tremendously complex. A thorough understanding is essential for correct treatment of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and also to limit the appearance of organ dysfunction, which, in fact, is a key determinant of morbidity and mortality. In this context, research into biomarkers may play a major role. Biomarkers have traditionally been considered an important <span class="hlt">area</span> of medical research: the measurement of certain biomarkers has led to a better understanding of pathophysiology, while others have been used either to assess the effectiveness of specific treatments or for prognostic purposes. Research into biomarkers may help to improve the prognosis of patients with severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. The aim of the present clinical review is to discuss new evidence of the value of biomarkers in this setting. PMID:26771933</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-27/pdf/2012-15639.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-27/pdf/2012-15639.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 38179 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-06-27</p> <p>..., Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation... Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">area</span> of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is... Displays within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility in 33 CFR 165.1332 during...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-07/pdf/2011-22769.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-07/pdf/2011-22769.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 55261 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-09-07</p> <p>..., Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation... Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">area</span> of responsibility on September 10, 2011 for the Mukilteo Lighthouse Festival in... <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility in 33 CFR 165.1332 during the dates and times noted below. The following...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4805288','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4805288"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing Seasonal and Inter-<span class="hlt">Annual</span> Variations of Lake Surface <span class="hlt">Areas</span> in Mongolia during 2000-2011 Using Minimum Composite MODIS NDVI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kang, Sinkyu; Hong, Suk Young</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A minimum composite method was applied to produce a 15-day interval normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily 250 m reflectance in the red and near-infrared bands. This dataset was applied to determine lake surface <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Mongolia. A total of 73 lakes greater than 6.25 km2in <span class="hlt">area</span> were selected, and 28 of these lakes were used to evaluate detection errors. The minimum composite NDVI showed a better detection performance on lake water pixels than did the official MODIS 16-day 250 m NDVI based on a maximum composite method. The overall lake <span class="hlt">area</span> detection performance based on the 15-day minimum composite NDVI showed -2.5% error relative to the Landsat-derived lake <span class="hlt">area</span> for the 28 evaluated lakes. The errors increased with increases in the perimeter-to-<span class="hlt">area</span> ratio but decreased with lake size over 10 km2. The lake <span class="hlt">area</span> decreased by -9.3% at an <span class="hlt">annual</span> rate of -53.7 km2 yr-1 during 2000 to 2011 for the 73 lakes. However, considerable spatial variations, such as slight-to-moderate lake <span class="hlt">area</span> reductions in semi-arid regions and rapid lake <span class="hlt">area</span> reductions in arid regions, were also detected. This study demonstrated applicability of MODIS 250 m reflectance data for biweekly monitoring of lake <span class="hlt">area</span> change and diagnosed considerable lake <span class="hlt">area</span> reduction and its spatial variability in arid and semi-arid regions of Mongolia. Future studies are required for explaining reasons of lake <span class="hlt">area</span> changes and their spatial variability. PMID:27007233</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575151','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575151"><span id="translatedtitle">Self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Mosul: a cross-sectional study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Al-Zacko, S.M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Summary A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the different characteristics of attempted suicide by self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases compared with other accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases admitted to the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Unit in Al-Jumhoori Teaching Hospital in Mosul over a one-year period from March 1, 2011 to March 1, 2012. Of 459 <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases, 103 (22.44%) had self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The mean total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of suicide attempters was 61%, markedly higher than in other cases (20%) (P= 0.0001). Among all self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases, <span class="hlt">burns</span> were caused by flame, while scald was the commonest cause (56.5%) in accidental <span class="hlt">burns</span>. There was a significant difference in the sex ratio between self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases (1:11.9) and accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases (1:1) (P = 0.0001). Case fatality rates for self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> and accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases were 80.6% and 14.9%, respectively. The overall mean ages for self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> and accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases were 24.3 and 15.6 years, respectively. Compared to all other <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases, self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases had a significantly larger mean percentage of surface body <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> (61.0±28.2 versus 20.7±15.8; P = 0.0001). In conclusion, self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burns</span> remain a common cause of admission to our <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit. The extent of <span class="hlt">burns</span> is often large, since most suicide attempters use an accelerant that accounts for the high mortality in this group. PMID:23467337</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14559268','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14559268"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of aerosols from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>--a case study from Mizoram (Northeast), India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Badarinath, K V S; Madhavi Latha, K; Kiran Chand, T R; Gupta, Prabhat K; Ghosh, A B; Jain, S L; Gera, B S; Singh, Risal; Sarkar, A K; Singh, Nahar; Parmar, R S; Koul, S; Kohli, R; Nath, Shambhu; Ojha, V K; Singh, Gurvir</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Physical and optical properties of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosols in Northeastern region, India analyzed based on measurements made during February 2002. Large spatial extent of Northeastern Region moist tropical to moist sub-tropical forests in India have high frequency of <span class="hlt">burning</span> in <span class="hlt">annual</span> dry seasons. Characterization of resultant trace gases and aerosols from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is important for the atmospheric radiative process. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) observed to be high during <span class="hlt">burning</span> period compared to pre- and post-<span class="hlt">burning</span> days. Peak period of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is highly correlated with measured AOD and total columnar water vapor. Size distribution of aerosols showed bimodal size distribution during <span class="hlt">burning</span> day and unimodal size distribution during pre- and post-<span class="hlt">burning</span> days. Size distribution retrievals from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosols show dominance of accumulation mode particles. Weighted mean radius is high (0.22 microm) during <span class="hlt">burning</span> period. Columnar content of aerosols observed to be high during <span class="hlt">burning</span> period in addition to the drastic reduction of visibility. During the <span class="hlt">burning</span> day Anderson sampler measurements showed dominance of accumulation mode particles. The diurnal averaged values of surface shortwave aerosol radiative forcing af biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosols varies from -59 to -87 Wm(-2) on different days. Measured and modeled solar irradiances are also discussed in the paper. PMID:14559268</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A11B0025H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A11B0025H"><span id="translatedtitle">Sources of black carbon in aerosols: fossil fuel <span class="hlt">burning</span> vs. biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hsieh, Y.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The uncertainty in black carbon (BC) analysis and our inability to directly quantify the BC sources in the atmosphere has led to the uncertainty in compiling a regional or global BC emission inventory attributed to biomass <span class="hlt">burnings</span>. We initiate this study to demonstrate a new approach, which quantifies the source of BC in the atmosphere between biomass and fossil fuel <span class="hlt">burnings</span>. We applied the newly developed multi-element scanning thermal analysis (MESTA) technology to quantify BC and organic carbon (OC), respectively, in aerosol samples. MESTA can also separate BC from OC for subsequent radiocarbon analyses. Because fossil fuel has been depleted of radiocarbon and biomass has radiocarbon of the modern atmospheric level, we can quantify the sources of BC between fossil fuel and biomass <span class="hlt">burnings</span>. We sampled the PM2.5 in the ambient air of central Tallahassee and its rural <span class="hlt">areas</span> during the May-June (prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span>) and Nov-Dec (non-<span class="hlt">burning</span>) periods. The results indicate that biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> contributed 891% and 672% of BC, respectively, during May-June and Nov.-Dec. periods. The rest of PM2.5 BC was contributed from fossil fuel <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The radiocarbon contents of the OC was 103.420.55 percent modern carbon (pmC), which is consistent with the current atmospheric level with a trace of the bomb radiocarbon remained from the open atmosphere nuclear testing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1545865','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1545865"><span id="translatedtitle">Severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> in children, 1964-1974.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cogswell, J J; Chu, A C</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>580 children were admitted to the paediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> unit of Guy's Hospital between 1964 and 1974, of which 97 had <span class="hlt">burns</span> exceeding 20% of the surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, and 33 died (34% mortality). 80% of those with <span class="hlt">burns</span> exceeding 50% of the surface <span class="hlt">area</span> died. Young children died after less extensive <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Respiratory failure, sepsis, and malnutrition were the most lethal complications. The prompt use and careful control of intravenous fluids had reduced the immediate complications associated with shock, and acute renal failure is now uncommon. Respiratory failure resulted in many deaths during the first week after injury. The need for intensive respiratory care involving paediatric, anaesthetic, and surgical staff is stressed. Sepsis and malnutrition remain major threats to survival. Improved methods of bacteriological control by laminar air flow units and topical antibacterial agents may help to reduce infection in the future. Reduction of energy expenditure by temporary skin coverings and a high environmental temperature, combined with a high calorie intake by oral and intravenous routes, may improve the outlook for severly <span class="hlt">burned</span> children in the next decade. PMID:942232</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960028142&hterms=Acid+rain&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3D%2528Acid%2Brain%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960028142&hterms=Acid+rain&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3D%2528Acid%2Brain%2529"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> trees and bridges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Levine, Joel S.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Most <span class="hlt">burning</span> of biomass is the result of human activity, and on a global scale it is increasing. Tropospheric concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons, and ozone are all increasing with time; global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> may make an important contribution to this increase and thus to potential global climate change. The nitrogen cycle also can have important climatic effects. Nitrous oxide put into the atmosphere by biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is a greenhouse gas 250 times more powerful (molecule for molecule) than carbon dioxide. Nitric oxide, as well as being a photochemical precursor of ozone, a major pollutant in the troposphere, produces nitric acid, the fastest-growing component of acid rain. Hence, the new bridge in the nitrogen cycle is of more than mere technical interest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11933837','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11933837"><span id="translatedtitle">[Prehospital management of <span class="hlt">burns</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marichy, J; Chahir, N; Peres-Tassart, C; Abeguile, R</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>The optimal assessment of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> victim in the prehospital setting needs a clear understanding of the pathophysiological changes occurring locally and systemically after injury. For the mobile emergency unit it is essential to dispose of an appropriate protocol for the prevention of hypovolemia, hypothermia, hypoxemia. In the immediate survey, immediate life-threatening conditions should be clearly identified and treated as well as a through head-to-toe evaluation should be undertaken. Two phases of transport can be identified: the first from the scene of accident to the proximal emergency unit, specialized or not in <span class="hlt">burn</span> care. The second is the transportation from the non-specialized proximal emergency unit to a <span class="hlt">burn</span> intensive care unit according to the decision of the dispatching Centre 15. PMID:11933837</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5331858','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5331858"><span id="translatedtitle">Ripple <span class="hlt">burn</span> control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bhadra, D.K.; Petrie, T.W.; Peuron, U.A.; Rawls, J.M.</p> <p>1980-05-01</p> <p>The ripple contribution to the ion thermal conductivity is ideally suited in magnitude, temperature dependence, and spatial dependence to serve as a <span class="hlt">burn</span> control mechanism. Furthermore, a considerable measure of automatic <span class="hlt">burn</span> control results because of the radial shift of the plasma to a region of higher ripple. Unfortunately, the window in ripple values consistent with both ignition and a <span class="hlt">burn</span> equilibrium is uncomfortably narrow, given the current lack of contact between the theoretical models of ripple transport and experimental observations. A survey is made of the techniques to vary the ripple and thus broaden the design window. One new technique is discussed in some detail: the use of ferromagnetic materials in the shield with magnetic properties which are sensitive functions of the operating temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3897111','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3897111"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> of the abdomen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Ritesh</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A 35-year-old male farmer came in contact with 11,000 volts high tension electric wire and sustained full thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds over scapula, upper limb and anterior abdominal wall along with perforation of the intestine. Patient was initially managed conservatively in general surgery ward and was referred to us after 3 days with necrosis of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> skin and muscles over the shoulder and abdomen. Patient was initially managed conservatively and then thorough debridement of the necrotic skin over the left shoulder and upper arm was done and the <span class="hlt">area</span> was split skin grafted. Patient developed enterocutaneous fistula, which healed over a period of 8 weeks. The granulating wound over the abdomen was also skin grafted and patient was discharged after 18 days. About 4 months, after the discharge patient presented with ventral hernia. Repair of ventral hernia by synthetic mesh application and reconstruction of the abdominal wall with a free tensor fascia lata flap was done over the mesh, but the flap failed. Then after debridement two random pattern transposition skin flaps, one from the right upper and another from the left lower abdomen were transposed over the abdominal wound and donor <span class="hlt">area</span> was skin grafted. Patient was discharged after 17 days. PMID:24459356</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGeo...11.6553V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGeo...11.6553V"><span id="translatedtitle">Terrestrial cycling of 13CO2 by photosynthesis, respiration, and biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in SiBCASA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van der Velde, I. R.; Miller, J. B.; Schaefer, K.; van der Werf, G. R.; Krol, M. C.; Peters, W.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We present an enhanced version of the SiBCASA terrestrial biosphere model that is extended with (a) biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions from the SiBCASA carbon pools using remotely sensed <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED), (b) an isotopic discrimination scheme that calculates 13C signatures of photosynthesis and autotrophic respiration, and (c) a separate set of 13C pools to carry isotope ratios into heterotrophic respiration. We quantify in this study the terrestrial exchange of CO2 and 13CO2 as a function of environmental changes in humidity and biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The implementation of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> yields similar fluxes as CASA-GFED both in magnitude and spatial patterns. The implementation of isotope exchange gives a global mean discrimination value of 15.2‰, ranges between 4 and 20‰ depending on the photosynthetic pathway in the plant, and compares favorably (<span class="hlt">annually</span> and seasonally) with other published values. Similarly, the isotopic disequilibrium is similar to other studies that include a small effect of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> as it shortens the turnover of carbon. In comparison to measurements, a newly modified starch/sugar storage pool propagates the isotopic discrimination anomalies to respiration much better. In addition, the amplitude of the drought response by SiBCASA is lower than suggested by the measured isotope ratios. We show that a slight increase in the stomatal closure for large vapor pressure deficit would amplify the respired isotope ratio variability. Our study highlights the importance of isotope ratio observations of 13C to assess and improve biochemical models like SiBCASA, especially with regard to the allocation and turnover of carbon and the responses to drought.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4439667','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4439667"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jimson, Sudha; Rajesh, E.; Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Kasthuri, M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome (BMS) is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or <span class="hlt">burning</span> sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms. PMID:26015707</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26015707','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26015707"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jimson, Sudha; Rajesh, E; Krupaa, R Jayasri; Kasthuri, M</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome (BMS) is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or <span class="hlt">burning</span> sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms. PMID:26015707</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6224246','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6224246"><span id="translatedtitle">Fast <span class="hlt">burning</span> propellants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Colgate, S.A.; Roos, G.E.</p> <p>1987-07-21</p> <p>A solid or semisolid propellant is described comprising grains of propellant or propellant components bonded together to create voids within the propellant volume. The grains are of near-uniform size and have less than about a 20% size variation between the largest and smallest grains, the voids comprising from about 10% to about 50% of the propellant volume. The grains are bonded together with sufficient strength to substantially delay the fluidization of the propellant by the onset of Taylor unstable <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The propellant has a rapid <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate of from about 10 cm sec/sup -1/ to about 10/sup 4/cm sec/sup -1/.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1750118','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1750118"><span id="translatedtitle">Poliomyelitis control by <span class="hlt">annual</span> immunization campaigns with oral polio-virus vaccine in a rural <span class="hlt">area</span> of India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumar, R; Kumar, V</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The effectiveness of Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) delivered in <span class="hlt">annual</span> immunization campaigns in reducing the prevalence of poliomyelitis was evaluated in January 1989 by conducting a sample survey in 66 villages in Northern India with a population of 42,000. The prevalence of residual paralytic poliomyelitis was 13.4 per 1,000 children born during 1974-1978; this is 2.7 times higher than the rate of 5.0 per 1,000 born in 1979-1983 and 9.6 times higher than the rate of 1.4 per 1,000 born during 1984-1988. The marked decline in disease prevalence in recent years may be related to the rise in OPV immunization. The vaccination rate was less than 26% before 1978, 38-75% during 1979-1983 and 77-89% during 1984-1987. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> immunization strategy can be used to control poliomyelitis in developing countries where the health care infrastructure is not well developed. PMID:1750118</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22274631','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22274631"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> sustained whilst priming the carburetor: an Australian perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suyapto, Dion Royce; Greenwood, John Edward; Rudd, Michael</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Priming the carburetor is a method that is still commonly practiced amongst trained, amateur, and backyard mechanics. This article aims to look at the data available between 1996 and 2004 in two <span class="hlt">burns</span> units in South Australia and Queensland. The authors were interested in the number of patients admitted with <span class="hlt">burns</span> related to the activity of priming the carburetor, the TBSA percentage of <span class="hlt">burns</span>, and <span class="hlt">areas</span> affected. It also gives numbers of intensive care unit admissions and the number who underwent surgery for the management of the <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The results showed that between the two centers, 48 patients were admitted following <span class="hlt">burns</span> as a result of priming the carburetor. The activity carried no mortality during the time period of study but caused significant morbidity. Through the media, the authors are embarking on an educational program to reduce the risk of such <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries from this dangerous practice. PMID:22274631</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12891499','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12891499"><span id="translatedtitle">Colonic fistula complicating electric <span class="hlt">burns</span>--a case report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rijhwani, Ashok; Sunil, Indira</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>Intestinal fistula is an uncommon complication of electric <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The authors report the case of an 11-year-old child who sustained accidental <span class="hlt">burns</span> from a high-voltage electric current and was admitted to their hospital with full-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> of both the upper limbs and deep <span class="hlt">burns</span> of the anterior abdominal wall. Staged surgery was required, and the authors were involved in the management of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> of the anterior abdominal wall. Laparotomy was done because omentum was found prolapsing out of the abdominal wound. Three scattered <span class="hlt">areas</span> of subserosal <span class="hlt">burn</span> of the small bowel were noticed, which required no intervention. The rest of the viscera all were normal. During the course of his stay, he had a fecal fistula on the 19th postburn day, which was found to be from the transverse colon. Conservative management of the fistula with total parenteral nutrition for 23 days resulted in complete healing. PMID:12891499</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1206627','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1206627"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Site Environmental Report, Department of Energy Operations at the Energy Technology Engineering Center – <span class="hlt">Area</span> IV, Santa Susana Field Laboratory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Frazee, Brad; Hay, Scott; Wondolleck, John; Sorrels, Earl; Rutherford, Phil; Dassler, David; Jones, John</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2014 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the DOE at <span class="hlt">Area</span> IV of the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The ETEC, a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in <span class="hlt">Area</span> IV. The operations in <span class="hlt">Area</span> IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the <span class="hlt">area</span> involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in <span class="hlt">Area</span> IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from <span class="hlt">Area</span> IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2733368','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2733368"><span id="translatedtitle">[Treatment of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds with dibunol liniment].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shalonov, P M; Dadabaev, T D; Khalilov, Kh N</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>In 40 <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients with the <span class="hlt">area</span> of damage from 10 to 40% of the body surface in local treatment with dibunol against the background of active infusion-transfusion therapy, the accelerated rejection of the necrotic crust was noted, which permitted to reduce the period of preparation for autodermoplasty. The antiinflammatory effect of dibunol was established. PMID:2733368</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3961915','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3961915"><span id="translatedtitle">Decadorial of a <span class="hlt">burn</span> center in Central India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bain, Jayanta; Lal, Shyam; Baghel, Vijay Singh; Yedalwar, Vinod; Gupta, Rachna; Singh, Anil Kumar</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: <span class="hlt">Burn</span> injuries are a serious public health problem. In our study we have identified different epidemiological factors based on 10 years of our experience at a <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit in central India and recommend some strategies to prevent <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis (2001-2010) of database from <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit of S.S. Medical College, Rewa, India. Results: 2499 patients with <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury were analysed. 66.8% and 38.2% patients were females and males respectively, with a median age of 25 years. Flame (80.1%) was most common cause, home (96%) was most common place, traditional Indian stove (28.8%), kerosene lamp (26.7%), hot liquid (12.2%) and kerosene stove (10.4%) were common causes. Median Total Body Surface <span class="hlt">Area</span> (TBSA) <span class="hlt">burn</span> was 40.0%; females had significantly greater (P < 0.001) <span class="hlt">burn</span> than males (median 50% vs 26.0%). High mortality (40.3%) seen; female sex (OR 3.22, 95% CI 2.65-3.92); young age (15-29 year) (OR 3.48, 95% CI 2.45-4.94); flame <span class="hlt">burn</span> (OR 12.9, 95% CI 1.69-98.32); suicidal <span class="hlt">burn</span> OR 6.82 95%CI 4.44-10.48) and TBSA > 76% (OR 3099, 95%CI 1302-7380) were significant risk factors for death. Median hospital stays was 8 days; shorter hospital stays seen among TBSA <span class="hlt">burn</span> > 76% (2 days), suicidal intent (4 days), and those who expired (4 days). Septicemia (45.8%) and <span class="hlt">burn</span> shock (41%) were the major cause for death. Conclusions: Cooking and lighting equipments are major cause of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury among females and young age group. Equipment modification to improve safety features and public awareness programs are necessary to reduce <span class="hlt">burn</span> incidents. PMID:24678209</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/788700','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/788700"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report RCRA Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspections for CAU 112: <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, for the Period October 1999-October 2000</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>D. F. Emer</p> <p>2001-03-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">annual</span> Neutron Soil Moisture Monitoring report provides an analysis and summary for site inspections, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture monitoring data obtained at the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) unit, located in <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, during the October 1999-October 2000 period. Inspections of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches RCRA unit are conducted to determine and document the physical condition of the covers, facilities, and any unusual conditions that could impact the proper operation of the waste unit closure. Physical inspections of the closure were completed quarterly and indicated that the site is in good condition with no significant findings noted. An <span class="hlt">annual</span> subsidence survey of the elevation markers was conducted in August 2000. There has been no subsidence at any of the markers since monitoring began seven years ago. The objective of the neutron logging program is to monitor the soil moisture conditions along 30 neutron access tubes and detect changes that maybe indicative of moisture movement at a point located directly beneath each trench. Precipitation for the period October 1999 through October 2000 was 10.44 centimeters (cm) (4.11 inches [in.]) (U.S. National Weather Service, 2000). The prior year <span class="hlt">annual</span> rainfall (January 1999 through December 1999) was 10.13cm (3.99 in.). The highest 30-day cumulative rainfall occurred on March 8, 2000, with a total of 6.63 cm (2.61 in.). The heaviest daily precipitation occurred on February 23,2000, with a total of 1.70 cm (0.67 in.) falling in that 24-hour period. The recorded average <span class="hlt">annual</span> rainfall for this site, from 1972 to January 1999, is 15.06 cm (5.93 in.). All monitored access tubes are within the compliance criteria of less than 5 percent residual volumetric moisture content at the compliance point directly beneath each respective trench. Soil conditions remain dry and stable underneath the trenches.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3712406','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3712406"><span id="translatedtitle">Pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> mortality risk factors in a developing country’s tertiary <span class="hlt">burns</span> intensive care unit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Agbenorku, Pius; Agbenorku, Manolo; Fiifi-Yankson, Papa Kwesi</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Aim: This study aimed at identifying risk factors related to pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> mortality in a middle income country such as Ghana. Methods: The data for the three years retrospective study (May 2009 – April 2012) was obtained from the pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> admissions records and patients’ folders of the Reconstructive Plastic Surgery & <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Unit (RPSBU), Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Ghana. Data retrieved included: Demographic features, Total <span class="hlt">Burned</span> Surface <span class="hlt">Area</span> (TBSA) incurred; Aetiology of <span class="hlt">burns</span>; Duration of the admission; Outcome of admission; Part of the body affected and Cost incurred. Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the KNUST-SMS/KATH Committee on Human Research, Publications and Ethics. Data analyses were performed with SPSS 17.0 version. Results: Information on 197 patients was completely retrieved for the study. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> mortality rate for the study was identified to be 21.3% (N=42). The mean age of the 42 dead patients was 3.7±0.3 years, ranging from 0-13 years, while, males (54.8%, N= 23) outnumbered females (45.2%, N=19). The TBSA <span class="hlt">burned</span> interquartile range was 48%. In terms of etiology of <span class="hlt">burns</span> Scald (73.8%, N=31) was the commonest cause of injury. Mortality risk factors identified were Age <6 years (P=0.028); Scald especially hot water and soup (P=0.016); TBSA >36% (P=0.028) and Inhalation injury (P=0.040). Conclusion: Age, scald, TBSA and Inhalation Injury were identified as pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> mortality risk factors in a developing country such as Ghana’s RPSBU. These identified factors will serve as a guideline for plastic surgeons and other health professionals practicing in countries such as Ghana. PMID:23875121</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26188887','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26188887"><span id="translatedtitle">A review of community management of paediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cox, S G; Martinez, R; Glick, A; Numanoglu, A; Rode, H</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This study was a component of a broader review to evaluate <span class="hlt">burn</span> care in South Africa. A prospective audit of 353 children with thermal injuries admitted to the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town was performed during 2012/2013. The audit was based to assess the adherence of initial <span class="hlt">burn</span> management to the provincial policy guidelines on the clinical management of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound. The community management of each patient prior to admission to a <span class="hlt">burns</span> centre was assessed for the following: basic demographics, emergency home management, wound cover, analgesia and transport to medical facilities. Their ages ranged from 1 month to 14 years. The average total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> [TBSA] was 15% [1-86%]. Most of the injuries were due to hot water accidents [78.5%] followed by flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> (9%), direct contact and electricity <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Two hundred and twenty five children [63%] received first aid measures at home, including cooling with water [166] ice [30] and a cooling agent. No cooling was instituted in 130 and 65% of the patient's wounds were cooled for 10min or less. Eighty percent proceeded to the referral centre or <span class="hlt">burns</span> unit without their wounds being covered; with only 19 patients having any medical type of dressing available at home. Two hundred and ninety five children [83.6%] received pain medication prior to admission at the <span class="hlt">burns</span> unit. Of the 316 patients not directly attending the <span class="hlt">burns</span> unit, 137 received IV fluids of which 95 had <span class="hlt">burns</span> greater than 10% TBSA. None of the patients were in shock on admission and all IV lines were functioning. Forty-four children with <span class="hlt">burns</span> greater than 10% did not receive IV fluids. The audit identified six factors that were inadequately addressed during the pre-admission period: first aid, cooling of the wound, early covering of the wound, resuscitation, pain management and transfer. If these could be readdressed, basic <span class="hlt">burn</span> care would be substantially improved in the study <span class="hlt">area</span>. PMID:26188887</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19506495','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19506495"><span id="translatedtitle">Distally based venous flap for proximal phalangeal soft tissue <span class="hlt">burn</span> defect and web space <span class="hlt">burn</span> contracture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cil, Yakup; Yapici, Abdul Kerim; Kocman, Atacan Emre; Ozturk, Serdar</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Flap choices for the coverage of the proximal phalangeal soft tissue defects of the finger and web space <span class="hlt">burn</span> contractures are limited. A unipedicled distally based venous flap was raised from the third or fourth metacarpal <span class="hlt">area</span> of the hand for proximal phalangeal soft tissue defects of the finger and web space <span class="hlt">burn</span> contracture. For clinical use, we operated seven male patients using this venous flap. Superficial necrosis involving two flaps did not interfere with flap survival. Mild edema and venous congestion occurred in all flaps. All flaps survived completely. The mean follow-up period of the flaps was 6 months, ranging from 3 to 14 months. A well-planned distally based venous flap is an useful option for the coverage of the proximal phalangeal soft tissue <span class="hlt">burn</span> defects of the finger and web space <span class="hlt">burn</span> contracture of the hand. PMID:19506495</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-06/pdf/2012-13684.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-06/pdf/2012-13684.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 33308 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-06-06</p> <p>..., Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation... Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">area</span> of responsibility during the dates and times noted below. This action is... of Responsibility in 33 CFR 165.1332 during the dates and times noted below. The following...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-14/pdf/2011-26601.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-14/pdf/2011-26601.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 63841 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-14</p> <p>..., Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation... display in the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">area</span> of responsibility during the dates and times noted... Responsibility'' in 33 CFR 165.1332 during the dates and times noted below. The following safety zone will...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-06-15/pdf/2010-14296.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-06-15/pdf/2010-14296.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 33698 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-06-15</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility in the Federal Register (75 FR 8566). We did not receive any comments on the... Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule... Responsibility (AOR). When these safety zones are activated, and thus subject to enforcement, this rule...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-27/pdf/2010-18267.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-27/pdf/2010-18267.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 43821 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-27</p> <p>..., Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Correction of Notice of Enforcement... displays within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility. A previous notice of enforcement, published on July 1, 2010 (75 FR 38021), incorrectly stated that the zone would be enforced...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-05/pdf/2013-02432.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-05/pdf/2013-02432.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 8063 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-02-05</p> <p>... Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... locations in the Captain of the Port (COTP), Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility (AOR). When these safety... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Public Participation and Request...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26811412','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26811412"><span id="translatedtitle">Fat <span class="hlt">burn</span> X: <span class="hlt">burning</span> more than fat.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hannabass, Kyle; Olsen, Kevin Robert</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A 50-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of bilateral lower extremity cramping and dark urine. The patient was found to have a creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevated of up to 2306?U/L, a serum uric acid of 9.7?mg/dL and 101 red blood cell's per high-powered field on urinalysis. On questioning, the patient endorsed daily exercise with free weights. There were no changes in his regular exercise and medication regimen, no muscle trauma, no recent drug use and no illness. The patient did mention using a new fat burner known as 'Fat <span class="hlt">Burn</span> X', which he had begun taking 2?days prior to the onset of his muscle cramps. The patient was given normal saline intravenous fluid resuscitation for 48?h with resultant normalisation of his CPK and creatinine, and was discharged with primary care follow-up. PMID:26811412</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22381520','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22381520"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> intakes of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K in staple foodstuffs from a high background radiation <span class="hlt">area</span> in the southwest region of Cameroon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ele Abiama, P; Ben-Bolie, G H; Amechmachi, N; Najib, F; El Khoukhi, T; Owono Ateba, P</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K were determined in five most consumed vegetables in a high-level background radiation <span class="hlt">area</span> (HLBRA) in the southwest region of Cameroon. A total of 25 foodstuff samples collected from Akongo, Ngombas, Awanda, Bikou and Lolodorf rural districts were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The average activity concentration values of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K were respectively 2.30, 1.50 and 140.40Bqkg(-1) fresh-weights. The effective dose for individual consumption of the investigated foodstuff types was calculated on an estimated <span class="hlt">annual</span> intake of such diets in the study <span class="hlt">area</span>. The estimated total daily effective doses from the ingestion of the investigated foodstuffs for each studied long-life natural radionuclide were respectively 0.41?Sv for (226)Ra, 0.84?Sv for (228)Ra and 0.71?Sv for (40)K. The total <span class="hlt">annual</span> effective dose was estimated at 0.70mSvy(-1). (228)Ra (44%) and (40)K (36%) were found to be the main sources for internal irradiation which is very likely due to the specific uptake of these radionuclides by the studied plants. PMID:22381520</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRG..119...14L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRG..119...14L"><span id="translatedtitle">Wildfires in boreal ecoregions: Evaluating the power law assumption and intra-<span class="hlt">annual</span> and interannual variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lehsten, Veiko; Groot, William J.; Flannigan, Mike; George, Charles; Harmand, Peter; Balzter, Heiko</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>are a major driver of ecosystem development and contributor to carbon emissions in boreal forests. We analyzed the contribution of fires of different fire size classes to the total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and suggest a novel fire characteristic, the characteristic fire size, i.e., the fire size class with the highest contribution to the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, its relation to bioclimatic conditions, and intra-<span class="hlt">annual</span> and interannual variation. We used the Canadian National Fire Database (using data from 1960 to 2010) and a novel satellite-based <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data set (2001 to 2011). We found that the fire size distribution is best explained by a normal distribution in log space in contrast to the power law-based linear fire <span class="hlt">area</span> relationship which has prevailed in the literature so far. We attribute the difference to previous studies in the scale invariance mainly to the large extent of the investigated ecoregion as well as to unequal binning or limiting the range at which the relationship is analyzed; in this way we also question the generality of the scale invariance for ecoregions even outside the boreal domain. The characteristic fire sizes and the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> show a weak correlation, indicating different mechanisms behind each feature. Fire sizes are found to depend markedly on the ecoregion and have increased over the last five decades for Canada in total, being most pronounced in the early season. In the late season fire size and <span class="hlt">area</span> decreased, indicating an earlier start of the fire season.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8634128','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8634128"><span id="translatedtitle">Hot spring <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baruchin, A M</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>This case report describes a woman who, while visiting a hot spring, received partial- and full-thickness immersion scald <span class="hlt">burns</span> of both ankles and heels. The prevention of such accidents is most important; efforts should be made to educate guides and tourists about the potential hazards inherent in these resorts. PMID:8634128</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ozone+AND+layer&pg=4&id=EJ264984','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ozone+AND+layer&pg=4&id=EJ264984"><span id="translatedtitle">The Earth Could <span class="hlt">Burn</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yarrow, Ruth</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Environmental educators are worried about the ultimate ecological threat--nuclear war, which could <span class="hlt">burn</span> thousands of square miles, sterilize the soil, destroy 70 percent of the ozone layer letting in lethal ultraviolet rays, and cause severe radiation sickness. Educators must inform themselves, teach others, contact government representatives, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/03_08_2013_fj0Meq5DCw_03_08_2013_1','SCIGOVIMAGE-USGS'); return false;" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/03_08_2013_fj0Meq5DCw_03_08_2013_1"><span id="translatedtitle">Gas Hydrates <span class="hlt">Burning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>An image of gas hydrates <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring “ice-like” combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=burner&pg=2&id=EJ633200','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=burner&pg=2&id=EJ633200"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Your Own CDs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ekhaml, Leticia</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the use of CDs (Compact Disks) for backing up data as an alternative to using floppy disks and explains how to <span class="hlt">burn</span>, or record, a CD. Topics include differences between CD-R (CD-Recordable) and CD-RW (CD-Rewritable); advantages of CD-R and CD-RW; selecting a CD burner; technology trends; and care of CDs. (LRW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3188084','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3188084"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> Scar Neoplasm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kadir, A.R.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Summary Marjolin's ulcer is a rare and aggressive cutaneous malignancy that occurs in previously traumatized and chronically inflamed skin, especially after <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The majority of <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar carcinomas are seen after a lag period in <span class="hlt">burns</span> that were not grafted following injury. Between 2000 and 2006, 48 patients with Marjolin's ulcer were treated in our centre (Sulaimani Teaching Hospital and Emergency Hospital). All the lesions were secondary to <span class="hlt">burns</span> from various causes. The medical records of these 48 patients were reviewed prospectively. The mean age at tumour diagnosis was 40 yr and the ratio of male to female was 2:1 (67% males and 33% female). Upon histological examination, all the cases were diagnosed as well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The scalp was most frequently affected (16 patients = 33.3%), followed by the lower limb (14 patients = 29.1%). Treatment of the neoplasm consisted of excision and grafting in 36 patients (75.0%), excision and reconstruction with flaps in eight patients (16.6%), and amputation in three patients (6.2%). A chemotherapy combination of the above treatments was used in two patients (4.1%). Local recurrence was noted in 16 patients (33.3%) out of the 48, and all died from these recurrences. PMID:21991095</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=90469&keyword=Tire&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55625393&CFTOKEN=15241081','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=90469&keyword=Tire&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55625393&CFTOKEN=15241081"><span id="translatedtitle">TIRES, OPEN <span class="hlt">BURNING</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open <span class="hlt">burning</span> of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=42688&keyword=universe&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=61731195&CFTOKEN=11644361','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=42688&keyword=universe&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=61731195&CFTOKEN=11644361"><span id="translatedtitle">TRIAL <span class="hlt">BURNS</span>: METHODS PERSPECTIVE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>When conducting a trial <span class="hlt">burn</span>, it is necessary to make a number of measurements in order to adequately define the performance of the incinerator. n addition to flue gas emissions for particulate matter, HCl, and selected organics, it is also necessary to measure selected organics ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ozone+AND+layer&pg=4&id=EJ264984','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ozone+AND+layer&pg=4&id=EJ264984"><span id="translatedtitle">The Earth Could <span class="hlt">Burn</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yarrow, Ruth</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Environmental educators are worried about the ultimate ecological threat--nuclear war, which could <span class="hlt">burn</span> thousands of square miles, sterilize the soil, destroy 70 percent of the ozone layer letting in lethal ultraviolet rays, and cause severe radiation sickness. Educators must inform themselves, teach others, contact government representatives, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4779284','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4779284"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Wound Microenvironment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rose, Lloyd F.; Chan, Rodney K.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Significance: While the survival rate of the severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patient has improved significantly, relatively little progress has been made in treatment or prevention of <span class="hlt">burn</span>-induced long-term sequelae, such as contraction and fibrosis. Recent Advances: Our knowledge of the molecular pathways involved in <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds has increased dramatically, and technological advances now allow large-scale genomic studies, providing a global view of wound healing processes. Critical Issues: Translating findings from a large number of in vitro and preclinical animal studies into clinical practice represents a gap in our understanding, and the failures of a number of clinical trials suggest that targeting single pathways or cytokines may not be the best approach. Significant opportunities for improvement exist. Future Directions: Study of the underlying molecular influences of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound healing progression will undoubtedly continue as an active research focus. Increasing our knowledge of these processes will identify additional therapeutic targets, supporting informed clinical studies that translate into clinical relevance and practice. PMID:26989577</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/03_08_2013_fj0Meq5DCw_03_08_2013_0','SCIGOVIMAGE-USGS'); return false;" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/03_08_2013_fj0Meq5DCw_03_08_2013_0"><span id="translatedtitle">Gas Hydrates <span class="hlt">Burning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>An image of gas hydrates <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring ice-like combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the worlds oceans and polar regions....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/160394','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/160394"><span id="translatedtitle">Methane production from global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wei Min Hao; Ward, D.E.</p> <p>1993-11-20</p> <p>Emissions of methane from various sources of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> are determined quantitatively for tropical, temperate, and boreal regions. About 85% of the total CH{sub 4} is emitted in the tropical <span class="hlt">area</span>, which is mainly the result of shifting cultivation, fuelwood use, and deforestation. Methane emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> may have increased by at least 9% during the last decade because of increases in tropical deforestation and the use of fuelwood. Changes in land use practices and population growth in the tropics are possible causes of the increase of atmospheric CH{sub 4} concentration. 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19165112','PUBMED'); return false;" href="htt