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1

Reconstructing annual area burned in the northern Rockies, USA: AD 1626-2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a tree-ring chronology as a proxy for annual area burned (AAB) in the northern Rockies, USA during AD 1626-2008. We correlated annual ring widths of alpine larch trees (Larex lyallii) sampled at a single high-elevation site in western Montana with AAB for the United States Forest Region 1. Radial growth was significantly associated with AAB (R2 = 0.35,

Paul A. Knapp; Peter T. Soulé

2011-01-01

2

Reconstructing annual area burned in the northern Rockies, USA: AD 1626-2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used a tree-ring chronology as a proxy for annual area burned (AAB) in the northern Rockies, USA during AD 1626-2008. We correlated annual ring widths of alpine larch trees (Larex lyallii) sampled at a single high-elevation site in western Montana with AAB for the United States Forest Region 1. Radial growth was significantly associated with AAB (R2 = 0.35, p < 0.001), demonstrating the potential to use high-elevation conifers as markers of interannual variations in fire activity. The results suggest that the period 1929-1945 would have been the most active since the early 1600s had not extensive fire suppression and harvest activities altered the fire regime. Comparisons of the predicted values of area burned to a century-long fire atlas were significant for both the entire record (rs = 0.333, p < 0.01) and reconstruction period (rs = 0.645 p < 0.001). Similarly, predicted AAB was significantly correlated (r = 0.230) to fire-scar data during 1650-1900. These results suggest the feasibility of using tree-ring chronologies as an additional measure of fire activity, particularly as they allow an assessment and comparison of fire activity during centuries with and without fire suppression and harvest activities.

Knapp, Paul A.; Soulé, Peter T.

2011-09-01

3

Analysis of daily, monthly, and annual burned area using the fourth-generation global fire emissions database (GFED4)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract We describe the fourth generation of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED4) <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data set, which provides global monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> at 0.25° spatial resolution from mid-1995 through the present and daily <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> for the time series extending back to August 2000. We produced the full data set by combining 500 m MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps with active fire data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) family of sensors. We found that the global <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> for the years 1997 through 2011 varied from 301 to 377Mha, with an average of 348Mha. We assessed the interannual variability and trends in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> on the basis of a region-specific definition of fire years. With respect to trends, we found a gradual decrease of 1.7Mhayr - 1 ( - 1.4%yr - 1) in Northern Hemisphere Africa since 2000, a gradual increase of 2.3Mhayr - 1 (+1.8%yr - 1) in Southern Hemisphere Africa also since 2000, a slight increase of 0.2Mhayr - 1 (+2.5%yr - 1) in Southeast Asia since 1997, and a rapid decrease of approximately 5.5Mhayr - 1 ( - 10.7%yr - 1) from 2001 through 2011 in Australia, followed by a major upsurge in 2011 that exceeded the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in at least the previous 14 years. The net trend in global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from 2000 to 2012 was a modest decrease of 4.3Mhayr - 1 ( - 1.2%yr - 1). We also performed a spectral analysis of the daily <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> time series and found no vestiges of the 16 day MODIS repeat cycle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giglio, Louis; Randerson, James T.; Werf, Guido R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">4</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BGD.....7.4385L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in Africa</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The simulation of current and projected wildfires is crucial for predicting vegetation as well as pyrogenic emissions in the African continent. This study uses a data-driven approach to parameterize <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> models applicable to dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) and global circulation models (GCMs). Therefore we restricted our analysis to variables for which either projections based on climate scenarios are available, or which are calculated by DVMs and the spatial scale to one degree spatial resolution, a common scale for DVMs as well as GCMs. We used 9 years of data (2000-2008) for the variables tree and herb cover, precipitation over the last dry season, wet season and averaged over the last 2 years, a fire-danger index (the Nesterov index), population density and an <span class="hlt">annual</span> proportion of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> derived from the MODIS MCD45A1 product. Since the effect of fires on vegetation depends strongly on <span class="hlt">burning</span> conditions, the timing of wildfires is of high interest too. We related the seasonal occurrence of wildfires to the Nesterov index and found a lognormal relationship with a maximum at a value of 104. We parameterized two generalized linear models, one with the full variable set (model I) and one (model II) considering only climate variables. All introduced variables resulted in an increase in model performance. Model I correctly predicts the spatial distribution and extent of fire prone <span class="hlt">areas</span> though the total variability is underrepresented. Model II has a much lower performance in both aspects (correlation coefficient of predicted and observed ratio of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>: 0.71 model I and 0.58 model II). An application of the models with simulated climate data ranging from 1980 to 2060 resulted in a strong decrease of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> of ca. 20-25%. Since wildfires are an integral part of land use practices in Africa, this indicates a high loss in <span class="hlt">areas</span> favourable for food production.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lehsten, V.; Harmand, P.; Palumbo, I.; Arneth, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">5</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BGeo....7.3199L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in Africa</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The simulation of current and projected wildfires is essential for predicting crucial aspects of vegetation patterns, biogeochemical cycling as well as pyrogenic emissions across the African continent. This study uses a data-driven approach to parameterize two <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> models applicable to dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) and Earth system models (ESMs). We restricted our analysis to variables for which either projections based on climate scenarios are available, or that are calculated by DVMs, and we consider a spatial scale of one degree as the scale typical for DVMs and ESMs. By using the African continent here as an example, an analogue approach could in principle be adopted for other regions, for global scale dynamic <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> modelling. We used 9 years of data (2000-2008) for the variables: precipitation over the last dry season, the last wet season and averaged over the last 2 years, a fire-danger index (the Nesterov index), population density, and <span class="hlt">annual</span> proportion of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> derived from the MODIS MCD45A1 product. Two further variables, tree and herb cover were only available for 2001 as a remote sensing product. Since the effect of fires on vegetation depends strongly on <span class="hlt">burning</span> conditions, the timing of wildfires is of high interest too, and we were able to relate the seasonal occurrence of wildfires to the daily Nesterov index. We parameterized two generalized linear models (GLMs), one with the full variable set (model VC) and one considering only climate variables (model C). All introduced variables resulted in an increase in model performance. Model VC correctly predicts the spatial distribution and extent of fire prone <span class="hlt">areas</span> though the total variability is underrepresented. Model VC has a much lower performance in both aspects (correlation coefficient of predicted and observed ratio of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>: 0.71 for model VC and 0.58 for model C). We expect the remaining variability to be attributed to additional variables which are not available at a global scale and thus not incorporated in this study as well as its coarse resolution. An application of the models using climate hindcasts and projections ranging from 1980 to 2060 resulted in a strong decrease of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> of ca. 20-25%. Since wildfires are an integral part of land use practices in Africa, their occurrence is an indicator of <span class="hlt">areas</span> favourable for food production. In absence of other compensating land use changes, their projected decrease can hence be interpreted as a indicator for future loss of such <span class="hlt">areas</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lehsten, V.; Harmand, P.; Palumbo, I.; Arneth, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">6</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.atmos-chem-phys.org/6/957/2006/acp-6-957-2006.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global estimation of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> using MODIS active fire observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a method for estimating monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> globally at 1 spatial resolution using Terra MODIS data and ancillary vegetation cover information. Us- ing regression trees constructed for 14 different global re- gions, MODIS active fire observations were calibrated to <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates derived from 500-m MODIS imagery based on the assumption that <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is proportional to counts</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. Giglio; Werf van der G. R; J. T. Randerson; G. J. Collatz; P. S. Kasibhatla</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">7</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23692944"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> are a leading cause of accidental injury and death. The American <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Association statistics from 2001 to 2010 show that 68% of <span class="hlt">burns</span> happen at home, 44% are from fires/flames, and 60% to 70% happen to white men. Smoke inhalation is the leading cause of adult death caused by fires. A patient with a 78% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burn</span> has a 50% chance of survival. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> injuries are described in terms of causative agents, depth, and severity. Crucial treatments for people with <span class="hlt">burns</span> include assessment, stabilization, transfer to a <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit, and fluid resuscitation. PMID:23692944</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ellison, Deborah L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">8</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://web.me.com/kathleen.nicoll/Geomorphology/08_Field_Trip_2008_files/Balling_et_al_92.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relation of surface climate and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in Yellowstone National Park</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bailing, R.C., Jr., Meyer, G.A. and Wells, S.G., 1992. Relation of surface climate and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in Yellowstone National Park. Agric. For. Meteorol., 60: 285-293. The statistical relation between <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in Yellowstone National Park and local climate conditions is established over the past century. Our analyses reveal that the summer Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) can account for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R BALLINGJR; Grant A. Meyer; Stephen G. Wells</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">9</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40914506"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fire frequency and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in the Roraima savannas of Brazilian Amazonia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Estimates were made of the percentage of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> and the fire frequency in different ecosystems of non-anthropic savannas located in the north and northeast portions of the State of Roraima, Brazil. Three years of observations (June 1997–May 2000) indicated that the mean percentage of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">annually</span>, weighted for all ecosystems, was 38±12% (S.D.). The mean frequency of fire</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reinaldo Imbrozio Barbosa; Philip Martin Fearnside</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">10</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23064248"> <span id="translatedtitle">The impact of antecedent fire <span class="hlt">area</span> on <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in southern California coastal ecosystems.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Frequent wildfire disasters in southern California highlight the need for risk reduction strategies for the region, of which fuel reduction via prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> is one option. However, there is no consensus about the effectiveness of prescribed fire in reducing the <span class="hlt">area</span> of wildfire. Here, we use 29 years of historical fire mapping to quantify the relationship between <span class="hlt">annual</span> wildfire <span class="hlt">area</span> and antecedent fire <span class="hlt">area</span> in predominantly shrub and grassland fuels in seven southern California counties, controlling for <span class="hlt">annual</span> variation in weather patterns. This method has been used elsewhere to measure leverage: the reduction in wildfire <span class="hlt">area</span> resulting from one unit of prescribed fire treatment. We found little evidence for a leverage effect (leverage = zero). Specifically our results showed no evidence that wildfire <span class="hlt">area</span> was negatively influenced by previous fires, and only weak relationships with weather variables rainfall and Santa Ana wind occurrences, which were variables included to control for inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variation. We conclude that this is because only 2% of the vegetation <span class="hlt">burns</span> each year and so wildfires rarely encounter <span class="hlt">burned</span> patches and chaparral shrublands can carry a fire within 1 or 2 years after previous fire. Prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> is unlikely to have much influence on fire regimes in this <span class="hlt">area</span>, though targeted treatment at the urban interface may be effective at providing defensible space for protecting assets. These results fit an emerging global model of fire leverage which position California at the bottom end of a continuum, with tropical savannas at the top (leverage = 1: direct replacement of wildfire by prescribed fire) and Australian eucalypt forests in the middle (leverage ~ 0.25). PMID:23064248</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Price, Owen F; Bradstock, Ross A; Keeley, Jon E; Syphard, Alexandra D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">11</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/print/injuries_and_poisoning/burns/burns.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... staples the skin graft over the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Artificial skin can also be used. Autografts are permanent. ... 21 days by the person's immune system, and artificial skin is removed. Although allografts and xenografts provide ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">12</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10716359"> <span id="translatedtitle">The inter-rater reliability of estimating the size of <span class="hlt">burns</span> from various <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> chart drawings.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The accuracy and variability of <span class="hlt">burn</span> size calculations using four Lund and Browder charts currently in clinical use and two Rule of Nine's diagrams were evaluated. The study showed that variability in estimation increased with <span class="hlt">burn</span> size initially, plateaued in large <span class="hlt">burns</span> and then decreased slightly in extensive <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The Rule of Nine's technique often overestimates the <span class="hlt">burn</span> size and is more variable, but can be performed somewhat faster than the Lund and Browder method. More <span class="hlt">burn</span> experience leads to less variability in <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> chart drawing estimates. Irregularly shaped <span class="hlt">burns</span> and <span class="hlt">burns</span> on the trunk and thighs had greater variability than less irregularly shaped <span class="hlt">burns</span> or <span class="hlt">burns</span> on more defined anatomical parts of the body. PMID:10716359</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wachtel, T L; Berry, C C; Wachtel, E E; Frank, H A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">13</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://en.mebo.com/paper/pdfpaper/clinical%20application%20and%20efficacy%20of%20mebt.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clinical Application and Efficacy of MEBT\\/MEBO in Treating Deep Large <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">(Abstract)Fifty-one cases of deep large <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burn</span> were treated with MEBT\\/MEBO. The largest <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was 96%, average <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> 60.78%, average third degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> 36.47%. Among them, 23 cases were <span class="hlt">burned</span> by fire, accounted for 45.09%; 24 cases scalded, accounted for 47.05% and 4 cases <span class="hlt">burned</span> by chemicals, accounted for 7.84%. A comprehensive analysis of the pathophysiological changes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li Chuanji; Hu Jianwu; Yan Hongmei; Li Rongchun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">14</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3427B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-sensor merging techniques for improving <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) aims to create a set of Essential Climate Variables (ECV) to assist climate modellers. One of these is the fire ECV, a product in line with typical requirements of climate, vegetation and ecological modellers investigated by the fire ECV project and documented in the fire product specification document. The product is derived from <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates of three sensors, SPOT VEGETATION (SPOT-VGT), the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) series, and the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer at Full ReSolution (MERIS FRS). This abstract is concerned with the final stage in the production of the fire product, merging of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates from the three sensors into two products. The two products are created at monthly time steps, the pixel (1km) and the aggregated grid product (0.5° and 0.25°). The pixel product contains information on sensors detecting the <span class="hlt">burn</span>, date of <span class="hlt">burn</span> detection, confidence of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> and land cover statistics. The grid product contains aggregated information on <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> totals and proportion, major land cover <span class="hlt">burned</span>, heterogeneity of <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the grid cell, confidence and cloud cover levels. The method used to create these products needs to allow for time series gaps due to multiple sensor combinations and different orbital and swath characteristics and comprises a combination statistical, selective, stratification and fusion methods common to the satellite remote sensing community. The method is in three stages, first a combined merge of sensors in the same 1km resolution. The earliest date of detection is recorded and the sensor that performs the best over a particular vegetation type is taken as the most reliable confidence level. The second part involves fusion of the 300 m MERIS FRS data allowing confidence levels and <span class="hlt">burn</span> dates to be reported to a finer resolution. To allow for MERIS FRS pixels that cross adjacent 1km pixels from the first step the fusion is carried out at 100 m resolution. The third and final step is the statistical aggregation to the final pixel and grid resolutions. Results for the test <span class="hlt">areas</span>, Northern Australia, Canada, Brazil and Kazakhstan show that there is a good coincidence of SPOT-VGT and ATSR data and that MERIS FRS can be used to increase the detail of date of detection and confidence level. Overall the project has demonstrated the feasibility of producing a merged fire product from different satellite data sources.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bradley, A.; Tansey, K.; Chuvieco, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">15</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRG..118..265M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in Europe with the Community Land Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, we present simulations of a <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> at a European scale for the period 1990-2009 conducted with the Community Land Model (CLM). By using statistics on fire counts and mean fire suppression time from the European Fire Database, we refined the parameterization of the functions describing human ignition/suppression, and we modified the description of biomass availability for fires. The results obtained with the modified model show an improvement of the description of the spatial and interannual variability of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>: the model bias is reduced by 45%, and the explained variance is increased by about 9% compared to the original parameterization of the model. The observed relationships between <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, climate (temperature and precipitation), and aboveground biomass are also reproduced more accurately by the modified model. This is particularly relevant for the applicability of the model to simulate future fire regimes under different climate conditions. However, results showed an overestimation of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> for some European countries (e.g., Spain and France) and an underestimation in years with an extreme fire season in Mediterranean countries. Our results highlight the need for refining the parameterization of human ignition/suppression and fuel availability for regional application of fire models implemented in land surface models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Migliavacca, M.; Dosio, A.; Kloster, S.; Ward, D. S.; Camia, A.; Houborg, R.; Houston Durrant, T.; Khabarov, N.; Krasovskii, A. A.; San Miguel-Ayanz, J.; Cescatti, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">16</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40352128"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trace elements in atmospheric particulate matter over a coal <span class="hlt">burning</span> power production <span class="hlt">area</span> of western Macedonia, Greece</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Total suspended particle (TSP) concentrations were determined in the Eordea basin (western Macedonia, Greece), an <span class="hlt">area</span> with intensive lignite <span class="hlt">burning</span> for power generation. The study was conducted over a one-year period (November 2000–November 2001) at 10 sites located at variable distances from the power plants. Ambient TSP samples were analyzed for 27 major, minor and trace elements. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> means of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christina Petaloti; Athanasios Triantafyllou; Themistoklis Kouimtzis; Constantini Samara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">17</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.4727T"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Geoland2 BioPar <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The European Commission Geoland2 project intends to constitute a major step forward to the implementation of the GMES Land Monitoring Core Service (LMCS). The Bio-geophysical Parameters (BioPar) Core Monitoring Service aims at setting-up pre-operational infrastructures for providing regional, European, and global bio-geophysical variables, both in near real time and off-line mode, for describing the vegetation state, the radiation budget at the surface, and the water cycle. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product is part of the BioPar portfolio. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product further builds on the experience of the Global <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> (GBA2000) and L3JRC projects. In the GBA2000 project, several algorithms were developed for different geographical regions of the world, and applied to a 1-year time series (the year 2000) of SPOT-VEGETATION data. In the L3JRC project, a single algorithm was improved and applied to a 7-year global dataset of SPOT-VEGETATION data. Since the conception of the Geoland2 project, work has been undertaken to improve the L3JRC algorithm, mainly based on user comments and feedback. Furthermore, the Geoland2 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product specification has been developed to meet the requirements of the Core Information Service, specifically LandCarbon and Natural Resource Monitoring in Africa (Narma). The Geoland2 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product has the following improvements over the L3JRC product: • It resolves issues with users extracting statistics and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates for time periods considered to be outside the main seasons for <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Specifically, this deals with issues in northern latitude winters. • The number of pre-processing steps has been shortened, reducing processing time. • An improved land-water mask has been used. This resolves a problem around the coastlines of land masses which were frequently being detected as being <span class="hlt">burned</span>. • A season metric calculation is performed over a 1x1 degree grid. For each grid cell, a date is logged against the start of the fire season, peak of the fire season and then the end of the fire season. Once a fire season has been confirmed as being finished, the region effectively resets itself, which means that the land surface can <span class="hlt">burn</span> again when the next fire season starts. This automated season reset feature enables multiple fire seasons to be analysed. • Provides easy to interpret seasonality tables every 10 days (the reporting period for the product). It is intended that the product will be validated using CEOS-approved protocols and data sets currently being developed through the European Space Agency Fire-CCI project. In this paper, initial results being produced operationally and will be presented along with examples highlighting the performance of the seasonality metric.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tansey, K.; Bradley, A.; Smets, B.; van Best, C.; Lacaze, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">18</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/644726"> <span id="translatedtitle">Data Summary Report D-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this report is to verify that all analytical data collected at the D-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits at the Savannah River Site for use in developing risk assessment and potential remediation procedures have been validated at the appropriate level. Any discrepancies or reasons why the data should be rejected for this purpose will be addressed. This report documents the data validation procedures used by Environmental Monitoring Section, Exploration Resources, and RUST Environment {ampersand} Infrastructure for Assigning qualifiers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">19</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-11-05/pdf/2010-28085.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 68323 - <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Surveys in the Manufacturing <span class="hlt">Area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Docket Number 101025512-0512-02] <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Surveys in the Manufacturing <span class="hlt">Area</span> AGENCY: Bureau...Census Bureau) is conducting the 2010 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Surveys in the Manufacturing <span class="hlt">Area</span>. The 2010 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Surveys consist of the Current Industrial...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">20</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48924465"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of L3JRC and MODIS global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products from 2000 to 2007</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As a significant source of trace gases and particulate matter to the atmosphere, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> plays an important role in climate change and atmospheric chemistry at regional and global scales. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is a critical parameter in estimating fire emissions. Recently, multiyear global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products with medium spatial resolution (1 km or 500 m) have been released, including</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Di Chang; Yu Song</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">21</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29591048"> <span id="translatedtitle">Differences between <span class="hlt">burns</span> in rural and in urban <span class="hlt">areas</span>: implications for prevention</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study aimed to identify typical features of <span class="hlt">burns</span> in rural <span class="hlt">areas</span> and to improve their prevention by comparing the characteristics of burnt patients and their <span class="hlt">burns</span> in rural and urban <span class="hlt">areas</span>. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 19 of the 23 French <span class="hlt">burns</span> units over one year, using a structured questionnaire. We analysed the resulting database. Of the 1422</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G Vidal-Trecan; S Tcherny-Lessenot; C Grossin; S Devaux; M Pages; J Laguerre; D Wassermann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">22</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.5665V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> for fragmented landscape using satellite Aster data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In Italy, after each fire season (generally summer season for the southern Mediterranean landscapes and winter/spring for the Northern alpine ecosystems) the up to date of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping is mandatory according to the current national legislation. The mapping of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> is generally performed by regional forestry service by using field GPS survey and/or helicopter in the case of large fire extension. The use of remote sensing technologies can be an effective support for mapping fire affected <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Such <span class="hlt">areas</span> are characterized by the removal of vegetation, deposits of charcoal and ash, and alteration of the vegetation structure, that can be detected by satellite remote sensed data. Due to the fact that in Italy the extension of fire is generally as small as 10 ha to 50 ha the use of high resolution data is mandatory. In order to set up a low cost technologies to be effectively applied in operational context, we assessed the capability of ASTER data for same test <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the Basilicata Region. In this paper we present results we obtained from the use of several Vegetation indices based on ASTER VNIR. Among the spectral indices proposed for burnt <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping we used and compare the Simple Vegetation Index, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, the Transformed Vegetation Index, and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). The data processing was performed using both a single date and a multidate (pre and post fire) approach. Several test cases selected from the 2007 fire season were investigated. ASTER-based results were compared with field data provided by the Basilicata regional Forestry Service</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vita, A.; Lanorte, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">23</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/604384"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tanks focus <span class="hlt">area</span>. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management is tasked with a major remediation project to treat and dispose of radioactive waste in hundreds of underground storage tanks. These tanks contain about 90,000,000 gallons of high-level and transuranic wastes. We have 68 known or assumed leaking tanks, that have allowed waste to migrate into the soil surrounding the tank. In some cases, the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in the safest possible condition until their eventual remediation to reduce the risk of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. Science and technology development for safer, more efficient, and cost-effective waste treatment methods will speed up progress toward the final remediation of these tanks. The DOE Office of Environmental Management established the Tanks Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span> to serve as the DOE-EM`s technology development program for radioactive waste tank remediation in partnership with the Offices of Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. The Tanks Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span> is responsible for leading, coordinating, and facilitating science and technology development to support remediation at DOE`s four major tank sites: the Hanford Site in Washington State, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in Idaho, Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank. Safety is integrated across all the functions and is a key component of the Tanks Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span> program.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frey, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">24</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B14C..01R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improving global fire carbon emissions estimates by combining moderate resolution <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and active fire observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In several important biomes, including croplands and tropical forests, many small fires exist that have sizes that are well below the detection limit for the current generation of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products derived from moderate resolution spectroradiometers. These fires likely have important effects on greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and regional air quality. Here we developed an approach for combining 1km thermal anomalies (active fires; MOD14A2) and 500m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> observations (MCD64A1) to estimate the prevalence of these fires and their likely contribution to <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and carbon emissions. We first estimated active fires within and outside of 500m <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars in 0.5 degree grid cells during 2001-2010 for which MCD64A1 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> observations were available. For these two sets of active fires we then examined mean fire radiative power (FRP) and changes in enhanced vegetation index (EVI) derived from 16-day intervals immediately before and after each active fire observation. To estimate the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> associated with sub-500m fires, we first applied <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> to active fire ratios derived solely from within <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> perimeters to active fires outside of <span class="hlt">burn</span> perimeters. In a second step, we further modified our sub-500m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates using EVI changes from active fires outside and within of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> (after subtracting EVI changes derived from control regions). We found that in northern and southern Africa savanna regions and in Central and South America dry forest regions, the number of active fires outside of MCD64A1 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> increased considerably towards the end of the fire season. EVI changes for active fires outside of <span class="hlt">burn</span> perimeters were, on average, considerably smaller than EVI changes associated with active fires inside <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars, providing evidence for <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars that were substantially smaller than the 25 ha <span class="hlt">area</span> of a single 500m pixel. FRP estimates also were lower for active fires outside of <span class="hlt">burn</span> perimeters. In our analysis we quantified how including sub-500m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> influenced global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, carbon emissions, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in different continental regions using the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) biogeochemical model. We conclude by discussing validation needs using higher resolution visible and thermal imagery.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; Giglio, L.; Rogers, B. M.; van der Werf, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">25</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/961218"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Asia : <span class="hlt">annual</span> and seasonal estimates and atmospheric emissions.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Asia are developed to facilitate the modeling of Asian and global air quality. A survey of national, regional, and international publications on biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is conducted to yield consensus estimates of 'typical' (i.e., non-year-specific) estimates of open <span class="hlt">burning</span> (excluding biofuels). We conclude that 730 Tg of biomass are <span class="hlt">burned</span> in a typical year from both anthropogenic and natural causes. Forest <span class="hlt">burning</span> comprises 45% of the total, the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of crop residues in the field comprises 34%, and 20% comes from the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of grassland and savanna. China contributes 25% of the total, India 18%, Indonesia 13%, and Myanmar 8%. Regionally, forest <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Southeast Asia dominates. National, <span class="hlt">annual</span> totals are converted to daily and monthly estimates at 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} spatial resolution using distributions based on AVHRR fire counts for 1999--2000. Several adjustment schemes are applied to correct for the deficiencies of AVHRR data, including the use of moving averages, normalization, TOMS Aerosol Index, and masks for dust, clouds, landcover, and other fire sources. Good agreement between the national estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and adjusted fire counts is obtained (R{sup 2} = 0.71--0.78). Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> amounts are converted to atmospheric emissions, yielding the following estimates: 0.37 Tg of SO{sub 2}, 2.8 Tg of NO{sub x}, 1100 Tg of CO{sub 2}, 67 Tg of CO, 3.1 Tg of CH{sub 4}, 12 Tg of NMVOC, 0.45 Tg of BC, 3.3 Tg of OC, and 0.92 Tg of NH{sub 3}. Uncertainties in the emission estimates, measured as 95% confidence intervals, range from a low of {+-}65% for CO{sub 2} emissions in Japan to a high of {+-}700% for BC emissions in India.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Streets, D. G.; Yarber, K. F.; Woo, J.-H.; Carmichael, G. R.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Iowa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">26</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJMPC..2450053L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climate Effect on Wildfire <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> in Alberta (1961-2010)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The spread and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> of wildfires in Alberta, Canada during a 50 year period, from 1961 through 2010 are studied here. Meteorological factors that control the spread and <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> have been discussed for a long time. In this paper, we analyze the temperature rise that could drastically enhance the spread and average <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> of wildfires. A simple lattice model that mimics meteorological factors is also introduced to simulate the temperature effect on the spread and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> of wildfires. The numerical results demonstrate the temperature effects on wildfires when compared to the empirical data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Hung-I.; Wang, Shih-Luen; Li, Sai-Ping</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">27</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01679.x"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the response of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> to changing climate in western boreal North America using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fire is a common disturbance in the North American boreal forest that influences ecosystem structure and function. The temporal and spatial dynamics of fire are likely to be altered as climate continues to change. In this study, we ask the question: how will <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in boreal North America by wildfire respond to future changes in climate? To evaluate this question, we developed temporally and spatially explicit relationships between air temperature and fuel moisture codes derived from the Canadian Fire Weather Index System to estimate <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> at 2.5?? (latitude ?? longitude) resolution using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS) approach across Alaska and Canada. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was substantially more predictable in the western portion of boreal North America than in eastern Canada. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was also not very predictable in <span class="hlt">areas</span> of substantial topographic relief and in <span class="hlt">areas</span> along the transition between boreal forest and tundra. At the scale of Alaska and western Canada, the empirical fire models explain on the order of 82% of the variation in <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> for the period 1960-2002. July temperature was the most frequently occurring predictor across all models, but the fuel moisture codes for the months June through August (as a group) entered the models as the most important predictors of <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. To predict changes in the temporal and spatial dynamics of fire under future climate, the empirical fire models used output from the Canadian Climate Center CGCM2 global climate model to predict <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> through the year 2100 across Alaska and western Canada. Relative to 1991-2000, the results suggest that average <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> per decade will double by 2041-2050 and will increase on the order of 3.5-5.5 times by the last decade of the 21st century. To improve the ability to better predict wildfire across Alaska and Canada, future research should focus on incorporating additional effects of long-term and successional vegetation changes on <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> to account more fully for interactions among fire, climate, and vegetation dynamics. ?? 2009 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Balshi, M. S.; McGuire, A. D.; Duffy, P.; Flannigan, M.; Walsh, J.; Melillo, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">28</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23747041"> <span id="translatedtitle">An epidemiological analysis of paediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> in urban and rural <span class="hlt">areas</span> in south central China.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyse the epidemiology of paediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> in south central China, illustrate the differences between rural and urban <span class="hlt">areas</span>, and discern prevention measures to reduce paediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span>. METHODS: Data were obtained from all paediatric patients admitted to Department of <span class="hlt">Burns</span> unit of Xiangya Hospital during 2009-2012. A retrospective review was performed, including cause of <span class="hlt">burn</span>, pre-hospital treatment, place of <span class="hlt">burn</span> occurrence, anatomical <span class="hlt">areas</span> involved, extent of <span class="hlt">burn</span>, date of injury, number of operations, complications, length of hospital stay, hospitalisation cost and cure rate. RESULTS: A total of 278 hospitalised paediatric patients were admitted in this study. The majority (56.47%) were 1-3 years old. Rural patients accounted for 67.99% in total; the ratio of boys to girls was 2.05. Scalding with hot fluids was the most common cause of <span class="hlt">burns</span> in children (62.59%), followed by flame (17.63), fireworks (9.71%), electricity (5.76%) and other factors such as contact and chemical (4.32%). The living room was the location with the highest frequency of <span class="hlt">burns</span> in children (53.24%). <span class="hlt">Burns</span> were more likely to happen in winter and the upper extremities were the most involved anatomic site (53.24%). Total <span class="hlt">burn</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) ranging from 0% to 9% accounted for 55.4% in total. Rural patients underwent more operations and had longer and costlier hospital stays than urban patients. CONCLUSION: Compared with treatment in urban <span class="hlt">areas</span>, rural <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients received less first-aid treatment, underwent more surgery, had more complications and longer and more costly hospital stays. This finding strongly suggests that it is necessary to make more efforts to prevent <span class="hlt">burns</span>, especially in rural <span class="hlt">areas</span>. PMID:23747041</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhou, Bo; Zhou, Xiao; Ouyang, Li-Zhi; Huang, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Pi-Hong; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Ren, Li-Cheng; Liang, Peng-Fei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">29</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/797471"> <span id="translatedtitle">Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). CAU 490 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and includes for Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) Fire Training <span class="hlt">Area</span> (CAS 03-56-001-03BA); (2) Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> (CAS RG-56-001-RGBA); (3) Sandia Service Yard (CAS 03-58-001-03FN); and (4) Gun Propellant <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> (CAS 09-54-001-09L2).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. B. Campbell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">30</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..71..115V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methane emissions from 2000 to 2011 wildfires in Northeast Eurasia estimated with MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Estimates of methane wildfire emissions from Northeast Eurasia for years 2000-2011 are reported on the basis of satellite <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS MCD45 data product) and ecosystem-dependent fire emission parameters. Average (with standard deviations) emissions are 1.0 ± 0.2 Tg CH4 year-1, with interannual variations of 0.4-2.3 Tg CH4 year-1. Most of the emissions are located within 48-55°N, in the southern part of the boreal forest zone, mostly in Siberia and Far East. The largest discrepancies among independent present-day estimates are found in the sub-polar regions of West Siberia and Far East (60-65°N). Compared to the methane wetland emissions reported in literature, the wildfire emissions in the south add about 5-20% to their estimated average <span class="hlt">annual</span> values and are compared with the magnitudes of their interannual variability. Average seasonal cycle peaks in April-May and July-August, which partially overlaps the summertime peak in wetland emissions. The independent estimates from version 3 of Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) are by 50% higher (compared to this study) for average <span class="hlt">annual</span> emissions over the decade (which is quite good regarding the uncertainties) and showed larger differences for individual years. Possible applications of the results are considered for climate research and inverse modeling studies, as well as for assessment of the uncertainties in the present-day wildfire emission estimates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vasileva, Anastasia; Moiseenko, Konstantin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">31</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901034"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 7 Texas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Northeast Texas Health Systems Agency, Inc., devised this <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan to serve residents of its health service <span class="hlt">area</span>. The introduction considers the purpose and use of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan, the plan development process, the met...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">32</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nigms.nih.gov/Education/Factsheet_Burns.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... fluids are needed to maintain blood pressure. Grafting with natural or artificial materials speeds the post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> healing process. What is skin grafting? There are two types of skin grafts. An autologous skin graft transfers skin from one part of the body to another while an allograft ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">33</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs3081680"> <span id="translatedtitle">Timing constraints on remote sensing of wildland fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in the southeastern US</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Remote sensing using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery is increasingly used for mapping wildland fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, owing to its frequency of collection, relatively high resolution, and availability free of charge. However, rapid response of vegetation following fire and frequent cloud cover pose challenges to this approach in the southeastern US. We assessed these timing constraints by using a series of Landsat TM images to determine how rapidly the remotely sensed <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar signature fades following prescribed <span class="hlt">burns</span> in wet flatwoods and depression swamp community types in the Apalachicola National Forest, Florida, USA during 2006. We used both the Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio (NBR) of reflectance bands sensitive to vegetation and exposed soil cover, as well as the change in NBR from before to after fire (dNBR), to estimate <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. We also determined the average and maximum amount of time following fire required to obtain a cloud-free image for <span class="hlt">burns</span> in each month of the year, as well as the predicted effect of this time lag on percent accuracy of <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar estimates. Using both NBR and dNBR, the detectable <span class="hlt">area</span> decreased linearly 9% per month on average over the first four months following fire. Our findings suggest that the NBR and dNBR methods for monitoring <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in common southeastern US vegetation community types are limited to an average of 78-90% accuracy among months of the year, with individual <span class="hlt">burns</span> having values as low as 38%, if restricted to use of Landsat 5 TM imagery. However, the majority of <span class="hlt">burns</span> can still be mapped at accuracies similar to those in other regions of the US, and access to additional sources of satellite imagery would improve overall accuracy. ?? 2011 by the authors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Picotte, J. J.; Robertson, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">34</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJAEO..13..741G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prototyping an artificial neural network for <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping on a regional scale in Mediterranean <span class="hlt">areas</span> using MODIS images</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Each year thousands of ha of forest land are affected by forest fires in Southern European countries such as Spain. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps are a valuable instrument for designing prevention and recovery policies. Remote sensing has increasingly become the most widely used tool for this purpose on regional and global scales, where a large variety of techniques and data has been applied. This paper proposes a semiautomatic method for <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping on a regional scale in Mediterranean <span class="hlt">areas</span> (the Iberian Peninsula has been used as a study case). A Multi-layer Perceptron Network (MLPN) has been designed and applied to MODIS/Terra Surface Reflectance Daily L2G Global 500m SIN Grid multitemporal composite monthly images. The compositing criterion was based on maximum surface temperature. The research covered a six year period (2001-2006) from June to September, when most of the forest fires occur. The resulting <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps have been validated using official fire perimeters and compared with MODIS Collection 5 <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Product (MCD45A1). The MLPN shown as an effective method, with a commission error of 29.1%, in the classification of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, while the omission error was of 14.9%. The results were compared with the MCD45A1 product, which had a slightly higher commission error (30.2%) and a considerably higher omission error (26.2%), indicating a high underestimation of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gómez, Israel; Martín, M. Pilar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">35</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESD...1.4891B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling fire frequency and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> across phytoclimatic regions in Spain using reanalysis data and the Canadian Fire Weather Index System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We develop fire occurrence and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> models in peninsular Spain, an <span class="hlt">area</span> of high variability in climate and fuel types, for the period 1990-2008. We based the analysis on a phytoclimatic classification aiming to the stratification of the territory into homogeneous units in terms of climatic and fuel type characteristics, allowing to test model performance under different climatic and fuel conditions. We used generalized linear models (GLM) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) as modelling algorithms and temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and wind speed, taken from the ERA-Interim reanalysis, as well as the components of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System as predictors. We also computed the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) as an additional predictor for the models of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. We found two contrasting fire regimes in terms of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> and number of fires: one characterized by a bimodal <span class="hlt">annual</span> pattern, characterizing the Nemoral and Oro-boreal phytoclimatic types, and another one exhibiting an unimodal <span class="hlt">annual</span> cycle, with the fire season concentrated in the summer months in the Mediterranean and Arid regions. The fire occurrence models attained good skill in most of the phytoclimatic zones considered, yielding in some zones notably high correlation coefficients between the observed and modelled inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> fire frequencies. Total <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> also exhibited a high dependence on the meteorological drivers, although their ability to reproduce the observed <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> time series was poor in most cases. We identified temperature and some FWI system components as the most important explanatory variables, and also SPEI in some of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> models, highlighting the adequacy of the FWI system for fire modelling applications and leaving the door opened to the development a more complex modelling framework based on these predictors. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential usefulness of ERA-Interim reanalysis data for the reconstruction of historical fire-climate relationships at the scale of analysis. Fire frequency predictions may provide a preferable basis for past fire history reconstruction, long-term monitoring and the assessment of future climate impacts on fire regimes across regions, posing several advantages over <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> as response variable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bedia, J.; Herrera, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">36</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29590693"> <span id="translatedtitle">The inter-rater reliability of estimating the size of <span class="hlt">burns</span> from various <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> chart drawings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The accuracy and variability of <span class="hlt">burn</span> size calculations using four Lund and Browder charts currently in clinical use and two Rule of Nine’s diagrams were evaluated. The study showed that variability in estimation increased with <span class="hlt">burn</span> size initially, plateaued in large <span class="hlt">burns</span> and then decreased slightly in extensive <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The Rule of Nine’s technique often overestimates the <span class="hlt">burn</span> size and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas L Wachtel; Charles C Berry; Edward E Wachtel; Hugh A Frank</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">37</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23818817"> <span id="translatedtitle">A comparative analysis of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> datasets in Canadian boreal forest in 2000.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The turn of the new millennium was accompanied by a particularly diverse group of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> datasets from different sensors in the Canadian boreal forests, brought together in a year of low global fire activity. This paper provides an assessment of spatial and temporal accuracy, by means of a fire-by-fire comparison of the following: two <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> datasets obtained from SPOT-VEGETATION (VGT) imagery, a MODIS Collection 5 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> dataset, and three different datasets obtained from NOAA-AVHRR. Results showed that <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data from MODIS provided accurate dates of <span class="hlt">burn</span> but great omission error, partially caused by calibration problems. One of the VGT-derived datasets (L3JRC) represented the largest number of fire sites in spite of its great overall underestimation, whereas the GBA2000 dataset achieved the best <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> quantification, both showing delayed and very variable fire timing. Spatial accuracy was comparable between the 5?km and the 1?km AVHRR-derived datasets but was remarkably lower in the 8?km dataset leading, us to conclude that at higher spatial resolutions, temporal accuracy was lower. The probable methodological and contextual causes of these differences were analyzed in detail. PMID:23818817</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Núñez-Casillas, Laia; García Lázaro, José Rafael; Moreno-Ruiz, José Andrés; Arbelo, Manuel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">38</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/v9j4507324219884.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Underestimation of GCM-Calculated Short-Wave Atmospheric Absorption in <span class="hlt">Areas</span> Affected by Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many current General Circulation Models (GCMs) exhibit a common problem, namely that their atmosphere is too transparent to\\u000a solar radiation. The underestimation of atmospheric short-wave absorption by these models is particularly large in <span class="hlt">areas</span> and\\u000a seasons where extensive biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> takes place. This is shown using surface radiation measurements combined with co-located\\u000a satellite observations at sites affected by biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin Wild</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">39</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-06-06/pdf/2013-13459.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 34031 - <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Emergency Response, Forest Service</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...from ``District Rangers'' to ``Forest, Grassland, Prairie, <span class="hlt">Area</span> Supervisors and District Rangers,'' for the purpose...Forest System land in the Southwestern, Pacific Southwest and Intermountain West regions. One comment noted the directive lacked...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">40</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH33B..05L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Future climate and wildfire: ecosystem projections of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in the western US</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by fire in ecosystems of the western United States has been closely linked to climate in the paleoecological record and in the modern record. Statistical models of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> show that the climatic controls on <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> vary with vegetation type (Littell et al. 2009). In more arid or systems (grasslands, shrublands, woodlands), antecedent climatic controls on fire were associated first with the production of fuels and secondarily with drought in the year of fire. These relationships typically manifested as wetter and sometimes cooler conditions in the seasons prior to the fire season. <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in forest ecosystems and some woodlands was primarily associated with drought conditions, specifically increased temperature and decreased precipitation in the year of fire and the seasons leading up to the fire season. These climatic controls indicate the role of climate in drying existing fuels. Statistical fire models trained on the late 20th century for ecoprovinces in the West would be useful for projecting <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, at least until vegetation type conversion driven by climate and disturbance occurs. To that end, we used ~ 2.5 degree gridded future climate fields derived for a multi-GCM ensemble of 1C and 2C temperature increase forcing to develop future ecoprovince monthly and seasonal average temperature and associated precipitation and used these as predictors in statistical fire models of future projected <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. We also conducted modeling scenarios with the ensemble temperature increase paired with historical precipitation. Most ecoprovinces had increases in <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, with a range of ~ 67% to over 600% . Ecoprovinces that are primarily sensitive to precipitation changes exhibit smaller increases than those most sensitive to temperature (forest systems). We also developed exceedance probabilities. Some ecoprovinces show large increases in <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> but low exceedance probabilities, suggest that the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> is concentrated more towards the middle of the distribution - more small years are becoming medium years. In other provinces, large increases in the exceedance probability indicate that extreme fire years become more common. In summary, ecoprovince <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> increases on average by 247% over the period 1970-2003, and exceedance probability increases five-fold, from roughly 1 in 50 to roughly 1 in 10. These results suggest shifts in forest planning and fire planning within fire season. For example, landscape resilience to future fire is affected not just by climate, but also the arrangement and structure of fuels. The utility of managing fuels depends on the nature of fire in a landscape and how its behavior can be modified. Within a single fire season, the cost of fire suppression depends on whether the increase in <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> manifests as more fires of similar size or the same number of fires becoming much larger. The climatic linkages between climate and fire in different ecosystems imply, the latter is likely in both forest and grassland systems due to increases in the continuity of available fuels.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Littell, J. S.; Duffy, P.; Battisti, D. S.; McKenzie, D.; Peterson, D. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">41</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title18-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title18-vol1-sec141-51.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Electric Balancing Authority <span class="hlt">Area</span> and Planning <span class="hlt">Area</span> Report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...<span class="hlt">Annual</span> Electric Balancing Authority <span class="hlt">Area</span> and Planning <span class="hlt">Area</span> Report. 141.51 Section 141.51 Conservation...REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 141.51 FERC Form No. 714, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Electric Balancing Authority <span class="hlt">Area</span> and Planning <span class="hlt">Area</span> Report....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">42</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42528318"> <span id="translatedtitle">A spectral unmixing approach for mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Mediterranean countries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The principal aim of this Letter is to evaluate the usefulness of Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) for estimating the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by forest fires in Mediterranean countries using National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) unitemporal data. The results show that the method, using an image acquired just after the fire occurrence, is capable of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Quintano; Y. E. Shimabukuro; A. Fernández; J. A. Delgado</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">43</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023939"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long lead statistical forecasts of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in western U.S. wildfires by ecosystem province</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A statistical forecast methodology exploits large-scale patterns in monthly U.S. Climatological Division Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) values over a wide region and several seasons to predict <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in western U.S. wildfires by ecosystem province a season in advance. The forecast model, which is based on canonical correlations, indicates that a few characteristic patterns determine predicted wildfire season <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. Strong negative associations between anomalous soil moisture (inferred from PDSI) immediately prior to the fire season and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> dominate in most higher elevation forested provinces, while strong positive associations between anomalous soil moisture a year prior to the fire season and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> dominate in desert and shrub and grassland provinces. In much of the western U.S., above- and below-normal fire season forecasts were successful 57% of the time or better, as compared with a 33% skill for a random guess, and with a low probability of being surprised by a fire season at the opposite extreme of that forecast.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Westerling, A. L.; Gershunov, A.; Cayan, D. R.; Barnett, T. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">44</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://gis.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_gtr173/psw_gtr173_02_alvarado.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burned</span> by Wildfires Through the Partitioning of a Probability Model1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An analysis of forest fires by using a partitioned probability distribution is presented. <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> during afire is fitted to a probability model. This model is partitioned into small, medium, and large fires. Conditional expected values are computed for each partition. Two cases are presented: the two-parameter Weibull and the Truncated Shifted Pareto probability models. The methodology allows a comparison</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ernesto Alvarado; David V. Sandberg; Bruce B. Bare</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">45</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23500819"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimating future <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> under changing climate in the EU-Mediterranean countries.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The impacts of climate change on forest fires have received increased attention in recent years at both continental and local scales. It is widely recognized that weather plays a key role in extreme fire situations. It is therefore of great interest to analyze projected changes in fire danger under climate change scenarios and to assess the consequent impacts of forest fires. In this study we estimated <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the European Mediterranean (EU-Med) countries under past and future climate conditions. Historical (1985-2004) monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in EU-Med countries were modeled by using the Canadian Fire Weather Index (CFWI). Monthly averages of the CFWI sub-indices were used as explanatory variables to estimate the monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in each of the five most affected countries in Europe using three different modeling approaches (Multiple Linear Regression - MLR, Random Forest - RF, Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines - MARS). MARS outperformed the other methods. Regression equations and significant coefficients of determination were obtained, although there were noticeable differences from country to country. Climatic conditions at the end of the 21st Century were simulated using results from the runs of the regional climate model HIRHAM in the European project PRUDENCE, considering two IPCC SRES scenarios (A2-B2). The MARS models were applied to both scenarios resulting in projected <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in each country and in the EU-Med region. Results showed that significant increases, 66% and 140% of the total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, can be expected in the EU-Med region under the A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. PMID:23500819</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Amatulli, Giuseppe; Camia, Andrea; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">46</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/770999"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tanks Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> report FY2000</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation effort with tanks containing hazardous and radioactive waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials. With some 90 million gallons of waste in the form of solid, sludge, liquid, and gas stored in 287 tanks across the DOE complex, containing approximately 650 million curies, radioactive waste storage tank remediation is the nation's highest cleanup priority. Differing waste types and unique technical issues require specialized science and technology to achieve tank cleanup in an environmentally acceptable manner. Some of the waste has been stored for over 50 years in tanks that have exceeded their design lives. The challenge is to characterize and maintain these contents in a safe condition and continue to remediate and close each tank to minimize the risks of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) created a group of integrated, multiorganizational teams focusing on specific <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the EM cleanup mission. These teams have evolved into five focus <span class="hlt">areas</span> managed within EM's Office of Science and Technology (OST): Tanks Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span> (TFA); Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span>; Nuclear Materials Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span>; Subsurface Contaminants Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span>; and Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">None</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">47</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/910952"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design of an Actinide <span class="hlt">Burning</span>, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor That Produces Low Cost Electricty - FY-02 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this collaborative Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project is to investigate the suitability of lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. Work has been accomplished in four major <span class="hlt">areas</span> of research: core neutronic design, plant engineering, material compatibility studies, and coolant activation. The publications derived from work on this project (since project inception) are listed in Appendix A. This is the third in a series of <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Reports for this project, the others are also listed in Appendix A as FY-00 and FY-01 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Reports.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">48</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.7115C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dissolved organic carbon in rainwater from <span class="hlt">areas</span> heavily impacted by sugar cane <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work reports on rainwater dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from Ribeirão Preto (RP) and Araraquara over a period of 3 years. The economies of these two cities, located in São Paulo state (Brazil), are based on agriculture and related industries, and the region is strongly impacted by the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of sugar cane foliage before harvesting. Highest DOC concentrations were obtained when air masses traversed sugar cane fields <span class="hlt">burned</span> on the same day as the rain event. Significant increases in the DOC volume weighted means (VWM) during the harvest period, for both sites, and a good linear correlation ( r = 0.83) between DOC and K (a biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> marker) suggest that regional scale organic carbon emissions prevail over long-range transport. The DOC VWMs and standard deviations were 272 ± 22 ?mol L -1 ( n = 193) and 338 ± 40 ?mol L -1 ( n = 80) for RP and Araraquara, respectively, values which are at least two times higher than those reported for other regions influenced by biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>, such as the Amazon. These high DOC levels are discussed in terms of agricultural activities, particularly the large usage of biogenic fuels in Brazil, as well as the analytical method used in this work, which includes volatile organic carbon when reporting DOC values. Taking into account rainfall volume, estimated <span class="hlt">annual</span> rainwater DOC fluxes for RP (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1) and Araraquara (5.4 g C m -2 yr -1) were close to that previously found for the Amazon region (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1). This work also discusses whether previous calculations of the global rainwater carbon flux may have been underestimated, since they did not consider large inputs from biomass combustion sources, and suffered from a possible analytical bias.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coelho, C. H.; Francisco, J. G.; Nogueira, R. F. P.; Campos, M. L. A. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">49</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42527781"> <span id="translatedtitle">AVHRR-derived fire frequency, distribution and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in Siberia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data are used to produce an active-fire detection product for the fire season in 1999 and 2000 and an <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> product for 1996–2000. The distribution of fire is presented ranging from the Urals in the west to the eastern coast and from the semi-dry steppe regions in the south through the taiga in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. J. Soja; A. I. Sukhinin; D. R. Cahoon Jr.; H. H. Shugart; P. W. S. Stackhouse Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">50</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/610270"> <span id="translatedtitle">Subsurface Contaminants Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> report 1997</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In support of its vision for technological excellence, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span> (SCFA) has identified three strategic goals. The three goals of the SCFA are: Contain and/or stabilize contamination sources that pose an imminent threat to surface and ground waters; Delineate DNAPL contamination in the subsurface and remediate DNAPL-contaminated soils and ground water; and Remove a full range of metal and radionuclide contamination in soils and ground water. To meet the challenges of remediating subsurface contaminants in soils and ground water, SCFA funded more than 40 technologies in fiscal year 1997. These technologies are grouped according to the following product lines: Dense Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids; Metals and Radionuclides; Source Term Containment; and Source Term Remediation. This report briefly describes the SCFA 1997 technologies and showcases a few key technologies in each product line.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NONE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">51</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513633M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dominating soil typologies in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> of Dz¯u kija National Park (Lithuania)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A big part of the scientific community consider fire disturbance as an ecological factor which becomes an integral part of the structure and dynamics of the biotic components of forests. In Dz?kija National Park, likewise occurs in other boreal forests, fire perturbation has become over time one of the main natural components which models and structures the landscape. It is indeed know that park's forest territory presents a high sensitivity to wildfire and soil typologies could have certain implications when evaluating vulnerability to fire. To carry out this study, a total of 28 <span class="hlt">burned</span>-stands were explored. Information collected in the forest related to fire concurrence as well as current dominating overgrowing were registered. In this way, interpretation of field work results was aimed to elucidate dominating soils in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> which potentially are more prone to wildfire. The majority of fire-affected stands were found on soils of type "Na" -78% of total sites-, a few ones of "Nb" -18% of <span class="hlt">burned</span> plots- and, eventually, fire was also evidenced in "Lb" soils -4%. "Na" typology belongs to very dry and unfertilized soils and, thus, very sensitive to fire, with dominating community of Cladonio-pinetum sylvestris. In "Nb" stands there are more fertilized soils with Vaccinium vitis-idaea in some cases with transitional associations of Vaccinium myrtillus. "Lb" typology refers to wetter soils with undergrown of Vaccinium myrtillus. Overall, fire has regularly been occurring in dried and non-fertilized soils, were preconditions for <span class="hlt">burning</span> increase; whereas <span class="hlt">burned</span> stands within more humid environments were rarely found.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin-Gallego, David; Lapele, Mindaugas; Pereira, Paulo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">52</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H31B1154C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrologic Impact of Straw Mulch On Runoff from a <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> for Various Soil Water Content</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mountainous watersheds often exhibit increases in runoff and flash floods after wildfires. During 11 days of September 2010, the Fourmile Canyon wildfire <span class="hlt">burned</span> 2500 hectares of the foothills of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado. In an effort to minimize the risk of flash floods after the wildfire, Boulder County aerially applied straw mulch on high-risk <span class="hlt">areas</span> selected primarily on the basis of their slopes and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severities. The purpose of this research is to investigate the hydrologic response, specifically runoff, of a <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> where straw mulch is applied. We measured the runoff, at different soil water contents, from 0.8-m diameter plots. Paired plots were installed in June 2011 in a basin <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Fourmile Canyon Fire. Two sets of bounded, paired plot (two control and two experimental plots) were calibrated for 35 days without straw on either plot by measuring volumetric soil water content 2-3 times per week and measuring total runoff from each storm. Straw (5 cm thick) was added to the two experimental plots on 19 July 2011 and also to the funnels of two visual rain gages in order to measure the amount of rainfall absorbed by the straw. Initial results during the calibration period showed nearly linear relations between the volumetric soil water content of the control and experimental plots. The regression line for the runoff from the control versus the runoff from the experiment plot did not fit a linear trend; the variability may have been caused by two intense storms, which produced runoff that exceeded the capacity of the runoff gages. Also, during the calibration period, when soil water content was low the runoff coefficients were high. It is anticipated that the final results will show that the total runoff is greater on plots with no straw compared to those with straw, under conditions of various antecedent soil water content. We are continuing to collect data during the summer of 2011 to test this hypothesis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carnicle, M. M.; Moody, J. A.; Ahlstrom, A. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">53</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19544740"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climate and wildfire <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in western U.S. ecoprovinces, 1916-2003.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this paper is to quantify climatic controls on the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by fire in different vegetation types in the western United States. We demonstrate that wildfire <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> (WFAB) in the American West was controlled by climate during the 20th century (1916-2003). Persistent ecosystem-specific correlations between climate and WFAB are grouped by vegetation type (ecoprovinces). Most mountainous ecoprovinces exhibit strong year-of-fire relationships with low precipitation, low Palmer drought severity index (PDSI), and high temperature. Grass- and shrub-dominated ecoprovinces had positive relationships with antecedent precipitation or PDSI. For 1977-2003, a few climate variables explain 33-87% (mean = 64%) of WFAB, indicating strong linkages between climate and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. For 1916-2003, the relationships are weaker, but climate explained 25-57% (mean = 39%) of the variability. The variance in WFAB is proportional to the mean squared for different data sets at different spatial scales. The importance of antecedent climate (summer drought in forested ecosystems and antecedent winter precipitation in shrub and grassland ecosystems) indicates that the mechanism behind the observed fire-climate relationships is climatic preconditioning of large <span class="hlt">areas</span> of low fuel moisture via drying of existing fuels or fuel production and drying. The impacts of climate change on fire regimes will therefore vary with the relative energy or water limitations of ecosystems. Ecoprovinces proved a useful compromise between ecologically imprecise state-level and localized gridded fire data. The differences in climate-fire relationships among the ecoprovinces underscore the need to consider ecological context (vegetation, fuels, and seasonal climate) to identify specific climate drivers of WFAB. Despite the possible influence of fire suppression, exclusion, and fuel treatment, WFAB is still substantially controlled by climate. The implications for planning and management are that future WFAB and adaptation to climate change will likely depend on ecosystem-specific, seasonal variation in climate. In fuel-limited ecosystems, fuel treatments can probably mitigate fire vulnerability and increase resilience more readily than in climate-limited ecosystems, in which large severe fires under extreme weather conditions will continue to account for most <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. PMID:19544740</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Littell, Jeremy S; McKenzie, Donald; Peterson, David L; Westerling, Anthony L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">54</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRD..11420302B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Strategies for the fusion of satellite fire radiative power with <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data for fire radiative energy derivation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Instantaneous estimates of the power released by a fire (Fire Radiative Power, FRP) are available with satellite active fire detection products. Integrating FRP in time provides an estimate of the total energy released (Fire Radiative Energy, FRE), which can be converted into <span class="hlt">burned</span> biomass estimates needed by the atmospheric emissions modeling community. While straightforward in theory, the integration of FRP in time and space is affected by temporal and spatial undersampling imposed by the satellite sensing and orbit geometry, clouds, and active fire product omission errors. Combination of active fire FRP estimates with independently derived <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps provides the potential for improved and spatially explicit estimates of FRE and biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span>. In the present work, strategies for the temporal interpolation of FRP data and for the spatial extrapolation of FRE across the <span class="hlt">burn</span> are proposed and, as a study case, applied to an extensive grassland fire that <span class="hlt">burned</span> for 40 days in northern Australia. The fusion of FRP estimates derived from MODIS Terra and Aqua active fire detections with the MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product is considered, although other polar orbiting and geostationary satellite fire products could be used. Intercomparison of FRE estimated over the MODIS mapped <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> using Terra, Aqua, and Terra-Aqua combined FRP data highlights the sensitivity of FRE estimation to satellite sampling. Despite this sensitivity, FRE biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span> estimates derived from MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and Terra and Aqua FRP data are within 30% of regional literature estimates, suggesting that this fusion approach is a fruitful avenue for future research and validation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boschetti, Luigi; Roy, David P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">55</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1370/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using Logistic Regression to Predict the Probability of Debris Flows in <span class="hlt">Areas</span> <span class="hlt">Burned</span> by Wildfires, Southern California, 2003-2006</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Logistic regression was used to develop statistical models that can be used to predict the probability of debris flows in <span class="hlt">areas</span> recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> by wildfires by using data from 14 wildfires that <span class="hlt">burned</span> in southern California during 2003-2006. Twenty-eight independent variables describing the basin morphology, <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, rainfall, and soil properties of 306 drainage basins located within those <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> were evaluated. The models were developed as follows: (1) Basins that did and did not produce debris flows soon after the 2003 to 2006 fires were delineated from data in the National Elevation Dataset using a geographic information system; (2) Data describing the basin morphology, <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, rainfall, and soil properties were compiled for each basin. These data were then input to a statistics software package for analysis using logistic regression; and (3) Relations between the occurrence or absence of debris flows and the basin morphology, <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated, and five multivariate logistic regression models were constructed. All possible combinations of independent variables were evaluated to determine which combinations produced the most effective models, and the multivariate models that best predicted the occurrence of debris flows were identified. Percentage of high <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity and 3-hour peak rainfall intensity were significant variables in all models. Soil organic matter content and soil clay content were significant variables in all models except Model 5. Soil slope was a significant variable in all models except Model 4. The most suitable model can be selected from these five models on the basis of the availability of independent variables in the particular <span class="hlt">area</span> of interest and field checking of probability maps. The multivariate logistic regression models can be entered into a geographic information system, and maps showing the probability of debris flows can be constructed in recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> of southern California. This study demonstrates that logistic regression is a valuable tool for developing models that predict the probability of debris flows occurring in recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> landscapes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rupert, Michael G.; Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Helsel, Dennis R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">56</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec165-1191.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 165.1191 - Northern California and Lake Tahoe <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Fireworks Events.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... 2013-07-01 false Northern California and Lake Tahoe <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Fireworks...Guard District § 165.1191 Northern California and Lake Tahoe <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Fireworks... Location Off South Lake Tahoe, California near the Nevada Border....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">57</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE2005837184"> <span id="translatedtitle">Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-<span class="hlt">Burn</span> Natural Gas Engines. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Technical Progress Report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The research program conducted at the West Virginia University Engine and Emissions Research Laboratory (EERL) is working towards the verification and optimization of an approach to remove nitric oxides from the exhaust gas of lean <span class="hlt">burn</span> natural gas engine...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. Clark G. Thompson R. Atkinson C. Tissera</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">58</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16824578"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trace elements in atmospheric particulate matter over a coal <span class="hlt">burning</span> power production <span class="hlt">area</span> of western Macedonia, Greece.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Total suspended particle (TSP) concentrations were determined in the Eordea basin (western Macedonia, Greece), an <span class="hlt">area</span> with intensive lignite <span class="hlt">burning</span> for power generation. The study was conducted over a one-year period (November 2000-November 2001) at 10 sites located at variable distances from the power plants. Ambient TSP samples were analyzed for 27 major, minor and trace elements. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> means of TSP concentrations ranged between 47+/-33 microg m(-3) and 110+/-50 microg m(-3) at 9 out of the 10 sites. Only the site closest to the power stations and the lignite conveyor belts exhibited <span class="hlt">annual</span> TSP levels (210+/-97 microg m(-3)) exceeding the European standard (150 microg m(-3), 80/779/EEC). Concentrations of TSP and almost all elemental components exhibited significant spatial variations; however, the elemental profiles of TSP were quite similar among all sites suggesting that they are affected by similar source types. At all sites, statistical analysis indicated insignificant (P<0.05) seasonal variation for TSP concentrations. Some elements (Cl, As, Pb, Br, Se, S, Cd) exhibited significantly higher concentrations at certain sites during the cold period suggesting more intense emissions from traffic, domestic heating and other combustion sources. On the contrary, concentrations significantly higher in the warm period were found at other sites mainly for crustal elements (Ti, Mn, K, P, Cr, etc.) suggesting stronger influence from soil resuspension and/or fly ash in the warm months. The most enriched elements against local soil or road dust were S, Cl, Cu, As, Se, Br, Cd and Pb, whereas negligible enrichment was found for Ti, Mn, Mg, Al, Si, P, Cr. At most sites, highest concentrations of TSP and elemental components were associated with low- to moderate-speed winds favoring accumulation of emissions from local sources. Influences from the power generation were likely at those sites located closest to the power plants and mining activities. PMID:16824578</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Petaloti, Christina; Triantafyllou, Athanasios; Kouimtzis, Themistoklis; Samara, Constantini</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-07-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">59</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/137417"> <span id="translatedtitle">P-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Reactor 1993 <span class="hlt">annual</span> groundwater monitoring report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Groundwater was sampled and analyzed during 1993 from wells monitoring the water table at the following locations in P <span class="hlt">Area</span>: well P 24A in the eastern section of P <span class="hlt">Area</span>, the P-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Acid/Caustic Basin, the P-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Coal Pile Runoff Containment Basin, the P-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Disassembly Basin, the P-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pit, and the P-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Seepage Basins. During 1993, pH was above its alkaline standard in well P 24A. Specific conductance was above its standard in one well each from the PAC and PCB series. Lead exceeded its 50 {mu}g/L standard in one well of the PDB series during one quarter. Tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene were detected above their final primary drinking water standards in one well of the PRP well series. Tritium was consistently above its DWS in the PDB and PSB series. Also during 1993, radium-228 exceeded the DWS for total radium in three wells of the PAC series and one well of the PCB series; total alpha-emitting radium exceeded the same standard in a different PCB well. These results are fairly consistent with those from previous years. Unlike results from past years, however, no halogenated volatiles other than trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene exceeded DWS in the PRP well series although gas chromatographic volatile organic analyses were performed throughout the year. Some of the regulated units in P <span class="hlt">Area</span> appear to need additional monitoring by new wells because there are insufficient downgradient wells, sometimes because the original well network, installed prior to regulation, included sidegradient rather than downgradient wells. No monitoring wells had been installed through 1993 at one of the RCRA/CERCLA units named in the Federal Facilities Agreement, the Bingham Pump Outage Pits.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NONE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">60</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2012110383"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probability and Volume of Potential Postwildfire Debris Flows in the 2011 Wallow <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Eastern Arizona.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> in 2011 by the Wallow wildfire in eastern Arizona. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> d...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. C. Ruddy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a 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href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">61</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15006512"> <span id="translatedtitle">Profile analysis of organic micropollutants in the environment of a coal <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, NW Greece.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The concentrations and profiles of dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls and polynuclear aromatic compounds in various environmental matrices are presented in this study. The examined environmental matrices are total suspended particles, fly ash and soil collected in NW Greece, an <span class="hlt">area</span> characterized by intensive coal <span class="hlt">burning</span> for electrical power generation. Moreover, the occurrence of organic micropollutants in soot after an accidental fire was examined and the possible impact on the outdoor environment was evaluated. Results were statistically treated to obtain information on representative PCDD/F profiles in each matrix and to compare these profiles with the compositional patterns of possible sources from literature. Coal combustion, fly ash and vehicle exhausts appeared to be the most possible sources in local atmosphere. PMID:15006512</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Voutsa, D; Terzi, H; Muller, L; Samara, C; Kouimtzis, Th</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">62</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/243444"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of soil contamination at the Riot Control <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Pit <span class="hlt">area</span> in J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A remedial investigation was conducted to identify soil contamination in the Riot Control <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Pit <span class="hlt">area</span> in J-field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The investigation included geophysical surveys to delineate the filled section of the pit, soil-gas surveys to locate the organic contamination <span class="hlt">area</span>, field X-ray fluorescence measurements along the <span class="hlt">burning</span> pit to identify the major metal contamination, and surface and subsurface soil analyses to investigate the nature and extent of contamination. This paper presents the results of this investigation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Ying-Ya; Yuen, C.R.; Martino, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">63</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B31G..04M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Potential impact of forest management and increased <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> on the C balance of Canada's managed forest in the 21st century. (Invited)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The strength and dynamics of C sinks in forest ecosystems affects the airborne fraction of future fossil fuel emissions. Climate change is expected to increase <span class="hlt">area</span> of boreal forest <span class="hlt">burned</span> by wildfire over the 21st century. If this reduces the sink strength of this biome, then achieving global atmospheric CO2 stabilization targets will become more difficult. In several recent studies, we have used empirical data from Canada’s National Forest Carbon Monitoring, Accounting and Reporting System (NFCMARS) and the Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3) to examine the potential interactive effects of a number of factors, including increases in <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, on the carbon dynamics of Canada’s managed forest over the 21st century. Our results show that forests risk being GHG sources under many foreseeable scenarios. However, significant uncertainties remain regarding the frequency and magnitude of extreme fire years, and trends in <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> cannot be statistically detected with certainty because of an extremely low signal to noise ratio, even if increases have actually occurred. Continued monitoring of forest responses to climatic and global change, the development of mitigation and adaptation strategies by forest managers, and global efforts to minimize climate change impacts on forests are all necessary. However, climate change will affect all forests every year, while forest managers can only affect a small proportion of the total forest every year. Thus, if the desire is to reduce the likelihood of potential positive feedback to climate change from forest ecosystems, then limiting the magnitude of climate change and the resulting impacts on forests is of primary importance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Metsaranta, J.; Kurz, W. A.; Stinson, G.; Neilson, E.; Canadian Forest Service Carbon Accounting Team</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">64</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/797618"> <span id="translatedtitle">ERRATA SHEET for Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Section 2.1.1.3 of the Table of Contents reference on Page v and on Page 12 of the Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada erroneously refers to the Nevada Environmental Policy Act Determination. The correct title of the referenced document is the National Environmental Policy Act Determination.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. B. Campbell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">65</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.robertburns.org/encyclopedia/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> Encyclopedia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Provide by <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Country, this full-text, online version of "the definitive Robert <span class="hlt">Burns</span> reference volume" serves as a useful handbook to Scotland's most famous poet and the intellectual circles in which he turned. The encyclopedia, which is in HTML format, is organized alphabetically. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Country offers a number of other related resources, chief among them a songs and poems archive containing 100 of the poet's works. Other features at the site include a discussion <span class="hlt">area</span>, <span class="hlt">Burns</span> and Scottish association links, and some commercial content.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lindsay, Maurice.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">66</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21639045"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scale-dependent controls on the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in the boreal forest of Canada, 1980-2005.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the boreal forest of North America, as in any fire-prone biome, three environmental factors must coincide for a wildfire to occur: an ignition source, flammable vegetation, and weather that is conducive to fire. Despite recent advances, the relative importance of these factors remains the subject of some debate. The aim of this study was to develop models that identify the environmental controls on spatial patterns in <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> for the period 1980-2005 at several spatial scales in the Canadian boreal forest. Boosted regression tree models were built to relate high-resolution data for <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> to an array of explanatory variables describing ignitions, vegetation, and long-term patterns in fire-conducive weather (i.e., fire climate) at four spatial scales (10(2) km2, 10(3) km2, 10(4) km2, and 10(5) km2). We evaluated the relative contributions of these controls on <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, as well as their functional relationships, across spatial scales. We also assessed geographic patterns of the influence of wildfire controls. The results indicated that extreme temperature during the fire season was a top control at all spatial scales, followed closely by a wind-driven index of ease of fire spread. However, the contributions of some variables differed substantially among the spatial scales, as did their relationship to <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. In fact, for some key variables the polarity of relationships was inverted from the finest to the broadest spatial scale. It was difficult to unequivocally attribute values of relative importance to the variables chosen to represent ignitions, vegetation, and climate, as the interdependence of these factors precluded clear partitioning. Furthermore, the influence of a variable on patterns of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> often changed enormously across the biome, which supports the idea that fire-environment relationships in the boreal forest are complex and nonstationary. PMID:21639045</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parisien, Marc-André; Parks, Sean A; Krawchuk, Meg A; Flannigan, Mike D; Bowman, Lynn M; Moritz, Max A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">67</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9625244"> <span id="translatedtitle">Successful recovery of 14 patients afflicted with full-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> for more than 70 per cent body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fourteen cases suffering full-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> of more than 70 per cent total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) have been successfully treated during the last 8 years (1988-1995). Among these patients, 10 cases suffered from <span class="hlt">burns</span> of more than 90 per cent TBSA. Five cases had full-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> of 80-90 per cent TBSA. Escharectomy, followed by coverage of wounds with a homograft to the lower surface of which, adjacent to the wound bed, microautoskin grafts had been attached was employed to close wounds in the early stages after <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The remaining non-surgically treated wound was treated by exposure and topical silver sulfadiazine. The temperature and humidity of the ward was controlled by air conditioning and dehumidification. Aggressive excision of eschar and auto-skingrafting was carried out 3 weeks post-injury. Strictly limiting the uncovered wound to less than 5 per cent appeared to be the major effective measure in preventing <span class="hlt">burn</span> infection. PMID:9625244</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhou, Y P; Zhou, Z H; Zhou, W M; Ren, J L; Wu, Y H; Rong, X Z; Yang, L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">68</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23898653"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Fire severity of burnt <span class="hlt">area</span> in Huzhong forest region of Great Xing' an Mountains, Northeast China based on normalized <span class="hlt">burn</span> ratio analysis].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Based on the TM images and 3S technology, and by using normalized <span class="hlt">burn</span> ratio (NBR) , this paper quantitatively evaluated the fire severity of burnt <span class="hlt">area</span> in Huzhong forest region of the Great Xing' an Mountains from 1986 to 2010, and analyzed the relationships of the fire severity with environmental factors such as vegetation type, elevation, slope, and aspect. In Huzhong forest region, the fire occurrence frequency and total burnt <span class="hlt">area</span> had an obvious inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> change. High incidence of forest fire was from June to August, and heavily burnt <span class="hlt">area</span> occupied 84. 2% of the total burnt <span class="hlt">area</span>. In the burnt <span class="hlt">area</span>, larch forest accounted for 89. 9%. 68. 8% of burnt <span class="hlt">area</span> located at the elevations from 1000 m to 1500 m, and 62. 5% located in eastern, southern, western, and northern slopes. There was no obvious difference in the burnt <span class="hlt">area</span> between sunny and shady slopes. The burnt <span class="hlt">area</span> at the slope degrees 15 degree-25 degrees occupied 38.4% of the total. High severity burnt <span class="hlt">area</span> was the largest (70% of the total), followed by moderate severity burnt <span class="hlt">area</span> (about 10%), and low severity burnt <span class="hlt">area</span> and un-burnt <span class="hlt">area</span> (<5% ). The majority of the forest fires in Huzhong forest region were of high severity fire, which caused great damages to the forest resources. It was suggested that in the forest fire management in Great Xing' an Mountains forest region, it would be urgent to implement forest fuel treatments to reduce fire severity to guarantee the forest ecosystem security. PMID:23898653</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Xiao-li; Wang, Wen-juan; Chang, Yu; Feng, Yu-ting; Chen, Hong-wei; Hu, Yuan-man; Chi, Jian-guo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">69</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....913407J"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> particle flux observations over a heterogeneous urban <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Long-term eddy covariance (EC) particle number flux measurements for the size range 6 nm to 5 ?m were performed at the SMEAR III station over urban <span class="hlt">area</span> in Helsinki, Finland. Heterogeneous urban environment allowed us to study the effect of different land-use classes in different wind directions on the measured fluxes. The particle fluxes were observed to be the highest from the road direction during weekdays with day-time median flux 0.8×109 m-2 s-1. Particle fluxes showed a~clear dependence on traffic rates and mixing conditions of the boundary layer. In the direction of road, the larger particle fluxes were dominated by smaller sizes. Footprint analysis was performed by using numerical modeling and emission rate of particles from road was estimated to be 0.8×1012 s-1 m-1 during day-time. With typical traffic rate of 2500 vehicles per hour this corresponds to average emission rate of 1.2×1015 vehicles-1 km-1. The particle fluxes from vegetated <span class="hlt">area</span> were the lowest with daytime median fluxes below 0.2×109 m-2 s-1. During weekends and nights the particle fluxes were low from all land use sectors being in the order of 0.02-0.1×109 m-2 s-1. On <span class="hlt">annual</span> scale, the highest fluxes were measured in winter when emissions from stationary combustion sources are higher.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Järvi, L.; Rannik, Ü.; Mammarella, I.; Sogachev, A.; Aalto, P. P.; Keronen, P.; Siivola, E.; Kulmala, M.; Vesala, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">70</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA013855"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of Ferric Oxide Surface <span class="hlt">Area</span> in Propellant <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Rate Enhancement (First Step Toward Modeling).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Results of efforts to correlate composite propellant <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate, ammonium perchlorate particle size distribution, and ferric oxide specific surface and level are presented. Results from laboratory-scale motor firings with HTPB- and CTPB-based propellants c...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. H. Burnside</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">71</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2012110381"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probability and Volume of Potential Postwildfire Debris Flows in the 2011 Monument <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Southeastern Arizona.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Monument wildfire in southeastern Arizona, in 2011. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. C. Ruddy K. L. Verdin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">72</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.3447B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mixing state of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> particles by single particle aerosol mass spectrometer in the urban <span class="hlt">area</span> of PRD, China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was used to characterize the single particle size and chemical composition of submicron aerosols in the urban <span class="hlt">area</span> of the Pearl River Delta region, China, for the period April 30 through May 22, 2010. A total of 696,465 particles were sized and chemically analyzed with both positive and negative ion spectra, in which 141,338 biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> particles were identified representing a significant source of submicron particles ˜20.3% by number. The results have revealed that biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> particles have experienced extensive atmospheric processing, finding that as much as 90.5% of the particles have internally mixed with secondary inorganic species. Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> particles were clustered into six distinct particle groups, comprising of K-Ca-rich, K-Na-rich, K-organic carbon (K-OC), K-elemental carbon (K-EC), K-the mixture of OC and EC (K-OCEC) and K-Secondary. K-OC was the largest contributor with a fraction of 22.9%, followed by K-Secondary type (21.4%) and K-OCEC (19.0%). K-Na-rich type was observed in 11.9% of the particles and 90% internally mixed with EC. The fraction of nitrate in biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> particles was 10% higher than in the non-biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> particles. The sodium and potassium in biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> particles could exhibit high affinity for nitrate gases during neutralization reactions, facilitating the particulate nitrate formation. Meanwhile, the particulate sulfate in particles in the droplet-mode size was also enhanced. The results added appreciably to the knowledge of aerosol characteristics in the PRD region atmosphere and could be applied to the climate models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bi, Xinhui; Zhang, Guohua; Li, Lei; Wang, Xinming; Li, Mei; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Zhou, Zhen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">73</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACP.....9.7847J"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> particle flux observations over a heterogeneous urban <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Long-term eddy covariance particle number flux measurements for the diameter range 6 nm to 5 ?m were performed at the SMEAR III station over an urban <span class="hlt">area</span> in Helsinki, Finland. The heterogeneity of the urban measurement location allowed us to study the effect of different land-use classes in different wind directions on the measured fluxes. The particle number fluxes were highest in the direction of a local road on weekdays, with a daytime median flux of 0.8×109 m-2 s-1. The particle fluxes showed a clear dependence on traffic rates and on the mixing conditions of the boundary layer. The measurement footprint was estimated by the use of both numerical and analytical models. Using the crosswind integrated form of the footprint function, we estimated the emission factor for the mixed vehicle fleet, yielding a median particle number emission factor per vehicle of 3.0×1014 # km-1. Particle fluxes from the vegetated <span class="hlt">area</span> were the lowest with daytime median fluxes below 0.2×109 m-2 s-1. During weekends and nights, the particle fluxes were low from all land use sectors being in the order of 0.02-0.1×109 m-2 s-1. On an <span class="hlt">annual</span> scale the highest fluxes were measured in winter, when emissions from stationary combustion sources are also highest. Particle number fluxes were compared with the simultaneously measured CO2 fluxes and similarity in their sources was distinguishable. For CO2, the median emission factor of vehicles was estimated to be 370 g km-1.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Järvi, L.; Rannik, Ü.; Mammarella, I.; Sogachev, A.; Aalto, P. P.; Keronen, P.; Siivola, E.; Kulmala, M.; Vesala, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">74</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11..890M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of vegetation spatial heterogeneity on soil enzyme activity in <span class="hlt">burned</span> Mediterranean <span class="hlt">areas</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly considered resilient to wildfires. However, depending on fire severity and recurrence, post-fire climatic conditions and plant community type, the recovery rate of the vegetation can greatly vary. Often, the post-fire vegetation cover remains low and sparsely distributed many years after the wildfire, which could have profound impacts on ecosystem functioning. In this work, we studied the influence of vegetation patchiness on soil enzyme activity (acid phosphatase, ?-glucosidase and urease), at the patch and landscape scales, in degraded dry Mediterranean shrublands affected by wildfires. At the patch scale, we assessed the variation in soil enzyme between bare soils and vegetation patches. At the landscape scale, we studied the relationships between soil enzyme activity and various landscape metrics (total patch cover, average interpatch length, average patch width, and patch density). The study was conducted in 19 sites in the Valencia Region (eastern Spain), which had been affected by large wildfires in 1991. Site selection aimed at capturing a wide range of the variability of post-fire plant recovery rates in Mediterranean <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The activities of the three enzymes were significantly higher in soils under the vegetation canopies than in adjacent bare <span class="hlt">areas</span>, which we attributed to the effect of plants on the soil amount of both enzyme substrates and enzymes. The differences between bare and plant microsites were larger in the case of the acid phosphatase and less marked for urease. The activity of acid phosphatase was also higher under patches of resprouter species than under patches of seeder species, probably due to the faster post-fire recovery and older age of resprouter patches in fire-prone ecosystems. Soil enzyme activities of ?-glucosidase and urease in both bare soils and vegetation patches showed no relationships with any of the landscape metrics analysed. However, the activity of acid phosphatase increased linearly with the total cover of vegetation patches, which is consistent with the strong effect of plant patches on the activity of this enzyme. According to our results, variations in the cover and composition of vegetation patches may have profound impacts on the soil enzyme activity and associated nutrient cycling processes in <span class="hlt">burned</span> Mediterranean <span class="hlt">areas</span>, particularly in the case of phosphorus. Keywords: wildfires, landscape metrics, Mediterranean shrublands, soil enzyme activity, resprouter species.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mayor, Á. G.; Goirán, S.; Bautista, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">75</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H53D0661Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Debris Flows Generated in Adjacent Unburned and Recently-<span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Areas</span>, Coronado National Memorial, Arizona</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An extreme precipitation sequence that set up over Arizona in late July, 2006, generated numerous debris flows in several <span class="hlt">areas</span> in southern Arizona. A weak but persistent cut-off low pressure system centered in eastern-central Arizona interacted with a moist monsoon flow from the south to trigger a series of rain events in late July. These increasingly wet storms culminated on July 31, when floods of record occurred and debris flows were generated at numerous mountain locations throughout southeastern Arizona. Intense precipitation in the Coronado National Memorial near the international border generated more than 20 debris flows in steep mountain drainages. Coronado NM encompasses 1924 ha, of which approximately 135 ha were <span class="hlt">burned</span> by a wildfire in May, 2006. Debris flows of various sizes were generated in both unburned and recently-<span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, providing an opportunity to evaluate the influence of wildfires on debris-flow generation. We mapped each debris flow, identified probable initiation mechanisms, and, for selected debris flows, surveyed channels or fans to estimate debris-flow volumes. Preliminary observations suggest that debris flows in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> initiated by intense runoff and failures in multiple small hillslope rills, whereas most debris flows in unburned <span class="hlt">areas</span> initiated as discrete shallow failures of colluvium over bedrock.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Youberg, A.; Pearthree, P. A.; Baker, V. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">76</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/269024"> <span id="translatedtitle">Focused feasibility study for surface soil at the main pits and pushout <span class="hlt">area</span>, J-field toxic <span class="hlt">burning</span> pits <span class="hlt">area</span>, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study of the J-Field <span class="hlt">area</span> at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). J-Field is located within the Edgewood <span class="hlt">Area</span> of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood <span class="hlt">Area</span> have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open <span class="hlt">burning</span>/open detonation. Portions of J-Field continue to be used for the detonation and disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by open <span class="hlt">burning</span>/open detonation under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patton, T.; Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Butler, J. [and others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">77</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.jonesctr.org/research/research_publications/Unrestricted/PlowmanAmerNaturalist156P386.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Dynamics of Bobcat (Lynx rufus) Home Range and Core Use <span class="hlt">Areas</span> in Mississippi</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the <span class="hlt">annual</span> dynamics of bobcat (Lynx rufus) home range and core use <span class="hlt">areas</span> by radiotracking 23 female and 6 male bobcats from 10 January 1989 to 31 January 1998 in Mississippi. We quantified space use by measuring changes in the dispersion and central tendency of bobcat locations (i.e., radiotelemetry locations) between <span class="hlt">annual</span> home range and core use <span class="hlt">areas</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bruce W. Plowman; L. Mike Conner; Michael J. Chamberlain; Bruce D. Leopold; Loren W. Burger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">78</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol1-sec100-1103.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 100.1103 - Northern California and Lake Tahoe <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> marine events.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Northern California and Lake Tahoe <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> marine events. 100.1103 ...SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1103 Northern California and Lake Tahoe <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> marine events. (a)...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">79</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0902028"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978-1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 Colorado.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) adopted by the Western Colorado Health Systems Agency opens with an introductory section that defines major <span class="hlt">areas</span> of concern. Five <span class="hlt">areas</span> are detailed: (1) disease prevention--school health education, personal health ha...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">80</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB82144742"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Housing Survey: 1977. Housing Characteristics for Selected Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Areas</span>: Newark, N.J. Standard Metropolitan Statistical <span class="hlt">Area</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report presents statistics on housing and household characteristics in the Newark, N.J., Standard Metropolitan Statistical <span class="hlt">Area</span> (SMSA). These statistics were derived from the 1977 - 78 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Housing Survey conducted in 20 selected SMSA's. The source...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">81</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPRS...79..199P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of spectral reflectance values to different <span class="hlt">burn</span> and vegetation ratios: A multi-scale approach applied in a fire affected <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of our study was to explore the spectral properties of fire-scorched (<span class="hlt">burned</span>) and non fire-scorched (vegetation) <span class="hlt">areas</span>, as well as <span class="hlt">areas</span> with different <span class="hlt">burn</span>/vegetation ratios, using a multisource multiresolution satellite data set. A case study was undertaken following a very destructive wildfire that occurred in Parnitha, Greece, July 2007, for which we acquired satellite images from LANDSAT, ASTER, and IKONOS. Additionally, we created spatially degraded satellite data over a range of coarser resolutions using resampling techniques. The panchromatic (1 m) and multispectral component (4 m) of IKONOS were merged using the Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening method. This very high-resolution imagery served as the basis to estimate the cover percentage of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, bare land and vegetation at pixel level, by applying the maximum likelihood classification algorithm. Finally, multiple linear regression models were fit to estimate each land-cover fraction as a function of surface reflectance values of the original and the spatially degraded satellite images.The main findings of our research were: (a) the Near Infrared (NIR) and Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) are the most important channels to estimate the percentage of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, whereas the NIR and red channels are the most important to estimate the percentage of vegetation in fire-affected <span class="hlt">areas</span>; (b) when the bi-spectral space consists only of NIR and SWIR, then the NIR ground reflectance value plays a more significant role in estimating the percent of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, and the SWIR appears to be more important in estimating the percent of vegetation; and (c) semi-<span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> comprising 45-55% <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and 45-55% vegetation are spectrally closer to <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the NIR channel, whereas those <span class="hlt">areas</span> are spectrally closer to vegetation in the SWIR channel. These findings, at least partially, are attributed to the fact that: (i) completely <span class="hlt">burned</span> pixels present low variance in the NIR and high variance in the SWIR, whereas the opposite is observed in completely vegetated <span class="hlt">areas</span> where higher variance is observed in the NIR and lower variance in the SWIR, and (ii) bare land modifies the spectral signal of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> more than the spectral signal of vegetated <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the NIR, while the opposite is observed in SWIR region of the spectrum where the bare land modifies the spectral signal of vegetation more than the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> because the bare land and the vegetation are spectrally more similar in the NIR, and the bare land and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> are spectrally more similar in the SWIR.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pleniou, Magdalini; Koutsias, Nikos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">82</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40723710"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical mass balance source apportionment of TSP in a lignite-<span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> of Western Macedonia, Greece</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Total suspended particle mass concentrations (TSP) were determined in the Kozani-Ptolemais-Florina basin (western Macedonia, Greece), an <span class="hlt">area</span> with intensive lignite <span class="hlt">burning</span> for power generation. The study was conducted over a 1-year period (November 2000–November 2001) at 10 receptor sites located at variable distances from the power plants. Ambient TSP samples were analyzed for 27 major, minor and trace elements. Particulate</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Constantini Samara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">83</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1244/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probability and volume of potential postwildfire debris flows in the 2010 Fourmile <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, Boulder County, Colorado</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Fourmile Creek fire in Boulder County, Colorado, in 2010. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volumes of debris flows for selected drainage basins. Data for the models include <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, rainfall total and intensity for a 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainstorm, and topographic and soil property characteristics. Several of the selected drainage basins in Fourmile Creek and Gold Run were identified as having probabilities of debris-flow occurrence greater than 60 percent, and many more with probabilities greater than 45 percent, in response to the 25-year recurrence, 1-hour rainfall. None of the Fourmile Canyon Creek drainage basins selected had probabilities greater than 45 percent. Throughout the Gold Run <span class="hlt">area</span> and the Fourmile Creek <span class="hlt">area</span> upstream from Gold Run, the higher probabilities tend to be in the basins with southerly aspects (southeast, south, and southwest slopes). Many basins along the perimeter of the fire <span class="hlt">area</span> were identified as having low probability of occurrence of debris flow. Volume of debris flows predicted from drainage basins with probabilities of occurrence greater than 60 percent ranged from 1,200 to 9,400 m3. The predicted moderately high probabilities and some of the larger volumes responses predicted for the modeled storm indicate a potential for substantial debris-flow effects to buildings, roads, bridges, culverts, and reservoirs located both within these drainages and immediately downstream from the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. However, even small debris flows that affect structures at the basin outlets could cause considerable damage.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruddy, Barbara C.; Stevens, Michael R.; Verdin, Kristine;</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">84</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901172"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 8 Illinois.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) of the Health Systems Agency for Kane, Lake and McHenry Counties in Illinois is provided. The document is divided into three main sections: introduction, which explains the statutory authority for health planning, the ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">85</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901173"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3, Colorado.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document contains (1) the health system components not addressed in the first volume of the Western Colorado Health Systems Agency's health systems plan; (2) supplemental documents; and (3) the <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan. The opening material deals w...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">86</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901963"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 13 California.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Orange County Health Planning Council in California developed this <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP). Introductory remarks address requirements of the National Health Planning and Resources Development Act (P.L. 93-641), the link between the health sys...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">87</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901532"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 Georgia.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) of the North Central Georgia Health Systems Agency, Inc., identifies specific priority short-term objectives relevant to health status and the health system. Introductory comments focus on the purpose of the AIP, the p...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">88</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901833"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 8 Texas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) of the South Texas Health Systems Agency identifies short-range recommended actions to achieve health-related goals and objectives. Introductory comments concern the scope of the AIP, procedures for revising the AIP, ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">89</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901610"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 Texas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In preparing this <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP), the West Texas Health Systems Agency considered the objectives, recommended actions, and resource requirements pertinent to health status and the health system. The introduction explores AIP development,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">90</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.kcl.ac.uk/content/1/c4/97/47/yongwoosteretal.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and forest fire carbon emission estimates for the Russian Federation from SPOT VGT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Russian boreal forests contain around 25% of all global terrestrial carbon, some of which is released to the atmosphere when the forests <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Whilst it is well known that fire is widespread in the boreal environment, there is a lack of good quality quantitative data on the extent of fire activity in Russian forests and on its interannual variation. This</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y.-H. Zhang; M. J. Wooster; O. Tutubalina; G. L. W. Perry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">91</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1188/@displayLabelpdf@noteDOCUMENT#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1188/ofr2012-1188.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1188/ofr2012-1188_pl1.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1188/ofr2012-1188_pl3.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1188/ofr2012-1188_pl2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimated probability of postwildfire debris flows in the 2012 Whitewater-Baldy Fire <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, southwestern New Mexico</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In May and June 2012, the Whitewater-Baldy Fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> approximately 1,200 square kilometers (300,000 acres) of the Gila National Forest, in southwestern New Mexico. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 128 basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Whitewater-Baldy Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed by using data from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> basins throughout the intermountain Western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows along the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> drainage network and for selected drainage basins within the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. The models incorporate measures of areal <span class="hlt">burned</span> extent and severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall intensity to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to the 2-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, modeling indicated that four basins have high probabilities of debris-flow occurrence (greater than or equal to 80 percent). For the 10-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, an additional 14 basins are included, and for the 25-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, an additional eight basins, 20 percent of the total, have high probabilities of debris-flow occurrence. In addition, probability analysis along the stream segments can identify specific reaches of greatest concern for debris flows within a basin. Basins with a high probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in the west and central parts of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, including tributaries to Whitewater Creek, Mineral Creek, and Willow Creek. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from about 3,000-4,000 cubic meters (m3) to greater than 500,000 m3 for all design storms modeled. Drainage basins with estimated volumes greater than 500,000 m3 included tributaries to Whitewater Creek, Willow Creek, Iron Creek, and West Fork Mogollon Creek. Drainage basins with estimated debris-flow volumes greater than 100,000 m3 for the 25-year-recurrence event, 24 percent of the basins modeled, also include tributaries to Deep Creek, Mineral Creek, Gilita Creek, West Fork Gila River, Mogollon Creek, and Turkey Creek, among others. Basins with the highest combined probability and volume relative hazard rankings for the 25-year-recurrence rainfall include tributaries to Whitewater Creek, Mineral Creek, Willow Creek, West Fork Gila River, West Fork Mogollon Creek, and Turkey Creek. Debris flows from Whitewater, Mineral, and Willow Creeks could affect the southwestern New Mexico communities of Glenwood, Alma, and Willow Creek. The maps presented herein may be used to prioritize <span class="hlt">areas</span> where emergency erosion mitigation or other protective measures may be necessary within a 2- to 3-year period of vulnerability following the Whitewater-Baldy Fire. This work is preliminary and is subject to revision. It is being provided because of the need for timely "best science" information. The assessment herein is provided on the condition that neither the U.S. Geological Survey nor the U.S. Government may be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the assessment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tillery, Anne C.; Matherne, Anne Marie; Verdin, Kristine L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">92</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE2004831230"> <span id="translatedtitle">Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> (Tonopah Test Range). CAU 484 consists of sites located at the Tonopah Test...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">93</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60080306"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical <span class="hlt">Area</span> 54, <span class="hlt">Area</span> G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As a condition to the Disposal Authorization Statement issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) on March 17, 2010, a comprehensive performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program must be implemented for the Technical <span class="hlt">Area</span> 54, <span class="hlt">Area</span> G disposal facility. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> determinations of the adequacy of the performance assessment and composite analysis are to be conducted under</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sean B. French; Rob Shuman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">94</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901025"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 1 Kentucky.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Kentucky Health Systems Agency-West, Inc., developed this <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP). Four sections comprise the plan: (1) introduction--definition of the AIP and its relation to the health systems plan, the scope and content of the AIP, intende...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">95</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901835"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 1 Arizona.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) of the Central Arizona Health Systems Agency provides a framework for implementing the health systems agency by outlining short-range goals and objectives. The introduction to the AIP explores the legal basis of the A...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">96</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901044"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 6 Texas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) of the Central Texas Health Systems Agency, Inc., is detailed in this report. Short-range health care objectives and activities that will initiate the process of achieving long-range goals specified in the agency's hea...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">97</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.5260C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wet deposition of major ions in a rural <span class="hlt">area</span> impacted by biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work concerns the influence of industrialized agriculture in the tropics on precipitation chemistry. A total of 264 rain events were sampled using a wet-only collector in central São Paulo State, Brazil, between January 2003 and July 2007. Electroneutrality balance calculations (considering H +, K +, Na +, NH4+, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Cl -, NO3-, SO42-, F -, PO43-, H 3CCOO -, HCOO -, CO42- and HCO3-) showed that there was an excess of cations (˜15%), which was attributed to the presence of unmeasured organic anion species originating from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and biogenic emissions. On average, the three ions NH4+, NO 3- and H + were responsible for >55% of the total ion concentrations in the rainwater samples. Concentrations (except of H +) were significantly higher ( t-test; P = 0.05), by between two to six-fold depending on species, during the winter sugar cane harvest period, due to the practice of pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span> of the crop. Principal component analysis showed that three components could explain 88% of the variance for measurements made throughout the year: PC1 (52%, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and soil dust resuspension); PC2 (26%, secondary aerosols); PC3 (10%, road transport emissions). Differences between harvest and non-harvest periods appeared to be mainly due to an increased relative importance of road transport/industrial emissions during the summer (non-harvest) period. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of ammonium (23.4 ?mol L -1) and nitrate (17.5 ?mol L -1) in rainwater samples collected during the harvest period were similar to those found in rainwater from São Paulo city, which emphasizes the importance of including rural agro-industrial emissions in regional-scale atmospheric chemistry and transport models. Since there was evidence of a biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> source throughout the year, it appears that rainwater composition will continue to be affected by vegetation fires, even after sugar cane <span class="hlt">burning</span> is phased out as envisaged by recent São Paulo State legislation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coelho, Cidelmara H.; Allen, Andrew G.; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Orlando, Eduardo A.; Grigoletto, Tahuana L. B.; Campos, M. Lucia A. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">98</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901252"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1977-1978. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 1 Florida.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Florida Panhandle Health Systems Agency, Inc., developed this <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) to serve as a basis for community action improving the health of residents in the service <span class="hlt">area</span>. The AIP does not address all goals and objectives contained ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">99</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0030775"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1979-1980. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 6 Pennsylvania.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) of the Health Systems Agency of Southwestern Pennsylvania specifies short-term goals, objectives, recommended actions, and resource requirements for selected components of the health systems plan. Three major <span class="hlt">areas</span> of...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">100</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901089"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Systems Plan and <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Texas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document, which contains a health systems plan (HSP) and an <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan, was prepared by the Texas <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Health Systems Agency, Inc. The document's sections are: Introduction (discusses the responsibility for health planning, the HSP,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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<img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">101</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901090"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Systems Plan and <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Texas. Appendix.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Statistical and graphical data are compiled in these appendixes to the health systems plan/<span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation of the Texas <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Health Systems Agency. The data concern physical health, mental health, environmental health, health concerns, health fina...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">102</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901607"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1979-1980. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 Pennsylvania.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The concern of the introductory section of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) for Northeast Pennsylvania is with the relationship between recommended actions and priorities contained in both the AIP and the health systems plan. <span class="hlt">Areas</span> of priority in the ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">103</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901076"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Systems Plan for 1978-1982 and <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 4 Missouri.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Southwest Missouri Health Systems Agency developed this health systems plan (HSP) and <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) to serve the State's Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> IV. The introduction discusses the framework of the HSP. Other sections address national pl...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">104</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901045"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Systems Plan and <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 6 Texas. Summary.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This health systems plan (HSP) and <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) summary was prepared by the Central Texas Health Systems Agency, Inc., servicing a 30-county <span class="hlt">area</span>, to guide the achievement of its mandated functions. Twenty-eight concerns were identifie...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">105</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901010"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Systems Plan and <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978-1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 1 Texas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document contains the health systems plan (HSP) and the <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) developed by the Panhandle Health Systems Agency to serve a 25-county <span class="hlt">area</span> in Texas. Contents: Introduction--addresses the responsibility for health planning and...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">106</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901622"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1979-1980. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 Kansas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The preface to the <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP), provides information on the agency's responsibilities concerning AIP and health systems plan implementation. <span class="hlt">Areas</span> targeted include such health status issues as chronic disease and dental problems, prev...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">107</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2379923"> <span id="translatedtitle">How to manage <span class="hlt">burns</span> in primary care.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> are common injuries; more than 200,000 occur in Canada <span class="hlt">annually</span>. Nearly all <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries can be managed on on outpatient basis. Appropriate treatment depends on <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth, extent, and location. Special types of <span class="hlt">burns</span>, such as chemical, tar, and electrical injuries, need specific management strategies. Prevention through education is important to reduce the incidence of <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Images Figure 2 Figure 3</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Waitzman, A. A.; Neligan, P. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">108</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29585202"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> following petrol sniffing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two patients with <span class="hlt">burns</span> following petrol sniffing are presented. They sustained an 8 per cent and a 70 per cent total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The majority of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> of both patients were full thickness and were treated by early excision and autografting, and in one patient with cultured epidermal autografts also. Both patients came from disorganized families,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. F. Janeži?</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">109</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42528383"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial and temporal scale issues in determining biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> regimes in Bolivia and Peru</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">ATSR?2 active fire data from 1996 to 2000, TRMM VIRS fire counts from 1998 to 2000 and <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars derived from SPOT VEGETATION (the Global Burnt <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2000 product) were mapped for Peru and Bolivia to analyse the spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">burning</span> and its intra? and inter?<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability. The fire season in the region mainly occurs between May and October;</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. V. Bradley; A. C. Millington</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">110</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2013102619"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chignik Management <span class="hlt">Area</span> Salmon and Herring <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Management Report, 2011.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report is a summary of the 2011 commercial Pacific herring Clupea pallasii and Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. fisheries within the Chignik Management <span class="hlt">Area</span> (CMA; <span class="hlt">Area</span> L). The CMA encompasses all coastal waters and inland drainages of the northwest G...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. W. Nichols T. J. Anderson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8795E..1IP"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationships between vegetation indices and different <span class="hlt">burn</span> and vegetation ratios: a multi-scale approach applied in a fire affected <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vegetation indices have been widely used in remote sensing literature for <span class="hlt">burned</span> land mapping and monitoring. In the present study we used satellite data (IKONOS, LANDSAT, ASTER, MODIS) of multiple spectral (visible, near, shortwave infrared) and spatial (1-500 meters) resolutions, acquired shortly after a very destructive fire occurred in the mountain of Parnitha in Attica, Greece the summer of 2007. The aim of our study is to examine and evaluate the performance of some vegetation indices for <span class="hlt">burned</span> land mapping and also to characterize the relationships between vegetation indices and the percent of fire-scorched (<span class="hlt">burned</span>) and non fire-scorched (vegetated) <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The available satellite images were processed geometrically, radiometrically and atmospherically. The very high resolution IKONOS imagery was served as a base to estimate the percent of cover of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, bare soil and vegetation by applying the maximum likelihood classification algorithm. The percent of cover for each type was then correlated to vegetation indices for all the satellite images, and regression models were fit to characterize those relationships. In total 57 versions of some classical vegetation indices were computed using LANDSAT, ASTER and MODIS data. Most of them were modified by replacing Red with SWIR channel, as the latter has been proved sensitive to <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> discrimination. IPVI and NDVI showed a better performance among the indices tested to estimate the percent of vegetation, while most of the modified versions of the indices showed highest performance to estimate the percent of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pleniou, M.; Koutsias, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001HyPr...15.2995W"> <span id="translatedtitle">A GIS-based hillslope erosion and sediment delivery model and its application in the Cerro Grande <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An Erratum has been published for this article in Hydrological Processes 16(5) 2002, 1130-1130.A profile-based, analytical hillslope erosion model (HEM) is integrated into a geographical information system (GIS) framework to provide a tool to assess the impact of the Cerro Grande fire on erosion and sediment delivery to the many streams draining the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. The model, HEM-GIS, calculates rill and interrill erosion, transport and deposition along digital flow-pathways generated with GIS software. This new erosion and sediment yield technology accounts for complex terrain attributes and their impact on the connectivity of sediment transport pathways from source <span class="hlt">areas</span> to streams. GIS digital spatial data, including elevation, vegetation cover, <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity and soil type, are used as input to the model. Output includes spatially distributed predictions of total event-based sediment yield (tonnes or kilograms per square metre). Here the model is applied across an 800 km2 region of the Pajarito Plateau watershed to assess the sedimentation risks associated with a 100 year design rain event. Although unvalidated for the design storm, the model predicts that the fire may cause runoff to increase by three to six times, and sediment yield to increase by more than an order of magnitude. Published in 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilson, Cathy J.; Carey, J. William; Beeson, Peter C.; Gard, Marvin O.; Lane, Leonard J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.4024C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of emissions from open biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Tropical Asia during 2000-2007</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in tropical Asia emits large amounts of trace gases and particulate matters to atmosphere, which have significant influence in climate change and atmospheric chemistry. Emissions from open biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in tropical Asia are estimated during seven fire years 2000-2006 (i.e., April 1st 2000-March 31st 2007), using newly released L3JRC <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product and MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product (MCD45A1). Over seven fire years, both <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> and fire emissions showed clearly spatial and inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variations. The L3JRC <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged from 31.3×103 km2 for fire year 2005 to 57.5×103 km2 for 2000, while the MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged from 64.9×103 km2 for fire year 2002 to 127.0×103 km2 for 2004. We compared the total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> and forest <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> derived from the two separate products with publication data for several typical countries and found that the L3JRC results were comparable to previous studies and the MODIS results showed significant overestimation. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> average L3JRC-based emissions were 29915, 1948, 90, 30, 12, 105, and 871 Gg yr-1 for CO2, CO, CH4, NOx, BC, OC, and PM2.5 respectively, while MODIS-based emissions were 86740, 5222, 230, 83, 33, 296, and 2188 Gg yr-1, 60.2%-65.5% higher than L3JRC. Forest fires were the largest contributor to fire emissions, though <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> within forest biomes only constituted a minority of total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Fire emissions were mainly concentrated in Myanmar, Cambodia and India. Furthermore, the seasonal distribution of fire emissions was in good agreement with that of total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57671007"> <span id="translatedtitle">Remote Sensing-Based Estimates of <span class="hlt">Annual</span> and Seasonal Emissions from Crop Residue <span class="hlt">Burning</span> in the Contiguous United States</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> is an extensive agricultural practice in the contiguous United States (CONUS). This analysis presents the results of a remote sensing-based study of crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions in the CONUS for the time period 2003–2007 for the atmospheric species of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), PM2.5 (particulate matter [PM</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jessica L. McCarty</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2012110384"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probability and Volume of Potential Postwildfire Debris Flows in the 2011 Indian Gulch <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Near Gordon, Colorado.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report presents an assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> in 2011 by the Indian Gulch wildfire near Golden, Colorado. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> drainage basi...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. C. Ruddy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2008105486"> <span id="translatedtitle">Appalachia High Intensity Drug Trafficking <span class="hlt">Area</span>, CY 2005 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Established in 1998, the Appalachia HIDTA consists of 68 counties spread across Southeastern Kentucky, Eastern Tennessee, and Southwestern West Virginia. These counties comprise the predominant marijuana production and trafficking <span class="hlt">areas</span> of this tri-state ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2008105494"> <span id="translatedtitle">Arizona Region High Intensity Drug Trafficking <span class="hlt">Area</span>, 2005 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Arizona Region HIDTA covers eight counties: Cochise, La Paz, Maricopa, Mohave, Pima, Pinal, Santa Cruz, and Yuma. Arizonas 372-mile border with Mexico consists of sparsely populated <span class="hlt">areas</span>, vast expanses of rugged mountainous terrain aligned in north-s...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/273755"> <span id="translatedtitle">An optimized groundwater extraction system for the toxic <span class="hlt">burning</span> pits <span class="hlt">area</span> of J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Testing and disposal of chemical warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals at the J-Field <span class="hlt">area</span> of the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) have resulted in contamination of soil and groundwater. The discharge of contaminated groundwater to on-site marshes and adjacent estuaries poses a potential risk to ecological receptors. The Toxic <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Pits (TBP) <span class="hlt">area</span> is of special concern because of its disposal history. This report describes a groundwater modeling study conducted at J-Field that focused on the TBP <span class="hlt">area</span>. The goal of this modeling effort was optimization of the groundwater extraction system at the TBP <span class="hlt">area</span> by applying linear programming techniques. Initially, the flow field in the J-Field vicinity was characterized with a three-dimensional model that uses existing data and several numerical techniques. A user-specified border was set near the marsh and used as a constraint boundary in two modeled remediation scenarios: containment of the groundwater and containment of groundwater with an impermeable cap installed over the TBP <span class="hlt">area</span>. In both cases, the objective was to extract the minimum amount of water necessary while satisfying the constraints. The smallest number of wells necessary was then determined for each case. This optimization approach provided two benefits: cost savings, in that the water to be treated and the well installation costs were minimized, and minimization of remediation impacts on the ecology of the marsh.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Quinn, J.J.; Johnson, R.L.; Patton, T.L.; Martino, L.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGD....1014141F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fractal properties of forest fires in Amazonia as a basis for modelling pan-tropical <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Current methods for modelling burnt <span class="hlt">area</span> in Dynamic Global Vegetation Models involve complex fire spread calculations, which rely on many inputs, including fuel characteristics, wind speed and countless parameters. They are therefore susceptible to large uncertainties through error propagation. Using observed fractal distributions of fire scars in Brazilian Amazonia, we propose an alternative burnt <span class="hlt">area</span> model for tropical forests, with fire counts as sole input and few parameters. Several parameterizations of two possible distributions are calibrated at multiple spatial resolutions using a satellite-derived <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> map, and compared. The tapered Pareto model most accurately simulates the total <span class="hlt">area</span> burnt (only 3.5 km2 larger than the recorded 16 387 km2) and its spatial distribution. When tested pan-tropically using MODIS MCD14ML fire counts, the model accurately predicts temporal and spatial fire trends, but produces generally higher estimates than the GFED3.1 burnt <span class="hlt">area</span> product, suggesting higher pan-tropical carbon emissions from fires than previously estimated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fletcher, I. N.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Lima, A.; Shimabukuro, Y.; Friedlingstein, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60744064"> <span id="translatedtitle">1997 Comprehensive TNX <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX <span class="hlt">Area</span> at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and carbon tetrachloride. In November 1994, an Interim Record of Decision (IROD) was agreed to and signed by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the South Carolina Department</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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<img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7562"> <span id="translatedtitle">1998 Comprehensive TNX <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX <span class="hlt">Area</span> at the Savannah River Site has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride. The Interim Action T-1 Air Stripper System began operation on September 16, 1996. A comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. The Interim Action is meeting its objectives and is capable of continuing to do so until the final groundwater remedial action is in place.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chase, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-06-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/962482"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scotch Creek Wildlife <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2007-2008 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Scotch Creek Wildlife <span class="hlt">Area</span> is a complex of 6 separate management units located in Okanogan County in North-central Washington State. The project is located within the Columbia Cascade Province (Okanogan sub-basin) and partially addresses adverse impacts caused by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee hydroelectric dams. With the acquisition of the Eder unit in 2007, the total size of the wildlife <span class="hlt">area</span> is now 19,860 acres. The Scotch Creek Wildlife <span class="hlt">Area</span> was approved as a wildlife mitigation project in 1996 and habitat enhancement efforts to meet mitigation objectives have been underway since the spring of 1997 on Scotch Creek. Continuing efforts to monitor the threatened Sharp-tailed grouse population on the Scotch Creek unit are encouraging. The past two spring seasons were unseasonably cold and wet, a dangerous time for the young of the year. This past spring, Scotch Creek had a cold snap with snow on June 10th, a critical period for young chicks just hatched. Still, adult numbers on the leks have remained stable the past two years. Maintenance of BPA funded enhancements is necessary to protect and enhance shrub-steppe and to recover and sustain populations of Sharp-tailed grouse and other obligate species.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olson, Jim [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-11-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/942116"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shillapoo Wildlife <span class="hlt">Area</span>, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report 2006-2007.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report summarizes accomplishments, challenges and successes on WDFW's Shillapoo Wildlife <span class="hlt">Area</span> funded under Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wildlife Mitigation Program (BPA project No.2003-012-00) during the Fiscal Year 07 contract period October 1, 2006-September 30, 2007. The information presented here is intended to supplement that contained in BPA's PISCES contract development and reporting system. The organization below is by broad categories of work but references are made to individual work elements in the PISCES Statement of Work as appropriate. The greatest success realized during this contract period was significant positive changes in the vegetative community in several wetland basins throughout the wildlife <span class="hlt">area</span>. This major goal is being achieved in part by new equipment and operation capability funded under the BPA contract, state capital and migratory bird stamp funds, and the past or ongoing investment of other partners including Ducks Unlimited, The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Clark Public Utilities and others. We continue to be challenged by requirements under the archaeological and historic preservation act necessary to protect many sensitive sites known to occur within the wildlife <span class="hlt">area</span>. The problems encountered to date have been largely administrative in nature and those experienced this year were unforeseen and probably unavoidable. Early in the contract period, WDFW and BPA had agreed to have a BPA staff archaeologist perform the survey and reporting work. Unexpectedly, just prior to the expected start date for the surveys, the employee resigned leaving BPA's staff short handed and necessitated contracting the work with an archaeological consultant. This delay caused us to forego work on several projects that are now deferred until the next contract period. The most notable projects impacted by this unfortunate circumstance are those involving the construction or repair of fences.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Calkins, Brian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/942117"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shillapoo Wildlife <span class="hlt">Area</span>, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report 2004-2005.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report summarizes accomplishments, challenges and successes on WDFW's Shillapoo Wildlife <span class="hlt">Area</span> funded under Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wildlife Mitigation Program (BPA project No.2003-012-00) during the Fiscal Year 05 contract period October 1, 2004-September 30, 2005. The information presented here is intended to supplement that contained in BPA's PISCES contract development and reporting system. The organization below is by broad categories of work but references are made to individual work elements in the PISCES Statement of Work as appropriate. The greatest success realized during this contract period was completion of the water system that will provide water to wetland basins within the Vancouver Lake Unit and three independent basins on adjoining Clark County owned lands. The water system paid for by Clark Public Utilities was designed and built under the direction of Ducks Unlimited. Having a reliable water supply for these <span class="hlt">areas</span> has allowed us for the first time to begin making significant progress toward our wetland vegetation management goals on this unit. A reduction in the density of reed canary grass has already been noted and increased levels of native plant occurrence have been observed. Our most notable setback was an increase in the infestation of purple loosestrife within a portion of the Shillapoo Lakebed including parts of the North and South Units. A great deal of effort and time was spent on addressing the problem including hand cutting and spraying individual plants.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Calkins, Brian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/630837"> <span id="translatedtitle">1997 Comprehensive TNX <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX <span class="hlt">Area</span> at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and carbon tetrachloride. In November 1994, an Interim Record of Decision (IROD) was agreed to and signed by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the South Carolina Department of Health {ampersand} Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The Interim Record of Decision requires the installation of a hybrid groundwater corrective action (HGCA) to stabilize the plume of groundwater contamination and remove CVOCs dissolved in the groundwater. The hybrid groundwater corrective action included a recovery well network, purge water management facility, air stripper, and an airlift recirculation well. The recirculation well was dropped pursuant to a test that indicated it to be ineffective at the TNX <span class="hlt">Area</span>. Consequently, the groundwater corrective action was changed from a hybrid to a single action, pump-and-treat approach. The Interim Action (IA) T-1 air stripper system began operation on September 16, 1996. a comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. As of December 31, 1997, the system has treated 32 million gallons of contaminated groundwater removed 32 pounds of TCE. The recovery well network created a `capture zone` that stabilized the plume of contaminated groundwater.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chase, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/942115"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shillapoo Wildlife <span class="hlt">Area</span>, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report 2007-2008.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report summarizes accomplishments, challenges and successes on WDFW's Shillapoo Wildlife <span class="hlt">Area</span> funded under Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wildlife Mitigation Program (BPA project No.2003-012-00) during the Fiscal Year 08 contract period October 1, 2007-September 30, 2008. The information presented here is intended to supplement that contained in BPA's PISCES contract development and reporting system. The organization below is by broad categories of work but references are made to individual work elements in the PISCES Statement of Work as appropriate. Significant progress was realized in almost all major work types. Of particular note was progress made in tree plantings and pasture rehabilitation efforts. This year's tree planting effort included five sites detailed below and in terms of the number of plants was certainly the largest effort on the wildlife <span class="hlt">area</span> to date in one season. The planting itself took a significant amount of time, which was anticipated. However, installation of mats and tubes took much longer than expected which impacted planned fence projects in particular. Survival of the plantings appears to be good. Improvement to the quality of waterfowl pasture habitats is evident on a number of sites due to replanting and weed control efforts. Continuing long-term weed control efforts will be key in improving this particular type of habitat. A prolonged cold, wet spring and a number of equipment breakdowns presented stumbling blocks that impacted schedules and ultimately progress on planned activities. The unusual spring weather delayed fieldwork on pasture planting projects as well as weed control and slowed the process of maintaining trees and shrubs. This time lag also caused the continued deferral of some of our fencing projects. The large brush hog mower had the driveline break twice and the smaller tractor had an engine failure that caused it to be down for over a month. We have modified our budget plan for next year to include a temporary employee that will work primarily on tree maintenance and fencing projects to make sure that we make progress in these <span class="hlt">areas</span> and we will be investigating whether a heavier duty driveline can be obtained for the mower.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Calkins, Brian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.5983R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlations between soil respiration and soil properties in sugarcane <span class="hlt">areas</span> under green and slash-and-<span class="hlt">burn</span> management systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Soil management causes changes in soil physical, chemical, and biological properties that consequently affect its CO2 emission. In this work we studied soil respiration (FCO2) in <span class="hlt">areas</span> with sugarcane production in southern Brazil under two different sugarcane management systems: green (G), consisting of mechanized harvesting that produces a large amount of crop residues left on the soil surface, and slash-and-<span class="hlt">burn</span> (SB), in which the residues are <span class="hlt">burned</span> before manual harvest, leaving no residues on the soil surface. The study was conducted after the harvest period in two side-by-side grids installed in adjacent <span class="hlt">areas</span>, having 20 measurement points each. The objective of this work was to determinate whether soil physical and chemical properties within each plot were useful in order to explain the spatial variability of FCO2, supposedly influence by each management system. Most of the soil physical properties studied showed no significant differences between management systems, but on the other hand most of the chemical properties differed significantly when SB and G <span class="hlt">areas</span> were compared. Total FCO2 was 31% higher in the SB plot (729 g CO2 m-2) when compared to the G plot (557 g CO2 m-2) throughout the 70-day period after harvest studied. This seems to be related to the sensitivity of FCO2 to precipitation events, as respiration in this plot increased significantly with increases in soil moisture. Despite temporal variability showed to be positively related to soil moisture, inside each management system there was a negative correlation (p<0.01) between the spatial changes of FCO2 and soil moisture (MS), R= -0.56 and -0.59 for G and SB respectively. There was no spatial correlation between FCO2 and soil organic matter in each management system, however, the humification index (Hum) of organic matter was negatively linear correlated with FCO2 in SB (R= -0.53, p<0.05) while positively linear correlated in G <span class="hlt">area</span> (R=0.42, p<0.10). The multiple regression model analysis applied in each management system indicates that 63% of the FCO2 spatial variability in G managed could be explained by the model: FCO2(G)= 4.11978 -0.07672MS + 0.0045Hum +1.5352K -0.04474FWP, where K and FWP are potassium content and free water porosity in G <span class="hlt">area</span>, respectively. On the other hand, 75% of FCO2 spatial variability in SB managed plot was accounted by the model: FCO2(SB) = 10.66774 -0.08624MS -0.02904Hum -2.42548K. Therefore, soil moisture, humification index of organic matter and potassium level were the main properties able to explain the spatial variability of FCO2 in both sugarcane management systems. This result indicates that changes in sugarcane management systems could result in changes on the soil chemical properties, mostly, especially humification index of organic matter. It seems that in conversion from slash-and-<span class="hlt">burn</span> to green harvest system, free water porosity turns to be an important aspect in order to explain part of FCO2 spatial variability in green managed system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rodrigo Panosso, Alan; Milori, Débora M. B. P.; Marques Júnior, José; Martin-Neto, Ladislau; La Scala, Newton, Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23644947"> <span id="translatedtitle">Concentrations and source apportionment of PM10 and associated elemental and ionic species in a lignite-<span class="hlt">burning</span> power generation <span class="hlt">area</span> of southern Greece.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ambient concentrations of PM10 and associated elemental and ionic species were measured over the cold and the warm months of 2010 at an urban and two rural sites located in the lignite-fired power generation <span class="hlt">area</span> of Megalopolis in Peloponnese, southern Greece. The PM10 concentrations at the urban site (44.2?±?33.6 ?g m(-3)) were significantly higher than those at the rural sites (23.7?±?20.4 and 22.7?±?26.9 ?g m(-3)). Source apportionment of PM10 and associated components was accomplished by an advanced computational procedure, the robotic chemical mass balance model (RCMB), using chemical profiles for a variety of local fugitive dust sources (power plant fly ash, flue gas desulfurization wet ash, feeding lignite, infertile material from the opencast mines, paved and unpaved road dusts, soil), which were resuspended and sampled through a PM10 inlet onto filters and then chemically analyzed, as well as of other common sources such as vehicular traffic, residential oil combustion, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>, uncontrolled waste <span class="hlt">burning</span>, marine aerosol, and secondary aerosol formation. Geological dusts (road/soil dust) were found to be major PM10 contributors in both the cold and warm periods of the year, with average <span class="hlt">annual</span> contribution of 32.6 % at the urban site vs. 22.0 and 29.0 % at the rural sites. Secondary aerosol also appeared to be a significant source, contributing 22.1 % at the urban site in comparison to 30.6 and 28.7 % at the rural sites. At all sites, the contribution of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> was most significant in winter (28.2 % at the urban site vs. 14.6 and 24.6 % at the rural sites), whereas vehicular exhaust contribution appeared to be important mostly in the summer (21.9 % at the urban site vs. 11.5 and 10.5 % at the rural sites). The highest contribution of fly ash (33.2 %) was found at the rural site located to the north of the power plants during wintertime, when winds are favorable. In the warm period, the highest contribution of fly ash was found at the rural site located to the south of the power plants, although it was less important (7.2 %). Moderate contributions of fly ash were found at the urban site (5.4 and 2.7 % in the cold and the warm period, respectively). Finally, the mine field was identified as a minor PM10 source, occasionally contributing with lignite dust and/or deposited wet ash dust under dry summer conditions, with the summertime contributions ranging between 3.1 and 11.0 % among the three sites. The non-parametric bootstrapped potential source contribution function analysis was further applied to localize the regions of sources apportioned by the RCMB. For the majority of sources, source regions appeared as being located within short distances from the sampling sites (within the Peloponnesse Peninsula). More distant Greek <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the NNE sector also appeared to be source regions for traffic emissions and secondary calcium sulfate dust. PMID:23644947</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Argyropoulos, G; Grigoratos, Th; Voutsinas, M; Samara, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881500"> <span id="translatedtitle">Explanation of Significant Difference (ESD) for the A-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (731-A/1A) and Rubble Pit (731-2A) (U)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The A-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (731-A/1A) and Rubble Pit (731-2A) (ABRP) operable unit (OU) is located in the northwest portion of Savannah River Site (SRS), approximately 2.4 kilometers (1.5 miles) south of the A/M <span class="hlt">Area</span> operations. Between 1951 and 1973, Pits 731-A and 731-1A were used to <span class="hlt">burn</span> paper, plastics, wood, rubber, rags, cardboard, oil, degreasers, and solvents. Combustible materials were <span class="hlt">burned</span> monthly. After <span class="hlt">burning</span> was discontinued in 1973, Pits 731-A and 731-1A were also converted to rubble pits and used to dispose of concrete rubble, bricks, tile, asphalt, plastics, metal, wood products, and rubber until about 1978. When the pits were filled to capacity, there were covered with compacted clay-rich native soils and vegetation was established. Pit 731-2A was only used as a rubble pit until 1983 after which the <span class="hlt">area</span> was backfilled and seeded. Two other potential source <span class="hlt">areas</span> within the OU were investigated and found to be clean. The water table aquifer (M-<span class="hlt">Area</span> aquifer) was also investigated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morgan, Randall</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-11-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901913"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1979-80. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 South Carolina.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Pee Dee Regional Health Systems Agency, Inc. of Florence, SC., prepared this <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) to outline a plan of action that meets health needs of <span class="hlt">area</span> residents. The introduction to the AIP discusses the legal basis for health plann...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901049"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1977-1978. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 4 North Carolina.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 1977-1978 <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) was prepared by the Capital Health Systems Agency, Inc., in Durham, North Carolina for the 11-county <span class="hlt">area</span> it serves. Contents: Introduction--describes the functioning of the health systems agency and the purp...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/82463"> <span id="translatedtitle">Work plan for focused feasibility study of the toxic <span class="hlt">burning</span> pits <span class="hlt">area</span> at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field <span class="hlt">area</span> at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCIA). J-Field is within the Edgewood <span class="hlt">Area</span> of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood <span class="hlt">Area</span> have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open <span class="hlt">burning</span> and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood <span class="hlt">Area</span> conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA)(predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-0021355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in which data were collected to model groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today-</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Biang, C.; Benioff, P.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE98054757"> <span id="translatedtitle">Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan for the F-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (231-F, 231-1F, and 231-2F).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this source unit Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan is to describe the preferred alternative for addressing the F-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (231-F and 231-1F) and Rubble Pit (231-2F) (FBRP) source unit located at SRS, in southwestern Aiken Cou...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. Palmer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/626453"> <span id="translatedtitle">D-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (431-D and 431-1D) Corrective Measures Study/Focused Feasibility Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this report is to determine alternatives which may be used to remediate the D-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (DBRP). An objective of this process is to provide decision makers adequate information to compare alternatives, select an appropriate remediation for the DBRP, and demonstrate the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements in the Record of Decision.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Mason, J.T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17011132"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clinical forensic evidence in <span class="hlt">burns</span>: rescuer <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the literature no systematic study is available on rescuer <span class="hlt">burn</span> for victims of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. This is a retrospective study of nine patients (five admitted and four outpatients) were treated in this hospital as rescuer <span class="hlt">burns</span> in 3.5 years. All nine patients were males. Average age of the patient treated on outpatient basis was 47 years (ranging between 44 and 52) and total <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> ranged for 1-4%. Average age of the five patients treated on inpatient basis was 32.6 years (ranging between 30 and 34). The total <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> ranged from 14.5 to 38%. During the period of study, in addition to nine rescuer <span class="hlt">burns</span>, one patient sustained <span class="hlt">burn</span> before the rescue attempt due to the victim hugging the rescuer. Based on the study of patterns of <span class="hlt">burn</span>, these patients were found to have three grades of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury: Grade 1--upper extremity involvement only. (A) only one upper extremity involvement, (B) both upper extremities involvement, Grade 2--upper extremity/extremities and face involvement, Grade 3--upper extremity/extremities, face-neck, adjacent chest and lower extremity involvement. PMID:17011132</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kumar, Pramod; Gopal, Kirun; Ramnani, Sunil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-09-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/766540"> <span id="translatedtitle">Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training <span class="hlt">Area</span> (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near <span class="hlt">Areas</span> 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> was used from the 1960s to 1980s to <span class="hlt">burn</span> excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the <span class="hlt">area</span> was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve the question of whether or not potentially hazardous wastes were generated at three of the four CASs within CAU 490, and whether or not potentially hazardous and radioactive wastes were generated at the fourth CAS in CAU 490 (CAS 09-54-001-09L2). Suspected CAS-specific COPCs include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, explosives, and uranium and plutonium isotopes. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-06-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3500004"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> comprise a major mechanism of injury, affecting millions of children worldwide, with causes including scald injury, fire injury, and child abuse. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> injuries tend to be classified based on the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> involved and the depth of injury. Large <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries have multisystemic manifestations, including injuries to all major organ systems, requiring close supportive and therapeutic measures. Management of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries requires intensive medical therapy for multi-organ dysfunction/failure, and aggressive surgical therapy to prevent sepsis and secondary complications. In addition, pain management throughout this period is vital. Specialized <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers, which care for these patients with multidisciplinary teams, may be the best places to treat children with major thermal injuries. This review highlights the major components of <span class="hlt">burn</span> care, stressing the pathophysiologic consequences of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury, circulatory and respiratory care, surgical management, and pain management of these often critically ill patients.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krishnamoorthy, Vijay; Ramaiah, Ramesh; Bhananker, Sanjay M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21979850"> <span id="translatedtitle">Firefighter <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries: predictable patterns influenced by turnout gear.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Approximately 100 firefighters suffer fatal injuries <span class="hlt">annually</span> and tens of thousands receive nonfatal injuries. Many of these injuries require medical attention and restricted activity but may be preventable. This study was designed to elucidate etiology, circumstances, and patterns of firefighter <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury so that further prevention strategies can be designed. In particular, modification of protective equipment, or turnout gear, is one potential strategy to prevent <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review was conducted with records of firefighters treated for <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury from 2005 to 2009. Data collected included age, gender, TBSA, <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth, anatomic location, total hospital days per patient, etiology, and circumstances of injury. Circumstances of injury were stratified into the following categories: removal/dislodging of equipment, failure of equipment to protect, training errors, and when excessive external temperatures caused patient sweat to boil under the gear. Over the 4-year period, 20 firefighters were treated for <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Mean age was 38.9 ± 8.9 years and 19 of 20 patients were male. Mean <span class="hlt">burn</span> size was 1.1 ± 2.7% TBSA. Eighteen patients suffered second-degree <span class="hlt">burns</span>, while two patients suffered first-degree <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Mean length of hospitalization was 2.45 days. Scald <span class="hlt">burns</span> were responsible for injury to 13 firefighters (65%). Flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> caused injury to four patients (20%). Only three patients received contact <span class="hlt">burns</span> (15%). The face was the site most commonly <span class="hlt">burned</span>, representing 29% of injuries. The hand/wrist and ears were the next largest groups, with 23 and 16% of the injuries, respectively. Other <span class="hlt">areas</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> included the neck (10%), arm (6.5%), leg (6.5%), knees (3%), shoulders (3%), and head (3%). Finally, the circumstance of injury was evaluated for each patient. Misuse and noncontiguous <span class="hlt">areas</span> of protective equipment accounted for 14 of the 20 injuries (70%). These <span class="hlt">burns</span> were caused when hot steam/liquid entered the gear via gaps in the sleeve or face mask. Three patients (15%) received injury due to removal/dislodging of their safety equipment, two patients (10%) suffered their injuries during training exercises when they were not wearing their safety equipment, and the final patient (5%) received <span class="hlt">burns</span> due to sweat evaporation. Firefighter <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries occur to predictable anatomic sites with common injury patterns. Modification and optimization of gear to eliminate gaps that allow steam/hot liquid entry may decrease <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Improving education regarding the use of protective equipment may also be beneficial. PMID:21979850</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kahn, Steven A; Patel, Jignesh H; Lentz, Christopher W; Bell, Derek E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2012113356"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probability and Volume of Potential Postwildfire Debris Flows in the 2012 Waldo Canyon <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> near Colorado Springs, Colorado.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the 2012 Waldo Canyon fire near Colorado Springs in El Paso County, Colorado. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data co...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. A. Dupree J. G. Elliott K. L. Verdin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2012110382"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probability and Volume of Potential Postwildfire Debris Flows in the 2011 Horseshoe II <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Southeastern Arizona.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> in 2011 by the Horseshoe II wildfire in southeastern Arizona. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recent...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. C. Ruddy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2011107310"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probability and Volume of Potential Postwildfire Debris Flows in the 2010 Fourmile <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Boulder County, Colorado.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Fourmile Creek fire in Boulder County, Colorado, in 2010. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from rec...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. C. Ruddy J. G. Elliott K. L. Verdin M. R. Stevens</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/787386"> <span id="translatedtitle">Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, February 2001)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended Corrective Action Alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 490 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range and the Tonopah Test Range and is approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training <span class="hlt">Area</span> (located southwest of <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> (located west of Main Lake); 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard (located north of the northwest corner of <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3); and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> (located south of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 9 Compound on the TTR). A Corrective Action Investigation was performed in July and August 2000, and analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified in soil at the Gun Propellant <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> or the Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>; therefore, there is no need for corrective actions at these two sites. Five soil samples at the Fire Training <span class="hlt">Area</span> and seven at the Sandia Service Yard exceeded PALs for total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel. Upon the identification of COCs specific to CAU 490, Corrective Action Objectives were developed based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the TTR, with the following three CAAs under consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure In Place - No Further Action With Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based on the results of this evaluation, the preferred choice for CAU 490 was Alternative 3. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site, and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at this site.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">DOE /NV</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-02-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr79522"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak discharges from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Montana through September 1978</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 173 stations maintained in 1978. Data are tabulated for the period of record. (Woodard-USGS)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Omang, R. J.; Parrett, C.; Hull, J. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr80340"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak discharges from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Montana through September 1979</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 173 stations maintained in 1979. Data in the report are tabulated for the period of record. (USGS)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Omang, R. J.; Parrett, C.; Hull, J. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1955-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1982/0270/report.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1982/0270/plate-1.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1982/0270/plate-2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak discharges from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Montana through September 1981</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 172 stations maintained in 1981. Data in the report are tabulated for the period of record. (USGS)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Omang, R. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr78219"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak discharges from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Montana through September 1977</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak stage and stream-discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 191 stations in 1977. Data are tabulated for 336 sites throughout the period of record. (Woodard-USGS)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Omang, R. J.; Hull, J. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/782394"> <span id="translatedtitle">1997-1998 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Review of the 200 West and 200 East <span class="hlt">area</span> performance assessments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An <span class="hlt">annual</span> review of the 200 West and 200 East <span class="hlt">Area</span> Performance Assessment (PA) analyses for fiscal year 1998 was completed. Burial ground disposal operations were found to be compliant with performance objectives in DOE Order 5820.2A. Other newly generated information and analyses relevant to PA assumptions and results were summarized. This report was initially submitted to the Department of Energy-Richland Office (DOE-RL) as a letter report in October, 1998.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">WOOD, M.I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-06-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB84208586"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Housing Characteristics for Selected Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Areas</span>: New York, N.Y., Standard Metropolitan Statistical <span class="hlt">Area</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report presents statistics on housing and household characteristics in the New York, N.Y., Standard Metropolitan Statistical <span class="hlt">Area</span>, based on interviews conducted from April 1980 through February 1981 with persons in a sample of about 15,000 housing un...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..77..725L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fluoride and sulfur dioxide indoor pollution situation and control in coal-<span class="hlt">burning</span> endemic <span class="hlt">area</span> in Zhaotong, Yunnan, China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The presented study aims to investigate the gaseous fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution level in the kitchen, traditional flue-curing barn and outdoor environment and to find economically feasible method to reduce fluorine and sulfur release. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentrations in air of outdoor environment, kitchen and traditional flue-curing barn were determined in 56 households in coal-<span class="hlt">burning</span> endemic fluorosis <span class="hlt">areas</span> of Zhaotong. Among these, 21 households in Yujiawan Village, Zhenxiong County, Zhaotong City were chosen for this experiment to reduce gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in traditional flue-curing barn air by using calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone (CDSL) instead of clay mixed with coal. The result showed that: (1) gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the outdoor air in Mangbu Township <span class="hlt">area</span> was 0.51 ?g dm?2?day and <0.05 mg m?3, respectively and in Xiaolongdong Township was 2.7 ?g dm?2 day and <0.05 mg m?3, respectively while in Zhaotong City these concentration were lower than the ambient air standard (3 ?g dm?2?day and 0.5 mg m?3, respectively). (2) The indoor gaseous fluoride concentration (3.7 ?g m?3) in air of kitchen with the improved coal stove was within the reference value (10 ?g m?3); SO2 concentration (0.94 mg m?3) in kitchen air had decline, but its concentration was still higher than indoor air quality standard (0.5 mg m?3). (3) Average concentration of gaseous fluoride and SO2 in air of traditional flue-curing barn of Xiaolongdong Township was 7.2 ?g m?3 and 6.8 mg m?3 respectively, and in Yujiawan village were 10.1 ?g m?3 and 14.4 mg m?3, respectively. (4) After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air decreased of 45% and 91%, respectively. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 pollution in the traditional flue-curing barn is very serious. The corn and chili baked by open stoves in traditional flue-curing barn (baking room) was also seriously polluted by fluoride and sulfur. After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air have declined markedly. The way of adding calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay as a binder for briquette-making is an economically feasible way to control the indoor pollution of fluorine and sulfur in coal-<span class="hlt">burning</span> endemic in Zhaotong, Yunnan.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Yonglin; Luo, Kunli; Li, Ling; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB80172158"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Housing Survey: 1976. Housing Characteristics for Selected Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Areas</span>: Providence-Pawtucket-Warwick, Rhode Island-Massachusetts. Standard Metrpolitan Statistical <span class="hlt">Area</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Statistics are presented on neighborhood and housing and household characteristics obtained from the 1976 - 1977 <span class="hlt">annual</span> housing survey conducted in the Providence - Pawtucket - Warwick, R.I. - Mass., region, 1 of 20 standard metropolitan statistical <span class="hlt">areas</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. E. Beach J. S. Maynard E. D. Montfort</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/626417"> <span id="translatedtitle">Record of Decision Remedial Alternative Selection for the D-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (431-D and 431-1D)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The D-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (DBRP) (431-D and 431-1D) Waste Unit is listed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3004(U) Solid Waste Management Unit/Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) unit in Appendix C of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS). This decision document presents the selected remedial alternative for the DBRP located at the SRS in Aiken, South Carolina.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Mason, J.T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/jd0823/2008JD010717/2008JD010717.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between MODIS fire hot spot count and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in a degraded tropical peat swamp forest in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A number of space-borne sensors observe radiant energy at thermal wavelengths. Thermal anomaly data, otherwise known as hotspot data, have been shown to be particularly correlated with the occurrence of active fires (a fire normally with a flaming component and\\/or smoldering component). Because of a lack of high-quality <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data, recent studies have used hotspot data as a proxy</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Tansey; J. Beston; A. Hoscilo; S. E. Page; C. U. Paredes Hernández</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/656906"> <span id="translatedtitle">Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan for the F-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (231-F, 231-1F, and 231-2F)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this source unit Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan is to describe the preferred alternative for addressing the F-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (231-F and 231-1F) and Rubble Pit (231-2F) (FBRP) source unit located at SRS, in southwestern Aiken County, South Carolina and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD680151"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Standard Animal <span class="hlt">Burn</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The U. S. Army Surgical Research Unit uses a standard scald <span class="hlt">burn</span> of rats for several kinds of studies. This injury is inflicted in anesthetized rats by immersion of the <span class="hlt">area</span> to be <span class="hlt">burned</span> in boiling water while the animal is held in a protective template w...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. Harrel M. S. Walker A. D. Mason</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1968-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6914468"> <span id="translatedtitle">CO[sub 2] and temperature effects on leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> production in two <span class="hlt">annual</span> plant species</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors studied leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> production in two <span class="hlt">annual</span> plant species, Abutilon theophrasti and Amaranthus retroflexus, under three day/night temperature regimes and two concentrations of carbon dioxide. The production of whole-plant leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> during the first 30 d of growth was analyzed in terms of the leaf initiation rate, leaf expansion, individual leaf <span class="hlt">area</span>, and, in Amaranthus, production of branch leaves. Temperature and CO[sub 2] influenced leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> production through effects on the rate of development, determined by the production of nodes on the main stem, and through shifts in the relationship between whole-plant leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> and the number of main stem nodes. In Abutilon, leaf initiation rate was highest at 38[degree], but <span class="hlt">area</span> of individual leaves was greatest at 28[degree]. Total leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> was greatly reduced at 18[degree] due to slow leaf initiation rates. Elevated CO[sub 2] concentration increased leaf initiation rate at 28[degree], resulting in an increase in whole-part leaf <span class="hlt">area</span>. In Amaranthus, leaf initiation rate increased with temperature, and was increased by elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree]. Individual leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> was greatest at 28[degree], and was increased by elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree] but decreased at 38[degree]. Branch leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> displayed a similar response to CO[sub 2], butt was greater at 38[degree]. Overall, wholeplant leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> was slightly increased at 38[degree] relative to 28[degree], and elevated CO[sub 2] levels resulted in increased leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> at 28[degree] but decreased leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> at 38[degree].</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ackerly, D.D.; Coleman, J.S.; Morse, S.R.; Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48944634"> <span id="translatedtitle">Strategies for the fusion of satellite fire radiative power with <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data for fire radiative energy derivation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Instantaneous estimates of the power released by a fire (Fire Radiative Power, FRP) are available with satellite active fire detection products. Integrating FRP in time provides an estimate of the total energy released (Fire Radiative Energy, FRE), which can be converted into <span class="hlt">burned</span> biomass estimates needed by the atmospheric emissions modeling community. While straightforward in theory, the integration of FRP</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luigi Boschetti; David P. Roy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21726948"> <span id="translatedtitle">Self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burns</span> in the Irish National <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Unit.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We carried out a review of self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burns</span> presenting to the National <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Unit in the Republic of Ireland. 87 self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burns</span> were identified over a 12-year period accounting for 4.2% of total <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Unit admissions. Patient demographics were identified. The majority of patients had a history of mental illness and deliberate self harm. We also examined the motivation behind the self-immolation, the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> involved and the mortality rates. PMID:21726948</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seoighe, D M; Conroy, F; Hennessy, G; Meagher, P; Eadie, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr79510"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak discharges from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Montana for stations discontinued before 1978</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak stage and discharge data have been tabulated for crest-stage gage sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from samll drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 172 stations maintained in 1978. From 1955 to 1978, 156 stations have been discontinued. This report is a tabulation of the stage and discharge data for the discontinued stations. (Woodard-USGS)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Omang, R. J.; Hull, J. A.; Parrett, Charles</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/910985"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design of an Actinide <span class="hlt">Burning</span>, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor that Produces Low Cost Electricity FY-01 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report, October 2001</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this collaborative Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project is to investigate the suitability of lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. Work has been accomplished in four major <span class="hlt">areas</span> of research: core neutronic design, plant engineering, material compatibility studies, and coolant activation. The publications derived from work on this project (since project inception) are listed in Appendix A.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Herring, James Stephen; Loewen, Eric Paul; Smolik, Galen Richard; Weaver, Kevan Dean; Todreas, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/06_18_2010_im15GtrFFA_06_18_2010_48"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lava Flow <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Vegetation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lava flow activity continues to <span class="hlt">burn</span> vegetation in the kipuka adjacent to the trail, causing the viewing trail to be closed beyond the trailhead. The new viewing <span class="hlt">area</span> is still very close to the active flows. ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">9</a> 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<img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.burninstitute.org/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> Institute</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... of 8 experienced a horrific accident. He awoke one night to a house engulfed in flames... Read More Jerry Davee In 1978, Jerry Davee suffered severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> while trying to ... severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>. One year later, Jerry received the <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Institute’s Spirit ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/626452"> <span id="translatedtitle">Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan for the D-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (431-D and 431-1D)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan is being issued by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), which is the lead agency for the Savannah River Site (SRS) remedial activities,with concurrence by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The purpose of this Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan is to describe the preferred alternative for addressing the D-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (DBRP) (431-D and 431-1D) and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Mason, J.T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11307683"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> and military clothing.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Over the last hundred years, the <span class="hlt">burn</span> threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of <span class="hlt">burn</span>, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of <span class="hlt">burn</span> casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from <span class="hlt">burns</span> is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of <span class="hlt">burn</span>--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a <span class="hlt">burn</span>. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a <span class="hlt">burn</span> threat. This paper explores the incidence of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash <span class="hlt">burns</span>; the most vulnerable <span class="hlt">areas</span> are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under high heat loads in the laboratory, combat clothing can ignite, but there is little evidence that clothing ignition is a common occurrence in military <span class="hlt">burn</span> casualties. Thermoplastic materials have many benefits in civil and military clothing. There is little objective evidence that they exacerbate <span class="hlt">burns</span>, or complicate <span class="hlt">burn</span> management. Their use in military clothing must be based on objective evidence, not hearsay. PMID:11307683</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McLean, A D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29594620"> <span id="translatedtitle">Use of previously <span class="hlt">burned</span> skin as random cutaneous local flaps in pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> reconstruction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reconstruction after post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> scarring remains a challenge. It is especially true in the severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patient, who normally presents with a paucity of donor sites. Healed skin from <span class="hlt">areas</span> that had been <span class="hlt">burned</span> and skin from grafted <span class="hlt">areas</span> (termed as previously <span class="hlt">burned</span> skin) have been occasionally used as flaps, but their safety is still in debate. We studied all patients</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. P Barret; D. N Herndon; R. L McCauley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....919599C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions in tropical Asia based on satellite-derived data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in tropical Asia emits large amounts of trace gases and particulate matters into the atmosphere, which has significant implications for atmospheric chemistry and climatic change. In this study, emissions from open biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> over tropical Asia were evaluated during seven fire years from 2000-2006 (1 April 2000-31 March 2007). <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> were estimated from newly published 1-km L3JRC and 500-m MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products (MCD45A1). Available fuel loads and emission factors were assigned for each vegetation type in a GlobCover characterisation map, and fuel moisture content was taken into account when calculating combustion factors. Over the whole period, both <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> and fire emissions clearly showed spatial and seasonal variations. The L3JRC <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged from 31 165 km2 in fire year 2005 to 57 313 km2 in 2000, while the MCD45A1 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged from 54 260 km2 in fire year 2001 to 127 068 km2 in 2004. Comparisons of L3JRC and MCD45A1 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> with ground-based measurements and other satellite information were constructed in several major <span class="hlt">burning</span> regions, and results suggested that MCD45A1 performed better in most <span class="hlt">areas</span> than L3JRC did although with a certain degree of underestimation of <span class="hlt">burned</span> forest <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The average <span class="hlt">annual</span> L3JRC-based emissions were 125, 12, 0.98, 1.91, 0.11, 0.89, 0.044, 0.022, 0.42, 3.40, and 3.68 Tg yr<sup-1 for CO2, CO, CH4, NMHCs, NOx, NH3, SO2, BC, OC, PM2.5, and PM10, respectively, while MCD45A1-based emissions were 130, 9.79, 0.65, 1.14, 0.12, 0.56, 0.046, 0.036, 0.42, 3.21, and 3.49 Tg yr-1. Forest <span class="hlt">burning</span> was determined as the major source of the fire emissions due to the high carbon density. Although agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span> was the second important contributor, a great deal of crop residue combustion could probably be missed by satellite observations when compared to previously published data, which may be because of its small <span class="hlt">burning</span> size. Fire emissions were mainly concentrated in Indonesia, India, Myanmar, and Cambodia. Furthermore, the peak in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was generally found in the early fire season, while the maximum fire emissions often occurred in the late fire season.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, D.; Song, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/798819"> <span id="translatedtitle">1998 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Cathodic Protection Survey Report for the 242-A Evaporator <span class="hlt">Area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report is the second <span class="hlt">annual</span> cathodic protection report for the 242-A evaporator. The report documents and trends <span class="hlt">annual</span> polarization survey data, rectifier inspection data, and continuity data from 1994 through mid-1999.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">BOWMAN, T.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-12-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5411915"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> streamflow of selected drainage basins in the coal <span class="hlt">area</span> of southeastern Montana. Water-resources investigations (final)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Streamflow characteristics of drainage basins within the Fort Union coal region of southeastern Montana were estimated to provide premining data for evaluating the future effects of mining on the environment. Estimated <span class="hlt">annual</span> mean streamflow at 22 data-collection stations for water years 1975-77 ranged from 0 to 887 cubic feet per second. These estimates are based on miscellaneous-streamflow records at each station and continuous-streamflow records from other stations in the study <span class="hlt">area</span>. Estimated mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> streamflow for a 10-year period (water years 1968-77) ranged from 0 to 572 cubic feet per second. Many of the drainage basins had a mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> runoff of less than 0.60 inch; the maximum observed mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> runoff was 4.45 inches.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ferreira, R.F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12792547"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ball lightning <span class="hlt">burn</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ball lightning is a rare physical phenomenon, which is not yet completely explained. It is similar to lightning but with different, peculiar characteristics. It can be considered a mix of fire and electricity, concentrated in a fireball with a diameter of 20-cm that most commonly appears suddenly, even in indoor conditions, during a thunderstorm. It moves quickly for several meters, can change direction, and ultimately disappears. During a great storm, a 28-year-old man and his 5-year-old daughter sustained <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds after ball lightning came from the outdoors through a chimney. These two patients demonstrated signs of fire and electrical injuries. The father, who lost consciousness, sustained superficial second-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds bilaterally on the zygomatic <span class="hlt">area</span> and deep second-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds on his right hand (total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, 4%). His daughter demonstrated superficial second-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds on the left part of the face and deep second-degree and third-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds (total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, 30%) on the left neck, both upper arms, and the back. In this article, the authors report the first two cases of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries resulting from ball lightning contact indoors. The literature on this rare phenomenon is reviewed to elucidate the nature of ball lightning. Emphasis is placed on the nature of injuries after ball lightning contact, the therapy used, and the long-term complications. PMID:12792547</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Selvaggi, Gennaro; Monstrey, Stan; von Heimburg, Dennis; Hamdi, Mustapha; Van Landuyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/831230"> <span id="translatedtitle">Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> (Tonopah Test Range). CAU 484 consists of sites located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 484 consists of the following six Corrective Action Sites: (1) CAS RG-52-007-TAML, Davis Gun Penetrator Test; (2) CAS TA-52-001-TANL, NEDS Detonation <span class="hlt">Area</span>; (3) CAS TA-52-004-TAAL, Metal Particle Dispersion Test; (4) CAS TA-52-005-TAAL, Joint Test Assembly DU Sites; (5) CAS TA-52-006-TAPL, Depleted Uranium Site; and (6) CAS TA-54-001-TANL, Containment Tank and Steel Structure</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bechel Nevada</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/908408"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fiscal Year 2005 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Summary Report for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Performance Assessment (PA) maintenance plan requires an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review to determine if current operations and conditions at the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) remain consistent with PA and composite analysis (CA) assumptions and models. This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 2005 <span class="hlt">annual</span> review findings for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS PA only. The PA Maintenance Plan states that no <span class="hlt">annual</span> review or summary reporting will be carried out in years that a PA or CA revision is undertaken (Bechtel Nevada [BN], 2002). Updated PA results for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS were published in an addendum to the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS PA report in September 2005. A federal review of the draft addendum report took place in early FY 2006 (October November 2005). The review team found the addendum acceptable without conditions. The review team's recommendation will be presented to the Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group in early 2006. The addendum was revised in January 2006 and incorporated comments from the review team (BN, 2006). Table 1 summarizes the updated <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS PA results presented in the addendum.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vefa Yucel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12653458"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> soil loss from river basins with various land use in Andosols <span class="hlt">area</span> in Kyushu of Japan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Soil loss from the basins of a river with various land use in an Andosols <span class="hlt">area</span> in Kyushu, the southwestern island of Japan, was determined. Based on the obtained results, the relationship between land use and <span class="hlt">annual</span> soil loss was investigated in order to estimate the erodibility of basins with various land use as follows. The investigation was conducted at</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">KUBOTERA Hideo; YAMADA Ichiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0905211"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Systems Plan, 1980-1985 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan, 1980-1981 or North Louisiana. Louisiana Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This is the Third Generation Health Systems Plan (HSP) and <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan (AIP) for the residents of the North Louisiana Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span>. The five year HSP forward horizon is now 1985. The one year AIP presents actions for accomplishments ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901077"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Systems Plan for 1978-1982 and <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Missouri.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document contains two plans--a health systems plan (HSP) and an <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP)--which are intended to benefit residents served by the Missouri <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Health Systems Agency Council, Inc. The introduction considers the statutory autho...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMNS31A1217K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geothermal, Geochemical and Geomagnetic Mapping Of the <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Coal Seam in Fire- Zone 18 of the Coal Mining <span class="hlt">Area</span> Wuda, Inner Mongolia, PR China.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous combustion of coal has become a world wide problem caused by and affecting technical operations in coal mining <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The localization of the <span class="hlt">burning</span> centre is a prerequisite for any planning of fire fighting operations. In the German - Chinese coal fire project sponsored by the German Ministry of Science and Technologies (Grant No. 0330490K) the so called fire zone 18 of the coal mining <span class="hlt">area</span> of Wuda (InnerMongolia, PR China) serves as a test <span class="hlt">area</span> for geophysical measurements. For the geothermal and geochemical mapping 25 up to 1m deep boreholes with a diameter of approx. 30 mm are distributed over the particular fire-zone with an extension of 320 × 180 m2. To avoid the highly dynamic gas flow processes in fire induced fractures caused by weather conditions, all boreholes were situated in the undisturbed rock compartments. In these boreholes, plastic tubes of 12 mm diameter provide access to the borehole ground filled with highly permeable gravel. The boreholes are otherwise sealed to the atmosphere by clay. The geothermal observations consist of measurements of temperature profiles in the boreholes and thermal conductivity measurement on rock samples in the lab. For depths greater then 0.2 m diurnal variations in the temperature gradient were neglected. The derived heat flow with maximum values of 80 W/m2 is more then three orders of magnitude higher than the natural undisturbed heat flow. The high heat flow suggests that the dominant heat transport is gas convection through the system of porous rock and fractures. Any temperature anomaly caused by the <span class="hlt">burning</span> coal in a depth of more than 18 m would need years to reach the surface by a heat transport restricted to conduction. The geochemical soil gas probing is performed by gas extraction from the boreholes. Measured are the concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, H2S and CH4. The O2 deficit in the soil air and the concentrations of the other combustion products compared to the concentrations in the free atmosphere are related to the combustion <span class="hlt">area</span>. The magnetic mapping with point distances of 2 m and profile-distances of 3 to 4 m covered an <span class="hlt">area</span> of 350 × 300m with 7913 points. The detected anomalies lie in a range between -130 and 176 nT. The maxima are most likely caused by heating of the top sandstones by <span class="hlt">burning</span> coal, the origin for the high magnetization being the conversion of pyrite and markasit into maghemite, hematite and magnetite. Susceptibility measurements of clinkers in firezone 18 demonstrate this effect. Therefore the identified patches with high magnetic anomalies should have a direct connection to ranges with <span class="hlt">burning</span> coal within firezone 18. Al the discussed geophysical measurements together allow an integrated interpretation. Each result can be related to the combustion process with a particular likelihood for the vertical projection to the combustion centre. Probability calculations with chosen weight factors for each observation method are discussed. References: Kessels, W., Wuttke, M. W., Wessling, S., and Li, X. Coalfires between self ignition and fire fighting: Numerical modeling and basic geophysical measurements. In ERSEC Ecological Book Series - 4 on Coal Fire Research (2007).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kessels, W.; Han, J.; Halisch, M.; Lindner, H.; Rueter, H.; Wuttke, M. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22337322"> <span id="translatedtitle">Examining national <span class="hlt">burn</span> care policies--is the Israeli <span class="hlt">burn</span> care alignment based on national data?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The treatment of <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims constitutes a considerable challenge both to the clinician in regard to mundane treatment and to health systems in regard to structural organization. The state of Israel is in dire need of competent <span class="hlt">burn</span> care capabilities for political, geographical, and demographic reasons. Israel currently has five designated <span class="hlt">burn</span> units but no <span class="hlt">burn</span> center. A review of the recent literature suggests that larger <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers can convey lower mortality rates and better functional outcomes for severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients in comparison to smaller <span class="hlt">burn</span> units. The objective of this study is to assess Israel's <span class="hlt">burn</span> care alignment needs and capabilities based on Israel's <span class="hlt">burn</span> patient and <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit data. In addition, the authors aim to compare the <span class="hlt">burn</span> care alignment capabilities with those of the country's European and American counterparts. Data of all the <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients hospitalized in Israel's level 1 trauma centers' <span class="hlt">burn</span> units between the years 1998 and 2005 according to the Israeli Trauma Registry were analyzed. Simultaneously, data regarding the setup and arrangement of each <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit were obtained from each <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit director via phone. Between the years 1998 and 2005, 974 adult patients with <span class="hlt">burns</span> of the second degree or higher spanning 20% TBSA and more were hospitalized in the five hospitals that operate a functional specialized <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit. The average hospitalization period was 32.4 days while the mortality rate was 21.1%. Currently, Israel's five <span class="hlt">burn</span> units report possessing 27 <span class="hlt">burn</span> beds and 14 <span class="hlt">burn</span> intensive care unit beds. Due to the continuous risk for terror attacks and military campaigns and due to Israel's inability to refer excess <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients to neighboring countries, Israel desperately needs efficient <span class="hlt">burn</span> care capabilities. Israel currently trails both the United States and Europe in regard to <span class="hlt">burn</span> beds and <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers per population. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> quantity and severity of <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients in Israel largely exceeds the amount needed to justify an establishment of a <span class="hlt">burn</span> center by the current American <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Association guidelines, while the literature provides vast amount of evidence proving <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers' efficacy in improving outcome, shortening hospitalization periods, and reducing costs. Taking all these elements into consideration, it might be prudent to establish a national <span class="hlt">burn</span> center in Israel to promote <span class="hlt">burn</span> care standards and disaster planning up to international standards. PMID:22337322</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haik, Josef; Weissman, Oren; Givon, Adi; Liran, Alon; Tessone, Ariel; Stavrou, Demetris; Orenstein, Arie; Peleg, Kobi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881498"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interim Record of Decision Remedial Alternative Selection for the A-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (731-A/1A) and Rubble Pit (731-2A) (U)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The A-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (731-A/1A) and Rubble Pit (731-2A) Operable Unit (OU)(ABRP) is listed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3004(u) Solid Waste Management Unit/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) unit in Appendix C of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken County, South Carolina. The following media are associated with this OU: surface soil and groundwater. An SRS RCRA permit modification is not required at this time since this is an interim action. However, the final permit modification will (1) include the final selection of remedial alternatives under RCRA, (2) be sought for the entire ABRP with the final Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan (SB/PP), and (3) will include the necessary public involvement and regulatory approvals. This Interim Record of Decision (IROD) also satisfies the RCRA requirements for an Interim Measures Work Plan.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morgan, Randall</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-11-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2465679"> <span id="translatedtitle">Air pollution from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and asthma hospital admissions in a sugar cane plantation <span class="hlt">area</span> in Brazil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective To evaluate the association between the total suspended particles (TSPs) generated from preharvest sugar cane <span class="hlt">burning</span> and hospital admission due to asthma (asthma hospital admissions) in the city of Araraquara. Design An ecological time?series study. Total daily records of asthma hospital admissions (ICD 10th J15) were obtained from one of the main hospitals in Araraquara, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 23 March 2003 to 27 July 2004. The daily concentration of TSP (?g/m3) was obtained using Handi?vol equipment (Energética, Brazil) placed in downtown Araraquara. The local airport provided the daily mean figures of temperature and humidity. The daily number of asthma hospital admissions was considered as the dependent variable in Poisson's regression models and the daily concentration of TSP was considered the independent variable. The generalised linear model with natural cubic spline was adopted to control for long?time trend. Linear terms were used for weather variables. Results TSP had an acute effect on asthma admissions, starting 1?day after TSP concentrations increased and remaining almost unchanged for the next four days. A 10??g/m3 increase in the 5?day moving average (lag1–5) of TSP concentrations was associated with an increase of 11.6% (95% CI 5.4 to 17.7) in asthma hospital admissions. Conclusion Increases in TSP concentrations were definitely associated with asthma hospital admissions in Araraquara and, despite using sugar cane alcohol to reduce air pollution from automotive sources in large Brazilian urban centres, the cities where sugar cane is harvested pay a high toll in terms of public health.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Martins, Lourdes Conceicao; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Arbex, Flavio Ferlin; Cancado, Jose Eduardo Delfini; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento; Braga, Alfesio Luis Ferreira</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/963088"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxbow Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span>; Middle Fork John Day River, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report 2003-2004.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an '<span class="hlt">annual</span> written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The project during 2003 was crippled due to the aftermath of the BPA budget crisis. Some objectives were not completed during the first half of this contract because of limited funds in the 2003 fiscal year. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were utilized only in the early, high water season and only from diversion points with functional fish screens. After July 1, all of the OCA water rights were put instream. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks continued to promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Hundreds of willow, dogwood, Douglas-fir, and cottonwood were planted along the Middle Fork John Day River. Livestock grazing on the property was carefully managed to ensure the protection of fish and wildlife habitat, while promoting meadow vigor and producing revenue for property taxes. Monitoring of property populations, resources, and management activities continued in 2003 to build a database for future management of this and other properties in the region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cochran, Brian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1313079H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long term in-situ observations of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosol at a high altitude station in Venezuela - sources, impacts and inter <span class="hlt">annual</span> variability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">First long-term observations of South American biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosol within the tropical lower free troposphere are presented. The observations were conducted between 2007 and 2009 at a high altitude station (4765 m a.s.l.) on the Pico Espejo, Venezuela. Sub-micron aerosol volume, number concentrations of primary particles and particle absorption were observed. Orographic lifting and shallow convection leads to a distinct diurnal cycle at the station. It enables measurements within the lower free troposphere during night time and observations of boundary layer air masses during day time and at their transitional regions. The seasonal cycle is defined by a wet rainy season and a dry biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> season. The particle load of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosol is dominated by fires in the Venezuelan savannah. Increases of aerosol concentrations could not be linked to long-range transport of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> plumes from the Amazon basin or Africa due to effective wet scavenging of particles. Highest particle concentrations were observed within boundary layer air masses during the dry season. Ambient sub-micron aerosol volume reached 1.4 ± 1.3 ?m3 cm-3, heated (300 °C) particle number concentrations 510 ± 420 cm-3 and the absorption coefficient 0.91 ± 1.2 Mm-1. The respective concentrations were lowest within the lower free troposphere during the wet season and averaged at 0.19 ± 0.25 ?m3 cm-3, 150 ± 94 cm-3 and 0.15 ± 0.26 Mm-1. A decrease of particle concentrations during the dry seasons from 2007-2009 could be connected to a decrease in fire activity in the wider region of Venezuela using MODIS satellite observations. The variability of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is most likely linked to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Low biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> activity in the Venezuelan savannah was observed to follow La Niña conditions, high biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> activity followed El Niño conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hamburger, T.; Matis?ns, M.; Tunved, P.; Ström, J.; Calderon, S.; Hoffmann, P.; Hochschild, G.; Gross, J.; Schmeissner, T.; Krejci, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44475357"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Variation of Surface Pressure on a High East Asian Mountain and Its Surrounding Low <span class="hlt">Areas</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An inverse <span class="hlt">annual</span> variation is observed between surface pressure on the highest mountain, which has an elevation of approximately 4000 m, and in the lowlands of Taiwan (a subtropical island in east Asia). This inverse <span class="hlt">annual</span> variation in surface pressure of high and low elevation in low latitudes reflects, essentially, a vertical phase reversal of the tropical circulation, which is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tsing-Chang Chen; Ming-Cheng Yen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1011463"> <span id="translatedtitle">2010 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Summary Report for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Management Sites at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office performed an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) Performance Assessments (PAs) and Composite Analyses (CAs) in fiscal year (FY) 2010. This <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2010 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NSTec Environmental Management</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/prevention-wellness/staying-healthy/first-aid/first-aid-burns.printerview.all.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">First Aid: <span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Return to Web version First Aid: <span class="hlt">Burns</span> First Aid: <span class="hlt">Burns</span> What causes <span class="hlt">burns</span>? You can get <span class="hlt">burned</span> by heat, fire, radiation, sunlight, electricity, chemicals or hot or boiling water. There are 3 degrees of <span class="hlt">burns</span>: First-degree ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/908429"> <span id="translatedtitle">2006 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Summary Report for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2006) requires an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review to assess the adequacy of the performance assessments (PAs) and composite analyses (CAs) for each of the facilities, with the results submitted as an <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary report to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters. The Disposal Authorization Statements for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) also require that such reviews be made and that secondary or minor unresolved issues be tracked and addressed as part of the maintenance plan (DOE, 2000; 2002). The DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office performed <span class="hlt">annual</span> reviews in fiscal year (FY) 2006 by evaluating operational factors and research results that impact the continuing validity of the PAs and CAs results. This <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2006 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors, such as the waste form and containers, facility design, waste receipts, and closure plans, as well as monitoring results and research and development (R&D) activities, were reviewed in FY 2006 for determination of the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada Test Site relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed for determination of the adequacy of the CAs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gregory J, Shott, Vefa Yucel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/924085"> <span id="translatedtitle">2007 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Summary Report for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report summarizes the results of an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review of conditions affecting the operation of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) and a determination of the continuing adequacy of the performance assessments (PAs) and composite analyses (CAs). The <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS PA documentation consists of the original PA (Shott et al., 1998), referred to as the 1998 <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS PA and supporting addenda (Bechtel Nevada [BN], 2001b; 2006a). The <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS CA was issued as a single document (BN, 2001a) and has a single addendum (BN, 2001c). The <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 PA and CA were issued in a single document (Shott et al., 2000). The Maintenance Plan for the PAs and CAs (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2006) and the Disposal Authorization Statements (DASs) for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and 5 RWMSs (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE], 2000; 2002) require preparation of an <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary and a determination of the continuing adequacy of the PAs and CAs. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary report is submitted to DOE Headquarters. Following the <span class="hlt">annual</span> report format in the DOE PA/CA Maintenance Guide (DOE, 1999), this report presents the <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary for the PAs in Section 2.0 and the CAs in Section 3.0. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary for the PAs includes the following: Section 2.1 summarizes changes in waste disposal operations; Section 2.1.5 provides an evaluation of the new estimates of the closure inventories derived from the actual disposals through fiscal year (FY) 2007; Section 2.2 summarizes the results of the monitoring conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's (NNSA/NSO's) Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site (BN, 2005), and the research and development (R&D) activities; Section 2.4 is a summary of changes in facility design, operation, or expected future conditions; monitoring and R&D activities; and the maintenance program; and Section 2.5 discusses the recommended changes in disposal facility design and operations, monitoring and R&D activities, and the maintenance program. Similarly, the <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary for the CAs (presented in Section 3.0) includes the following: Section 3.1 presents the assessment of the adequacy of the CAs, with a summary of the relevant factors reviewed in FY 2007; Section 3.2 presents an assessment of the relevant site activities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that would impact the sources of residual radioactive material considered in the CAs; Section 3.3 summarizes the monitoring and R&D results that were reviewed in FY 2007; Section 3.4 presents a summary of changes in relevant site programs (including monitoring, R&D, and the maintenance program) that occurred since the CAs were prepared; and Section 3.5 summarizes the recommended changes to these programs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NSTec Environmental Management</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5864748"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> issues</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The idea of <span class="hlt">burning</span> oil slicks at sea has intrigued oil-cleanup managers for more than a decade, but it wasn't until the advent of fireproof booms in the mid-1980's and a major spill opportunity (the March 1989 Exxon Valdez) that in-situ <span class="hlt">burning</span> got a real sea trial. The results of this and other <span class="hlt">burning</span> experiments indicate that, when conditions allow it, nothing can compete with fire's ability to remove oil from water. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> have the potential to remove as much oil in one day as mechanical devices can in one month, along with minimal equipment, labor and cost. Reluctance to <span class="hlt">burn</span> in appropriate situations comes primarily from the formation of oily, black smoke. Analysis of the potentially toxic gases have been done, indicating that <span class="hlt">burning</span> will not increase the levels of polluting aldehydes, ketones, dioxins, furans, and PAHs above those that normally evaporate from spilled oil. This article contains descriptions of planned oil fires and the discussion on the advantages and concerns of such a policy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raloff, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-10-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADP004429"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modification of Post <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Scar.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With the advances there have been in the care of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries in the past decade, patients are now surviving much larger <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burns</span> than previously. This is not sufficeint - there must be good quality life, with good function and good appearance in both ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. P. Pegg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11722304P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emission ratio of carbonaceous aerosols observed near crop residual <span class="hlt">burning</span> sources in a rural <span class="hlt">area</span> of the Yangtze River Delta Region, China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intensive open crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> (OCRB) has a great impact on regional air quality and climate. A field observation campaign in a rural <span class="hlt">area</span> of the Yangtze River Delta Region (YRDR) was performed during the harvest season, and Elemental carbon (ECa), organic carbon (OC), black carbon (BCe), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and PM2.5mass were concurrently measured. During the observation period, urban pollution and OCRB-impact episodes were classified. The emission ratio of ECa mass (defined as the ?ECa/?CO ratio) from OCRB was estimated to be 18.2 ± 4.6 ng/m3/ppbv, much higher than that (3.0 ± 0.3 ng/m3/ppbv) of urban pollution from the YRDR. A significant amount of OC was emitted from OCRB with ?OC/?CO ratio of 101.3 ± 41.6 ng/m3/ppbv. The value found in the present study was near the upper limit of OC emission ratios in the literature, implying great impacts from combustion conditions, types of biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span> and subsequent evolution. Regarding urban pollution episodes, the ?OC/?CO ratio was found to be 23.7 ± 2.4 ng/m3/ppbv, and secondary organics accounted for the major fraction of OC mass. Combustions phases of OCRB were classified according to a modified combustion efficiency (MCE, defined as ?CO2/(?CO + ?CO2)). Our results support the view that ECa tend to be produced in flaming combustions (MCE > 0.95) than in smoldering combustions (MCE < 0.95), whereas OC is emitted preferentially from smoldering combustions. Based on our observed carbonaceous aerosol correlations, we estimate that the ECa and OC emissions from OCRB in East Asia might be underestimated by at least 50%.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pan, X. L.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z. F.; Taketani, F.; Tanimoto, H.; Irie, H.; Takashima, H.; Inomata, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901100"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Florida. Revised edition.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) was prepared to resolve health care needs and problems faced by residents under the auspices of the North Central Florida Health Planning Council, Inc. The document contains the following sections: Introduction, which...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901126"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978-1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Kentucky.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The East Kentucky Health Systems Agency, Inc., developed this <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) to help meet the health needs of the residents it serves. The sections are: Introduction, which delineates the scope and content of the AIP and its relationship...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901911"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1979-80. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 8 Ohio.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) devised by the Health Systems Agency of Summit-Portage County in Ohio begins with introductory comments about the legal basis of health planning, the AIP purpose, the plan development process, priorities, AIP uses, pro...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901687"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1979-1980. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Ohio.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) of the Mid-Ohio Health Planning Federation identifies certain activities to be implemented that will achieve high-priority goals and objectives outlined in the health systems plan. Before a detailed presentation of AIP...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901026"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Systems Plan and <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 6 Florida.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The South Central Florida Health Systems Council, Inc., prepared this health systems plan (HSP) and <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP). The first and second parts of the document constitute the HSP and address the following: foundations for planning, the he...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901529"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1979 and Special Plans and Studies. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Connecticut.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document contains the <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) of the Northwest Connecticut Health Systems Agency and notes special concerns of the agency. Introductory sections to the AIP examine the authority and responsibility of the health systems agency...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0900412"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Systems Plan and <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Washington.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document presents the health systems plan (HSP) and the <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) of the Southwest Washington Health Systems Agency. The HSP has four sections: (1) introduction--authority for health planning and the planning process; (2) descr...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901851"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1977-1978. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 1 Indiana.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Short-range goals and objectives are articulated in the <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) devised by the Northern Indiana Health Systems Agency, Inc. Prefatory remarks pertain to the plan development process, health status and health system indicators, a t...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901635"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 New York.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The introduction to the <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) for residents served by the Health Systems Agency of Northeastern New York explores the relationship between the AIP and the health systems plan. Subsequent sections consider the basis of the AIP in...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901193"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978-1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 14 California.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) was developed by the health systems agency serving two California counties (San Diego and Imperial). In addition to an introductory section, two major parts constitute the plan. Part one is the community's implementat...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/822594"> <span id="translatedtitle">Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Pits, and Storage <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision No. 0</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140: Waste Dumps, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Pits, and Storage <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in <span class="hlt">Areas</span> 5, 22, and 23 of the NTS, CAU 140 consists of nine corrective action sites (CASs). Investigation activities were performed from November 13 through December 11, 2002, with additional sampling to delineate the extent of contaminants of concern (COCs) conducted on February 4 and March 18 and 19, 2003. Results obtained from the investigation activities and sampling indicated that only 3 of the 9 CASs at CAU 140 had COCs identified. Following a review of existing data, future land use, and current operations at the NTS, the following preferred alternatives were developed for consideration: (1) No Further Action - six CASs (05-08-02, 05-17-01, 05-19-01, 05-35-01, 05-99-04, and 22-99-04); (2) Clean Closure - one CAS (05-08-01), and (3) Closure-in-Place - two CASs (05-23-01 and 23-17-01). These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, the alternatives meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 140.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-10-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60611778"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ANNUAL</span> REPORT FOR THE FINAL GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION, TEST <span class="hlt">AREA</span> NORTH, OPERABLE UNIT 1-07B, FISCAL YEAR 2009</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report presents the data and evaluates the progress of the three-component remedy implemented for remediation of groundwater contamination at Test <span class="hlt">Area</span> North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Overall, each component is achieving progress toward the goal of total plume remediation.;\\u000aIn situ bioremediation operations in the hot spot continue to operate as planned. Progress</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">HOWARD S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2013108492"> <span id="translatedtitle">Postwildfire Debris-Flow Hazard Assessment of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burned</span> by the 2012 Little Bear Fire, South-Central New Mexico.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A preliminary hazard assessment was developed of the debris-flow potential from 56 drainage basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Little Bear Fire in south-central New Mexico in June 2012. The Little Bear Fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> approximately 179 square kilometers (km2) (44,330 acres...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. C. Tillery A. M. Matherne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55681587"> <span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate solid composite propellants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">High <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate propellants help maintain high levels of thrust without requiring complex, high surface <span class="hlt">area</span> grain geometries. Utilizing high <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate propellants allows for simplified grain geometries that not only make production of the grains easier, but the simplified grains tend to have better mechanical strength, which is important in missiles undergoing high-g accelerations. Additionally, high <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate propellants</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Timothy D. Manship</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/803837"> <span id="translatedtitle">Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Pits, and Storage <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, July 2002, Rev. No. 0</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 140 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-08-01, Detonation Pits; 05-08-02, Debris Pits; 05-17-01, Hazardous Waste Accumulation Site (Buried); 05-19-01, Waste Disposal Site; 05-23-01, Gravel Gertie; 05-35-01, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Pit; 05-99-04, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Pit; 22-99-04, Radioactive Waste Dump; 23-17-01, Hazardous Waste Storage <span class="hlt">Area</span>. All nine of these CASs are located within <span class="hlt">Areas</span> 5, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. This CAU is being investigated because disposed waste may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present or migrating at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The NTS has been used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. The CASs in CAU 140 were used for testing, material storage, waste storage, and waste disposal. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution criteria and resolve the decision statements. Phase I will determine if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels. This data will be evaluated at all CASs. Phase II will determine the extent of the contaminant(s) of concern (COCs). This data will only be evaluated for CASs with a COC identified during Phase I. Based on process knowledge, the COPCs for CAU 140 include volatile organics, semivolatile organics, petroleum hydrocarbons, explosive residues, herbicides, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and radionuclides. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NNSA /NV</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-07-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5863228"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> rubber</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mario Andretti, look out You are about to be surpassed in the <span class="hlt">burning</span> rubber category by a joint venture between Oxford Energy Company and General Electric. The two companies are building the first whole tire-to-energy facility in the US in Modesto, California. This $41 million facility does not require tires to be shredded prior to incineration; it has the capacity to <span class="hlt">burn</span> 700 tires per minute. The electricity generated will be provided to a utility company. Oxford says there are two billion waste tires on the ground and this number is increasing by 220 million a year. Of that amount, only 18 million a year are recycled.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Not Available</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16619860"> <span id="translatedtitle">Community outreach, training, and research: the Hawai'i/Pacific Basin <span class="hlt">area</span> Health Education Center of the University of Hawai'i, John A. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> SChool of Medicine.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Hawai'i/Pacific Basin AHEC is a federal grant program that utilizes academic/community partnerships to recruit students to health careers, train students in rural and underserved <span class="hlt">areas</span>, and assist with workforce development across the region. Ongoing activities and programs include 1) Outreach for recruitment to health careers for students from kindergarten through adulthood; 2) Individual and interdisciplinary health professions student training in rural and underserved <span class="hlt">areas</span>; 3) Community health education using distance learning; 4) Assessment of and efforts to improve recruitment and retention of providers in rural <span class="hlt">areas</span> including continuing education; and 5) Health disparities research. The AHEC programs reach more than 4,000 individuals <span class="hlt">annually</span>, helps to train more than 1,000 individuals a year and assist with placement of up to 20 providers a year in rural and underserved healthcare practices. This article describes the existing AHEC programs that are community based, community driven and inclusive of all who choose to participate. Collaboration is invited and necessary for success and future program development. Future <span class="hlt">areas</span> for collaboration activities include increased statewide community health worker training, an expanded health careers pipeline, ongoing rural and underserved health needs assessments and an expanded training network for students in healthcare. Additional information is available at www.ahec.hawaii.edu. PMID:16619860</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Withy, Kelley M; Yamada, Seiji; Dever, Greg; Veehala, Deedri; Moore, Nicole; Shomaker, T Samuel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/963044"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxbow Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span>; Middle Fork John Day River, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report 2001-2002.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Middle Fork Oxbow Ranch. Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an '<span class="hlt">annual</span> written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. This report is to be provided to the BPA by 30 April of each year. This is the first <span class="hlt">annual</span> report filed for the Oxbow Ranch property.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robertson, Shaun; Smith, Brent; Cochran, Brian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nzepc.auckland.ac.nz/kmko/08/ka_mate08_mcneill.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Baxter's <span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">There has never been any doubt about the importance of Robert <span class="hlt">Burns</span> for James K. Baxter: the Scottish poet's ancestral, poetic, political and sexual inspirations and provocations appear everywhere across the range of Baxter's writing and it is a critical commonplace to note affinity and identification. At the same time it is curious to note how this debt is so</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dougal McNeill</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15932134"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Various conditions of the oral mucosa can give rise to a <span class="hlt">burning</span> sensation. Candidosis, geographic tongue (erythema migrans), mucocutaneous conditions and stomatitis can all cause mouth <span class="hlt">burns</span> with visible changes to the oral mucosa. The so-called '<span class="hlt">burning</span>-mouth syndrome' (BMS) is a fairly rare but extremely unpleasant condition characterised by a bilateral <span class="hlt">burning</span> sensation of the oral mucosa in the absence of clinically visible mucosal changes. Frequently-associated symptoms include dry mouth and loss or change of taste. The aetiology is unknown, even though most of the literature focuses on the role of a possible underlying psychogenic disorder. Several mucosal disorders can cause symptoms similar to BMS. Therefore, careful oral examination is required before establishing the diagnosis of BMS. Additional laboratory tests or a specialist examination rarely yield abnormal findings of relevance. Reassurance and understanding are important keywords in the management of patients suffering from BMS. Unless clearly indicated dental or medical treatment should be avoided, even if the patient insists on it, since such treatment is rarely effective. PMID:15932134</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van der Waal, I</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-05-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JAP...112k3104Q"> <span id="translatedtitle">The impact of the stress induced by lateral spatial hole <span class="hlt">burning</span> on the degradation of broad-<span class="hlt">area</span> AlGaAs/GaAs laser diodes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The degradation of broad-<span class="hlt">area</span> AlGaAs/GaAs laser diodes is studied experimentally and theoretically in detail, and we suggest a degradation mechanism associated with the stress which originates from the lateral spatial hole <span class="hlt">burning</span> (SHB) effects. Our analysis shows that thermal stresses have critical effects on the degradation of laser diodes, which are induced by increased local heating by nonradiative recombination and self-absorption of photons originating from the lateral SHB within the laser diode during degradation. Such results are confirmed by the simulation using the software lastip. Furthermore, the average values of the induced thermal strain and stress by lateral SHB are 0.00063 and 85 MPa, respectively, through the x-ray diffraction measurement. The stress exceeds that for the initiation of plastic deformation (as calculated to be approximately 40-50 MPa based on the finite element method), thus, suggesting that plastic deformation has occurred within the cavity due to the lateral SHB effect during degradation of laser diodes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qiao, Yanbin; Feng, Shiwei; Xiong, Cong; Ma, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Chunsheng; Wei, Guanghua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..77..959S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Particle-induced oxidative damage of indoor PM10 from coal <span class="hlt">burning</span> homes in the lung cancer <span class="hlt">area</span> of Xuan Wei, China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The lung cancer mortality rate in the rural <span class="hlt">area</span> of the Xuan Wei, Yunnan, is among the highest in China, especially in women. In this paper, the coal-<span class="hlt">burning</span> indoor and corresponding outdoor PM10 samples were collected at the Hutou village, representing the case of high lung cancer rate, and the Xize village, representing the case of low lung cancer rate. Plasmid scission assay was used to investigate the bioreactivity of the PM10. The inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was employed to investigate the trace element compositions of the PM10. The results showed that the oxidative damage caused by both indoor and outdoor PM10 at the Hutou village was obviously higher than that at the Xize village, with the indoor PM10 having higher oxidative damage than corresponding outdoors. Among all analyzed samples, the indoor night PM10 samples from the Hutou village have the highest oxidative capacity. The levels of total water-soluble elements had a higher level in the PM10 of the Hutou village than that of the Xize village. It is interesting that the levels of water-soluble As, Cd, Cs, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn in PM10 had better positive correlation with DNA damage rates, implying that these elements in their water-soluble state should be one of the main factors responsible for the high oxidative capacity of PM10, thus possibly the higher lung cancer rates, at the Hutou village.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shao, Longyi; Hu, Ying; Wang, Jing; Hou, Cong; Yang, Yuanyuan; Wu, Mingyuan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901133"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1977. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 South Carolina.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP), accompanied by a summary description of health systems plan, is an expression by the Three Rivers Health Systems Agency in Columbia, S.C., of desired changes in health status and the health system. It contains three ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901178"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978-1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 California.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Components of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) devised by the Golden Empire Health Systems Agency are described in this document. An introductory section examines the purpose of the AIP and the organization and use of the plan. Five components of the ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0900410"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978-1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 8 Ohio.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Health Systems Agency of Summit-Portage County, Ohio, prepared this 1978-1979 <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) with seven health goals to provide equal access to health care at a reasonable cost. Contents: Introduction--discusses the legal basis and p...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901016"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Systems Plan and <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 New York.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Central New York Health Systems Agency, Inc., in Dewitt prepared the health systems plan (HSP) and <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP). The document is divided into the following sections: introduction, which defines the HSP and the AIP and the plan deve...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/w2284k67q8228qm4.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> growth of the cockle Clinocardium ciliatum in the Norwegian Arctic (Svalbard <span class="hlt">area</span>)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Svalbard Islands are influenced by warm Atlantic water in the south and west, and cold Arctic water in the east. Ice cover, and hence the location of the highly productive marginal ice zone, varies both intra and interannually. Part of the primary production accumulates on the bottom and is utilized by the benthos. In this study, the <span class="hlt">annual</span> growth</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Minna Elisabeth Tallqvist; Jan Henry Sundet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0900386"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 New Jersey.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Primary and secondary health goals are specified in this 1978 <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) prepared by the Southern New Jersey Health Systems Agency, Inc., in Bellmawr. Contents: Introduction--discusses the role of the AIP as a 1-year statement of act...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1527..587M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Overview of the South American biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, which results in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious negative impacts on public health. Globally, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect of 0.03 Wm-2, however the uncertainty is 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in <span class="hlt">areas</span> such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent <span class="hlt">burning</span> occurs on an <span class="hlt">annual</span> basis for several months (usually from August-October). Furthermore, a growing number of people live within the Amazon region, which means that they are subject to the deleterious effects on their health from exposure to substantial volumes of polluted air. Initial results from the South American Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil, are presented here. A suite of instrumentation was flown on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft and was supported by ground based measurements, with extensive measurements made in Porto Velho, Rondonia. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions with sampling of fresh biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> layers within the free troposphere. The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on regional air quality, weather and climate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morgan, W. T.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Darbyshire, E.; Hodgson, A.; Johnson, B. T.; Haywood, J. M.; Freitas, S.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...1222891L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the impacts of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on air quality in and around Mexico City</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> on ground-level ozone (O3) and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Area</span> (MCMA) and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> organic aerosol (BBOA), and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA) were consistent with many observation-based estimates. We did not detect significant effects of open fires and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> on surface O3 concentrations in the MCMA and surrounding region. In contrast, they had important influences on OA and elemental carbon (EC), contributing about 60, 22, 33, and 22% to primary OA (POA), secondary OA (SOA), total OA (TOA), and EC, respectively, on both the local and regional scales. Although the emissions of trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> are substantially lower than those from open fires, trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> made slightly smaller but comparable contributions to OA as open fires did, and exerted an even higher influence on EC. SOA formation due to the open fires and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> enhanced the OA concentration by about 10 and 5% in the MCMA, respectively. On the <span class="hlt">annual</span> basis and taking the biofuel use emissions into consideration, we estimated that biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> contributed about 60, 30, and 25%, respectively, to the loadings of POA, SOA and EC in both the MCMA and its surrounding region, with about 35, 18, and 15% from open fires and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> impacts in this study may contain considerable uncertainties due to the uncertainties in their emission estimates, extrapolations and the nature of spot comparison. More observation and modeling studies are needed to accurately assess the impacts of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on tropospheric chemistry, regional and global air quality, and climate change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lei, W.; Li, G.; Molina, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..DFD.QU005K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> manifolds and <span class="hlt">burning</span> lobes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present experimental studies of the propagation of a reaction front in a fluid flow composed of a chain of alternating vortices. We propose that the tools used to describe the transport of a passive impurity in a flow can be expanded to account for the behavior of a reaction front. In particular, we propose that motion of a reaction front from one region to another in the flow is determined by <span class="hlt">burning</span> manifolds and <span class="hlt">burning</span> lobes. These ideas are tested experimentally for both the time-independent and time-dependent vortex chain. For a time-independent flow, the time that it takes for a triggered reaction to propagate from one vortex to the next is the minimum time ? for the stable <span class="hlt">burning</span> manifold BS(?) to envelope the original trigger point. For a time-dependent (oscillatory) vortex chain, we use the <span class="hlt">burning</span> manifold/lobe framework to explain mode-locking behavior seen in earlier studies.ootnotetextM.S. Paoletti and T.H. Solomon, Europhys. Lett. 69, 819 (2005); Phys. Rev. E 72, 046204 (2005).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kingsbury, Mark; Solomon, Tom</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6352144"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> and pregnancy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pregnancy does not predispose to thermal injuries. Most <span class="hlt">burns</span> are minor, and erythema usually subsides within 24 hours during the outpatient therapy. Severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> during pregnancy are rare but alarming events. Care should be provided at a regional facility with expert <span class="hlt">burn</span> care and fetal monitoring. Attempts should be undertaken during maternal transport to avoid hypovolemia, hypotension, and hypoxia. The wound should be covered with sterile dressings to prevent further contamination. Maternal and fetal survival is directly related to the extent of the body surface injury. When maternal injury is lethal, fetal survival is very unlikely because of sudden in-utero death or complications from prematurity following spontaneous labor. Complications to be considered during the emergent and acute phases of recovery include fluid and electrolyte imbalance, respiratory difficulties, systemic and wound infection, inadequate nutrition, and emotional disturbances. Therapy should be directed to saving the mother. Whether fetal well being is compromised by the <span class="hlt">burn</span> and resultant therapy is difficult to determine from prior published reports. Periodic ultrasonic examination and biophysical testing of the fetus are recommended. If conditions are considered unfavorable to meet fetal circulatory and oxygen demands, prompt delivery during the late second and third trimesters has been advocated if the mother's <span class="hlt">burn</span> covers 50 per cent or more of the surface <span class="hlt">area</span>. If the patient has instead recovered satisfactorily and there has been no evidence of fetal jeopardy or premature labor within the first week following the <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury, the eventual delivery of a healthy-appearing, term-sized fetus is quite likely. PMID:6352144</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, B K; Rayburn, W F; Feller, I</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/41182"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nitrogen and sulfur emissions from the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of forest products ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/">Treesearch</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Author: Hegg, Dean A.; Radke, Lawrence F.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Brock, Charles A.; ... than do measurements in smokes from the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of biomass in rural <span class="hlt">areas</span>. ... and sulfur emissions from the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of forest products near large urban <span class="hlt">areas</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21604164"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forest fires in Mediterranean countries: CO2 emissions and mitigation possibilities through prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forest fires are an integral part of the ecology of the Mediterranean Basin; however, fire incidence has increased dramatically during the past decades and fire is expected to become more prevalent in the future due to climate change. Fuel modification by prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> reduces the spread and intensity potential of subsequent wildfires. We used the most recently published data to calculate the average <span class="hlt">annual</span> wildfire CO(2) emissions in France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain following the IPCC guidelines. The effect of prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> on emissions was calculated for four scenarios of prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> effectiveness based on data from Portugal. Results show that prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> could have a considerable effect on the carbon balance of the land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) sector in Mediterranean countries. However, uncertainty in emission estimates remains large, and more accurate data is needed, especially regarding fuel load and fuel consumption in different vegetation types and fuel layers and the total <span class="hlt">area</span> protected from wildfire per unit <span class="hlt">area</span> treated by prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span>, i.e. the leverage of prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span>. PMID:21604164</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vilén, Terhi; Fernandes, Paulo M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EnMan..48..558V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forest Fires in Mediterranean Countries: CO2 Emissions and Mitigation Possibilities Through Prescribed <span class="hlt">Burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forest fires are an integral part of the ecology of the Mediterranean Basin; however, fire incidence has increased dramatically during the past decades and fire is expected to become more prevalent in the future due to climate change. Fuel modification by prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> reduces the spread and intensity potential of subsequent wildfires. We used the most recently published data to calculate the average <span class="hlt">annual</span> wildfire CO2 emissions in France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain following the IPCC guidelines. The effect of prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> on emissions was calculated for four scenarios of prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> effectiveness based on data from Portugal. Results show that prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> could have a considerable effect on the carbon balance of the land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) sector in Mediterranean countries. However, uncertainty in emission estimates remains large, and more accurate data is needed, especially regarding fuel load and fuel consumption in different vegetation types and fuel layers and the total <span class="hlt">area</span> protected from wildfire per unit <span class="hlt">area</span> treated by prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span>, i.e. the leverage of prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vilén, Terhi; Fernandes, Paulo M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.csu.edu.au/herbarium/FullText/Prober%20et%20al%202005%20sugar.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Restoring ecological function in temperate grassy woodlands: manipulating soil nutrients, exotic <span class="hlt">annuals</span> and native perennial grasses through carbon supplements and spring <span class="hlt">burns</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary 1. Ecological invasions are often associated with persistent changes to underlying ecological processes. Restoration of invaded communities is dependent on manipulation of these processes to favour the target species composition and impart resistance to further invasion. We applied these principles to extensively degraded grassy woodlands in temperate agricultural regions of Australia, where widespread invasion by mediter- ranean <span class="hlt">annuals</span> is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">SUZANNE M. PROBER; KEVIN R. THIELE; IAN D. LUNT; T. B. KOEN</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fs.fed.us/rmrs/docs/pubs/forest-grasslands-archive/burning_Badlands.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Upland, Mixed Prairie in Badlands National Park</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> research in the northern mixed prairie has focused on sites considered to be more productive, although prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> is usually conducted on heterogeneous landscapes with many different sites. Understanding the impacts of fire on less productive sites is a critical component in planning the frequency of prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> of natural <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The effects of <span class="hlt">burn</span>- ing in either April</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">STEVEN G. WHISENANT; DANIEL W. URESK</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2013107906"> <span id="translatedtitle">San Pedro Riparian National Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span>: National Landscape Conservation System <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Manager's Report, FY 2011.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The San Pedro Riparian National Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> (SPRNCA or NCA) is among the last, highly bio diverse, wild <span class="hlt">areas</span> left in the country. Biodiversity encompasses grasslands, desert scrub, mixed scrub-grassland, aquatic habitat, riparian habitat, cottonwoo...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49092980"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pediatric genital <span class="hlt">burns</span>: a 15-year retrospective analysis of outcomes at a level 1 <span class="hlt">burn</span> center</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background\\/Purpose<span class="hlt">Burns</span> involving the genitalia and perineum are commonly seen in the context of extensive total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) <span class="hlt">burns</span> and rarely as isolated injuries because of protection provided by the thighs and the abdomen. Genital <span class="hlt">burns</span> usually result in extended hospital stays and are accompanied by severe morbidity and increased mortality.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zachary Klaassen; Pauline H. Go; E. Hani Mansour; Michael A. Marano; Sylvia J. Petrone; Abraham P. Houng; Ronald S. Chamberlain</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3664529"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hair bleaching and skin <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Hairdressing-related <span class="hlt">burns</span> are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal <span class="hlt">burns</span> to the nape of her neck and superficial <span class="hlt">burns</span> to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted <span class="hlt">area</span> resulted in subsequent scar formation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Forster, K.; Lingitz, R.; Prattes, G.; Schneider, G.; Sutter, S.; Schintler, M.; Trop, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42523813"> <span id="translatedtitle">Satellite detection of tropical <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Brazil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tropical <span class="hlt">burning</span> often occurs in remote <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the world. Satellite remote sensing is the only practical solution for detecting and monitoring this <span class="hlt">burning</span>. In this paper we demonstrate the capability of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration polar orbiting satellites for detecting tropical fire activity in the Manaus, Brazil <span class="hlt">area</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael Matson; Brent Holben</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3038404"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rehabilitation of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> patient</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of <span class="hlt">burn</span> treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ‘<span class="hlt">Burns</span> Rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these <span class="hlt">areas</span> following a <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of <span class="hlt">burn</span> rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Procter, Fiona</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3664532"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assault by <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Jordan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Criminal attacks by <span class="hlt">burns</span> on women in Jordan are highlighted in this retrospective study carried out of all proved cases of criminal <span class="hlt">burns</span> in female patients treated at the <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit of the Royal Rehabilitation Center in Jordan between January 2005 and June 2012. Thirteen patients were included in our study, out of a total of 550 patients admitted, all in the age range of 16-45 yr. Of these 13 women, six were <span class="hlt">burned</span> by acid throwing, five by hot water, and two by direct flames from fuel thrown over them. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> percentage ranged from 15 to 75% of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, with involvement in most cases of the face and upper trunk. The mean hospital stay was 33 days and the mortality rate was 3/13, i.e. 23%. Violence against women exists in Jordanian society, yet <span class="hlt">burning</span> assaults are rare. Of these, <span class="hlt">burning</span> by throwing acid is the most common and most disfiguring act, with a higher mortality rate in domestic environments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haddadin, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23766757"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assault by <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Jordan.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Criminal attacks by <span class="hlt">burns</span> on women in Jordan are highlighted in this retrospective study carried out of all proved cases of criminal <span class="hlt">burns</span> in female patients treated at the <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit of the Royal Rehabilitation Center in Jordan between January 2005 and June 2012. Thirteen patients were included in our study, out of a total of 550 patients admitted, all in the age range of 16-45 yr. Of these 13 women, six were <span class="hlt">burned</span> by acid throwing, five by hot water, and two by direct flames from fuel thrown over them. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> percentage ranged from 15 to 75% of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, with involvement in most cases of the face and upper trunk. The mean hospital stay was 33 days and the mortality rate was 3/13, i.e. 23%. Violence against women exists in Jordanian society, yet <span class="hlt">burning</span> assaults are rare. Of these, <span class="hlt">burning</span> by throwing acid is the most common and most disfiguring act, with a higher mortality rate in domestic environments. PMID:23766757</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haddadin, W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29604430"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">burn</span> deaths in Nagpur, Central India</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A series of 384 victims of <span class="hlt">burn</span> deaths were reviewed to determine the trends of <span class="hlt">burn</span> deaths in Nagpur, an urban <span class="hlt">area</span> of Central India. It was found that deaths due to <span class="hlt">burning</span> accounted for 21.6% of the total medicolegal deaths. Female (74.2%) predominance was seen in <span class="hlt">burning</span> with male–female ratio equal to 1:2.9. Most of the victims of <span class="hlt">burn</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vipul Namdeorao Ambade; Hemant Vasant Godbole</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2001102450"> <span id="translatedtitle">National Drug Control Strategy. 2001 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report. The High Intensity Drug Trafficking <span class="hlt">Area</span> Program.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The High Intensity Drug Trafficking <span class="hlt">Area</span> (HIDTA) Porgram has enormous value to the United States. The HIDTA Program advances the National Drug Control Strategy by fostering coordination among local, state and federal law enforcement agencies on drug contr...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2006101015"> <span id="translatedtitle">Research and Resource Planning: Delaware Water Gap National Recreation <span class="hlt">Area</span>, 2003 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hemlock forests continue to decline at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation <span class="hlt">Area</span> (DEWA), and hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae, HWA) is the main cause of this decline. However, other stressors such as the droughts of recent years, and infestations ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. A. Evans</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901331"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Systems Plan and <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 1 Oregon.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ten sections comprise the HSP: (1) introduction; (2) geographic, ethnic, social, and economic characteristics of the health service <span class="hlt">area</span>; (3) summary of prioritized goals--first, second, and third level goals relevant to promotion and protection, preventi...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6083666"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> and fourth quarter report for 1977--1978. [Appalachian <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Studies of shales in the Appalachian <span class="hlt">area</span> are reported (mainly in the form of abstracts of reports or manuscripts). They discuss the geology, lithology, stratigraphy, radioactivity, organic matter, the isotopic abundance of carbon and sulfur isotopes, etc. of shales in this <span class="hlt">area</span> with maps. One report discusses Devonian paliocurrents in the central and northern Appalachian basin. Another discusses sedimentology of the Brallier Formation. The stratigraphy of upper Devonian shales along the southern shore of Lake Erie was also studied. (LTN)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Potter, P.E.; Maynard, J.B.; Pryor, W.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20061845"> <span id="translatedtitle">Does nurses'perceived <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention knowledge and ability to teach <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention correlate with their actual <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention knowledge?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship among nurses'perceived <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention knowledge, their perceived ability to teach about <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention, and their actual <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention knowledge and to test if their actual <span class="hlt">burn</span> knowledge could be predicted by these perceived measures. A two-page, anonymous survey that included a 10-item <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention knowledge test and an assessment of nurses'perceived knowledge of <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention and their perceived ability to teach <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention was administered to 313 nurses. Actual <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention knowledge was determined and the correlation among actual <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention knowledge, perceived knowledge, and perceived ability to teach was determined. Differences in these outcome variables based on specialty <span class="hlt">area</span> were tested using analysis of variance techniques. Generalized linear modeling techniques were used to investigate which variables significantly predict a nurse's actual <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention knowledge. Test for interaction effects were performed, and significance was set at .05. Responding nurses (N = 265) described practicing in a variety of settings, such as pediatric settings (40.2%, n = 105), emergency departments (25.4%, n = 86), medical/surgical settings (8.4%, n = 22), and one pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> setting (4.1%, n = 14), with all specialty <span class="hlt">areas</span> as having similar actual <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention knowledge (P = .052). Seventy-seven percent of the nurses said they never taught about <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention (n = 177). Perceived knowledge and actual knowledge (r = .124, P = .046) as well as perceived knowledge and perceived ability were correlated (r = .799, P < .001). Significant predictors of actual knowledge were years in practice (beta = -0.063, P = .034), years in current <span class="hlt">area</span> (beta = 0.072, P = .003), perceived knowledge (beta = 0.109, P = .042), and perceived ability (beta = 0.137, P = .019). All nurses, regardless of specialty <span class="hlt">area</span>, have poor <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention knowledge, which is correlated with their perceived lack of knowledge of <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention. In addition, nurses'perceived <span class="hlt">burn</span> knowledge and ability predicts their actual <span class="hlt">burn</span> knowledge. This is a fruitful <span class="hlt">area</span> that merits further research and exploration. PMID:20061845</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lehna, Carlee; Myers, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4411V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vegetation Cover and Habitat Heterogeneity derived from QuickBird data as proxies of Local Plant Species Richness in recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In fire-prone ecosystems, it is very common that, following fire, plant species richness increases very markedly, mainly due to an explosion of <span class="hlt">annuals</span>, following a rapid change during the first few years after the blaze. Herbs play a major role in the system, among other, by fixing nutrients that might be lost, or by changing competitive interactions with shrubs or tree seedlings. But assessing species richness, particularly, herbaceous one, in space and at large scale is very costly. Furthermore, the scale of measurement is also important. In this work we attempted to asses plant species richness during the first year after fire in an abandoned dehesa (open parkland) at three scales (1 m2, 25 m2 and 100 m2) using QuickBird images. The study <span class="hlt">area</span> was located in Central Spain (Anchuras, Ciudad Real), and was affected by a large summer fire (ca. 2000 ha). Before the fire the system was composed of a shrubland intermixed with trees and open spaces. Two 90x180 m plots were selected and field species richness measures were made at the three scales, using a nested design. Field-based data were related to remotely sensed data using Regression Trees (RT) and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) modelling. Explanatory spectral and textural remotely sensed data were ecologically interpreted based on vegetation cover ground-based data. We found that <span class="hlt">areas</span> with low spectral contrast and high reflectivity were dominated by herbaceous species, and had greater species richness than those characterized by low contrast and medium-low reflectivity, which were dominated by shrubs and trees. The highest species richness was found in the <span class="hlt">areas</span> characterized by high contrast and medium-high reflectivity, which had a mix of herbs and woody layers. Variance explained varied depending on the modelling approach and the scale, from 21% and 50% for 1 m2 using RT and BRT, respectively; to 65% and 79% for 100 m2. The contribution of different life forms in model fitting was scale-dependent. At smaller scales, herbaceous layer explained the greatest variability of species richness; whereas at higher scales, shrubs and trees increased their contribution in fitting plant species richness. Model's predictions and Moran's Index on residuals indicated that the best sampling scale to predict species richness from QuickBird data was at 100 m2. The high variance explained in most cases indicates that species richness in space can be well predicted by QuickBird derived data. Keywords: plant species richness, local nested scales, vegetation cover, spatial heterogeneity, texture, reflectivity, QuickBird.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Viedma, Olga; Torres, Ivan; Moreno, Jose Manuel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4037698"> <span id="translatedtitle">Opsite, a synthetic <span class="hlt">burns</span> dressing.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Opsite, a sterile, occlusive, adherent, polyurethane film has been used in a prospective study involving 150 cases of partial thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span>. All cases were admitted to the Department of Plastic Surgery, Singapore General Hospital. The patients' ages ranged from infants to the elderly. All sites of the body were tried on Opsite except the head and face and total <span class="hlt">burns</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> applied with opsite varied from less than 5% to 25%. 80% of cases did well, 20% had to have the dressing discontinued for various reasons, the most common being infection. The advantages were in the ease of wound observation, patient comfort, early mobilisation and relative economy. Opsite is a suitable <span class="hlt">burns</span> dressing for the partial thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> especially of the trunk and limbs and is very useful in children. The complications are relatively few and minor. PMID:4037698</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fong, P H; Wong, K L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11020046"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lawn mower-related <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lawn mower-related injuries are fairly common and are usually caused by the mower blades. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> may also be associated with the use of power lawn mowers. We describe 27 lawn mower-related <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries of 24 male patients and 3 female patients. Three of the patients with <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries were children. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> sizes ranged from 1% to 99% of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (mean, 18.1%). Two of the patients died. The hospital stay ranged from 1 day to 45 days. Twenty-six injuries involved gasoline, which is frequently associated with refueling accidents. Safety measures should involve keeping children away from lawn mowers that are being used. The proper use and storage of gasoline is stressed. PMID:11020046</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Still, J; Orlet, H; Law, E; Gertler, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50177500"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span>-In</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burn</span>-In is used to screen weak parts from a population of completely processed chips to assist in meeting reliability requirements. This tutorial provides a general introduction to <span class="hlt">burn</span>-in. It is shown how <span class="hlt">burn</span>-in improves the failure rate. Typical <span class="hlt">burn</span>-in conditions, the <span class="hlt">burn</span>-in models and an example of failure mechanisms are given. The impact of <span class="hlt">burn</span>-in on technology reliability (hot carriers,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R.-P. Vollertsen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5399342"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF <span class="hlt">burning</span> program</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Program was conceived to promote the utilization of refuse-derived fuels (RDF) as a supplement to existing fossil fuel sources in industrial-sized boilers. The program explores the design, development, and eventual construction of densified-RDF (d-RDF) for use in boiler combustion testing as a supplement to stoker coal or wood wastes. The equipment would be mounted on trailers and assembled and operated at preselected sites throughout the country where approximately 750 tons of RDF would be produced and test <span class="hlt">burned</span> in a local boiler. The equipment, to include a transportable RDF boiler metering and feed system, would then be moved and operated at two to three test sites <span class="hlt">annually</span>. The program is intended to encourage the construction of permanent resource recovery facilities by involving local waste handling groups in operating the equipment and producing fuel, and potential local fuel users in testing the fuel in their boilers. The Mobilizable Program was developed from two separate tasks. The first task developed the concept behind the program and defined its operational and organizational structure. The second task, a follow-up to the first, was intended principally to finalize test locations, develop equipment designs and specifications, and formalize a management program. This report summarizes the principal findings of both tasks. It identifies the criteria used to identify test locations, outlines the program's management structure, presents design and performance specifications for both the fuel production equipment and boiler fuel feed systems, and provides a detailed evaluation of the parameters involved in <span class="hlt">burning</span> RDF in industrial-sized boilers. Final conclusions and recommendations identify problem <span class="hlt">areas</span> encountered in the program, and discuss possible future directions for such a program.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Niemann, K.; Campbell, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/birds/bca1998/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the Bird Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> Concept in the Northern Tallgrass Prairie <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report: 19</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This new resource on the management and conservation of grassland/prairie birds has been posted at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center site. This report "contains findings from the first year of a study to test the idea that Bird Conservation <span class="hlt">Areas</span> can maintain populations of breeding grassland birds." It is available for download in .zip format.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, Douglas H.; Winter, Maiken.; Svedarsky, W. D.; Donovan, Therese M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/586987"> <span id="translatedtitle">Z-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Saltstone Disposal Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Industrial Solid Waste Permit {number_sign}025500-1603 (formerly IWP-217). No constituents were reported above SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standards or final Primary Drinking Water Standards during first or third quareters 1997. No constituents were detected above SRS flagging criteria during first or third quarters 1997.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roach, J.L. Jr. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21350781"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study of size and mass distribution of particulate matter due to crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> with seasonal variation in rural <span class="hlt">area</span> of Punjab, India.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Emission from field <span class="hlt">burning</span> of agricultural crop residue is a common environmental hazard observed in northern India. It has a significant potential health risk for the rural population due to respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM). A study on eight stage size segregated mass distribution of RSPM was done for 2 wheat and 3 rice crop seasons. The study was undertaken at rural and agricultural sites of Patiala (India) where the RSPM levels remained close to the National Ambient Air quality standards (NAAQS). Fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) contributed almost 55% to 64% of the RSPM, showing that, in general, the smaller particles dominated during the whole study period with more contribution during the rice crop as compared to that of wheat crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Fine particulate matter content in the total RSPM increased with decrease in temperature. Concentration levels of PM(10) and PM(2.5) were higher during the winter months as compared to that in the summer months. Background concentration levels of PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(10-2.5) were found to be around 97 ± 21, 57 ± 15 and 40 ± 6 ?g m(-3), respectively. The levels increased up to 66, 78 and 71% during rice season and 51, 43 and 61% during wheat crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span>, respectively. Extensive statistical analysis of the data was done by using pair t-test. Overall results show that the concentration levels of different size particulate matter are greatly affected by agricultural crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> but the total distribution of the particulate matter remains almost constant. PMID:21350781</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Awasthi, Amit; Agarwal, Ravinder; Mittal, Susheel K; Singh, Nirankar; Singh, Khem; Gupta, Prabhat K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol2-sec165-1332.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 165.1332 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">annual</span> firework displays within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2010-07-01 false Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">annual</span> firework displays within the Captain of the Port... § 165.1332 Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">annual</span> firework displays within the Captain of the Port...Captain of the Port Puget Sound AOR <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Event name (typically)...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7117642"> <span id="translatedtitle">Feasibility analysis of minor actinide <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The most important actinide is plutonium because it has the greatest ({approximately}94%) mass of the actinides. It is convenient to divide the actinide <span class="hlt">burning</span> problem into two classes: plutonium <span class="hlt">burning</span> and minor actinide <span class="hlt">burning</span>. In this paper, only the analysis of minor actinide <span class="hlt">burning</span> is discussed. In this work, environmental impact was measured using several indexes: Actinide mass, radioactive ingestion hazard versus decay time, actinide radioactive ingestion hazard ratio between the value at reactor discharge and the one at reactor charge; actinide radioactive ingestion hazard ratio between the value at 5,000 years and the one at reactor charge; and {sup 99}Tc radioactivity. Two main problems were faced in this work. The first was to determine the physical parameter that is more effective in the actinide <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The second problem was to determine the critical parameter value, or value range, that can reduce the actinide risk to lower than that for natural uranium. The system for <span class="hlt">burning</span> minor actinides and long-lived fission products must have a thermal flux value of {approximately}1.0 {times} 10{sup 16} n/cm{sup 2} {center dot} s, a low atomic weight matrix, and should handle the <span class="hlt">annual</span> discharge of ten light water reactors. The Los Alamos National Laboratory spallation system seems to come closest to performing both minor actinide and long-lived fission product <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The integral fast reactor project could <span class="hlt">burn</span> the actinides but not the long-lived fission products.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buccafurni, A.; Landeyro, P.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3038407"> <span id="translatedtitle">National programme for prevention of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The estimated <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burn</span> incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized <span class="hlt">burn</span> care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries (NPPBI) would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central <span class="hlt">burn</span> registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that <span class="hlt">burn</span> care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for <span class="hlt">burn</span> care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> injury management programme and <span class="hlt">Burn</span> injury rehabilitation programme.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gupta, J. L.; Makhija, L. K.; Bajaj, S. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9037790"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fluid replacement in <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> injury involves a large amount of water, electrolytes and proteins loss trough the <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound. For this reason, to avoid shock, a wide infusion of fluid is necessary in the first hours after trauma. Many reanimation formulas were proposed in the past years, with different composition: saline, colloids, plasma. The authors have studied 40 <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients admitted in Verona <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center within 4 hours after <span class="hlt">burn</span>, with <span class="hlt">burns</span> over 30% of the body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>. Twenty of them were treated with Baxter reanimation formula (ringer lactated saline, RLS) while the others with Monafo hypertonic lactated saline (HLS), modified by Milan <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center. The two randomized groups were assessed and compared. In RLS group total fluid volume infused was higher while sodium requirements was lower than in HLS patients, with statistically significative difference (p < 0.01). On the contrary, in HLS group, potassium administered was perhaps twice if compared with the other. Haematocrit, urine output and urine osmolarity were adequate in both the groups, and did not showed statistical differences, such as serum proteins concentration, that was low in all patients, while a significative difference was noted in urine osmolarity (p < 0.01). A metabolic alkalosis was present in HLS patients, while, on the other hand, serum nitrogen was significantly higher (p < 0.05), in the first 48 hours after <span class="hlt">burn</span>, in RLS group. Patients were assessed for pre-existing diseases too, and data showed that complications were lower in HLS than in RLS group. HLS resuscitation formula guarantees a good electrolytes balance with lower fluid load, reducing tissue oedema and complication rate. Mortality rate was higher in HLS, may be for an higher Roy index in this group. PMID:9037790</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bortolani, A; Governa, M; Barisoni, D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/k70hx164m1447085.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> depth: A review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite the plethora of technologic advances, the most common technique for diagnosing <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth remains the clinical assessment of an experienced <span class="hlt">burn</span> surgeon. It is clear that this assessment is accurate for very deep and very shallow <span class="hlt">burns</span>. But since clinical judgment is not precise in telling whether a dermal <span class="hlt">burn</span> will heal in 3 weeks, efforts to develop a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Heimbach; Loren Engrav; Baiba Grube; Janet Marvin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31168194"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modern <span class="hlt">burn</span> care</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the United States nearly 2 million people are <span class="hlt">burned</span> every year; about 100,000 <span class="hlt">burns</span> are moderate to severe and require hospitalization and about 5,000 deaths occur because of <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The overall improvement in mortality and outcome of patients with severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> trauma over the last decades can be attributed to the following: (1) emergency medical treatment with aggressive early</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David N. Herndon; Marcus Spies</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2912951"> <span id="translatedtitle">Muscle Contractile Properties in Severely <span class="hlt">Burned</span> Rats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> induces a sustained catabolic response which causes massive loss of muscle mass after injury. A better understanding of the dynamics of muscle wasting and its impact on muscle function is necessary for the development of effective treatments. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either a 40% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) scald <span class="hlt">burn</span> or sham <span class="hlt">burn</span>, and were further assigned to subgroups at four time points after injury (days 3, 7, 14 and 21). In situ isometric contractile properties were measured including twitch tension (Pt), tetanic tension (Po) and fatigue properties. Body weight decreased in <span class="hlt">burn</span> and sham groups through day 3, however, body weight in the sham groups recovered and increased over time compared to <span class="hlt">burned</span> groups, which progressively decreased until day 21 after injury. Significant differences in muscle wet weight and protein weight were found between sham and <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Significant differences in muscle contractile properties were found at day 14 with lower absolute Po as well as specific Po in <span class="hlt">burned</span> rats compared to sham. After <span class="hlt">burn</span>, the muscle twitch tension was significantly higher than the sham at day 21. No significant difference in fatigue properties was found between the groups. This study demonstrates dynamics of muscle atrophy and muscle contractile properties after severe <span class="hlt">burn</span>; this understanding will aid in the development of approaches designed to reduce the rate and extent of <span class="hlt">burn</span> induced muscle loss and function.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu, Xiaowu; Wolf, Steven E.; Walters, Thomas J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56545293"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cimetidine kinetics during resuscitation from <span class="hlt">burn</span> shock</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients suffer from rapidly changing metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalities that could alter drug kinetics. The kinetics of cimetidine, commonly used in the prophylaxis of acute stress erosions, were studied during fluid resuscitation of 11 patients with mean <span class="hlt">burn</span> sizes of 45% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>. Six patients were studied after the completion of fluid resuscitation. Total clearance, steady-state</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">John A Ziemniak; William A Watson; Jeffrey R Saffle; Ian L Smith; John Russo; Glenn D Warden; Jerome J Schentag; Jerome J Schentag PharmD</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3038388"> <span id="translatedtitle">Training and <span class="hlt">burn</span> care in rural India</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> care is a huge challenge in India, having the highest female mortality globally due to flame <span class="hlt">burns</span>. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> can happen anywhere, but are more common in the rural region, affecting the poor. Most common cause is flame <span class="hlt">burns</span>, the culprit being kerosene and flammable flowing garments worn by the women. The infrastructure of healthcare network is good but there is a severe resource crunch. In order to bring a positive change, there will have to be more trained personnel willing to work in the rural <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Strategies for prevention and training of <span class="hlt">burn</span> team are discussed along with suggestions on making the career package attractive and satisfying. This will positively translate into improved outcomes in the <span class="hlt">burns</span> managed in the rural region and quick transfer to appropriate facility for those requiring specialised attention.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chamania, Shobha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14..204K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions estimates in the boreal forests of Siberia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wildfire is the main boreal forest disturbance and can <span class="hlt">burn</span> 10-30 million hectares <span class="hlt">annually</span>, thus modifying the global carbon budget through direct fire emissions, postfire biogenic emissions, and by maintaining or altering ecosystems through establishing the beginning and end of successional processes. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russian boreal forests vary substantially due to differences in ecosystems types, <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> calculations, and the amount of fuel consumed. There is an urgent need to obtain more accurate and impartial fire carbon loss estimates in the boreal forests of Siberia due to their considerable contribution to the regional and global carbon balance. We examined uncertainties in estimates of carbon emissions. <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in the Siberian region was analyzed and compared using distinct methodologies. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Carbon emissions from fires vary <span class="hlt">annually</span> and interannually and can increase several times in extreme fire years in comparison to normal fire years. Climate change and increasing drought length have increased the probability of high-severity fire occurrences. This would result in greater carbon losses and efflux to the atmosphere. This research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, Fulbright Program, and Russian Academy of Sciences.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kukavskaya, E. A.; Ivanova, G. A.; Soja, A. J.; Conard, S. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AtmEn..63..223M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-year black carbon emissions from cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the Russian Federation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cropland fires are an important source of black carbon (BC) emissions. Previous research has suggested that springtime cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Eastern Europe, more specifically Russia, is a main contributor of BC in the Arctic atmosphere, acting as a short-lived climate forcer strongly influencing snow-ice albedo and radiation transmission. BC emissions from cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> were estimated for the Russian Federation for years 2003 through 2009 using three satellite fire products, the 1 km MODIS Active Fire Product, 0.5° MODIS Fire Radiative Power monthly climate modeling grid product, and the 500 m MODIS <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Product, and a agricultural statistics approach based on a modified method developed and published by the All-Russian Institute of Organic Peat and Fertilizers to estimate farm- and regional-level residue loading from straw surplus left after grain harvesting, while accounting for agricultural management and agrometeorological inputs. The satellite-based emission calculations utilized several different land cover classification schemas for defining croplands in Russia for both the 1 km MODIS Land Cover Product and the 300 m MERIS GlobCover v2.2 data sets. In general, the peaks of BC emissions from cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> occurred during the spring (April-May), summer (July-August), and the fall (October). 2008 had the highest <span class="hlt">annual</span> BC emissions. The range of average <span class="hlt">annual</span> BC emissions from cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> calculated from the different satellite fire products was 2.49 Gg-22.2 Gg, with the agricultural statistics approach <span class="hlt">annual</span> average equal to 8.90 Gg. The Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) version 3 reported an <span class="hlt">annual</span> average of 11.9 Gg of BC from agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The results from this analysis showed that the majority of BC emissions originated in European Russia, followed by smaller contributions from West Siberia, Far East Russia, and East Siberia macro-regions. An uncertainty assessment on data used to calculate the BC emissions found moderate uncertainty in some of the input data used in this first attempt to produce spatially and temporally explicit BC emission estimates from cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the Russian Federation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McCarty, Jessica L.; Ellicott, Evan A.; Romanenkov, Vladimir; Rukhovitch, Dmitry; Koroleva, Polina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10458"> <span id="translatedtitle">Data Summary Report for the <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Fourmile Branch and F- and H-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Seeplines, Appendix IX Metals and Radionuclides, 1998</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report presents a summary of the definitive data validation and verification for the 1998 RFI/RI <span class="hlt">annual</span> Appendix IX metals and radionuclides survey for Fourmile Branch and the F- and H-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Seeplines. The validation process began with project mobilization and continued through the delivery of EDDs and this report.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koch, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-08-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.2335C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions in tropical Asia based on satellite-derived data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in tropical Asia emits large amounts of trace gases and particulate matter into the atmosphere, which has significant implications for atmospheric chemistry and climatic change. In this study, emissions from open biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> over tropical Asia were evaluated during seven fire years from 2000 to 2006 (1 March 2000-31 February 2007). The size of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> was estimated from newly published 1-km L3JRC and 500-m MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products (MCD45A1). Available fuel loads and emission factors were assigned to each vegetation type in a GlobCover characterisation map, and fuel moisture content was taken into account when calculating combustion factors. Over the whole period, both <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> and fire emissions showed clear spatial and seasonal variations. The size of the L3JRC <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged from 36 031 km2 in fire year 2005 to 52 303 km2 in 2001, and the MCD45A1 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged from 54 790 km2 in fire year 2001 to 148 967 km2 in 2004. Comparisons of L3JRC and MCD45A1 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> using ground-based measurements and other satellite data were made in several major <span class="hlt">burning</span> regions, and the results suggest that MCD45A1 generally performed better than L3JRC, although with a certain degree of underestimation in forest <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The average <span class="hlt">annual</span> L3JRC-based emissions were 123 (102-152), 12 (9-15), 1.0 (0.7-1.3), 1.9 (1.4-2.6), 0.11 (0.09-0.12), 0.89 (0.63-1.21), 0.043 (0.036-0.053), 0.021 (0.021-0.023), 0.41 (0.34-0.52), 3.4 (2.6-4.3), and 3.6 (2.8-4.7) Tg yr-1 for CO2, CO, CH4, NMHCs, NOx, NH3, SO2, BC, OC, PM2.5, and PM10, respectively, whereas MCD45A1-based emissions were 122 (108-144), 9.3 (7.7-11.7), 0.63 (0.46-0.86), 1.1 (0.8-1.6), 0.11 (0.10-0.13), 0.54 (0.38-0.76), 0.043 (0.038-0.051), 0.033 (0.032-0.037), 0.39 (0.34-0.47), 3.0 (2.6-3.7), and 3.3 (2.8-4.0) Tg yr-1. Forest <span class="hlt">burning</span> was identified as the major source of the fire emissions due to its high carbon density. Although agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span> was the second highest contributor, it is possible that some crop residue combustion was missed by satellite observations. This possibility is supported by comparisons with previously published data, and this result may be due to the small size of the field crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Fire emissions were mainly concentrated in Indonesia, India, Myanmar, and Cambodia. Furthermore, the peak in the size of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was generally found in the early fire season, whereas the maximum fire emissions often occurred in the late fire season.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, D.; Song, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/jd0411/2003JD004423/2003JD004423.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions based on satellite imagery for the year 2000</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A synthesis of ground-based measurements and satellite information is described for estimating the amount of monthly averaged biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span> in year 2000 with a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 km on a global scale. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols from open biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> are estimated from <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, fuel load maps, combustion factors, and emission factors. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Akinori Ito; Joyce E. Penner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/951601"> <span id="translatedtitle">2008 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Summary Report for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada: Review of the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site requires an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review to assess the adequacy of the Performance Assessments (PAs) and Composite Analyses (CAs) for each of the facilities, with the results submitted <span class="hlt">annually</span> to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters. The Disposal Authorization Statements for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) also require that such reviews be made and that secondary or minor unresolved issues be tracked and addressed as part of the maintenance plan. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) performed an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review in fiscal year (FY) 2008 by evaluating operational factors and research results that impact the continuing validity of the PAs and CAs. This <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2008 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada Test Site relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NSTec Environmental Management</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img 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href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1030912"> <span id="translatedtitle">FY2010 <span class="hlt">ANNUAL</span> REVIEW E-<span class="hlt">AREA</span> LOW-LEVEL WASTE FACILITY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AND COMPOSITE ANALYSIS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The E-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) consists of a number of disposal units described in the Performance Assessment (PA)(WSRC, 2008b) and Composite Analysis (CA)(WSRC, 1997; WSRC, 1999): Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Vault, Intermediate Level (IL) Vault, Trenches (Slit Trenches [STs], Engineered Trenches [ETs], and Component-in-Grout [CIG] Trenches), and Naval Reactor Component Disposal <span class="hlt">Areas</span> (NRCDAs). This <span class="hlt">annual</span> review evaluates the adequacy of the approved 2008 ELLWF PA along with the Special Analyses (SAs) approved since the PA was issued. The review also verifies that the Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 low-level waste (LLW) disposal operations were conducted within the bounds of the PA/SA baseline, the Savannah River Site (SRS) CA, and the Department of Energy (DOE) Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS). Important factors considered in this review include waste receipts, results from monitoring and research and development (R&D) programs, and the adequacy of controls derived from the PA/SA baseline. Sections 1.0 and 2.0 of this review are a summary of the adequacy of the PA/SA and CA, respectively. An evaluation of the FY2010 waste receipts and the resultant impact on the ELLWF is summarized in Section 3.1. The results of the monitoring program, R&D program, and other relevant factors are found in Section 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4, respectively. Section 4.0 contains the CA <span class="hlt">annual</span> determination similarly organized. SRS low-level waste management is regulated under DOE Order 435.1 (DOE, 1999a) and is authorized under a DAS as a federal permit. The original DAS was issued by the DOE-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) on September 28, 1999 (DOE, 1999b) for the operation of the ELLWF and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The 1999 DAS remains in effect for the regulation of the SDF. Those portions of that DAS applicable to the ELLWF were superseded by revision 1 of the DAS on July 15, 2008 (DOE, 2008b). The 2008 PA and DAS were officially implemented by the facility on October 31, 2008 and are the authorization documents for this FY2010 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Review. Department of Energy Headquarters approval of the 2008 DAS was subject to numerous conditions specified in the document. Two of those conditions are to update the ELLWF closure plan and monitoring plan to align with the conceptual model analyzed in the PA. Both of these conditions were met with the issuance of the PA Monitoring Plan (Millings, 2009a) and the Closure Plan (Phifer et al, 2009a). The PA Monitoring Plan was approved by DOE on July 22, 2009 and the Closure Plan was approved by DOE on May 21, 2009. Both will be updated as needed to remain consistent with the PA. The DAS also specifies that the maintenance plan include activities to resolve each of the secondary issues identified in the DOEHQ review of the 2008 PA that were not completely addressed either with supplemental material provided to the review team or in final revisions to the PA. These outstanding issues were originally documented in the 2008 update of the PA/CA Maintenance Plan (WSRC, 2008a) and in subsequent PA/CA Maintenance Plans (most recently SRNS, 2010a) as required and are actively being worked.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Butcher, T.; Swingle, R.; Crapse, K.; Millings, M.; Sink, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.A33G..04I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and Interannual Variations in BC Emissions From Open Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> in Southern Africa From 1998 to 2005</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We estimate the emissions of black carbon (BC) from open vegetation fires in southern hemisphere Africa from 1998 to 2005 using satellite information in conjunction with a biogeochemical model. Monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> at a 0.5-degree resolution are estimated from the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) fire count product and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data set associated with the MODIS tree cover imagery in grasslands and woodlands. The monthly fuel load distribution is derived from a 0.5- degree terrestrial carbon cycle model in conjunction with satellite data. The monthly maps of combustion factor and emission factor are estimated using empirical models that predict the effects of fuel conditions on these factors in grasslands and woodlands. Our <span class="hlt">annual</span> averaged BC emitted per unit <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> is 0.17 g BC m-2 which is consistent with the product of fuel consumption and emission factor typically measured in southern Africa. The BC emissions from open vegetation <span class="hlt">burning</span> in southern Africa ranged from 0.26 Tg BC yr-1 for 2002 to 0.42 Tg BC yr-1 for 1998. The peak in BC emissions is identical to that from previous top-down estimate using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Aerosol Index (AI) data. The sum of monthly emissions during the <span class="hlt">burning</span> season in 2000 is in good agreement between our estimate (0.38 Tg) and previous estimate constrained by numerical model and measurements (0.47 Tg).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ito, A.; Akimoto, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7265335"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical debridement of <span class="hlt">burns</span>: mercaptans.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experiments were conducted using non-enzymatic chemical agents (with emphasis on certain mercaptans), alone, in conjunction with enzymatic agents and/or other nonenzymatic chemicals for debridement of <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Both in vitro (rats, pigs, humans) and in vivo (rats, pigs) tests were carried out. N-acetylcysteine, penicillamine and cysteine ethyl ester in low to moderate concentrations accelerate the debriding action of bromelain (an enzymatic preparation from pineapple stems) and in higher concentrations, N-acetylcysteine and penicillamine (cysteine ethyl ester was not tested) cause ready separation of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> eschar from the underlying tissue before solubilization of the eschar is complete (rat) or has occurred (pig). Debridement of 3 degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> of rats is complete within 4-6 hours; the take of immediately applied syngeneic skin grafts is complete and permanent. This is first time rapid debridement of 3 degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> permitting immediate successful skin grafting has been accomplished with known defined chemicals. In pigs there is softening of the 3 degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> eschar by N-acetylcysteine but little, if any, dissolution of the eschar. However, mechanical separation of the eschar from the underlying tissue is accomplished readily with a wooden throat stick with no bleeding. There is a change in color of the superficial layer of the underlying subcutaneous tissue from yellow-light brown to dark brown-black. The debrided <span class="hlt">areas</span> begin to granulate promptly. The healing of deep dermal <span class="hlt">burns</span> of pigs is hastened by the application of N-acetylcysteine for a day (beginning 24 hours after <span class="hlt">burning</span>) while the healing of moderately deep dermal <span class="hlt">burns</span> is not modified. Unburned skin is not damaged. There is no apparent systemic toxicity associated with the use of N-acetylcysteine for debridement of 10-15% b.s.a. 3 degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> of rats or 15-20% b.s.a. 3 degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> of pigs. Major emphasis has been on N-acetylcysteine because of the potential adverse secondary effect of penicillamine and cysteine ethyl ester; N-acetylcysteine is readily metabolized. The use of a keratolytic agent prior to the application of N-acetylcysteine hastens the latter's action. Sulfamylon and sulfadiazine can be used with N-acetylcysteine without interfering with its debriding action. The effects of the mercaptans are likely due largely to their ability to depolymerize connective tissue proteoglycans and proteins, especially at the interface between living and dead tissue. PMID:7265335</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levenson, S M; Gruber, D K; Gruber, C; Lent, R; Seifter, E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28589355"> <span id="translatedtitle">Efficacy of topical silver against fungal <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound pathogens</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Fungal infections of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds have become an important cause of <span class="hlt">burn</span>-associated morbidity and mortality. The nature of fungal infections dictates aggressive treatment to minimize the morbidity associated with these infections. Persons with large total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burns</span> are particularly susceptible to fungal infections and are treated in such a manner as to minimize their risk of infection.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. B. Wright; K. Lam; D. Hansen; R. E. Burrell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10661537"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anhydrous ammonia <span class="hlt">burns</span>: case presentation and literature review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anhydrous ammonia, a caustic compound commonly used in industry, can cause severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>, even with brief contact. As with other alkali <span class="hlt">burns</span>, early irrigation to remove the ammonia from <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> is crucial to limit tissue damage. Two cases of identical exposure to industrial strength ammonia are presented. Each patient was exposed to ammonia liquid and vapors simultaneously when a tank containing this compound exploded. One patient showered at the scene immediately after exposure, whereas the other deferred irrigation until he arrived at the hospital. The first patient suffered minor <span class="hlt">burns</span> with a 2-day, uncomplicated hospital stay. The second patient suffered 14% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burns</span> and a significant inhalation injury. He required intubation, mechanical ventilation, and skin grafting during his 13-day hospitalization. Although much is written about the management of chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span>, few articles address ammonia <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Aggressive initial management significantly reduces morbidity of ammonia <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:10661537</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Latenser, B A; Lucktong, T A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-05/pdf/2013-02432.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 8063 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port...Coast Guard proposes to add three new fireworks events and to correct the location of...to ensure public safety during <span class="hlt">annual</span> firework displays at various locations in...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-06/pdf/2012-13684.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 33308 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...USCG-2010-0063] Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port...will enforce the safety zones for <span class="hlt">annual</span> firework displays in the Captain of the Port...from the hazards associated with the firework displays. During the enforcement...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-09/pdf/2011-14330.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 33646 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...USCG-2010-0063] Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port...will enforce the safety zones for <span class="hlt">annual</span> firework displays in the Captain of the Port...from the hazards associated with the firework displays. During the enforcement...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-01/pdf/2010-15970.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 38021 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...USCG-2010-0063] Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port...will enforce the safety zones for <span class="hlt">annual</span> firework displays in the Captain of the Port...from the hazards associated with the firework displays. During the enforcement...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-17/pdf/2013-11750.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 29023 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port...The Coast Guard is adding three new fireworks events and correcting the location of...to ensure public safety during <span class="hlt">annual</span> firework displays at various locations in...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6472E..15D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Terahertz imaging of <span class="hlt">burned</span> tissue</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There are over 2 million reported <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries each year in the United States with 75,000 of these incidents resulting in hospitalization. Current medical imaging modalities have limited capabilities to assess initial <span class="hlt">burn</span> damage and monitor healing progress. Some of these limitations can be attributed to modality occlusion from bandages, dried tissue and/or blood and inflammation. Since terahertz radiation can see through textiles and bandages1, previous studies2,3 suggested that terahertz radiation, in a reflectance configuration, could be used for non-invasive analysis of tissue thermal damage and healing status. In this study, we perform an analysis of the terahertz absorption and reflection properties of the tissue constituents comprising a wound <span class="hlt">area</span>, and provide a feasibility assessment of the capabilities of terahertz imaging to provide a clinical tool for initial <span class="hlt">burn</span> analysis and healing progress.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dougherty, Joseph P.; Jubic, Gregory D.; Kiser, William L., Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3187994"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> in Epileptics: Experience from Enugu, Nigeria</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary We present <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries sustained by epileptics and managed in our <span class="hlt">burns</span> centre over a period of 10 years. There were a total of 18 patients who sustained <span class="hlt">burns</span> as a result of epileptic attacks during the study period. This constituted 3.7% of the 485 <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients seen during the period. There were 10 males and 8 females. Sixteen of them (88.9%) were known epileptics, while two had their first seizures when they sustained the <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. Only seven of the patients (38.9%) had attempted any form of treatment for epilepsy prior to the <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries - four of these were on native herbal medications while three had seen orthodox medical practitioners but did not comply with their medications. Sixteen of the patients (88.9%) had flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> and two (11.1%) had scald injuries. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> surface <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged between 5 and 80%, with a mean of 21.0%. Most of the injuries were full thickness, necessitating wound cover. One patient had amputation of the right hand digits, while another had an above-elbow amputation. We submit that sociocultural beliefs about epileptics and epilepsy constitute a significant problem in this group of patients in our environment. Education of the people will reduce <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries in such patients.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiburum, B.C.; Olaitan, P.B.; Otene, C.I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29581529"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> mortality and hospitalization time — a prospective statistical study of 352 patients in an Asian National <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Centre</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A prospective study of 352 patients in an Asian National <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Centre has been used to develop statistical predictive models for mortality and hospitalization time. The patients are largely of Asian origin. Total <span class="hlt">burn</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (% TBSA) and presence of respiratory <span class="hlt">burns</span> are significant independent predictors of mortality in the multiple logistic regression analysis with an accuracy of 98.3</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. K. Wong; R. C. K. Ngim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48947268"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improving global estimates of atmospheric emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> during wildland fires is an important source of atmospheric trace gasses and particulate matter. A meeting sponsored by Global Observation of Forest Cover\\/Global Observation of Land Dynamics and International Geosphere-Biosphere Program\\/International Global Atmospheric Chemistry\\/Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Experiment to review the status of efforts using satellite-based <span class="hlt">burned-area</span> products to estimate global emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> was held in July 2002.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eric S. Kasischke; Joyce E. Penner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3793879"> <span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology of major <span class="hlt">burns</span> at the Lebanese <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center in Geitawi, Lebanon</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary <span class="hlt">Burn</span> care is one of the few <span class="hlt">areas</span> in medicine considered both medically and surgically challenging, with <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries affecting people of all ages and both sexes. Between May 1992 and March 2012, 1,524 patients were admitted to the Lebanese <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center in Geitawi, with an average length of stay (LOS) of 36.5 days. The most frequently encountered injuries were thermal <span class="hlt">burns</span>, generally resulting from domestic accidents. Of our patients, 47% were from rural <span class="hlt">areas</span> and <span class="hlt">burned</span> body surface (BBS) was the most serious factor, with 36% of all those admitted having suffered <span class="hlt">burns</span> of 20% to 40% of their total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA). Our team of experienced physicians, nurses, nutritionists and physical therapists was essential to successful <span class="hlt">burn</span> care and outcomes were improved with adequate early fluid intake. The main causes of death were multiple organ failure due to hemodynamic instability, followed by respiratory failure from inhalation injury. A week after the injury, risk of infection was the main threat to the <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims. Although this threat was compounded by malnutrition and immunodeficiency, excessive use of antibiotics was not justified. The fatality rate was about 18% and correlates with higher TBSA <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ghanime, G.; Rizkallah, N.; Said, J.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2935806"> <span id="translatedtitle">Topical Antimicrobials for <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Wound Infections</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Throughout most of history, serious <span class="hlt">burns</span> occupying a large percentage of body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the <span class="hlt">burn</span> milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the <span class="hlt">burned</span> skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make <span class="hlt">burns</span> particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to <span class="hlt">burns</span>, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat <span class="hlt">burn</span> infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating <span class="hlt">burn</span> infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active <span class="hlt">area</span> of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for <span class="hlt">burns</span> that will battle against growing multi-drug resistance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Hashmi, Javad T.; Kurup, Divya B.; Hamblin, Michael R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA237328"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Wounds.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This research seeks to develop non-invasive <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth evaluation from non-contacting visible and near-infrared spectroscopic measurements. In previous years, we demonstrated that features of the optical reflection spectra of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds can be correlated...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. A. Afromowitz J. D. Callis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17091072"> <span id="translatedtitle">Self-esteem measurement before and after summer <span class="hlt">burn</span> camp in pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury results in significant mortality and morbidity, from which some children will experience prolonged psychological and social difficulty. As early as 1967, it was noted that participation in a group was important in the resolution of problems caused by severe disability and stressful experiences. Since 1982, there have been summer <span class="hlt">burn</span> camps for children and adolescent <span class="hlt">burn</span> survivors. The primary focus of camp is to have "fun" at the various daily activities. The principal goal, however, is psychosocial readjustment. Fifty-three <span class="hlt">burn</span> survivors attended the 1-week duration <span class="hlt">annual</span> summer camp. Campers were invited to complete a Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale on the first day of summer <span class="hlt">burn</span> camp and shortly after the camp ended. Younger children were assisted with the survey tool by their parents. Of the 53 campers, 45 completed both pre- and postcamp surveys. The age of the campers ranged from 6 to 18 years (mean, 12.8 years). <span class="hlt">Burn</span> size ranged from 1% to 90% TBSA (mean, 30.4% TBSA). The interval from date of injury to camp attendance was 2 months to 15.5 years. Nine campers had never attended <span class="hlt">burn</span> camp before this year. Twenty- nine percent of the campers had an increase in self-esteem score. Fifty-eight percent had no change, and 13% demonstrated a decrease. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> camp experience though an enriching summer activity, did not necessarily increase self-esteem in the majority of campers as measured by the survey tool employed. PMID:17091072</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arnoldo, Brett D; Crump, Donna; Burris, Agnes M; Hunt, John L; Purdue, Gary F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57168867"> <span id="translatedtitle">A 1416-year reconstruction of <span class="hlt">annual</span>, multidecadal, and centennial variability in <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> for ponderosa pine forests of the southern Colorado Plateau region, Southwest USA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fire history reconstructions from fire scars in tree rings have been valuable for assessing fire regime changes and their climatic controls. It has been asserted, however, that these two- to four-century long records from the western USA are unrepresentative of longer periods of the Holocene and are of limited use for understanding current or future fire regimes. The Medieval Climate</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christopher I. Roos; Thomas W. Swetnam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://video.nasa.gov/core-dl/423/0/593/455143381/3101/423/1583/af4f281076d759a2bd4c9bd4b5028254.mp4"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Rate Emulator</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Rate Emulator is a gas fuel investigation attempting to emulate the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of solids to improve our understanding of materials''flammability over a wide range of conditions. The approach relies on the fact that all <span class="hlt">burning</span> solids are first converted into a gas. By understanding the rate of gasification and other physical properties of a given solid material, the experiments will emulate the <span class="hlt">burning</span> process by carefully controlling a gas flame</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kristine Rainey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2494103"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fluid replacement in <span class="hlt">burns</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The successful treatment of major <span class="hlt">burns</span> depends upon accurate and early fluid replacement in the first 36 h. A <span class="hlt">burns</span> calculator has been designed, based upon the Muir and Barclay formula, which should facilitate the estimation of fluid requirements in <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients and therefore improve their immediate management in accident and emergency departments. ImagesFIG. 2</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jenkinson, Lloyd R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57788098"> <span id="translatedtitle">Suicide by Self-<span class="hlt">Burning</span> in Iraqi Kurdistan: Description and Risk Factors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study aims to provide evidence for the problem of suicide by self-<span class="hlt">burning</span> in Iraqi Kurdistan. Data were collected prospectively from all patients admitted to the <span class="hlt">burn</span> center in the province of Sulaymaniyah and cases of self-<span class="hlt">burning</span> were compared with cases of accidental <span class="hlt">burns</span>. There were 197 cases with an <span class="hlt">annual</span> incidence rate of 8.4 per 100,000 per year and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nasih Othman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GBioC..21.2011I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and interannual variations in CO and BC emissions from open biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Southern Africa during 1998-2005</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We estimate the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and black carbon (BC) from open vegetation fires in the Southern Hemisphere Africa from 1998 to 2005 using satellite information in conjunction with a biogeochemical model. Monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> at a 0.5-degree resolution are estimated from the Visible InfraRed Scanner (VIRS) fire count product and the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data set associated with the MODIS tree cover imagery in grasslands and woodlands. The monthly fuel load distributions are derived from a 0.5-degree terrestrial carbon cycle model in conjunction with satellite data. The monthly maps of combustion factors and emission factors are estimated using empirical models that predict the effects of fuel conditions on these factors in grasslands and woodlands. Our <span class="hlt">annually</span> averaged effective CO and BC emissions per <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> are 27 g CO m-2 and 0.17 g BC m-2 which are consistent with the products of fuel consumption and emission factors typically measured in southern Africa. The CO and BC emissions from open vegetation <span class="hlt">burning</span> in southern Africa range from 45 Tg CO yr-1 and 0.26 Tg BC yr-1 for 2002 to 75 Tg CO yr-1 and 0.42 Tg BC yr-1 for 1998. The monthly averaged <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> from VIRS fire counts peak earlier than modeled CO emissions. This characteristic delay between <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> and emissions is mainly explained by significant changes in combustion factors for woodlands in our model. Consequently, the peaks in CO and BC emissions from our bottom-up approach are identical to those from previous top-down estimates using the Measurement Of the Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Aerosol Index (AI) data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ito, Akinori; Ito, Akihiko; Akimoto, Hajime</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901031"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Systems Plan for 1978-1982 and <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 4 South Carolina.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This health systems plan (HSP) and <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) were developed by the Palmetto-Lowcountry Health Systems Agency, Inc. Ten sections comprise the HSP: (1) introduction and background (legislative aspects of health planning and a descript...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901177"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Systems Plan for 1978-1979 and <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 California. Compendium.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tables, accompanied by some narrative information, are presented in this compendium that is part of the health systems plan/<span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan of the Golden Empire Health Systems Agency. An introductory section discusses statewide health planning ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901202"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Systems Plan for 1978-1983 and <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978-1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Colorado.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Southeastern Colorado Health Systems Agency devised this health systems plan (HSP) and <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP). Sections of the HSP are organized as follows: (1) introduction--authority for health planning, mission and purpose of the health s...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901535"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Systems Plan for 1979 and <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1979-1980. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 4 Connecticut.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Health Systems Agency of North Central Connecticut incorporated various aspects of health status and health system development in its health systems plan (HSP) and <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP). The introduction to the HSP examines goals and functi...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0906796"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for Bergen and Passaic Counties, New Jersey, 1986. New Jersey Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 1.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan (AIP) is the community's expression of desired changes in the health system through a short-range community work program which will promote initiatives suggested in the Health Systems Plan. The AIP identifies the HSA's prior...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901199"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Systems Plan for 1978-1982 and <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978-1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Kansas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Northeast Kansas Health Systems Agency developed this health systems plan (HSP) and <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP). The HSP is organized as follows: introduction--agency history and responsibility, purpose and use of the plan, and evaluation of the ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901057"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Systems Plan for 1978-1983 and <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978-1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 Louisiana.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The health systems plan (HSP) and the <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) developed by the North Louisiana Health Systems Agency, Inc., in Shreveport are presented. Contents: Introduction--discusses the purpose and scope of the HSP, the statutory authority o...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901550"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Systems Plan and <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Virginia. 2nd Edition.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document, which contains the health systems plan (HSP) and <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) for northern Virginia, indicates goals, objectives, and actions related to health status and the health system. The HSP contains introductory information on t...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49333069"> <span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology of <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Iran during the last decade (2000–2010): Review of literature and methodological considerations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The approach to <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention, to be effective in a particular <span class="hlt">area</span>, should be based on sound knowledge of etiological patterns of <span class="hlt">burns</span> injuries and must take into account the geographical variations and socioeconomic differences in <span class="hlt">burn</span> epidemiology. Although many articles are published on <span class="hlt">burns</span> epidemiology in Iran, a holistic view of <span class="hlt">burn</span> epidemiology in Iran is not well presented</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani; Reza Mohammadi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12621940"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Evaluation and first aid of <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">First cares of <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients depend of an accurate evaluation of the injury severity. Total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> can be estimated taking into account the fact that the <span class="hlt">area</span> of one hand face is equivalent to 1% of the total body surface (TBS) of the individual. Second-degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> are characterized by the occurrence of phlyctena, third-degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> appear like adhering necrosis without any sensibility. Smoke inhalation injuries are frequent and can be recognized on the presence of tare deposits inside the mouse and on the respiratory conducts. Taking care of the patient begins with making the victim safe from the thermal aggression. Then, cooling the <span class="hlt">burn</span> is to be performed. The emergency medical care consists in securing respiratory function, and, as early as possible, in beginning perfusions of Ringer Lactate Lavoisier exceeding 20 mL/kg during the first post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> hours for patient suffering of <span class="hlt">burns</span> exceeding 10% of the total body <span class="hlt">area</span>. Pain must be controlled using preferentially morphine or related products. Transport to the specialized unit, in case of severe injury, will be performed assuring thermal comfort, wound protection and vital function monitoring. PMID:12621940</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wassermann, Daniel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1649807"> <span id="translatedtitle">Project <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Prevention: outcome and implications.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Project <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Prevention was designed and implemented to determine the ability of a public education program to increase awareness about <span class="hlt">burn</span> hazards and reduce the incidence and severity of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. Media messages were transmitted to residents of a large metropolitan <span class="hlt">area</span>; separate school and community interventions were implemented in two demographically similar communities within the Standard Metropolitan Statistical <span class="hlt">Area</span> (SMSA). A second metropolitan <span class="hlt">area</span> and two of its communities served as control sites. Messages for specific, high-risk age groups emphasized flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> because of their severity and scalds because of their frequency. Knowledge gains were demonstrable only as a result of the school program. Neither the school program nor the media campaign reduced <span class="hlt">burn</span> incidence or severity; the community intervention may have brought about a moderate, temporary reduction in injuries. Multiplicity of messages, brevity of the campaign, and separation of the interventions are among possible reasons for the program's failure to significantly reduce <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. Education for personal responsibility is not sufficient. Product modification and environmental redesign must be instituted through education and legislation for successful control of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McLoughlin, E; Vince, C J; Lee, A M; Crawford, J D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15534459"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sandal <span class="hlt">burns</span> and their treatment in children.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sandal is an ancient, primitive heating device that is still in use by both poor and rich people in mountain <span class="hlt">areas</span> of Middle Asia. Sandal <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries are a serious health problem. Characteristics of sandal <span class="hlt">burns</span> include not only skin injuries of various depths but also injuries to underlying tissues: subcutaneous fat, fasciae, muscles, and even bones. Sandal <span class="hlt">burns</span> are characterized by such severe deep injuries because of a close contact of the body with live coals or woods. The main goal of this work was to present the most complete information about sandal <span class="hlt">burns</span> and discuss the most effective methods of treatment for sandal <span class="hlt">burns</span>. This treatment is used to accelerate the rejection of necrotic tissue, to prepare the wound for early autodermoplastic surgery, to decrease the postburn contractures/deformities, and also to shorten hospital stay for the patients. PMID:15534459</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shakirov, Babur M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29590497"> <span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiological study of 3341 <span class="hlt">burns</span> patients during three years in Tehran, Iran</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A retrospective study was conducted on 3341 <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients hospitalized in a <span class="hlt">burn</span> care center in Tehran, Iran during 1995–98. The mean age was 20.4 years, and 43.5% of patients were children under 15 years old. The mean body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> was 30.6%. There were statistically significant correlations between age groups and total <span class="hlt">burn</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) <span class="hlt">burned</span> with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abdolaziz Rastegar Lari; Reza Alaghehbandan; Rahmatollah Nikui</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3387177"> <span id="translatedtitle">Myocardial Autophagy after Severe <span class="hlt">Burn</span> in Rats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Autophagy plays a major role in myocardial ischemia and hypoxia injury. The present study investigated the effects of autophagy on cardiac dysfunction in rats after severe <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Methods Protein expression of the autophagy markers LC3 and Beclin 1 were determined at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 h post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> in Sprague Dawley rats subjected to 30% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> 3rd degree <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Autophagic, apoptotic, and oncotic cell death were evaluated in the myocardium at each time point by immunofluorescence. Changes of cardiac function were measured in a Langendorff model of isolated heart at 6 h post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>, and the autophagic response was measured following activation by Rapamycin and inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA). The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat, the angiotensin receptor I blocker losartan, and the reactive oxygen species inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) were also applied to the ex vivo heart model to examine the roles of these factors in post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> cardiac function. Results Autophagic cell death was first observed in the myocardium at 3 h post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>, occurring in 0.008 ± 0.001% of total cardiomyocytes, and continued to increase to a level of 0.022 ± 0.005% by 12 h post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>. No autophagic cell death was observed in control hearts. Compared with apoptosis, autophagic cell death occurred earlier and in larger quantities. Rapamycin enhanced autophagy and decreased cardiac function in isolated hearts 6 h post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>, while 3-MA exerted the opposite response. Enalaprilat, losartan, and DPI all inhibited autophagy and enhanced heart function. Conclusion Myocardial autophagy is enhanced in severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> and autophagic cell death occurred early at 3 h post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>, which may contribute to post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> cardiac dysfunction. Angiotensin II and reactive oxygen species may play important roles in this process by regulating cell signaling transduction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Qiong; Shi, Xiao-hua; Huang, Yue-sheng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC33E..06B"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Sedimentary Charcoal Record of Regional and Global Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> on Multi-decadal-to-Orbital Time Scales</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The global charcoal database (GCD) assembled by the Global Palaeofire Working Group (GPWG) over the past several years provides over 800 sedimentary charcoal records of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> that allows wildfire to be examined on a range of spatial and temporal scales. These data, and other analyses of sedimentary charcoal records show that: (1) The data-analytical aspects of sedimentary charcoal have matured to the extent that we can show that biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is well represented by these records, that charcoal influx is a general indicator of <span class="hlt">area</span> or biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and that peaks of charcoal influx in records with <span class="hlt">annual</span>-to-decadal resolution provide evidence of individual fires. (2) The spatial coverage of the records is extensive enough to represent much of the global climate space, although coverage of Africa, Siberia, and grassland and desert ecosystems in general could be improved. (3) The temporal coverage is sufficient to resolve millennial-scale environmental changes over the past glacial cycle, and hemispheric and regional variations in biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> from the LGM to present. (4) Global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> was very low at the LGM, and increases in biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> into the Holocene tracked hemispheric and regional climate changes. (5) Abrupt climate changes during deglaciation caused specific responses in the charcoal records; these responses are replicated during the abrupt warming and cooling episodes accompanying D-O cycles. (6) During the Holocene, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> reflects regional climate changes and does not support the early anthropocene hypothesis. (7) Over the last millennium, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> also tracks regional climate changes, and shows an unambiguous human influence only over the past 250 years. (8) The variations in global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on multiple time scales described by the sedimentary charcoal record are supported by the emerging ice core records of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>. (9) Increases in biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> are strongly linked to temperature increases on all time scales, and are generally higher at intermediate levels of effective moisture, reflecting a tradeoff between fuel (vegetation productivity) and fire-conducive weather and climate; drought becomes an important control only on decadal and shorter time scales. (10) Human activity is neither necessary nor sufficient for explaining the large-scale, long-term variations in biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bartlein, P. J.; Marlon, J.; Global Palaeofire Working Group</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18388580"> <span id="translatedtitle">A prospective analysis of trash, brush, and grass <span class="hlt">burning</span> behaviors.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> injuries sustained during residential trash, brush, and grass <span class="hlt">burning</span> cause significant morbidity and mortality in rural <span class="hlt">areas</span>. To further prevention efforts, we surveyed individuals who incurred injuries from residential <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Thirty-six individuals injured while <span class="hlt">burning</span> trash, brush, or grass from June 2003 through September 2005 were asked to respond to a self-administered written survey. Injury related questions revealed that the majority of those injured were <span class="hlt">burning</span> brush (21 of 35, 60.0%) in an open space (19 of 35, 54.2%) with the addition of accelerants (27 of 36, 75%). Survey questions regarding usual <span class="hlt">burning</span> practices revealed almost two-thirds <span class="hlt">burned</span> either brush or a mixture of brush and trash (23 of 36, 63.9%). Eighty percent of those who were injured desired to change their behavior (25 of 35, 80%). Approximately two-thirds would consider asking for help with <span class="hlt">burning</span> if it were provided (22 of 34, 64.7%). Our survey shows that acceptable alternatives to <span class="hlt">burning</span> varied depending on the material that was <span class="hlt">burned</span>. As the majority of respondents usually <span class="hlt">burned</span> brush or a mixture of brush and trash, an acceptable trash removal system should also include brush pickup. As residential <span class="hlt">burning</span> continues presently, injury prevention efforts are essential and should focus on the misuse of gasoline, uniform safety standards for gasoline cans, and dissemination of safe <span class="hlt">burning</span> practices. PMID:18388580</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wibbenmeyer, Lucy A; Kealey, Gerald P; Young, Tracy L; Newell, Ingrid M; Lewis, Robert W; Miller, Benjamin R; Peek-Asa, Corrine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3576016"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span>: an update on current pharmacotherapy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction The world-wide occurrence of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries remains high despite efforts to reduce injury incidence through public awareness campaigns and improvements in living conditions. In 2004, almost 11 million people experienced <span class="hlt">burns</span> severe enough to warrant medical treatment. Advances over the past several decades in aggressive resuscitation, nutrition, excision, and grafting have reduced morbidity and mortality. Incorporation of pharmacotherapeutics into treatment regimens may further reduce complications of severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. <span class="hlt">Areas</span> covered Severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries, as well as other forms of stress and trauma, trigger a hypermetabolic response that, if left untreated, impedes recovery. In the past two decades, use of anabolic agents, beta adrenergic receptor antagonists, and anti-hyperglycemic agents has successfully counteracted post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> morbidities including catabolism, the catecholamine-mediated response, and insulin resistance. Here we review the most up-to-date information on currently used pharmacotherapies in the treatment of these sequelae of severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> and the insights that have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Expert opinion Existing drugs offer promising advances in the care of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. Continued gains in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving the hypermetabolic response will enable the application of additional existing drugs to be broadened to further attenuate the hypermetabolic response.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rojas, Yesinia; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S.; Herndon, David N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23436245"> <span id="translatedtitle">Myeloperoxidase activity and its corresponding mRNA expression as well as gene polymorphism in the population living in the coal-<span class="hlt">burning</span> endemic fluorosis <span class="hlt">area</span> in Guizhou of China.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and its corresponding mRNA expression as well as gene polymorphism were investigated in the population who live in the endemic fluorosis <span class="hlt">area</span>. In the study, 150 people were selected from the coal-<span class="hlt">burning</span> endemic fluorosis <span class="hlt">area</span> and 150 normal persons from the non-fluorosis <span class="hlt">area</span> in Guizhou province of China. The blood samples were collected from these people. The activity of MPO in the plasma was determined by spectrophotometer; the expression of MPO mRNA was measured by employing real-time polymerase chain reaction; DNAs were extracted from the leucocytes in blood and five SNP genotypes of MPO promoter gene detected by a multiplex genotyping method, adapter-ligation-mediated allele-specific amplification. The results showed that the MPO activity and its corresponding mRNA in blood were significantly increased in the population living in the <span class="hlt">area</span> of fluorosis. The different genotype frequencies of MPO, including -1228G/A, -585T/C, -463G/A, and -163C/T, and the three haplotypes with higher frequencies, including -163C-463G-585T-1228G-1276T, -163C-463G-585T-1228G-1276C, and -163C-463G-585T-1228A-1276T, were significantly associated with fluorosis. The results indicated that the elevated activity of MPO induced by endemic fluorosis may be connected in mechanism to the stimulated expression of MPO mRNA and the changed gene polymorphism. PMID:23436245</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Ting; Shan, Ke-Ren; Tu, Xi; He, Yan; Pei, Jin-Jing; Guan, Zhi-Zhong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/979388"> <span id="translatedtitle">2009 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Summary Report for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada: Review of the Performance Assessments and Composite Analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office performed an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Wate Management Site (RWMS) Performance Assessments (PAs) and Composite Analyses (CAs) in fiscal year (FY) 2009. This <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2009 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada Test Site relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NSTec Environmental Management</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21093630"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome and secondary oral <span class="hlt">burning</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome is a complex disorder of unclear etiology that is most prevalent in perimenopausal women. It is often accompanied by dysguesia and subjective xerostomia. Recent evidence implicates both central and peripheral neuropathies, possibly representing a phantom pain syndrome in some patients. Ensuring that the patient's oral <span class="hlt">burning</span> is not secondary to some other local or systemic factor is central to appropriate management. Current standard therapies include clonazepam, paroxetine, and cognitive behavioral therapy, and several promising new alternatives are described. PMID:21093630</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Minor, Jacob S; Epstein, Joel B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21107271"> <span id="translatedtitle">Deep partial scald <span class="hlt">burn</span> in a neonate: a case report of the first documented domestic neonatal <span class="hlt">burn</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">No previous publication about domestic neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span> exists in the literature. The authors have treated a 16-day-old baby boy for deep partial-thickness scalds that happened at home. The case report is followed by a literature review and discussion of the data previously published on neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Special considerations to domestic neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span> are highlighted. A 16-day-old baby boy presented to our emergency room secondary to an 18% TBSA scald <span class="hlt">burn</span> by hot tea. The patient was resuscitated and admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. Topical wound care, although started with fusidic acid ointment, was changed to Aquacel Ag Hydrofiber dressing once the final depth assessment was performed. The child's wounds, although deep at some <span class="hlt">areas</span>, healed by day 11 without the need for skin grafting. Neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span> have been previously described as iatrogenic injuries caused by various thermal sources. Part of the challenge in managing <span class="hlt">burns</span> is their extremely thin skin. Possibility of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> being inflicted should always be raised for such young victims. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> wounds are tetanus-prone wounds; however, no previous recommendation regarding tetanus immunoglobulin administration exists for neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Aquacel Ag's efficacy in the management of pediatric partial-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> has been documented extensively and from our limited experience, it seems appropriate for managing neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Although neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span> need some special considerations during treatment, the cornerstones of pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> management still apply. The role of tetanus immunoglobulin still needs to be studied. PMID:21107271</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Al-Ahdab, Maher; Al-Omawi, Maimouna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12163292"> <span id="translatedtitle">Repeated expansion in <span class="hlt">burn</span> sequela.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a retrospective study of the use of 346 expanders in 132 patients operated at the Ivo Pitanguy Clinic, between the period of 1985 and 2000. The expanders were used in the treatment of <span class="hlt">burn</span> sequela. In the majority of cases, more than one expander was used at the same time. In 42 patients, repeated tissue expansion was done. The re-expanded flaps demonstrated good distension and viability. With the increase in <span class="hlt">area</span> at each new expansion, larger volume expanders were employed, achieving an adequate advancement of the flaps to remove the injured tissue. The great advantage of using tissue re-expansion in the <span class="hlt">burned</span> patient is the reconstruction of extensive <span class="hlt">areas</span> with the same color and texture of neighboring tissues, without the addition of new scars. PMID:12163292</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pitanguy, Ivo; Gontijo de Amorim, Natale Ferreira; Radwanski, Henrique N; Lintz, José Eduardo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9764698"> <span id="translatedtitle">Molten metal <span class="hlt">burns</span>: early treatment improves outcome.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Molten metal <span class="hlt">burns</span> have received relatively little attention in the surgical literature. We performed a retrospective chart review of 150 patients who sustained molten metal <span class="hlt">burns</span> between 1972 and 1997. The injuries all occurred in male foundry workers, most commonly from molten aluminum (60%). The typical accident was that of a splatter spill, creating a full-thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The mean <span class="hlt">burn</span> size was 2.3 per cent of the body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (range, 0.25-25%). The lower extremities were the most commonly injured <span class="hlt">areas</span> (85%), yet 37 per cent of patients had multiple sites <span class="hlt">burned</span>. Patients were often initially treated nonoperatively and then referred to a surgeon when the wound failed to heal. Hospitalization was necessary in 89 patients at a mean of 16 days after the injury, and 92 patients required an operation, most commonly excision of the wound with skin grafting. The mean length of hospital stay was 11.2 days, and mean absence from work was 72.6 days. Fifty-one patients treated by the <span class="hlt">burn</span> surgeon within 2 weeks of injury had a mean length of disability significantly shorter than those referred late (53.5 vs. 83.4 days; P < 0.05). We believe that an underestimation of the severity of these <span class="hlt">burns</span> often leads to a delay in correct therapy and extends disability. PMID:9764698</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Margulies, D R; Navarro, R A; Kahn, A M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004GeoRL..3120505W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Boreal forest fires <span class="hlt">burn</span> less intensely in Russia than in North America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Around 5-20 million hectares of boreal forest <span class="hlt">burns</span> <span class="hlt">annually</span>, mainly in Russia and North America. However, there are reports of significant differences in predominant fire type between these regions, which may have major implications for overall emissions of carbon, gases and aerosols. We examine boreal forest fire intensities via MODIS observations of fire radiative energy release rate. Results support the contention of a consistent difference in fire intensity and mean fuel consumption in Russia and North America, due to differences in dominant fire type. North American fires have higher mean intensities, increasing in proportion to percentage tree cover, characteristics indicating likely crown fire dominance. Russian fires have lower mean intensities, independent of percentage tree cover, characteristics more indicative of surface fire activity. Per unit <span class="hlt">area</span> burnt, the results suggest Russian fires may <span class="hlt">burn</span> less fuel and emit fewer products to the atmosphere than do those in North America.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wooster, M. J.; Zhang, Y. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/797309"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report RCRA Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspections for CAU 112: <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, for the period October 2000-July 2001</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">annual</span> Neutron Soil Moisture Monitoring report provides an analysis and summary for site inspections, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture monitoring data obtained at the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) unit, located in <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, during the October 2000--July 2001 monitoring period. Inspections of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches RCRA unit are conducted to determine and document the physical condition of the covers, facilities, and any unusual conditions that could impact the proper operation of the waste unit closure. Physical inspections of the closure were completed quarterly and indicated that the site is in good condition with no significant findings noted. An <span class="hlt">annual</span> subsidence survey of the elevation markers was conducted in July 2001. There has been no subsidence at any of the markers since monitoring began eight years ago. Precipitation for the period October 2000 through July 2001 was 9.42 centimeters (cm) (3.71 inches [in]) (U.S. National Weather Service, 2001). The prior year <span class="hlt">annual</span> rainfall (January 2000 through December 2000) was 10.44 cm (4.1 1 in.). The recorded average <span class="hlt">annual</span> rainfall for this site from 1972 to January 2000 is 14.91 cm (5.87 in.). The objective of the neutron logging program is to monitor the soil moisture conditions along 30 neutron access tubes and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement at a point located directly beneath each trench. All monitored access tubes are within the compliance criteria of less than 5 percent residual volumetric moisture content at the compliance point directly beneath each respective trench. Soil conditions remain dry and stable underneath the trenches.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. S. Tobiason</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510314M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physiochemical characterisation of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> plumes in Brazil during SAMBBA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, which results in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious negative impacts on public health. Globally, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect of 0.03 Wm-2, however the uncertainty is 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in <span class="hlt">areas</span> such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent <span class="hlt">burning</span> occurs on an <span class="hlt">annual</span> basis for several months (usually from August-October). Furthermore, a growing number of people live within the Amazon region, which means that they are subject to the deleterious effects on their health from exposure to substantial volumes of polluted air. Results are presented here from the South American Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Analysis (SAMBBA), which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil. A suite of instrumentation was flown on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft. Measurements from the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) form the major part of the analysis presented here. The aircraft sampled several fires in close proximity (approximately 150m above the most intense fires) in different <span class="hlt">areas</span> of Brazil. This included two extensive <span class="hlt">areas</span> of <span class="hlt">burning</span>, which occurred in the states of Rondonia and Tocantins. The Rondonia fire was largely dominated by smouldering combustion of a huge single <span class="hlt">area</span> of rainforest with a visible plume of smoke extending approximately 80km downwind. The Tocantins example contrasted with this as it was a collection of a large number of smaller fires, with flaming combustion being more prevalent. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was largely made up of agricultural land in a cerrado (savannah-like) region of Brazil. Initial results suggest that the chemical nature of these fires differed markedly, with BC concentrations being an order of magnitude greater in the Tocantins case (up to 50 ?g m-3 of BC) compared with the Rondonia case (up to 5 ?g m-3 of BC). Organic matter (OM) concentrations were similar in both cases, with maximum concentrations peaking between 4-5 mg m-3. Such concentrations are approximately more than 100 times greater than those sampled in the "background" regional haze. This variation of BC to OM ratio has potentially large implications for the radiative balance in the respective regions, as BC represents the major absorbing component of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosol. Further analysis will compare the aerosol mass concentrations with gas phase species, as well as probing the chemical and physical evolution of the aerosol as it advects downwind and is diluted with regional air. In particular, such analyses will focus upon the aging of the organic aerosol component as well as examining how the mixing state of the BC particles evolves. Such properties have important implications for the life cycle and formation of particulate material, which governs its subsequent impacts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morgan, William; Allan, James; Flynn, Michael; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Hodgson, Amy; Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Artaxo, Paulo; Coe, Hugh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3793881"> <span id="translatedtitle">Possible risk factors associated with <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound colonization in <span class="hlt">burn</span> units of Gaza strip hospitals, Palestine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary The epidemiological pattern and risk factors of <span class="hlt">burns</span> and <span class="hlt">burn</span> infections varies widely in different parts of the world. This study aims to determine the epidemiologic pattern of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries and possible risk factors associated with <span class="hlt">burn</span> infections in <span class="hlt">burn</span> units of Gaza strip hospitals. A total of 118 patients were included in the study. The data collected included: patient age and gender, the causes, site, degree, and TBSA of the <span class="hlt">burns</span>, as well as surgical operations, length of hospital stay, and microbiological profile of samples collected from patients, the environment, and from health care staff. Pediatric and adult patients accounted for 72% and 28% respectively. 58.5% of all patients were male and 41.5% were female. The most common etiological factors in children were scalding, while in adults these were open fire and flammable liquids. The mean TBSA was 12% with a range from 1–90%. Second and third degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> accounted for 78% and 22% respectively. The <span class="hlt">area</span> of the body most often affected was the torso (39%), followed by the lower limb (29.7%), and upper limb (17.8%). The predominant microorganisms isolated from <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp. and Staphylococcus spp. The study showed the highest risk groups to be children and males, and enabled us to identify possible risk factors that can help in future efforts toward prevention and minimizing nosocomial infections in <span class="hlt">burn</span> units of Gaza strip hospitals.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Al Laham, N.A.; Elmanama, A.A.; Tayh, G.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23545350"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pediatric cutaneous bleach <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bleach is a common household product which can cause caustic injuries. Its effects on mucosal tissues and the eye have been well-described in the literature. However, there is little information published regarding the appearance and effect of bleach on a child's skin. We report three children who sustained chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> after contact with bleach. All three children sustained accidental bleach <span class="hlt">burns</span> while at home, and each child had a distinct brown discoloration to the skin from the injury. All three children had treatment and follow-up for their <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Two of the children sustained more severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>, which were extensive and required more time to heal. There was also long-term scarring associated with the severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Like most <span class="hlt">burns</span>, pain control is required until the injury heals. PMID:23545350</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lang, Cathleen; Cox, Matthew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9212488"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> and epilepsy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients, treated in the <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of <span class="hlt">burn</span> was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of <span class="hlt">burn</span> in this group. PMID:9212488</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berrocal, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1570621"> <span id="translatedtitle">Liposome delivery of aminoglycosides in <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The current study evaluated the pharmacodynamics of topically applied antimicrobials incorporated into radiolabeled liposomes. Radiolabeled 125I-phenyldecanoic acid was used in the formulation of small unilamellar liposomes. Sephadex (cross-linked dextran beads) G-50 columns were run to determine the per cent of radioactivity incorporated into liposomes and persistence of radioactive tag on the liposome after two weeks (greater than 95 per cent) remained incorporated. On the day of the experiment, 31 adult Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to a 10 per cent total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> full thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span> (Walker <span class="hlt">burn</span> model). All rats were treated with topical application of 0.3 milliliters of tobramycin entrapped in 125I-liposomes, and <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds were covered with Opsite (Winfield Laboratories). This formulation resulted in each rat receiving 14 milligrams per kilogram of tobramycin with a specific activity of 10.41 microcuries. Rats were sacrificed at several time periods after <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury (nine after 24 hours, 12 after 48 hours, 11 after 72 hours). At these time intervals, serum and tissue tobramycin levels were measured, <span class="hlt">burn</span> dressing, <span class="hlt">burn</span> tissue and splanchnic organs were harvested and radioactivity was assessed with a gamma scintillation counter to determine tissue concentration of 125I-liposome tobramycin. Concentration of tobramycin in the serum was negligible at 24, 48 and 72 hours postburn, but was significant in the <span class="hlt">burn</span> tissues at these times. The radioactive recovery data demonstrated that the majority (greater than 90 per cent) of the recovered liposomes remained at the site of application (the <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound). No splanchnic organs had greater than 2 per cent of the recovered 125I-liposomes at any time period. These data suggest that, in <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds, tobramycin incorporated into liposomes remain at the site of initial application, resulting in high local concentrations with little systemic absorption and confirm that liposomes provide an effective vehicle for delivery of antimicrobials at the site of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. PMID:1570621</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Price, C I; Horton, J W; Baxter, C R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Law+AND+enforcement+AND+in+AND+America&pg=5&id=ED124344"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Rural Development: First <span class="hlt">Annual</span>] Report to the Congress on the Availability of Government Services to Rural <span class="hlt">Areas</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Information derived from the Federal Information Exchange System on Federal outlays in rural America (160 Federal programs) provides the basis for this initial <span class="hlt">annual</span> report. Information is reported via narrative and tabular data and relates only to Federal assistance. Highlighting some of the recent rural socioeconomic trends, the narrative…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rural Development Service (USDA), Washington, DC.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=212836"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report 2007 Multi-state research project on "Irrigation Management for Humid and Sub-Humid <span class="hlt">Areas</span>" S1018.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report summarizes the <span class="hlt">annual</span> results from scientists at the Application and Production Technology Research Unit in Stoneville, as members of the multi-state research project on irrigation and water management S1018. The multi-state research project has four key objectives, three of which the St...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901190"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Systems Plan for 1978-1979 and <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 California. Summary.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The health systems plan (HSP) and the <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) prepared by the Golden Empire Health Systems Agency are summarized. The introduction discusses the role of the health systems agency in health planning and defines uses for the AIP and...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6637953"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trade-off between collector <span class="hlt">area</span>, storage volume, and building conservation in <span class="hlt">annual</span>-storage solar-heating systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> storage is used with active solar heating systems to permit storage of summertime solar heat for winter use. The results of a comprehensive computer simulation study of the performance of active solar heating systems with long-term hot water storage are presented. A unique feature of this study is the investigation of systems used to supply backup heat to passive solar and energy-conserving buildings, as well as to meet standard heating and hot water loads. Findings show that system output increases linearly as storage volume increases, up to the point where the storage tank is large enough to store all heat collected in summer. This point, the point of unconstrained operation, is the likely economic optimum. Unlike diurnal storage systems, <span class="hlt">annual</span> storage systems show only slightly diminished efficiency as system size increases. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> storage systems providing nearly 100% solar space heat may cost the same or less per unit heat delivered as a 50% diurnal solar system. Also in contrast to diurnal systems, <span class="hlt">annual</span> storage systems perform efficiently in meeting the load of a passive or energy-efficient building.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sillman, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901626"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Systems Plan and <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 New Jersey. 2nd Edition.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This health systems plan (HSP) and <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) are products of the Regional Health Planning Council in Newark, N.J. The first three components of the HSP examine: (1) the statutory authority for health planning, the mission of the hea...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41997393"> <span id="translatedtitle">Satellite monitoring of vegetation fires for EXPRESSO: Outline of activity and relative importance of the study <span class="hlt">area</span> in the global picture of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The satellite monitoring of vegetation fires for the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Experiment for Regional Sources and Sinks of Oxidants (EXPRESSO) was designed to assist the assessment of the fluxes of trace gases and aerosols emitted by savanna fires that occur during the dry season in Central Africa. It is of particular interest that the study <span class="hlt">area</span> covers the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J.-M. Grégoire; S. Pinnock; E. Dwyer; E. Janodet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18950947"> <span id="translatedtitle">"Understanding <span class="hlt">burns</span>": research project <span class="hlt">Burn</span>Case 3D--overcome the limits of existing methods in <span class="hlt">burns</span> documentation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding <span class="hlt">burns</span> means knowing what is necessary for the successful treatment of <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Nobody in science, economics, or quality control can comprehend this issue's complexity without thorough documentation of the work involved. <span class="hlt">Burn</span>Case 3D is a non-profit research project whose aim, achieved through software of the same name, is a thorough and accurate <span class="hlt">burn</span>-treatment documentation schema, facilitated by three-dimensional digital models tracked over time. Adapting these models on the basis of gender, height, weight, and body shape avoids systemic errors. Superimposing photos of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> on the model prevents individual error and can be combined with methods of <span class="hlt">burn</span>-depth evaluation. The program includes automatic encoding of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Model resolution is 1cm(2) and finer, so that even small scars' locations and extents can be documented, thus enabling registration of long-term results. The program's status as a multilingual data-collection tool brings together multiple international efforts in data collection, and makes it suitable for e-medicine and disaster relief. In its basic form, it provides essential functions in <span class="hlt">burn</span> documentation, photo documentation, and reporting. The four-dimensional database allows registration of interactions over time and can demonstrate the influence of location, timing, and intervention on outcome. PMID:18950947</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haller, H L; Dirnberger, J; Giretzlehner, M; Rodemund, C; Kamolz, L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60031004"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wood <span class="hlt">burning</span> cogeneration plant with 65% efficiency</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A demonstration plant for a paper mill, designed around a wood-waste fueled combustor and indirectly fired turbine, will generate about 4000 kW of electricity and 68,000 lbs per hour of process steam and will save the equivalent of more than 100,000 barrels of fuel <span class="hlt">annually</span>. Simpson Paper Co. and Solar are negotiating a $4 million contract for a wood-<span class="hlt">burning</span> Centaur</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stambler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA043536"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Research Progress Report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report documents the clinical and laboratory activities of the US Army Institute of Surgical Research during fiscal year 1976. These activities include patient care, clinical investigation and laboratory research in the <span class="hlt">areas</span> of (1) <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury, (2) ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42001391"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of the optical properties of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosols in Zambia during the 1997 ZIBBEE field campaign</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The physical and optical properties of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosols in a savanna region in south central Africa (Zambia) were analyzed from measurements made during the Zambian International Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Emissions Experiment (ZIBBEE) during August-September 1997. Due to the large spatial extent of African savannas and the high frequency of occurrence of <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the <span class="hlt">annual</span> dry seasons, characterization of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. F. Eck; B. N. Holben; D. E. Ward; O. Dubovik; J. S. Reid; A. Smirnov; M. M. Mukelabai; N. C. Hsu; N. T. O'Neill; I. Slutsker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11714201Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Near-real-time global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions product from geostationary satellite constellation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Near-real-time estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions are crucial for air quality monitoring and forecasting. We present here the first near-real-time global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emission product from geostationary satellites (GBBEP-Geo) produced from satellite-derived fire radiative power (FRP) for individual fire pixels. Specifically, the FRP is retrieved using WF_ABBA V65 (wildfire automated biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> algorithm) from a network of multiple geostationary satellites. The network consists of two Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) which are operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Meteosat second-generation satellites (Meteosat-09) operated by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, and the Multifunctional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency. These satellites observe wildfires at an interval of 15-30 min. Because of the impacts from sensor saturation, cloud cover, and background surface, the FRP values are generally not continuously observed. The missing observations are simulated by combining the available instantaneous FRP observations within a day and a set of representative climatological diurnal patterns of FRP for various ecosystems. Finally, the simulated diurnal variation in FRP is applied to quantify biomass combustion and emissions in individual fire pixels with a latency of 1 day. By analyzing global patterns in hourly biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions in 2010, we find that peak fire season varied greatly and that <span class="hlt">annual</span> wildfires <span class="hlt">burned</span> 1.33 × 1012 kg dry mass, released 1.27 × 1010 kg of PM2.5 (particulate mass for particles with diameter <2.5 ?m) and 1.18 × 1011kg of CO globally (excluding most parts of boreal Asia, the Middle East, and India because of no coverage from geostationary satellites). The biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions were mostly released from forest and savanna fires in Africa, South America, and North America. Evaluation of emission result reveals that the GBBEP-Geo estimates are comparable with other FRP-derived estimates in Africa, while the results are generally smaller than most of the other global products that were derived from <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and fuel loading. However, the daily emissions estimated from GOES FRP over the United States are generally consistent with those modeled from GOES <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) fuel loading, which produces an overall bias of 5.7% and a correlation slope of 0.97 ± 0.2. It is expected that near-real-time hourly emissions from GBBEP-Geo could provide a crucial component for atmospheric and chemical transport modelers to forecast air quality and weather conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Xiaoyang; Kondragunta, Shobha; Ram, Jessica; Schmidt, Christopher; Huang, Ho-Chun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=105570"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fluconazole Pharmacokinetics in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Patients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in nine adult patients with severe (30 to 95% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>) <span class="hlt">burns</span> were studied. There was no significant difference in half-life (t1/2), clearance (CL), or volume of distribution (V) over time in five patients on days 3 and 8 of the study (P > 0.05). Combined parameter estimates (means ± standard deviations) for all nine patients for the two study periods were as follows: t1/2, 24.4 ± 5.8 h; CL, 0.36 ± 0.09 ml/min/kg; and V, 0.72 ± 0.12 liters/kg. These estimates of t1/2 and CL in <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients were approximately 13% shorter and 30% more rapid, respectively, than the most extreme estimates reported for other populations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boucher, Bradley A.; King, Stephen R.; Wandschneider, Heidi L.; Hickerson, William L.; Hanes, Scott D.; Herring, Vanessa L.; Canada, Todd W.; Hess, Mary M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA251850"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Wounds.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This research seeks to develop non-invasive <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth evaluation methods from non-contacting visible and near-infrared spectroscopic measurements. In previous years, we demonstrated that features of the optical reflection spectra of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds can be co...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. A. Afromowitz J. D. Callis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/24942399"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> care</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">One third of patients with significant <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries are children who are injured in what are nearly always preventable incidents. These extremely painful and often scarring bunts are enormous stressors to patients and their families. Children are easily devastated by the burst injury and are often less able to respond to it than au adult. Pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury provides multiple</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gary F. Purdue; John L. Hunt; Agnes M. Burris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3377150"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tourniquet associated chemical <span class="hlt">burn</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chemical <span class="hlt">burn</span> under pneumatic tourniquet is an iatrogenic preventable injury and is rarely reported in the literature. The two important mechanisms are maceration (friction) and wetness underneath the tourniquent. In this report, our experience with two illustrative patients who presented with iatrogenic tourniquet associated <span class="hlt">burn</span> is described.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Lim, Hyungtae; Yoon, Jung-Ro; Jeong, Hyeon-Il</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/9845"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report RCRA Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspections for Corrective Action Unit 112: <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches, Nevada Test Site, Nevada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">annual</span> Neutron Soil Moisture Monitoring report provides an analysis and summary for site inspections, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture data obtained at the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) unit, located in <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada during the October 1997 - October 1998 period. Inspections of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches RCRA unit are conducted to determine and document the physical condition of the covers, facilities, and any unusual conditions that could impact the proper operation of the waste unit closure. Physical inspections of the closure were completed quarterly and indicated that the site is in good condition with no significant findings noted. An <span class="hlt">annual</span> subsidence survey of the elevation markers was conducted in July 1998. There has been no subsidence at any of the markers since monitoring began six years ago. The objective of the neutron logging program is to monitor the soil moisture conditions along 30 neutron access tubes and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement at a point located directly beneath each trench. All monitored access tubes are within the compliance criteria of less than 5 percent residual volumetric moisture content at the compliance point directly beneath each respective trench. Soil conditions remain dry and stable underneath the trenches.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dudley F. Emer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23992444"> <span id="translatedtitle">A man with severe leg <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract A 52-year-old Hispanic male was transported to the emergency department after sustaining severe bilateral lower extremity <span class="hlt">burns</span> in an electroplating factory. His examination revealed circumferential <span class="hlt">burns</span> to the lower extremities with spotting in the perineum. The epidermis was stained green and sloughed off with gentle pressure. The underlying dermis was white and non-blanching, consistent with a full thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span>. His feet were partially protected by his work boots where he had small <span class="hlt">areas</span> of pink, blanchable, partial thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> ( Fig. 1 ). Pertinent initial studies included a lactic acid level of 3.1 mmol/L and a creatinine of 1.02 mg/dL. [Figure: see text]. PMID:23992444</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chapman, A J; Deschler, D; Judge, B S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-11-16/pdf/2011-29561.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 70882 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility AGENCY...Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility. That document...Anthony P. LaBoy, USCG Sector Puget Sound Waterways Management...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11933836"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Criteria for <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity. Epidemiology. prevention, organization of management].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> and deep of the skin injury are the main determinants of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity. Other factors like age of the patient, pathological conditions, pulmonary injury by smoke inhalation, wound localizations play also a major role. 500,000 cases of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries occurred each year in France. Ten hundred are hospitalized among witch 3,000 are hospitalized in <span class="hlt">burn</span> units. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> by flames are the most common in adult severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients. In children, for all type of injuries, and in adult patients suffering of light or medium injuries, hot liquids are the most frequent encountered agents. Obviously, prevention programs should markedly decrease the occurrence of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. Regulation modifications are probably more potent than information campaigns. There is 25 <span class="hlt">burn</span> units in France. Unfortunately, these units take care of less than one third of all the <span class="hlt">burned</span> hospitalized patients. The organization of a national network binding regional <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers and local specialized units would probably improve the efficiency of <span class="hlt">burn</span> therapy in our country. PMID:11933836</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wassermann, D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3032719"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clinical and demographic features of pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> in the eastern provinces of Turkey</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The aim of this study is to perform a retrospective analysis of the causes of <span class="hlt">burns</span> observed in children in the eastern provinces of Turkey. Method In this study, patients were studied retrospectively with regard to their age, sex, cause of <span class="hlt">burns</span>, seasonal variations, social and economic factors, length of hospital stay, <span class="hlt">burned</span> body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, medical history, site of injury, and mortality. Results A total of 125 patients undergoing inpatient treatment were male, (53.2%) and 110 were female (46.8%). The most common causes of <span class="hlt">burns</span> in patients treated on an inpatient basis were scald <span class="hlt">burns</span> (65.5%) and tandir <span class="hlt">burns</span> (15.7%). The mean total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of all the patients was 12.17+9.86%. When the patients were grouped according to tandir, cauldron, and others <span class="hlt">burn</span> causes, a significant difference was seen between the in <span class="hlt">burn</span> percentages caused by tandir and cauldron <span class="hlt">burns</span> and other causes (p < 0.001). Higher <span class="hlt">burn</span> percentages were seen for cauldron <span class="hlt">burns</span> than for tandir <span class="hlt">burns</span> (p < 0.05). The average length of hospital stay was 17.67+13.64 days. When the patients were grouped according to <span class="hlt">burn</span> causes (tandir, cauldron, and others), a significant difference was determined between the hospitalization periods of patients with tandir <span class="hlt">burns</span> and other <span class="hlt">burn</span> causes (p = 0.001) The most commonly proliferating microorganism in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.4%). Of the 235 patients, 61 were treated in operating rooms. During the 24-month period of the study, 2 of the 235 patients died (0.85%). Conclusion Pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> in the eastern part of Turkey are different from those in other parts of Turkey, as well as in other countries. Due to the lifestyle of the region, tandir and cauldron <span class="hlt">burns</span>, which cause extensive <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> and high morbidity, are frequently seen in children. Therefore, precautions and educational programs related to the use of tandirs and cauldrons are needed in this region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22381520"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> intakes of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K in staple foodstuffs from a high background radiation <span class="hlt">area</span> in the southwest region of Cameroon.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K were determined in five most consumed vegetables in a high-level background radiation <span class="hlt">area</span> (HLBRA) in the southwest region of Cameroon. A total of 25 foodstuff samples collected from Akongo, Ngombas, Awanda, Bikoué and Lolodorf rural districts were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The average activity concentration values of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K were respectively 2.30, 1.50 and 140.40 Bq kg(-1) fresh-weights. The effective dose for individual consumption of the investigated foodstuff types was calculated on an estimated <span class="hlt">annual</span> intake of such diets in the study <span class="hlt">area</span>. The estimated total daily effective doses from the ingestion of the investigated foodstuffs for each studied long-life natural radionuclide were respectively 0.41 ?Sv for (226)Ra, 0.84 ?Sv for (228)Ra and 0.71 ?Sv for (40)K. The total <span class="hlt">annual</span> effective dose was estimated at 0.70 mSv y(-1). (228)Ra (44%) and (40)K (36%) were found to be the main sources for internal irradiation which is very likely due to the specific uptake of these radionuclides by the studied plants. PMID:22381520</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ele Abiama, P; Ben-Bolie, G H; Amechmachi, N; Najib, F; El Khoukhi, T; Owono Ateba, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/WF06034"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Alaskan <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity patterns using remotely sensed data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wildland fire is the dominant large-scale disturbance mechanism in the Alaskan boreal forest, and it strongly influences forest structure and function. In this research, patterns of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity in the Alaskan boreal forest are characterised using 24 fires. First, the relationship between <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> is quantified using a linear regression. Second, the spatial correlation of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity as a function of topography is modelled using a variogram analysis. Finally, the relationship between vegetation type and spatial patterns of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity is quantified using linear models where variograms account for spatial correlation. These results show that: 1) average <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity increases with the natural logarithm of the <span class="hlt">area</span> of the wildfire, 2) <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity is more variable in topographically complex landscapes than in flat landscapes, and 3) there is a significant relationship between <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity and vegetation type in flat landscapes but not in topographically complex landscapes. These results strengthen the argument that differential flammability of vegetation exists in some boreal landscapes of Alaska. Additionally, these results suggest that through feedbacks between vegetation and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, the distribution of forest vegetation through time is likely more stable in flat terrain than it is in <span class="hlt">areas</span> with more complex topography. ?? IAWF 2007.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Duffy, P. A.; Epting, J.; Graham, J. M.; Rupp, T. S.; McGuire, A. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23624996"> <span id="translatedtitle">Immediate <span class="hlt">burn</span> excision fails to reduce injury progression.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The contact thermal injury model in the pig was used to determine whether immediate <span class="hlt">burn</span> excision could alter the extent of injury progression. It was hypothesized that immediate excision of <span class="hlt">burns</span> would prevent or reduce tissue necrosis in the uninjured interspaces. Four comb <span class="hlt">burns</span> were created on the back of each animal, using a brass comb preheated in hot water (100 °C) for 5 minutes. This brass comb produced four distinctive <span class="hlt">burns</span> sites separated by three "interspaces" of unburned skin, which were to undergo progressive injury. Immediately after <span class="hlt">burn</span> creation, half of the full-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> were excised leaving the unburned interspaces intact. Two full-thickness excisional wounds per pig with the dimensions identical to the comb <span class="hlt">burns</span> were included as controls. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> injury progression was microscopically assessed and reported as the percentage of unburned interspaces that progressed to full-thickness necrosis 7 days after injury. Scar formation was grossly evaluated on day 28 after injury and reported as the total surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (in square centimeters) of the scar. A total of 24 combs with 72 interspaces were evenly distributed among the three groups. The unburned interspaces of both comb <span class="hlt">burns</span> and excised comb <span class="hlt">burns</span> had undergone progressive injury and were 100% dead (24/24; i.e., necrotic and/or apoptotic) 7 days postinjury (95% confidence interval, 86-100%) for both. However, interspaces of the control excisional wounds maintained complete viability, that is, no necrosis or apoptosis (0/24 [0%]; 95% confidence interval, 0-14%; P < .001). There was no significant difference in both surface <span class="hlt">area</span> and depth of scar resulting from excised and nonexcised comb <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Immediate <span class="hlt">burn</span> excision neither prevented nor limited <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury progression. PMID:23624996</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Macri, Lauren K; Singer, Adam J; Taira, Breena R; McClain, Steve A; Rosenberg, Lior; Clark, Richard A F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23467337"> <span id="translatedtitle">Self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Mosul: a cross-sectional study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the different characteristics of attempted suicide by self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases compared with other accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases admitted to the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Unit in Al-Jumhoori Teaching Hospital in Mosul over a one-year period from March 1, 2011 to March 1, 2012. Of 459 <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases, 103 (22.44%) had self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The mean total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of suicide attempters was 61%, markedly higher than in other cases (20%) (P= 0.0001). Among all self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases, <span class="hlt">burns</span> were caused by flame, while scald was the commonest cause (56.5%) in accidental <span class="hlt">burns</span>. There was a significant difference in the sex ratio between self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases (1:11.9) and accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases (1:1) (P = 0.0001). Case fatality rates for self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> and accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases were 80.6% and 14.9%, respectively. The overall mean ages for self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> and accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases were 24.3 and 15.6 years, respectively. Compared to all other <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases, self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases had a significantly larger mean percentage of surface body <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> (61.0±28.2 versus 20.7±15.8; P = 0.0001). In conclusion, self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burns</span> remain a common cause of admission to our <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit. The extent of <span class="hlt">burns</span> is often large, since most suicide attempters use an accelerant that accounts for the high mortality in this group. PMID:23467337</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Al-Zacko, S M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575151"> <span id="translatedtitle">Self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Mosul: a cross-sectional study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the different characteristics of attempted suicide by self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases compared with other accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases admitted to the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Unit in Al-Jumhoori Teaching Hospital in Mosul over a one-year period from March 1, 2011 to March 1, 2012. Of 459 <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases, 103 (22.44%) had self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The mean total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of suicide attempters was 61%, markedly higher than in other cases (20%) (P= 0.0001). Among all self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases, <span class="hlt">burns</span> were caused by flame, while scald was the commonest cause (56.5%) in accidental <span class="hlt">burns</span>. There was a significant difference in the sex ratio between self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases (1:11.9) and accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases (1:1) (P = 0.0001). Case fatality rates for self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> and accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases were 80.6% and 14.9%, respectively. The overall mean ages for self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> and accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases were 24.3 and 15.6 years, respectively. Compared to all other <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases, self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases had a significantly larger mean percentage of surface body <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> (61.0±28.2 versus 20.7±15.8; P = 0.0001). In conclusion, self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burns</span> remain a common cause of admission to our <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit. The extent of <span class="hlt">burns</span> is often large, since most suicide attempters use an accelerant that accounts for the high mortality in this group.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Al-Zacko, S.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/np8410813822144u.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plant growth limitation and nutrient loss following piled <span class="hlt">burning</span> in slash and <span class="hlt">burn</span> agriculture</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the forest zone of Cameroon, small-scale family farmers practicing traditional slash and <span class="hlt">burn</span> practices achieve a clear field by piled <span class="hlt">burning</span> of the branches and trunks of cleared vegetation. Plant growth inhibition on ash patches, and the risk of nutrient loss from these <span class="hlt">areas</span>, was evaluated on field plots on which 0.5 t m-2 or 1.0 t m-2 of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Neal W. Menzies; Gavin P. Gillman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1036770"> <span id="translatedtitle">2011 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Summary Report for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada: Review of the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007a) requires an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review to assess the adequacy of the Performance Assessments (PAs) and Composite Analyses (CAs), with the results submitted <span class="hlt">annually</span> to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management. The Disposal Authorization Statements for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) also require that such reviews be made and that secondary or minor unresolved issues be tracked and addressed as part of the maintenance plan (DOE, 1999a; 2000). The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office performed an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS PAs and CAs for fiscal year (FY) 2011. This <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2011 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R and D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R and D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs. Important developments in FY 2011 include the following: (1) Operation of a new shallow land disposal unit and a new Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-compliant lined disposal unit at the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS; (2) Development of new closure inventory estimates based on disposals through FY 2011; (3) Evaluation of new or revised waste streams by special analysis; (4) Development of version 2.102 of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS GoldSim PA model; and (5) Development of version 4.113 of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS GoldSim PA model. Analysis of the latest available data using the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS v4.113 GoldSim PA model indicates that all performance objectives can be met. The results and conclusions of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS PA are judged valid, and there is no need to the revise the PA. The <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS has been in inactive status since July 1, 2006, with the last shipment received in April 2006. In FY 2011, there were no operational changes, monitoring results, or R and D results for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS that would impact PA validity. Despite the increase in waste volume and inventory at the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS since 1996 when the PA was approved, the facility performance evaluated with the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS PA GoldSim model, version 2.0 (with the final closure inventory), remains well below the performance objectives set forth in U.S. Department of Energy Order DOE O 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management' (DOE, 2001). The conclusions of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS PA remain valid. A special analysis was prepared to update the PA and CA results for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS in FY 2011. Release of the special analysis is planned for FY 2012. The continuing adequacy of the CAs was evaluated with the new models, and no significant changes that would alter CA results or conclusions were found. Inclusion of the Frenchman Flat Underground Test <span class="hlt">Area</span> (UGTA) results in the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS CA is scheduled for FY 2016, pending the completion of the closure report for the Frenchman Flat UGTA corrective action unit (CAU) in FY 2015. An industrial site, CAU 547, with corrective action sites near the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS was found to have a significant plutonium inventory in 2009. CAU 547 will be evaluated for inclusion of future revisions or updates of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS CA. The revision of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS CA, which will include the UGTA source terms, is expected in FY 2024, following the completion of the Yucca Flat CAU Corrective Action Decision Document, scheduled for FY 2023. Near-term R and D efforts will focus on continuing development of the Are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NSTec Environmental Management</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5166869"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recovery and reuse of asphalt roofing waste <span class="hlt">burning</span> of asphalt roofing waste</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The research described in this report was designed to determine the general feasibility and specific requirements for <span class="hlt">burning</span> asphalt roofing waste and recovering the energy resource as steam. The study combined technical market research with test <span class="hlt">burning</span> in a three-task program to identify how to use <span class="hlt">burning</span> as a means for reocvering the 7 x 10/sup 13/ Btu in roofing waste landfilled <span class="hlt">annually</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zolnick, E.L.; Markus, A.R.; Seigfried, J.N.; Powers, T.J.; Shepherd, P.B.; Graziano, G.J.; Battles, R.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA224890"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Wounds.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This research seeks to develop non-invasive techniques for evaluating <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth based upon non-contacting visible and near-infrared spectroscopic measurement of the wounds. In previous years, we demonstrated that features of the optical reflection spectr...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. B. Callis M. A. Afromowitz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD528810"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carborane <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Rate Catalysts.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New carborane <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate accelerators designed for use in solid propellants, without the problems associated with current accelerators, have been prepared. High molecular weight, non-volatile derivatives of bis(1-carboranylmethyl) and bis-(1-carboranyle...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Fitzgerald L. J. Rosen R. L. Lou</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kidshealth.org/parent/firstaid_safe/emergencies/burns.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> (For Parents)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... arrives. Back Continue What to Do (continued) For Flame <span class="hlt">Burns</span>: Extinguish the flames by having your child roll on the ground. ... a hot-steam one. Choose sleepwear that's labeled flame retardant (either polyester or treated cotton). Cotton sweatshirts ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA028271"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modern Treatment of <span class="hlt">Burns</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This monograph summarizes the experiences of treating persons suffering from <span class="hlt">burns</span> which have been accumulated by the collective of the hospital surgical clinic of the Samarkand Medical Institute, and also uses the data of the modern literature concerning...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. A. Mullakandov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24026780"> <span id="translatedtitle">Management of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Small and moderate scalds in toddlers are still the most frequent thermal injuries the pediatric surgeons have to face today. Over the last years, surgical treatment of these patients has changed in many aspects. Due to new dressing materials and new surgical treatment strategies that are particularly suitable for children, today, far better functional and aesthetic long-term results are possible. While small and moderate thermal injuries can be treated in most European pediatric surgical departments, the severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> child must be transferred to a specialized, ideally pediatric, <span class="hlt">burn</span> center, where a well-trained multidisciplinary team under the leadership of a (ideally pediatric) <span class="hlt">burn</span> surgeon cares for these highly demanding patients. In future, tissue engineered full thickness skin analogues will most likely play an important role, in pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> as well as postburn reconstructive surgery. PMID:24026780</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Trop, Marija; Neuhaus, Kathrin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000059.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical <span class="hlt">burn</span> or reaction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... the skin has come in contact with the toxic substance Rash , blisters , <span class="hlt">burns</span> on the skin Unconsciousness ... locked cabinet. Avoid mixing different products that contain toxic chemicals such as ammonia and bleach. The mixture ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8982549"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cement-related <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> caused by prolonged contact of wet cement with skin are common in this country. Recent literature has highlighted other ways in which the use and manufacture of cement can lead to <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries, notably through explosion and contact with hot powder during manufacturing. These injuries are uncommon in this country and potentially very serious. Case studies are presented of two men injured in such a way in the same incident at a cement-manufacturing plant. PMID:8982549</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morley, S E; Humzah, D; McGregor, J C; Gilbert, P M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3188264"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> in Nigeria: a Review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary <span class="hlt">Burn</span> injuries continue to be a major source of mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries of the world, of which Nigeria is a part. Overview data on <span class="hlt">burn</span> care in Nigeria are sparse but the available literature on <span class="hlt">burns</span> and <span class="hlt">burn</span> care in Nigeria was retrieved through Internet-based search engines, collated, and reviewed. Peculiarities of epidemiology, types of <span class="hlt">burn</span>, pattern of injuries, complications, and outcome of <span class="hlt">burn</span> care were reviewed. There were no broad-based overview statistical data on <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Nigeria in all the articles reviewed. There was no documentation on the regionalization of care and there were no national databases. All reports on epidemiology were hospital-based. Flame is emerging as the predominant cause of <span class="hlt">burns</span>, and <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury is occurring increasingly away from the domestic setting. The severity of the injuries is also increasing. Deliberate <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury remains a practice and a wide range of complications occur as <span class="hlt">burns</span> sequelae in Nigeria. Several challenges militate against optimal care for <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> injuries continue to contribute significantly to the burden of disease in Nigeria. There is a need for broad-based data collection systems. Avoidable complications are common and mortality remains high. Pooling of resources by regionalization of care could increase focus on <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention and improve the care of <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims. Nongovernmental and governmental support to reduce the burden of <span class="hlt">burns</span> is advocated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oladele, A.O.; Olabanji, J.K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE2009945557"> <span id="translatedtitle">PBXN-110 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Rate Estimate.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is estimated that PBXN-110 will <span class="hlt">burn</span> laminarly with a <span class="hlt">burn</span> function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P(sup 1.0) (B is the <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this <span class="hlt">burn</span> behavior was estimated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. Glascoe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/945557"> <span id="translatedtitle">PBXN-110 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Rate Estimate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is estimated that PBXN-110 will <span class="hlt">burn</span> laminarly with a <span class="hlt">burn</span> function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this <span class="hlt">burn</span> behavior was estimated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Glascoe, E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12792237"> <span id="translatedtitle">The media glorifying <span class="hlt">burns</span>: a hindrance to <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> and <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with <span class="hlt">burns</span> and <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to <span class="hlt">burns</span>, risk of <span class="hlt">burning</span>, or disrespect for the consequences of <span class="hlt">burns</span> were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of <span class="hlt">burns</span>, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Most <span class="hlt">burn</span>-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or <span class="hlt">burns</span>. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:12792237</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1035907"> <span id="translatedtitle">2011 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities <span class="hlt">Area</span> Sewage Treatment Plant</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities <span class="hlt">Area</span> Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2010, through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Site description; (2) Facility and system description; (3) Permit required monitoring data and loading rates; (4) Status of special compliance conditions and activities; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 permit year, approximately 1.22 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation <span class="hlt">area</span> at Central Facilities <span class="hlt">Area</span> Sewage Treatment plant.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael G. Lewis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1010676"> <span id="translatedtitle">2010 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities <span class="hlt">Area</span> Sewage Treatment Plant</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities <span class="hlt">Area</span> Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2010 permit year, approximately 2.2 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation <span class="hlt">area</span> at Central Facilities <span class="hlt">Area</span> Sewage Treatment plant.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mike lewis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.6959Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Near real time monitoring of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> particulate emissions (PM2.5) across contiguous United States using multiple satellite instruments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is a major source of aerosols that affect air quality and the Earth's radiation budget. Current estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions vary markedly due to uncertainties in biomass density, combustion efficiency, emission factor, and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. This study explores the modeling of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions using satellite-derived vegetative fuel loading, fuel moisture, and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> across Contiguous United States (CONUS). The fuel loading is developed from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data including land cover type, vegetation continuous field, and monthly leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> index. The weekly fuel moisture category is retrieved from AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) Global Vegetation Index (GVIx) data for the determination of fuel combustion efficiency and emission factor. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is simulated using half-hourly fire sizes obtained from the GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites) Wildfire Automated Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Algorithm (WF_ABBA) fire product. By integrating all these parameters, quantities of PM2.5 (particulate mass for particles with diameter <2.5 ?m) aerosols are calculated for each individual fire at an interval of half hour from 2002-2005 across CONUS. The PM2.5 estimates indicate that the <span class="hlt">annual</span> PM2.5 emissions are 3.49 × 10 5, 3.30 × 10 5, 1.80 × 10 5, and 2.24 × 10 5 tons for 2002 (April to December), 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively. Among various ecosystems, forest fires release more than 44% of the emissions although the related <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> only account for less than 30%. Spatially, PM2.5 emissions are larger in California for all these years, but only for some individual years in Oregon, Montana, Arkansas, Florida, Arizona, Louisiana, and Idaho. Finally, the calculated PM2.5 emissions are evaluated using national wildfire emission inventory data (NWEI) and compared with estimates from different fuel loadings. The difference between NWEI and GOES fire-based estimate is less than 20% if the same fuel data are used. The evaluation suggests that the biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions derived from multiple satellite data provide realistic spatiotemporal patterns and can be assimilated into air quality models for forecasts in real or near real time.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Xiaoyang; Kondragunta, Shobha; Schmidt, Christopher; Kogan, Felix</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-09-07/pdf/2012-22010.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 55143 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility AGENCY: Coast Guard...SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce...This action is necessary to prevent injury and to protect life and property...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA525163"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wide <span class="hlt">Area</span> Detection and Identification of Underwater UXO Using Structural Acoustic Senors: 4th <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report to SERDP MM-1513.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This project is exploring the development of a structural acoustics (SA) based sonar methodology for wide <span class="hlt">area</span> search and identification of underwater unexploded ordnance (UXO). This approach has significant advantages over conventional acoustic approache...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Sarkissian B. H. Houston H. Simpson J. A. Bucaro M. Saniga</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/v089/iD01/JD089iD01p01350/JD089iD01p01350.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Brazil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Field measurements of hydrocarbon emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the cerrado (grasslands) and selva (tropical forest) regions of Brazil in 1979 and 1980 are characterized and quantified here. Regional consequences of <span class="hlt">burning</span> activities include increased background mixing ratios of carbon monoxide and ozone, as well as reduced visibility, over extensive <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Global extrapolation of the emission rate of hydrocarbons from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. P. Greenberg; P. R. Zimmerman; L. Heidt; W. Pollock</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD758964"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plasma and Cardiac Lactic Dehydrogenase Activity in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Shock (37035).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anesthetized dogs subjected to a standardized cutaneous <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury covering 35% of their surface <span class="hlt">area</span> showed a marked increase in total plasma LDH activity. The increase in LDH activity was accompanied, as determined in another group of <span class="hlt">burned</span> dogs, by a...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. K. Deets V. V. Glaviano</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://gis.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_gtr109/psw_gtr109_97.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emergency <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Rehabilitation: Cost, Risk, and Effectiveness 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fires of 1987 had a heavy impact on the Hayfork Ranger District. Over 50,000 acres were <span class="hlt">burned</span> within the South Fork Trinity River watershed, which contains an important anadromous fishery. Major problems within the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> were found to be: (1) slopes having highly erodible soils where intense wildfire resulted in a total loss of ground cover, and (2)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scott R. Miles; Donald M. Haskins; Darrel W. Ranken</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26922985"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Rate Prediction of Composite Solid Propellants Using Fractal Geometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An investigation of the effects of Ammonium Perchlorate (AP) surface “roughness” on the <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate predictability of the “Petite Ensemble Model” (PEM) has been undertaken. By using fractal geometry, it is possible to compensate for the surface roughness of AP in the surface <span class="hlt">area</span> relations of the PEM <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate model of composite solid propellants. This fractal geometry approach required</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MAZDA A. MARVASTI; WARREN C. STRAHLE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8554691"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> in young children: a study of the mechanism of <span class="hlt">burns</span> in children aged 5 years and under in the Hamilton, Ontario <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Unit.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper explores the <span class="hlt">burn</span> agents involved among children admitted to the Hamilton General Hospital <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Trauma Unit (BTU), and the severity of their <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Charts were retrospectively reviewed for all <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases aged 5 years and under admitted to the BTU between January 1986 and mid-November 1990. Descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance were employed. Of the 52 patients aged 5 years and under, two were excluded from the study. The majority (35, 70 per cent) were aged 2 years and under. The mean <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth for all patients was equivalent to a deep partial thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Approximately two-thirds of cases resulted from either the preparation or consumption of food or hot liquids, while the remainder suffered from either flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> or bath-tub scalds. Children <span class="hlt">burned</span> during food preparation or consumption were younger (mean age 1.8 years) than those sustaining flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> (mean age 2.7 years) (P = 0.02). Of those <span class="hlt">burns</span> sustained from either the preparation or consumption of food, 44 per cent were scalds from a cup of hot beverage at the table, 19 per cent were scalds from an electric kettle, and an equal number from a coffee or tea pot sitting at the table. There was a significant difference in both the mean total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of the <span class="hlt">burn</span>, and the number of days spent in the BTU, according to the agent involved (P = 0.01 and P = 0.004, respectively). Flame and contact injuries were often the most severe. A disproportionate number of <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims admitted to hospital are infants and toddlers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8554691</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ray, J G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1545865"> <span id="translatedtitle">Severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> in children, 1964-1974.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">580 children were admitted to the paediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> unit of Guy's Hospital between 1964 and 1974, of which 97 had <span class="hlt">burns</span> exceeding 20% of the surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, and 33 died (34% mortality). 80% of those with <span class="hlt">burns</span> exceeding 50% of the surface <span class="hlt">area</span> died. Young children died after less extensive <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Respiratory failure, sepsis, and malnutrition were the most lethal complications. The prompt use and careful control of intravenous fluids had reduced the immediate complications associated with shock, and acute renal failure is now uncommon. Respiratory failure resulted in many deaths during the first week after injury. The need for intensive respiratory care involving paediatric, anaesthetic, and surgical staff is stressed. Sepsis and malnutrition remain major threats to survival. Improved methods of bacteriological control by laminar air flow units and topical antibacterial agents may help to reduce infection in the future. Reduction of energy expenditure by temporary skin coverings and a high environmental temperature, combined with a high calorie intake by oral and intravenous routes, may improve the outlook for severly <span class="hlt">burned</span> children in the next decade.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cogswell, J J; Chu, A C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2006/5145/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> ground-water discharge by evapotranspiration from <span class="hlt">areas</span> of spring-fed riparian vegetation along the eastern margin of Death Valley, 2000-02</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Flow from major springs and seeps along the eastern margin of Death Valley serves as the primary local water supply and sustains much of the unique habitat in Death Valley National Park. Together, these major spring complexes constitute the terminus of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System--one of the larger flow systems in the Southwestern United States. The Grapevine Springs complex is the least exploited for water supply and consequently contains the largest <span class="hlt">area</span> of undisturbed riparian habitat in the park. Because few estimates exist that quantify ground-water discharge from these spring complexes, a study was initiated to better estimate the amount of ground water being discharged <span class="hlt">annually</span> from these sensitive, spring-fed riparian <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Results of this study can be used to establish a basis for estimating water rights and as a baseline from which to assess any future changes in ground-water discharge in the park. Evapotranspiration (ET) is estimated volumetrically as the product of ET-unit (general vegetation type) acreage and a representative ET rate. ET-unit acreage is determined from high-resolution multi-spectral imagery; and a representative ET rate is computed from data collected in the Grapevine Springs <span class="hlt">area</span> using the Bowen-ratio solution to the energy budget, or from rates given in other ET studies in the Death Valley <span class="hlt">area</span>. The ground-water component of ET is computed by removing the local precipitation component from the ET rate. Two different procedures, a modified soil-adjusted vegetation index using the percent reflectance of the red and near-infrared wavelengths and land-cover classification using multi-spectral imagery were used to delineate the ET units within each major spring-discharge <span class="hlt">area</span>. On the basis of the more accurate procedure that uses the vegetation index, ET-unit acreage for the Grapevine Springs discharge <span class="hlt">area</span> totaled about 192 acres--of which 80 acres were moderate-density vegetation and 112 acres were high-density vegetation. ET-unit acreage for two other discharge <span class="hlt">areas</span> delineated in the Grapevine Springs <span class="hlt">area</span> (Surprise Springs and Staininger Spring) totaled about 6 and 43 acres, respectively; and for the discharge <span class="hlt">areas</span> delineated in the Furnace Creek <span class="hlt">area</span> (Nevares Springs, Cow Creek-Salt Springs, Texas Spring, and Travertine Springs) totaled about 29, 13, 11, and 21 acres, respectively. In discharge <span class="hlt">areas</span> other than Grapevine Springs, watering and spring diversions have altered the natural distribution of the vegetation. More...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Laczniak, Randell J.; Smith, J. LaRue; DeMeo, Guy A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18182901"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pediatric upper extremity <span class="hlt">burns</span>: outcomes of emergency department triage and outpatient management.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pediatric upper extremity <span class="hlt">burns</span> are common. Though current American <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Association guidelines recommend <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit referral for <span class="hlt">burns</span> involving the hands or major joints, many minor injuries are treated in the emergency department (ED) or outpatient setting. Despite the large number of <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients managed by primary care providers, no large studies have been performed to assess effectiveness. A retrospective 5-year review of the epidemiology and outcomes associated with pediatric upper extremity <span class="hlt">burns</span> treated at an urban ED was performed. Two hundred sixty-nine patients were identified. The mechanism of <span class="hlt">burn</span>, percentage of total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (%TBSA) affected, plastic surgery consultations (for wound management recommendations and additional treatment), complications, and surgical interventions were examined. Mechanisms of <span class="hlt">burn</span> included direct contact (47%), scald (29%), flame (12%), electrical (10%), and friction or chemical (1.5%). Fifty percent of patients suffered from <span class="hlt">burns</span> over less than 1% TBSA; close to 95% had <span class="hlt">burns</span> on less than 5% TBSA. Seventy-five percent of patients had second-degree <span class="hlt">burns</span>, 21% had first-degree <span class="hlt">burns</span>, and 2% had third-degree <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Forty patients (15%) had a plastic surgery consult. Seven patients (3%) required skin grafting. Complications occurred in five (2%) patients and included two cases of hypertrophic scarring; two patients with flexor contractures, one case of compartment syndrome requiring fasciotomy, and one late infection. These results suggest that although significant <span class="hlt">burns</span> are usually cared for in specialized <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers, the majority of childhood <span class="hlt">burns</span> to the upper extremity are relatively minor and often treated in the primary care setting. Most patients had small <span class="hlt">areas</span> of injury and healed without complications. Contact <span class="hlt">burns</span> are an ever-increasing proportion of childhood <span class="hlt">burns</span> and should be seemingly preventable. Education to parents and primary care physicians should be reemphasized. It appears that minor upper extremity <span class="hlt">burns</span> treated by our urban ED staff are handled appropriately and result in favorable outcomes. PMID:18182901</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ewings, Ember Lee; Pollack, Jonathan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0906404"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Systems Plan and <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for Southwestern Minnesota, 1985-1989. Minnesota Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 6.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The HSP states desired achievements for improving the health of <span class="hlt">area</span> residents and the systems delivering care; it assesses what is and outlines desired changes. The HSP serves as a guide to communities on matters of health and its purposes are: to presen...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60612544"> <span id="translatedtitle">Waste <span class="hlt">Area</span> Group 10, Operable Unit 10-08, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Monitoring Status Report for Fiscal Year 2009</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report documents the status of Fiscal Year 2009 groundwater monitoring performed in Waste <span class="hlt">Area</span> Group 10 at the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho National Laboratory Site, as identified in the Groundwater Monitoring and Field Sampling Plan for Operable Unit 10-08. Twelve of the fourteen required wells were sampled, and all ten required intervals from the Westbay wells were sampled.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Howard Forsythe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3431731"> <span id="translatedtitle">Current scenario in chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> in a developing country: Chennai, India</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> are not uncommon in India. Both accidental and non-accidental chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> are encountered in our setting. In the paediatric age group, chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> are mainly accidental. Analysis of chemical <span class="hlt">burn</span> admissions to the <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Units of a medical college hospital, and to an exclusively tertiary care children's hospital in Chennai, India, from 2001 to 2010 is described. A total number of 75 adults and 38 children are included in the study. Detailed analysis of age, sex, percentage of <span class="hlt">burn</span> total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA %), causative agents, aetiology (accidental or non-accidental), treatment instituted, mortality, and outcome are reported.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramakrishnan, K.M.; Mathivanan, T.; Jayaraman, V.; Babu, M.; Shankar, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JBO....18f1204M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Noninvasive determination of <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth in children by digital infrared thermal imaging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Digital infrared thermal imaging is used to assess noninvasively the severity of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds in 13 pediatric patients. A delta-T (?T) parameter obtained by subtracting the temperature of a healthy contralateral region from the temperature of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound is compared with the <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth measured histopathologically. Thermal imaging results show that superficial dermal <span class="hlt">burns</span> (IIa) show increased temperature compared with their contralateral healthy region, while deep dermal <span class="hlt">burns</span> (IIb) show a lower temperature than their contralateral healthy region. This difference in temperature is statistically significant (p<0.0001) and provides a way of distinguishing deep dermal from superficial dermal <span class="hlt">burns</span>. These results show that digital infrared thermal imaging could be used as a noninvasive procedure to assess <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds. An additional advantage of using thermal imaging, which can image a large skin surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, is that it can be used to identify regions with different <span class="hlt">burn</span> depths and estimate the size of the grafts needed for deep dermal <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Medina-Preciado, Jose David; Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar Samuel; Velez-Gomez, Ezequiel; Miranda-Altamirano, Ariel; González, Francisco Javier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JGRD..107.8056P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions of reactive gases estimated from satellite data analysis and ecosystem modeling for the Brazilian Amazon region</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To produce a new daily record of trace gas emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> events for the Brazilian Legal Amazon, we have combined satellite advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data on fire counts together for the first time with vegetation greenness imagery as inputs to an ecosystem biomass model at 8 km spatial resolution. This analysis goes beyond previous estimates for reactive gas emissions from Amazon fires, owing to a more detailed geographic distribution estimate of vegetation biomass, coupled with daily fire activity for the region (original 1 km resolution), and inclusion of fire effects in extensive <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the Legal Amazon (defined as the Brazilian states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, and Tocantins) covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. Results from our emissions model indicate that <span class="hlt">annual</span> emissions from Amazon deforestation and biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the early 1990s total to 102 Tg yr-1 carbon monoxide (CO) and 3.5 Tg yr-1 nitrogen oxides (NOx). Peak daily <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions, which occurred in early September 1992, were estimated at slightly more than 3 Tg d-1for CO and 0.1 Tg d-1for NOx flux to the atmosphere. Other <span class="hlt">burning</span> source fluxes of gases with relatively high emission factors are reported, including methane (CH4), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), in addition to total particulate matter (TPM). We estimate the Brazilian Amazon region to be a source of between one fifth and one third for each of these global emission fluxes to the atmosphere. The regional distribution of <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions appears to be highest in the Brazilian states of Maranhao and Tocantins, mainly from <span class="hlt">burning</span> outside of moist forest <span class="hlt">areas</span>, and in Pará and Mato Grosso, where we identify important contributions from primary forest cutting and <span class="hlt">burning</span>. These new daily emission estimates of reactive gases from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> fluxes are designed to be used as detailed spatial and temporal inputs to computer models and data analysis of tropospheric chemistry over the tropical region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Potter, Christopher; Brooks-Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Torregrosa, Alicia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JGR....9820657H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methane production from global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Emissions of methane from various sources of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> are determined quantitatively for tropical, temperate, and boreal regions. About 85% of the total CH4 is emitted in the tropical <span class="hlt">area</span>, which is mainly the result of shifting cultivation, fuelwood use, and deforestation. Methane emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> may have increased by at least 9% during the last decade because of increases in tropical deforestation and the use of fuelwood. Changes in land use practices and population growth in the tropics are possible causes of the increase of atmospheric CH4 concentration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hao, Wei Min; Ward, Darold E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5401677"> <span id="translatedtitle">Postburn roof stability analysis for the TONO CRIP UCG <span class="hlt">burn</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the Ninth <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Underground Coal Gasification Symposium, Sutherland, Hommert, Taylor, and Benzley presented a preburn prediction for the <span class="hlt">burn</span>, roof fall and surface subsidence for the TONO CRIP UCG site in Washington state. That <span class="hlt">burn</span> has now been completed and postburn measurements of cavity sizes have become available. In this manuscript we show that the preburn predictions are, in general, in good agreement with the postburn examination of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> site. Discrepancies between the predictions and the measurements are shown to arise for two reasons. The first is that the <span class="hlt">burn</span> sequence analyzed in the prediction was not followed during the course of the experiment due to experimental difficulties. The second reason is that the stratigraphic section analyzed in the preburn predictions is slightly different from that observed above the <span class="hlt">burn</span>. To clarify the discrepancies, the roof stability of the measured <span class="hlt">burn</span> cavity is analyzed using the two analysis schemes that were used in the preburn analysis. The first technique is the Rubble model. It uses a continuum description of the rubblization process that occurs as roof material fails and falls into the cavity below it. This technique is based on a standard finite element numerical analysis scheme. The second technique is the BLOCKS model. This technique divides the geologic strata into a collection of discrete, individual blocks and monitors all the collisions which occur between them. Both techniques yield very good descriptions of the roof stability for the measured <span class="hlt">burn</span> cavity. 10 refs., 7 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Taylor, L.M.; Sutherland, H.J.; Kuszmaul, J.S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6586749"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> and detonation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of confined <span class="hlt">burning</span> explosive abutting nonburning explosive in a variety of one-dimensional geometries has been studied by numerical simulation, demonstrating the effects of confinement, <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate, and shock sensitivity. The model includes porous bed <span class="hlt">burning</span>, compressible solids and gases, shock-induced decomposition with possible transition to detonation, and constant velocity ignition waves. Two-phase flow, gas relative to solid, is not allowed. Because the shock sensitivity of an explosive changes with explosive density and because such experimental data is rarely available over a range of densities, a method for the calculation of the density effect on the initial-shock-pressure, distance-to-detonation (wedge test) measure of shock sensitivity is given. The calculation uses the invariance with density of the shock particle velocity as a function of time to detonation, and the experimental data at some high density.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Forest, C.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9426915"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hot bitumen <span class="hlt">burns</span>: 92 hospitalized patients.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bitumen <span class="hlt">burns</span> while comprising a small percentage of all types of <span class="hlt">burns</span> are troublesome. They affect persons engaged in gainful employment which the <span class="hlt">burns</span> then curtail, as well as requiring special attention because the substance adheres to the skin and is therefore difficult to remove. Ninety-two consecutive patients with such <span class="hlt">burns</span> who were admitted as in-patients over a 10-year period (1985-1995) have been reviewed. Most of the <span class="hlt">burns</span> occurred on a worksite and involved active young persons (mean age 29.6 years) the mean size of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> was 3.87 per cent TBSA, mainly affecting the upper extremities and hands. Mean hospitalization time was 10.6 days. Bitumen <span class="hlt">burns</span> are fully predictable and can easily be prevented by avoiding unsafe practice and/or equipment. Bitumen is a general term for petroleum-derived substances ranging from true petroleum through so-called mineral tars, to asphalt. Asphalt (Asphaltum) is a semi-solid mixture of several hydrocarbons probably formed by the evaporation of the lighter or more volatile constituents. It is amorphous of low specific gravity, 1-2, with a black or brownish black colour and pitchy lustre. At room temperature it is solid becoming molten and spreadable when heated to 93 degrees C and over. Roofing tars and asphalts are usually heated to temperatures of 232 degrees C to achieve desirable viscosities (e.g. for spraying), whereas lower temperatures are required for the manageable form to pave roads. Notable localities for asphaltum are the island of Trinidad and the Dead Sea region where lake asphaltums were long known to the ancient. Ironically, none of the 92 patients who were treated for bitumen injuries in the 'Soroka' (Beer-Sheba, Israel) and 'Barzilai' (Ashkelon, Israel) Medical Centres (80 and 150 km from the lake respectively) had anything to do with the Dead Sea <span class="hlt">area</span>. PMID:9426915</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baruchin, A M; Schraf, S; Rosenberg, L; Sagi, A A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2416S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Satellite derived estimates of forest leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> index in South-west Western Australia are not tightly coupled to inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variations in rainfall: implications for groundwater decline in a drying climate.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is increasing concern that widespread forest decline could occur in regions of the world where droughts are predicted to increase in frequency and severity as a result of climate change. Ecological optimality proposes that the long term average canopy size of undisturbed perennial vegetation is tightly coupled to climate. The average <span class="hlt">annual</span> leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> index (LAI) is an indicator of canopy cover and the difference between the <span class="hlt">annual</span> maximum and minimum LAI is an indicator of <span class="hlt">annual</span> leaf turnover. In this study we analysed satellite-derived estimates of monthly LAI across forested coastal catchments of South-west Western Australia over a 12 year period (2000-2011) that included the driest year on record for the last 60 years. We observed that over the 12 year study period, the spatial pattern of average <span class="hlt">annual</span> satellite-derived LAI values was linearly related to mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> rainfall. However, inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> changes to LAI in response to changes in <span class="hlt">annual</span> rainfall were far less than expected from the long-term LAI-rainfall trend. This buffered response was investigated using a physiological growth model and attributed to availability of deep soil moisture and/or groundwater storage. The maintenance of high LAIs may be linked to a long term decline in areal average underground water storage storage and diminished summer flows, with a trend towards more ephemeral flow regimes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smettem, Keith; Waring, Richard; Callow, Nik; Wilson, Melissa; Mu, Qiaozhen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6955027"> <span id="translatedtitle">Combustion <span class="hlt">area</span> sources: Data sources. Final report, Oct 91-Jan 92</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The report identifies, documents, and evaluates data sources for stationary <span class="hlt">area</span> source emissions, including solid waste and agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>. <span class="hlt">Area</span> source emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, reactive volatile organic compounds, and carbon monoxide are estimated <span class="hlt">annually</span> by the National Air Data Branch of EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. <span class="hlt">Area</span> sources include all mobile sources and any stationary sources that are too small, difficult, or numerous to be inventoried as point sources. The original National Emissions Data System (NEDS) <span class="hlt">area</span> source methodology and algorithms were developed in 1973 and 1974, using 1960 census data. Current methods need to be updated or revised.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bowman, D.; Lowe, S.; Purple, J.; Randolph, R.; Winkler, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28353627"> <span id="translatedtitle">Efficacy of cultured epithelial autografts in pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> and reconstructive surgery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background. Cultured epithelial autografts are regularly used in <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients, but they have not been tested in patients undergoing reconstructive surgery. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the efficacy of cultured grafts in both <span class="hlt">burn</span> and reconstructive surgery patients.Methods. In six children with severe and massive <span class="hlt">burns</span>, full-thickness <span class="hlt">areas</span> were grafted with cultured grafts. In another</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rita Gobet; Michael Raghunath; Stefan Altermatt; Claudia Meuli-Simmen; Messod Benathan; Andreas Dietl; Martin Meuli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/w733l14532355706.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clinical and demographic features of pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> in the eastern provinces of Turkey</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to perform a retrospective analysis of the causes of <span class="hlt">burns</span> observed in children in the eastern provinces of Turkey. METHOD: In this study, patients were studied retrospectively with regard to their age, sex, cause of <span class="hlt">burns</span>, seasonal variations, social and economic factors, length of hospital stay, <span class="hlt">burned</span> body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, medical history, site</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Albayrak Yavuz; Albayrak Ayse; Y?ld?z Abdullah; Aylu Belkiz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.charmerenew.com/sp/PDF/fulltext.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effectiveness of Electrolyzed Oxidized Water Irrigation in a <span class="hlt">Burn</span>-Wound Infection Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine whether electrolyzed ox- idized water (EOW) functions as a bacte- ricide in <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in a rat <span class="hlt">burn</span>-wound model. Methods: Anesthetized Sprague- Dawley rats (n 5 31) were subjected to third-degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> to 30% of total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>. Two days after injury, all rats were infected</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hajime Nakae; Hideo Inaba</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29587188"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> mortality in Chandigarh zone: 25 years autopsy experience from a tertiary care hospital of India</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An analysis of autopsy records of <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims revealed that most <span class="hlt">burn</span> deaths occurred in the age group 21–40 years (67 per cent) with female preponderance (61 per cent) in all age groups except in the extreme age groups. 62 per cent of <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases originated in urban <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The majority of subjects (99 per cent females and 76 per</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dalbir Singh; Amarjit Singh; Aditya K. Sharma; Lavina Sodhi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4606330"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical debridement of <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The development of effective, non-toxic (local and systemic) methods for the rapid chemical (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) debridement of third degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> would dramatically reduce the morbidity and mortality of severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients. Sepsis is still the major cause of death of patients with extensive deep <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The removal of the devitalized tissue, without damage to unburned skin or skin only partially injured by <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and in ways which would permit immediate (or very prompt) skin grafting, would lessen substantially the problems of sepsis, speed convalescence and the return of these individuals to society as effective human beings, and would decrease deaths. The usefulness and limitations of surgical excision for patients with extensive third degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> are discussed. Chemical debridement lends itself to complementary use with surgical excision and has the potential advantage over surgical excision in not requiring anesthesia or a formal surgical operation. The authors' work with the chemical debridement of <span class="hlt">burns</span>, in particular the use of Bromelain, indicates that this approach will likely achieve clinical usefulness. The experimental studies indicate that rapid controlled debridement, with minimal local and systemic toxicity, is possible, and that effective chemotherapeutic agents may be combined with the Bromelain without either interfering with the actions of the other. The authors believe that rapid (hours) debridement accomplished by the combined use of chemical debriding and chemotherapeutic agents will obviate the possibility of any increase in infection, caused by the use of chemical agents for debridement, as reported for Paraenzyme(21) and Travase.(39,48) It is possible that the short term use of systemic antibiotics begun just before and continued during, and for a short time after, the rapid chemical debridement may prove useful for the prevention of infection, as appears to be the case for abdominal operations of the clean-contaminated and contaminated types. PMID:4606330</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levenson, S M; Kan, D; Gruber, C; Crowley, L V; Lent, R; Watford, A; Seifter, E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22530219"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chlorhexidine <span class="hlt">burns</span> after shoulder arthroscopy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chlorhexidine is an antiseptic and disinfectant commonly used for surgical site preparation and cleansing. It is active against a broad spectrum of bacteria, viruses, mycobacteria, and fungi. We report 3 cases of patients with superficial partial thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> immediately following shoulder arthroscopic surgery with the use of a Chloraprep 26 mL applicator (2% chlorhexidine gluconate and 70% isopropyl alcohol; CareFusion, Leawood, Kansas). All 3 patients reported pain as the anesthetic waned at a localized <span class="hlt">area</span> on the anterior arm near the axilla. Erythema and blistering were noticeable. These <span class="hlt">areas</span> were immediately treated with irrigation and local application of ice, and subsequently with topical triple-antibiotic ointment. All 3 cases were resolved within 3 months of surgery, but noticeable scars remained. We believe a combination of chlorhexidine skin preparation, local swelling inherent to shoulder arthroscopy, and traction contributed to these postoperative complications. PMID:22530219</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sanders, Thomas H; Hawken, Samuel M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6224246"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fast <span class="hlt">burning</span> propellants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A solid or semisolid propellant is described comprising grains of propellant or propellant components bonded together to create voids within the propellant volume. The grains are of near-uniform size and have less than about a 20% size variation between the largest and smallest grains, the voids comprising from about 10% to about 50% of the propellant volume. The grains are bonded together with sufficient strength to substantially delay the fluidization of the propellant by the onset of Taylor unstable <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The propellant has a rapid <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate of from about 10 cm sec/sup -1/ to about 10/sup 4/cm sec/sup -1/.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Colgate, S.A.; Roos, G.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-07-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19103020"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Signal transduction mechanism in <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound healing].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">After 50 years of development in science of <span class="hlt">burns</span> care in China, we have basically solved coverage of deep wounds of <span class="hlt">burn</span> trauma, as well as role of multiple growth factors and stem cell in wound healing, making great contribution to improving the treatment of patients with large <span class="hlt">area</span> of deep <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Surgeons are paying close attention to problems of wound healing, especially in the fields of scarless healing and rehabilitation. To solve these problems, we need to do further investigation on multiple growth factors as well as proliferation/differentiation of stem cells in regulation of cell growth and differentiation in wound healing. Therefore, we are facing a even more serious challenge. PMID:19103020</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luo, Xiang-dong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/wa0562.photos.370802p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">13. Southwest corner of <span class="hlt">burning</span> hood and incinerator. North wall ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">13. Southwest corner of <span class="hlt">burning</span> hood and incinerator. North wall of scrubber cell room. Looking southwest. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Richland, Benton County, WA</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/978854"> <span id="translatedtitle">Waste <span class="hlt">Area</span> Group 10, Operable Unit 10-08, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Monitoring Status Report for Fiscal Year 2009</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report documents the status of Fiscal Year 2009 groundwater monitoring performed in Waste <span class="hlt">Area</span> Group 10 at the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho National Laboratory Site, as identified in the Groundwater Monitoring and Field Sampling Plan for Operable Unit 10-08. Twelve of the fourteen required wells were sampled, and all ten required intervals from the Westbay wells were sampled. Two wells were not sampled because they were in the process of being converted into multiple-sample-interval Westbay wells by the U.S. Geological Survey. Groundwater samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds identified on the Contract Laboratory Program target analyte list as well as metals (filtered), anions, and radionuclides (i.e., I-129, tritium, Tc-99, gross alpha, gross beta, and Sr-90). No contaminant exceeded maximum contaminant levels in wells along the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory Site or in guard wells. Iron was above its secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 ug/L in one well. The cause of the elevated iron concentration is uncertain. Lead was detected just below its action level. However, the zinc concentration was also elevated in these wells, and the source of the lead is probably galvanized riser pipe in the wells. Once the galvanized pipe is replaced, both lead and zinc concentrations should decline, as has been observed at other Waste <span class="hlt">Area</span> Group 10 wells.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Howard Forsythe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57404439"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of Ketoconazole on Post-<span class="hlt">Burn</span> Inflammation, Hypermetabolism and Clinical Outcomes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BackgroundHypercortisolemia has been suggested as a primary hormonal mediator of whole-body catabolism following severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Ketoconazole, an anti-fungal agent, inhibits cortisol synthesis. We, therefore, studied the effect of ketoconazole on post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> cortisol levels and the hyper-catabolic response in a prospective randomized trial (block randomization 2?1).Methodology\\/Principal FindingsFifty-five severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> pediatric patients with >30% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) <span class="hlt">burns</span> were</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marc G. Jeschke; Felicia N. Williams; Celeste C. Finnerty; Noe A. Rodriguez; Gabriela A. Kulp; Arny Ferrando; William B. Norbury; Oscar E. Suman; Robert Kraft; Ludwik K. Branski; Ahmed M. Al-mousawi; David N. Herndon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12536532"> <span id="translatedtitle">Silicon <span class="hlt">Burning</span>. II. Quasi-Equilibrium and Explosive <span class="hlt">Burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Having examined the application of quasi-equilibrium to hydrostatic silicon <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Paper I of this series, we now turn our attention to explosive silicon <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Previous authors have shown that for material that is heated to high temperature by a passing shock and then cooled by adiabatic expansion, the results can be divided into three broad categories, incomplete <span class="hlt">burning</span>, normal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. Raphael Hix; Friedrich-Karl Thielemann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20375697"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> injury in Utah: demographic and geographic risks.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> are preventable injuries, and prevention campaigns have been conducted with varying success. To develop successful prevention programs, it is imperative that <span class="hlt">burn</span> risk be identified and factors associated with increased risk elucidated. The aims of this study were to determine the risk of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury to Utah residents, identify demographic and geographic subgroups at increased risk, and to examine sociodemographic factors associated with risk. Probabilistic record linkage of databases from five states was performed to identify Utah residents <span class="hlt">burned</span> over a 5-year period and to calculate the <span class="hlt">burn</span> rates and risk. Geographic Information Systems mapping allowed for the identification and characterization of high risk <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Men had a higher rate of injury than women. Children under the age of 5 years had the highest rate of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Adults aged > 65 years had the lowest rate. Seven Utah counties were identified as high-risk counties. The counties were predominantly rural and tended to have higher rates of American-Indian populations, increased poverty levels, lower percentages of individuals with high school degrees, and lower employment rates. The characteristics of these high-risk counties do not imply causality, and further research is warranted to determine whether these factors contribute to <span class="hlt">burn</span> risk. The results of this study provide the foundation for future research and prevention programs targeted toward populations and geographic <span class="hlt">areas</span> with the greatest risk of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. PMID:20375697</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Edelman, Linda S; Cook, Lawrence J; Saffle, Jeffrey R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA231472"> <span id="translatedtitle">Infection and the <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Patient.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> patient survival has significantly increased during the past four decades as hypovolaemic shock, acute renal failure, invasive bacterial <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound infection, Curling's ulcer, and metabolic wasting have been controlled by timely adequate resuscitatio...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. A. Pruitt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA513481"> <span id="translatedtitle">Abdominal Complications after Severe <span class="hlt">Burns</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abdominal catastrophe in the severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patient without abdominal injury has been described. We perceived an alarming recent incidence of this complication in our <span class="hlt">burn</span> center, both during acute resuscitation and later in the hospital course. We sough...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. E. White E. M. Renz K. W. Markell L. H. Blackbourne M. E. Albrecht</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://video.nasa.gov/core-dl/423/0/657/173598161/1371/423/6716/eca0bb239b1f357edde94492f8c33715.mp4"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discovery Performs Terminal Initiation <span class="hlt">Burn</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The terminal initiation <span class="hlt">burn</span>, a left Orbital Maneuvering System engine firing that gave Discovery one last big push toward the space station, took place Feb. 26, 2011 at 10:33 a.m. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> lasted 11 seconds.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mark Garcia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PATENT3201973"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solid Propellant <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Rate Detector.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The instrument measures accurately the <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate of solid propellant rocket motors. This is accomplished by use of light-transmitting rods of different lengths embedded in a propellant grain and transmitting light energy during <span class="hlt">burning</span> of the grain to ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. E. Fitzgerald N. C. Allen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1965-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/460794"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report on Environmental Monitoring Activities for FY 1995 (Baseline Year) at Waste <span class="hlt">Area</span> Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report describes baseline contaminant release conditions for Waste <span class="hlt">Area</span> Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The sampling approach and data analysis methods used to establish baseline conditions were presented in ``Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste <span class="hlt">Area</span> Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (EMP).`` As outlined in the EMP, the purpose of the baseline monitoring year at WAG 6 was to determine the <span class="hlt">annual</span> contaminant releases from the site during fiscal year 1995 (FY95) against which any potential changes in releases over time could be compared. The baseline year data set provides a comprehensive understanding of release conditions from all major waste units in the WAG through each major contaminant transport pathway. Due to a mandate to reduce all monitoring work, WAG 6 monitoring was scaled back and reporting efforts on the baseline year results are being minimized. This report presents the quantified baseline year contaminant flux conditions for the site and briefly summarizes other findings. All baseline data cited in this report will reside in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information system (OREIS) database, and will be available for use in future years as the need arises to identify potential release changes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NONE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60463351"> <span id="translatedtitle">Getting beyond <span class="hlt">burning</span> dirt</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To fix and make the nation's Superfund law work, two related questions must be answered. First, where will the innovative technology come from the clean up Superfund and other waste sites <span class="hlt">Burning</span> dirt--the best technology currently available--is an expensive nonsolution. Second, can man muster the political will to make Superfund a waste cleanup law instead of an expanding welfare program</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mahoney</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ozone+AND+layer&pg=4&id=EJ264984"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Earth Could <span class="hlt">Burn</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Environmental educators are worried about the ultimate ecological threat--nuclear war, which could <span class="hlt">burn</span> thousands of square miles, sterilize the soil, destroy 70 percent of the ozone layer letting in lethal ultraviolet rays, and cause severe radiation sickness. Educators must inform themselves, teach others, contact government representatives,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yarrow, Ruth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3671671"> <span id="translatedtitle">Curbing Inflammation in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Patients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Patients who suffer from severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> develop metabolic imbalances and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) which can result in multiple organ failure and death. Research aimed at reducing the inflammatory process has yielded new insight into <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury therapies. In this review, we discuss strategies used to curb inflammation in <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries and note that further studies with high quality evidence are necessary.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Farina, Jayme A.; Rosique, Marina Junqueira; Rosique, Rodrigo G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.smokeybear.com/prescribed_chartenlarge.asp"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anatomy of a Prescribed <span class="hlt">Burn</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This poster shows how prescribed <span class="hlt">burns</span> operate, using careful planning and preparation to start a fire that will renew habitat without threatening ecosystems or homes. This image describes the steps required to prepare a prescribed <span class="hlt">burn</span>, how fire crews set up for the <span class="hlt">burn</span>, and how the wind is used to help control the fire.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Forestry, Florida D.; Smokeybear.com</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57406088"> <span id="translatedtitle">Harborview <span class="hlt">Burns</span> – 1974 to 2009</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background<span class="hlt">Burn</span> demographics, prevention and care have changed considerably since the 1970s. The objectives were to 1) identify new and confirm previously described changes, 2) make comparisons to the American <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Association National <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Repository, 3) determine when the administration of fluids in excess of the Baxter formula began and to identify potential causes, and 4) model mortality over time, during</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Loren H. Engrav; David M. Heimbach; Frederick P. Rivara; Kathleen F. Kerr; Turner Osler; Tam N. Pham; Sam R. Sharar; Peter C. Esselman; Eileen M. Bulger; Gretchen J. Carrougher; Shari Honari; Nicole S. Gibran</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3341877"> <span id="translatedtitle">The overall patterns of <span class="hlt">burns</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary <span class="hlt">Burn</span> patterns differ across the whole world and not only in relation to lack of education, overcrowding, and poverty. Cultures, habits, traditions, psychiatric illness, and epilepsy are strongly correlated to <span class="hlt">burn</span> patterns. However, <span class="hlt">burns</span> may also occur because of specific religious beliefs and activities, social events and festivals, traditional medical practices, occupational activities, and war.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Almoghrabi, A.; Abu Shaban, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=132467"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">BURN</span> DATA COORDINATING CENTER (BDCC)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Data Coordinating Center (BDCC) began collecting data in 1994 and is currently the largest <span class="hlt">burn</span> database in the country. Pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> data was added in 1998. The BMS database contains over 2,800 cases supporting clinical research and research on outcomes including empl...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ORNLTM6830P11"> <span id="translatedtitle">District Heating/Cogeneration Application Studies for the Minneapolis-St. Paul <span class="hlt">Area</span>. Impact of a District Heating/Cogeneration System on <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Average SO sub 2 Air Quality in the Twin Cities.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A study was made to determine the potential impact of a district-heating/cogeneration system on the air quality in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan <span class="hlt">area</span>. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> average SO sub 2 concentrations in air at ground level were determined for a base year (1...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. A. Karnitz F. C. Kornegay H. A. McLain B. D. Murphy R. J. Raridon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AtmRe..77..100L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using meteorological data for reconstruction of <span class="hlt">annual</span> runoff series over an ungauged <span class="hlt">area</span>: Empirical orthogonal function approach to Moldova Southwest Ukraine region</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The water-management transformation of runoff and the prospective change of global climate necessitate studying the climate forcing associated with runoff processes. This paper presents some quantitative estimations for the role of climatic factors in this process on an example of the Moldova Southwest Ukraine region. Using empirical orthogonal functions, we establish the contribution of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> evaporation, <span class="hlt">annual</span> precipitation, and warm- and cold-season precipitation to the <span class="hlt">annual</span> runoff for arid-zone rivers. An efficient approach for the reconstruction of natural <span class="hlt">annual</span> runoff time series is developed and tested. The problems relating to (i) the estimation of <span class="hlt">annual</span> runoff for rivers with lacking or deficient observational data, (ii) the definition of climate forcing for natural runoff parameters, and (iii) the modelling of <span class="hlt">annual</span> runoff time series are solved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Loboda, Nataliya S.; Glushkov, Alexander V.; Khokhlov, Valeriy N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16890969"> <span id="translatedtitle">An insight into <span class="hlt">burns</span> in a developing country: a Sri Lankan experience.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> injuries represent a diverse and varied challenge to medical and paramedical staff. The management of <span class="hlt">burns</span> and their sequelae in a well-equipped, modern <span class="hlt">burns</span> unit remains demanding despite advances in surgical techniques and development of tissue-engineered biomaterials; in a developing country, these difficulties are amplified many times. Sri Lanka has a high incidence of <span class="hlt">burn</span>-related injuries <span class="hlt">annually</span> due to a combination of adverse social, economic and cultural factors. The management of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries remains a formidable public health problem. The epidemiology of <span class="hlt">burns</span>, challenges faced in their management and effective strategies specific to Sri Lanka, such as the Safe Bottle Lamp campaign, are highlighted in this paper. PMID:16890969</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lau, Y S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-08-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.8298K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Olive Tree Branches <span class="hlt">Burning</span>: A major pollution source in the Mediterranean</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Olive tree branches <span class="hlt">burning</span> is a common agricultural waste management practice after the <span class="hlt">annual</span> pruning of olive trees from November to February. Almost 1 billion (90%) of the olive trees in our planet are located around the Mediterranean, so the corresponding emissions of olive tree branches <span class="hlt">burning</span> can be a significant source of fine aerosols during the cold months. Organic aerosol produced during the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of olive tree branches (otBB-OA) was characterized with both direct source-sampling (using a mobile smog chamber) and ambient measurements during the <span class="hlt">burning</span> season in the <span class="hlt">area</span> of Patras, Greece. The aerosol emitted consists of organics, black carbon (BC), potassium, chloride, nitrate and sulfate. In addition to NOx, O3, CO and CO2, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) such as methanol, acetonitrile, benzene and toluene were also produced. The Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) mass spectrum of otBB-OA is characterized by the m-z's27, 29, 39, 41, 43, 44, 55, 57, 67, 69 and 91 and changes as the emissions react with OH and O3. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed that otBB-OA was composed of 48% alkane groups, 27% organic hydroxyl groups, 11% carboxylic acid groups, 11% primary amine groups and 4% carbonyl groups. The oxygen to carbon (O:C) ratio is 0.29±0.04. The otBB-OA AMS mass spectrum differs from the other published biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> spectra. The m-z60, used as levoglucosan tracer, is lower than in most biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> sources. This is confirmed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis on filters where the levoglucosan to OC mass ratio was between 0.034 and 0.043, close to the lower limit of the reported values for most fuel types. This may lead to an underestimation of the otBB-OA contribution in Southern Europe if levoglucosan is being used as a wood <span class="hlt">burning</span> tracer. During the olive tree branches <span class="hlt">burning</span> season, 20 days of ambient measurements were performed. Applying positive matrix factorization (PMF) to the ambient organic data 3 factors could be identified: OOA (oxygenated organic aerosol), HOA (hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol) and otBB-OA. The chamber organic AMS spectrum resembles the ambient mass spectrum during olive tree branches <span class="hlt">burning</span> events. We estimated an otBB-OA emission factor of 3.45±0.2 g kg-1. Assuming that half of the olive trees branches are <span class="hlt">burned</span> 2,300 tons of otBB-OA are emitted in Greece each winter. This is one of the most important fine aerosol emission sources during the winter months in the Mediterranean countries in which this activity is prevalent.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kostenidou, Evangelia; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Tsiflikiotou, Maria; Louvaris, Evangelos; Russell, Lynn; Pandis, Spyros</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412485D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using MODIS imagery to assign dates to maps of <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars in Portugal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the European context, Portugal presents the highest number of fire occurrences and has the largest <span class="hlt">area</span> affected by wildfires. Like other southern regions of Europe, Portugal has experienced a dramatic increase in fire incidence during the last few decades that has been attributed to modifications in land-use as well as to climatic changes and associated occurrence of weather extremes. Wildfire activity also presents a large inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability that has been related to changes in the frequency of occurrence of atmospheric conditions favorable to the onset and spreading of large-fires. Since 1990, the Portuguese Authority for Forests (AFN) has been producing yearly maps of fire perimeters under a protocol with the Department of Forest Engineering of the Institute of Agronomy (DEF/ISA). The AFN fire atlas uses end of fire season Landsat TM/ETM imagery to map all fire perimeters with <span class="hlt">area</span> larger than 5ha. Because it relies on end-of-season imagery, the atlas provides a spatial snapshot of the yearly <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, and dates of <span class="hlt">burn</span> for individual events cannot be estimated. Such information is nevertheless crucial to understand the fire regime and fire seasonality and to disentangle the complex interactions among fire, land cover and meteorology. The aim of the present work is to develop an automated procedure that allows using time series of moderate resolution imagery, such as the one provided by the MODIS instrument on-board TERRA and AQUA, to assign dates of <span class="hlt">burning</span> to scars larger than 500 ha in the Landsat based fire atlas. The procedure relies on the so-called (V,W) <span class="hlt">burned</span> index that uses daily reflectance obtained from the 1km MODIS Level 1B calibrated radiance from bands 2 (NIR) and 20 (MIR). The algorithm detects persistent changes in the (V,W) <span class="hlt">burned</span> index time series, within each Landsat <span class="hlt">burned</span> scar. The day of maximum change is then identified by means of a discrimination index, together with thresholds from the (V,W) time series. A spatial filter is finally applied to remove the outliers. An assessment of the temporal accuracy of the algorithm was conducted for the year 2005. For this year, Landsat based fire scars larger than 500ha have an associated detection date, based on field information provided by the AFN. The detection date is here assumed as ignition date of each scar. It is also assumed that each scar corresponds to a single fire event. Using 78 fire scars, we computed the time difference, in days, between the detection date and the date of <span class="hlt">burn</span>, estimated by the algorithm. Our results show that 70% of all scars were correctly dated by the algorithm with differences to the AFN detection date up to three days. These correspond to 83% of the overall <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> used in the accuracy assessment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">DaCamara, C. C.; Libonati, R.; Barros, A.; Gaspar, G.; Calado, T. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4182021"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability of summertime CO concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere explained by boreal forest fires in North America and Russia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background measurements of Carbon Monoxide in the extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere during the 1990s showed no clear trends, but significant inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variations. In this study, the measured summertime averaged CO concentrations north of 30° N were correlated with <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by forest fires in North America and Russia. According to a linear regression analysis, 14% of the CO variability in the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gerhard Wotawa; P. C. Novelli; C. Granier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..TSF.H1025Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Raman Micro-spectroscopy Study of Healthy and <span class="hlt">Burned</span> Biological Tissue</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> injuries are a significant medical problem, and need to be treated quickly and precisely. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> skin needs to be removed early, within hours (less than 24 hrs) of injury, when the margins of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> are still hard to define. Studies show that treating and excising <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds soon after the injury prevents the wound from becoming deeper, reduces the release of proinflammatory mediators, and reduces or prevents the systemic inflammatory reaction syndrome. Also, removing <span class="hlt">burned</span> skin prepares the affected region for skin grafting. Raman micro-spectroscopy could be used as an objective diagnostic method that will assist <span class="hlt">burn</span> surgeons in distinguishing unburned from <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. As a first step in developing a diagnostic tool, we present Raman micro-spectroscopy information from normal and <span class="hlt">burned</span> ex vivo rat skin.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zarnani, Faranak; Glosser, Robert; Idris, Ahamed</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GMD.....4..625W"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN): a high resolution global model to estimate the emissions from open <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Fire INventory from NCAR version 1.0 (FINNv1) provides daily, 1 km resolution, global estimates of the trace gas and particle emissions from open <span class="hlt">burning</span> of biomass, which includes wildfire, agricultural fires, and prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> and does not include biofuel use and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Emission factors used in the calculations have been updated with recent data, particularly for the non-methane organic compounds (NMOC). The resulting global <span class="hlt">annual</span> NMOC emission estimates are as much as a factor of 5 greater than some prior estimates. Chemical speciation profiles, necessary to allocate the total NMOC emission estimates to lumped species for use by chemical transport models, are provided for three widely used chemical mechanisms: SAPRC99, GEOS-CHEM, and MOZART-4. Using these profiles, FINNv1 also provides global estimates of key organic compounds, including formaldehyde and methanol. Uncertainties in the emissions estimates arise from several of the method steps. The use of fire hot spots, assumed <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, land cover maps, biomass consumption estimates, and emission factors all introduce error into the model estimates. The uncertainty in the FINNv1 emission estimates are about a factor of two; but, the global estimates agree reasonably well with other global inventories of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions for CO, CO2, and other species with less variable emission factors. FINNv1 emission estimates have been developed specifically for modeling atmospheric chemistry and air quality in a consistent framework at scales from local to global. The product is unique because of the high temporal and spatial resolution, global coverage, and the number of species estimated. FINNv1 can be used for both hindcast and forecast or near-real time model applications and the results are being critically evaluated with models and observations whenever possible.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wiedinmyer, C.; Akagi, S. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Emmons, L. K.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Orlando, J. J.; Soja, A. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EnMan..50..451D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparing <span class="hlt">Burned</span> and Mowed Treatments in Mountain Big Sagebrush Steppe</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fires in mountain big sagebrush [ Artemisia tridentata spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle] plant communities historically shifted dominance from woody to herbaceous vegetation. However, fire return intervals have lengthened with European settlement, and sagebrush dominance has increased at the expense of herbaceous vegetation in some plant communities. Management actions may be needed to decrease sagebrush in dense sagebrush stands to increase herbaceous vegetation. Prescribed fire is often used to remove sagebrush; however, mechanical treatments, such as mowing, are increasingly used because they are more controllable and do not pose an inherent risk of escape compared with fire. However, information on the effects of <span class="hlt">burned</span> and mowed treatments on herbaceous vegetation and whether fire and mowed applications elicit similar vegetation responses are limited. We evaluated the effects of prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> and mowing for 3 years after treatment in mountain big sagebrush plant communities. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> and mowed treatments generally increased herbaceous cover, density, and production compared with untreated controls ( P < 0.05). However, neither treatment induced a response in native perennial forb cover, density, or biomass ( P > 0.05). In contrast, <span class="hlt">annual</span> forb (predominately natives) cover, density, and biomass increased with mowing and <span class="hlt">burning</span> ( P < 0.05). Vegetation generally responded similarly in <span class="hlt">burned</span> and mowed treatments; however, the <span class="hlt">burned</span> treatment had less sagebrush, greater herbaceous vegetation production, and more bare ground than the mowed treatment ( P < 0.05). These differences should be considered when selecting treatments to decrease sagebrush.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davies, K. W.; Bates, J. D.; Nafus, A. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1493971"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tracheostomies in <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of tracheostomies in <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients with inhalation injuries is now reserved for specific indications rather than as prophylactic airway management. A 5-year <span class="hlt">burn</span> center experience with tracheostomies used in this fashion is presented. Ninety-nine tracheostomies were performed in 3246 patients who had indications of prolonged respiratory failure or acute loss of airway. Although colonization of the sputum was universal, neither rates of pulmonary sepsis nor mortality were significantly increased in patients who underwent tracheostomies. Twenty-eight patients developed late upper airway sequelae, including tracheal stenosis (TS), tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), and tracheoarterial fistula (TAF). Duration of intubation correlated only with development of TAF, whereas patients in whom TEF developed were significantly older and more likely to have evidence of tracheal necrosis at the time of tracheostomy. The pathogenesis of upper airway sequelae in these patients as divergent responses to the combined insults of inhalation injury, infection, and intubation is considered. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jones, W G; Madden, M; Finkelstein, J; Yurt, R W; Goodwin, C W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27712217"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regimes of Helium <span class="hlt">Burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">burning</span> regimes encountered by laminar deflagrations and Zeldovich von Neumann Döring (ZND) detonations propagating through helium-rich compositions in the presence of buoyancy-driven turbulence are analyzed. Particular attention is given to models of X-ray bursts that start with a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of a neutron star and to the thin-shell helium instability of intermediate-mass stars. In the X-ray</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. X. Timmes; J. C. Niemeyer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22554530"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> contributions to urban aerosols in a coastal Mediterranean city.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> contributions to the bulk particulate matter (PM(X)) load were quantified in a southern-European urban environment (Barcelona, Spain) with special attention to typical Mediterranean winter and summer conditions. In spite of the complexity of the local air pollution cocktail and the expected low contribution of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions to PM levels in Southern Europe, the impact of these emissions was detected at an urban background site by means of tracers such as levoglucosan, K(+) and organic carbon (OC). The significant correlation between levoglucosan and OC (r(2)=0.77) and K(+) (r(2)=0.65), as well as a marked day/night variability of the levoglucosan levels and levoglucosan/OC ratios was indicative of the contribution from regional scale biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions during night-time transported by land breezes. In addition, on specific days (21-22 March), the contribution from long-range transported biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosols was detected. Quantification of the contribution of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosols to PM levels on an <span class="hlt">annual</span> basis was possible by means of the Multilinear Engine (ME). Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions accounted for 3% of PM(10) and PM(2.5) (<span class="hlt">annual</span> mean), while this percentage increased up to 5% of PM(1). During the winter period, regional-scale biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions (agricultural waste <span class="hlt">burning</span>) were estimated to contribute with 7±4% of PM(2.5) aerosols during night-time (period when emissions were clearly detected). Long-range transported biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosols (possibly from forest fires and/or agricultural waste <span class="hlt">burning</span>) accounted for 5±2% of PM(2.5) during specific episodes. <span class="hlt">Annually</span>, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions accounted for 19%-21% of OC levels in PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1). The contribution of this source to K(+) ranged between 48% for PM(10) and 97% for PM(1) (<span class="hlt">annual</span> mean). Results for K(+) from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> evidenced that this tracer is mostly emitted in the fine fraction, and thus coarse K(+) could not be taken as an appropriate tracer of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>. PMID:22554530</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reche, C; Viana, M; Amato, F; Alastuey, A; Moreno, T; Hillamo, R; Teinilä, K; Saarnio, K; Seco, R; Peñuelas, J; Mohr, C; Prévôt, A S H; Querol, X</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21896553"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of <span class="hlt">annual</span> effective dose due to natural and man-made radionuclides in the metropolitan <span class="hlt">area</span> of the Bay of Cadiz (SW of Spain).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to investigate the radiological hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and man-made (137)Cs radionuclide in the Bay of Cádiz, 149 samples of sediments have been analysed. Activity concentration in all the samples was determined using a HPGe detection system. Activity concentrations values of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in the samples were 12.6±2.6 (2.5-40.6), 18.5±4.0 (2.8-73.4), 451±45 (105-1342) and 3.2±1.3 (0.2-16.0) Bq kg(-1), respectively. Outdoor external dose rate due to natural and man-made radionuclides was calculated to be 35.79±1.69 (4.71-119.16) nGy h(-1) and <span class="hlt">annual</span> effective dose was estimated to be 43.89±2.27 (5.78-146.14) µSv y(-1). Results showed low levels of radioactivity due to NORM and man-made (137)Cs radionuclide in marine sediments recovered from the Bay of Cádiz (Spain), discarding any significant radiological risks related to human activities of the <span class="hlt">area</span>. Furthermore, the obtained data set could be used as background levels for future research. PMID:21896553</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Casas-Ruiz, M; Ligero, R A; Barbero, L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21909652"> <span id="translatedtitle">Grape harvest and yield responses to inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> changes in temperature and precipitation in an <span class="hlt">area</span> of north-east Spain with a Mediterranean climate.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study presents an analysis of temperature and precipitation trends and their impact on grape harvests in the Penedès region (NE Spain). It includes analyses of maximum, minimum and mean daily temperatures (for both the growing and ripening seasons) and daily rainfall (for the hydrological year, the growing season and each phenological stage) for three observatories in the immediate <span class="hlt">area</span>. We analysed a series of factors: beginning and end harvest dates; the day on which a given potential alcoholic degree was reached; and yield for several varieties of grape grown in the <span class="hlt">area</span> in relation to climatic variables. Maximum temperatures increased at all the observatories, with greater values being recorded in recent years (1996-2009) than in previous decades (1960s-2000s): we observed increases in average growing season temperatures of 0.11°C per year for the period 1996-2009 vs 0.04°C per year for the period 1960-2009 at Vilafranca del Penedès. These temperature changes were due mainly to increases in maximum temperatures and an increase in the incidence of extreme heat (number of days with T > 30°C). Crop evapotranspiration also increased significantly during the same period. The Winkler index also increased, so the study <span class="hlt">area</span> would correspond to region IV according to that climatic classification. There were no significant trends in <span class="hlt">annual</span> rainfall but rainfall recorded between bloom and veraison decreased significantly at the three observatories, with the greatest decrease corresponding to the period 1996-2009. The dates on which harvests started and ended showed a continuous advance (of between -0.7 and -1.1 days per year, depending on the variety), which was significantly correlated with the average mean and maximum daily growing season temperatures (up to -7.68 days for 1°C increase). Winegrape yield was influenced by the estimated water deficit (crop evapotranspiration minus precipitation) in the bloom-veraison period; this value increased due to a reduction in precipitation and an increase in evapotranspiration. Yield may have been reduced by up to 30 kg/ha for each millimetre increase in the estimated water deficit. Under these conditions, new strategies need to be followed in this <span class="hlt">area</span> in order to maintain grape quality and yield. PMID:21909652</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Camps, Josep Odó; Ramos, María Concepción</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/wx6175846648x945.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of gross and net fluxes of carbon between the biosphere and the atmosphere from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to estimate the production of charcoal and the atmospheric emissions of trace gases volatilized by <span class="hlt">burning</span> we have estimated the global amounts of biomass which are affected by fires. We have roughly calculated <span class="hlt">annual</span> gross <span class="hlt">burning</span> rates ranging between about 5 Pg and 9 Pg (1 Pg = 1015 g) of dry matter (2–4 Pg C). In comparison,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wolfgang Seiler; Paul J. Crutzen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41224782"> <span id="translatedtitle">Soil properties and nutrient relations in <span class="hlt">burned</span> and unburned Mediterranean-climate shrublands of Baja California, Mexico</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We compared soil chemical properties and total N and P in ecosystem compartments (soil, litter, root, stem, and leaf) of adjacent <span class="hlt">burned</span> and unburned shrublands in northwestern Baja California during the first <span class="hlt">annual</span> cycle after <span class="hlt">burning</span>. We sampled one stand of coastal sage scrub growing on soil derived from basalt, and two stands of mixed chaparral growing on soils developed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ernesto Franco-Vizcaíno; Joaquín Sosa-Ramirez</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2686041"> <span id="translatedtitle">Silver-coated nylon dressings for pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: Silver dressings are a proven method for <span class="hlt">burn</span> treatment. Current challenges associated with <span class="hlt">burn</span> treatment include pain management and limited hospital resources. A new silver-coated nylon dressing was used at the Montreal Children’s Hospital (Montreal, Quebec) to help reduce traumatic dressing changes and cost. METHODS: <span class="hlt">Burn</span> victims in a pediatric patient population were followed over two years. Patients were excluded if they were evaluated more than 48 h postburn or if the <span class="hlt">burn</span> affected less than 5% of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>. The same <span class="hlt">burn</span> team admitted and treated all case subjects, and one dressing nurse recorded and monitored all progress throughout the study to ensure standardization. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were included in the study. The average number of dressing changes needed was 4.13, with a median of three changes. The average total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> was 8%, with a mean of 13.9 days before superficial wounds were re-epithelialized. The average length of in-hospital stay was four days. The cost was $388 less for silver-coated nylon dressings than for silver sulfadiazine cream for seven days of treatment. Silver-coated nylon dressings did not leave any residue or pseudoeschar on the wounds and were easily maintained at home. CONCLUSION: The silver-coated nylon dressings are as effective as other silver dressings used for pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims. The dressings are less traumatic, require fewer resources and do not leave wound residue compared with other dressings.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Borsuk, Daniel E; Gallant, Michel; Richard, Diane; Williams, H Bruce</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9949545"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bacteriological monitoring in the Prague <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Center.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The microbiological aspect of the prevention of nosocomial infections at the <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center consists primarily in the surveillance of bacterial flora and its antibiotical resistance. The Prague <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center is regularly monitoring the microbial flora. Patients are examined not only by the conventional methods of taking swabs of <span class="hlt">burned</span> sites, but also by printing method, which allows a semiquantitative assessment of the colonization of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Simultaneously, investigation of bacterial contamination in the external environment of the department is carried out and the colonization of nursing staff is investigated. In all isolated strains the sensitivity to antibiotics is examined; this is significant from the point of view of current knowledge about therapeutic possibilities and for the antibiotic policy. The typing of bacterial strains makes possible to determine their epidemiological markers, and thus to investigate their spread within the department. The most frequent isolate is S. aureus and the prevalence of MRSA is relatively high. Among gramnegative rods the strains of P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae are most often isolated. Various typing methods revealed endemic spread of particular strains of rarely isolated species (E. agglomerans, S. marcescens, A. baumannii, etc.). PMID:9949545</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vránková, J; Bendová, E; Königová, R; Broz, L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11996857"> <span id="translatedtitle">Allogeneic skin substitutes applied to <span class="hlt">burns</span> patients.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Early re-surfacing of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds remains the ideal but is limited by the availability of skin graft donor sites. Cultured grafts overcome these problems and autologous keratinocytes can be grown in culture and placed on a dermal substitute, but this results in delay and requires two operations. We developed an organotypic skin substitute, which achieves cover in one procedure, and have previously found allogeneic cell survival up to 2.5 years after grafting onto clean elective wounds (tattoo removal). Here, we report a short series using the same model applied to <span class="hlt">burns</span> patients with less than 20% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> affected. The skin substitutes consisted of allogeneic dermal fibroblasts embedded in a collagen gel overlain with allogeneic epidermal keratinocytes, and were grafted to patients with tangentially excised <span class="hlt">burns</span>. A side-by-side comparison with meshed split-thickness autografts was performed. No grafts became infected. The allogeneic skin substitute showed little effective take at 1 week, and by 2 weeks only small islands of keratinocytes survived. These sites were subsequently covered with meshed split-thickness autograft, which took well. It is concluded that further development of this model is needed to overcome the hostile wound bed seen in <span class="hlt">burns</span> patients. PMID:11996857</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nanchahal, J; Dover, R; Otto, W R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5293568"> <span id="translatedtitle">Macular pucker following accidental laser <span class="hlt">burn</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A case of an accidental exposure to a high intensity Q-switched infrared laser beam is described. A paramacular <span class="hlt">burn</span>, splinter hemorrhages on the disc margin, and vitreous hemorrhage were the initial findings. Later, a paramacular pucker developed, causing reduction in visual acuity to 6/12. Microvascular accident on the disc margin is assumed to be the cause of a paracentral scotoma located fairly far from the image <span class="hlt">area</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Glovinsky, Y.; Regenbogen, L.; Bartov, E.; Blumenthal, M.; Moisseieve, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BGD.....7.4089C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from soil of <span class="hlt">burned</span> grassland savannah of central Africa</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Grassland savannah ecosystems subject to frequent fires are considered to have an almost neutral carbon balance, as the C released during <span class="hlt">burning</span> mostly balance the C fixed by the photosynthetic process. However, <span class="hlt">burning</span> might modify the net soil-atmosphere exchange of GHGs in the post <span class="hlt">burning</span> phase so that the radiative balance of the site might shift from neutrality. In the present study the impact of fire on soil fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O was investigated in a grassland savannah (Congo Brazzaville) where high frequency <span class="hlt">burning</span> is the typical management form of the region. An <span class="hlt">area</span> was preserved for one season from <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burning</span> and was used as "unburned" treatment. Two field campaigns were carried on at different time length from the fire event, 1 month, in the middle of the dry season, and 8 months after, at the end of the growing season. CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes, as well as several soil parameters, were measured in each campaign from <span class="hlt">burned</span> and unburned plots. Rain events were simulated at each campaign to evaluate magnitude and length of the generated GHG flux pulses. In laboratory experiments, on soil samples from the two treatments, microbial biomass, net N mineralization, net nitrification, N2O, NO and CO2 emissions were analyzed in function of soil water and/or temperature variations. Results showed that fire had a significant effect on GHG fluxes but the effect was transient, as after 8 months differences between treatments were no longer significant. One month after <span class="hlt">burning</span> CO2 soil emissions were significantly lower in the <span class="hlt">burned</span> plots, CH4 fluxes were dominated by net emissions rather than net consumption in the unburned <span class="hlt">area</span> and fire shifted the CH4 flux distribution towards more negative values. No significant effect of fire was observed in the field on N2O fluxes. It was assumed that the low water content was the main limiting factor as in fact laboratory data showed that only above 75% of water saturation, N2O emissions increased sharply and more strongly in the soil from <span class="hlt">burned</span> plots. This soil water content was hardly reached in the field even in the watered plots. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> also stimulated NO production in the laboratory, which was more evident at low water content. Differently from N2O, 25% of water saturation was sufficient to significantly stimulate CO2 production in the laboratory and rain simulation in the field stimulated soil respiration. However in the laboratory the highest fluxes were measured in <span class="hlt">burned</span> soil whereas in the field the opposite was observed. Increasing the incubation temperature from 25 °C to 37 °C affected negatively microbial growth and activities (mineralization and nitrification) but stimulated gas production (N2O and CO2). Overall, data indicate that fire would have a reductive or null impact on soil GHG emissions in savannah sites presenting similar soil characteristics (acidic, well drained, nutrient poor) and land management (high fire frequency).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Castaldi, S.; de Grandcourt, A.; Rasile, A.; Skiba, U.; Valentini, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20657105"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prosthodontist contribution in treating post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> hypertrophic facial scars.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The formation of hypertrophic scars is common following healing of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound, particularly in children. The face is one of the <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the body most frequently affected by <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Scar formation as a result of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds leads to contraction of the formed granulation tissue, which causes both aesthetic and functional impairment for the patient. Scarring has major psychological and physical repercussions. Scarring on the face and visible regions of the body can be very distressing for the patient. Prevention of scars involves early and continuous use of a compressive orthesis. However, their efficacy is often limited to the facial region because of the contours of this <span class="hlt">area</span> of body. This paper describes a clinical case of post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> hypertrophic scars treated with silicone gel sheeting applied with pressure under