Sample records for annual area burned

  1. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Donovan S.; Morgan, Penelope; Kolden, Crystal A.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Smith, Alistair M. S.

    2014-05-01

    The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall ? = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day.

  2. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity analyses of key model parameters caused estimates of global burned area increases from small fires to vary between 24% and 54%. Biomass burning carbon emissions increased by 35% at a global scale when small fires were included in GFED3, from 1.9 Pg C/yr to 2.5 Pg C/yr. The contribution of tropical forest fires to year-to-year variability in carbon fluxes increased because small fires amplified emissions from Central America, South America and Southeast Asia-regions where drought stress and burned area varied considerably from year to year in response to El Nino-Southern Oscillation and other climate modes.

  3. Burns.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Deborah L

    2013-06-01

    Burns are a leading cause of accidental injury and death. The American Burn Association statistics from 2001 to 2010 show that 68% of burns happen at home, 44% are from fires/flames, and 60% to 70% happen to white men. Smoke inhalation is the leading cause of adult death caused by fires. A patient with a 78% total body surface area burn has a 50% chance of survival. Burn injuries are described in terms of causative agents, depth, and severity. Crucial treatments for people with burns include assessment, stabilization, transfer to a burn unit, and fluid resuscitation. PMID:23692944

  4. Relation of surface climate and burned area in Yellowstone National Park

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R BALLINGJR; Grant A. Meyer; Stephen G. Wells

    1992-01-01

    Bailing, R.C., Jr., Meyer, G.A. and Wells, S.G., 1992. Relation of surface climate and burned area in Yellowstone National Park. Agric. For. Meteorol., 60: 285-293. The statistical relation between annual burn area in Yellowstone National Park and local climate conditions is established over the past century. Our analyses reveal that the summer Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) can account for

  5. Fire frequency, area burned, and severity: A quantitative approach to defining a normal fire year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lutz, J.A.; Key, C.H.; Kolden, C.A.; Kane, J.T.; van Wagtendonk, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Fire frequency, area burned, and fire severity are important attributes of a fire regime, but few studies have quantified the interrelationships among them in evaluating a fire year. Although area burned is often used to summarize a fire season, burned area may not be well correlated with either the number or ecological effect of fires. Using the Landsat data archive, we examined all 148 wildland fires (prescribed fires and wildfires) >40 ha from 1984 through 2009 for the portion of the Sierra Nevada centered on Yosemite National Park, California, USA. We calculated mean fire frequency and mean annual area burned from a combination of field- and satellite-derived data. We used the continuous probability distribution of the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) values to describe fire severity. For fires >40 ha, fire frequency, annual area burned, and cumulative severity were consistent in only 13 of 26 years (50 %), but all pair-wise comparisons among these fire regime attributes were significant. Borrowing from long-established practice in climate science, we defined "fire normals" to be the 26 year means of fire frequency, annual area burned, and the area under the cumulative probability distribution of dNBR. Fire severity normals were significantly lower when they were aggregated by year compared to aggregation by area. Cumulative severity distributions for each year were best modeled with Weibull functions (all 26 years, r2 ??? 0.99; P < 0.001). Explicit modeling of the cumulative severity distributions may allow more comprehensive modeling of climate-severity and area-severity relationships. Together, the three metrics of number of fires, size of fires, and severity of fires provide land managers with a more comprehensive summary of a given fire year than any single metric.

  6. Impact of burned area on African seasonal climate in regional modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sales, F.; Xue, Y.; Okin, G. S.

    2013-12-01

    The WRF/SSiB2 model has been employed on a series of regional simulations to investigate the impact of burned areas associated with wildfires on African seasonal climate and surface energy balances. Burned areas are characterized by deposits of charcoal and ash, removal of vegetation, and alteration of the vegetation structure. Burned area information for the experiments was based on the MODIS burn date maps with an 8-day interval on 500m spatial resolution. Monthly burned area maps averaged over 2000-2011, and aggregated from the MODIS resolution, were created and incorporated in the regional model (50km resolution), whereby vegetation was reduced according to the percentage of grid cell area burned and ground albedo was reduced to 0.1 for a 10-day period after burning to reproduce the ground darkening associated with the amount of grid cell burned. Control (unburned) and burned preliminary experiments were carried out between 01 Oct 2010 and 31 Sep 2011 and compared to examine the sensitivity of different wildfire parameters on precipitation and surface fluxes; including sensitivity to ground albedo recovery time and vegetation resistance to fire. Vegetation cover, greenness, and LAI information were taken from the Fourier-Adjusted, Sensor and Solar zenith angle corrected, Interpolated, Reconstructed data set. Analysis of annual burned area maps revealed extensive burning, especially in the Sahel and between latitudes 0° and 15°S (Central Africa), with both regions exhibiting 50% or more of the area of a grid cell burned. Most of burning in Sahel occurred between November and February, while in the southern hemisphere it took place between June and September. Extensive burning was also found along eastern South Africa and Mozambique between 25° and 40° W, where some grid cells were 10% to 30% burned in August and September. Preliminary results indicated that the WRF/SSiB2 is sensitive to the land degradation associated with the burned areas. Areas with widespread burning experienced a reduction in evapotranspiration in the Sahel especially during the pre-monsoon months, and during monsoon withdrawal. In the Central and Southern Africa, the largest difference took place between January and April, and later August. In general, the impact on sensible heat flux was of opposite sign and significantly weaker than that of evapotranspiration in the Sahel. Changes to surface albedo in the model depends on two distinct processes; ground darkening associated with burning (direct effect) and changes in soil moisture associated with precipitation variability (indirect effect). The patterns of precipitation change resulting from burn degradation were complex, with areas of positive and negative changes within both regions. On average, annual precipitation was reduced in the Sahel by approximately 3.5%. Most of the change occurred during the monsoon season. In contrast, Central and Southern Africa experienced increase in rainfall in the austral winter but decrease in the summer months, resulting in nearly no annual change. Results also revealed that vegetation resistance to fire and ground albedo recovery time are important factors that must be accounted for to realistically simulate the impact of burned area in Africa.

  7. Area burned in the western United States is unaffected by recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Hart, Sarah J; Schoennagel, Tania; Veblen, Thomas T; Chapman, Teresa B

    2015-04-01

    In the western United States, mountain pine beetles (MPBs) have killed pine trees across 71,000 km(2) of forest since the mid-1990s, leading to widespread concern that abundant dead fuels may increase area burned and exacerbate fire behavior. Although stand-level fire behavior models suggest that bark beetle-induced tree mortality increases flammability of stands by changing canopy and forest floor fuels, the actual effect of an MPB outbreak on subsequent wildfire activity remains widely debated. To address this knowledge gap, we superimposed areas burned on areas infested by MPBs for the three peak years of wildfire activity since 2002 across the western United States. Here, we show that the observed effect of MPB infestation on the area burned in years of extreme fire appears negligible at broad spatial extents. Contrary to the expectation of increased wildfire activity in recently infested red-stage stands, we found no difference between observed area and expected area burned in red-stage or subsequent gray-stage stands during three peak years of wildfire activity, which account for 46% of area burned during the 2002-2013 period. Although MPB infestation and fire activity both independently increased in conjunction with recent warming, our results demonstrate that the annual area burned in the western United States has not increased in direct response to bark beetle activity. Therefore, policy discussions should focus on societal adaptation to the effects of recent increases in wildfire activity related to increased drought severity. PMID:25831541

  8. Impact of burned areas on the northern African seasonal climate from the perspective of regional modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sales, F.; Xue, Y.; Okin, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents an investigation of the impact of burned areas on the surface energy balance and monthly precipitation in the northern Africa as simulated by a state-of-the-art regional model. Mean burned area fraction derived from MODIS approximate date of burning product were implemented in a set of 1-year long WRF/NMM/SSiB2 model simulations. Vegetation cover fraction and LAI were degraded daily based on mean burned area fraction and on the survival rate for each vegetation land cover type. Additionally, ground darkening associated with wildfire-induced ash and charcoal deposition was temporarily imposed through lower ground albedo for a period of 10 days after burning. In general, wildfire-induced vegetation and ground degradation increased surface albedo by exposing the brighter bare ground of the region, which in turn caused a decrease in surface net radiation and evapotranspiration in northern sub-saharan Africa. A decrease in atmospheric moisture flux convergence was simulated in the burned area experiments, which plays a dominant role in reducing precipitation over the area, especially in the months preceding the West African monsoon onset. The areas with largest impacts were those covered by forests and savanna, where annual precipitation decreased by 4.2% and 3.6%, respectively. This study suggests the cooling and drying of atmosphere induced by burned areas led to strengthening of subsidence during pre-onset and weakening of upward motion during onset and mature stages of the monsoon leading to a waning of convective instability and precipitation. Monthly vertical wind over the area showed a strengthening of downward motion in winter and spring seasons, and weakening of upward movement during the rainy months. Furthermore, precipitation energy analysis revealed that most of precipitation decrease originated from convective events, especially for those with daily precipitation rates above 2.0 mm day-1, which substantiates the hypothesis of convective instability decreasing resultant from burned-area-induced land degradation.

  9. Clinical Application and Efficacy of MEBT\\/MEBO in Treating Deep Large Area Burns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Chuanji; Hu Jianwu; Yan Hongmei; Li Rongchun

    (Abstract)Fifty-one cases of deep large area burn were treated with MEBT\\/MEBO. The largest burn area was 96%, average burn area 60.78%, average third degree burn area 36.47%. Among them, 23 cases were burned by fire, accounted for 45.09%; 24 cases scalded, accounted for 47.05% and 4 cases burned by chemicals, accounted for 7.84%. A comprehensive analysis of the pathophysiological changes

  10. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-07

    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  11. Impact of burned areas on the northern African seasonal climate from the perspective of regional modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sales, Fernando; Xue, Yongkang; Okin, Gregory S.

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the impact of burned areas on the surface energy balance and monthly precipitation in northern Africa as simulated by a state-of-the-art regional model. Mean burned area fraction derived from MODIS date of burning product was implemented in a set of 1-year long WRF-NMM/SSiB2 model simulations. Vegetation cover fraction and LAI were degraded daily based on mean burned area fraction and on the survival rate for each vegetation land cover type. Additionally, ground darkening associated with wildfire-induced ash and charcoal deposition was imposed through lower ground albedo for a period after burning. In general, wildfire-induced vegetation and ground condition deterioration increased mean surface albedo by exposing the brighter bare ground, which in turn caused a decrease in monthly surface net radiation. On average, the wildfire-season albedo increase was approximately 6.3 % over the Sahel. The associated decrease in surface available energy caused a drop in surface sensible heat flux to the atmosphere during the dry months of winter and early spring, which gradually transitioned to a more substantial decrease in surface evapotranspiration in April and May that lessened throughout the rainy season. Overall, post-fire land condition deterioration resulted in a decrease in precipitation over sub-Saharan Africa, associated with the weakening of the West African monsoon progression through the region. A decrease in atmospheric moisture flux convergence was observed in the burned area simulations, which played a dominant role in reducing precipitation in the area, especially in the months preceding the monsoon onset. The areas with the largest precipitation impact were those covered by savannas and rainforests, where annual precipitation decreased by 3.8 and 3.3 %, respectively. The resulting precipitation decrease and vegetation deterioration caused a drop in gross primary productivity in the region, which was strongest in late winter and early spring. This study suggests the cooling and drying of atmosphere induced by burned areas caused the strengthening of subsidence during pre-onset and weakening of upward atmospheric motion during onset and mature stages of the monsoon leading to a waning of convective instability and precipitation. Monthly mid-tropospheric vertical wind showed a strengthening of downward motion in winter and spring seasons, and weakening of upward movement during the rainy months. Furthermore, precipitation energy analysis revealed that most of precipitation decrease originated from convective events, which supports the hypothesis of reduced convective instability due to wildfires.

  12. Burned area forecasting using past burned area records and Southern Oscillation Index for tropical Africa (1981–1999)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Riaño; J. A. Moreno Ruiz; J. Barón Martínez; S. L. Ustin

    2007-01-01

    An 18-year time series of monthly NOAA-AVHRR Pathfinder Land burned area was analyzed for the region of tropical Africa, from July 1981 to June 1999. The transition period between NOAA-11 and NOAA-14 platforms from July 1993 to June 1995 was not included due to missing and outlier data. Stability of the time series was addressed for the input variables in

  13. Estimation of Biomass Burned Areas Using Multiple-Satellite-Observed Active Fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoyang Zhang; Shobha Kondragunta; Brad Quayle

    2011-01-01

    Biomass burning releases a significant amount of trace gases and aerosols into the atmosphere and affects cli- mate change, carbon cycle, and air quality. Accurate estimates of emissions depend strongly on the calculations of burned areas. Here, we present an algorithm that is used to derive burned areas by blending active fire observations from multiple satellites which are provided in

  14. [Estimating Biomass Burned Areas from Multispectral Dataset Detected by Multiple-Satellite].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Chen, Liang-fu; Li, Shen-shen; Tao, Jin-hua; Su, Lin

    2015-03-01

    Biomass burning makes up an important part of both trace gases and particulate matter emissions, which can efficiently degrade air quality and reduce visibility, destabilize the global climate system at regional to global scales. Burned area is one of the primary parameters necessary to estimate emissions, and considered to be the largest source of error in the emission inventory. Satellite-based fire observations can offer a reliable source of fire occurrence data on regional and global scales, a variety of sensors have been used to detect and map fires in two general approaches: burn scar mapping and active fire detection. However, both of the two approaches have limitations. In this article, we explore the relationship between hotspot data and burned area for the Southeastern United States, where a significant amount of biomass burnings from both prescribed and wild fire took place. MODIS (Moderate resolution imaging spectrometer) data, which has high temporal-resolution, can be used to monitor ground biomass. burning in time and provided hot spot data in this study. However, pixel size of MODIS hot spot can't stand for the real ground burned area. Through analysis of the variation of vegetation band reflectance between pre- and post-burn, we extracted the burned area from Landsat-5 TM (Thematic Mapper) images by using the differential normalized burn ratio (dNBR) which is based on TM band4 (0.84 ?m) and TM band 7(2.22 ?m) data. We combined MODIS fire hot spot data and Landsat-5 TM burned scars data to build the burned area estimation model, results showed that the linear correlation coefficient is 0.63 and the relationships vary as a function of vegetation cover. Based on the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), we built burned area estimation model over different vegetation cover, and got effective burned area per fire pixel, values for forest, grassland, shrub, cropland and wetland are 0.69, 1.27, 0.86, 0.72 and 0.94 km2 respectively. We validated the burned area estimates by using the ground survey data from National interagency Fire Center (NIFC), our results are more close to the ground survey data than burned area from Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) and MODIS burned area product (MCD45), which omitted many small prescribed fires. We concluded that our model can provide more accurate burned area parameters for developing fire emission inventory, and be better for estimating emissions from biomass burning. PMID:26117890

  15. Forest Understory Fire in the Brazilian Amazon in ENSO and Non-ENSO Years: Area Burned and Committed Carbon Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alencar, A.; Nepstad, D.; Ver-Diaz, M. Del. C.

    2004-01-01

    "Understory fires" that burn the floor of standing forests are one of the most important types of forest impoverishment in the Amazon, especially during the severe droughts of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes. However, we are aware of no estimates of the areal extent of these fires for the Brazilian Amazon and, hence, of their contribution to Amazon carbon fluxes to the atmosphere. We calculated the area of forest understory fires for the Brazilian Amazon region during an El Nino (1998) and a non El Nino (1995) year based on forest fire scars mapped with satellite images for three locations in eastern and southern Amazon, where deforestation is concentrated. The three study sites represented a gradient of both forest types and dry season severity. The burning scar maps were used to determine how the percentage of forest that burned varied with distance from agricultural clearings. These spatial functions were then applied to similar forest/climate combinations outside of the study sites to derive an initial estimate for the Brazilian Amazon. Ninety-one percent of the forest area that burned in the study sites was within the first kilometer of a clearing for the non ENSO year and within the first four kilometers for the ENSO year. The area of forest burned by understory forest fire during the severe drought (ENSO) year (3.9 millions of hectares) was 13 times greater than the area burned during the average rainfall year (0.2 million hectares), and twice the area of annual deforestation rate. Dense forest was, proportionally, the forest area most affected by understory fires during the El Nino year, while understory fires were concentrated in transitional forests during the year of average rainfall. Our estimate of aboveground tree biomass killed by fire ranged from 0.06 Pg to 0.38 Pg during the ENSO and from 0,004 Pg to 0,024 Pg during the non ENSO.

  16. Burns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the following symptoms related to a burn: Fever Puss-like or foul-smelling drainage Excessive swelling Redness ... avoid hot substances and chemicals. If you have young children, use safety latches in your home When ...

  17. Burns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that could improve your hand function. Therapy and Rehabilitation Superficial burns generally will not need any formal ... with other injuries may require extensive therapy and rehabilitation. Your hand surgeon will coordinate with a therapist ...

  18. Remote sensing-based estimates of annual and seasonal emissions from crop residue burning in the contiguous United States.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Jessica L

    2011-01-01

    Crop residue burning is an extensive agricultural practice in the contiguous United States (CONUS). This analysis presents the results of a remote sensing-based study of crop residue burning emissions in the CONUS for the time period 2003-2007 for the atmospheric species of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2), PM2.5 (particulate matter [PM] < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter), and PM10 (PM < or = 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter). Cropland burned area and associated crop types were derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products. Emission factors, fuel load, and combustion completeness estimates were derived from the scientific literature, governmental reports, and expert knowledge. Emissions were calculated using the bottom-up approach in which emissions are the product of burned area, fuel load, and combustion completeness for each specific crop type. On average, annual crop residue burning in the CONUS emitted 6.1 Tg of CO2, 8.9 Gg of CH4, 232.4 Gg of CO, 10.6 Gg of NO2, 4.4 Gg of SO2, 20.9 Gg of PM2.5, and 28.5 Gg of PM10. These emissions remained fairly consistent, with an average interannual variability of crop residue burning emissions of +/- 10%. The states with the highest emissions were Arkansas, California, Florida, Idaho, Texas, and Washington. Most emissions were clustered in the southeastern United States, the Great Plains, and the Pacific Northwest. Air quality and carbon emissions were concentrated in the spring, summer, and fall, with an exception because of winter harvesting of sugarcane in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. Sugarcane, wheat, and rice residues accounted for approximately 70% of all crop residue burning and associated emissions. Estimates of CO and CH4 from agricultural waste burning by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were 73 and 78% higher than the CO and CH4 emission estimates from this analysis, respectively. This analysis also showed that crop residue burning emissions are a minor source of CH4 emissions (< 1%) compared with the CH4 emissions from other agricultural sources, specifically enteric fermentation, manure management, and rice cultivation. PMID:21305885

  19. Topical Area: MFE Title: Burning Plasma Experimental Options______________________________ Description The options for a Next Step Burning Plasma Experiment are defined by the overall strategic

    E-print Network

    Page 1 Topical Area: MFE Title: Burning Plasma Experimental Options______________________________ · Description The options for a Next Step Burning Plasma Experiment are defined by the overall strategic but have not garnered the required scientific and financial support to proceed with construction

  20. Relationships between Human Population Density and Burned Area at Continental and Global Scales

    PubMed Central

    Bistinas, Ioannis; Oom, Duarte; Sá, Ana C. L.; Harrison, Sandy P.; Prentice, I. Colin; Pereira, José M. C.

    2013-01-01

    We explore the large spatial variation in the relationship between population density and burned area, using continental-scale Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) based on 13 years of satellite-derived burned area maps from the global fire emissions database (GFED) and the human population density from the gridded population of the world (GPW 2005). Significant relationships are observed over 51.5% of the global land area, and the area affected varies from continent to continent: population density has a significant impact on fire over most of Asia and Africa but is important in explaining fire over < 22% of Europe and Australia. Increasing population density is associated with both increased and decreased in fire. The nature of the relationship depends on land-use: increasing population density is associated with increased burned are in rangelands but with decreased burned area in croplands. Overall, the relationship between population density and burned area is non-monotonic: burned area initially increases with population density and then decreases when population density exceeds a threshold. These thresholds vary regionally. Our study contributes to improved understanding of how human activities relate to burned area, and should contribute to a better estimate of atmospheric emissions from biomass burning. PMID:24358108

  1. Assessing the response of area burned to changing climate in western boreal North America using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balshi, M. S.; McGuire, A.D.; Duffy, P.; Flannigan, M.; Walsh, J.; Melillo, J.

    2009-01-01

    Fire is a common disturbance in the North American boreal forest that influences ecosystem structure and function. The temporal and spatial dynamics of fire are likely to be altered as climate continues to change. In this study, we ask the question: how will area burned in boreal North America by wildfire respond to future changes in climate? To evaluate this question, we developed temporally and spatially explicit relationships between air temperature and fuel moisture codes derived from the Canadian Fire Weather Index System to estimate annual area burned at 2.5?? (latitude ?? longitude) resolution using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS) approach across Alaska and Canada. Burned area was substantially more predictable in the western portion of boreal North America than in eastern Canada. Burned area was also not very predictable in areas of substantial topographic relief and in areas along the transition between boreal forest and tundra. At the scale of Alaska and western Canada, the empirical fire models explain on the order of 82% of the variation in annual area burned for the period 1960-2002. July temperature was the most frequently occurring predictor across all models, but the fuel moisture codes for the months June through August (as a group) entered the models as the most important predictors of annual area burned. To predict changes in the temporal and spatial dynamics of fire under future climate, the empirical fire models used output from the Canadian Climate Center CGCM2 global climate model to predict annual area burned through the year 2100 across Alaska and western Canada. Relative to 1991-2000, the results suggest that average area burned per decade will double by 2041-2050 and will increase on the order of 3.5-5.5 times by the last decade of the 21st century. To improve the ability to better predict wildfire across Alaska and Canada, future research should focus on incorporating additional effects of long-term and successional vegetation changes on area burned to account more fully for interactions among fire, climate, and vegetation dynamics. ?? 2009 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Fatal burns in Manipal area: a 10 year study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar; Kanth, Sarita

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate the causes and the magnitude of the fatal burn injuries retrospectively. An analysis of autopsy records revealed 19.4% cases of burn injuries amongst the total autopsies done over 10years period (1993-2002) in the mortuary of the department of Forensic Medicine of Kasturba medical College, Manipal. The majority of deaths (78.5%) occurred between 11 and 40years of age group with preponderance of females (74.8%). The flame burns were seen in 94.1% of the victims followed by scalds and electrical burns in 2.8% and 2.5% cases, respectively. The majority of burn incidents were accidental (75.8%) in nature followed by suicidal (11.5%) and homicidal (3.1%) deaths. The percentage of burn (TBSA) over 40% were observed in most of the cases (92.5%). The majority of deaths occurred within a week (69.87%) and most the victims died because of septicemia (50.9%). PMID:17046310

  3. Historical burn area in western Canadian peatlands and its relationship to fire weather indices

    E-print Network

    Turetsky, Merritt

    northern regions, yet their vulnerability to fire remains poorly understood. We used large-scale mapping perimeter maps to determine whether uplands burn more preferentially than peatlands. Burn area and ignition calculated for each fire event using the Canadian Fire Weather Index, including maximum air temperatures

  4. Nitrogen and sulfur emissions from the burning of forest products near large urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean A. Hegg; Lawrence F. Radke; Peter V. Hobbs; Charles A. Brock; Philip J. Riggan

    1987-01-01

    Airborne measurements of trace gases and particles in the smoke from a prescribed burn of forest products in the Los Angeles basin show significantly higher emissions of NO\\/sub X\\/, SOâ, and particulate NOâ⁻ than do measurements in smokes from the burning of biomass in rural areas. It is postulated that the high emissions are due to the revolatilization of previoulsy

  5. Automated Burned Area Delineation Using IRS AWiFS satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, J.; Kiranchand, T. R.; Rajashekar, G.; Jha, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    India is endowed with a rich forest cover. Over 21% of country's area is covered by forest of varied composition and structure. Out of 67.5 million ha of Indian forests, about 55% of the forest cover is being subjected to fires each year, causing an economic loss of over 440 crores of rupees apart from other ecological effects. Studies carried out by Forest Survey of India reveals that on an average 53% forest cover of the country is prone to fires and 6.17% of the forests are prone to severe fire damage. Forest Survey of India in a countrywide study in 1995 estimated that about 1.45 million hectares of forest are affected by fire annually. According to Forest Protection Division of the Ministry of Environment and Forest (GOI), 3.73 million ha of forests are affected by fire annually in India. Karnataka is one of the southern states of India extending in between latitude 110 30' and 180 25' and longitudes 740 10' and 780 35'. As per Forest Survey of India's State of Forest Report (SFR) 2009, of the total geographic area of 191791sq.km, the state harbors 38284 sq.km of recorded forest area. Major forest types occurring in the study area are tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen, tropical moist and dry deciduous forests along with tropical scrub and dry grasslands. Typical forest fire season in the study area is from February-May with a peak during March-April every year, though sporadic fire episodes occur in other parts of the year sq.km, the state harbors 38284 sq.km of recorded forest area. Major forest types occurring in the study area are tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen, tropical moist and dry deciduous forests along with tropical scrub and dry grasslands. Significant area of the deciduous forests, scrub and grasslands is prone to recurrent forest fires every year. In this study we evaluate the feasibility of burned area mapping over a large area (Karnataka state, India) using a semi-automated detection algorithm applied to medium resolution multi spectral data from the IRS AWiFS sensor. The method is intended to be used by non-specialist users for diagnostic rapid burnt area mapping.

  6. Diagnosis of aged prescribed burning plumes impacting an urban area.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangil; Kim, Hyeon K; Yan, Bo; Cobb, Charles E; Hennigan, Chris; Nichols, Sara; Chamber, Michael; Edgerton, Eric S; Jansen, John J; Hu, Yongtao; Zheng, Mei; Weber, Rodney J; Russell, Armistead G

    2008-03-01

    An unanticipated wind shift led to the advection of plumes from two prescribed burning sites that impacted Atlanta, GA, producing a heavy smoke event late in the afternoon on February 28, 2007. Observed PM2.5 concentrations increased to over 140 microg/m3 and O3 concentrations up to 30 ppb in a couple of hours, despite the late hour in February when photochemistry is less vigorous. A detailed investigation of PM2.5 chemical composition and source apportionment analysis showed that the increase in PM2.5 mass was driven mainly by organic carbon (OC). However, both results from source apportionment and an observed nonlinear relationship between OC and PM2.5 potassium (K) indicate that the increased OC was not due solely to primary emissions. Most of the OC was water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and was dominated by hydrophobic compounds. The data are consistent with large enhancements in isoprenoid (isoprene and monoterpenes) and other volatile organic compounds emitted from prescribed burning that led to both significant O3 and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production. Formation of oligomers from oxidation products of isoprenoid compounds or condensation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with multiple functional groups emitted during prescribed burning appears to be a major component of the secondary organic contributor of the SOA. The results from this study imply that enhanced emissions due to the fire itself and elevated temperature in the burning region should be considered in air quality models (e.g., receptor and emission-based models) to assess impacts of prescribed burning emissions on ambient air quality. PMID:18441785

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Burned Area Datasets in Canadian Boreal Forest in 2000

    PubMed Central

    Núñez-Casillas, Laia; Moreno-Ruiz, José Andrés

    2013-01-01

    The turn of the new millennium was accompanied by a particularly diverse group of burned area datasets from different sensors in the Canadian boreal forests, brought together in a year of low global fire activity. This paper provides an assessment of spatial and temporal accuracy, by means of a fire-by-fire comparison of the following: two burned area datasets obtained from SPOT-VEGETATION (VGT) imagery, a MODIS Collection 5 burned area dataset, and three different datasets obtained from NOAA-AVHRR. Results showed that burned area data from MODIS provided accurate dates of burn but great omission error, partially caused by calibration problems. One of the VGT-derived datasets (L3JRC) represented the largest number of fire sites in spite of its great overall underestimation, whereas the GBA2000 dataset achieved the best burned area quantification, both showing delayed and very variable fire timing. Spatial accuracy was comparable between the 5?km and the 1?km AVHRR-derived datasets but was remarkably lower in the 8?km dataset leading, us to conclude that at higher spatial resolutions, temporal accuracy was lower. The probable methodological and contextual causes of these differences were analyzed in detail. PMID:23818817

  8. Modelling fire frequency and area burned across phytoclimatic regions in Spain using reanalysis data and the Canadian Fire Weather Index System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedia, J.; Herrera, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

    2013-09-01

    We develop fire occurrence and burned area models in peninsular Spain, an area of high variability in climate and fuel types, for the period 1990-2008. We based the analysis on a phytoclimatic classification aiming to the stratification of the territory into homogeneous units in terms of climatic and fuel type characteristics, allowing to test model performance under different climatic and fuel conditions. We used generalized linear models (GLM) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) as modelling algorithms and temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and wind speed, taken from the ERA-Interim reanalysis, as well as the components of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System as predictors. We also computed the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) as an additional predictor for the models of burned area. We found two contrasting fire regimes in terms of area burned and number of fires: one characterized by a bimodal annual pattern, characterizing the Nemoral and Oro-boreal phytoclimatic types, and another one exhibiting an unimodal annual cycle, with the fire season concentrated in the summer months in the Mediterranean and Arid regions. The fire occurrence models attained good skill in most of the phytoclimatic zones considered, yielding in some zones notably high correlation coefficients between the observed and modelled inter-annual fire frequencies. Total area burned also exhibited a high dependence on the meteorological drivers, although their ability to reproduce the observed annual burned area time series was poor in most cases. We identified temperature and some FWI system components as the most important explanatory variables, and also SPEI in some of the burned area models, highlighting the adequacy of the FWI system for fire modelling applications and leaving the door opened to the development a more complex modelling framework based on these predictors. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential usefulness of ERA-Interim reanalysis data for the reconstruction of historical fire-climate relationships at the scale of analysis. Fire frequency predictions may provide a preferable basis for past fire history reconstruction, long-term monitoring and the assessment of future climate impacts on fire regimes across regions, posing several advantages over burned area as response variable.

  9. 78 FR 1833 - Annual Surveys in the Manufacturing Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ...121017555-2688-01] Annual Surveys in the Manufacturing Area AGENCY: Bureau of the Census...conducting the 2013 Annual Surveys in the Manufacturing Area. The 2013 Annual Surveys consist...CONTACT: Mendel D. Gayle, Chief, Manufacturing and Construction Division at...

  10. MODIS-Landsat data fusion for continental scale burned area mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    Satellite data have been used to monitor fire for more than two decades using computer algorithms that detect the location of active fires at the time of satellite overpass, and in the last decade using burned area mapping algorithms that map the spatial extent of the areas affected by fires. Until the successful launch of the polar-orbiting NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors there were no environmental satellite systems with dedicated fire monitoring capabilities. The MODIS design includes bands specifically selected for fire detection and MODIS data are being used to systematically generate the daily global 1km active fire and the monthly 500m burned area products. However, neither MODIS product can detect fires reliably at the scale of 10's of meters. The recent U.S. free Landsat data policy now provides the opportunity for continental to global scale Landsat 30m resolution processing. This paper presents a multi-temporal methodology to fuse the MODIS active fire and burned area products with Landsat data to map burned areas at 30m on a temporally rolling basis. To demonstrate the fusion methodology, 30m burned area maps of the conterminous United States (CONUS) are generated using the freely available Web Enabled Landsat (WELD) ETM+ mosaics (http://landsat.usgs.gov/WELD.php). Validation is conducted by systematic comparison with the fire perimeter vectors provided by the USGS Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. Prospects for future developments and continental application are discussed. The presented methodology demonstrates the potential for the fusion of the planned NPP/NPOESS VIIRS active fire product with reflectance data sensed by the planned Landsat Data Continuity missions.

  11. Modeling the Spatial Pattern of Wildfire Ignition and Burned Area in Southern Californian Mediterranean Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faivre, N.; Jin, Y.; Goulden, M.; Randerson, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    Wildfire ignition requires a combination of an ignition source and suitable weather and fuel conditions. Models of fire occurrence and burned area provide a good understanding of the physical and climatic factors that constrain and promote fire spread and recurrence, but information on how humans influence ignition patterns and burned area is still lacking at a scale compatible with integrated fire management. We first investigated the relative importance of the physical, climatic, and human factors regulating ignition probability across Southern California. A 30-year exploratory analysis of one-way relationships indicated that distance to roads, distance to housing, and topographic slope were the major determinants of ignition occurrence and frequency. A logistic regression model explained 70% of spatial variability in ignition occurrence (presence or absence of an ignition in each 3 km grid cell) whereas a Poisson-type regression model explained 45% of the spatial variability in ignition frequency in national forests across Southern California. Predicted ignition probability was a key indicator of the spatial variability of burned area, explaining approximately 9% of the variance for Santa Ana fires and 21% of the variance for non-Santa Ana fires across Southern California. In a second step we combined the previous ignition modeling framework with other data sources to model the spatial distribution of burned area. Preliminary results showed that average wind speed alone explained approximately 30% of the spatial variation in burned area from Santa Ana fires. Further integration of the effects of fuel continuity, moisture, and accumulation and their interaction with wind speed and direction improved our spatial assessment of burned area risk in Southern California. Our results may have implications for strategic fire management in the region.

  12. Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Dan [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2008-11-03

    The Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area is a 12,718 acre complex located in Douglas County, Washington. Four distinct management units make up the area: Bridgeport, Chester Butte, Dormaier and Sagebrush Flat. The four Units are located across a wide geographic area within Douglas County. The Units are situated roughly along a north/south line from Bridgeport in the north to the Douglas/Grant county line in the south, 60 miles away. The wildlife area was established to conserve and enhance shrubsteppe habitat for the benefit shrubsteppe obligate and dependent wildlife species. In particular, the Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area is managed to promote the recovery of three state-listed species: Columbian sharp-tailed grouse (threatened), greater sage grouse (threatened) and the pygmy rabbit (endangered). The US Fish and Wildlife Service also list the pygmy rabbit as endangered. Wildlife area staff seeded 250 acres of old agricultural fields located on the Sagebrush Flat, Dormaier and Chester Butte units. This has been a three project to reestablish high quality shrubsteppe habitat on fields that had either been abandoned (Dormaier) or were dominated by non-native grasses. A mix of 17 native grasses and forbs, most of which were locally collected and grown, was used. First year maintenance included spot spraying Dalmatian toadflax on all sites and mowing annual weeds to reduce competition. Photo points were established and will be integral to long term monitoring and evaluation. Additional monitoring and evaluation will come from existing vegetation transects. This year weed control efforts included spot treatment of noxious weeds, particularly Dalmatian toadflax, in previously restored fields on the Bridgeport Unit (150 acres). Spot treatment also took place within fields scheduled for restoration (40 acres) and in areas where toadflax infestations are small and relatively easily contained. Where toadflax is so widespread that chemical treatment would be impractical, we use the bioagent Mecinus janthinus, available through Professor Gary Piper of Washington State University. This year we released 4,000 M. janthinus on the Bridgeport Unit at 6 separate locations. Since 2002 we have released approximately 14,400 of these insects, 80% of these on the Bridgeport Unit. Additional weed control activities included mowing and spot spraying more than 32 miles of roads, cutting and removal of annual weeds within fenced deer exclosures. We upgraded the solar powered irrigation system that supplies water to a stand of water birch trees planted in 2002. Wildlife area staff designed and built a new solar array and installed a higher capacity pump. The increased capacity will ensure that these trees receive adequate water through the hot summer months and allow us to create at least one additional stand. This project is an important part in our effort to expand the available winter habitat for sharp-tailed grouse on the Bridgeport Unit. Maintenance of fences, parking areas and roads continued during throughout the year. Two parking areas, at Chester Butte and Bridgeport, were graded and additional gravel added. Roads on the Bridgeport Unit were graded and repaired following spring runoff. Trespass and dumping issues have increased in recent years on the Bridgeport Unit. To address these problems we constructed four steel gates at access points on this unit. Each gate is tubular steel attached to 8-inch diameter steel posts, 10 feet long that are cemented into the ground. Two gates allow access to BPA substation facilities and power-line right-of ways so placement, construction and locking issues had to be coordinated with BPA's Real Estate staff in Spokane. Environmental Compliance Documentation issues were addressed again this year. This process has the potential to cause delays the completion of projects within the fiscal year. With this in mind and an eye toward the future, we requested that several projects planned for the coming years be surveyed this year. Beginning in August of 2007, area staff worked with BPA staff to identify work elements

  13. Temporal variability in area burned for the province of Ontario, Canada, during the past 200 years inferred from tree rings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin P. Girardin; Jacques Tardif; Mike D. Flannigan

    2006-01-01

    Area burned variability in the province of Ontario, Canada, was inferred from 25 tree ring width chronologies covering A.D. 1781–1982 and distributed largely across the Boreal Shield. The area burned estimates account for 39.5% of the variance in the actual area burned recorded from 1917 to 1981 and were verified using a split sample calibration-verification scheme. The reconstruction showed that

  14. Analysis of Area Burned by Wildfires Through the Partitioning of a Probability

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Analysis of Area Burned by Wildfires Through the Partitioning of a Probability Model1 Ernesto Alvarado,2 David V. Sandberg,3 Bruce B. Bare4 Abstract An analysis of forest fires by using a partitioned. Two cases are presented: the two-parameter Weibull and the Truncated Shifted Pareto probability models

  15. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Wildland fire detection and burned area in the United States

    E-print Network

    Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Wildland fire detection and burned area in the United their major findings. The various ground-based reporting systems and the data quality on fire characteristics been shown to play an important role in the climate system (IPCC, 2007). Additionally, wildland fire

  16. Regionally adaptable dNBR-based algorithm for burned area mapping from MODIS data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Loboda; K. J. O'Neal; I. Csiszar

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in instrument design have led to considerable improvements in wildfire mapping at regional and global scales. Global and regional active fire and burned area products are currently available from various satellite sensors. While only global products can provide consistent assessments of fire activity at the global, hemispherical or continental scales, the efficiency of their performance differs in various

  17. EFFECTIVENESS OF DEBRIS FLOW MITIGATION METHODS IN BURNED AREAS Paul M. Santi1

    E-print Network

    (e-mail: jhiggins@mines.edu) 4 U.S. Geological Survey (e-mail: cannon@usgs.gov) 5 U.S. Geological were measured and sediment sources were identified for 46 recent debris-flow events. Graphs of debris can be generated in burned areas from smaller rainfall events than would be needed to generate flows

  18. Baseline Risk Assessment for the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits and Rubble Pit

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This document provides an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a description of the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (BRPs) and Rubble Pit (RP) unit. It also describes the objectives and scope of the baseline risk assessment (BRA).

  19. Burned area mapping system and fire detection system, based on neural networks and NOAA-AVHRR imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Al-Rawi; J. L. Casanova; A. Calle

    2001-01-01

    New automatic systems for mapping burned areas and for fire detection, based on neural networks, were developed. The Supervised ART-II artificial neural network was employed. These two newly developed systems were applied for mapping burned areas and for fire detection in the eastern part of Spain, which suffered damage during July 1994. Images from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

  20. Reconstructing long time series of burned areas in arid grasslands of southern Russia by satellite remote sensing

    E-print Network

    Radeloff, Volker C.

    Reconstructing long time series of burned areas in arid grasslands of southern Russia by satellite: AVHRR MODIS RESURS Landsat Burned area mapping Southern Russia Arid grasslands Grazing Fire, assessing fire regime changes is challenging, especially in grasslands because of high intra- and inter

  1. Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Evaluation of Uncertainties in Area Burned, Land Cover, and Fuel Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Soja, A. J.; Ivanova, G. A.; Petkov, A.; Ponomarev, E. I.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Wildfire is one of the main disturbance factors in the boreal zone of Russia. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russia vary substantially due to differences in ecosystem classification and mapping, burned area calculations, and estimates of fuel consumption. We examined uncertainties in different parameters used to estimate biomass burning emissions. Several fire datasets (Institute of Forest burned area product, MCD45, MCD64, MOD14/MYD14, official data) were compared to estimate uncertainties in area burned in Siberia. Area burned was found to differ significantly by data source, with satellite data being by an order of magnitude greater than ground-based data. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted on the basis of five land cover maps (GLC-2000, Globcover-2009, MODIS Collection 4 and 5 Global Land Cover, and the Digitized Ecosystem map of the Former Soviet Union) to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. The examination of land cover maps showed that estimates of relative proportion of fire by ecosystem type varied substantially for the same year from map to map. Fuel consumption remains one of the main uncertainties in estimates of biomass burning emissions in Siberia. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Global climate change is expected to result in increase of fire hazard and area burned, leading to impacts on global air quality and human health. Accurate emission estimates are required by air quality agencies to calculate local emissions and to develop strategies to mitigate negative smoke impacts. This research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, Fulbright Program, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

  2. The relationship between fire number and burned area in Antalya, Izmir and Mu?la regions in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ertu?rul, Mertol; Varol, Tu?rul

    2015-03-01

    This study focuses on Antalya, Izmir and Mu?la regions, where the highest number of fires were experienced within Turkey. The number and area relationship between the fires were examined together with large fires. Within whole Turkey, these three regions incorporated 55.24% of the area burned in large fires, in which over 300 ha of land was burned. In terms of the number of fires, Mu?la ranked first among these regions and was followed by Izmir. Apart from the number of fires, Antalya, however, had the highest burned area, both in all fires and in large fires. No significant relationship was found between the number and area of fires in all working areas. The fact that most fires were small and that the large fires burnt extremely big areas compared the area per fire, relationship between the number of fires and the area burned. However, when the fires burning an area of over 300 ha in Turkey were considered, there was a strong relationship between the number of fires and the area burned. PMID:25895262

  3. A Rule-Based System for Burned Area Mapping in Temperate and Tropical Regions Using NOAA\\/AVHRR Imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Pereira; Maria Vasconcelos; Adélia Sousa

    The feasibility of deriving a single classifier capable of mapping burned areas in Iberia and central Africa, using NOAA\\/AVHRR satellite imagery was investigated. A supervised classification approach based on the Classification and Regression Trees (CART) algorithm was used to classify a single date image from Africa and a multi-temporal composite from Iberia into three classes: burned, unburned, and cloud. A

  4. 18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. 141.51 Section 141.51 Conservation...REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 141.51 FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report....

  5. 18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. 141.51 Section 141.51 Conservation...REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 141.51 FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report....

  6. 18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. 141.51 Section 141.51 Conservation...REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 141.51 FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report....

  7. Continental scale 30m burned area mapping: demonstration and validation for the conterminous United States and Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Fire products derived from coarse (500m to 1km) spatial resolution satellite data have become an important source of information for the fire science and applications communities. There is however a demand for moderate spatial resolution burned area maps that are systematically generated at regional to global scale. This paper presents a multi-temporal methodology to fuse the MODIS 1km active fire product with Landsat data to map burned areas at 30m on a temporally rolling basis. A multistage mapping approach is used, with an initial per-pixel change detection on Landsat 30m time series to identify candidate burned areas. The candidate burned area objects are then either retained or discarded by comparison with contemporaneous MODIS active fire detections. Results are illustrated showing 30m burned area maps of the conterminous United States and Alaska for two years (2002 and 2008) generated from weekly Web Enabled Landsat (WELD) Landsat mosaics and daily Terra and Aqua MODIS active fire detections. Validation is conducted by systematic comparison with all the fire perimeter vectors provided by the USGS Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. The presented methodology pathfinds the use of the Landsat archive to contribute to a long term burned area data record. Prospects for future developments and global application are discussed.

  8. Daily burned area and carbon emissions from boreal fires in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veraverbeke, S.; Rogers, B. M.; Randerson, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Boreal fires burn carbon-rich organic soils, thereby releasing large quantities of trace gases and aerosols that influence atmospheric composition and climate. To better understand the factors regulating boreal fire emissions, we developed a statistical model of carbon consumption by fire for Alaska with a spatial resolution of 500 m and a temporal resolution of one day. We used the model to estimate variability in carbon emissions between 2001 and 2012. Daily burned area was mapped using imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer combined with perimeters from the Alaska Large Fire Database. Carbon consumption was calibrated using available field measurements from black spruce forests in Alaska. We built two nonlinear multiplicative models to separately predict above- and belowground carbon consumption by fire in response to environmental variables including elevation, day of burning within the fire season, pre-fire tree cover and the differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR). Higher belowground consumption occurred later in the season and for mid-elevation regions. Aboveground and belowground consumption also increased as a function of tree cover and the dNBR, suggesting a causal link between the processes regulating these two components of consumption. Between 2001 and 2012, the median fuel consumption was 2.48 kg C m-2 and the median pixel-based uncertainty (SD of prediction error) was 0.38 kg C m-2. There were considerable amounts of burning in other cover types than black spruce and consumption in pure black spruce stands was generally higher. Fuel consumption originated primarily from the belowground fraction (median = 2.30 kg C m-2 for all cover types and 2.63 kg C m-2 for pure black spruce stands). Total carbon emissions varied considerably from year to year, with the highest emissions occurring during 2004 (67 Tg C), 2005 (44 Tg C), 2009 (25 Tg C), and 2002 (16 Tg C) and a mean of 14 Tg C per year between 2001 and 2012. Our analysis highlights the importance of accounting for the spatial heterogeneity within fuels and consumption when extrapolating emissions in space and time. This data on daily burned area and emissions may be useful for in understanding controls and limits on fire growth, and predicting potential feedbacks of changing fire regimes.

  9. Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area 2008 Annual Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan

    2008-01-01

    The Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area is a 12,718 acre complex located in Douglas County, Washington. Four distinct management units make up the area: Bridgeport, Chester Butte, Dormaier and Sagebrush Flat. The four Units are located across a wide geographic area within Douglas County. The Units are situated roughly along a north\\/south line from Bridgeport in the north to the Douglas\\/Grant

  10. Semi-automated mapping of burned areas in semi-arid ecosystems using MODIS time-series imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardtke, Leonardo A.; Blanco, Paula D.; Valle, Héctor F. del; Metternicht, Graciela I.; Sione, Walter F.

    2015-06-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal patterns of burned areas at regional scales, provides a long-term perspective of fire processes and its effects on ecosystems and vegetation recovery patterns, and it is a key factor to design prevention and post-fire restoration plans and strategies. Remote sensing has become the most widely used tool to detect fire affected areas over large tracts of land (e.g., ecosystem, regional and global levels). Standard satellite burned area and active fire products derived from the 500-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) are available to this end. However, prior research caution on the use of these global-scale products for regional and sub-regional applications. Consequently, we propose a novel semi-automated algorithm for identification and mapping of burned areas at regional scale. The semi-arid Monte shrublands, a biome covering 240,000 km2 in the western part of Argentina, and exposed to seasonal bushfires was selected as the test area. The algorithm uses a set of the normalized burned ratio index products derived from MODIS time series; using a two-phased cycle, it firstly detects potentially burned pixels while keeping a low commission error (false detection of burned areas), and subsequently labels them as seed patches. Region growing image segmentation algorithms are applied to the seed patches in the second-phase, to define the perimeter of fire affected areas while decreasing omission errors (missing real burned areas). Independently-derived Landsat ETM+ burned-area reference data was used for validation purposes. Additionally, the performance of the adaptive algorithm was assessed against standard global fire products derived from MODIS Aqua and Terra satellites, total burned area (MCD45A1), the active fire algorithm (MOD14); and the L3JRC SPOT VEGETATION 1 km GLOBCARBON products. The correlation between the size of burned areas detected by the global fire products and independently-derived Landsat reference data ranged from R2 = 0.01-0.28, while our algorithm performed showed a stronger correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.96). Our findings confirm prior research calling for caution when using the global fire products locally or regionally.

  11. Using Logistic Regression to Predict the Probability of Debris Flows in Areas Burned by Wildfires, Southern California, 2003-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    2008-01-01

    Logistic regression was used to develop statistical models that can be used to predict the probability of debris flows in areas recently burned by wildfires by using data from 14 wildfires that burned in southern California during 2003-2006. Twenty-eight independent variables describing the basin morphology, burn severity, rainfall, and soil properties of 306 drainage basins located within those burned areas were evaluated. The models were developed as follows: (1) Basins that did and did not produce debris flows soon after the 2003 to 2006 fires were delineated from data in the National Elevation Dataset using a geographic information system; (2) Data describing the basin morphology, burn severity, rainfall, and soil properties were compiled for each basin. These data were then input to a statistics software package for analysis using logistic regression; and (3) Relations between the occurrence or absence of debris flows and the basin morphology, burn severity, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated, and five multivariate logistic regression models were constructed. All possible combinations of independent variables were evaluated to determine which combinations produced the most effective models, and the multivariate models that best predicted the occurrence of debris flows were identified. Percentage of high burn severity and 3-hour peak rainfall intensity were significant variables in all models. Soil organic matter content and soil clay content were significant variables in all models except Model 5. Soil slope was a significant variable in all models except Model 4. The most suitable model can be selected from these five models on the basis of the availability of independent variables in the particular area of interest and field checking of probability maps. The multivariate logistic regression models can be entered into a geographic information system, and maps showing the probability of debris flows can be constructed in recently burned areas of southern California. This study demonstrates that logistic regression is a valuable tool for developing models that predict the probability of debris flows occurring in recently burned landscapes.

  12. Effects of Range Burning on Kansas Flint Hills Soil

    E-print Network

    Owensby, Clenton E.

    plots in that area consti- tuted five duplicated burning treatments, five burned annually and five to afford maxi- mum protection to plant aowns. Vegetation was primarily warm-season grasses, i.e. big each of the non- grazed plots and five cores from each of three different areas in each of the two

  13. Investigation of trace gas to aerosol relationships over biomass burning areas using daily satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Thomas; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Zörner, Jan; Beirle, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    The quantification and characterization of aerosols from space is a great challenge. Especially in the presence of clouds and over land surfaces, it is often difficult to distinguish the signals of aerosol scattering from scattering by cloud particles or surface reflection. Instead of deriving aerosol properties directly, satellite observations of tropospheric trace gases, emitted by the same emission sources as the aerosols, can be used to derive additional information on the aerosols. Such observations have two potential advantages: First, from the composition of trace gases, information on the aerosol type can be derived. Second, such observations are possible in the presence of clouds (although usually with reduced sensitivity if the trace gases are located below the cloud). In this feasibility study we investigate the relationship between satellite observations of trace gases (CO, NO2, HCHO, CHOCHO) and AOD (measured from satellite or ground). We also include in our comparison satellite observations of the so called UV aerosol index (UVAI), which is an indicator of the aerosol absorption. Like the trace gas observations, also the UVAI can be retrieved in the presence of clouds. We investigate aerosol-trace gas relationships over biomass burning regions. Depending on their optical properties and altitude distribution such aerosols can have a strong impact on the atmospheric energy budget through direct and indirect effects. We perform correlation analyses for selected AERONET stations and also for larger biomass burning areas by also taking into account satellite observations of fire counts.

  14. Estimation of aerosol transport from biomass burning areas during the SCAR-B experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trosnikov, Igor V.; Nobre, Carlos A.

    1998-12-01

    A transport model for the estimation of tracers spreading from biomass burning areas has been developed on the basis of the semi-Lagrangian technique. The model consists of a three-dimensional Lagrangian form transport equation for tracers and uses the quasi-monotone local cubic-spline interpolation for calculation of unknown values at irregular points. A mass-conserving property of the model is based on the flux-corrected transport method using the algorithm of Priestley. The transport of the smoke particles from Amazonia was simulated for the period from August 20 to 29, 1995. During this period the air mass located below 2 km moved to the south and carried the smoke particles until 30°S.

  15. L-Area Reactor - 1993 annual - groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    Groundwater was sampled and analyzed during 1993 from wells monitoring the water table at the following locations in L Area: the L-Area Acid/Caustic Basin (four LAC wells), L-Area Research Wells in the southern portion of the area (outside the fence; three LAW wells), the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (four LCO wells), the L-Area Disassembly Basin (two LDB wells), the L-Area Burning/Rubble Pit (four LRP wells), and the L-Area Seepage Basin (four LSB wells). During 1993, tetrachloroethylene was detected above its drinking water standard (DWS) in the LAC, LAW, LCO, and LDB well series. Lead exceeded its 50 {mu}g/L standard in the LAW, LDB, and LRP series, and tritium was above its DWS in the LAW, LCO, and LSB series. Apparently anomalous elevated levels of the common laboratory contaminant bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate were reported during first quarter in one well each in the LAC series and LCO series, and during third quarter in a different LCO well. Extensive radionuclide analyses were performed during 1993 in the LAC, LAW, and LCO well series. No radionuclides other than tritium were reported above DWS or Flag 2 criteria.

  16. Investigation of soil contamination at the Riot Control Burning Pit area in J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ying-Ya; Yuen, C.R.; Martino, L.

    1996-05-01

    A remedial investigation was conducted to identify soil contamination in the Riot Control Burning Pit area in J-field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The investigation included geophysical surveys to delineate the filled section of the pit, soil-gas surveys to locate the organic contamination area, field X-ray fluorescence measurements along the burning pit to identify the major metal contamination, and surface and subsurface soil analyses to investigate the nature and extent of contamination. This paper presents the results of this investigation

  17. Daily burned area and carbon emissions from boreal fires in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veraverbeke, S.; Rogers, B. M.; Randerson, J. T.

    2015-06-01

    Boreal fires burn into carbon-rich organic soils, thereby releasing large quantities of trace gases and aerosols that influence atmospheric composition and climate. To better understand the factors regulating boreal fire emissions, we developed a statistical model of carbon consumption by fire for Alaska with a spatial resolution of 450 m and a temporal resolution of 1 day. We used the model to estimate variability in carbon emissions between 2001 and 2012. Daily burned area was mapped using imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer combined with perimeters from the Alaska Large Fire Database. Carbon consumption was calibrated using available field measurements from black spruce forests in Alaska. We built two nonlinear multiplicative models to separately predict above- and belowground carbon consumption by fire in response to environmental variables including elevation, day of burning within the fire season, pre-fire tree cover and the differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR). Higher belowground carbon consumption occurred later in the season and for mid-elevation forests. Topographic slope and aspect did not improve performance of the belowground carbon consumption model. Aboveground and belowground carbon consumption also increased as a function of tree cover and the dNBR, suggesting a causal link between the processes regulating these two components of carbon consumption. Between 2001 and 2012, the median carbon consumption was 2.54 kg C m-2. Burning in land-cover types other than black spruce was considerable and was associated with lower levels of carbon consumption than for pure black spruce stands. Carbon consumption originated primarily from the belowground fraction (median = 2.32 kg C m-2 for all cover types and 2.67 kg C m-2 for pure black spruce stands). Total carbon emissions varied considerably from year to year, with the highest emissions occurring during 2004 (69 Tg C), 2005 (46 Tg C), 2009 (26 Tg C), and 2002 (17 Tg C) and a mean of 15 Tg C year-1 between 2001 and 2012. Mean uncertainty of carbon consumption for the domain, expressed as 1 standard deviation (SD), was 0.50 kg C m-2. Uncertainties in the multiplicative regression model used to estimate belowground consumption in black spruce stands and the land-cover classification were primary contributors to uncertainty estimates. Our analysis highlights the importance of accounting for the spatial heterogeneity of fuels and combustion when extrapolating emissions in space and time, and the need for of additional field campaigns to increase the density of observations as a function of tree cover and other environmental variables influencing consumption. The daily emissions time series from the Alaskan Fire Emissions Database (AKFED) presented here creates new opportunities to study environmental controls on daily fire dynamics, optimize boreal fire emissions in biogeochemical models, and quantify potential feedbacks from changing fire regimes.

  18. Chemical burns

    PubMed Central

    Cartotto, Robert C.; Peters, Walter J.; Neligan, Peter C.; Douglas, Leith G.; Beeston, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Objectives To report a burn unit’s experience with chemical burns and to discuss the fundamental principles in managing chemical burns. Design A chart review. Setting A burn centre at a major university-affiliated hospital. Patients Twenty-four patients with chemical burns, representing 2.6% of all burn admissions over an 8-year period at the Ross Tilley Regional Adult Burn Centre. Seventy-five percent of the burn injuries were work-related accidents. Chemicals involved included hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, black liquor, various lyes, potassium permanganate and phenol. Results Fourteen patients required excision and skin grafting. Complications were frequent and included ocular chemical contacts, wound infections, tendon exposures, toe amputation and systemic reactions from absorption of chemical. One patient died from a chemical scald burn to 98% of the body surface area. Conclusions The key principles in the management of chemical burns include removal of the chemical, copious irrigation, limited use of antidotes, correct estimation of the extent of injury, identification of systemic toxicity, treatment of ocular contacts and management of chemical inhalation injury. Individualized treatment is emphasized. PMID:8640619

  19. ANNUAL REPORT ON PERFORMANCE AUDIT RESULTS FOR POHC TESTING DURING TRIAL BURNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Audit materials containing Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHCs) have been developed by AREAL for use by federal, state, and local agencies or their contractors to assess the accuracy of measurement methods during RCRA trial burn tests. Audit materials are currently av...

  20. P-Area Reactor 1993 annual groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    Groundwater was sampled and analyzed during 1993 from wells monitoring the water table at the following locations in P Area: well P 24A in the eastern section of P Area, the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin, the P-Area Coal Pile Runoff Containment Basin, the P-Area Disassembly Basin, the P-Area Burning/Rubble Pit, and the P-Area Seepage Basins. During 1993, pH was above its alkaline standard in well P 24A. Specific conductance was above its standard in one well each from the PAC and PCB series. Lead exceeded its 50 {mu}g/L standard in one well of the PDB series during one quarter. Tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene were detected above their final primary drinking water standards in one well of the PRP well series. Tritium was consistently above its DWS in the PDB and PSB series. Also during 1993, radium-228 exceeded the DWS for total radium in three wells of the PAC series and one well of the PCB series; total alpha-emitting radium exceeded the same standard in a different PCB well. These results are fairly consistent with those from previous years. Unlike results from past years, however, no halogenated volatiles other than trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene exceeded DWS in the PRP well series although gas chromatographic volatile organic analyses were performed throughout the year. Some of the regulated units in P Area appear to need additional monitoring by new wells because there are insufficient downgradient wells, sometimes because the original well network, installed prior to regulation, included sidegradient rather than downgradient wells. No monitoring wells had been installed through 1993 at one of the RCRA/CERCLA units named in the Federal Facilities Agreement, the Bingham Pump Outage Pits.

  1. R-Area Reactor 1993 annual groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Groundwater was sampled and analyzed during 1993 from wells monitoring the following locations in R Area: Well cluster P20 east of R Area (one well each in the water table and the McBean formation), the R-Area Acid/Caustic Basin (the four water-table wells of the RAC series), the R-Area Ash Basin/Coal Pile (one well of the RCP series in the Congaree formation and one in the water table), the R-Area Disassembly Basin (the three water-table wells of the RDB series), the R-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (the four water-table wells of the RRP series), and the R-Area Seepage Basins (numerous water-table wells in the RSA, RSB, RSC, RSD, RSE, and RSF series). Lead was the only constituent detected above its 50{mu}g/L standard in any but the seepage basin wells; it exceeded that level in one B well and in 23 of the seepage basin wells. Cadmium exceeded its drinking water standard (DWS) in 30 of the seepage basin wells, as did mercury in 10. Nitrate-nitrite was above DWS once each in two seepage basin wells. Tritium was above DWS in six seepage basin wells, as was gross alpha activity in 22. Nonvolatile beta exceeded its screening standard in 29 wells. Extensive radionuclide analyses were requested during 1993 for the RCP series and most of the seepage basin wells. Strontium-90 in eight wells was the only specific radionuclide other than tritium detected above DWS; it appeared about one-half of the nonvolatile beta activity in those wells.

  2. Satellite-based assessment of climate controls on US burned area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Wang, D.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Chen, Y.

    2012-06-01

    Climate regulates fire activity through the buildup and drying of fuels and the conditions for fire ignition and spread. Understanding the dynamics of contemporary climate-fire relationships at national and sub-national scales is critical to assess the likelihood of changes in future fire activity and the potential options for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we conducted the first national assessment of climate controls on US fire activity using two satellite-based estimates of monthly burned area (BA), the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED, 1997-2010) and Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS, 1984-2009) BA products. For each US National Climate Assessment (NCA) region, we analyzed the relationships between monthly BA and potential evaporation (PE) derived from reanalysis climate data at 0.5° resolution. US fire activity increased over the past 25 yr, with statistically significant increases in MTBS BA for entire US and the Southeast and Southwest NCA regions. Monthly PE was strongly correlated with US fire activity, yet the climate driver of PE varied regionally. Fire season temperature and shortwave radiation were the primary controls on PE} and fire activity in the Alaska, while water deficit (precipitation - PE) was strongly correlated with fire activity in the Plains regions and Northwest US. BA and precipitation anomalies were negatively correlated in all regions, although fuel-limited ecosystems in the Southern Plains and Southwest exhibited positive correlations with longer lead times (6-12 months). Fire season PE increased from the 1980s-2000s, enhancing climate-driven fire risk in the southern and western US where PE-BA correlations were strongest. Spatial and temporal patterns of increasing fire season PE and BA during the 1990s-2000s highlight the potential sensitivity of US fire activity to climate change in coming decades. However, climate-fire relationships at the national scale are complex, based on the diversity of fire types, ecosystems, and ignition sources within each NCA region. Changes in the seasonality or magnitude of climate anomalies are therefore unlikely to result in uniform changes in US fire activity.

  3. Satellite-based assessment of climate controls on US burned area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Wang, D.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Chen, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Climate regulates fire activity through the buildup and drying of fuels and the conditions for fire ignition and spread. Understanding the dynamics of contemporary climate-fire relationships at national and sub-national scales is critical to assess the likelihood of changes in future fire activity and the potential options for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we conducted the first national assessment of climate controls on US fire activity using two satellite-based estimates of monthly burned area (BA), the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED, 1997-2010) and Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS, 1984-2009) BA products. For each US National Climate Assessment (NCA) region, we analyzed the relationships between monthly BA and potential evaporation (PE) derived from reanalysis climate data at 0.5° resolution. US fire activity increased over the past 25 yr, with statistically significant increases in MTBS BA for the entire US and the Southeast and Southwest NCA regions. Monthly PE was strongly correlated with US fire activity, yet the climate driver of PE varied regionally. Fire season temperature and shortwave radiation were the primary controls on PE and fire activity in Alaska, while water deficit (precipitation - PE) was strongly correlated with fire activity in the Plains regions and Northwest US. BA and precipitation anomalies were negatively correlated in all regions, although fuel-limited ecosystems in the Southern Plains and Southwest exhibited positive correlations with longer lead times (6-12 months). Fire season PE increased from the 1980's-2000's, enhancing climate-driven fire risk in the southern and western US where PE-BA correlations were strongest. Spatial and temporal patterns of increasing fire season PE and BA during the 1990's-2000's highlight the potential sensitivity of US fire activity to climate change in coming decades. However, climate-fire relationships at the national scale are complex, based on the diversity of fire types, ecosystems, and ignition sources within each NCA region. Changes in the seasonality or magnitude of climate anomalies are therefore unlikely to result in uniform changes in US fire activity.

  4. Satellite-based Assessment of Climate Controls on US Burned Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Wang, D.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Chen, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Climate regulates fire activity through the buildup and drying of fuels and the conditions for fire ignition and spread. Understanding the dynamics of contemporary climate-fire relationships at national and sub-national scales is critical to assess the likelihood of changes in future fire activity and the potential options for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we conducted the first national assessment of climate controls on US fire activity using two satellite-based estimates of monthly burned area (BA), the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED, 1997 2010) and Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS, 1984 2009) BA products. For each US National Climate Assessment (NCA) region, we analyzed the relationships between monthly BA and potential evaporation (PE) derived from reanalysis climate data at 0.5 resolution. US fire activity increased over the past 25 yr, with statistically significant increases in MTBS BA for entire US and the Southeast and Southwest NCA regions. Monthly PE was strongly correlated with US fire activity, yet the climate driver of PE varied regionally. Fire season temperature and shortwave radiation were the primary controls on PE and fire activity in the Alaska, while water deficit (precipitation PE) was strongly correlated with fire activity in the Plains regions and Northwest US. BA and precipitation anomalies were negatively correlated in all regions, although fuel-limited ecosystems in the Southern Plains and Southwest exhibited positive correlations with longer lead times (6 12 months). Fire season PE in creased from the 1980s 2000s, enhancing climate-driven fire risk in the southern and western US where PE-BA correlations were strongest. Spatial and temporal patterns of increasing fire season PE and BA during the 1990s 2000s highlight the potential sensitivity of US fire activity to climate change in coming decades. However, climatefire relationships at the national scale are complex, based on the diversity of fire types, ecosystems, and ignition sources within each NCA region. Changes in the seasonality or magnitude of climate anomalies are therefore unlikely to result in uniform changes in US fire activity.

  5. Bare soil erosion modelling with rainfall simulations: experiments on crop and recently burned areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, F.; Menci, S.; Moretti, S.; Keizer, J.

    2006-12-01

    The use of numerical models is of fundamental importance in the comprehension and prediction of soil erosion. At the very basis of the calibration process of the numerical models are the direct measurements of the governing parameters, carried out during field or laboratory tests. To measure and model soil erosion rainfall simulations can be used, that allow the reproduction of project rainfall having chosen characteristics of intensity and duration. The main parameters that rainfall simulators can measure are hydraulic conductivity, parameters of soil erodibility, rate and features of splash erosion, discharge coefficient and sediment yield. Other important parameters can be estimated during the rainfall simulations through the use of photogrammetric instruments able to memorize high definition stereographic models of the soil plot under analysis at different time steps. In this research rainfall simulator experiments (rse) were conducted to measure and quantify runoff and erosion processes on selected bare soil plots. The selected plots are located in some vineyards, olive groves and crops in central Italy and in some recently burned areas in north-central Portugal, affected by a wildfire during early July 2005 and, at the time, largely covered by commercial eucalypt plantations. On the Italian crops the choice of the rainfall intensities and durations were performed on the basis of the previous knowledge of the selected test areas. The procedure was based on an initial phase of soil wetting and a following phase of 3 erosion cycles. The first should reproduce the effects of a normal rainfall with a return time of 2 years (23 mm/h). The second should represent a serious episode with a return time of 10 years (34 mm/h). The third has the objective to reproduce and understand the effects of an intense precipitation event, with a return time of 50 years (41 mm/h). During vineyards experiments some photogrammetric surveys were carried out as well. In the Portugal burned areas, to measure the influence of rain intensities, two rainfall simulations have been carried out simultaneously, one with an intensity of 45 mm/h and one with 85 mm/h. In both cases, before the experiments, soil and vegetation cover description have been made and soil samples have been taken. During the simulations soil samples leaving the parcels were taken at suitable time intervals to measure the sediment yield and the runoff. The rse data have been thought to provide a sufficient basis for erosion modelling at the small-plot scale and, through upscaling, for predicting erosion rates at the slope scale. For this purpose two soil erosion models, WEPP and MEFIDIS, have been selected and then compared. The comparison has shown a certain degree of uncertainty in numeric erosion prediction, due to the non linearity of the overland erosion processes, and to technical and conceptual difficulties, including the data collection. In the following laboratory phase high resolution (2 by 2 mm) DEMs of the vineyards plot are being produced for each meaningful processing phase. The digital elevation models will then be analysed to asses calibration parameters such as soil roughness (expressed by standard deviation of elevations, fractal dimension and local relief energy), soil and sediment transfer (hypsometric curves, local elevation and volume differences) and rill network evolution (Horton ordering, stream lengths, contributing area, drainage density, Hack's law)

  6. Reclassified Cropland Active Fire and Burned Area Detections by the MODIS 1 km Sensor in Canadian Provinces by land cover type, 2001 - 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, T. F.; Ernst, C. L.; McCarty, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Fire is a primary disturbance agent in Canadian ecosystems and has significant social, environmental, and economic consequences. Accurate location and identification of biomass burning is critical to understanding the transfer of gases and particles into earth's atmosphere, especially in Northern latitudes. This data is an important aid in producing accurate atmospheric models that estimate black carbon (BC) deposition on arctic snow. Previous research has indicated that cropland burning contributes to BC distribution in the arctic which alters the balance in snow-albedo reflectance and radiation transmission in the atmosphere. The locations and numbers of fires were identified using the 1km MODIS Active Fire Product and the 500m MODIS Burned Area Product. Land cover type was assigned based on the 1 km MODIS Land Cover Product, to the post-processed active fire points. They were then reclassified into seven (7) classes: Croplands, Forest, Grasslands, Urban, Water Bodies, Wetlands, and Barren. The results show that Forest, Cropland, and Grassland land cover types are the main sources of active fire detections in Canada from 2001 to 2010. The peak fire months are April, May, September, and October for Cropland active fire burns in all Canadian Provinces from 2001 to 2010. By province, Saskatchewan and Manitoba are the leading sources of Cropland detected active fires. Cropland burned area estimations were calculated using the burned area pixel count (post-processing of MODIS Burned Area Product) within cropland identified by the 1 km MODIS Land Cover data set (LC-12) for the years 2003-2010. Cropland burned area detection was most significant in 2003 during which 27.3% of all detected hectares burned from 2003 to 2010 occurred. The year with least impact was 2004 in which 3.5% of all detected hectares burned. The peak months for Cropland burned area detections were May, September, and October across all Canadian Provinces from 2003 to 2010. Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Alberta are the leading sources for Cropland burned area detections. Field research conducted during April of 2011 in the Peace River Agricultural Area in British Columbia and Alberta revealed that cropland identified by the MODIS 1 km Land Cover Product appeared to be undergoing land-use conversion. Scrubland and mixed forest tree lines are being cleared to create more field space during the winter months. However, these woody brush piles are burned in the middle of fallow fields and as such are detected as Cropland burnings. From this analysis of fire activity in Canadian provinces we can identify the major land cover sources of burn and provide an in-depth look at cropland burning's temporal and spatial patterns over the last decade based on data from the MODIS sensor.

  7. Sensitivity of spectral reflectance values to different burn and vegetation ratios: A multi-scale approach applied in a fire affected area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleniou, Magdalini; Koutsias, Nikos

    2013-05-01

    The aim of our study was to explore the spectral properties of fire-scorched (burned) and non fire-scorched (vegetation) areas, as well as areas with different burn/vegetation ratios, using a multisource multiresolution satellite data set. A case study was undertaken following a very destructive wildfire that occurred in Parnitha, Greece, July 2007, for which we acquired satellite images from LANDSAT, ASTER, and IKONOS. Additionally, we created spatially degraded satellite data over a range of coarser resolutions using resampling techniques. The panchromatic (1 m) and multispectral component (4 m) of IKONOS were merged using the Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening method. This very high-resolution imagery served as the basis to estimate the cover percentage of burned areas, bare land and vegetation at pixel level, by applying the maximum likelihood classification algorithm. Finally, multiple linear regression models were fit to estimate each land-cover fraction as a function of surface reflectance values of the original and the spatially degraded satellite images. The main findings of our research were: (a) the Near Infrared (NIR) and Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) are the most important channels to estimate the percentage of burned area, whereas the NIR and red channels are the most important to estimate the percentage of vegetation in fire-affected areas; (b) when the bi-spectral space consists only of NIR and SWIR, then the NIR ground reflectance value plays a more significant role in estimating the percent of burned areas, and the SWIR appears to be more important in estimating the percent of vegetation; and (c) semi-burned areas comprising 45-55% burned area and 45-55% vegetation are spectrally closer to burned areas in the NIR channel, whereas those areas are spectrally closer to vegetation in the SWIR channel. These findings, at least partially, are attributed to the fact that: (i) completely burned pixels present low variance in the NIR and high variance in the SWIR, whereas the opposite is observed in completely vegetated areas where higher variance is observed in the NIR and lower variance in the SWIR, and (ii) bare land modifies the spectral signal of burned areas more than the spectral signal of vegetated areas in the NIR, while the opposite is observed in SWIR region of the spectrum where the bare land modifies the spectral signal of vegetation more than the burned areas because the bare land and the vegetation are spectrally more similar in the NIR, and the bare land and burned areas are spectrally more similar in the SWIR.

  8. Using Logistic Regression To Predict the Probability of Debris Flows Occurring in Areas Recently Burned By Wildland Fires

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.

    2003-01-01

    Logistic regression was used to predict the probability of debris flows occurring in areas recently burned by wildland fires. Multiple logistic regression is conceptually similar to multiple linear regression because statistical relations between one dependent variable and several independent variables are evaluated. In logistic regression, however, the dependent variable is transformed to a binary variable (debris flow did or did not occur), and the actual probability of the debris flow occurring is statistically modeled. Data from 399 basins located within 15 wildland fires that burned during 2000-2002 in Colorado, Idaho, Montana, and New Mexico were evaluated. More than 35 independent variables describing the burn severity, geology, land surface gradient, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated. The models were developed as follows: (1) Basins that did and did not produce debris flows were delineated from National Elevation Data using a Geographic Information System (GIS). (2) Data describing the burn severity, geology, land surface gradient, rainfall, and soil properties were determined for each basin. These data were then downloaded to a statistics software package for analysis using logistic regression. (3) Relations between the occurrence/non-occurrence of debris flows and burn severity, geology, land surface gradient, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated and several preliminary multivariate logistic regression models were constructed. All possible combinations of independent variables were evaluated to determine which combination produced the most effective model. The multivariate model that best predicted the occurrence of debris flows was selected. (4) The multivariate logistic regression model was entered into a GIS, and a map showing the probability of debris flows was constructed. The most effective model incorporates the percentage of each basin with slope greater than 30 percent, percentage of land burned at medium and high burn severity in each basin, particle size sorting, average storm intensity (millimeters per hour), soil organic matter content, soil permeability, and soil drainage. The results of this study demonstrate that logistic regression is a valuable tool for predicting the probability of debris flows occurring in recently-burned landscapes.

  9. Relationships between burned area, forest cover loss and land use change in the Brazilian Amazon based on satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanin, T.; van der Werf, G. R.

    2015-06-01

    Fires are used as a tool in the deforestation process. Yet, the relationship between fire and deforestation may vary temporally and spatially depending on the type of deforestation and climatic conditions. This study evaluates spatiotemporal dynamics of deforestation and fire represented by burned area over the 2002-2012 period in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. As a first step, we compared newly available Landsat-based maps of gross forest cover loss from the Global Forest Change (GFC) project with maps of deforestation extent from the Amazon Deforestation Monitoring Project (PRODES) produced by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). As a second step, we rescaled the Landsat-based data to the 500 m resolution of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) burned area data (MCD64A1) and stratified this using MODIS land cover data to study the role of burned area in forest cover loss and deforestation. We found that while GFC forest cover loss and PRODES deforestation generally agreed on spatial and temporal dynamics, there were several key differences between the datasets. Both showed a decrease in the extent of forest cover loss or deforestation after 2004, but the drop was larger and more continuous in PRODES than in GFC. The observed decrease in forest cover loss or deforestation rates over our study period was mainly due to lower clearing rates in the evergreen broadleaf forests in the states of Mato Grosso, Pará and Rondônia. GFC indicated anomalous high forest cover loss in the years 2007 and 2010 not reported by PRODES. The burned area data showed that this was predominantly related to increased fire activity occurring outside of the tropical forest area during these dry years, mainly in Pará. This indicates that fire and forest loss dynamics in woodlands or secondary forests may be equally important as deforestation in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In addition to the decrease in forest cover loss rates, we also found that post-deforestation fire use declined; burned area within 5 years after forest cover loss decreased from 54 to 39% during our study period.

  10. Postwildfire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the 2013 West Fork Fire Complex, southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verdin, Kristine L.; Dupree, Jean A.; Stevens, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins burned by the 2013 West Fork Fire Complex near South Fork in southwestern Colorado. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence, potential volume of debris flows, and the combined debris-flow hazard ranking along the drainage network within and just downstream from the burned area, and to estimate the same for 54 drainage basins of interest within the perimeter of the burned area. Input data for the debris-flow models included topographic variables, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm; (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm; and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm. Estimated debris-flow probabilities at the pour points of the 54 drainage basins of interest ranged from less than 1 to 65 percent in response to the 2-year storm; from 1 to 77 percent in response to the 10-year storm; and from 1 to 83 percent in response to the 25-year storm. Twelve of the 54 drainage basins of interest have a 30-percent probability or greater of producing a debris flow in response to the 25-year storm. Estimated debris-flow volumes for all rainfalls modeled range from a low of 2,400 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters. Estimated debris-flow volumes increase with basin size and distance along the drainage network, but some smaller drainages also were predicted to produce substantial debris flows. One of the 54 drainage basins of interest had the highest combined hazard ranking, while 9 other basins had the second highest combined hazard ranking. Of these 10 basins with the 2 highest combined hazard rankings, 7 basins had predicted debris-flow volumes exceeding 100,000 cubic meters, while 3 had predicted probabilities of debris flows exceeding 60 percent. The 10 basins with high combined hazard ranking include 3 tributaries in the headwaters of Trout Creek, four tributaries to the West Fork San Juan River, Hope Creek draining toward a county road on the eastern edge of the burn, Lake Fork draining to U.S. Highway 160, and Leopard Creek on the northern edge of the burn. The probabilities and volumes for the modeled storms indicate a potential for debris-flow impacts on structures, reservoirs, roads, bridges, and culverts located within and immediately downstream from the burned area. U.S. Highway 160, on the eastern edge of the burn area, also is susceptible to impacts from debris flows.

  11. Postwildfire debris flows hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Track Fire, northeastern New Mexico and southeastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    In June 2011, the Track Fire burned 113 square kilometers in Colfax County, northeastern New Mexico, and Las Animas County, southeastern Colorado, including the upper watersheds of Chicorica and Raton Creeks. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from basins burned by the Track Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of post-fire debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 38 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence-interval), the probability of debris flow estimated for basins burned by the Track fire ranged between 2 and 97 percent, with probabilities greater than 80 percent identified for the majority of the tributary basins to Raton Creek in Railroad Canyon; six basins that flow into Lake Maloya, including the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins; two tributary basins to Sugarite Canyon, and an unnamed basin on the eastern flank of the burned area. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 30 cubic meters to greater than 100,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 100,000 cubic meters) were estimated for Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins, which drain into Lake Maloya. The Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Ranking identifies the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins as having the highest probability of producing the largest debris flows. This finding indicates the greatest post-fire debris-flow impacts may be expected to Lake Maloya. In addition, Interstate Highway 25, Raton Creek and the rail line in Railroad Canyon, County road A-27, and State Highway 526 in Sugarite Canyon may also be affected where they cross drainages downstream from recently burned basins. Although this assessment indicates that a rather large debris flow (approximately 42,000 cubic meters) may be generated from the basin above the City of Raton (basin 9) in response to the design storm, the probability of such an event is relatively low (approximately 10 percent). Additional assessment is necessary to determine if the estimated volume of material is sufficient to travel into the City of Raton. In addition, even small debris flows may affect structures at or downstream from basin outlets and increase the threat of flooding downstream by damaging or blocking flood mitigation structures. The maps presented here may be used to prioritize areas where erosion mitigation or other protective measures may be necessary within a 2- to 3-year window of vulnerability following the Track Fire.

  12. Monthly burned area and forest fire carbon emission estimates for the Russian Federation from SPOT VGT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-H. Zhang; M. J. Wooster; O. Tutubalina; G. L. W. Perry

    2003-01-01

    Russian boreal forests contain around 25% of all global terrestrial carbon, some of which is released to the atmosphere when the forests burn. Whilst it is well known that fire is widespread in the boreal environment, there is a lack of good quality quantitative data on the extent of fire activity in Russian forests and on its interannual variation. This

  13. Burns in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Aghamohammadzadeh, Naser; Khalili, Nasim

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT AND AIMS: Diabetic burn patients comprise a significant population in burn centers. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic characteristics of diabetic burn patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data were collected on 94 diabetic burn patients between March 20, 2000 and March 20, 2006. Of 3062 burns patients, 94 (3.1%) had diabetes; these patients were compared with 2968 nondiabetic patients with burns. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical analysis software SPSS 10.05. Differences between the two groups were evaluated using Student's t-test and the chi square test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. RESULTS: The major mechanism of injury for the diabetic patients was scalding and flame burns, as was also the case in the nondiabetic burn patients. The diabetic burn patients were significantly older, with a lower percentage of total burn surface area (TBSA) than the nondiabetic burn population. There was significant difference between the diabetic and nondiabetic patients in terms of frequency of infection. No difference in mortality rate between diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients was observed. The most common organism in diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients was methicillin-resistant staphylococcus. Increasing %TBSA burn and the presence of inhalation injury are significantly associated with increased mortality following burn injury. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetics have a higher propensity for infection. Education for diabetic patients must include caution about potential burn mishaps and the complications that may ensue from burns. PMID:19902035

  14. Estimated probability of postwildfire debris flows in the 2012 Whitewater-Baldy Fire burn area, southwestern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne C.; Matherne, Anne Marie; Verdin, Kristine L.

    2012-01-01

    In May and June 2012, the Whitewater-Baldy Fire burned approximately 1,200 square kilometers (300,000 acres) of the Gila National Forest, in southwestern New Mexico. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 128 basins burned by the Whitewater-Baldy Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed by using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain Western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows along the burned area drainage network and for selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of areal burned extent and severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall intensity to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to the 2-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, modeling indicated that four basins have high probabilities of debris-flow occurrence (greater than or equal to 80 percent). For the 10-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, an additional 14 basins are included, and for the 25-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, an additional eight basins, 20 percent of the total, have high probabilities of debris-flow occurrence. In addition, probability analysis along the stream segments can identify specific reaches of greatest concern for debris flows within a basin. Basins with a high probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in the west and central parts of the burned area, including tributaries to Whitewater Creek, Mineral Creek, and Willow Creek. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from about 3,000-4,000 cubic meters (m3) to greater than 500,000 m3 for all design storms modeled. Drainage basins with estimated volumes greater than 500,000 m3 included tributaries to Whitewater Creek, Willow Creek, Iron Creek, and West Fork Mogollon Creek. Drainage basins with estimated debris-flow volumes greater than 100,000 m3 for the 25-year-recurrence event, 24 percent of the basins modeled, also include tributaries to Deep Creek, Mineral Creek, Gilita Creek, West Fork Gila River, Mogollon Creek, and Turkey Creek, among others. Basins with the highest combined probability and volume relative hazard rankings for the 25-year-recurrence rainfall include tributaries to Whitewater Creek, Mineral Creek, Willow Creek, West Fork Gila River, West Fork Mogollon Creek, and Turkey Creek. Debris flows from Whitewater, Mineral, and Willow Creeks could affect the southwestern New Mexico communities of Glenwood, Alma, and Willow Creek. The maps presented herein may be used to prioritize areas where emergency erosion mitigation or other protective measures may be necessary within a 2- to 3-year period of vulnerability following the Whitewater-Baldy Fire. This work is preliminary and is subject to revision. It is being provided because of the need for timely "best science" information. The assessment herein is provided on the condition that neither the U.S. Geological Survey nor the U.S. Government may be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the assessment.

  15. Engineering and Physics Optimization of Breed and Burn Fast Reactor Systems: Annual and Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kevan D. Weaver; Theron Marshall; James Parry

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) contribution to the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project number 2002-005 was divided into reactor physics, and thermal-hydraulics and plant design. The research targeted credible physics and thermal-hydraulics models for a gas-cooled fast reactor, analyzing various fuel and in-core fuel cycle options to achieve a true breed and burn core, and performing a design basis Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) analysis on that design. For the physics analysis, a 1/8 core model was created using different enrichments and simulated equilibrium fuel loadings. The model was used to locate the hot spot of the reactor, and the peak to average energy deposition at that location. The model was also used to create contour plots of the flux and energy deposition over the volume of the reactor. The eigenvalue over time was evaluated using three different fuel configurations with the same core geometry. The breeding capabilities of this configuration were excellent for a 7% U-235 model and good in both a plutonium model and a 14% U-235 model. Changing the fuel composition from the Pu fuel which provided about 78% U-238 for breeding to the 14% U-235 fuel with about 86% U-238 slowed the rate of decrease in the eigenvalue a noticeable amount. Switching to the 7% U-235 fuel with about 93% U-238 showed an increase in the eigenvalue over time. For the thermal-hydraulic analysis, the reactor design used was the one forwarded by the MIT team. This reactor design uses helium coolant, a Brayton cycle, and has a thermal power of 600 MW. The core design parameters were supplied by MIT; however, the other key reactor components that were necessary for a plausible simulation of a LOCA were not defined. The thermal-hydraulic and plant design research concentrated on determining reasonable values for those undefined components. The LOCA simulation was intended to provide insights on the influence of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS), the containment building, and a Decay Heat Removal System (DHRS) on the natural circulation heat transfer of the core's decay heat. A baseline case for natural circulation had to be established in order to truly understand the impact of the added safety systems. This baseline case did not include a DHRS, although the current MIT design does have a DHRS that features the highly efficient Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHEs). The initial LOCA analysis revealed that the RCCS was insufficient to maintain the reactor core below the fuel matrix decomposition temperature. A guard containment was added to the model in order to maintain a prescribed backpressure during the LOCA to enhance the natural circulation. The backpressure approach did provide satisfactory natural convection during the LOCA. The necessary backpressure was 1.8 MPa, which was not especially different from the values reported by other gas fast reactor researchers. However, as the model evolved to be more physically representative of a nuclear reactor, i.e., it included radial peaking factors, inlet plenum orificing, and the degradation of SiC thermal properties as a result of irradiation, the LOCA-induced fuel temperatures were not consistently below the decomposition limit.

  16. Postwildfire preliminary debris flow hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Las Conchas Fire in north-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The Las Conchas Fire during the summer of 2011 was the largest in recorded history for the state of New Mexico, burning 634 square kilometers in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 321 basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 28.0 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence interval), the probabilities of debris flows estimated for basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire were greater than 80 percent for two-thirds (67 percent) of the modeled basins. Basins with a high (greater than 80 percent) probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in tributaries to Santa Clara and Rio del Oso Canyons in the northeastern part of the burned area; some steep areas in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, Los Alamos, and Guaje Canyons in the east-central part of the burned area; tributaries to Peralta, Colle, Bland, and Cochiti canyons in the southwestern part of the burned area; and tributaries to Frijoles, Alamo, and Capulin Canyons in the southeastern part of the burned area (within Bandelier National Monument). Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 400 cubic meters to greater than 72,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 40,000 cubic meters) were estimated for basins in Santa Clara, Los Alamos, and Water Canyons, and for two basins at the northeast edge of the burned area tributary to Rio del Oso and Vallecitos Creek. The Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Rankings identify the areas of highest probability of the largest debris flows. Basins with high Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Rankings include upper Santa Clara Canyon in the northern section of the burn scar, and portions of Peralta, Colle, Bland, Cochiti, Capulin, Alamo, and Frijoles Canyons in the southern section of the burn scar. Three basins with high Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Rankings also occur in areas upstream from the city of Los Alamos—the city is home to and surrounded by numerous technical sites for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Potential debris flows in the burned area could affect the water supply for Santa Clara Pueblo and several recreational lakes, as well as recreational and archeological resources in Bandelier National Monument. Debris flows could damage bridges and culverts along State Highway 501 and other roadways. Additional assessment is necessary to determine if the estimated volume of material is sufficient to travel into areas downstream from the modeled basins along the valley floors, where they could affect human life, property, agriculture, and infrastructure in those areas. Additionally, further investigation is needed to assess the potential for debris flows to affect structures at or downstream from basin outlets and to increase the threat of flooding downstream by damaging or blocking flood mitigation structures. The maps presented here may be used to prioritize areas where erosion mitigation or other protective measures may be necessary within a 2- to 3-year window of vulnerability following the Las Conchas Fire.

  17. Investigation of biomass burning and aerosol loading and transport in South America utilizing geostationary satellites. Annual report, January-December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, P.; Prins, E.

    1995-12-01

    This study attempts to assess the extent of burning and associated aerosol transport regimes in South America and the South Atlantic using geostationary satellite observations, in order to explore the possible roles of biomass burning in climate change and more directly in atmospheric chemistry and radiative transfer processes. Modeling and analysis efforts have suggested that the direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols from biomass burning may play a major role in the radiative balance of the earth and are an important factor in climate change calculations. One of the most active regions of biomass burning is located in South America, associated with deforestation in the selva (forest), grassland management, and other agricultural practices. As part of the NASA Aerosol Interdisciplinary Program, the authors are utilizing GOES-7 (1988) and GOES-8 (1995) visible and multispectral infrared data (4, 11, and 12 microns) to document daily biomass burning activity in South America and to distinguish smoke/aerosols from other multi-level clouds and low-level moisture. This study catalogues the areal extent and transport of smoke/aerosols throughout the region and over the Atlantic Ocean for the 1988 (July-September) and 1995 (June-October) biomass burning seasons. The smoke/haze cover estimates are compared to the locations of fires to determine the source and verify the haze is actually associated with biomass burning activities. The temporal resolution of the GOES data (half-hourly in South America) makes it possible to determine the prevailing circulation and transport of aerosols by considering a series of visible and infrared images and tracking the motion of smoke, haze and adjacent clouds. The study area extends from 40 to 70 deg W and 0 to 40 deg S with aerosol coverage extending over the Atlantic Ocean when necessary. Fire activity is estimated with the GOES Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (ABBA).

  18. Annual Dynamics of Bobcat (Lynx rufus) Home Range and Core Use Areas in Mississippi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce W. Plowman; L. Mike Conner; Michael J. Chamberlain; Bruce D. Leopold; Loren W. Burger

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the annual dynamics of bobcat (Lynx rufus) home range and core use areas by radiotracking 23 female and 6 male bobcats from 10 January 1989 to 31 January 1998 in Mississippi. We quantified space use by measuring changes in the dispersion and central tendency of bobcat locations (i.e., radiotelemetry locations) between annual home range and core use areas.

  19. Annual particle flux observations over a heterogeneous urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvi, L.; Rannik, Ü.; Mammarella, I.; Sogachev, A.; Aalto, P. P.; Keronen, P.; Siivola, E.; Kulmala, M.; Vesala, T.

    2009-10-01

    Long-term eddy covariance particle number flux measurements for the diameter range 6 nm to 5 ?m were performed at the SMEAR III station over an urban area in Helsinki, Finland. The heterogeneity of the urban measurement location allowed us to study the effect of different land-use classes in different wind directions on the measured fluxes. The particle number fluxes were highest in the direction of a local road on weekdays, with a daytime median flux of 0.8×109 m-2 s-1. The particle fluxes showed a clear dependence on traffic rates and on the mixing conditions of the boundary layer. The measurement footprint was estimated by the use of both numerical and analytical models. Using the crosswind integrated form of the footprint function, we estimated the emission factor for the mixed vehicle fleet, yielding a median particle number emission factor per vehicle of 3.0×1014 # km-1. Particle fluxes from the vegetated area were the lowest with daytime median fluxes below 0.2×109 m-2 s-1. During weekends and nights, the particle fluxes were low from all land use sectors being in the order of 0.02-0.1×109 m-2 s-1. On an annual scale the highest fluxes were measured in winter, when emissions from stationary combustion sources are also highest. Particle number fluxes were compared with the simultaneously measured CO2 fluxes and similarity in their sources was distinguishable. For CO2, the median emission factor of vehicles was estimated to be 370 g km-1.

  20. The pollution control of fluorine and arsenic in roasted corn in "coal-burning" fluorosis area Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Luo, Kun-li; Liu, Yong-lin; Xu, Yong-xin

    2012-08-30

    Pilot experiments were carried out to reduce the fluorine (F) and arsenic (As) pollution of roasted corn dried by open ovens in "coal-burning" fluorosis area Yunnan, China. The results indicated that the average emission amount of F and As in briquettes in experimental group were 29.20mg/kg and 0.76 mg/kg in Xiaolongdong, and 46.8 mg/kg and 0.54 mg/kg in Mangbu respectively. The results also indicated that the fixing rate of F and As in briquettes in experimental group was more than 4 times and 1.2 times of that in control group respectively. The average concentration of F and As in roasted corn in experimental group were 3.86 mg/kg and 13.23 ?g/kg in Xiaolongdong, and 4.77 mg/kg and 122.96 ?g/kg in Mangbu respectively, which reduced by more than 65% and 75% respectively compared with that in control group. Adding local natural calcium-based materials in briquettes can reduce the emission of F and As and their pollution on roasted corn largely, and thus will reduce the risk of fluorosis for residents greatly in "coal-burning" fluorosis area of southwestern China. PMID:22717066

  1. Soil physiochemical changes following 12 years of annual burning in a humid–subtropical tallgrass prairie: a hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristofor R. Brye

    2006-01-01

    Burning is known to stimulate growth of grassland vegetation, promote species diversity, and inhibit natural invasion by woody plants. However, the frequency at which grasslands are burned as part of their management can affect soil nutrient content and, ultimately, productivity. The objective of this study was to characterize changes in soil physical and chemical properties in a native tallgrass prairie

  2. Burn care in South Africa: a micro cosmos of Africa.

    PubMed

    Rode, H; Cox, S G; Numanoglu, A; Berg, A M

    2014-07-01

    Burn injuries in Africa are common with between 300,000 and 17.5 million children under 5 years sustaining burn injuries annually, resulting in a high estimated fatality rate. These burns are largely environmentally conditioned and therefore preventable. The Western Cape Province in South Africa can be regarded as a prototype of paediatric burns seen on the continent, with large numbers, high morbidity and mortality rates and an area inclusive of all factors contributing to this extraordinary burden of injury. Most of the mechanisms to prevent burns are not easily modified due to the restraint of low socio-economic homes, overcrowding, unsafe appliances, multiple and complex daily demands on families and multiple psycho-social stressors. Children <4 years are at highest risk of burns with an average annual rate of 6.0/10,000 child-years. Burn care in South Africa is predominantly emergency driven and variable in terms of organization, clinical management, facilities and staffing. Various treatment strategies were introduced. The management of HIV positive children poses a problem, as well as the conflict of achieving equity of burn care for all children. Without alleviating poverty, developing minimum standards for housing, burn education, safe appliances and legislation, we will not be able to reduce the "curse of poor people" and will continue to treat the consequences. PMID:24906348

  3. An optimized groundwater extraction system for the toxic burning pits area of J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, J.J.; Johnson, R.L.; Patton, T.L.; Martino, L.E.

    1996-06-01

    Testing and disposal of chemical warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals at the J-Field area of the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) have resulted in contamination of soil and groundwater. The discharge of contaminated groundwater to on-site marshes and adjacent estuaries poses a potential risk to ecological receptors. The Toxic Burning Pits (TBP) area is of special concern because of its disposal history. This report describes a groundwater modeling study conducted at J-Field that focused on the TBP area. The goal of this modeling effort was optimization of the groundwater extraction system at the TBP area by applying linear programming techniques. Initially, the flow field in the J-Field vicinity was characterized with a three-dimensional model that uses existing data and several numerical techniques. A user-specified border was set near the marsh and used as a constraint boundary in two modeled remediation scenarios: containment of the groundwater and containment of groundwater with an impermeable cap installed over the TBP area. In both cases, the objective was to extract the minimum amount of water necessary while satisfying the constraints. The smallest number of wells necessary was then determined for each case. This optimization approach provided two benefits: cost savings, in that the water to be treated and the well installation costs were minimized, and minimization of remediation impacts on the ecology of the marsh.

  4. Comparison of Normalized Burn Ratio, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and Enhanced Vegetation Index in Areas Burned by the Jasper Wildfire of Black Hills South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Chen; Z. Zhu

    2007-01-01

    The Jasper wildfire of August and September 2000 was the largest fire to occur in the Black Hills in at least a century. The disturbance on ecosystem characteristics will be widespread and long-term. Monitoring postfire vegetation changes using remote sensing data can provide unique and timely information about ecosystem dynamics. In this study, the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), Normalized Difference

  5. To burn or not to burn? Effect of management strategy on North American prairie vegetation for public urban areas in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schmithals, Anja; Kühn, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    North American prairie vegetation has been a role model for designing highly attractive plantings for German urban green spaces for the past decade. In combination with gravel mulch top layers on planting sites and non-selective maintenance techniques like mowing or burning, prairie plantings are considered to be cost-effective and low-maintenance. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of different maintenance strategies and especially the necessity of fire management on the development success of ornamental prairie plantings in central Europe. A four factorial split-plot-block design was set up for investigation of different mixtures of prairie species under varying management conditions (mow-only, mowing plus selective weeding, mowing plus weeding and burning) on two differing soil types (in-situ topsoil and in-situ topsoil with a graywacke gravel mulch top layer) over three years. Significant effects of maintenance strategy on mortality rates and vitality were documented for a number of target species, which responded species specifically, either being slightly affected by the burning or thriving on it. Those effects were mostly restricted to topsoil sites. A strong impact on weed species presence and abundance and resulting maintenance times was found on both soil types. On topsoil sites, mow-only treatment resulted in a short-term loss of the original planting due to extensive weed growth. Corresponding gravel mulch sites were generally less colonised and visually dominated by weeds. Differences between weeded and weeded plus burned sites were minor. Unexpectedly, weed species populations were mostly unaffected by the additional burning treatment, while maintenance times and costs increased. No overall benefit of fire management for the establishment of prairie plantings was documented. The most effective management combination proved to be mowing plus regular selective weeding measures on gravel mulched planting sites. PMID:25286061

  6. To Burn or Not to Burn? Effect of Management Strategy on North American Prairie Vegetation for Public Urban Areas in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Schmithals, Anja; Kühn, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    North American prairie vegetation has been a role model for designing highly attractive plantings for German urban green spaces for the past decade. In combination with gravel mulch top layers on planting sites and non-selective maintenance techniques like mowing or burning, prairie plantings are considered to be cost-effective and low-maintenance. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of different maintenance strategies and especially the necessity of fire management on the development success of ornamental prairie plantings in central Europe. A four factorial split-plot-block design was set up for investigation of different mixtures of prairie species under varying management conditions (mow-only, mowing plus selective weeding, mowing plus weeding and burning) on two differing soil types (in-situ topsoil and in-situ topsoil with a graywacke gravel mulch top layer) over three years. Significant effects of maintenance strategy on mortality rates and vitality were documented for a number of target species, which responded species specifically, either being slightly affected by the burning or thriving on it. Those effects were mostly restricted to topsoil sites. A strong impact on weed species presence and abundance and resulting maintenance times was found on both soil types. On topsoil sites, mow-only treatment resulted in a short-term loss of the original planting due to extensive weed growth. Corresponding gravel mulch sites were generally less colonised and visually dominated by weeds. Differences between weeded and weeded plus burned sites were minor. Unexpectedly, weed species populations were mostly unaffected by the additional burning treatment, while maintenance times and costs increased. No overall benefit of fire management for the establishment of prairie plantings was documented. The most effective management combination proved to be mowing plus regular selective weeding measures on gravel mulched planting sites. PMID:25286061

  7. Annual Report for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean B. French; Rob Shuman

    2012-01-01

    As a condition to the Disposal Authorization Statement issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) on March 17, 2010, a comprehensive performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program must be implemented for the Technical Area 54, Area G disposal facility. Annual determinations of the adequacy of the performance assessment and composite analysis are to be conducted under

  8. Economics of pediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Bass, Michael J; Phillips, Linda G

    2008-07-01

    Sustaining a burn injury sets in motion a cycle of pain, disfigurement, and a search for survival. In pediatric burns, the injury extends to the parents where fear, ignorance, and helplessness forever change their lives. Pediatric burn injuries are caused by fire, hot liquids, clothing irons, hair curlers, caustic substances like drain cleaner, the grounding of an electrical source, and exposure to radiation. Efficiency in the delivery of pediatric burn care is critical. Maximizing resource utilization means continual self-evaluation and economic analysis of therapeutic modalities. Griffiths et al found that most childhood burns are due to scalds, which can be treated for $1061 per percent burn. Paddock et al reduced the cost of treating superficial pediatric burns and reduced the length of stay in hospital using silver-impregnated gauze over traditional methods. Barrett et al found improved cosmesis of skin grafts using cultured epithelial autografts but at a substantially increased cost. Corpron et al showed that pediatric burn units that treat burns >10% total body surface area and operative treatment of pediatric burns regardless of size generate positive revenue. There is a paucity of evidentiary pediatric burn economic data. More research is needed to address areas of pediatric burn care inefficiency. Improving knowledge of cost in all health care endeavors will create competition and drive down expenditures. PMID:18650705

  9. USDA area-wide project for annual grasses: outcomes and impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document provides a record of the research, outreach, education and technology transfer that was completed as part of the area-wide project for invasive annual grasses from 2007-2012. The overall goal of the project was to catalyze a holistic integrated management program for invasive annual g...

  10. Postwildfire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the 2012 Little Bear Fire, south-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne C.; Matherne, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary hazard assessment was developed of the debris-flow potential from 56 drainage basins burned by the Little Bear Fire in south-central New Mexico in June 2012. The Little Bear Fire burned approximately 179 square kilometers (km2) (44,330 acres), including about 143 km2 (35,300 acres) of National Forest System lands of the Lincoln National Forest. Within the Lincoln National Forest, about 72 km2 (17,664 acres) of the White Mountain Wilderness were burned. The burn area also included about 34 km2 (8,500 acres) of private lands. Burn severity was high or moderate on 53 percent of the burn area. The area burned is at risk of substantial postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. A postwildfire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the Little Bear Fire was performed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Lincoln National Forest. A set of two empirical hazard-assessment models developed by using data from recently burned drainage basins throughout the intermountain Western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows along the burn area drainage network and for selected drainage basins within the burn area. The models incorporate measures of areal burn extent and severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall intensity to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. Relative hazard rankings of postwildfire debris flows were produced by summing the estimated probability and volume ranking to illustrate those areas with the highest potential occurrence of debris flows with the largest volumes. The probability that a drainage basin could produce debris flows and the volume of a possible debris flow at the basin outlet were estimated for three design storms: (1) a 2-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall of 27 millimeters (mm) (a 50 percent chance of occurrence in any given year); (2) a 10-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall of 42 mm (a 10 percent chance of occurrence in any given year); and (3) a 25-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall of 51 mm (a 4 percent chance of occurrence in any given year). Thirty-nine percent of the 56 drainage basins modeled have a high (greater than 80 percent) probability of debris flows in response to the 2-year design storm; 80 percent of the modeled drainage basins have a high probability of debris flows in response to the 25-year design storm. For debris-flow volume, 7 percent of the modeled drainage basins have an estimated debris-flow volume greater than 100,000 cubic meters (m3) in response to the 2-year design storm; 9 percent of the drainage basins are included in the greater than 100,000 m3 category for both the 10-year and the 25-year design storms. Drainage basins in the greater than 100,000 m3 volume category also received the highest combined hazard ranking. The maps presented herein may be used to prioritize areas where emergency erosion mitigation or other protective measures may be needed prior to rainstorms within these drainage basins, their outlets, or areas downstream from these drainage basins within the 2- to 3-year period of vulnerability. This work is preliminary and is subject to revision. The assessment herein is provided on the condition that neither the U.S. Geological Survey nor the U.S. Government may be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the assessment.

  11. 75 FR 68323 - Annual Surveys in the Manufacturing Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ...engaged in the production of the items covered by the following list of annual surveys: Survey Title MA311D Confectionery MA314Q Carpets and Rugs MA321T Lumber Production and Mill Stocks MA325F Paints and Allied Products MA325G Pharmaceutical Preparations,...

  12. 78 FR 68023 - Annual Surveys in the Manufacturing Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ...the Annual Survey of Manufactures, the Business R&D and Innovation Survey (BRDIS), and the Manufacturers...authority of Title 13, United States Code. Business R&D and Innovation Survey The Business R&D and Innovation Survey (BRDIS) measures...

  13. Emergency Post-fire Rehabilitation Treatment Effects on Burned Area Ecology and Long-term Restoration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter R. Robichaud; Sarah A. Lewis; Robert E. Brown; Louise E. Ashmun

    2009-01-01

    The predicted continuation of strong drying and warming trends in the southwestern Unit- ed States underlies the associated prediction of increased frequency, area, and severity of wildfires in the coming years. As a result, the management of wildfires and fire effects on public lands will continue to be a major land management priority for the foreseeable fu- ture. Following fire

  14. Regional-scale correlation between CO2 fire emissions, burned areas, and mid-tropospheric CO2 diurnal variations retrieved from MetOp-A/ATOVS observations (2007-2011) over southern Africa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meilhac, Nicolas; Crevoisier, Cyril; Chédin, Alain; Scott, Noëlle A.; Armante, Raymond; Crépeau, Laurent

    2013-04-01

    Inferred from the Advanced TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (ATOVS) flying onboard the MetOp-A platform, mid-tropospheric CO2 columns are retrieved from evening (21:30 LST) and morning (09:30 LST) observations over the tropic for the period July 2007 - December 2011, using a non linear inference scheme based on neural networks initially designed for TOVS instruments onboard the NOAA platforms (Chédin et al. 2003), We find that the difference between evening and morning CO2 columns, hereafter referred to as Daily Tropospheric Excess (DTE), increases up to several ppm over regions affected by biomass fires, confirming the results obtained from TOVS observations onboard the NOAA10 platform over 1987-1991. The physical mechanism linking DTE with fire emissions comes from the diurnal cycle of fire emissions associated with enhanced convection: hot convective fire plumes injects CO2 into the troposphere during the afternoon peak of fire activity, which is seen by the satellite evening passing; it is then diluted by large scale atmospheric transport, before the next satellite morning passing. The CO2 DTE shows monthly, seasonal and annual spatial patterns similar to fire products, such as CO2 emissions from the Global Fire Emission Database (GFEDv3) and burned areas from the MODIS instrument for ten regions of southern Africa with contrasted vegetation cover. Across these regions, a high positive correlation is found between DTE and CO2 emission (R2 ~ 0.8). There is also a good agreement in terms of seasonal variability north of 14S. South of 14S, the seasonal increase of the CO2 difference during the early fire season starts earlier and rises up more rapidly than in either GFEDv3 or MODIS burned areas. This misfit could come from limitations in current burned area detection algorithms owing in particular to their difficulty in detecting small fires associated with small burnt scars.

  15. Assessment of the vegetation cover in a burned area 22-years ago using remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis (Sierra de las Nieves, South of Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; Remond, Ricardo; Ruiz-Sinoga, José D.

    2015-04-01

    The study aim was to characterize the vegetation cover in a burned area 22-years ago considering the previous situation to wildfire in 1991 and the current one in 2013. The objectives were to: (i) compare the current and previous vegetation cover to widlfire; (ii) evaluate whether the current vegetation has recovered the previous cover to wildfire; and (iii) determine the spatial variability of vegetation recovery after 22-years since the wildfire. The study area is located in Sierra de las Nieves, South of Spain. It corresponds to an area affected by a wildfire in August 8th, 1991. The burned area was equal to 8156 ha. The burn severity was spatially very high. The main geographic features of the burned area are: mountainous topography (altitudes ranging from 250 m to 1500 m; slope gradient >25%; exposure mainly southfacing); igneous (peridotites), metamorphic (gneiss) and calcareous rocks (limestones); and predominant forest land use (Pinus pinaster sp. woodlands, 10%; pinus opened forest + shrubland, 40%; shrubland, 35%; and bare soil + grassland, 15%). Remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis has been applied to achieve the objectives. Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images were used: July 13th, 1991 and July 1st, 2013, for the previous wildfire situation and 22-years after, respectively. The 1990 CORINE land cover was also considered to map 1991 land uses prior the wildfire. Likewise, the Andalucía Regional Government wildfire historic records were used to select the burned area and its geographical limit. 1991 and 2013 land cover map were obtained by means of object-oriented classifications. Also, NDVI and PVI1 vegetation indexes were calculated and mapped for both years. Finally, some images transformations and kernel density images were applied to determine the most recovered areas and to map the spatial concentration of bare soil and pine cover areas in 1991 and 2013, respectively. According to the results, the combination of remote sensing and GIS analysis let map the most recovered areas affected by the wildfire in 1991. The vegetation indexes indicated that the vegetation cover in 2013 was still lower than that mapped just before the 1991 widlfire in most of the burned area after 22-years. This result was also confirmed by other techniques applied. Finally, the kernel density surface let identify and locate the most recovered areas of pine cover as well as those areas that still remain totally or partially uncovered (bare soil.

  16. Concentrations and source apportionment of PM10 and associated elemental and ionic species in a lignite-burning power generation area of southern Greece.

    PubMed

    Argyropoulos, G; Grigoratos, Th; Voutsinas, M; Samara, C

    2013-10-01

    Ambient concentrations of PM10 and associated elemental and ionic species were measured over the cold and the warm months of 2010 at an urban and two rural sites located in the lignite-fired power generation area of Megalopolis in Peloponnese, southern Greece. The PM10 concentrations at the urban site (44.2 ± 33.6 ?g m(-3)) were significantly higher than those at the rural sites (23.7 ± 20.4 and 22.7 ± 26.9 ?g m(-3)). Source apportionment of PM10 and associated components was accomplished by an advanced computational procedure, the robotic chemical mass balance model (RCMB), using chemical profiles for a variety of local fugitive dust sources (power plant fly ash, flue gas desulfurization wet ash, feeding lignite, infertile material from the opencast mines, paved and unpaved road dusts, soil), which were resuspended and sampled through a PM10 inlet onto filters and then chemically analyzed, as well as of other common sources such as vehicular traffic, residential oil combustion, biomass burning, uncontrolled waste burning, marine aerosol, and secondary aerosol formation. Geological dusts (road/soil dust) were found to be major PM10 contributors in both the cold and warm periods of the year, with average annual contribution of 32.6 % at the urban site vs. 22.0 and 29.0 % at the rural sites. Secondary aerosol also appeared to be a significant source, contributing 22.1 % at the urban site in comparison to 30.6 and 28.7 % at the rural sites. At all sites, the contribution of biomass burning was most significant in winter (28.2 % at the urban site vs. 14.6 and 24.6 % at the rural sites), whereas vehicular exhaust contribution appeared to be important mostly in the summer (21.9 % at the urban site vs. 11.5 and 10.5 % at the rural sites). The highest contribution of fly ash (33.2 %) was found at the rural site located to the north of the power plants during wintertime, when winds are favorable. In the warm period, the highest contribution of fly ash was found at the rural site located to the south of the power plants, although it was less important (7.2 %). Moderate contributions of fly ash were found at the urban site (5.4 and 2.7 % in the cold and the warm period, respectively). Finally, the mine field was identified as a minor PM10 source, occasionally contributing with lignite dust and/or deposited wet ash dust under dry summer conditions, with the summertime contributions ranging between 3.1 and 11.0 % among the three sites. The non-parametric bootstrapped potential source contribution function analysis was further applied to localize the regions of sources apportioned by the RCMB. For the majority of sources, source regions appeared as being located within short distances from the sampling sites (within the Peloponnesse Peninsula). More distant Greek areas of the NNE sector also appeared to be source regions for traffic emissions and secondary calcium sulfate dust. PMID:23644947

  17. ANNUAL REPORT ON PERFORMANCE AUDIT RESULTS FOR POHC TESTING DURING RCRA TRIAL BURNS--STATUS REPORT #2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Audit materials containing Principal organic Hardous Constituents (P0HCs) have been developed by AREAL for use by federal, state, and local agencies or their contractors to assess the accuracy of measurement methods during RCA trial burn tests. Audit materials are currently avail...

  18. Work plan for focused feasibility study of the toxic burning pits area at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Biang, C.; Benioff, P.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCIA). J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA)(predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-0021355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in which data were collected to model groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today-

  19. D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (431-D and 431-1D) Corrective Measures Study/Focused Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Mason, J.T.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine alternatives which may be used to remediate the D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (DBRP). An objective of this process is to provide decision makers adequate information to compare alternatives, select an appropriate remediation for the DBRP, and demonstrate the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements in the Record of Decision.

  20. Comparison of the MODIS Active Fire Product and Burned Area Product in Detecting Fire Affected Pixels in the Ecosystems of Belize 2003 - 2009 

    E-print Network

    van, Warmerdam

    2010-11-24

    The MODIS Active Fire Product (AFP) and the Burned Area Product (BAP) were used to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of fire affected pixels in the ecosystems of Belize from 2003-2009. There was an overall trend of decreasing fire...

  1. Potential impact of forest management and increased area burned on the C balance of Canada's managed forest in the 21st century. (Invited)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Metsaranta; W. A. Kurz; G. Stinson; E. Neilson

    2010-01-01

    The strength and dynamics of C sinks in forest ecosystems affects the airborne fraction of future fossil fuel emissions. Climate change is expected to increase area of boreal forest burned by wildfire over the 21st century. If this reduces the sink strength of this biome, then achieving global atmospheric CO2 stabilization targets will become more difficult. In several recent studies,

  2. Geothermal, Geochemical and Geomagnetic Mapping Of the Burning Coal Seam in Fire Zone 18 of the Coal Mining Area Wuda, Inner Mongolia, PR China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Kessels; J. Han; M. Halisch; H. Lindner; H. Rueter; M. W. Wuttke

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal has become a world wide problem caused by and affecting technical operations in coal mining areas. The localization of the burning centre is a prerequisite for any planning of fire fighting operations. In the German - Chinese coal fire project sponsored by the German Ministry of Science and Technologies (Grant No. 0330490K) the so called fire

  3. Preventing tap water burns.

    PubMed Central

    Baptiste, M S; Feck, G

    1980-01-01

    Based on a 1974-1975 survey of hospital records in upstate New York, we estimate that 347 tap water burns will require inpatient treatment annually, with children and the elderly at increased risk. The number and severity of burns from tap water makes them an important prevention priority. Reducing the temperature of household hot water supplies could be a practical and effective prevention measure. PMID:7386711

  4. Satellite-based automated burned area detection: A performance assessment of the MODIS MCD45A1 in the Brazilian savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Fernando Moreira De; Ferreira, Laerte G.

    2015-04-01

    Burnings, which cause major changes to the environment, can be effectively monitored via satellite data, regarding both the identification of active fires and the estimation of burned areas. Among the many orbital sensors suitable for mapping burned areas on global and regional scales, the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), on board the Terra and Aqua platforms, has been the most widely utilized. In this study, the performance of the MODIS MCD45A1 burned area product was thoroughly evaluated in the Brazilian savanna, the second largest biome in South America and a global biodiversity hotspot, characterized by a conspicuous climatic seasonality and the systematic occurrence of natural and anthropogenic fires. Overall, September MCD45A1 polygons (2000-2012) compared well to the Landsat-based reference mapping (r2 = 0.92) and were closely accompanied, on a monthly basis, by MOD14 and MYD14 hotspots (r2 = 0.89), although large omissions errors, linked to landscape patterns, structures, and overall conditions depicted in each reference image, were observed. In spite of its spatial and temporal limitations, the MCD45A1 product proved instrumental for mapping and understanding fire behavior and impacts on the Cerrado landscapes.

  5. Estimates of global, regional, and national annual CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Andres, R.J. [University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Inst. of Northern Engineering

    1995-12-01

    This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national annual estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.

  6. A 1-year prospective study of burns in an Irish paediatric burns unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Cronin; P. E. M. Butler; M. McHugh; G. Edwards

    1996-01-01

    Burns are the fourth leading cause of injury death in children in the USA, accounting for 1300 paediatric deaths annually. The majority of paediatric burns mortality and morbidity result from simple domestic accidents that are preventable. A prospective study of paediatric burns from 1 January 1992 to 1 January 1993 was undertaken at our burns unit to outline the profile

  7. TNX-Area groundwater monitoring report. 1993 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    During 1993, samples from well cluster P 26 and the TBG, TNX, XSB, and YSB well series at the TNX Area were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Seven parameters exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Dichloromethane (methylene chloride), a common laboratory contaminant, nitrate, and trichloroethylene exceeded PDWS most frequently. Four wells in this area currently are part of the Purge Water Contaminant Program due to high trichloroethylene concentrations. Carbon tetrachloride, gross alpha, lead, and tetrachloroethylene were elevated sporadically in one or more wells during the year. Groundwater flow directions and rates in the Unconfined Aquifer were similar from quarter to quarter during the year.

  8. Fluoride and sulfur dioxide indoor pollution situation and control in coal-burning endemic area in Zhaotong, Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yonglin; Luo, Kunli; Li, Ling; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan

    2013-10-01

    The presented study aims to investigate the gaseous fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution level in the kitchen, traditional flue-curing barn and outdoor environment and to find economically feasible method to reduce fluorine and sulfur release. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentrations in air of outdoor environment, kitchen and traditional flue-curing barn were determined in 56 households in coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas of Zhaotong. Among these, 21 households in Yujiawan Village, Zhenxiong County, Zhaotong City were chosen for this experiment to reduce gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in traditional flue-curing barn air by using calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone (CDSL) instead of clay mixed with coal. The result showed that: (1) gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the outdoor air in Mangbu Township area was 0.51 ?g dm-2?day and <0.05 mg m-3, respectively and in Xiaolongdong Township was 2.7 ?g dm-2 day and <0.05 mg m-3, respectively while in Zhaotong City these concentration were lower than the ambient air standard (3 ?g dm-2?day and 0.5 mg m-3, respectively). (2) The indoor gaseous fluoride concentration (3.7 ?g m-3) in air of kitchen with the improved coal stove was within the reference value (10 ?g m-3); SO2 concentration (0.94 mg m-3) in kitchen air had decline, but its concentration was still higher than indoor air quality standard (0.5 mg m-3). (3) Average concentration of gaseous fluoride and SO2 in air of traditional flue-curing barn of Xiaolongdong Township was 7.2 ?g m-3 and 6.8 mg m-3 respectively, and in Yujiawan village were 10.1 ?g m-3 and 14.4 mg m-3, respectively. (4) After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air decreased of 45% and 91%, respectively. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 pollution in the traditional flue-curing barn is very serious. The corn and chili baked by open stoves in traditional flue-curing barn (baking room) was also seriously polluted by fluoride and sulfur. After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air have declined markedly. The way of adding calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay as a binder for briquette-making is an economically feasible way to control the indoor pollution of fluorine and sulfur in coal-burning endemic in Zhaotong, Yunnan.

  9. Scotch Creek Wildlife Area 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Jim [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2008-11-03

    The Scotch Creek Wildlife Area is a complex of 6 separate management units located in Okanogan County in North-central Washington State. The project is located within the Columbia Cascade Province (Okanogan sub-basin) and partially addresses adverse impacts caused by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee hydroelectric dams. With the acquisition of the Eder unit in 2007, the total size of the wildlife area is now 19,860 acres. The Scotch Creek Wildlife Area was approved as a wildlife mitigation project in 1996 and habitat enhancement efforts to meet mitigation objectives have been underway since the spring of 1997 on Scotch Creek. Continuing efforts to monitor the threatened Sharp-tailed grouse population on the Scotch Creek unit are encouraging. The past two spring seasons were unseasonably cold and wet, a dangerous time for the young of the year. This past spring, Scotch Creek had a cold snap with snow on June 10th, a critical period for young chicks just hatched. Still, adult numbers on the leks have remained stable the past two years. Maintenance of BPA funded enhancements is necessary to protect and enhance shrub-steppe and to recover and sustain populations of Sharp-tailed grouse and other obligate species.

  10. Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan for the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (231-F, 231-1F, and 231-2F)

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this source unit Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan is to describe the preferred alternative for addressing the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (231-F and 231-1F) and Rubble Pit (231-2F) (FBRP) source unit located at SRS, in southwestern Aiken County, South Carolina and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process.

  11. Linking tree-ring and sediment-charcoal records to reconstruct fire occurrence and area burned in subalpine forests of Yellowstone National Park, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip E. Higuera; Cathy Whitlock; Josh A. Gage

    2011-01-01

    Reconstructing specific fire-history metrics with charcoal records has been difficult, in part because calibration data sets are rare. We calibrated charcoal accumulation in sediments from three medium (14—19 ha) and one large (4250 ha) lake with a 300 yr tree-ring-based fire-history reconstruction from central Yellowstone National Park (YNP) to reconstruct local fire occurrence and area burned within a 128 840

  12. Relationship between MODIS fire hot spot count and burned area in a degraded tropical peat swamp forest in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Tansey; J. Beston; A. Hoscilo; S. E. Page; C. U. Paredes Hernández

    2008-01-01

    A number of space-borne sensors observe radiant energy at thermal wavelengths. Thermal anomaly data, otherwise known as hotspot data, have been shown to be particularly correlated with the occurrence of active fires (a fire normally with a flaming component and\\/or smoldering component). Because of a lack of high-quality burned area data, recent studies have used hotspot data as a proxy

  13. Shillapoo Wildlife Area, Annual Report 2004-2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, Brian

    2004-10-01

    This report summarizes accomplishments, challenges and successes on WDFW's Shillapoo Wildlife Area funded under Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wildlife Mitigation Program (BPA project No.2003-012-00) during the Fiscal Year 05 contract period October 1, 2004-September 30, 2005. The information presented here is intended to supplement that contained in BPA's PISCES contract development and reporting system. The organization below is by broad categories of work but references are made to individual work elements in the PISCES Statement of Work as appropriate. The greatest success realized during this contract period was completion of the water system that will provide water to wetland basins within the Vancouver Lake Unit and three independent basins on adjoining Clark County owned lands. The water system paid for by Clark Public Utilities was designed and built under the direction of Ducks Unlimited. Having a reliable water supply for these areas has allowed us for the first time to begin making significant progress toward our wetland vegetation management goals on this unit. A reduction in the density of reed canary grass has already been noted and increased levels of native plant occurrence have been observed. Our most notable setback was an increase in the infestation of purple loosestrife within a portion of the Shillapoo Lakebed including parts of the North and South Units. A great deal of effort and time was spent on addressing the problem including hand cutting and spraying individual plants.

  14. Shillapoo Wildlife Area, Annual Report 2007-2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, Brian

    2007-10-01

    This report summarizes accomplishments, challenges and successes on WDFW's Shillapoo Wildlife Area funded under Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wildlife Mitigation Program (BPA project No.2003-012-00) during the Fiscal Year 08 contract period October 1, 2007-September 30, 2008. The information presented here is intended to supplement that contained in BPA's PISCES contract development and reporting system. The organization below is by broad categories of work but references are made to individual work elements in the PISCES Statement of Work as appropriate. Significant progress was realized in almost all major work types. Of particular note was progress made in tree plantings and pasture rehabilitation efforts. This year's tree planting effort included five sites detailed below and in terms of the number of plants was certainly the largest effort on the wildlife area to date in one season. The planting itself took a significant amount of time, which was anticipated. However, installation of mats and tubes took much longer than expected which impacted planned fence projects in particular. Survival of the plantings appears to be good. Improvement to the quality of waterfowl pasture habitats is evident on a number of sites due to replanting and weed control efforts. Continuing long-term weed control efforts will be key in improving this particular type of habitat. A prolonged cold, wet spring and a number of equipment breakdowns presented stumbling blocks that impacted schedules and ultimately progress on planned activities. The unusual spring weather delayed fieldwork on pasture planting projects as well as weed control and slowed the process of maintaining trees and shrubs. This time lag also caused the continued deferral of some of our fencing projects. The large brush hog mower had the driveline break twice and the smaller tractor had an engine failure that caused it to be down for over a month. We have modified our budget plan for next year to include a temporary employee that will work primarily on tree maintenance and fencing projects to make sure that we make progress in these areas and we will be investigating whether a heavier duty driveline can be obtained for the mower.

  15. BASEF 2013 Call for Judges The 53rd Annual Bay Area Science and Engineering Fair (BASEF)

    E-print Network

    Haykin, Simon

    BASEF 2013 Call for Judges The 53rd Annual Bay Area Science and Engineering Fair (BASEF) We hope that you will join us at BASEF 2013 as a volunteer Science Fair Judge on Thursday, March 21, 2013 from 8 and international science fair organizations, and send many of our winning students on to either the Canada

  16. Controlled Burn

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    GULF OF MEXICO — Dark clouds of smoke and fire emerge as oil burns during a controlled burn in the Gulf of Mexico. The U.S. Coast Guard working in partnership with BP PLC, local residents, and other Federal agencies conducted the controlled burn to aid in preventing the spread of oil following...

  17. Overview of current pediatric burn care.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Raquel; Shanti, Christina M

    2015-02-01

    Burn injuries affect approximately a million children in the United States on an annual basis. Moderate to severe burns require hospitalization, usually under the direction of a Pediatric Surgical service. Despite advancements in burn treatment, pediatric burn injuries account for approximately 2500 deaths annually. This article provides an overview of the initial evaluation and resuscitative measures for pediatric burn patients, most current wound care, indications for grafting, and the role of nutrition, including use of pharmacologic adjuncts. Use of colloid solutions, indications for use of skin substitutes, and transfer criteria will also be addressed. PMID:25639810

  18. Quality of reporting according to the CONSORT, STROBE and Timmer instrument at the American Burn Association (ABA) annual meetings 2000 and 2008

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The quality of oral and poster conference presentations differ. We hypothesized that the quality of reporting is better in oral abstracts than in poster abstracts at the American Burn Association (ABA) conference meeting. Methods All 511 abstracts (2000: N = 259, 2008: N = 252) from the ABA annual meetings in year 2000 and 2008 were screened. RCT's and obervational studies were analyzed by two independent examiners regarding study design and quality of reporting for randomized-controlled trials (RCT) by CONSORT criteria, observational studies by the STROBE criteria and additionally the Timmer instrument. Results Overall, 13 RCT's in 2000 and 9 in 2008, 77 observational studies in 2000 and 98 in 2008 were identified. Of the presented abstracts, 5% (oral; 7%(n = 9) vs. poster; 3%(n = 4)) in 2000 and 4% ((oral; 5%(n = 7) vs. poster; 2%(n = 2)) in 2008 were randomized controlled trials. The amount of observational studies as well as experimental studies accepted for presentation was not significantly different between oral and poster in both years. Reporting quality of RCT was for oral vs. poster abstracts in 2000 (CONSORT; 7.2 ± 0.8 vs. 7 ± 0, p = 0.615, CI -0.72 to 1.16, Timmer; 7.8 ± 0.7 vs. 7.5 ± 0.6,) and 2008 (CONSORT; 7.2 ± 1.4 vs. 6.5 ± 1, Timmer; 9.7 ± 1.1 vs. 9.5 ± 0.7). While in 2000, oral and poster abstracts of observational studies were not significantly different for reporting quality according to STROBE (STROBE; 8.3 ± 1.7 vs. 8.9 ± 1.6, p = 0.977, CI -37.3 to 36.3, Timmer; 8.6 ± 1.5 vs. 8.5 ± 1.4, p = 0.712, CI -0.44 to 0.64), in 2008 oral observational abstracts were significantly better than posters (STROBE score; 9.4 ± 1.9 vs. 8.5 ± 2, p = 0.005, CI 0.28 to 1.54, Timmer; 9.4 ± 1.4 vs. 8.6 ± 1.7, p = 0.013, CI 0.32 to 1.28). Conclusions Poster abstract reporting quality at the American Burn Association annual meetings in 2000 and 2008 is not necessarily inferior to oral abstracts as far as study design and reporting quality of clinical trials are concerned. The primary hypothesis has to be rejected. However, endorsement for the comprehensive use of the CONSORT and STROBE criteria might further increase the quality of reporting ABA conference abstracts in the future. PMID:22126516

  19. Annual Report for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shuman, Rob [WPS: WASTE PROJECTS AND SERVICES

    2012-05-22

    As a condition to the Disposal Authorization Statement issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) on March 17, 2010, a comprehensive performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program must be implemented for the Technical Area 54, Area G disposal facility. Annual determinations of the adequacy of the performance assessment and composite analysis are to be conducted under the maintenance program to ensure that the conclusions reached by those analyses continue to be valid. This report summarizes the results of the fiscal year 2011 annual review for Area G. Revision 4 of the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis was issued in 2008 and formally approved in 2009. These analyses are expected to provide reasonable estimates of the long-term performance of Area G and, hence, the disposal facility's ability to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) performance objectives. Annual disposal receipt reviews indicate that smaller volumes of waste will require disposal in the pits and shafts at Area G relative to what was projected for the performance assessment and composite analysis. The future inventories are projected to decrease modestly for the pits but increase substantially for the shafts due to an increase in the amount of tritium that is projected to require disposal. Overall, however, changes in the projected future inventories of waste are not expected to compromise the ability of Area G to satisfy DOE performance objectives. The Area G composite analysis addresses potential impacts from all waste disposed of at the facility, as well as other sources of radioactive material that may interact with releases from Area G. The level of knowledge about the other sources included in the composite analysis has not changed sufficiently to call into question the validity of that analysis. Ongoing environmental surveillance activities are conducted at, and in the vicinity of, Area G. However, the information generated by many of these activities cannot be used to evaluate the validity of the performance assessment and composite analysis models because the monitoring data collected are specific to operational releases or address receptors that are outside the domain of the performance assessment and composite analysis. In general, applicable monitoring data are supportive of some aspects of the performance assessment and composite analysis. Several research and development (R and D) efforts have been initiated under the performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program. These investigations are designed to improve the current understanding of the disposal facility and site, thereby reducing the uncertainty associated with the projections of the long-term performance of Area G. The status and results of R and D activities that were undertaken in fiscal year 2011 are discussed in this report. Special analyses have been conducted to determine the feasibility of disposing of specific waste streams, to address proposed changes in disposal operations, and to consider the impacts of changes to the models used to conduct the performance assessment and composite analysis. These analyses are described and the results of the evaluations are summarized in this report. The Area G disposal facility consists of Material Disposal Area (MDA) G and the Zone 4 expansion area. To date, all disposal operations at Area G have been confined to MDA G. Material Disposal Area G is scheduled to undergo final closure in 2015; disposal of waste in the pits and shafts is scheduled to end in 2013. In anticipation of the closure of MDA G, plans are being made to ship the majority of the waste generated at LANL to off-site locations for disposal. It is not clear at this time if waste that will be disposed of at LANL will be placed in Zone 4 or if disposal operations will move to a new location at the Laboratory. Separately, efforts to optimize the final cover used in the closure of MDA G are underway; a final cover design different than that adopted for the performance assessment and composite analy

  20. Burns and military clothing.

    PubMed

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under high heat loads in the laboratory, combat clothing can ignite, but there is little evidence that clothing ignition is a common occurrence in military burn casualties. Thermoplastic materials have many benefits in civil and military clothing. There is little objective evidence that they exacerbate burns, or complicate burn management. Their use in military clothing must be based on objective evidence, not hearsay. PMID:11307683

  1. Clothing burns in Canadian children

    PubMed Central

    Stanwick, Richard S.

    1985-01-01

    A Canadian survey of 11 tertiary care pediatric centres with specialized burn facilities revealed that an estimated 37 children up to 9 years of age are admitted annually to such hospitals because of clothing burns. Sleepwear accounts for an estimated 21 such burns per year. Girls were found to suffer the most severe burns and represented eight of the nine children in the series who died. Loose and flowing garments dominated the girls' styles. The results of multiple-regression analysis confirmed that style of clothing (loose and flowing as opposed to snug) was the most significant predictor of burn severity, length of hospital stay, the need for skin grafting and survival. The ignition situation (avoidance of parental supervision at the time of injury) was the only other important predictor. The success of regulatory actions in other countries in reducing the incidence of severe clothing burns is reviewed, and preventive strategies for Canada are explored. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:3995433

  2. Specific leaf area and leaf nitrogen concentration in annual and perennial grass species growing in Mediterranean old-fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Garnier; P. Cordonnier; J.-L. Guillerm; L. Sonié

    1997-01-01

    Specific leaf area (the ratio of leaf area to leaf dry mass) and leaf nitrogen concentration were measured on ten annual\\u000a and nine perennial grass species growing in two old-fields of southern France, under a sub-humid Mediterranean climate. Specific\\u000a leaf area (SLA) was found to be significantly higher in annuals than in perennials, but leaf nitrogen concentration expressed\\u000a on a

  3. Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Omang, R.J.; Parrett, Charles; Hull, J.A.

    1955-01-01

    Annual peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 172 stations maintained in 1980. Data in the report are tabulated for the period of record. (USGS)

  4. Post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near Hailey, central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary hazard assessment was developed for debris-flow hazards in the 465 square-kilometer (115,000 acres) area burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek fire near Hailey in central Idaho. The burn area covers all or part of six watersheds and selected basins draining to the Big Wood River and is at risk of substantial post-fire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the Intermountain Region in Western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence, potential volume of debris flows, and the combined debris-flow hazard ranking along the drainage network within the burn area and to estimate the same for analyzed drainage basins within the burn area. Input data for the empirical models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm (13 mm); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm (19 mm); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm (22 mm). Estimated debris-flow probabilities for drainage basins upstream of 130 selected basin outlets ranged from less than 1 to 78 percent with the probabilities increasing with each increase in storm magnitude. Probabilities were high in three of the six watersheds. For the 25-year storm, probabilities were greater than 60 percent for 11 basin outlets and ranged from 50 to 60 percent for an additional 12 basin outlets. Probability estimates for stream segments within the drainage network can vary within a basin. For the 25-year storm, probabilities for stream segments within 33 basins were higher than the basin outlet, emphasizing the importance of evaluating the drainage network as well as basin outlets. Estimated debris-flow volumes for the three modeled storms range from a minimal debris flow volume of 10 cubic meters [m3]) to greater than 100,000 m3. Estimated debris-flow volumes increased with basin size and distance downstream. For the 25-year storm, estimated debris-flow volumes were greater than 100,000 m3 for 4 basins and between 50,000 and 100,000 m3 for 10 basins. The debris-flow hazard rankings did not result in the highest hazard ranking of 5, indicating that none of the basins had a high probability of debris-flow occurrence and a high debris-flow volume estimate. The hazard ranking was 4 for one basin using the 10-year-recurrence storm model and for three basins using the 25-year-recurrence storm model. The maps presented herein may be used to prioritize areas where post-wildfire remediation efforts should take place within the 2- to 3-year period of increased erosional vulnerability.

  5. Pre-harvest sugarcane burning emission inventories based on remote sensing data in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    França, Daniela; Longo, Karla; Rudorff, Bernardo; Aguiar, Daniel; Freitas, Saulo; Stockler, Rafael; Pereira, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    The state of São Paulo is the largest sugarcane producer in Brazil, with a cultivated area of about 5.4 Mha in 2011. Approximately 2 Mha were harvested annually from 2006 to 2011 with the pre-harvest straw burning practice, which emits trace gases and particulate material to the atmosphere. The development of emission inventories for sugarcane straw burning is crucial in order to assess its environmental impacts. This study aimed to estimate annual emissions associated with the pre-harvest sugarcane burning practice in the state of São Paulo based on remote sensing maps and emission and combustion factors for sugarcane straw burning. Average estimated emissions (Gg/year) were 1130 ± 152 for CO, 26 ± 4 for NOx, 16 ± 2 for CH4, 45 ± 6 for PM2.5, 120 ± 16 for PM10 and 154 ± 21 for NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons). An intercomparison among annual emissions from this study and annual emissions from four other different approaches indicated that the estimates obtained by satellite fire detection or low spatial resolution approaches tend to underestimate sugarcane burned area, due to unique characteristics of this type of biomass fire. Overall, our results also indicated that government actions to reduce sugarcane straw burning emissions are becoming effective.

  6. CO[sub 2] and temperature effects on leaf area production in two annual plant species

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerly, D.D.; Coleman, J.S.; Morse, S.R.; Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1992-08-01

    The authors studied leaf area production in two annual plant species, Abutilon theophrasti and Amaranthus retroflexus, under three day/night temperature regimes and two concentrations of carbon dioxide. The production of whole-plant leaf area during the first 30 d of growth was analyzed in terms of the leaf initiation rate, leaf expansion, individual leaf area, and, in Amaranthus, production of branch leaves. Temperature and CO[sub 2] influenced leaf area production through effects on the rate of development, determined by the production of nodes on the main stem, and through shifts in the relationship between whole-plant leaf area and the number of main stem nodes. In Abutilon, leaf initiation rate was highest at 38[degree], but area of individual leaves was greatest at 28[degree]. Total leaf area was greatly reduced at 18[degree] due to slow leaf initiation rates. Elevated CO[sub 2] concentration increased leaf initiation rate at 28[degree], resulting in an increase in whole-part leaf area. In Amaranthus, leaf initiation rate increased with temperature, and was increased by elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree]. Individual leaf area was greatest at 28[degree], and was increased by elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree] but decreased at 38[degree]. Branch leaf area displayed a similar response to CO[sub 2], butt was greater at 38[degree]. Overall, wholeplant leaf area was slightly increased at 38[degree] relative to 28[degree], and elevated CO[sub 2] levels resulted in increased leaf area at 28[degree] but decreased leaf area at 38[degree].

  7. Annual ground-water use in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1970-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horn, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Annual groundwater use in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area from 1970-79 is presented by aquifer and type of use. Most groundwater is withdrawn from wells in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer and major uses of the water are for self-supplied industry and public supplies. Annual groundwater-use data are presented by county for each of the five major aquifers; Prairie du Chien-Jordan, Mount Simon-Hinckley, Ironton-Galesville, St. Peter, and drift. The data also are presented by county for each major use type including public supply, self-supplied industry, commercial air-conditioning, irrigation, lake-level maintenance, and dewatering. The data were collected initially by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and were supplemented by data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey. (USGS)

  8. L-form plastics in the treatment of post-burn trophic ulcers and cicatrices of the foot calcaneal area.

    PubMed

    Shakirov, Babur M; Tagaev, Komil R; Tursunov, Bachron S; Achtamov, Dgamshed A

    2009-03-01

    The burn trauma of the posterior surface of calcaneus region and ankle joint followed by cicatrix formation in the Achilles tendon zone is often complicated by unhealing trophic ulcers. Eleven patients (seven men and four women, aged 9-54 years) have been operated on under our observation for prolonged unhealing ulcers and cicatrices located in the Achilles tendon zone. After cicatrices dissection, L-form plastic surgery was performed. The postoperative period was smooth; a skin graft was appropriately fixed to the proper tissues and the wound margins. Good results were achieved in 10 cases, and no complications were noted. However, in only one patient a marginal necrosis of the external talus part adjoining the ulcer due to tissue changes has been noted, but that had no influence on the good results of the operation. PMID:19138578

  9. Rice Area Inter Annual Variation through a Remote Sensing Based Mapping Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshorbagy, A. M.; Imam, E. H.; Nour, M. H.

    2013-10-01

    Rice is the main water-consuming crop planted in Egypt Delta. Constrained with the limited water resources, mapping rice is essential for any better water resources management. Xiao (2005) developed an algorithm for rice mapping by studying the dynamics of three vegetation indices the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and the Land surface water index (LSWI). Rice main differentiating feature is being planted in flooded land. Thus moisture sensitive index like LSWI will temporally exceed the EVI or the NDVI signalling rice transplanting. Xiao (2005) utilized MODIS free satellite imagery (500 m spatial resolution). However its coarse resolution combined with the Egyptian complex landscape raised the need for the algorithm modification. In this piece of work a low - cost rice mapping algorithm was developed. The multi resolution (MODIS 250 m red and near infrared bands) and (MODIS 500 m - shortwave infrared and blue bands) were utilized. The arable land was mapped through the utilization of the NDVI and applying it on MODIS 250 m (fine spatial resolution) scenes. The MODIS fine temporal resolution (MOD09A1 product) was utilized to study the LSWI, NDVI and EVI dynamics throughout the rice planting season. The non-arable land from MODIS 250 m was then used to refine the rice area calculated from the MODIS 500 m imagery. The algorithm was applied on the Egypt delta region in years 2008, 2009, and 2010. The mapped rice areas were enhanced from the MODIS 250 m arable mapping module and the results of the algorithm were validated against annual areas reports. There was good agreement between the estimated areas from the algorithm and the reports. Inter annual variation in rice areas was successfully mapped. In addition, the rice area and probable transplanting dates conforms to local planting practices. The findings of this study indicate that the algorithm can be used for rice mapping on a timely and frequent manner.

  10. Effect of residual biomass burning on CO2 flux at a paddy field in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Y.; Iwata, T.; Nakaya, K.

    2014-12-01

    Paddy field is one of the most important ecosystem in monsoon Asia, and takes a great important role in CO2 uptake. Carbon budget in agricultural fields is largely influenced by some artificial managements. After the harvest of crops, residual biomass is burned on fields, brought out from fields, or left and plowed into paddy soils. If the open burning is conducted on fields, one part of biomass carbon would be emitted to atmosphere as CO2, and the other part would be plowed into soils. In this study, an experimental paddy field was divided into two areas to investigate what impact is brought on the annual CO2 flux by the difference of disposal management of residual biomass after the harvest. At the one area, residual biomass was burned and plowed into soils after the harvest in late November 2011, 2012, and 2013. At the other area, residue was not burned and plowed into soils as usual. From three-years average of sampling surveys, carbon content of residue plowed into soils after the harvest was estimated 293±1 and 220±36 g C m-2 at no-burned and burned area, respectively. Continuous eddy-covariance measurements of CO2 fluxes at each area were conducted for three years. A little bit of difference in CO2 flux between two areas was shown during rice season.

  11. Estimating Annual Individual Doses for Evacuees Returning Home to Areas Affected by the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Kazuaki; Kurihara, Osamu; Ohmachi, Yasushi; Takada, Masashi; Omori, Yasutaka; Akahane, Keiichi; Kim, Eunjoo; Torikoshi, Masami; Yonehara, Hidenori; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-08-01

    To contribute to the reconstruction and revitalization of Fukushima Prefecture following the 2011 nuclear power disaster, annual individual doses were estimated for evacuees who will return home to Tamura City, Kawauchi Village, and Iitate Village in Fukushima. Ambient external dose rates and individual doses obtained with personal dosimeters were measured at many residential and occupational sites throughout the study areas to obtain fundamental data needed for the estimation. The measurement results indicated that the ratio of individual dose based on a personal dosimeter to the ambient external dose measurement was 0.7 with 10% uncertainty. Multiplying the ambient external dose by 0.7 may be an appropriate measure of the effective dose to an individual in the investigated area. Annual individual doses were estimated for representative lifestyles and occupations based on the ambient external dose rates at the measurement sites, taking into account the relationship between the ambient external dose and individual dose. The results were as follows: 0.6-2.3 mSv y in Tamura, 1.1-5.5 mSv y in Kawauchi, and 3.8-17 mSv y in Iitate. For all areas investigated, the estimated dose to outdoor workers was higher than that to indoor workers. Identifying ways to reduce the amount of time that an outdoor worker spends outdoors would provide an effective measure to reduce dose. PMID:26107433

  12. Work plan for focused feasibility study of the toxic burning pits area at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Biang; P. Benioff; L. Martino; T. Patton

    1995-01-01

    The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI\\/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCIA). J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area

  13. Burning issues

    SciTech Connect

    Raloff, J.

    1993-10-02

    The idea of burning oil slicks at sea has intrigued oil-cleanup managers for more than a decade, but it wasn't until the advent of fireproof booms in the mid-1980's and a major spill opportunity (the March 1989 Exxon Valdez) that in-situ burning got a real sea trial. The results of this and other burning experiments indicate that, when conditions allow it, nothing can compete with fire's ability to remove oil from water. Burns have the potential to remove as much oil in one day as mechanical devices can in one month, along with minimal equipment, labor and cost. Reluctance to burn in appropriate situations comes primarily from the formation of oily, black smoke. Analysis of the potentially toxic gases have been done, indicating that burning will not increase the levels of polluting aldehydes, ketones, dioxins, furans, and PAHs above those that normally evaporate from spilled oil. This article contains descriptions of planned oil fires and the discussion on the advantages and concerns of such a policy.

  14. Burns in the disabled.

    PubMed

    Backstein, R; Peters, W; Neligan, P

    1993-06-01

    A retrospective analysis of 812 patients admitted to the Ross Tilley Burn Centre between 1984 and 1992 resulted in 37 cases of burn injuries which were directly related to premorbid disabilities. The majority of these burns (83.8 per cent) occurred in the patient's home, most commonly as scald injuries in the bath tub, the shower, or following hot water spills. Nineteen patients were male, 17 were female. The median age was 58 years. Six patients had spinal cord disorders: four had traumatic cord damage, two had spina bifida. Six patients had seizure disorders. Five of these patients had been taking anti-seizure medications, but all had subtherapeutic blood levels on admission to hospital. Two patients had diabetes mellitus with peripheral neuropathies. Thirteen patients had four miscellaneous neurological disorders, including: tardive dyskinesia (two), CVA (four), Parkinson's disease (two), Alzheimer's disease (two), cerebral palsy (one), multiple sclerosis (one) and blindness (one). Three patients had a diagnosis of syncope. Two patients had emphysema, and four were morbidly obese. The average length of stay (LOS) for the disabled patients was 27.6 days for a median burn size of 10 per cent body surface area (BSA), compared to an average LOS for the general population of 25.7 days for a larger median burn size of 21 per cent BSA. The mortality rate was also much higher in the disabled population (22.2 per cent vs. 6.0 per cent). Most of these burn injuries were preventable. A series of burn prevention guidelines is presented, in an attempt to reduce the incidence of these burn injuries in disabled patients. PMID:8507362

  15. The consequences of global biomass burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1991-01-01

    Global biomass burning encompasses forest burning for land clearing, the annual burning of grasslands, the annual burning of agricultural stubble and waste after harvests, and the burning of wood as fuel. These activities generate CO2, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, CO, H2, NO, NH3, and CH3Cl; of these, CO, CH4 and the hydrocarbons, and NO, are involved in the photochemical production of tropospheric O3, while NO is transformed to NO2 and then to nitric acid, which falls as acid rain. Biomass burning is also a major source of atmospheric particulates and aerosols which affect the transmission of incoming solar radiation and outgoing IR radiation through the atmosphere, with significant climatic effects.

  16. The daily fluorine and arsenic intake for residents with different dietaries and fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area, Yunnan, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Luo, Kun-Li; Tang, Yue-Gang; Liu, Yong-Lin

    2015-02-01

    The daily fluorine (F)/arsenic (As) intake (DFI/DAsI) for residents at different ages with different dietaries and dietary changes was investigated to analyze the fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area in Yunnan, Southwest China. The DFI for residents with a dietary of roasted corn and roasted chili was 5.06, 9.60, and 14.38 mg for age groups 3-7, 8-15, and over 15 years, respectively. Over 90 % of DFI was from roasted foodstuffs. The DFI for residents of the same age group living on rice and roasted chili was 1.94, 3.50, and 4.95 mg, respectively, which were less than that for the former dietary type, and 65 % of DFI was from roasted chili. The main sources for their DFI are roasted foodstuffs. Both were higher than the dietaries with non-roasted foodstuffs and the recommended daily allowances (RDAs) for USA and China at different levels. The DAsI for all residents ranged from 25 to 135 ?g, and at this level of DAsI, it would not influence human health. However, As pollution of roasted foodstuffs might have an important influence for the fluorosis. Residents are changing their staple food from roasted corn to rice, and especially, younger people are more focused on quality life. However, even if residents change their staple food, the habit of eating chili will not change, which also may cause them getting fluorosis. Developing economy, changing dietary types, and changing the habit of drying and keeping chili will help to reduce the fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area of Southwest China. PMID:25167821

  17. Intake of ²³?U and ²³²Th through the consumption of foodstuffs by tribal populations practicing slash and burn agriculture in an extremely high rainfall area.

    PubMed

    Jha, S K; Gothankar, S; Iongwai, P S; Kharbuli, B; War, S A; Puranik, V D

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides ²³²Th, ²³?U was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in different food groups namely cereals, vegetables, leafy vegetables, roots and tubers cultivated and consumed by tribal population residing around the proposed uranium mine. The study area is a part of rural area K. P. Mawthabah (Domiasiat) in the west Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya, India located in the tropical region of high rainfall that remains steeped in tribal tradition without much outside influence. Agriculture by Jhum (slash and burn) cultivation and animal husbandry are the main occupation of the tribal populations. A total of 89 samples from locally grown food products were analyzed. The concentration of ²³?U and ²³²Th in the soil of the study area was found to vary 1.6-15.5 and 2.0-5.0 times respectively to the average mean value observed in India. The estimated daily dietary intake of ²³?U and ²³²Th were 2.0 ?g d?¹ (25 mBq d?¹) and 3.4 ?g d?¹ (14 mBq d?¹) is comparable with reported range 0.5-5.0 ?g d?¹ and 0.15-3.5 ?g d?¹ respectively for the Asian population. PMID:22036151

  18. A half-century of burn epidemiology and burn care in a rural state.

    PubMed

    Blaisdell, Laura L; Chace, Reeve; Hallagan, Lee D; Clark, David E

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the changes in incidence, severity, and mortality in burn injuries in the state of Maine over the past 50 years from both prevention and treatment perspectives. The authors analyzed the data from multiple sources, including the U.S. Census, death certificates, hospital discharge abstracts, and institutional burn registries in Maine and Boston. The average annual number of burn-related deaths decreased from 53 in 1960-1964 to 14 in 2004-2008. The Maine age-adjusted rate of burn deaths was 8.6% above the national rate in 1960 and 1.4% below it in 2006. The annual number of burn patients admitted to Maine hospitals declined by 65% from 1978 to 2009. Since 1999, 12% of hospitalized patients in Maine were treated in an American Burn Association-certified burn center in Boston. Mortality for Maine burn patients, including those treated at Boston hospitals, is directly related to age and burn severity and similar to stratified mortality in the National Burn Repository. Incidence, severity, and mortality of burn injuries in Maine have decreased dramatically over the past 5 decades. Prevention programs, legislation, and a regionalized system of burn care have all likely contributed to bringing Maine's morbidity and mortality rate below the national average. PMID:22002206

  19. Smartphones and burn size estimation: “Rapid Burn Assessor”

    PubMed Central

    Kamolz, L.P.; Lumenta, D.B.; Parvizi, D.; Dirnberger, J.; Owen, R.; Höller, J.; Giretzlehner, M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Estimation of the total body surface area burned (%TBSA) following a burn injury is used in determining whether to transfer the patient to a burn center and the required fluid resuscitation volumes. Unfortunately, the commonly applied methods of estimation have revealed inaccuracies, which are mostly related to human error. To calculate the %TBSA (quotient), it is necessary to divide the burned surface area (Burned BSA) (numerator in cm2) by the total body surface area (Total BSA) (denominator in cm2). By using everyday objects (eg. credit cards, smartphones) with well-defined surface areas as reference for estimations of Burned BSA on the one hand and established formulas for Total BSA calculation on the other (eg. Mosteller), we propose an approximation method to assess %TBSA more accurately than the established methods. To facilitate distribution, and respective user feedback, we have developed a smartphone app integrating all of the above parameters, available on popular mobile device platforms. This method represents a simple and ready-to-use clinical decision support system which addresses common errors associated with estimations of Burned BSA (=numerator). Following validation and respective user feedback, it could be deployed for testing in future clinical trials. This study has a level of evidence of IV and is a brief report based on clinical observation, which points to further study.

  20. Management of burn injuries in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Slator; J. D. Frame

    1996-01-01

    120000 patients are seen with burns in emergency departments in the U.K. each year. Of these, 50% will be children. The average age of the children admitted to the North East Thames Regional Burns Unit (NETRBU) will be 4 years, and the size of the burn 10% body surface area. Some of the children admitted will be severely ill requiring

  1. Monitoring crop growth inter-annual variability from MODIS time series: Performance comparison between crop specific green area index and current global leaf area index products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory Duveiller; Frederic Baret; Pierre Defourny

    2011-01-01

    Optical remote sensing time series can be used to retrieve biophysical variables indicating crop status, such as leaf area index (LAI) or, more appropriately, green are index (GAI). If these variables are sensible to inter-annual seasonal variations, they can be of great value for crop growth monitoring, especially if they can be coupled with ecophysiological models using data assimilation. This

  2. Fiscal Year 2005 Annual Summary Report for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Vefa Yucel

    2006-01-01

    The Performance Assessment (PA) maintenance plan requires an annual review to determine if current operations and conditions at the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) remain consistent with PA and composite analysis (CA) assumptions and models. This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 2005 annual review findings for the Area 3 RWMS PA only. The PA Maintenance Plan states that no annual review or summary reporting will be carried out in years that a PA or CA revision is undertaken (Bechtel Nevada [BN], 2002). Updated PA results for the Area 5 RWMS were published in an addendum to the Area 5 RWMS PA report in September 2005. A federal review of the draft addendum report took place in early FY 2006 (October November 2005). The review team found the addendum acceptable without conditions. The review team's recommendation will be presented to the Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group in early 2006. The addendum was revised in January 2006 and incorporated comments from the review team (BN, 2006). Table 1 summarizes the updated Area 5 RWMS PA results presented in the addendum.

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, July 2002, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2002-07-18

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 140 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-08-01, Detonation Pits; 05-08-02, Debris Pits; 05-17-01, Hazardous Waste Accumulation Site (Buried); 05-19-01, Waste Disposal Site; 05-23-01, Gravel Gertie; 05-35-01, Burn Pit; 05-99-04, Burn Pit; 22-99-04, Radioactive Waste Dump; 23-17-01, Hazardous Waste Storage Area. All nine of these CASs are located within Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. This CAU is being investigated because disposed waste may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present or migrating at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The NTS has been used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. The CASs in CAU 140 were used for testing, material storage, waste storage, and waste disposal. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution criteria and resolve the decision statements. Phase I will determine if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels. This data will be evaluated at all CASs. Phase II will determine the extent of the contaminant(s) of concern (COCs). This data will only be evaluated for CASs with a COC identified during Phase I. Based on process knowledge, the COPCs for CAU 140 include volatile organics, semivolatile organics, petroleum hydrocarbons, explosive residues, herbicides, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and radionuclides. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  4. Burn Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Fluid resuscitation following burn injury must support organ perfusion with the least amount of fluid necessary and the least physiological cost. Under resuscitation may lead to organ failure and death. With adoption of weight and injury size-based formulas for resuscitation, multiple organ dysfunction and inadequate resuscitation have become uncommon. Instead, administration of fluid volumes well in excess of historic guidelines has been reported. A number of strategies including greater use of colloids and vasoactive drugs are now under investigation to optimize preservation of end organ function while avoiding complications which can include respiratory failure and compartment syndromes. Adjuncts to resuscitation, such as antioxidants, are also being investigated along with parameters beyond urine output and vital signs to identify endpoints of therapy. Here we briefly review the state-of-the-art and provide a sample of protocols now under investigation in North American burn centers. PMID:22078326

  5. Burn Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Brian Boyd

    \\u000a Burn trauma is still a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It causes a spectrum of disability\\u000a and deformity primarily by damaging the integumentary system of its victims. However, it is the systemic effects caused by\\u000a sepsis, fluid and electrolyte imbalance, shock, inhalation injury and myone-crosis that are the usual agents of death. Patients\\u000a must be

  6. Community outreach, training, and research: the Hawai'i/Pacific Basin area Health Education Center of the University of Hawai'i, John A. Burns SChool of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Withy, Kelley M; Yamada, Seiji; Dever, Greg; Veehala, Deedri; Moore, Nicole; Shomaker, T Samuel

    2006-02-01

    The Hawai'i/Pacific Basin AHEC is a federal grant program that utilizes academic/community partnerships to recruit students to health careers, train students in rural and underserved areas, and assist with workforce development across the region. Ongoing activities and programs include 1) Outreach for recruitment to health careers for students from kindergarten through adulthood; 2) Individual and interdisciplinary health professions student training in rural and underserved areas; 3) Community health education using distance learning; 4) Assessment of and efforts to improve recruitment and retention of providers in rural areas including continuing education; and 5) Health disparities research. The AHEC programs reach more than 4,000 individuals annually, helps to train more than 1,000 individuals a year and assist with placement of up to 20 providers a year in rural and underserved healthcare practices. This article describes the existing AHEC programs that are community based, community driven and inclusive of all who choose to participate. Collaboration is invited and necessary for success and future program development. Future areas for collaboration activities include increased statewide community health worker training, an expanded health careers pipeline, ongoing rural and underserved health needs assessments and an expanded training network for students in healthcare. Additional information is available at www.ahec.hawaii.edu. PMID:16619860

  7. Burn Institute

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Safety Expo/Demo Derby June 6, 2015 Del Mar Fairgrounds Chiefs’ Party in the Paddock and Golf ... Ball: October 17, 2015 Paddock at the Del Mar Fairgrounds Annual Firefighter Boot Drive Held throughout San ...

  8. The use of a multifactor Southern Oscillation Index for the estimation of annual hailstorm frequencies in the Sydney area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Kuhnel

    1998-01-01

    Relationships between the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and hailfall activity in the Sydney area were investigated with the help of a newly compiled Natural Hazards Research Centre (NHRC) hailfall database. The original hail data, which contain a record of all hailstone sizes for the period 1791-1994, were stratified into the form of (monthly, seasonal) annual hailday sums for the period

  9. Soil properties and nutrient relations in burned and unburned Mediterranean-climate shrublands of Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco-Vizcaíno, Ernesto; Sosa-Ramirez, Joaquín

    We compared soil chemical properties and total N and P in ecosystem compartments (soil, litter, root, stem, and leaf) of adjacent burned and unburned shrublands in northwestern Baja California during the first annual cycle after burning. We sampled one stand of coastal sage scrub growing on soil derived from basalt, and two stands of mixed chaparral growing on soils developed from granitic rocks. In the coastal sage scrub site, total soil N (1350-2140 mg/kg) and P (360-540 mg/kg) were similar to concentrations reported for Mediterranean-climate shrublands growing in fertile soils of Alta California (USA), Chile and the Mediterranean Basin. But at the chaparral sites, total soil N (750-1180 mg/kg) and P (90-150 mg/kg) were as low as those of the relatively infertile Australian heath. There was no significant reduction in organic C, nor increase in pH or salinity, in the burned areas. Only inorganic N was slightly, but significantly, higher in the soil of all three burned areas. No significant differences were found in total N or P between burned and unburned ecosystem compartments across the three sites when the entire annual cycle was considered. But N was significantly higher in leaves and stems of burned areas, although only briefly during the middle of the first growing season after fire. Nutrient enrichment following wildland fire was thus less pronounced and more transitory than is typically reported for burned shrublands in Alta California. Fire suppression has not been effective in Baja California, and fuel loads and fire intensities tend to be lower than in Alta California. Lower fuel loads and fire intensities, and consequently lower ash deposition, may partly explain the lack of marked differences in soil properties found between burned and unburned areas.

  10. Severe burn injury in europe: a systematic review of the incidence, etiology, morbidity, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Burn injury is a serious pathology, potentially leading to severe morbidity and significant mortality, but it also has a considerable health-economic impact. The aim of this study was to describe the European hospitalized population with severe burn injury, including the incidence, etiology, risk factors, mortality, and causes of death. Methods The systematic literature search (1985 to 2009) involved PubMed, the Web of Science, and the search engine Google. The reference lists and the Science Citation Index were used for hand searching (snowballing). Only studies dealing with epidemiologic issues (for example, incidence and outcome) as their major topic, on hospitalized populations with severe burn injury (in secondary and tertiary care) in Europe were included. Language restrictions were set on English, French, and Dutch. Results The search led to 76 eligible studies, including more than 186,500 patients in total. The annual incidence of severe burns was 0.2 to 2.9/10,000 inhabitants with a decreasing trend in time. Almost 50% of patients were younger than 16 years, and ~60% were male patients. Flames, scalds, and contact burns were the most prevalent causes in the total population, but in children, scalds clearly dominated. Mortality was usually between 1.4% and 18% and is decreasing in time. Major risk factors for death were older age and a higher total percentage of burned surface area, as well as chronic diseases. (Multi) organ failure and sepsis were the most frequently reported causes of death. The main causes of early death (<48 hours) were burn shock and inhalation injury. Conclusions Despite the lack of a large-scale European registration of burn injury, more epidemiologic information is available about the hospitalized population with severe burn injury than is generally presumed. National and international registration systems nevertheless remain necessary to allow better targeting of prevention campaigns and further improvement of cost-effectiveness in total burn care. PMID:20958968

  11. Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, W.; Li, G.; Molina, L.

    2012-09-01

    The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash burning on ground-level ozone (O3) and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA), and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA) were consistent with many observation-based estimates. We did not detect significant effects of open fires and trash burning on surface O3 concentrations in the MCMA and surrounding region. In contrast, they had important influences on OA and elemental carbon (EC), contributing about 60, 22, 33, and 22% to primary OA (POA), secondary OA (SOA), total OA (TOA), and EC, respectively, on both the local and regional scales. Although the emissions of trash burning are substantially lower than those from open fires, trash burning made slightly smaller but comparable contributions to OA as open fires did, and exerted an even higher influence on EC. SOA formation due to the open fires and trash burning enhanced the OA concentration by about 10 and 5% in the MCMA, respectively. On the annual basis and taking the biofuel use emissions into consideration, we estimated that biomass burning contributed about 60, 30, and 25%, respectively, to the loadings of POA, SOA and EC in both the MCMA and its surrounding region, with about 35, 18, and 15% from open fires and trash burning. The estimates of biomass burning impacts in this study may contain considerable uncertainties due to the uncertainties in their emission estimates, extrapolations and the nature of spot comparison. More observation and modeling studies are needed to accurately assess the impacts of biomass burning on tropospheric chemistry, regional and global air quality, and climate change.

  12. Particle-induced oxidative damage of indoor PM10 from coal burning homes in the lung cancer area of Xuan Wei, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Longyi; Hu, Ying; Wang, Jing; Hou, Cong; Yang, Yuanyuan; Wu, Mingyuan

    2013-10-01

    The lung cancer mortality rate in the rural area of the Xuan Wei, Yunnan, is among the highest in China, especially in women. In this paper, the coal-burning indoor and corresponding outdoor PM10 samples were collected at the Hutou village, representing the case of high lung cancer rate, and the Xize village, representing the case of low lung cancer rate. Plasmid scission assay was used to investigate the bioreactivity of the PM10. The inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was employed to investigate the trace element compositions of the PM10. The results showed that the oxidative damage caused by both indoor and outdoor PM10 at the Hutou village was obviously higher than that at the Xize village, with the indoor PM10 having higher oxidative damage than corresponding outdoors. Among all analyzed samples, the indoor night PM10 samples from the Hutou village have the highest oxidative capacity. The levels of total water-soluble elements had a higher level in the PM10 of the Hutou village than that of the Xize village. It is interesting that the levels of water-soluble As, Cd, Cs, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn in PM10 had better positive correlation with DNA damage rates, implying that these elements in their water-soluble state should be one of the main factors responsible for the high oxidative capacity of PM10, thus possibly the higher lung cancer rates, at the Hutou village.

  13. Burn Severity Mapping in Australia 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, R.; Clark, J.; Lecker, J.

    2012-07-01

    In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm.

  14. Burning Upland, Mixed Prairie in Badlands National Park

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEVEN G. WHISENANT; DANIEL W. URESK

    Burning research in the northern mixed prairie has focused on sites considered to be more productive, although prescribed burning is usually conducted on heterogeneous landscapes with many different sites. Understanding the impacts of fire on less productive sites is a critical component in planning the frequency of prescribed burning of natural areas. The effects of burn- ing in either April

  15. Hair bleaching and skin burning.

    PubMed

    Forster, K; Lingitz, R; Prattes, G; Schneider, G; Sutter, S; Schintler, M; Trop, M

    2012-12-31

    Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation. PMID:23766754

  16. Ken Burns

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-02-10

    Ken Burns is a popular documentarian and, as it turns out, he is now a popular app, in a manner of speaking. This particular app gives interested parties the ability to view scenes from his documentaries (such as "Baseball" and "Jazz") in a variety of settings. The latest version allows visitors to access the Innovation playlist absolutely free while other playlists containing clips from his other programs are available for a small fee. This version is compatible with iPads running iOS 7.0 and newer.

  17. 2006 Annual Summary Report for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory J, Shott, Vefa Yucel

    2007-03-01

    The Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2006) requires an annual review to assess the adequacy of the performance assessments (PAs) and composite analyses (CAs) for each of the facilities, with the results submitted as an annual summary report to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters. The Disposal Authorization Statements for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) also require that such reviews be made and that secondary or minor unresolved issues be tracked and addressed as part of the maintenance plan (DOE, 2000; 2002). The DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office performed annual reviews in fiscal year (FY) 2006 by evaluating operational factors and research results that impact the continuing validity of the PAs and CAs results. This annual summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2006 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors, such as the waste form and containers, facility design, waste receipts, and closure plans, as well as monitoring results and research and development (R&D) activities, were reviewed in FY 2006 for determination of the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada Test Site relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed for determination of the adequacy of the CAs.

  18. 2007 Annual Summary Report for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of an annual review of conditions affecting the operation of the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) and a determination of the continuing adequacy of the performance assessments (PAs) and composite analyses (CAs). The Area 5 RWMS PA documentation consists of the original PA (Shott et al., 1998), referred to as the 1998 Area 5 RWMS PA and supporting addenda (Bechtel Nevada [BN], 2001b; 2006a). The Area 5 RWMS CA was issued as a single document (BN, 2001a) and has a single addendum (BN, 2001c). The Area 3 PA and CA were issued in a single document (Shott et al., 2000). The Maintenance Plan for the PAs and CAs (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2006) and the Disposal Authorization Statements (DASs) for the Area 3 and 5 RWMSs (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE], 2000; 2002) require preparation of an annual summary and a determination of the continuing adequacy of the PAs and CAs. The annual summary report is submitted to DOE Headquarters. Following the annual report format in the DOE PA/CA Maintenance Guide (DOE, 1999), this report presents the annual summary for the PAs in Section 2.0 and the CAs in Section 3.0. The annual summary for the PAs includes the following: Section 2.1 summarizes changes in waste disposal operations; Section 2.1.5 provides an evaluation of the new estimates of the closure inventories derived from the actual disposals through fiscal year (FY) 2007; Section 2.2 summarizes the results of the monitoring conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's (NNSA/NSO's) Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site (BN, 2005), and the research and development (R&D) activities; Section 2.4 is a summary of changes in facility design, operation, or expected future conditions; monitoring and R&D activities; and the maintenance program; and Section 2.5 discusses the recommended changes in disposal facility design and operations, monitoring and R&D activities, and the maintenance program. Similarly, the annual summary for the CAs (presented in Section 3.0) includes the following: Section 3.1 presents the assessment of the adequacy of the CAs, with a summary of the relevant factors reviewed in FY 2007; Section 3.2 presents an assessment of the relevant site activities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that would impact the sources of residual radioactive material considered in the CAs; Section 3.3 summarizes the monitoring and R&D results that were reviewed in FY 2007; Section 3.4 presents a summary of changes in relevant site programs (including monitoring, R&D, and the maintenance program) that occurred since the CAs were prepared; and Section 3.5 summarizes the recommended changes to these programs.

  19. Table 1. Annual estimates, uncertainty, and change. Figure 1. Area of forest land and timberland.

    E-print Network

    .8 Annual mortality of live trees (thousand ft3 yr-1 ) 238,586.7 4.0 4.0 Annual harvest removals of live wood-using industry, its use of roundwood, and the generation and disposition of wood residues. Below is processed. There was 102.6 million cubic feet of industrial roundwood harvested from Missouri's forests

  20. [Scalp burns due to hair bleach].

    PubMed

    Wagenblast, Lene

    2011-02-28

    We present two cases of scalp burn or possible chemical reaction due to use of hair highlight products. One case was treated with serial excision of the scarred bald area after the burn, and the other case was treated with implantation of expanders and subsequent excision of the bald area. PMID:21362396

  1. Using satellite image-based maps to improve sugarcane straw burning emission estimates in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    França, D.; Longo, K.; Rudorff, B.; Aguiar, D.; Freitas, S. R.; Stockler, R.; Pereira, G.

    2014-12-01

    Since the last decade, the global demand for biofuel production has been increasing every year due to the growing need for energy supply security and mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHG). Currently, sugarcane ethanol is one of the most widely used biofuels and Brazil is already the world's largest sugarcane producer, devoting almost 50% of it to ethanol production. The state of São Paulo is the major sugarcane producer in this country, with a cultivated area of about 5.4 Mha in 2011. Approximately 2 million hectares were harvested annually from 2006 to 2011 with the pre-harvest straw burning practice, which emits trace gases and particulate material to the atmosphere. The assessment and monitoring of sugarcane burning impacts are fundamental in order to mitigate the negative impacts of pre-harvest burning and consolidate the environmental benefits of sugarcane ethanol. Although some official inventories created by the Brazilian government have indicated the prevalence of emissions from sugarcane straw burning in total agricultural residue emissions, specific information about emissions of gases and aerosols during pre-harvest burning of sugarcane is still scarce in Brazil. This study aimed to contribute to the improvement of estimates of emissions from sugarcane burning through the use of specific parameters for sugarcane straw burning and a method which has avoided underestimations resulting from the unique characteristics of this type of biomass fire. In this investigation, emissions of several air pollutants released by sugarcane burning during the harvest season were estimated through the integrated use of remote sensing based maps of sugarcane burned area and a numerical tool for the state of São Paulo from 2006 to 2011. Average estimated emissions (Gg/year) were 1,130 ± 152 for CO, 26 ± 4 for NOX, 16 ± 2 for CH4, 45 ± 6 for PM2.5, 120 ± 16 for PM10 and 154 ± 21 for NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons). An intercomparison among annual emissions from this study and annual emissions from four other different approaches indicated that the estimates obtained by satellite fire detection or low spatial resolution approaches tend to underestimate sugarcane burned area. Overall, our results also indicated that government actions to reduce sugarcane straw burning emissions are becoming effective.

  2. Modelling Fire Frequency in a Cerrado Savanna Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C.; Oliveira, Sofia L. J.; Pereira, José M. C.; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world’s most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997–2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects. PMID:25054540

  3. Assault by burning in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Haddadin, W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Criminal attacks by burns on women in Jordan are highlighted in this retrospective study carried out of all proved cases of criminal burns in female patients treated at the burn unit of the Royal Rehabilitation Center in Jordan between January 2005 and June 2012. Thirteen patients were included in our study, out of a total of 550 patients admitted, all in the age range of 16-45 yr. Of these 13 women, six were burned by acid throwing, five by hot water, and two by direct flames from fuel thrown over them. Burn percentage ranged from 15 to 75% of the total body surface area, with involvement in most cases of the face and upper trunk. The mean hospital stay was 33 days and the mortality rate was 3/13, i.e. 23%. Violence against women exists in Jordanian society, yet burning assaults are rare. Of these, burning by throwing acid is the most common and most disfiguring act, with a higher mortality rate in domestic environments. PMID:23766757

  4. [Current treatment strategies for paediatric burns].

    PubMed

    Küntscher, M V; Hartmann, B

    2006-06-01

    Paediatric burns occupy the third place in the severe accident statistics in Germany after traffic injuries and drowning. The paper reviews current treatment concepts of pre-hospital management, fluid resuscitation and surgical therapy in paediatric burned patients. Specific features in the approximation of the total body surface area burn and indications for transfer of paediatric burn victims to specialized units are discussed. The therapy of severe paediatric burns requires an interdisciplinary team consisting of especially skilled plastic or paediatric surgeons,anaesthetists, psychiatrists or psychologists, specifically trained nurses, physiotherapists and social workers. The rehabilitation process starts basically with admission to the burn unit. A tight cooperation between therapists and the relatives of the paediatric burn victim is needed for psychological recovery and reintegration into society.'The adaptation to the suffered trauma resulting in life-long disability and disfigurement is the main task of psychotherapy. PMID:16883500

  5. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medical Care Think Prevention! Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild to life threatening, some can be treated at home, while ...

  6. Oxbow Conservation Area; Middle Fork John Day River, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Brian; Smith, Brent

    2003-07-01

    In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation Area (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an 'annual written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The 2002 contract period was well funded and the second year of the project. A new manager started in April, allowing the previous manager to focus his efforts on the Forrest Ranch acquisition. However, the Oxbow Habitat manager's position was vacant from October through mid February of 2003. During this time, much progress, mainly O&M, was at a minimum level. Many of the objectives were not completed during this contract due to both the size and duration needed to complete such activities (example: dredge mine tailings restoration project) or because budget crisis issues with BPA ending accrual carryover on the fiscal calendar. Although the property had been acquired a year earlier, there were numerous repairs and discoveries, which on a daily basis could pull personnel from making progress on objectives for the SOW, aside from O&M objectives. A lack of fencing on a portion of the property's boundary and deteriorating fences in other areas are some reasons much time was spent chasing trespassing cattle off of the property. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were used seldom in the summer of 2002, with minor irrigation water diverted from only Granite Boulder Creek. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks help promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Trees planted in this and past years are growing and will someday provide cover fish and wildlife. Even grazing on the property was carefully managed to ensure the protection of fish and wildlife habitat. Monitoring of property populations, resources, and management activities continued in 2002 to build a database for future management of this and other properties in the region.

  7. Restoring ecological function in temperate grassy woodlands: manipulating soil nutrients, exotic annuals and native perennial grasses through carbon supplements and spring burns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUZANNE M. PROBER; KEVIN R. THIELE; IAN D. LUNT; T. B. KOEN

    Summary 1. Ecological invasions are often associated with persistent changes to underlying ecological processes. Restoration of invaded communities is dependent on manipulation of these processes to favour the target species composition and impart resistance to further invasion. We applied these principles to extensively degraded grassy woodlands in temperate agricultural regions of Australia, where widespread invasion by mediter- ranean annuals is

  8. Admissions across state lines: harnessing the insight of the National Burn Repository for the healthcare accessibility, fiscal, and legislative concerns facing the American Burn Association.

    PubMed

    Guagliardo, Mark F; Jeng, James C; Browning, Susan; Bilodeau, Mary-Elizabeth; Dimick, Alan; Hickerson, William; Miller, Sidney; Peck, Michael

    2008-01-01

    One of the most significant data collection efforts undertaken by the American Burn Association, the National Burn Repository (NBR) now encompasses more than 180,000 admissions. The Government Affairs Committee designated the prevalence of across-state-line burn admissions as one of its initial major inquiries to be made of the NBR. This line of inquiry could have bearings on healthcare access, legislative advocacy, and burn center solvency. The NBR Advisory Committee provided a specifically abstracted report after the 2005 call for data. Because of patient confidentiality concerns the file only contained admission frequencies by state-of-injury:state-of-care pairs. Nevertheless we were able to produce suggestive summary statistics and national maps for interpretations. This abstracted data encompasses records between 1995 and 2005, during which 8157 cross-state border admissions occurred, 6714 of which were to non-Shriner's hospitals. The rate of border crossing ranged from 0 to 202 patients annually. The highest rates were from the northernmost western states, northernmost New England states, and several southern states. Utah, West coast, and Great Lakes states sent relatively few admissions to other states. Twenty-seven states received no out-of-state admissions whereas several states had very high hosting rates. Although mapping cross-state burn admissions is an elementary exercise it demonstrated the value of the NBR for the Committees on Organization and Delivery, Government Affairs, and other facets of the American Burn Association. Anticipated access to ZIP Code data will permit: 1) granular identification of underserved areas, 2) documentation and prediction of reimbursement challenges, 3) mapping of de facto burn center referral markets, 4) mass disaster capacity planning, and 5) community-level burn risk factor analyses. PMID:18182914

  9. New particle formation and growth in biomass burning plumes: An important source of cloud condensation nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennigan, Christopher J.; Westervelt, Daniel M.; Riipinen, Ilona; Engelhart, Gabriella J.; Lee, Taehyoung; Collett, Jeffrey L., Jr.; Pandis, Spyros N.; Adams, Peter J.; Robinson, Allen L.

    2012-05-01

    Experiments were performed in an environmental chamber to characterize the effects of photo-chemical aging on biomass burning emissions. Photo-oxidation of dilute exhaust from combustion of 12 different North American fuels induced significant new particle formation that increased the particle number concentration by a factor of four (median value). The production of secondary organic aerosol caused these new particles to grow rapidly, significantly enhancing cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. Using inputs derived from these new data, global model simulations predict that nucleation in photo-chemically aging fire plumes produces dramatically higher CCN concentrations over widespread areas of the southern hemisphere during the dry, burning season (Sept.-Oct.), improving model predictions of surface CCN concentrations. The annual indirect forcing from CCN resulting from nucleation and growth in biomass burning plumes is predicted to be -0.2 W m-2, demonstrating that this effect has a significant impact on climate that has not been previously considered.

  10. New Particle Formation and Growth in Biomass Burning Plumes: an Important Source of Cloud Condensation Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennigan, C. J.; Westervelt, D.; Riipinen, I.; Engelhart, G.; Lee, T.; Collett, J. L.; Pandis, S. N.; Adams, P. J.; Robinson, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Experiments were performed in an environmental chamber to characterize the effects of photo-chemical aging on biomass burning emissions. Photo-oxidation of dilute exhaust from combustion of 12 different North American fuels induced significant new particle formation that increased the particle number concentration by a factor of four (median value). The production of secondary organic aerosol caused these new particles to grow rapidly, significantly enhancing cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. Using inputs derived from these new data, global model simulations predict that nucleation in photo-chemically aging fire plumes produces dramatically higher CCN concentrations over widespread areas of the southern hemisphere during the dry, burning season (Sept.-Oct.), improving model predictions of surface CCN concentrations. The annual indirect forcing from CCN resulting from nucleation and growth in biomass burning plumes is predicted to be -0.2 W m-2, demonstrating that this effect has a significant impact on climate that has not been previously considered.

  11. Vegetation Cover and Habitat Heterogeneity derived from QuickBird data as proxies of Local Plant Species Richness in recently burned areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viedma, Olga; Torres, Ivan; Moreno, Jose Manuel

    2010-05-01

    In fire-prone ecosystems, it is very common that, following fire, plant species richness increases very markedly, mainly due to an explosion of annuals, following a rapid change during the first few years after the blaze. Herbs play a major role in the system, among other, by fixing nutrients that might be lost, or by changing competitive interactions with shrubs or tree seedlings. But assessing species richness, particularly, herbaceous one, in space and at large scale is very costly. Furthermore, the scale of measurement is also important. In this work we attempted to asses plant species richness during the first year after fire in an abandoned dehesa (open parkland) at three scales (1 m2, 25 m2 and 100 m2) using QuickBird images. The study area was located in Central Spain (Anchuras, Ciudad Real), and was affected by a large summer fire (ca. 2000 ha). Before the fire the system was composed of a shrubland intermixed with trees and open spaces. Two 90x180 m plots were selected and field species richness measures were made at the three scales, using a nested design. Field-based data were related to remotely sensed data using Regression Trees (RT) and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) modelling. Explanatory spectral and textural remotely sensed data were ecologically interpreted based on vegetation cover ground-based data. We found that areas with low spectral contrast and high reflectivity were dominated by herbaceous species, and had greater species richness than those characterized by low contrast and medium-low reflectivity, which were dominated by shrubs and trees. The highest species richness was found in the areas characterized by high contrast and medium-high reflectivity, which had a mix of herbs and woody layers. Variance explained varied depending on the modelling approach and the scale, from 21% and 50% for 1 m2 using RT and BRT, respectively; to 65% and 79% for 100 m2. The contribution of different life forms in model fitting was scale-dependent. At smaller scales, herbaceous layer explained the greatest variability of species richness; whereas at higher scales, shrubs and trees increased their contribution in fitting plant species richness. Model's predictions and Moran's Index on residuals indicated that the best sampling scale to predict species richness from QuickBird data was at 100 m2. The high variance explained in most cases indicates that species richness in space can be well predicted by QuickBird derived data. Keywords: plant species richness, local nested scales, vegetation cover, spatial heterogeneity, texture, reflectivity, QuickBird.

  12. Oxbow Conservation Area; Middle Fork John Day River, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Shaun; Smith, Brent; Cochran, Brian

    2003-04-01

    In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Middle Fork Oxbow Ranch. Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an 'annual written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. This report is to be provided to the BPA by 30 April of each year. This is the first annual report filed for the Oxbow Ranch property.

  13. Mean annual (222)Rn concentration in homes located in different geological regions of Poland: first approach to whole country area.

    PubMed

    Przylibski, Tadeusz A; Zebrowski, Adam; Karpi?ska, Maria; Kapa?a, Jacek; Kozak, Krzysztof; Mazur, Jadwiga; Grz?dziel, Dominik; Mamont-Cie?la, Kalina; Stawarz, Olga; Koz?owska, Beata; K?os, Barbara; Dorda, Jerzy; Wysocka, Ma?gorzata; Olszewski, Jerzy; Dohojda, Marek

    2011-08-01

    The paper presents the results of year-long measurements of radon ((222)Rn) concentration inside 129 buildings in Poland in relation to the geological conditions of their foundation. The authors took into account the division of the country into tectonic units, as well as the lithology of the rocks forming the bedrock of these buildings. As expected, the highest value of mean annual (222)Rn concentration (845 Bq/m(3)) was recorded in a building situated in the area of the Sudetes, while the highest geometric mean (characteristic of the expected log-normal data distribution) was calculated based on measurements from buildings located within the East-European craton, in the area of Mazury-Podlasie monocline, where it reached 231 Bq/m(3). Such results reflect geological conditions - the occurrence of crystalline rocks (especially U- and Ra-enriched granites and orthogneisses) on the surface in the Sudetes, and of young post-glacial sediments containing fragments of Scandinavian crystalline rocks, also enriched with U and Ra, in the area of Mazury-Podlasie monocline. However, the least expected result of the investigations was finding out that, contrary to the hitherto widespread belief, none of the major tectonic units of Poland can be excluded from the list of those containing buildings with mean annual (222)Rn concentration exceeding 200 Bq/m(3). The mean annual concentration of radon for all the buildings were much higher than the mean concentration value (49.1 Bq/m(3)) of indoor radon in Poland quoted so far. These results cast a completely new light on the necessity to perform measurements of radon concentration in residential buildings in Poland, no more with reference to small areas with outcrops of crystalline rocks (especially the Sudetes, being the Polish fragment of the European Variscan belt), but for all the major tectonic units within Poland. PMID:21555169

  14. 40 CFR 63.5870 - How do I calculate annual uncontrolled and controlled organic HAP emissions from my wet-out area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...area(s) and from my oven(s) for continuous lamination/casting operations? 63.5870 Section 63.5870 Protection of...area(s) and from my oven(s) for continuous lamination/casting operations? To calculate your annual...

  15. SEDL/Multifunctional Resource Center, Service Area 8. Annual Performance Report, October, 1992-September, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace-Matluck, Betty J.; Liberty, Paul G.

    The annual evaluation of a Texas regional resource center is presented. The center provides training and technical assistance for school district personnel participating in programs for limited English proficient (LEP) students. Federally funded and housed in the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, it serves 800 school districts with a…

  16. “What do kids know”: A survey of 420 Grade 5 students in Cambodia on their knowledge of burn prevention and first-aid treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marvin Hsiao; Brian Tsai; Harrison Jo; Manuel Gomez; James G. Gollogly; Massey Beveridge

    2007-01-01

    IntroductionCambodia is a developing country of 13 million people where there are an estimated 20,000 burns and 2000 burn deaths annually. Two thirds of the burns occur to children under the age of 10 years. The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge of burn prevention and first aid for burns in Grade 5 Cambodian school children, as

  17. Does decreased orographic enhancement explain declining annual streamflows and recent increases in wildfire fire activity in the Pacific Northwestern US?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, S.; Passeri, D.; DeLorme, D.; Huang, W.; Lewis, G.; Morris, J. T.; Slinn, D. N.; Walters, L.; Wang, D.; Weishampel, J.

    2011-12-01

    The influences of changing snowpack on the hydrology of the western US have been well noted, with trends in snowpack declines, early streamflow timing and associated fire activity attributed primarily to warming temperatures. We present several lines of evidence suggesting that historical declines in high elevation precipitation have contributed to early snowmelt timing, reduced annual streamflow, and increased annual area burned in the Pacific Northwest. Using satellite-derived estimates of area burned and area burned severely, we show that annual flow, an integrator of basin-wide precipitation, explains three times as much of the variability in interannual wildfire activity as does the center of timing of annual flow absent the influence of flow variability. Precipitation and snowpack are fundamentally connected to the timing of snowmelt. Thus, while annual wildfire area burned is correlated with snowmelt timing, precipitation quantity and distribution provide a more direct mechanistic explanation of recent wildfire activity in this region. The magnitude of streamflow declines cannot be explained by either increased evapotranspiration or decreases in precipitation at low elevation weather stations, implicating declining orographic enhancement as a possible mechanism for the substantial declines in streamflow observed in recent decades.

  18. Postburn roof stability analysis for the TONO CRIP UCG burn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Taylor; H. J. Sutherland; J. S. Kuszmaul

    1985-01-01

    During the Ninth Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium, Sutherland, Hommert, Taylor, and Benzley presented a preburn prediction for the burn, roof fall and surface subsidence for the TONO CRIP UCG site in Washington state. That burn has now been completed and postburn measurements of cavity sizes have become available. In this manuscript we show that the preburn predictions are, in

  19. Postburn roof stability analysis for the TONO CRIP UCG burn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Taylor; H. J. Sutherland; J. S. Kuszmaul

    1986-01-01

    During the Ninth Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium, Sutherland, Hommert, Taylor, and Benzley presented a preburn prediction for the burn, roof fall and surface subsidence for the TONO CRIP UCG site in Washington state. That burn has now been completed and postburn measurements of cavity sizes have become available. In this manuscript the authors show that the preburn predictions are,

  20. Wood mouse and box turtle populations in an area treated annually with DDT for five years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1951-01-01

    A 117-acre area of dense woodland on the Patuxent Research Refuge received an aerial application of DDT in oil at the rate of 2 pounds per acre gnnually for five years. DDT reached ground level in a much smaller amount (thousandths to hundredths of a pound per acre). Treatment was made during the first week of June of each year from 1945 through 1949. Field studies of the wood mouse population in DDT and check areas showed no significant differences in the two areas before and after the 1949 DDT treatment. There was no significant difference between trapping samples taken in DDT and check areas in 1945 and those taken in 1949. Field studies of the box turtles in DDT and check areas in 1945 and 1949 showed no significant difference in population size. Growth of the four young turtles taken in the DDT area in both 1945 and 1949 appeared to be normal in comparison with growth of check area turtles.

  1. Pre-Harvest Sugarcane Burning: Determination of emission factors through laboratory measurements and quantification of emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Azeredo Franca, D.; Maria Longo, K.; Gomes Soares Neto, T.; Carlos dos Santos, J.; Rudorf, B. F.; Alves de Aguiar, D.; Freitas, S.; Vieira Cortez, E.; Stockler S. Lima, R.; S. Gacita, M.; Anselmo, E.; A. Carvalho, J., Jr.

    2011-12-01

    Sugarcane is a relevant crop to Brazilian economy and roughly 50% of its production is used to produce ethanol. São Paulo state is the largest producer of sugarcane in Brazil being responsible for almost 60% of its production in a cultivated area of 4.5 Mha in 2010. Sugarcane harvest practice can be performed either with green harvest or with pre-harvest burning. A "Green Ethanol" Protocol is underway to eliminate the pre-harvest burning practice by 2014 in most of the sugarcane cultivated land in São Paulo state. During the last five years close to 2 Mha were annually harvested with the pre-harvest burning practice. This practice emits particulate material, greenhouse gases, and tropospheric ozone precursors to the atmosphere. Even with policies to eliminate the burning practice in the near future there is still a significant environmental damage due to the pre-harvest burning practice of sugarcane. Thus the generation of reliable inventories of emissions due to this activity is crucial in order to assess the environmental impact. Presently the official Brazilian emissions inventories do not include the sugarcane pre-harvest burning contribution. Therefore, this work aims to estimate the annual emissions (from 2006 to 2010) associated with pre-harvest sugarcane burning practice in São Paulo state, including the determination of emission factors for some trace gases and particulate material smaller than 2.5 ?m. Annual remote sensing based mappings of burned sugarcane fields throughout the harvest season in each crop year made in the context of Canasat Project (http://www.dsr.inpe.br/laf/canasat/en/) were added to the Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model (3BEM) in order to estimate trace gases and aerosols emissions. Two laboratory combustion experiments were carried out to determine the emission factors estimation. Samples of different varieties of sugarcane were harvested in dry weather conditions and in distinct sites in the state of São Paulo to assure a good representativeness. In each experiment a fraction of a specific sample was put on a burning tray with area equal to 1 m2 inside a combustion chamber and burned under controlled conditions. The bottom's tray was covered with a layer of soil with some branches aiming to reproduce the burning condition in the field. The smoke emitted was conducted to trace gas and aerosol particles analyzers measuring the excess mixing ratios for CO2, CO, NOX, UHC (unburned hydrocarbons) and PM2.5, allowing the estimation of their respective emission factors. Average values for emission factors estimated (g kg -1 of burned dry biomass) were 1303 ± 218 for CO2, 65 ± 14 for CO, 1.5 ± 0.4 for NOX, 16 ± 6 for UHC, and 2.5 ± 1.7 for PM2.5. These emission factors can be used to generate more realistic emission inventories and, therefore, to improve the results of quality air models. Currently, enhanced emission inventories of São Paulo state are obtained with the emission model 3BEM, available at CPTEC-INPE, by the inclusion of these improvements.

  2. A retrospective analysis of 1083 Turkish patients with serious burns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Anlat?c?; Ö. R. Özerdem; C. Dalay; E. Kesikta?; S. Acartürk; G. Seydao?lu

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations of burn patient series help practitioners to identify factors that affect patient survival. Our aim was to contribute to the body of knowledge in this area by determining how survival related to certain variables in burn cases. The records of 1083 burn patients who were hospitalised between August 1988 and the end of 1997 were retrospectively reviewed. Of

  3. The quantity of biomass burned in southern Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Scholes; J. Kendall; C. O. Justice

    1996-01-01

    A new method is described for calculating the amount of biomass burned, its type and location, and the time of burning. Active fires in 1989 were detected using daily advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) satellite imagery. The fire count was calibrated to area burned using a stratified sample of multitemporal multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery. The calibration factor is strongly

  4. Developing a trial burn plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Walter S.; Wong, Tony; Williams, Gary L.; Brintle, David G.

    1991-04-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was designed to ensure that incineration facilities which treat hazardous wastes operate in an environmentally responsible manner. Under the requirements of RCRA, a trial burn must be conducted in order to obtain a fmalized operating permit. A trial burn is a test which determines whether an incinerator is capable of meeting or exceeding RCRA performance standards. If the standards are met, then the trial burn should identify the operating conditions necessary to ensure the incinerator's ability to meet or exceed the performance standards throughout the life of the permit. Development of the trial burn must incorporate interests of both the permit writer and the applicant. The permit writer wishes to obtain sufficient data necessary to establish the final permit conditions. The applicant wishes to obtain a final permit which allows the greatest flexibility of incinerator operating parameters. The areas of interest to be discussed, which allow the applicant and permit writer to achieve their goals, include understanding the problem, selecting a waste feed, choosing the principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs), determining operating conditions, choosing appropriate sampling methods, and obtaining representative samples (QAIQC). The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of what is required to develop a trial burn plan.

  5. Association between annual river flood pulse and paediatric hospital admissions in the Mekong Delta area.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung; Huang, Cunrui; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Wang, Xiaoming; Nguyen, Minh

    2014-11-01

    The Mekong Delta is the most vulnerable region to extreme climate and hydrological conditions however the association between these conditions and children's health has been little studied. We examine the association between annual river flood pulse and paediatric hospital admissions in a Vietnam Mekong Delta city. Daily paediatric hospital admissions (PHA) were collected from the City Paediatric Hospital, and daily river water level (RWL) and meteorological data were retrieved from the Southern Regional Hydro-Meteorological Centre from 2008 to 2011. We evaluated the association between annual river flood pulse (>=90th percentile of RWL) and PHA using the Poisson distributed lag model, controlling for temperature, relative humidity, day of week, seasonal and long-term trends. The seasonal pattern of PHA was examined using harmonic and polynomial regression models. The cumulative risk ratios estimated for a 15-day period following an extreme RWL was 1.26 (95%CI, 1.2-1.38) for all age groups, 1.27 (95%CI, 1.23-1.30) for under five-years and 1.15 (95%CI, 1.07-1.20) for school-aged children, 1.24 (95%CI, 1.21-1.27) for all-causes, 1.18 (95%CI, 1.12-1.21) for communicable infection, 1.66 (95%CI, 1.57-1.74) for respiratory infection and 1.06 (95%CI, 1.01-1.1) for other diseases. The peak PHA risk is in the September-October period corresponding to the highest RWL, and the PHA-RWL association was modified by temperature. An increase in PHA is significantly associated with annual river flood, and the pattern of PHA is seasonally correspondent to the RWL. These findings combined with projected changes in climate conditions suggest important implications of climate change for human health in the Mekong Delta region. PMID:25282279

  6. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  7. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  8. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  9. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  10. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  11. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  12. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  13. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  14. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  15. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

  16. Annual Changes of Paddy Rice Planting Areas in Northeastern Asia from MODIS images in 2000-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, X.; Zhang, G.; Dong, J.; Menarguez, M. A.; Kou, W.; Jin, C.; Qin, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, J.; Moore, B., III

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of the area and spatial distribution of paddy rice is important for assessment of food security, management of water resources, estimation of greenhouse gas (methane) emissions, and understanding avian influenza virus transmission. Over the past two decades, paddy rice cultivation has expanded northward in temperate and cold temperate zones, particularly in Northeastern China. There is a need to quantify and map changes in paddy rice planting areas in Northeastern Asia (Japan, North and South Korea, and northeast China) at annual interval. We developed a pixel- and phenology-based image analysis system, MODIS-RICE, to map the paddy rice in Northeastern Asia by using multi-temporal MODIS thermal and surface reflectance imagery. Paddy rice fields during the flooding and transplanting phases have unique physical and spectral characteristics, which make it possible for the development of an automated and robust algorithm to track flooding and transplanting phases of paddy rice fields over time. In this presentation, we will show the MODIS-based annual maps of paddy rice planting area in the Northeastern Asia from 2000-2014 (500-m spatial resolution). Accuracy assessments using high-resolution images show that the resultant paddy rice map of Northeastern Asia had a comparable accuracy to the existing products, including 2010 Landsat-based National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) of China, the 2010 RapidEye-based paddy rice map in North Korea, and the 2010 AVNIR-2-based National Land Cover Dataset in Japan in terms of both area and spatial pattern of paddy rice. This study has demonstrated that our novel MODIS-Rice system, which use both thermal and optical MODIS data over a year, are simple and robust tools to identify and map paddy rice fields in temperate and cold temperate zones.

  17. Extreme peat burning along peatland-upland interfaces of the Western Boreal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukenbach, M.; Hokanson, K.; Devito, K. J.; Kettridge, N.; Thompson, D.; Petrone, R. M.; Waddington, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands in the Western Boreal Forest, releasing 4700 Gg C a-1 over ~1500 km2 annually. Under future climate scenarios the amount of area burned in this region is forecast to increase by 25-100%, potentially converting these ecosystems into a regional net source of carbon to the atmosphere. During wildfire, the majority of carbon released from peatlands is attributable to peat smouldering with burn depths generally ranging from 5 - 20 cm of peat. However, no study has documented the incidence of an extreme smouldering event and the conditions necessary for such an event to occur. Here we report on a smouldering event during the Utikuma Complex forest fire (SWF-060, ~90,000 ha) in May, 2011 at the Utikuma Lake Research Study Area (URSA) in Alberta's Western Boreal Plain, where peat burn depths exceeded one meter along a peatland-upland interface (range = 0.12 to 1.10 m, mean = 0.54 m). We applied the Peat Smouldering and Ignition model (PSI) at an adjacent unburned peatland-upland interface to characterize the hydrological and hydrophysical conditions necessary for these extreme burn depths. Model outputs indicate that the coupling of dense peat (bulk density > 150 kg m-3) and low peat moisture (GWC < 250%) allow for severe smouldering to propagate deep into the peat profile. We argue that peatland-upland interfaces, which likely release ten times more carbon per meter squared than peatland centers, are hotspots for peat smouldering due to dynamic hydrological conditions that reduce the moisture content of high-density peat during dry periods. We suggest the hydrogeological setting of peatlands is essential for identifying peatland-upland interfaces as areas highly vulnerable to smouldering and for assisting fire managers and scientists in predicting and mitigating the effects of extreme peat burning events. Burned peatland-upland interface

  18. Burns mortality and hospitalization time — a prospective statistical study of 352 patients in an Asian National Burn Centre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Wong; R. C. K. Ngim

    1995-01-01

    A prospective study of 352 patients in an Asian National Burn Centre has been used to develop statistical predictive models for mortality and hospitalization time. The patients are largely of Asian origin. Total burn surface area (% TBSA) and presence of respiratory burns are significant independent predictors of mortality in the multiple logistic regression analysis with an accuracy of 98.3

  19. Burns and Fire Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    1 Burns and Fire Safety Fact Sheet (2015) Fatalities • 334 children ages 19 and under died from fires or ... from 2012 to 2013. 1 1999-2013 Fire/Burn Fatalities and Death Rate Among Children Ages 19 ...

  20. A retrospective analysis of 1083 Turkish patients with serious burns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Anlat?c?; Ö. R Özerdem; C Dalay; E Kesikta?; S Acartürk; G Seydao?lu

    2002-01-01

    A total of 1083 burn cases hospitalised at a burn center between August 1988 and the end of 1997 were studied retrospectively to determine the factors and demographic features associated with burn injury in Turkey. The means for patient age and percent total body surface area (TBSA) burned were 18.1 years and 31.2%, respectively (medians were 14.0 years and 25.0%,

  1. Improving global estimates of atmospheric emissions from biomass burning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric S. Kasischke; Joyce E. Penner

    2004-01-01

    Biomass burning during wildland fires is an important source of atmospheric trace gasses and particulate matter. A meeting sponsored by Global Observation of Forest Cover\\/Global Observation of Land Dynamics and International Geosphere-Biosphere Program\\/International Global Atmospheric Chemistry\\/Biomass Burning Experiment to review the status of efforts using satellite-based burned-area products to estimate global emissions from biomass burning was held in July 2002.

  2. Topical Antimicrobials for Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Hashmi, Javad T.; Kurup, Divya B.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout most of history, serious burns occupying a large percentage of body surface area were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the burn milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the burned skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make burns particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to burns, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat burn infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating burn infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active area of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for burns that will battle against growing multi-drug resistance. PMID:20429870

  3. Learn Not To Burn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Nancy; Hendricks, Charlotte M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the "Learn Not to Burn Preschool Program," a low-cost fire safety awareness and burn prevention curriculum for young children. The program promotes eight burn prevention methods--including practicing an escape plan--using developmentally appropriate learning objectives to increase children's fire safety knowledge, skill, and…

  4. Hydrologic Effects of the 1988 Galena Fire, Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet M.; Ohlen, Donald O.

    2004-01-01

    The Galena Fire burned about 16,788 acres of primarily ponderosa pine forest during July 5-8, 1988, in the Black Hills area of South Dakota. The fire burned primarily within the Grace Coolidge Creek drainage basin and almost entirely within the boundaries of Custer State Park. A U.S. Geological Survey gaging station with streamflow records dating back to 1977 was located along Grace Coolidge Creek within the burned area. About one-half of the gaging station's 26.8-square-mile drainage area was burned. The drainage basin for Bear Gulch, which is tributary to Grace Coolidge Creek, was burned particularly severely, with complete deforestation occurring in nearly the entirety of the area upstream from a gaging station that was installed in 1989. A study to evaluate effects of the Galena Fire on streamflow, geomorphology, and water quality was initiated in 1988. The geomorphologic and water-quality components of the study were completed by 1990 and are summarized in this report. A data-collection network consisting of streamflow- and precipitation-gaging stations was operated through water year 1998 for evaluation of effects on streamflow characteristics, including both annual-yield and peak-flow characteristics, which are the main focus of this report. Moderately burned areas did not experience a substantial increase in the rate of surface erosion; however, severely burned areas underwent surficial erosion nearly twice that of the unburned areas. The sediment production rate of Bear Gulch estimated 8 to 14 months after the fire was 870 ft3/acre (44 tons/acre). Substantial degradation of stream channels within the severely burned headwater areas of Bear Gulch was documented. Farther downstream, channel aggradation resulted from deposition of sediments transported from the headwater areas. The most notable water-quality effect was on concentrations of suspended sediment, which were orders of magnitude higher for Bear Gulch than for the unburned control area. Effects on several other water-quality constituents, such as organic carbon and nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient constituents, probably were influenced by the large concentrations of suspended matter that were documented in initial post-fire, storm-flow events. The first post-fire stormflow produced the highest measured concentrations of specific conductance, nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, calcium, magnesium, potassium, manganese, and sulfate in the burned areas. For most constituents sampled, differences in concentrations between burned and unburned areas were no longer discernible within about 1 year following the Galena Fire. The effects of the Galena Fire on annual-yield characteristics of Grace Coolidge Creek were evaluated primarily from comparisons with long-term streamflow records for Battle Creek, which is hydrogeologically similar and is located immediately to the north. Annual yield for Grace Coolidge Creek increased by about 20 percent as a result of the fire. This estimate was based on relations between annual yield for Grace Coolidge Creek and Battle Creek for pre- and post-burn periods. Many of the post-burn data points are well beyond the range of the pre-burn data, which is a source of uncertainty for this estimate. Substantial increases in peak-flow characteristics for severely burned drainages were visually apparent from numerous post-fire field observations. Various analyses of streamflow data indicated substantial increases in peak-flow response for burned drainage areas; however, quantification of effects was particularly difficult because peak-flow response diminished quickly and returned to a generally pre-burn condition by about 1991. Field observations of vegetation and analysis of remotely sensed data indicated that establishment of grasses and forbs occurred within a similar timeframe. Comparison of pre-fire peak flows to post-1991 peak flows indicates that these grasses and forbs were equally effective in suppressing peak flows

  5. Annual compilation and analysis of hydrologic data for urban studies in the Bryan, Texas, metropolitan area, 1969

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, W.D.

    1972-01-01

    Hydrologic investigations of urban areas in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. These studies are now in progress in Austin, Houston, Dallas, Dallas County, Fort Worth, San Antonio, and Bryan. Hydrologic investigations of urban areas in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. These studies are now in progress in Austin, Houston, Dallas, Dallas County, Fort Worth, San Antonio, and Bryan. 1. To determine, on the basis of historical data and hydrologic analyses, the magnitude and frequency of floods. 2. To document and define the areal extent of floods of greater than ordinary magnitude. 3. To determine the effect of urban development on flood peaks and volume. 4. To provide applied research facilities for studies at Texas A & M University at College Stations. This report, the first in a series of reports to be published annually, is primarily applicable to objectives 2, 3, and 4. The report presents the basic hydrologic data collected in two study areas during the 1969 water year (October 1, 1968, to September 30, 1969) and basic hydrologic data collected during part of the 1968 water year (April 5, 1968, to September 30, 1968). The locations of the two basins within the study area, Burton Creek and Hudson Creek, are shown on figure 1.

  6. Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility groundwater monitoring report. 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility is located in the Separations Area, north of H and S Areas, at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The facility permanently disposes of low-level radioactive waste. The facility blends low-level radioactive salt solution with cement, slag, and flyash to form a nonhazardous cementitious waste that is pumped to aboveground disposal vaults. Z Area began these operations in June 1990. Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Industrial Solid Waste Permit {number_sign}025500-1603 (formerly IWP-217). During second quarter 1996, lead was reported above the SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standard in one well. No other constituents were reported above SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standards for final Primary Drinking Water Standards during first, second, or third quarters 1996. Antimony was detected above SRS flagging criteria during third quarter 1996. In the past, tritium has been detected sporadically in the ZBG wells at levels similar to those detected before Z Area began radioactive operations.

  7. Emissions from open biomass burning in India: Integrating the inventory approach with high-resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active-fire and land cover data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Venkataraman; G. Habib; D. Kadamba; M. Shrivastava; J.-F. Leon; B. Crouzille; O. Boucher; D. G. Streets

    2006-01-01

    Climatological mean estimates of forest burning and crop waste burning based on broad assumptions of the amounts burned have so far been used for India in global inventories. Here we estimate open biomass burning representative of 1995–2000 from forests using burned area and biomass density specific for Indian ecosystems and crop waste burning as a balance between generation and known

  8. Emissions from open biomass burning in India: Integrating the inventory approach with high-resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active-fire and land cover data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Venkataraman; G. Habib; D. Kadamba; M. Shrivastava; J.-F. Leon; B. Crouzille; O. Boucher; D. G. Streets

    2006-01-01

    Climatological mean estimates of forest burning and crop waste burning based on broad assumptions of the amounts burned have so far been used for India in global inventories. Here we estimate open biomass burning representative of 1995-2000 from forests using burned area and biomass density specific for Indian ecosystems and crop waste burning as a balance between generation and known

  9. Sandal burns and their treatment in children.

    PubMed

    Shakirov, Babur M

    2004-01-01

    Sandal is an ancient, primitive heating device that is still in use by both poor and rich people in mountain areas of Middle Asia. Sandal burn injuries are a serious health problem. Characteristics of sandal burns include not only skin injuries of various depths but also injuries to underlying tissues: subcutaneous fat, fasciae, muscles, and even bones. Sandal burns are characterized by such severe deep injuries because of a close contact of the body with live coals or woods. The main goal of this work was to present the most complete information about sandal burns and discuss the most effective methods of treatment for sandal burns. This treatment is used to accelerate the rejection of necrotic tissue, to prepare the wound for early autodermoplastic surgery, to decrease the postburn contractures/deformities, and also to shorten hospital stay for the patients. PMID:15534459

  10. Analysing the impact of urban areas patterns on the mean annual flow of 43 urbanized catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salavati, B.; Oudin, L.; Furusho, C.; Ribstein, P.

    2015-06-01

    It is often argued that urban areas play a significant role in catchment hydrology, but previous studies reported disparate results of urbanization impacts on stream flow. This might stem either from the difficulty to quantify the historical flow changes attributed to urbanization only (and not climate variability) or from the inability to decipher what type of urban planning is more critical for flows. In this study, we applied a hydrological model on 43 urban catchments in the United States to quantify the flow changes attributable to urbanization. Then, we tried to relate these flow changes to the changes of urban/impervious areas of the catchments. We argue that these spatial changes of urban areas can be more precisely characterized by landscape metrics, which enable analysing the patterns of historical urban growth. Landscape metrics combine the richness (the number) and evenness (the spatial distribution) of patch types represented on the landscape. Urbanization patterns within the framework of patch analysis have been widely studied but, to our knowledge, previous research works had not linked them to catchments hydrological behaviours. Our results showed that the catchments with larger impervious areas and larger mean patch areas are likely to have larger increase of runoff yield.

  11. Facial burns - our experience.

    PubMed

    Zatriqi, Violeta; Arifi, Hysni; Zatriqi, Skender; Duci, Shkelzen; Rrecaj, Sh; Martinaj, M

    2013-01-01

    Facial burns are generally considered severe. This is due to the possibility of respiratory complications. First responders check the nostrils for singed hairs. In severe cases there may be soot around the nose and mouth and coughing may produce phlegm that includes ash. Facial and inhalational burns compromise airways. They pose difficulties in pre-hospital resuscitation and are challenge to clinicians managing surviving burn victims in the intensive care setting. Management problems - resuscitation, airway maintenance and clinical treatment of facial injuries are compounded if the victim is child. Inhalational burns reduce survivability, certainly in adult victim. In our retrospective study we found that facial burns dominated in male gender, liquids and scalds are the most common causes of facial burns in children whereas the flame and electricity were the most common causes of facial burns in adults. We came to the conclusion in our study that surgical treatment minimizes complications and duration of recovery. PMID:23687458

  12. Epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chien, Wu-Chien; Pai, Lu; Lin, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Heng-Chang

    2003-09-01

    Previous studies based on either single hospital data or sampling of specific groups of hospitalized burns victims in Taiwan have provided only minimal epidemiological information. The study is designed to provide additional data on the epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Burn Injury Information System (BIIS), which brings together information supplied by 34 contracted hospitals. The study time course spanned a 2-year period from July 1997 to June 1999. Patient characteristics (age, sex, education level, etc.), causes and severity of injuries, and medical care measures were explored. A total of 4741 patients were registered with BIIS over the study period. The majority of hospitalized patients (67%) were male. The age distribution of burns patients showed peaks occurring at the age groups of 0-5 and 35-44 years. Over the time course of a day, burn injuries occurred more frequently from 10:00 to 12:00 h and 16:00 to 18:00 h. Injuries suspected as the result of suicide, homicide or child abuse accounted for 4.8% of hospitalized cases. More than 48% of the burns occurred in the home. The leading type of burn injury was scalding, followed by naked flame, explosion, electrical burns, and chemical burns due to caustic or corrosive substances. The mean percent total body surface area (%TBSA) for adults was 19%, and for young children was 12%. The average length of hospital stay was 18 days. In conclusion, children under 5 years and adults between 35 and 44 years of age are two high-risk groups for burn injuries. Corresponding to meal preparation time, hot substances such as boiling water, hot soup, etc. are the most common agents responsible for scalds. Prevention programs for reducing the risk of burn injuries during cooking and eating are required, especially for parents with young children. PMID:12927984

  13. Area 2 Bitcutter and Postshot Injection Wells Corrective Action Unit 90 Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    1999-08-01

    A Post-Closure Program was agreed upon in the 1996 Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Report Area 2 Bitcutter and Postshot Containment Shops Injection Wells Corrective Action Unit 90, Report No. DOE/NV--461. Post Closure care consists of: Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; Verify that the site is secure and the gates are locked; Note any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; Remedy those deficiencies within 60 days of discovery; Discuss them in the annual report. The report included an executive summary, copies of the inspection checklist, and recommendations and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A and a copy of the field notes are found in Attachment B.

  14. Bilingual Education Multifunctional Resource Center. Service Area 4. Annual Performance Report, 1992-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma Univ., Norman. Bilingual Education Multifunctional Resource Center.

    The federally funded Bilingual Education Multifunctional Resource Center (BEMRC) provides support services to programs and individuals serving students of limited English proficiency (LEP) in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and Tennessee. LEP students in the mostly rural areas come from…

  15. Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report (1998 Annual Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, D.

    1999-04-27

    In accordance with SRS Z-Area Saltstone Industrial Solid Waste Permit, wells ZBG-1, ZBG-1A and ZBG-2 are monitored for the parameters listed in this document. Sampling was done during the first and third quarters of 1998. Additional Analyses were also run. The analytical results appear in Appendix 1.

  16. Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report (1998 Annual Report)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with SRS Z-Area Saltstone Industrial Solid Waste Permit, wells ZBG-1, ZBG-1A and ZBG-2 are monitored for the parameters listed in this document. Sampling was done during the first and third quarters of 1998. Additional Analyses were also run. The analytical results appear in Appendix 1.

  17. Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, W.; Li, G.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-03-01

    The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash burning on ground-level ozone (O3) and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA), and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA) were consistent with many observation-based estimates. We did not detect significant effects of open fires and trash burning on surface O3 concentrations in the MCMA and surrounding region. In contrast, they had important influences on OA and elemental carbon (EC), increasing primary OA (POA) by ~60%, secondary OA (SOA) by ~22%, total OA (TOA = POA + SOA) by ~33%, and EC by ~22%, on both the local (urban) and regional scales. Although the emissions of trash burning are substantially lower than those from open fires, trash burning made slightly smaller but comparable contributions to OA as open fires did, and exerted an even higher influence on EC. Of the ~22% enhancement in SOA concentrations (equivalent to a ~15% increase in TOA) simulated, about two third was attributed to the open fires and one-third to the trash burning. On the annual basis and taking the biofuel use emissions into consideration, we estimated that open fires, trash burning and biofuel use together contributed about 60% to the loading of POA, 30% to SOA, and 25% to EC in both the MCMA and its surrounding region, of which the open fires and trash burning contributed about 35% to POA, 18% to SOA, and 15% to EC. The estimates of biomass burning impacts in this study may contain considerable uncertainties due to the uncertainties in their emission estimates in magnitude, temporal and spatial distribution, extrapolations and the nature of spot comparison. More observation and modeling studies are needed to accurately assess the impacts of biomass burning on tropospheric chemistry, regional and global air quality, and climate change.

  18. Postburn roof stability analysis for the TONO CRIP UCG burn

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.M.; Sutherland, H.J.; Kuszmaul, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    During the Ninth Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium, Sutherland, Hommert, Taylor, and Benzley presented a preburn prediction for the burn, roof fall and surface subsidence for the TONO CRIP UCG site in Washington state. That burn has now been completed and postburn measurements of cavity sizes have become available. In this manuscript the authors show that the preburn predictions are, in general, in good agreement with the postburn examination of the burn site. Discrepancies between the predictions and the measurements are shown to arise for two reasons. The first is that the burn sequence analyzed in the prediction was not allowed during the course of the experiment due to experimental difficulties. The second reason is that the stratigraphic section analyzed in the preburn predictions is slightly different form that observed above the burn. To clarify the discrepancies, the roof stability of the measured burn cavity is analyzed using the two analysis schemes that were used in the preburn analysis.

  19. Falling clothes irons rarely cause burns.

    PubMed

    Allasio, David; Shanti, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Children's Hospital of Michigan's Burn Center treats approximately three pediatric contact burns annually related to clothes irons, which involve the face, torso, and extremities. These burns leave well-demarcated burn patterns, including the steam holes from the heat plate of the iron. The average age of these children is 15 months. The history given by the parent is that the child pulled the cord of an iron that was on an ironing board or high shelf. It seemed unlikely to the investigators that a falling iron would produce such demarcated burns. A free-standing shelf unit was built with shelf heights of 36, 60, and 72 inches (the height of an ironing board and shelves at home). Three irons of different weights were put in three different positions on each shelf, with the cord dangling. A doll the approximate size of a 15-month old was positioned in front of the shelf. The dangling cord was pulled, and the falling iron was videotaped. The video was edited in freeze frame at the point at which the iron hit the doll. Two hundred seventy falls were recorded. The flat heat plate of the iron never hit the doll. The linear edge of the heat plate hit the doll on only seven falls. This study demonstrates that it is very unlikely for the flat heat plate of a falling iron to contact a toddler-sized doll. Children who allegedly sustain demarcated burns in this manner need to be investigated for nonaccidental injury. PMID:24476991

  20. Potential PM2.5 impacts of festival-related burning and other inputs on air quality in an urban area of southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ying I; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; Kuo, Su-Ching; Yu, Sung-Po

    2015-09-15

    The Mid-Autumn Festival (MAF), or Moon Festival, is a harvest festival in Taiwan, celebrated by families across the island with evening barbecues outside. This study investigated the potential impact of these activities on the air quality in Tainan, a city in southern Taiwan. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was examined in the period leading up to the MAF (pre-MAF), during the Festival (MAF), after the Festival (post-MAF), and in the period after this (a period of moderate air quality: MAQ). Gaseous pollutants in PM2.5 were, from highest to lowest mean concentration, NH3, SO2, HCl, HNO3, HNO2, and oxalic acid, while inorganic salts were mainly in the form of the photochemical products SO4(2-), NH4(+), and NO3(-). These inorganic salts accounted for 37.6%-44.5% of the PM2.5 mass concentration, while a further 26.3%-42.8% of the PM2.5 mass was total carbon (TC). TC was mostly composed of organic carbon (OC) produced by photochemical reactions. Of this, 9.8%-14.9% was carboxylates, of which oxalate was the most abundant compound, accounting for 22.8%-31.9% of carboxylates. The presence of phthalates in the PM2.5 indicated emissions from the plastics industry. Although a noticeable amount of aerosol was produced by festival activities and burning of softwood and hardwood, onshore air currents during the festival prevented potential high aerosol loading. During the moderate air quality period following post-MAF, the concentration of total carbohydrates was 1.44-2.64 times the amount during the festival. Levoglucosan and myo-inositol accounted for 81.7%-89.6% of the total carbohydrate concentration. The average Levo/Manno ratio was 18.64±5.24. The concentration of levoglucosan was closely related to that of PO4(3-), erythritol, and galactose. Backward trajectories indicated that biomass burning in China affected the air quality of Tainan City. PMID:25958356

  1. Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, J.L. Jr. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Industrial Solid Waste Permit {number_sign}025500-1603 (formerly IWP-217). No constituents were reported above SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standards or final Primary Drinking Water Standards during first or third quareters 1997. No constituents were detected above SRS flagging criteria during first or third quarters 1997.

  2. Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roach; J. L. Jr

    1997-01-01

    Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Industrial Solid Waste Permit {number_sign}025500-1603 (formerly IWP-217). No constituents were reported above SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standards or final Primary Drinking Water Standards during first or third quareters 1997. No constituents were detected above SRS

  3. The cost of a major paediatric burn.

    PubMed

    Pellatt, R A F; Williams, A; Wright, H; Young, A E R

    2010-12-01

    There is little written on the financial cost of burns care. This project examined three major paediatric burns of 30-40% total body surface area (%TBSA) admitted to the South West Paediatric Burns Service in Bristol, and calculated the cost per patient of acute inpatient treatment. A list of costs was established for theatre time, bed time, medications and fluids, dressings, invasive procedures, therapy services and investigations. The time period was the initial inpatient stay, from admission to the burns service, to first discharge. Staff in the relevant managerial and purchasing departments provided additional information about charging. We calculated a mean cost per patient of £63,157.22 (range £55,354.79-£74,494.24). Our results suggest that current income achieved for a major paediatric burn underestimates the actual financial burden of treatment. The North Bristol NHS Trust tariff cost for a "major burn, third degree of more than 19% TBSA, or affecting multiple body regions with significant graft" is £17,797 (2009). The fact that our costs are almost certainly an underestimate in themselves serves to reinforce this view. We hope that the data presented here can provide some guidance and understanding in the funding of burns care, a complex and difficult area to cost. PMID:20547001

  4. Ecological Consequences of Shifting the Timing of Burning Tallgrass Prairie

    PubMed Central

    Towne, E. Gene; Craine, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    In the Kansas Flint Hills, grassland burning is conducted during a relatively narrow window because management recommendations for the past 40 years have been to burn only in late spring. Widespread prescribed burning within this restricted time frame frequently creates smoke management issues downwind. A potential remedy for the concentrated smoke production in late spring is to expand burning to times earlier in the year. Yet, previous research suggested that burning in winter or early spring reduces plant productivity and cattle weight gain while increasing the proportion of undesirable plant species. In order to better understand the ecological consequences of burning at different times of the year, plant production and species abundance were measured for 20 years on ungrazed watersheds burned annually in autumn, winter, or spring. We found that there were no significant differences in total grass production among the burns on either upland or lowland topographic positions, although spring burned watersheds had higher grass culm production and lower forb biomass than autumn and winter burned watersheds. Burning in autumn or winter broadened the window of grass productivity response to precipitation, which reduces susceptibility to mid-season drought. Burning in autumn or winter also increased the phenological range of species by promoting cool-season graminoids without a concomitant decrease in warm-season grasses, potentially widening the seasonal window of high-quality forage. Incorporating autumn and winter burns into the overall portfolio of tallgrass prairie management should increase the flexibility in managing grasslands, promote biodiversity, and minimize air quality issues caused by en masse late-spring burning with little negative consequences for cattle production. PMID:25077487

  5. Myeloperoxidase activity and its corresponding mRNA expression as well as gene polymorphism in the population living in the coal-burning endemic fluorosis area in Guizhou of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Shan, Ke-Ren; Tu, Xi; He, Yan; Pei, Jin-Jing; Guan, Zhi-Zhong

    2013-06-01

    The myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and its corresponding mRNA expression as well as gene polymorphism were investigated in the population who live in the endemic fluorosis area. In the study, 150 people were selected from the coal-burning endemic fluorosis area and 150 normal persons from the non-fluorosis area in Guizhou province of China. The blood samples were collected from these people. The activity of MPO in the plasma was determined by spectrophotometer; the expression of MPO mRNA was measured by employing real-time polymerase chain reaction; DNAs were extracted from the leucocytes in blood and five SNP genotypes of MPO promoter gene detected by a multiplex genotyping method, adapter-ligation-mediated allele-specific amplification. The results showed that the MPO activity and its corresponding mRNA in blood were significantly increased in the population living in the area of fluorosis. The different genotype frequencies of MPO, including -1228G/A, -585T/C, -463G/A, and -163C/T, and the three haplotypes with higher frequencies, including -163C-463G-585T-1228G-1276T, -163C-463G-585T-1228G-1276C, and -163C-463G-585T-1228A-1276T, were significantly associated with fluorosis. The results indicated that the elevated activity of MPO induced by endemic fluorosis may be connected in mechanism to the stimulated expression of MPO mRNA and the changed gene polymorphism. PMID:23436245

  6. 2004 annual progress report: Stratton Sagebrush Hydrology Study Area: establishment of a long-term research site in a high-elevation sagebrush steppe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoenecker, Kate; Lange, Bob; Calton, Mike

    2005-01-01

    In 2004 the U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Rawlins Field Office (RFO), began a cooperative effort to reestablish the Stratton Sagebrush Hydrology Study Area (Stratton) as a research location, with the goal of making it a site for long-term research on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecology. No other long-term research sites in high-elevation sagebrush habitat currently exist, and the Stratton area, with its 30+ year history of research and baseline data, was a logical location to restart investigations aimed at answering pertinent and timely questions about sagebrush ecology and sagebrush-obligate species. During the first year of the study, USGS scientists conducted an in-depth literature search to locate publications from research conducted at Stratton. We contacted previous researchers to acquire literature and unpublished reports of work conducted at Stratton. Collated papers and published manuscripts were presented in an annotated bibliography (Burgess and Schoenecker, 2004). A second goal was to establish Stratton as a host location for researchers interested in sagebrush ecology investigations. We contacted staff and professors from Colorado State University and Wyoming and Montana universities to notify them of the opportunities at Stratton. Several institutions showed interest in the area and the potential of such a research site. A major advantage of the Stratton site is the ability of BML to coordinate activities on the land, manipulate grazing in cooperation with permit holders, and direct other activities to accommodate appropriate long-term experimental designs. A third goal was to evaluate grazing management after a prescribed burn. The BLM widely uses prescribed burns as a tool for land management and grazing management. In general, BLM policy restricts grazing after a wildfire for two or more years. Some BLM offices allow no grazing after a wildfire or prescribed treatment for at least two years. Conversely, the RFO often allows grazing following a prescribed burn directly after the peak growing season the following year. This procedure is used for two years post-burn, after which grazing management is directed by local conditions and goals. We are investigating this practice to evaluate the effects on plant production and nutrient cycling. The RFO specifically wants to know if there are any negative effects from grazing one season after a prescribed burn.

  7. Physiochemical characterisation of biomass burning plumes in Brazil during SAMBBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, William; Allan, James; Flynn, Michael; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Hodgson, Amy; Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Artaxo, Paulo; Coe, Hugh

    2013-04-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, which results in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious negative impacts on public health. Globally, biomass burning aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect of 0.03 Wm-2, however the uncertainty is 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months (usually from August-October). Furthermore, a growing number of people live within the Amazon region, which means that they are subject to the deleterious effects on their health from exposure to substantial volumes of polluted air. Results are presented here from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA), which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil. A suite of instrumentation was flown on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft. Measurements from the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) form the major part of the analysis presented here. The aircraft sampled several fires in close proximity (approximately 150m above the most intense fires) in different areas of Brazil. This included two extensive areas of burning, which occurred in the states of Rondonia and Tocantins. The Rondonia fire was largely dominated by smouldering combustion of a huge single area of rainforest with a visible plume of smoke extending approximately 80km downwind. The Tocantins example contrasted with this as it was a collection of a large number of smaller fires, with flaming combustion being more prevalent. Furthermore, the burned area was largely made up of agricultural land in a cerrado (savannah-like) region of Brazil. Initial results suggest that the chemical nature of these fires differed markedly, with BC concentrations being an order of magnitude greater in the Tocantins case (up to 50 ?g m-3 of BC) compared with the Rondonia case (up to 5 ?g m-3 of BC). Organic matter (OM) concentrations were similar in both cases, with maximum concentrations peaking between 4-5 mg m-3. Such concentrations are approximately more than 100 times greater than those sampled in the "background" regional haze. This variation of BC to OM ratio has potentially large implications for the radiative balance in the respective regions, as BC represents the major absorbing component of biomass burning aerosol. Further analysis will compare the aerosol mass concentrations with gas phase species, as well as probing the chemical and physical evolution of the aerosol as it advects downwind and is diluted with regional air. In particular, such analyses will focus upon the aging of the organic aerosol component as well as examining how the mixing state of the BC particles evolves. Such properties have important implications for the life cycle and formation of particulate material, which governs its subsequent impacts.

  8. Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Church, Deirdre; Elsayed, Sameer; Reid, Owen; Winston, Brent; Lindsay, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Burns are one of the most common and devastating forms of trauma. Patients with serious thermal injury require immediate specialized care in order to minimize morbidity and mortality. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immunosuppression that predisposes burn patients to infectious complications. A current summary of the classifications of burn wound infections, including their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, is given. Early excision of the eschar has substantially decreased the incidence of invasive burn wound infection and secondary sepsis, but most deaths in severely burn-injured patients are still due to burn wound sepsis or complications due to inhalation injury. Burn patients are also at risk for developing sepsis secondary to pneumonia, catheter-related infections, and suppurative thrombophlebitis. The introduction of silver-impregnated devices (e.g., central lines and Foley urinary catheters) may reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections due to prolonged placement of these devices. Improved outcomes for severely burned patients have been attributed to medical advances in fluid resuscitation, nutritional support, pulmonary and burn wound care, and infection control practices. PMID:16614255

  9. Getting beyond burning dirt

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, R.J. (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1994-05-01

    To fix and make the nation's Superfund law work, two related questions must be answered. First, where will the innovative technology come from the clean up Superfund and other waste sites Burning dirt--the best technology currently available--is an expensive nonsolution. Second, can man muster the political will to make Superfund a waste cleanup law instead of an expanding welfare program for lawyers Under the sponsorship of EPA, a number of companies and other groups are participating in the Remediation Technology Development Forum, focusing on the areas where the real breakthroughs might occur and the most promising collaborations. Currently, this effort is focused on bioremediation, the lasagna process, soil flushing, and characterization. Another area of investigation is stabilization technology--stabilizing a site to keep contaminants from flowing away. Some scientists, for example, are looking at vitrification technology, which fuses contaminated soil into a glass-like brick. And still other technology efforts include air flushing of contaminated sites and vapor extraction and heating processes. A number of groups and consortia have been working on waste remediation technologies. For the first time since 1980, when Superfund became law, one can give positive answers to the two critical questions. Groups are finding innovative technologies to clean up Superfund and other waste sites. And, as a nation, Americans are exercising the political will to create a Superfund law that will work effectively and fairly.

  10. Significant emissions of 210Po by coal burning into the urban atmosphere of Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ge; Cho, Hyung-Mi; Lee, Insung; Kim, Guebuem

    2012-07-01

    We conducted a year-round survey of precipitation samples to investigate the sources of excess 210Po in the urban atmosphere of Seoul, Korea. The dominant fraction of 210Po in our samples, independent of the in-situ decay of tropospheric 210Pb, was linked with anthropogenic processes. Using vanadium and potassium as tracers, the excess 210Po was mainly attributed to combustion of coal, with minor contributions from biomass burning. The annual integrated amount of 210Po deposited over the Seoul area via precipitation was estimated to be 1.75 × 1010 Bq yr-1, which might represent a potential public health risk in the vicinity of major point sources, due to its highly adverse biological effects. Since the world coal consumption is growing, the magnitude of coal burning derived 210Po is expected to increase in the following decades, which should be carefully monitored.

  11. Data Summary Report for the Annual Fourmile Branch and F- and H-Area Seeplines, Appendix IX Metals and Radionuclides, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.

    1999-08-23

    This report presents a summary of the definitive data validation and verification for the 1998 RFI/RI annual Appendix IX metals and radionuclides survey for Fourmile Branch and the F- and H-Area Seeplines. The validation process began with project mobilization and continued through the delivery of EDDs and this report.

  12. Annual subsurface transport of a red tide dinoflagellate to its bloom area: Water circulation patterns and organism distributions in the Chesapeake Bay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARY ALTALO TYLER; H. H. Seliger

    1978-01-01

    An annual, long range, subsurface transport of Prorocentrum mariae-lebouriae, from the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay to its bloom area in the upper bay, a distance of 240 km, is described and completely documented. Prorocentrum in surface outflowing waters at the mouth of the bay is recruited in late winter into more dense inflowing coastal waters. Strong stratification produced by

  13. Zinc burns: a rare burn injury.

    PubMed

    de Juan, A; Ramon, P; Santoyo, F; Alonso, S

    2000-08-01

    A patient was presented with significant burns resulting from a workplace accident in a zinc production unit. This occurred as a result of the spontaneous combustion of zinc bleed under high pressure. The patient sustained burns to the face, body, and hands and suffered significant injury to the left cornea. Computed imaging revealed solid particles in the ethmoid sinus and also in the right nasal fossa, dissecting the right lacrimal duct. Photographic documentation is presented. This injury was potentially preventable and resulted from poor observance of safety procedures. PMID:10812277

  14. 2008 Annual Summary Report for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada: Review of the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-03-30

    The Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site requires an annual review to assess the adequacy of the Performance Assessments (PAs) and Composite Analyses (CAs) for each of the facilities, with the results submitted annually to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters. The Disposal Authorization Statements for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) also require that such reviews be made and that secondary or minor unresolved issues be tracked and addressed as part of the maintenance plan. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) performed an annual review in fiscal year (FY) 2008 by evaluating operational factors and research results that impact the continuing validity of the PAs and CAs. This annual summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2008 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada Test Site relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs.

  15. Western Area Power Administration annual site environmental report for calendar year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-12-31

    This document outlines the accomplishments and status of the environmental program of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) for calendar year 2005. In 2005, Western submitted 190 reports to state and local emergency response personnel and had 60 California Hazardous Materials Business Plans in place as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. These reports identify the hazardous substances contained at these sites. At sites where potential oil spills could harm surrounding ecosystems and waterways, Western prepares Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) plans. These plans identify measures to prevent spills from harming the environment, such as identifying the need for secondary containment at facilities. Western currently has SPCC plans for 154 facilities in 13 states. In 2005, Western updated 19 SPCC plans and prepared one new plan. Western operated under 107 environmental permits in 2005. Western evaluates the impact of its planned actions on the environment by preparing National Environmental Policy Act documentation. In 2005, Western completed or was working on 60 categorical exclusions, 18 environmental assessments and eight environmental impact statements, issued six Findings of No Significant Impact, and prepared four Mitigation Action Plans. Western held several public workshops/meetings and consulted with 70 American Indian Tribes for various projects. In 2005, Western was working on or had completed 11 Section 7 consultations under the Endangered Species Act. In 2005, Western recycled more than 3,600 metric tons of electrical equipment, mineral oil dielectric fluid, asphalt, fluorescent and metal halide light bulbs, wood poles and crossarms, and other items as well as office waste. Western made $437,816 worth of purchases containing recovered content materials. Western met the requirement of Executive Order 13148, Greening the Government through Leadership in Environmental Management to have its Environmental Management System in place by December 31, 2005.

  16. “Chemical Changes: Burning”

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kris Ryan

    2012-07-25

    This lesson demonstrates how students can apply the process of identifying main idea and supporting details to show the different ways burning can chemically change matter. The students can identify these changes and discuss the details that support these changes, which will help them further understand how burning matter is considered a chemical change.

  17. Hand chemical burns.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby

    2015-03-01

    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes. PMID:25653184

  18. FY2010 ANNUAL REVIEW E-AREA LOW-LEVEL WASTE FACILITY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AND COMPOSITE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; Swingle, R.; Crapse, K.; Millings, M.; Sink, D.

    2011-01-01

    The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) consists of a number of disposal units described in the Performance Assessment (PA)(WSRC, 2008b) and Composite Analysis (CA)(WSRC, 1997; WSRC, 1999): Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Vault, Intermediate Level (IL) Vault, Trenches (Slit Trenches [STs], Engineered Trenches [ETs], and Component-in-Grout [CIG] Trenches), and Naval Reactor Component Disposal Areas (NRCDAs). This annual review evaluates the adequacy of the approved 2008 ELLWF PA along with the Special Analyses (SAs) approved since the PA was issued. The review also verifies that the Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 low-level waste (LLW) disposal operations were conducted within the bounds of the PA/SA baseline, the Savannah River Site (SRS) CA, and the Department of Energy (DOE) Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS). Important factors considered in this review include waste receipts, results from monitoring and research and development (R&D) programs, and the adequacy of controls derived from the PA/SA baseline. Sections 1.0 and 2.0 of this review are a summary of the adequacy of the PA/SA and CA, respectively. An evaluation of the FY2010 waste receipts and the resultant impact on the ELLWF is summarized in Section 3.1. The results of the monitoring program, R&D program, and other relevant factors are found in Section 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4, respectively. Section 4.0 contains the CA annual determination similarly organized. SRS low-level waste management is regulated under DOE Order 435.1 (DOE, 1999a) and is authorized under a DAS as a federal permit. The original DAS was issued by the DOE-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) on September 28, 1999 (DOE, 1999b) for the operation of the ELLWF and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The 1999 DAS remains in effect for the regulation of the SDF. Those portions of that DAS applicable to the ELLWF were superseded by revision 1 of the DAS on July 15, 2008 (DOE, 2008b). The 2008 PA and DAS were officially implemented by the facility on October 31, 2008 and are the authorization documents for this FY2010 Annual Review. Department of Energy Headquarters approval of the 2008 DAS was subject to numerous conditions specified in the document. Two of those conditions are to update the ELLWF closure plan and monitoring plan to align with the conceptual model analyzed in the PA. Both of these conditions were met with the issuance of the PA Monitoring Plan (Millings, 2009a) and the Closure Plan (Phifer et al, 2009a). The PA Monitoring Plan was approved by DOE on July 22, 2009 and the Closure Plan was approved by DOE on May 21, 2009. Both will be updated as needed to remain consistent with the PA. The DAS also specifies that the maintenance plan include activities to resolve each of the secondary issues identified in the DOEHQ review of the 2008 PA that were not completely addressed either with supplemental material provided to the review team or in final revisions to the PA. These outstanding issues were originally documented in the 2008 update of the PA/CA Maintenance Plan (WSRC, 2008a) and in subsequent PA/CA Maintenance Plans (most recently SRNS, 2010a) as required and are actively being worked.

  19. Skin Burns (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... than 3 inches or 7.5 cm) or deep (deep partial-thickness or full thickness) (see 'Burn type' ... are good examples of superficial partial-thickness burns. Deep partial-thickness skin burns — Deep partial-thickness skin ...

  20. ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE FINAL GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION, TEST AREA NORTH, OPERABLE UNIT 1-07B, FISCAL YEAR 2009

    SciTech Connect

    FORSYTHE, HOWARD S

    2010-04-14

    This Annual Report presents the data and evaluates the progress of the three-component remedy implemented for remediation of groundwater contamination at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Overall, each component is achieving progress toward the goal of total plume remediation. In situ bioremediation operations in the hot spot continue to operate as planned. Progress toward the remedy objectives is being made, as evidenced by continued reduction in the amount of accessible residual source and decreases in downgradient contaminant flux, with the exception of TAN-28. The injection strategy is maintaining effective anaerobic reductive dechlorination conditions, as evidenced by complete degradation of trichloroethene and ethene production in the biologically active wells. In the medial zone, the New Pump and Treat Facility operated in standby mode. Trichloroethene concentrations in the medial zone wells are significantly lower than the historically defined concentration range of 1,000 to 20,000 ?g/L. The trichloroethene concentrations in TAN-33, TAN-36, and TAN-44 continue to be below 200 ?g/L. Monitoring in the distal zone wells outside and downgradient of the plume boundary demonstrate that some plume expansion has occurred, but less than the amount allowed in the Record of Decision Amendment. Additional data need to be collected for wells in the monitored natural attenuation part of the plume to confirm that the monitored natural attenuation part of the remedy is proceeding as predicted in the modeling.

  1. Annual emissions and air-quality impacts of an urban area district-heating system: Boston case study

    SciTech Connect

    Bernow, S.S.; McAnulty, D.R.; Buchsbaum, S.; Levine, E.

    1980-02-01

    A district-heating system, based on thermal energy from power plants retrofitted to operate in the cogeneration mode, is expected to improve local air quality. This possibility has been examined by comparing the emissions of five major atmospheric pollutants, i.e., particulates, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, from the existing heating and electric system in the City of Boston with those from a proposed district heating system. Detailed, spatial distribution of existing heating load and fuel mix is developed to specify emissions associated with existing heating systems. Actual electric-power-plant parameters and generation for the base year are specified. Additional plant fuel consumption and emissions resulting from cogeneration operation have been estimated. Six alternative fuel-emissions-control scenarios are considered. The average annual ground-level concentrations of sulfur oxides are calculated using a modified form of the EPA's Climatological Dispersion Model. This report describes the methodology, the results and their implications, and the areas for extended investigation. The initial results confirm expectations. Average sulfur oxides concentrations at various points within and near the city drop by up to 85% in the existing fuels scenarios and by 95% in scenarios in which different fuels and more-stringent emissions controls at the plants are used. These reductions are relative to concentrations caused by fuel combustion for heating and large commercial and industrial process uses within the city and Boston Edison Co. electric generation.

  2. Control of Invasive Weeds with Prescribed Burning 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSEPH M. DiTOMASO; MATTHEW L. BROOKS; EDITH B. ALLEN; RALPH MINNICH; PETER M. RICE; GUY B. KYSER

    2006-01-01

    Prescribed burning has primarily been used as a tool for the control of invasive late-season annual broadleaf and grass species, particularly yellow starthistle, medusahead, barb goatgrass, and several bromes. However, timely burning of a few invasive biennial broadleaves (e.g., sweetclover and garlic mustard), perennial grasses (e.g., bluegrasses and smooth brome), and woody species (e.g., brooms and Chinese tallow tree) also

  3. Response of Elk to Changes in Plant Production and Nutrition Following Prescribed Burning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRED VAN DYKE; JEFFREY A. DARRAGH

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have ascribed use of areas by grazers after burning to changes in plant community structure, community composition, nutritional quality, and seasonal availability. Researchers can better evaluate these alternatives if they monitor changes in plant communities following burning concurrently with changes in animal use. We examined responses of elk (Cervus elaphus) to prescribed burning of areas dominated by sagebrush (Artemisia

  4. Temporal changes in species composition in Fescue Prairie: relationships with burning history, time of burning, and environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. V. Gross; J. T. Romo

    2010-01-01

    Historically, fires occurred throughout the year in the Fescue Prairie of Canada, but little is known about plant community\\u000a responses to burning at different times of the year. Composition of plant communities was determined annually for 6 years\\u000a after burning one or three times in a remnant Fescue Prairie in central Saskatchewan. A multiple-response permutation procedure\\u000a indicated that plant community composition

  5. Chryseobacterium in burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Kienzle, N; Muller, M; Pegg, S

    2001-03-01

    Chryseobacteria are gram negative organisms, formerly known as Flavobacteria, which rarely cause infections of burn wounds. This article documents three cases of Chryseobacterium infection in burn wounds and adds to the other two cases that have been reported in English literature. Two patients died, with one of the deaths linked to a Chryseobacteria bacteraemia. In two patients, there was an associated history of first aid treatment with untreated water. Patients whose burn wounds are suspected to be infected with Chryseobacterium require wound excision and coverage in combination with antibiotic therapy such as ciprofloxacin, vancomycin and rifampicin. PMID:11226658

  6. Burn and mandible fracture due to pressure cooker explosion.

    PubMed

    Gundeslioglu, A Ozlem; Yenidunya, M Oguz

    2010-09-01

    A burn case of 42-year-old female patient due to pressure cooker explosion associated with mandibular fracture is presented. After early tangential excision of the deep second- and third-degree-burn areas, a split-thickness skin grafting was applied. Open reduction and internal fixation therapy with miniplate system were done for linear symphysis fracture. As much as we know, there was no report in the literature about pressure-cooking burn accompanying mandibular fracture. PMID:20856063

  7. Chemical burn or reaction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the skin has come in contact with the toxic substance Rash , blisters , burns on the skin Unconsciousness ... locked cabinet. Avoid mixing different products that contain toxic chemicals such as ammonia and bleach. The mixture ...

  8. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mock, David; Chugh, Deepika

    2010-01-01

    Most clinicians dread seeing the patient presenting with a primary complaint of a burning pain on one or more oral mucosal surfaces. Unlike most other clinical conditions presenting in a dental office, burning mouth syndrome is poorly understood with few evidence based remedies. More recently, advances have been made towards clarifying the possible etiology of the disorder and testing the possible therapeutic modalities available. This article attempts to summarize the “state of the art” today. PMID:20690412

  9. Books2burn

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Weinstein, Matthew

    Developed by Professor Matthew Weinstein of Kent State University, Books2burn translates text files into a series of audio files, which may then subsequently be converted to mp3's or other formats. This program will be a great boon to scholars and the general public alike, as the application allows for the easy transfer and replication of potentially large and problematic files into a number of audio formats. Books2burn is compatible with all systems running Mac OS X.

  10. Management of the Acutely Burned Hand.

    PubMed

    Pan, Brian S; Vu, Anthony T; Yakuboff, Kevin P

    2015-07-01

    Despite contributing a small percentage to the total body surface area, hands are the most commonly burned body part and are involved in over 90% of severe burns. Although the mortality of isolated hand burns is negligible, morbidity can be substantial given our need for functioning hands when performing activities of daily living. The greatest challenges of treating hand burns are 2-fold. First, determining the depth of injury can be difficult even for the most experienced surgeon, but despite many diagnostic options, clinical examination remains the gold standard. Second, appropriate postoperative hand therapy is crucial and requires a multidisciplinary approach with an experienced burn surgeon, hand surgeon, and hand therapist. Ultimately, the goals of treatment should include preservation of function and aesthetics. In this review, we present an approach to the management of the acutely burned hand with discussion of both conservative and surgical options. Regardless of the initial treatment decision, subsequent care for this subset of patients should be aimed at preventing debilitating postburn scar contractures that can severely limit hand function and ultimately require reconstructive surgery. PMID:26043803

  11. Epilepsy and Full-Thickness Burns

    PubMed Central

    Botan, A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary This paper presents various aspects of severe burns involving epileptic patients, who may suffer dramatic accidents during seizure attacks. Epileptics may fall onto an open fire or hot surface (e.g. a kitchen range) and they may upset containers full of boiling liquids, suffering deep burns and scalds. In our experience in this field, the most commonly affected body areas are the face and hands, the trunk, and the lower limbs. All such injuries are full-thickness burns, owing to the very long contact of the skin surface with the lesional agent. Three cases are presented of epileptics with severe burns who were admitted to the Burn Unit of Targu Mures Teaching Hospital, Romania, where they were hospitalized; conservative debridement using polyurethanefoam (PUR-foam) dressings was the standard procedure, which all the patients received. Split-thickness skin grafting was the final method for closing the granulating bed resulting from the conservative debridement. We have found that conservative debridement using PUR-foam dressings is a cheaper and more reliable alternative than sharp debridement (which may remove healthy tissue at the same time as burn eschars). PMID:21991200

  12. PBXN-110 Burn Rate Estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, E

    2008-08-11

    It is estimated that PBXN-110 will burn laminarly with a burn function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this burn behavior was estimated.

  13. 2013 Annual Summary Report for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada; Review of the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Shott, Gregory [NSTec] [NSTec

    2014-03-01

    The Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site (National Security Technologies, LLC 2007a) requires an annual review to assess the adequacy of the performance assessments (PAs) and composite analyses (CAs), with the results submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management. The Disposal Authorization Statements for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) also require that such reviews be made and that secondary or minor unresolved issues be tracked and addressed as part of the maintenance plan (DOE 1999a, 2000). The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office performed an annual review of the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS PAs and CAs for fiscal year (FY) 2013. This annual summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2013 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs. Important developments in FY 2013 include the following: • Development of a new Area 5 RWMS closure inventory estimate based on disposals through FY 2013 • Evaluation of new or revised waste streams by special analysis • Development of version 4.115 of the Area 5 RWMS GoldSim PA/CA model The Area 3 RWMS has been in inactive status since July 1, 2006, with the last shipment received in April 2006. The FY 2013 review of operations, facility design, closure plans, monitoring results, and R&D results for the Area 3 RWMS indicates no changes that would impact PA validity. The conclusion of the annual review is that all performance objectives can be met and the Area 3 RWMS PA remains valid. There is no need to the revise the Area 3 RWMS PA. Review of Area 5 RWMS operations, design, closure plans, monitoring results, and R&D activities indicates that no significant changes have occurred. The FY 2013 PA results, generated with the Area 5 RWMS v4.115 GoldSim PA model, indicate that there continues to be a reasonable expectation of meeting all performance objectives. The results and conclusions of the Area 5 RWMS PA are judged valid, and there is no need to the revise the PA. A review of changes potentially impacting the CAs indicates that no significant changes occurred in FY 2013. The continuing adequacy of the CAs was evaluated with the new models, and no significant changes that would alter the CAs results or conclusions were found. The revision of the Area 3 RWMS CA, which will include the Yucca Flat Underground Test Area (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 97) source term, is scheduled for FY 2024, following the completion of the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan in FY 2015. Inclusion of the Frenchman Flat Underground Test Area (CAU 98) results in the Area 5 RWMS CA is scheduled for FY 2016, pending the completion of the CAU 98 Closure Report in FY 2015. Near-term R&D efforts will focus on continuing development of the PA, CA, and inventory models for the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS.

  14. The media glorifying burns: a hindrance to burn prevention.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2003-01-01

    The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. Burns and burn prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with burns and burn prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to burns, risk of burning, or disrespect for the consequences of burns were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of burns, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk burn injury. Most burn-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or burns. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to burns. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for burn injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The burn community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of burns. PMID:12792237

  15. 76 FR 61263 - Safety Zones; Annual Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound Area of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ...1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Annual Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget...correct the coordinates for four firework displays. This action is necessary to prevent...hazards associated with the firework displays. During the enforcement periods,...

  16. 76 FR 63841 - Safety Zones; Annual Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound Area of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ...enforce the safety zone for the Alderbrook Spa & Resort annual firework display in the...in 33 CFR 165.1332 for the Alderbrook Spa & Resort Fireworks display will be enforced...Alderbrook Resort & Spa............. Hood...

  17. 2009 Annual Summary Report for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada: Review of the Performance Assessments and Composite Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-03-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office performed an annual review of the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Wate Management Site (RWMS) Performance Assessments (PAs) and Composite Analyses (CAs) in fiscal year (FY) 2009. This annual summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2009 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada Test Site relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs.

  18. A Computer Program to Evaluate Experimental Therapies for Treating Burned Patients

    PubMed Central

    Flora, Jairus D.; Flora, Sharyl Ann

    1980-01-01

    Determining the worth of new therapies for burn patients has been difficult because of the rarity of the burn injury and the disparate survival chances associated with different sizes of burns. Recently a burn survival model has been developed that estimates the risk of death from a burn as a function of the patient's age, sex, area of full thickness (third degree) burn, area of partial thickness burn, involvement of the perineum, and time from burn to admission. An alternative risk model uses the total area burned in place of the areas of partial thickness burn and full thickness burn, and is appropriate if the amount of full thickness burn is not determined accurately. This paper describes a program that uses these risk models to correct or standardize for demographic and severity factors, then, after that adjustment, tests whether a group of burn patients who received a new or experimental therapy shows a significantly better survival rate than that predicted by a baseline model. The program is a simple one written in Fortran for easy adaptation to other computer systems.

  19. Sources of black carbon in aerosols: fossil fuel burning vs. biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The uncertainty in black carbon (BC) analysis and our inability to directly quantify the BC sources in the atmosphere has led to the uncertainty in compiling a regional or global BC emission inventory attributed to biomass burnings. We initiate this study to demonstrate a new approach, which quantifies the source of BC in the atmosphere between biomass and fossil fuel burnings. We applied the newly developed multi-element scanning thermal analysis (MESTA) technology to quantify BC and organic carbon (OC), respectively, in aerosol samples. MESTA can also separate BC from OC for subsequent radiocarbon analyses. Because fossil fuel has been depleted of radiocarbon and biomass has radiocarbon of the modern atmospheric level, we can quantify the sources of BC between fossil fuel and biomass burnings. We sampled the PM2.5 in the ambient air of central Tallahassee and its rural areas during the May-June (prescribed burning) and Nov-Dec (non-burning) periods. The results indicate that biomass burning contributed 89×1% and 67×2% of BC, respectively, during May-June and Nov.-Dec. periods. The rest of PM2.5 BC was contributed from fossil fuel burning. The radiocarbon contents of the OC was 103.42×0.55 percent modern carbon (pmC), which is consistent with the current atmospheric level with a trace of the bomb radiocarbon remained from the open atmosphere nuclear testing.

  20. Do standard burn mortality formulae work on a population of severely burned children and adults?

    PubMed

    Tsurumi, Amy; Que, Yok-Ai; Yan, Shuangchun; Tompkins, Ronald G; Rahme, Laurence G; Ryan, Colleen M

    2015-08-01

    Accurate prediction of mortality following burns is useful as an audit tool, and for providing treatment plan and resource allocation criteria. Common burn formulae (Ryan Score, Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI), classic and revised Baux) have not been compared with the standard Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHEII) or re-validated in a severely (?20% total burn surface area) burned population. Furthermore, the revised Baux (R-Baux) has been externally validated thoroughly only once and the pediatric Baux (P-Baux) has yet to be. Using 522 severely burned patients, we show that burn formulae (ABSI, Baux, revised Baux) outperform APACHEII among adults (AUROC increase p<0.001 adults; p>0.5 children). The Ryan Score performs well especially among the most at-risk populations (estimated mortality [90% CI] original versus current study: 33% [26-41%] versus 30.18% [24.25-36.86%] for Ryan Score 2; 87% [78-93%] versus 66.48% [51.31-78.87%] for Ryan Score 3). The R-Baux shows accurate discrimination (AUROC 0.908 [0.869-0.947]) and is well-calibrated. However, the ABSI and P-Baux, although showing high measures of discrimination (AUROC 0.826 [0.737-0.916] and 0.848 [0.758-0.938]) in children), exceedingly overestimates mortality, indicating poor calibration. We highlight challenges in designing and employing scores that are applicable to a wide range of populations. PMID:25922299

  1. Solar Burn Reactivation Induced by Methotrexate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelli J. DeVore

    2010-01-01

    Solar burn reactivation, a rare and idiosyncratic drug reaction, has been reported with the use of a variety of drugs. This reaction is believed to be the result of exposure to ultraviolet light during the subsiding phase of an acute inflammatory reaction. It affects areas of the body that have been previously sunburned. We describe a 16-year-old girl who was

  2. Electrical burns of the abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Ritesh

    2013-01-01

    A 35-year-old male farmer came in contact with 11,000 volts high tension electric wire and sustained full thickness burn wounds over scapula, upper limb and anterior abdominal wall along with perforation of the intestine. Patient was initially managed conservatively in general surgery ward and was referred to us after 3 days with necrosis of the burned skin and muscles over the shoulder and abdomen. Patient was initially managed conservatively and then thorough debridement of the necrotic skin over the left shoulder and upper arm was done and the area was split skin grafted. Patient developed enterocutaneous fistula, which healed over a period of 8 weeks. The granulating wound over the abdomen was also skin grafted and patient was discharged after 18 days. About 4 months, after the discharge patient presented with ventral hernia. Repair of ventral hernia by synthetic mesh application and reconstruction of the abdominal wall with a free tensor fascia lata flap was done over the mesh, but the flap failed. Then after debridement two random pattern transposition skin flaps, one from the right upper and another from the left lower abdomen were transposed over the abdominal wound and donor area was skin grafted. Patient was discharged after 17 days. PMID:24459356

  3. Pediatric burns mortality risk factors in a developing country’s tertiary burns intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Agbenorku, Pius; Agbenorku, Manolo; Fiifi-Yankson, Papa Kwesi

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed at identifying risk factors related to pediatric burns mortality in a middle income country such as Ghana. Methods: The data for the three years retrospective study (May 2009 – April 2012) was obtained from the pediatric burn admissions records and patients’ folders of the Reconstructive Plastic Surgery & Burns Unit (RPSBU), Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Ghana. Data retrieved included: Demographic features, Total Burned Surface Area (TBSA) incurred; Aetiology of burns; Duration of the admission; Outcome of admission; Part of the body affected and Cost incurred. Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the KNUST-SMS/KATH Committee on Human Research, Publications and Ethics. Data analyses were performed with SPSS 17.0 version. Results: Information on 197 patients was completely retrieved for the study. Burns mortality rate for the study was identified to be 21.3% (N=42). The mean age of the 42 dead patients was 3.7±0.3 years, ranging from 0-13 years, while, males (54.8%, N= 23) outnumbered females (45.2%, N=19). The TBSA burned interquartile range was 48%. In terms of etiology of burns Scald (73.8%, N=31) was the commonest cause of injury. Mortality risk factors identified were Age <6 years (P=0.028); Scald especially hot water and soup (P=0.016); TBSA >36% (P=0.028) and Inhalation injury (P=0.040). Conclusion: Age, scald, TBSA and Inhalation Injury were identified as pediatric burns mortality risk factors in a developing country such as Ghana’s RPSBU. These identified factors will serve as a guideline for plastic surgeons and other health professionals practicing in countries such as Ghana. PMID:23875121

  4. A 1-year prospective study of burns in an Irish paediatric burns unit.

    PubMed

    Cronin, K J; Butler, P E; McHugh, M; Edwards, G

    1996-05-01

    Burns are the fourth leading cause of injury death in children in the USA, accounting for 1300 paediatric deaths annually. The majority of paediatric burns mortality and morbidity result from simple domestic accidents that are preventable. A prospective study of paediatric burns from 1 January 1992 to 1 January 1993 was undertaken at our burns unit to outline the profile of the Irish paediatric burns problem. A total of 336 burns were referred to our unit over the 12 months (80 per cent self-referrals, 15 per cent tertiary referrals from district hospitals and 5 per cent GP referrals). Sixteen per cent (57) of the patients required admission and 33 per cent (112) required prolonged dressings as outpatients. Mortality and morbidity rates were comparable to other centres at 1.8 per cent and 39 per cent respectively. The demographic analysis of the patient population was similar to that seen in other studies from developed countries but there were some notable differences. First, there was an alarmingly high incidence of serious sunburn injuries, especially among young infants. Most parents were unaware of the association between childhood sunburn and the development of skin cancer in later life. Second, 90 per cent of the accidents occurred in the home and almost all were preventable. A parent or guardian was present in 87 per cent of cases but parental knowledge of the appropriate first aid measures was poor. It is suggested that a public health education campaign on this issue would help in reducing the incidence and severity of paediatric burn injuries in Ireland. PMID:8726262

  5. Burning and detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Forest, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of confined burning explosive abutting nonburning explosive in a variety of one-dimensional geometries has been studied by numerical simulation, demonstrating the effects of confinement, burning rate, and shock sensitivity. The model includes porous bed burning, compressible solids and gases, shock-induced decomposition with possible transition to detonation, and constant velocity ignition waves. Two-phase flow, gas relative to solid, is not allowed. Because the shock sensitivity of an explosive changes with explosive density and because such experimental data is rarely available over a range of densities, a method for the calculation of the density effect on the initial-shock-pressure, distance-to-detonation (wedge test) measure of shock sensitivity is given. The calculation uses the invariance with density of the shock particle velocity as a function of time to detonation, and the experimental data at some high density.

  6. 'Special effects' burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Peters, W

    1991-02-01

    Three patients are presented with significant flame burns, resulting from accidents occurring during 'special effects' situations in the entertainment industry. These occurred as a result of the spontaneous combustion of various materials, during events in live theatre (gun powder), a television commercial (artificial 'rocket fuel'), and a video presentation (magnesium oxide). All three patients sustained flash burns to the face and hands. One patient sustained a significant bilateral corneal injury, a gamekeeper's thumb, and a permanent continuous right-sided high frequency tinnitus, in addition to his burn injury. Photographic documentation of all three patients is presented. The total loss of time from work for all patients was 6 months. All these injuries were potentially preventable. PMID:2031675

  7. Burning trees and bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1990-01-01

    Most burning of biomass is the result of human activity, and on a global scale it is increasing. Tropospheric concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons, and ozone are all increasing with time; global biomass burning may make an important contribution to this increase and thus to potential global climate change. The nitrogen cycle also can have important climatic effects. Nitrous oxide put into the atmosphere by biomass burning is a greenhouse gas 250 times more powerful (molecule for molecule) than carbon dioxide. Nitric oxide, as well as being a photochemical precursor of ozone, a major pollutant in the troposphere, produces nitric acid, the fastest-growing component of acid rain. Hence, the new bridge in the nitrogen cycle is of more than mere technical interest.

  8. Methane production from global biomass burning

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Min Hao; Ward, D.E. [Department of Agriculture, Missoula, MN (United States)

    1993-11-20

    Emissions of methane from various sources of biomass burning are determined quantitatively for tropical, temperate, and boreal regions. About 85% of the total CH{sub 4} is emitted in the tropical area, which is mainly the result of shifting cultivation, fuelwood use, and deforestation. Methane emissions from biomass burning may have increased by at least 9% during the last decade because of increases in tropical deforestation and the use of fuelwood. Changes in land use practices and population growth in the tropics are possible causes of the increase of atmospheric CH{sub 4} concentration. 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. Bison grazing patterns on seasonally burned tallgrass prairie

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Range; Bryan R. Coppedge; James H. Shaw

    Abstract Patterns,of bin,(JIison bison,L.) grazing,were,examined,in a 2- year,study,on a tallgrass,prairie,site in Oklahoma,subjected,to a seasonally,and,spatially,variable,burning,regime. Mixed,groups,of bin, composed of cows, yearlings, calves, and young ( 5 years of age selected,unburned,areas,for graxing,29% of the time,and,burned areas,only,4% of the tie.,Temporal,patterns,in bin,grazing were,evident;,selective,use of burns,persisted,for only,a short period during the first post-fire growing season, after which burns,were,grazed,in proportion,to availabiity,and,then,selective- ly avoided,as bison,shifted,grazing,efforts,to newer,burns. Regression,analysis,verified,that,bison,grazing,was,negatively

  10. Noninvasive determination of burn depth in children by digital infrared thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Preciado, Jose David; Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar Samuel; Velez-Gomez, Ezequiel; Miranda-Altamirano, Ariel; González, Francisco Javier

    2013-06-01

    Digital infrared thermal imaging is used to assess noninvasively the severity of burn wounds in 13 pediatric patients. A delta-T (?T) parameter obtained by subtracting the temperature of a healthy contralateral region from the temperature of the burn wound is compared with the burn depth measured histopathologically. Thermal imaging results show that superficial dermal burns (IIa) show increased temperature compared with their contralateral healthy region, while deep dermal burns (IIb) show a lower temperature than their contralateral healthy region. This difference in temperature is statistically significant (p<0.0001) and provides a way of distinguishing deep dermal from superficial dermal burns. These results show that digital infrared thermal imaging could be used as a noninvasive procedure to assess burn wounds. An additional advantage of using thermal imaging, which can image a large skin surface area, is that it can be used to identify regions with different burn depths and estimate the size of the grafts needed for deep dermal burns.

  11. Science at Burning Man

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Recently, the Exploratorium Museum in San Francisco sent a dedicated crew to check out the activities at the Burning Man festival in Nevada. The results of their journey and explorations can be seen here, and interested parties can learn about pyrotechnics, flight, dust devils, and rainbows. The site contains several dozen short films that feature Exploratorium scientists like Paul Doherty investigating the properties of alkali and a rare double rainbow sighting. One of the most impressive videos is a bird's eye view from an 88-NV plane over the Burning Man site. Finally, visitors are also encouraged to share these resources with others via social media sites, including Twitter and Facebook.

  12. Burning Down the House

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Glenn Dolphin

    In this demonstration, the teacher will use a potato and hydrogen peroxide to generate oxygen in a closed environment. Students can then observe its effects on a burning wooden splint and on burning steel wool. They will understand that a large amount of energy can be released by the process of oxidation. As an extension, the teacher can discuss how the appearance of oxygen (produced by cyanobacteria) in Earth's early atmosphere initially resulted in the formation of large deposits of iron oxide (Banded Iron Formations) and then aided in the evolution of more complex life forms.

  13. Face burns caused by flambé drinks.

    PubMed

    Jang, Young Chul; Kim, Young Joon; Lee, Jong Wook; Oh, Suk Joon; Han, Kyung Woo; Lee, Jung Wook; Han, Tae Hyung

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the epidemiology of face burns in Korean adults caused by flambé drinks in the hope of developing preventive programs. We reviewed the medical records of 25 patients with burns caused by flame drinks that were admitted to the Hallym Burn Centre, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, Korea, during the 30-month period of July 2002 to December 2004. The injuries occurred while drinking and spilling the whisky on the flame (68%) during the hours of social gathering and festivity. There were more men than women (male:female ratio=21:4); the mean age was 27.5+/-5.7 years (mean 27, range 21-43 years). Alcohol flames inflicted superficial (56%) to mid-second-degree burns in a relatively small area of body (TBSA 3.2+/-3.0%). The head was most commonly involved, followed by the upper extremity and trunk. All patients except two were treated with observation and daily dressing changes only. The mean length of hospital stay was 12.1+/-6.5 (10, 5-25) days. Long-term cosmetic outcomes were excellent. Some victims suffered mild corneal (n=4) and ear (n=6) burns, without permanent sequelae. Post-traumatic stress disorder and depression also were reported. Burn injuries induced by flambé drinks may be prevented by increasing public awareness about its danger and the potential risk for corneal and facial burns and by implementing a safety policy. All the involved parties--public, distillers, and bar and restaurant management--need to coordinate their efforts achieve a reduction in injuries. PMID:16566542

  14. Spatial and temporal scale issues in determining biomass burning regimes in Bolivia and Peru

    E-print Network

    Spatial and temporal scale issues in determining biomass burning regimes in Bolivia and Peru A. V and burn scars derived from SPOT VEGETATION (the Global Burnt Area 2000 product) were mapped for Peru Santa Cruz, Bolivia and in north-west Peru). Particular attention was paid to biomass burning in high

  15. Crystalloids, colloids and kids: a review of paediatric burns in intensive care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda J Cocks; Anthony O'Connell; Hugh Martin

    1998-01-01

    This is a retrospective review of all burns patients admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) over a 7 year period. Resuscitation fluid therapy and clinical course are presented. Ninety-eight new burns victims were admitted with a mortality rate of 10.2%, all in burns of greater than 25% body surface area (BSA). The incidence of ARDS was 20%, with

  16. Steroid dysregulation and stomatodynia (burning mouth syndrome).

    PubMed

    Woda, Alain; Dao, Thuan; Gremeau-Richard, Christelle

    2009-01-01

    Stomatodynia ( burning mouth syndrome) is characterized by a spontaneous, continuous burning pain felt in the oral mucosa typically of anxiodepressive menopausal women. Because there is no obvious organic cause, it is considered a nonspecific pain. This Focus Article proposes a hypothesis based on the following pathophysiological cascade: chronic anxiety or post traumatic stress leads to a dysregulation of the adrenal production of steroids. One consequence is a decreased or modified production of some major precursors for the neuroactive steroid synthesis occurring in the skin, mucosa, and nervous system. At menopause, the drastic fall of the other main precursor supply , the gonadal steroids, leads to a brisk alteration of the production of neuroactive steroids. This results in neurodegenerative alterations of small nerves fibers of the oral mucosa and /or some brain areas involved in oral somatic sensations. These neuropathic changes become irreversible and precipitate the burning pain, dysgeusia, and xerostomia associated with stomatodynia, which all involve thin nerve fibers. PMID:19639097

  17. A comparison of the annual cycle of sea level in coastal areas from gridded satellite altimetry and tide gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Etcheverry, L. A.; Saraceno, M.; Piola, A. R.; Valladeau, G.; Möller, O. O.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we compare the annual component of sea level variations derived from 478 worldwide-distributed tide gauges with the annual component computed from a weekly gridded multi-mission altimeter product. Gridded altimetry data products allow for spatio-temporal analyses that are not possible based on along-track altimetry data. However, a precise validation is necessary in the coastal region before the gridded data can be used. Results of the comparisons show that root-mean-square differences (RMSD) between the two datasets are ?2 cm for 76.4% of the sites. RMSD higher than 4 cm are caused by narrow coastal currents, nearby river outflows or other local phenomena. A methodology is proposed to assess the accuracy of the seasonal component of the gridded altimeter product in regions with a low density net of tide gauges. As a case study it is shown that the Southwestern Atlantic coast is a suitable region to study the spatio-temporal variability of the annual cycle of sea level since RMSD between annual altimetry data and in-situ data are lower than 2.1 cm.

  18. Table 1.Annual estimates, uncertainty, and change Figure 1.Area of forest land and timberland by year.

    E-print Network

    field guide, Vol. 1, field data collection procedures for phase 2 plots, ver. 4.0. Available at http feet of industrial black walnut roundwood were produced, 54 percent of which went to Missouri sawmills, Treiman and Tuttle (2009) estimated the annual value of loss to the state wood products industry at $36

  19. Global biomass burning - Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S. (editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present volume discusses the biomass burning (BMB) studies of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry project, GEO satellite estimation of Amazonian BMB, remote sensing of BMB in West Africa with NOAA-AVHRR, an orbital view of the great Chinese fire of 1987, BMB's role in tropical rainforest reduction, CO and O3 measurements of BMB in the Amazon, effects of vegetation burning on the atmospheric chemistry of the Venezuelan savanna, an assessment of annually-burned biomass in Africa, and light hydrocarbon emissions from African savanna burnings. Also discussed are BMB in India, trace gas and particulate emissions from BMB in temperate ecosystems, ammonia and nitric acid emissions from wetlands and boreal forest fires, combustion emissions and satellite imagery of BMB, BMB in the perspective of the global carbon cycle, modeling trace-gas emissions from BMB, NO(x) emissions from BMB, and cloud-condensation nuclei from BMB.

  20. [Disturbances of electrolytes in severe thermal burns].

    PubMed

    Hauhouot-Attoungbre, M L; Mlan, W C H; Edjeme, N A; Ahibo, H; Vilasco, B; Monnet, D

    2005-01-01

    Thermal burns result in severe electrolytes disturbances which are life-threatening when the percentage of burnt body surface area (BSA) is above 20% in adults and 10% in children. If electrolytes disturbances are often mentioned in the physiopathology of burns, they are less documented in the daily practice of the follow up. The objective of this work was to describe variation of blood and urine electrolytes concentrations in severe burns. The survey concerned 30 patients hospitalized in the Burn Centre of Abidjan. The patients have been followed during the first three days after the burn, including the initial phase of shock resuscitation. The results showed, in accordance with data of the literature, the incidence of hypophosphoremia, hypoprotidemia and hypocalcemia. The hypoprotidemia and the hypocalcemia were correlated with the importance of the BSA. An elevation of potassium and a decrease of sodium have been also observed, but, in contrast to data of the literature, they were not significant. Moderate variations of chloride and magnesium have been noted. All urinary parameters were decreased. The present results suggest the necessity of proteins, phosphore and calcium administration in the therapeutic protocols. PMID:16061440

  1. 2013 Annual Security and Fire Safety Report

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yuqing

    Preparing the Annual Disclosure of Crime Statistics .............................................25 Daily of Hawai`i Mnoa Crime Statistics .............................................28 University of Hawai`i Mnoa - John A. Burns School of Medicine Crime Statistics ......30 University of Hawai`i Mnoa Crime Statistics

  2. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome due to burn wound infection

    PubMed Central

    Farroha, A.; Frew, Q.; Jabir, S.; Dziewulski, P.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction. The staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is an acute exfoliation of the skin caused by exfoliative toxins A and B. Although Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of burn wound infection, SSSS following burn wound infection is rare. Method. A retrospective review of all SSSS cases admitted to a regional burns service between January 2008 and January 2012 was undertaken. Results. Two cases of SSSS were reported during this time period as occurring following burns injury. The first case was a 17-month-old boy who had been hospitalized for a conservative treatment of 6% total body surface area (TBSA) mixed depth scald burns. On day four he developed exfoliation of 85% TBSA. The second case was a ten-month-old boy who sustained a 1% TBSA scald burn and was managed conservatively in the community by his general practitioner. On day five, he developed exfoliation of 80% TBSA. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the burn wounds in both cases. Conclusion: These two cases show that it is vital for burns surgeons and intensive care specialists to be aware of the possibility of SSSS occurring in patients with burn injuries with its potential devastating effects. PMID:23467312

  3. Immediate enteral feeding in burn patients is safe and effective.

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, W S; Sharp, C W; Deitch, E A

    1991-01-01

    Recent animal studies indicate that immediate enteral feeding may be beneficial in patients with major burns. Yet, largely because of the fear of complications, immediate enteral feeding is not commonly performed in patients with major burns until after the resuscitation period. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of immediate enteral tube feedings in patients with burns larger than 20% of their body surface area. The daily intake of enteral feedings begun immediately (less than 6 hours) after burn was measured during the first 7 days after burn in 106 consecutive patients with a mean +/- SD burn size of 40% +/- 21%. The incidence of complications related to enteral feeding was low; aspiration pneumonia did not occur. Vomiting was the major complication observed and occurred 21 times in 16 patients during the 745 study days (2.8% daily incidence). The mean number of calories absorbed enterally increased daily and met the patient's calculated resting energy expenditure (REE) on day 3 after burn (99% +/- 7% REE). The results of this study indicate that immediate enteral feeding is a safe and effective method of delivering nutritional support to burn victims with major burns. PMID:1899551

  4. Biomass burning emissions of reactive gases estimated from satellite data analysis and ecosystem modeling for the Brazilian Amazon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Christopher; Brooks-Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2002-10-01

    To produce a new daily record of trace gas emissions from biomass burning events for the Brazilian Legal Amazon, we have combined satellite advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data on fire counts together for the first time with vegetation greenness imagery as inputs to an ecosystem biomass model at 8 km spatial resolution. This analysis goes beyond previous estimates for reactive gas emissions from Amazon fires, owing to a more detailed geographic distribution estimate of vegetation biomass, coupled with daily fire activity for the region (original 1 km resolution), and inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon (defined as the Brazilian states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, and Tocantins) covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. Results from our emissions model indicate that annual emissions from Amazon deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s total to 102 Tg yr-1 carbon monoxide (CO) and 3.5 Tg yr-1 nitrogen oxides (NOx). Peak daily burning emissions, which occurred in early September 1992, were estimated at slightly more than 3 Tg d-1for CO and 0.1 Tg d-1for NOx flux to the atmosphere. Other burning source fluxes of gases with relatively high emission factors are reported, including methane (CH4), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), in addition to total particulate matter (TPM). We estimate the Brazilian Amazon region to be a source of between one fifth and one third for each of these global emission fluxes to the atmosphere. The regional distribution of burning emissions appears to be highest in the Brazilian states of Maranhao and Tocantins, mainly from burning outside of moist forest areas, and in Pará and Mato Grosso, where we identify important contributions from primary forest cutting and burning. These new daily emission estimates of reactive gases from biomass burning fluxes are designed to be used as detailed spatial and temporal inputs to computer models and data analysis of tropospheric chemistry over the tropical region.

  5. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  6. Burning Your Own CDs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of CDs (Compact Disks) for backing up data as an alternative to using floppy disks and explains how to burn, or record, a CD. Topics include differences between CD-R (CD-Recordable) and CD-RW (CD-Rewritable); advantages of CD-R and CD-RW; selecting a CD burner; technology trends; and care of CDs. (LRW)

  7. Correlating Aluminum Burning Times

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Beckstead

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of aluminum combustion are summarized in an overview of the subject, focusing on the burning time of individual particles. Combustion data from over ten different sources with almost 400 datum points have been cataloged and correlated. Available models have also been used to evaluate combustion trends with key environmental parameters. The fundamental concepts that control aluminum combustion are discussed,

  8. Gas Hydrates Burning

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    An image of gas hydrates burning. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring “ice-like” combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions....

  9. Burn a Peanut

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners burn a peanut, which produces a flame that can be used to boil away water and count the calories contained in the peanut. Learners use a formula to calculate the calories in a peanut and then differentiate between food calories and physicist calories as well as calories and joules.

  10. Response of Nesting Lapland Longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus) to Burned Tundra on the Seward Peninsula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN M. WRIGHT

    The response of breeding Lapland longspurs to burned sedge tussock-shrub tundra was studied in 1978 on the Seward Peninsula in an area burned by lightning-ignited fires during 1977. In late May and mid-June 1978, plant standing crop in burned tundra was < 5% of standing crop in unburned tundra. Lapland longspurs were less abundant in burned than in unburned tundra.

  11. Automatic Burned Land Mapping From MODIS Time Series Images: Assessment in Mediterranean Ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aitor Bastarrika; Emilio Chuvieco; M. Pilar Martin

    2011-01-01

    A novel automatic burned area mapping algorithm for Mediterranean ecosystems based on Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time series data is presented in this paper. This algorithm is based on a two-phase approach. The first phase detects the most severely burned areas, using spectral\\/temporal rules computed from dynamic temporal win- dows. The second phase improves the discrimination of burned areas around

  12. Suicidal burns in Samarkand burn centers and their consequences.

    PubMed

    Shakirov, B M; Ahmedov, Y M; Hakimov, E A; Tagaev, K R; Karabaev, B H

    2013-12-31

    Suicide is a global public health problem, particularly in Asia where few countries with large populations have high suicide rates accounting for the majority of the world's suicides. During a 14-year period, 76 individuals, aged 17 to 66 years, committed suicide from 1995 to 2008 and were included in this report. Data was collected on each patient including, age, sex, place of injury, patient occupation, accommodation, psychiatric illness, suicidal motives, flammable substances used, place of burn, season of the year, and total body surface area (TBSA) burnt. Most suicidal cases (55 out of 76) had a history of depressive episodes and emotional unstable disorders, and 18 of them had a known history of psychiatric illness. In 5 cases alcohol intoxication was present at the moment of suicide, and 3 patients had chronic alcohol dependence together with basic psychiatric disease. It is also evident from this study that the causes of suicide in females are mainly socio-economical and psychological. PMID:24799853

  13. The overall patterns of burns

    PubMed Central

    Almoghrabi, A.; Abu Shaban, N.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Burn patterns differ across the whole world and not only in relation to lack of education, overcrowding, and poverty. Cultures, habits, traditions, psychiatric illness, and epilepsy are strongly correlated to burn patterns. However, burns may also occur because of specific religious beliefs and activities, social events and festivals, traditional medical practices, occupational activities, and war. PMID:22639565

  14. 7, 1733917366, 2007 Biomass burning

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA wet season experiment C. H. Mari a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Tracing biomass burning plumes from. Mari (marc@aero.obs-mip.fr) 17339 #12;ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA

  15. 5, 27912831, 2005 Biomass burning

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    measurements of trace gas and aerosol particle emissions from biomass burning in Amazonia P. Guyon1 , G. Frank1ACPD 5, 2791­2831, 2005 Biomass burning emissions P. Guyon et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction. 2791 #12;ACPD 5, 2791­2831, 2005 Biomass burning emissions P. Guyon et al. Title Page Abstract

  16. BURN DATA COORDINATING CENTER (BDCC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Burn Data Coordinating Center (BDCC) began collecting data in 1994 and is currently the largest burn database in the country. Pediatric burn data was added in 1998. The BMS database contains over 2,800 cases supporting clinical research and research on outcomes including empl...

  17. Comparison of childhood burns associated with use of microwave ovens and conventional stoves.

    PubMed

    Powell, E C; Tanz, R R

    1993-02-01

    To identify the incidence, type, and severity of burns associated with microwave oven (MW) use and to compare MW-associated burns with those associated with use of conventional stoves, we conducted a review of a national data base. Data were obtained from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission Injury Information Clearinghouse for 1986 through 1990 concerning burn injuries to children (0 to 19 years). There were an estimated 5160 burns associated with MW use. The mean age was 7.6 years (median, 6 years); 25% of burns were to children younger than 36 months old. Fifty-eight percent involved females. Most MW burns were scalds (95%); 16% of these scalds were from exploding eggs or other food. No MW burn involved a body surface area greater than 25% and no patient required hospital admission. Microwave oven burns were compared with stove burns. There were an estimated 41198 stove-associated burns to children. The mean age was 5.8 years; the median was 3 years. Forty-five percent of burns were to children younger than 36 months old; 55% were to males. Most stove burns (74%) were thermal; 7% involved a body surface area greater than 25%. Five percent of children with stove burns required hospital admission. We conclude that (1) burns to children associated with MW use are less frequent and less severe than stove burns; (2) MW burns predominantly affect females; and (3) burn prevention efforts should emphasize the hazards of stoves, which vastly exceed those of MWs. PMID:8424008

  18. Open air refuse burning video: Proton Dan the science man explores open air refuse burning

    SciTech Connect

    Eastburn, M.D.; Sipple, J.L.; Deramo, A.R.

    1999-07-01

    The goal of this video is to educate school children to the potential hazards of open air trash burning; to demonstrate alternative ways to dispose of trash; and to motivate students to take action to change the behavior of their parents with regard to trash burning. The burning of household trash, although illegal, is still a common practice in rural areas of Delaware. Enforcement has been difficult because the practice is often performed at night and is done across a wide rural area that is difficult to patrol on a continuing basis. The prohibition on trash burning (revised Regulation 13 of The Delaware Code of Regulations Governing The Control of Air Pollution) has been in effect since 1968, but the public has been slow to comply because trash burning has been practiced for many generations and because much of the public is unaware of the environmental impacts and/or the human health risks. This video may be valuable for other States to use as a public outreach tool regarding their problems with open air refuse burning. The focus of the video is a 7th grade science class is given various assignments relating to Earth Day and preservation of natural resources. Two children in particular are given the assignment to research and report on the hazards of open air trash burning and are asked to investigate alternative ways to dispose of refuse. Upon brainstorming how to find information on the topic, the kids decide to contact the host of a popular children's science show on broadcast television named Proton Dan the Science Man (a fictitious character and show based on Bill Nye the Science Guy). The host then invites the kids to the studio where he films his show and takes them through the topic. The TV host character takes the children to several external locations like a landfill, recycling centers, etc..

  19. Burning Magnesium (GCMP)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Burning Magnesium: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". In this problem we will look at the reactions of two elements with oxygen in air. We will begin by observing the reaction of magnesium metal with oxygen when the metal is heated in air. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

  20. 2011 Annual Summary Report for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada: Review of the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-03-20

    The Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007a) requires an annual review to assess the adequacy of the Performance Assessments (PAs) and Composite Analyses (CAs), with the results submitted annually to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management. The Disposal Authorization Statements for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) also require that such reviews be made and that secondary or minor unresolved issues be tracked and addressed as part of the maintenance plan (DOE, 1999a; 2000). The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office performed an annual review of the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS PAs and CAs for fiscal year (FY) 2011. This annual summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2011 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R and D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R and D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs. Important developments in FY 2011 include the following: (1) Operation of a new shallow land disposal unit and a new Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-compliant lined disposal unit at the Area 5 RWMS; (2) Development of new closure inventory estimates based on disposals through FY 2011; (3) Evaluation of new or revised waste streams by special analysis; (4) Development of version 2.102 of the Area 3 RWMS GoldSim PA model; and (5) Development of version 4.113 of the Area 5 RWMS GoldSim PA model. Analysis of the latest available data using the Area 5 RWMS v4.113 GoldSim PA model indicates that all performance objectives can be met. The results and conclusions of the Area 5 RWMS PA are judged valid, and there is no need to the revise the PA. The Area 3 RWMS has been in inactive status since July 1, 2006, with the last shipment received in April 2006. In FY 2011, there were no operational changes, monitoring results, or R and D results for the Area 3 RWMS that would impact PA validity. Despite the increase in waste volume and inventory at the Area 3 RWMS since 1996 when the PA was approved, the facility performance evaluated with the Area 3 RWMS PA GoldSim model, version 2.0 (with the final closure inventory), remains well below the performance objectives set forth in U.S. Department of Energy Order DOE O 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management' (DOE, 2001). The conclusions of the Area 3 RWMS PA remain valid. A special analysis was prepared to update the PA and CA results for the Area 3 RWMS in FY 2011. Release of the special analysis is planned for FY 2012. The continuing adequacy of the CAs was evaluated with the new models, and no significant changes that would alter CA results or conclusions were found. Inclusion of the Frenchman Flat Underground Test Area (UGTA) results in the Area 5 RWMS CA is scheduled for FY 2016, pending the completion of the closure report for the Frenchman Flat UGTA corrective action unit (CAU) in FY 2015. An industrial site, CAU 547, with corrective action sites near the Area 3 RWMS was found to have a significant plutonium inventory in 2009. CAU 547 will be evaluated for inclusion of future revisions or updates of the Area 3 RWMS CA. The revision of the Area 3 RWMS CA, which will include the UGTA source terms, is expected in FY 2024, following the completion of the Yucca Flat CAU Corrective Action Decision Document, scheduled for FY 2023. Near-term R and D efforts will focus on continuing development of the Are

  1. Deep foot burns: effects of early excision and grafting.

    PubMed

    Shakirov, Babur M

    2011-12-01

    Few on the problem of foot burns can be found in the available scientific literature. It is necessary to mention that often deep foot burns occur in Central Asia since many natives still use the ancient means of heating called 'Sandal' during the winter months. Eighty-four patients with severe foot burns were treated in the Burn department of RCSUMA and the Inter-regional Burn Center, Uzbekistan. The patients were subdivided into two groups, depending upon the terms of performing operative intervention. There was no special allocation of patients to groups. Criteria for selection were isolated deep burns of the foot. As for the character of the injury, area of deep burn and the severity of injury, patients of the control and basic groups were not different. The first group included 34 patients on whom early excision was done using skin graft 4-5 days after resuscitation, and the second group consisted of 50 patients who were treated in the traditional way. Methods used on the first group, described in this article, helped to improve the general condition of patients, contributed to the restoration of their foot function, lessened joint deformities and post-burn contracture deformities, shortened their stay in hospital and also reduced expenses. PMID:21855217

  2. Impact of deforestation on biomass burning in the tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, W.M.; Liu, M.H. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States); Ward, D.E. [Forest Service, Missoula, MT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Fires are widely used for various land use practices in tropical countries. Large amounts of trace gases and aerosol particles are produced during the fires. It is important to assess the potential impact of these gases and particulate matter on the chemistry of the atmosphere and global climate. One of the largest uncertainties in quantifying the effects is the lack of information on the source strengths. The authors quantify the amount of biomass burned due to deforestation in each tropical country on basis of the deforestation rate, the above ground density, and the fraction of above ground biomass burned. Approximately 725 Tg of biomass were burned in 1980 and 984 Tg were burned in 1990. The 36% increase took place mostly in Latin America and tropical Asia. The largest source was Brazil, contributing about 29% of the total biomass burned in the tropics. The second largest source was Indonesia accounting for 10%, followed by Zaire accounting for about 8%. The burning of biomass due to increased deforestation has resulted in an additional 33 Tg CO and 2.5 Tg CH{sub 4} emitted annually to the atmosphere from 1980 to 1990.

  3. Epidemiology of infant burn in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alsalman, Abdulla K.; Algadiem, Emran A.; Alalwan, Maysaa A.; Farag, Tarek S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the epidemiology, pattern, outcome, and impact of infant burns in Eastern Saudi Arabia. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of admitted infants charts over 4 years (2008-2013) at the Burn Unit of King Fahad Hospital, Hofuf, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. The charts were reviewed for age, gender, etiology, site of injury, total body surface area (TBSA), depth of burn, hospital stay, and discharge status. Results: The total number of admissions to the Burn Unit was 510 cases. Out of these cases, 84 were infants, constituting 16.5% of total admissions. Scald burn was the most common etiology affecting 73 infants (86.9%). The highest percentage of total body surface area was between 5-10%, which occurred in 41 infants (48.8%). The average hospital stay was 10 days. No infant mortality was reported during this period. Conclusion: The prevalence of burns among infants in our hospital is high, and preventive measures must be implemented to decrease the occurrence of burns in this age group. PMID:25737175

  4. Increasing dermal perfusion after burning by decreasing thromboxane production.

    PubMed

    Robson, M C; DelBeccaro, E J; Heggers, J P; Loy, G L

    1980-09-01

    Decreasing progressive dermal ischemia after burning could theoretically limit the amount of skin necrosis to the zone of coagulation. Methylprednisolone, aspirin, indomethacin, imidazole, dipyridamole, and methimazole have been shown to prevent dermal ischemia, suggesting that prostaglandins and/or thromboxanes may play a role in its pathogenesis. Specific antiprostaglandin antibodies (anti-PgE2, PgF2 alpha, PgI2, and TxA2) were reacted with tissue biopsies of burned guinea pig skin at various time intervals postburn. An immunoperoxidase technique with goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin and horseradish peroxidase demonstrated the presence of the specific arachidonic acid metabolites. The burned tissue showed high levels of PgE2 and TxA2. The effects of three thromboxane inhibitors, imidazole, methimazole, and dipyridamole, on dermal ischemia were studied. Xenon133 washout studies were performed in burned and unburned areas. Tissue half-life of Xenon was prolonged in burned, untreated areas but this rapidly decreased in antithromboxane-treated burns. Repeated antiprostaglandin and antithromboxane antibody-immunoperoxidase studies on tissue from the thromboxane inhibitor-treated animals showed that PgE2, PgF2 alpha, and PgI2 were at the same levels as in untreated animals, but thromboxane (TxA2) was essentially absent, suggesting that thromboxane may be responsible for the progressive dermal ischemia after burning and that decreasing its production can increase dermal perfusion. PMID:6997504

  5. Reflective terahertz imaging of porcine skin burns.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Z D; Singh, R S; Culjat, M O; Suen, J Y; Grundfest, W S; Lee, H; Brown, E R

    2008-06-01

    A reflective pulsed terahertz imaging system based on direct detection was developed and used to obtain high-resolution images of a porcine skin specimen with superficial partial-thickness (second-degree) burns. Images were also obtained of the sample through ten layers of dry medical (cotton) gauze with minimal image degradation. The burned and unburned regions of skin had large differences in terahertz reflectivity, displaying clear delineation [20 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) difference signal] between both regions in the images. The terahertz images also exhibited a "halo" surrounding the burn areas that may correlate to the extent of burn injury. The system operated at a center frequency of 500 GHz with 125 GHz of 3 dB bandwidth and used whiskbroom scanning to generate images with a spatial resolution of 1.5 mm. Each pixel was acquired with a 16 ms integration time, resulting in a 40 dB postdetection SNR. The simplicity and high SNR of the reflective terahertz system are promising steps toward real-time terahertz medical imaging. PMID:18516193

  6. 2012 Annual Summary Report for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada: Review of the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Shott, G. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2013-03-18

    The Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site (National Security Technologies, LLC 2007a) requires an annual review to assess the adequacy of the performance assessments (PAs) and composite analyses (CAs), with the results submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management. The Disposal Authorization Statements for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) also require that such reviews be made and that secondary or minor unresolved issues be tracked and addressed as part of the maintenance plan (DOE 1999a, 2000). The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office performed an annual review of the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS PAs and CAs for fiscal year (FY) 2012. This annual summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2012 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs. Important developments in FY 2012 include the following: ? Release of a special analysis for the Area 3 RWMS assessing the continuing validity of the PA and CA ? Development of a new Area 5 RWMS closure inventory estimate based on disposals through FY 2012 ? Evaluation of new or revised waste streams by special analysis ? Development of version 4.114 of the Area 5 RWMS GoldSim PA model The Area 3 RWMS has been in inactive status since July 1, 2006, with the last shipment received in April 2006. The FY 2012 review of operations, facility design, closure plans, monitoring results, and R&D results for the Area 3 RWMS indicates no changes that would impact PA validity. A special analysis using the Area 3 RWMS v2.102 GoldSim PA model was prepared to update the PA results for the Area 3 RWMS in FY 2012. The special analysis concludes that all performance objectives can be met and the Area 3 RWMS PA remains valid. There is no need to the revise the Area 3 RWMS PA. Review of Area 5 RWMS operations, design, closure plans, monitoring results, and R&D activities indicates no significant changes other than an increase in the inventory disposed. The FY 2012 PA results, generated with the Area 5 RWMS v4.114 GoldSim PA model, indicate that there continues to be a reasonable expectation of meeting all performance objectives. The results and conclusions of the Area 5 RWMS PA are judged valid, and there is no need to the revise the PA. A review of changes potentially impacting the CAs indicates that no significant changes occurred in FY 2012. The continuing adequacy of the CAs was evaluated with the new models, and no significant changes that would alter CA results or conclusions were found. The revision of the Area 3 RWMS CA, which will include the Underground Test Area source term (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 97), is scheduled for FY 2024, following the completion of the Yucca Flat CAU 97 Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan in FY 2016. Inclusion of the Frenchman Flat CAU 98 results in the Area 5 RWMS CA is scheduled for FY 2016, pending the completion of the CAU 98 closure report in FY 2015. Near-term R&D efforts will focus on continuing development of the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS GoldSim PA/CA and inventory models.

  7. 2011 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Michael G. Lewis

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2010, through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Site description; (2) Facility and system description; (3) Permit required monitoring data and loading rates; (4) Status of special compliance conditions and activities; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 permit year, approximately 1.22 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area at Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment plant.

  8. 2010 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2010 permit year, approximately 2.2 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area at Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment plant.

  9. Assessment of burn depth and burn wound healing potential.

    PubMed

    Monstrey, Stan; Hoeksema, Henk; Verbelen, Jos; Pirayesh, Ali; Blondeel, Phillip

    2008-09-01

    The depth of a burn wound and/or its healing potential are the most important determinants of the therapeutic management and of the residual morbidity or scarring. Traditionally, burn surgeons divide burns into superficial which heal by rapid re-epithelialization with minimal scarring and deep burns requiring surgical therapy. Clinical assessment remains the most frequent technique to measure the depth of a burn wound although this has been shown to be accurate in only 60-75% of the cases, even when carried out by an experienced burn surgeon. In this article we review all current modalities useful to provide an objective assessment of the burn wound depth, from simple clinical evaluation to biopsy and histology and to various perfusion measurement techniques such as thermography, vital dyes, video angiography, video microscopy, and laser Doppler techniques. The different needs according to the different diagnostic situations are considered. It is concluded that for the initial emergency assessment, the use of telemetry and simple burn photographs are the best option, that for research purposes a wide range of different techniques can be used but that, most importantly, for the actual treatment decisions, laser Doppler imaging is the only technique that has been shown to accurately predict wound outcome with a large weight of evidence. Moreover this technique has been approved for burn depth assessment by regulatory bodies including the FDA. PMID:18511202

  10. Prosthodontist contribution in treating post-burn hypertrophic facial scars.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, T V; Mohmad, Kasim; Gupta, Rajiv Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The formation of hypertrophic scars is common following healing of the burn wound, particularly in children. The face is one of the areas of the body most frequently affected by burns. Scar formation as a result of burn wounds leads to contraction of the formed granulation tissue, which causes both aesthetic and functional impairment for the patient. Scarring has major psychological and physical repercussions. Scarring on the face and visible regions of the body can be very distressing for the patient. Prevention of scars involves early and continuous use of a compressive orthesis. However, their efficacy is often limited to the facial region because of the contours of this area of body. This paper describes a clinical case of post-burn hypertrophic scars treated with silicone gel sheeting applied with pressure under custom made auto-polymerizing resin stent. PMID:20657105

  11. Vegetation response to burning thicketized live oak savannah on the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge 

    E-print Network

    Kelley, David Mitchell

    1980-01-01

    FALL 1974 SPRING 1975 FALL 1975 0 I 29m Figure 1. Location of burned and unburned experimental areas on the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge near Austwell, Texas. Indiangrass, gulfdune paspalum and Dicanthelium sp. Major forb species are western.... Burning in the fall of 1974 increased the proportion of the standing crop contributed by western ragweed, plains wild indigo and spade- leaf. Plains wild indigo was one of the more conspicuous forbs on the burned area, and is evidently highly preferred...

  12. Emission inventory of carbonaceous pollutants from biomass burning in the Pearl River Delta Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yisheng; Shao, Min; Lin, Yun; Luan, Shengji; Mao, Ning; Chen, Wentai; Wang, Ming

    2013-09-01

    Emissions from burning major agricultural residue were measured through laboratory simulations using a self-designed dilution chamber system. Emission factors of CO2, CO, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), PM10, PM2.5, OC and EC in PM2.5 were measured for burning rice straw in flaming and smoldering combustion, and for burning of sugarcane leaves. NMHCs emitted from crop straw open burning were dominated by C2 hydrocarbons (ethene, ethane, ethyne), contributing (53.4 ± 4.6)% in volume in rice straw burning emissions and 41.8% in sugarcane burning emissions, respectively. Acetone and aldehyde were major OVOCs species in open straw burning emissions. A survey was conducted to determine the fraction of field crop biomass burned during harvesting season and the amounts of household firewood and crop residue consumption in 2008. Information obtained from the survey, together with measured EFs for field burning of rice straw and sugarcane, and EFs from literatures for field burning of other agricultural residues, biofuel combustion and forest fires, were used in developing the source inventories of carbonaceous pollutants in the PRD region. The annual emissions of CO, VOCs (including NMHCs and OVOCs), NOx, PM2.5, OC and EC from burning biomass were estimated to be 186.38, 15.94, 4.93, 15.56, 7.10, 2.25 kt in the year 2008, respectively. These estimates are lower than previously published estimates by 23-63%. Open burning patterns (flaming and smoldering) and rural biofuel use contribute to the differences. Field burning of straw contributed mainly to VOCs, PM2.5 and OC emissions while the residential sector was the dominant source of EC, CO and NOx. The contributions of biomass burning to entire PRD emissions are estimated as 3.37-6.53%, respectively, for PM, and 1.82-3.17%, respectively, for VOCs, and 0.52-2.77%, respectively, for NOx.

  13. Physical rehabilitation of pediatric burns

    PubMed Central

    Atiyeh, B.; Janom, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Significant improvements have been made in the acute treatment of pediatric burn injuries over the past 3 decades which have significantly decreased mortality. Each year, more burned children are necessitating serious medical attention during their convalescence. For children with serious consequences resulting from burns that can persist from childhood through adolescence into adulthood, the value of long-term rehabilitation cannot be over stated. Burn injury management should not focus only on the immediate treatment. Long-term functional outcome and the required rehabilitation that burn victims must go through should be given equal if not more attention. The present is a review of the available modalities utilized for the physical rehabilitation of convalescent pediatric burns in order to overcome the catabolic state, improve muscle power and fitness, reduce disfiguring scars and prevent contractures. PMID:25249846

  14. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  15. Curbing Inflammation in Burn Patients

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Jayme A.; Rosique, Marina Junqueira; Rosique, Rodrigo G.

    2013-01-01

    Patients who suffer from severe burns develop metabolic imbalances and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) which can result in multiple organ failure and death. Research aimed at reducing the inflammatory process has yielded new insight into burn injury therapies. In this review, we discuss strategies used to curb inflammation in burn injuries and note that further studies with high quality evidence are necessary. PMID:23762773

  16. The burn registry program in Iran - First report

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, H.; Momeni, M.; Motevalian, A.; Bahar, M.A.; Boddouhi, N.; Alinejad, F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Burn injury is still a major problem in Iran, resulting in many reports which are usually dispersed, uncoordinated and probably unreliable. We created a burn registry comprised of a data entry program with 222 variables for each admitted burn patient. This program was established in August 2010 at the Iran University of Medical Sciences, Motahari Burn Hospital. We had 14,277 burn patients from August 2010 to August 2011, 877 of whom were admitted to the hospital. Of the patients, 65.9% were male and 34.1% were female. The age was 28.85 years (SD = 19.77). The most prevalent cause of burn was flame 78.5% (pipe propane gas 57.2; kerosene 19.9%). The mean total body surface area (TBSA) involvement was 23%. A total of 77.8% of patients were discharged with partial recovery, while mortality was 8.9%. The mean hospital stay was 14.63 days (SD =11.07). The program is designed to help understand the scope of burn injury in Iran, providing information on patients, etiology, and course of treatment. It also highlights differences between various parts of the country in terms of the causes and frequency of burn injuries. Moreover, the burn registry provides a basis for further research and surveys for treatment and preventive programs. Our results showed that, although Emergency Medical Services (EMS) staff are highly capable and well-trained, their coverage seems to be less than 50% and needs to be increased. Marriage status was shown to have no influence on the occurrence of burns, and among our patients, 57.0 % were poorly educated.

  17. A primer on burn resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Bacomo, Ferdinand K; Chung, Kevin K

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1900s, the scope of burn resuscitation has evolved dramatically. Due to various advances in pre-hospital care and training, under-resuscitation of patients with severe burns is now relatively uncommon. Over-resuscitation, otherwise known as “fluid creep”, has emerged as one of the most important problems during the initial phases of burn care over the past decade. To avoid the complications of over-resuscitation, careful hourly titration of fluid rates based on compilation of various clinical end points by a bedside provider is vital. The aim of this review is to provide a practical approach to the resuscitation of severely burned patients. PMID:21633578

  18. Burn Depth Estimation Using Thermal Excitation and Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, F.M.; Holswade, S.C.; Yee, M.L.

    1998-12-17

    Accurate estimation of the depth of partial-thickness burns and the early prediction of a need for surgical intervention are difficult. A non-invasive technique utilizing the difference in thermal relaxation time between burned and normal skin may be useful in this regard. In practice, a thermal camera would record the skin's response to heating or cooling by a small amount-roughly 5{degrees} Celsius for a short duration. The thermal stimulus would be provided by a heat lamp, hot or cold air, or other means. Processing of the thermal transients would reveal areas that returned to equilibrium at different rates, which should correspond to different burn depths. In deeper thickness burns, the outside layer of skin is further removed from the constant-temperature region maintained through blood flow. Deeper thickness areas should thus return to equilibrium more slowly than other areas. Since the technique only records changes in the skin's temperature, it is not sensitive to room temperature, the burn's location, or the state of the patient. Preliminary results are presented for analysis of a simulated burn, formed by applying a patch of biosynthetic wound dressing on top of normal skin tissue.

  19. Burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and metabolic disorders, as well as drug reactions. BMS has clear predisposition to peri-/post menopausal females. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated and involves peripheral and central neuropathic pathways. Clinical diagnosis relies on careful history taking, physical examination and laboratory analysis. Treatment is often tedious and is aimed at correction of underlying medical conditions, supportive therapy, and behavioral feedback. Drug therapy with alpha lipoic acid, clonazepam, capsaicin, and antidepressants may provide symptom relief. Psychotherapy may be helpful. Short term follow up data is promising, however, long term prognosis with treatment is lacking. BMS remains an important medical condition which often places a recognizable burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate recognition and treatment. PMID:23429751

  20. Burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Burning mouth syndrome mainly affects women, particularly after the menopause, when its prevalence may be 18-33%. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for burning mouth syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to February 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: anaesthetics (local), antidepressants, benzodiazepines (topical clonazepam), benzydamine hydrochloride, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), dietary supplements, and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women. PMID:19450321

  1. Burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Burning mouth syndrome mainly affects women, particularly after the menopause, when its prevalence may be 18% to 33%. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for burning mouth syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 15 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: anaesthetics (local), antidepressants, benzodiazepines (topical clonazepam), benzydamine hydrochloride, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), dietary supplements, and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women. PMID:21418666

  2. Depilatory Wax Burns: Experience and Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Angela C; Watson, Katherine M; Aston, Tara L; Wagstaff, Marcus JD; Greenwood, John E

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To retrospectively collect data on patients with burn injury due to hot depilatory wax. To investigate the effect of varying microwave output power on wax temperature. To determine whether instructions provided by manufacturers allow safe domestic use. Methods: Data from the RAH burns database was collected for patients with wax-induced burns between January 1991 and January 2010. Wax temperatures were tested in a pilot study (4 wax products heated in microwave with power outputs of 800 W, 900 W, and 1100 (W) and a definitive study (5 wax products, 3 of each, heated in microwave with power outputs of 800 W, 1000 W, and 1200 (W). A number of different heating regimens were employed and temperatures were recorded using an infrared thermometer. Results: Twenty-one patients were studied. Mean age was 26.5 years. The majority of burns were superficial (33.3%) or partial thickness (25.8%). The right hand was most commonly affected (38.1%), the mean total body surface area was 1%. The pilot study revealed an increase in wax temperature with the number of times the wax was heated. During definitive wax temperature testing, the maximum wax temperature recorded was 108.5°C. Seventeen of 60 wax surface temperatures recorded exceeded 90°C, 9 exceeded 100°C. Ninety-three percent of the stirred wax temperatures showed an increase in wax temperature with an increase in microwave power output. Conclusion: Microwave-heated hair-removal wax has the potential to reach unsafe temperatures and cause burn injury, even when manufacture's heating instructions are followed. Safe use in domestic setting requires improvements in instructions provided by the manufacturer. PMID:21625616

  3. Thermal injury induces impaired function in polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes and reduced control of burn wound infection

    PubMed Central

    Calum, H; Moser, C; Jensen, P Ø; Christophersen, L; Maling, D S; van Gennip, M; Bjarnsholt, T; Hougen, H P; Givskov, M; Jacobsen, G K; Høiby, N

    2009-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6% third-degree burn injury was induced in mice with a hot-air blower. The third-degree burn was confirmed histologically. The mice were allocated into five groups: control, shave, burn, infection and burn infection group. At 48 h, a decline in the concentration of peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in the group of mice with burn wound. The reduction was ascribed to the decline in concentration of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leucocytes and monocytes. When infecting the skin with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a dissemination of bacteria was observed only in the burn wound group. Histological characterization of the skin showed a more polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMNs)-dominated inflammation in the group of mice with infected burn wound compared with the with burn wound group. In contrast, a higher degree of inflammation was observed in the burn wound group compared with the group of mice with infected burn wound. Furthermore, the oxidative burst and the phagocytic capacity of the PMNs were reduced in the group of mice with burn wound. Using this novel mouse model of thermal injury a decline of peripheral leucocytes was observed, whereas the increased local inflammatory response at the site of infection showed reduced capacity to contain and eliminate the infection. PMID:19210518

  4. The influence of different occlusive plates on the erythema of hypertrophic burn scars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Van den Kerckhove; K. H. M. Stappaerts; W. D. Boeckx; F. Staes; B. Van den Hof; S. Monstrey; P. Massagé; J. DeCubber

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of compressing a burn-related hypertrophic scar using different types of occlusive plates (silicone gel, silicone elastomer and plastic). The study was a prospective trial in which 16 burn scars were divided into four areas; each area was then randomly assigned to a different occlusive medium. The dependent variable was erythema

  5. On the coupling between vegetation and rainfall inter-annual anomalies: Possible contributions to seasonal rainfall predictability over land areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Alessandri; Antonio Navarra

    2008-01-01

    It's well known that rainfall affects vegetation through its effect on soil moisture content, but the extent to which vegetation could in turn impact precipitation occurrence is poorly understood. Here we focus on the assessment, from observations, of the reciprocal forcing of seasonal-mean vegetation and rainfall interannual anomalies over land areas using the coupled manifold technique. Considering global lands, we

  6. Acid burns from personal assault in Uganda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Asaria; O. C. Kobusingye; B. A. Khingi; R. Balikuddembe; M. Gomezc; M. Beveridge

    2004-01-01

    Acid burns from assault represent a substantial and neglected proportion of burn injuries in the developing world. A retrospective chart review was conducted to assess the frequency of acid burns in relation to total burns requiring admission in Kampala, Uganda. Seventeen percent of the adult burns admitted at New Mulago hospital over an 18-month period resulted from acid assault. Patients

  7. Biomass burning aerosol over the Amazon during SAMBBA: impact of chemical composition on radiative properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, William; Allan, James; Flynn, Michael; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Hodgson, Amy; Liu, Dantong; O'shea, Sebastian; Bauguitte, Stephane; Szpek, Kate; Langridge, Justin; Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Artaxo, Paulo; Coe, Hugh

    2014-05-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, resulting in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious impacts on public health. Globally, biomass burning aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect but with the uncertainty being 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months. Absorption by atmospheric aerosols is underestimated by models over South America, which points to significant uncertainties relating to Black Carbon (BC) aerosol properties. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft, are presented here. Aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions including sampling of pristine Rainforest, fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The aircraft sampled biomass burning aerosol across the southern Amazon in the states of Rondonia and Mato Grosso, as well as in a Cerrado (Savannah-like) region in Tocantins state. This presented a range of fire conditions, both in terms of their number, intensity, vegetation-type and their combustion efficiencies. Near-source sampling of fires in Rainforest environments suggested that smouldering combustion dominated, while flaming combustion dominated in the Cerrado. This led to significant differences in aerosol chemical composition, particularly in terms of the BC content, with BC being enhanced in the Cerrado region compared with the Rainforest environment. This was reflected in the single scattering albedo of the regional smoke haze, with values of 0.9 observed in the Rainforest environments compared with a value of 0.8 in the Cerrado region. This contrast results in a net cooling and warming respectively in terms of the aerosol direct radiative effect. BC-containing particles were found to be rapidly coated in the near-field, while the organic aerosol component was observed to oxidise rapidly upon advection and dilution downwind of major smoke plumes. Significant differences in the coating thickness of the BC-containing particles were observed when comparing the Rainforest and Cerrado environments. Such properties have important implications for the life cycle and formation of particulate material, as well as their optical and radiative properties. The results presented enhance our knowledge of biomass burning aerosol in a sensitive region of the globe, where relatively few measurement campaigns have taken place previously.

  8. Occupational PAH exposures during prescribed pile burns.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M S; Anthony, T R; Littau, S R; Herckes, P; Nelson, X; Poplin, G S; Burgess, J L

    2008-08-01

    Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to evaluate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a PAH metabolite. Personal and area sampling for particulate and PAH exposures were conducted on the White Mountain Apache Tribe reservation, working with 21 Bureau of Indian Affairs/Fort Apache Agency wildland firefighters during the fall of 2006. Urine samples were collected pre- and post-exposure and pulmonary function was measured. Personal PAH exposures were detectable for only 3 of 16 PAHs analyzed: naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene, all of which were identified only in vapor-phase samples. Condensed-phase PAHs were detected in PM2.5 area samples (20 of 21 PAHs analyzed were detected, all but naphthalene) at concentrations below 1 microg m(-3). The total PAH/PM2.5 mass fractions were roughly a factor of two higher during smoldering (1.06 +/- 0.15) than ignition (0.55 +/- 0.04 microg mg(-1)). There were no significant changes in urinary 1-HP or pulmonary function following exposure to pile burning. In summary, PAH exposures were low in pile burns, and urinary testing for a PAH metabolite failed to show a significant difference between baseline and post-exposure measurements. PMID:18515848

  9. The effect of age on severity of murine burns.

    PubMed

    Spillert, C R; Vernese, N A; Suval, W D; Lazaro, E J

    1984-12-01

    There is a higher mortality in elderly subjects with burns. Whether the same amount of heat will cause a greater degree of thermal injury in elderly subjects and thus account, in part at least, for this increased mortality has not been determined and was, therefore, the purpose of this study. Swiss white mice, 1-year-old (elderly) and 3-months-old (young) were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium and burned uniformly on a depilated area of the back with a steel disc at 100 F for 10 seconds (10% body burn). Burn severity was evaluated in a blinded manner by gross and microscopic criteria at 1, 2, and 4 days postburn. The mean burn severity 1 day postburn was significantly less in the elderly mice compared with the young mice (1.72 versus 3.22, (P less than 0.001). On the 2nd and 4th days postburn, no differences were noted in the degree of burn severity between the two groups. The early apparent diminished burn severity in the elderly mice was unexpected. Possible mechanisms to account for this difference in the old animals may relate to decreased cutaneous microcirculation, alteration in chemical composition of the skin, and the effects of thromboxane A2 and prostaglandin I2. The clinical relevance of these findings concerns the need for more careful clinical management with intentional overassessment of the initial degree of the thermal damage. PMID:6508023

  10. Remote sensing and geographic information systems methods for global spatiotemporal modeling of biomass burning emissions: Assessment in the African continent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicia Palacios-Orueta; Alexander Parra; Emilio Chuvieco; César Carmona-Moreno

    2004-01-01

    A spatially explicit model for analysis of biomass burning emissions is presented. The model, based on that of Seiler and Crutzen [1980], uses satellite images and geographic information systems (GIS) modeling tools to improve the estimation of biomass loads and burning efficiency. The model was assessed in the African continent using the Global Burned Area (GBA-2000) maps derived from SPOT-Vegetation

  11. Response of Bighorn Sheep to Pinyon­ Juniper Burning Along the Green River Corridor, Dagget County, Utah

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles L. Greenwood; Sherel Goodrich; John A. Lytle

    Abstract-Rocky Mountain,bighorn,sheep,(Ovis canadensis,can­ adensis),within,the Green,River Corridor,have,shown,a high preference,for burned,areas within the pinyon,pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus osteosperma,and J. scopulorum),belt and within ponderosa,pine (Pinus ponderosa),communities.,Burns lo­ cated within or adjacent to steep rocky habitat, and within core bighorn use areas, received significantly higher use than non­ burned areas. Increased use of an area occurred,where,fire left more open,areas with a reduced,density,of

  12. Burning crude oil without pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil can be burned at drilling sites by two-stage combustion process without producing pollution. Process allows easier conformance to strict federal or state clean air standards without installation of costly pollution removal equipment. Secondary oil recovery can be accomplished with injection of steam heating by burning oil.

  13. Burned Wetland Near Tebicuary River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    In the rangelands of southern Paraguay, wetlands are burned to encourage new growth for cattle grazing. The burned wetland grasses are in the Family Poaceae (Gramineae), and may be in one of these genera: Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, Tripogon. The Ñeembucú Region is typified by exten...

  14. [Intraoperative burns. An unforeseen danger?].

    PubMed

    Bonde, Christian T; Alsbjørn, Bjarne F

    2002-01-28

    Two patients were admitted to the department of burns in Copenhagen. Both had suffered burns following uncontrolled ignition of chlorhexidine-alcohol during surgery. The aim of this article is to highlight this potentially detrimental risk, which exists in almost all operating rooms, unless simple precautions are taken. PMID:11871219

  15. Inter-annual variability of summertime CO concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere explained by boreal forest fires in North America and Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Wotawa; P. C. Novelli; C. Granier

    2001-01-01

    Background measurements of Carbon Monoxide in the extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere during the 1990s showed no clear trends, but significant inter-annual variations. In this study, the measured summertime averaged CO concentrations north of 30° N were correlated with area burned by forest fires in North America and Russia. According to a linear regression analysis, 14% of the CO variability in the

  16. Suicidal burns in Samarkand burn centers and their consequences

    PubMed Central

    Shakirov, B.M.; Ahmedov, Y.M.; Hakimov, E.A.; Tagaev, K.R.; Karabaev, B.H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Suicide is a global public health problem, particularly in Asia where few countries with large populations have high suicide rates accounting for the majority of the world’s suicides. During a 14-year period, 76 individuals, aged 17 to 66 years, committed suicide from 1995 to 2008 and were included in this report. Data was collected on each patient including, age, sex, place of injury, patient occupation, accommodation, psychiatric illness, suicidal motives, flammable substances used, place of burn, season of the year, and total body surface area (TBSA) burnt. Most suicidal cases (55 out of 76) had a history of depressive episodes and emotional unstable disorders, and 18 of them had a known history of psychiatric illness. In 5 cases alcohol intoxication was present at the moment of suicide, and 3 patients had chronic alcohol dependence together with basic psychiatric disease. It is also evident from this study that the causes of suicide in females are mainly socio-economical and psychological. PMID:24799853

  17. Wood burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, V.J.

    1982-08-10

    An air tight wood burning stove (10) for heating a designated space comprises a housing (12) having an access opening (50) in the front wall (14) thereof and at least one glass panel (64) containing door (54, 56) hingedly mounted on the front wall for closing the opening (50). A latching mechanism (60) on the door (54, 56) engages with undercut flange means (52, 53) surrounding opening (50) for positively maintaining the door (54, 56) in the closed position. A firebrick lined combustion chamber (34) within the housing receives logs through opening (50) for burning and the production of hot combustion gases. An air chamber (48) is formed within the housing (12) in air flow communication with the combustion chamber (34) for feeding air thereto through openings (94, 96) in the air chamber walls (46, 90). A damper 92, which may be manually or thermostatically controlled, controls cool air flow from room floor level into the air chamber (48) and then through openings (94, 96) into combustion chamber (34) wherein the air is heated. The hot combustion gases and heated air rise within housing (12) and are discharged through flue means (28, 30) to the outside. In passing upwardly the gases and air fl over the outside surface of and heat the air within a plurality of air carrying tubular heat exchange conduits (98) which are disposed adjacent the top of assembly (12) and extend therethrough upwardly and forwardly from conduit air inlets at the rear wall (24) to conduit air discharge outlets at the front wall (14).

  18. Urban, Regional and Global Impacts of Biomass Burning Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, P.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Rizzo, L. V.; Setzer, A.; Cirino, G.

    2013-05-01

    Biomass burning is a major regional and global driver for atmospheric composition. Its effects in regional and global climate are very significant, but still difficult to assess. Even in large urban areas in Latin America such as Mexico City, Sao Paulo and Santiago, and in developed areas such as Paris and Californian cities it is possible to observe significant biomass burning effects air quality. The wood burning components as well as inner city and vicinities burning if agricultural residues impact heavily the concentration of organic aerosol, carbon monoxide and ozone in urban areas. Regionally, regions such as Amazonia and Central America show large plumes of smoke that extend their impact over continental areas, with changes in the radiation balance, air quality and climate. The deforestation rate in Amazonia have dropped strongly from 27,000 Km2 in 2004 to 6,200 Km2 in 2011, a very significant reduction, but this reduction was not observed in Africa and Southeast Asia. Health effects of biomass burning emissions are very significant, and observed in several key regions. Remote sensing techniques for fire detection have progressed significantly and long time series (10-15 years) are now feasible. The black carbon associated with biomass burning has important impacts in formation and development of clouds in Amazonia and other regions. The organic component of biomass burning emissions scatter light and increase diffuse radiation that alters carbon uptake in large regions of Amazonia and certainly other forested areas. Increase of up to 30% in carbon uptake associated with biomass burning emissions was observed in Amazonia, as part of the LBA Experiment. New analytical methods that quantify the absorption angstrom exponent of biomass burning and fossil fuel black carbon (BC) can differentiate BC from different burning sources. In addition, the hygroscopic properties of particles with a core shell of BC coated with organic compounds can be measured and shows very significant cloud nucleation properties of these complex particles that can change cloud formation and development mechanisms. Recent papers on the radiative forcing of black carbon estimate that BC can have a very high positive forcing of +0.5 watts/m2, and at the same time the organic compounds associated with BC emissions can bring the total radiative forcing to zero. This would imply that policies to reduce BC emissions as a strategy to quickly reduce global warming could not be that much effective. BC continues to be a critically important global driver of climate change, but its effects are still quite unknown.

  19. Interactive simulation of fire, burn and decomposition 

    E-print Network

    Melek, Zeki

    2009-05-15

    level set method, driven by the pyrolysis process, where the burning object releases combustible gases. Secondary deformation effects, such as bending burning matches and crumpling burning paper, are modeled as a proxy based deformation. Physically based...

  20. Interactive simulation of fire, burn and decomposition 

    E-print Network

    Melek, Zeki

    2008-10-10

    level set method, driven by the pyrolysis process, where the burning object releases combustible gases. Secondary deformation effects, such as bending burning matches and crumpling burning paper, are modeled as a proxy based deformation. Physically based...

  1. Understanding the Spectral Signature Characterization of Cropland Burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boren, E. J.; Boschetti, L.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate and reliable cropland burned area products are essential for aiding estimates of trace atmospheric gases and particles which influence atmospheric chemistry dynamics and air quality. Cropland residue burning has been estimated to account for approximately 8-11% of all global fires (Korontzi et al. 2006). Cropland residue burning is also a significant fraction of atmospheric emissions at the local level. Timely and accurate assessments of cropland fire activity are needed by local and regional administrators involved in carbon emission, human health, and air quality regulations. Remote sensing systems used for monitoring fire activity have significant detection uncertainty due to ambiguous spectral characteristics of cropland burning. The present research is focused on the quantitative characterization of the spectral signature of cropland burning by monitoring the spectral signal throughout the full growing, harvest, and burning periods. Field data collection was conducted in the southern Palouse region of Idaho and Washington. Reflectance was measured on a test area of spring wheat fields with an analytical spectral device (ASD) spectrometer. All the dates for field data collections are coincident with Landsat 8 overpasses, and the spatial sampling of field measurements were performed following the VALERI protocol for upscaling to 30 meter pixels (Baret et al. 2005).

  2. Biomass burning: A significant source of nutrients for Andean rainforests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, P. F.; Rollenbeck, R.; University Of Marburg, Germany

    2010-12-01

    Regular rain and fogwater sampling in the Podocarpus National Park,on the humid eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes,has been carried out since 2002.The samples,accumulated over about 1-week intervals,were analysed for pH,conductivity,and major ions (K+, Na+, NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3-, PO4 3- ).Annual deposition rates of these ions which, due to poor acidic soils with low mineralization rates,constitute the dominant nutrient supply to the mountaineous rainforests, and major ion sources could be determined using back trajectories,along with satellite data. While most of the Na, Cl, and K as well as Ca and Mg input was found to originate from natural oceanic and desert dust sources,respectively (P.Fabian et al.,Adv.Geosci.22,85-94, 2009), NO3, NH4, and about 90% of SO4 (about 10 % is from active volcanoes) are almost entirely due to anthropogenic sources,most likely biomass burning. Industrial and transportation emissions and other pollutants,however,act in a similar way as the precursors produced by biomass burning.For quantifying the impacts of biomass burning vs. those of anthropogenic sources other than biomass burning we used recently established emission inventories,along with simplified model calculations on back trajectories.First results yielding significant contributions of biomass burning will be discussed.

  3. Derivation of Burn Scar Depths with Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) in Indonesian Peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballhorn, U.; Siegert, F.

    2009-04-01

    Tropical deforestation and forest degradation contribute to about 20% of the global greenhouse gas emissions and Indonesia is a leading emitter. Forests are certainly critical; but the peat soils beneath can store 30 times more carbon than the trees above. Indonesia has the fourth-largest area of peatland in the world, ranging from 30 to 45 million ha, which is approximately 10 - 12% of the global peatland resource. Fire has a long tradition in Indonesian land clearing, where almost all fires are related to human activities. The 1997 - 1998 fires throughout Indonesia caused significant haze and smoke-related health problems across Southeast Asia. Strong and weak El Niño events in 1998 and 2002 accelerated burning as soil was parched. Green house gas emissions from the fires were the source of 60% of all anomalies globally for 1997 - 2000, particularly from drained peatlands. In 2007/08 we participated in a study conducted by the World Wildlife Fund which focused on Sumatra's 8.3 million ha province of Riau, along the island's northeastern coastline. In this study CO2 emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, peat decomposition and burning over 17 years from 1990 - 2007 were estimated. Fire hotspot data for the years 1997 - 2000 from the NOAA AVHRR and MODIS sensors was used to identify burned peatland. Based on soil water availability the depths of peat burns were estimated. El Nino years with a water table of lower than 1.5 m propel intense burning so that a peat burn depth of 0.50 m was assumed, while normally only a peat burn depth of 0.15 m. Total emissions for the 1990 - 2007 period were estimated at 3.66 Gt CO2, composed of 1.17 Gt CO2 from deforestation, 0.32 Gt CO2 from forest degradation, 0.78 Gt CO2 from peat decomposition, and 1.39 Gt CO2 from peat burning. Average annual CO2 emissions were 0.22 Gt, equal to 58% of Australia's total CO2 annual emissions (including emissions/removals from LULUCF, in 2005); between 1990 and 2007, Riau produced more CO2 per year than the fourth-largest industrial nation, Germany, saved to achieve its Kyoto target. Since 1990, emissions from peat burning and peat decomposition have exceeded that of above ground biomass deforestation. These numbers show how important it is to have more accurate estimations for peat burn depth in the future. Until now few field measurements were made, which would require to know the fire affected area in advance or ignite peatland on purpose. Furthermore fire scars are quickly covered by regenerating vegetation. Another problem is the lack of a method without actually having to go into the field (e.g. through remote sensing techniques), due to the fact that many of the fire locations are remote and very difficult to access. We investigated if airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR), an active laser pulse technology by which the height of objects can be precisely measured, can be used to determine the amount of peat burned during a fire event. From a LIDAR data set acquired in Central Kalimantan, Borneo, in 2007, one year after severe fires resulting from the 2006 El Niño drought, we calculated that the average depth of a burn scar was 0.30 ± 0.15 m .This was achieved through the construction of digital terrain models (DTMs) by interpolating the LIDAR ground return signals in burnt and adjacent unburned peatland. These calculated depths were compared to in situ measurements, which came to similar results. We believe that the method presented here to estimate burnt peat depth has the potential to considerably improve the accuracy of regional and global carbon emission models but would also be helpful for monitoring projects under the Kyoto Protocol like the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) or the proposed Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) mechanism.

  4. Increased expression of three types of transient receptor potential channels (TRPA1, TRPV4 and TRPV3) in burn scars with post-burn pruritus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yoon Seok; Cho, Soo Ick; Choi, Min Gyu; Choi, Young Hee; Kwak, In Suk; Park, Chun Wook; Kim, Hye One

    2015-01-01

    Post-burn pruritus is a common distressing consequence of burn wounds. Empirical treatment often fails to have a satisfactory outcome on post-burn pruritus, as the mechanism of post-burn pruritus has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the manifestation of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in post-burn pruritus. Fifty-one burn patients with (n=33) or without (n=18) pruritus were investigated, including skin biopsies. Not unexpectedly, the scarred body area was larger in the former group. In immunohistochemistry, TPRV3 was significantly elevated in the epidermis of burn scars with pruritus. Furthermore, real time- PCR showed that mRNA of TRPA1 and TRPV4 was increased in itching burn scars. Staining for substance P and CGRP did not differ between the 2 grouped, but the former neuropeptide was increased in burn scars. These results may help determine a specific therapeutic approach for post-burn pruritus. PMID:24695993

  5. Annual Report on Environmental Monitoring Activities for FY 1995 (Baseline Year) at Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report describes baseline contaminant release conditions for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The sampling approach and data analysis methods used to establish baseline conditions were presented in ``Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (EMP).`` As outlined in the EMP, the purpose of the baseline monitoring year at WAG 6 was to determine the annual contaminant releases from the site during fiscal year 1995 (FY95) against which any potential changes in releases over time could be compared. The baseline year data set provides a comprehensive understanding of release conditions from all major waste units in the WAG through each major contaminant transport pathway. Due to a mandate to reduce all monitoring work, WAG 6 monitoring was scaled back and reporting efforts on the baseline year results are being minimized. This report presents the quantified baseline year contaminant flux conditions for the site and briefly summarizes other findings. All baseline data cited in this report will reside in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information system (OREIS) database, and will be available for use in future years as the need arises to identify potential release changes.

  6. In situ burning restores the ecological function and structure of an oil-impacted coastal marsh.

    PubMed

    Baustian, Joseph; Mendelssohn, Irving; Lin, Qianxin; Rapp, John

    2010-11-01

    As the use of in situ burning for oil spill remediation in coastal wetlands accelerates, the capacity of this procedure to restore the ecological structure and function of oil-impacted wetlands becomes increasingly important. Thus, our research focused on evaluating the functional and structural recovery of a coastal marsh in South Louisiana to an in situ burn following a Hurricane Katrina-induced oil spill. Permanent sampling plots were set up to monitor marsh recovery in the oiled and burned areas as well as non-oiled and non-burned (reference) marshes. Plots were monitored for species composition, stem density, above- and belowground productivity, marsh resiliency, soil chemistry, soil residual oil, and organic matter decomposition. The burn removed the majority of the oil from the marsh, and structurally the marsh recovered rapidly. Plant biomass and species composition returned to control levels within 9 months; however, species richness remained somewhat lower in the oiled and burned areas compared to the reference areas. Recovery of ecological function was also rapid following the in situ burn. Aboveground and belowground plant productivity recovered within one growing season, and although decomposition rates were initially higher in the oiled areas, over time they became equivalent to those in reference sites. Also, marsh resiliency, i.e., the rate of recovery from our applied disturbances, was not affected by the in situ burn. We conclude that in situ burning is an effective way to remove oil and allow ecosystem recovery in coastal marshes. PMID:20821009

  7. In Situ Burning Restores the Ecological Function and Structure of an Oil-Impacted Coastal Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baustian, Joseph; Mendelssohn, Irving; Lin, Qianxin; Rapp, John

    2010-11-01

    As the use of in situ burning for oil spill remediation in coastal wetlands accelerates, the capacity of this procedure to restore the ecological structure and function of oil-impacted wetlands becomes increasingly important. Thus, our research focused on evaluating the functional and structural recovery of a coastal marsh in South Louisiana to an in situ burn following a Hurricane Katrina-induced oil spill. Permanent sampling plots were set up to monitor marsh recovery in the oiled and burned areas as well as non-oiled and non-burned (reference) marshes. Plots were monitored for species composition, stem density, above- and belowground productivity, marsh resiliency, soil chemistry, soil residual oil, and organic matter decomposition. The burn removed the majority of the oil from the marsh, and structurally the marsh recovered rapidly. Plant biomass and species composition returned to control levels within 9 months; however, species richness remained somewhat lower in the oiled and burned areas compared to the reference areas. Recovery of ecological function was also rapid following the in situ burn. Aboveground and belowground plant productivity recovered within one growing season, and although decomposition rates were initially higher in the oiled areas, over time they became equivalent to those in reference sites. Also, marsh resiliency, i.e., the rate of recovery from our applied disturbances, was not affected by the in situ burn. We conclude that in situ burning is an effective way to remove oil and allow ecosystem recovery in coastal marshes.

  8. A modified surgical technique in the management of eyelid burns: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Contractures, ectropion and scarring, the most common sequelae of skin grafts after eyelid burn injuries, can result in corneal exposure, corneal ulceration and even blindness. Split-thickness or full-thickness skin grafts are commonly used for the treatment of acute eyelid burns. Plasma exudation and infection are common early complications of eyelid burns, which decrease the success rate of grafts. Case presentation We present the cases of eight patients, two Chinese women and six Chinese men. The first Chinese woman was 36 years old, with 70% body surface area second or third degree flame burn injuries involving her eyelids on both sides. The other Chinese woman was 28 years old, with sulfuric acid burns on her face and third degree burn on her eyelids. The six Chinese men were aged 21, 31, 38, 42, 44, and 55 years, respectively. The 38-year-old patient was transferred from the ER with 80% body surface area second or third degree flame burn injuries and third degree burn injuries to his eyelids. The other five men were all patients with flame burn injuries, with 7% to 10% body surface area third degree burns and eyelids involved. All patients were treated with a modified surgical procedure consisting of separation and loosening of the musculus orbicularis oculi between tarsal plate and septum orbital, followed by grafting a large full-thickness skin graft in three days after burn injury. The use of our modified surgical procedure resulted in 100% successful eyelid grafting on first attempt, and all our patients were in good condition at six-month follow-up. Conclusions This new surgical technique is highly successful in treating eyelid burn injuries, especially flame burn injuries of the eyelid. PMID:21843322

  9. Underground Test Area Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Quality Assurance Report Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam

    2013-01-01

    This report is mandated by the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and identifies the UGTA quality assurance (QA) activities for fiscal year (FY) 2012. All UGTA organizations—U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO); Desert Research Institute (DRI); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I); National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec); and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)—conducted QA activities in FY 2012. The activities included conducting assessments, identifying findings and completing corrective actions, evaluating laboratory performance, revising the QAPP, and publishing documents. In addition, processes and procedures were developed to address deficiencies identified in the FY 2011 QAPP gap analysis.

  10. [Annual Reports for the Academic Year 1980-81 from 49 States, the District of Columbia and 3 Canadian Provinces Focusing on Problems, Issues, Achievements and Other Areas of Interest to the Postsecondary Education Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berve, Nancy M., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Annual reports are presented for the academic year 1980-1981 from 49 states (except Maine), the District of Columbia, and three Canadian provinces focusing on problems, issues, achievements, and other areas of interest to the postsecondary education community. Specific topics include the following: long-range plans for higher education,…

  11. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    PubMed

    Pe?anac, Marija; Janji?, Zlata; Komarcevi?, Aleksandar; Paji?, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Miskovi?, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques. PMID:23888738

  12. COMBUSTION AREA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies, documents, and evaluates data sources for stationary area source emissions, including solid waste and agricultural burning. Area source emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, reactive volatile organic compounds, and carbon mon...

  13. A seven-year epidemiology study of 12,381 admitted burn patients in Taiwan--using the Internet registration system of the Childhood Burn Foundation.

    PubMed

    Tung, Kwang-Yi; Chen, Mei-Lin; Wang, Hsian-Jenn; Chen, Ging-Song; Peck, Michael; Yang, Jingzhen; Liu, Charles Chih-Ho

    2005-01-01

    This study described the epidemiological characteristics of the 12,381 admitted burn patients in Taiwan. The data was from 43 contracted hospitals of the Childhood Burn Foundation, in the years from 1997 to 2003. This descriptive study included 8172 males and 4206 females, with a male to female ratio of 1.94 and an average age of 29.3 years. There were 3993 (33.4%) patients under 18 years old; and 26.4% of the patients were children under 7 years old. First and second years of life were the peak of incidence. The mean extent of burn was 14.0% total body surface area with 950 patients (7.7%) suffering from a burn extent >/=40% TBSA. Scalds resulted in 5085 admissions (43.2%) and flame burns accounted for 3825 admissions (32.5%). In patient group under 18 years old, 76.8% were scald burn and 14.1% were flame burn. The majority of the burn injuries (53.3%) occurred in the dwelling place; 1122 patients had inhalation injuries and required admission to the burn center for pulmonary support. In addition, suicide attempts were recorded in 2.4% (300 cases) of all burn patients with a mean burn size of 40.7% total body surface and mortality rate of 29.3%. The overall mortality rate is 381 out of 12,381 patients (3.1%). The LA(50) was around 80% TBSA. The significant effects of risk factors, such as old age, large burn extent, combined inhalation injury and suicide were demonstrated. Adequate first aid by water cooling affected the outcome of the patient group with burn extent less than 30% TBSA, which was shown by the decrease of length of stay. These results showed some unique distributions that reflected certain socio-economic and cultural background of Taiwan. PMID:15649611

  14. Global burned-land estimation in Latin America using MODIS composite data.

    PubMed

    Chuvieco, Emilio; Opazo, Sergio; Sione, Walter; Del Valle, Hector; Anaya, Jesús; Di Bella, Carlos; Cruz, Isabel; Manzo, Lilia; López, Gerardo; Mari, Nicolas; González-Alonso, Federico; Morelli, Fabiano; Setzer, Alberto; Csiszar, Ivan; Kanpandegi, Jon Ander; Bastarrika, Aitor; Libonati, Renata

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results of the AQL2004 project, which has been develope within the GOFC-GOLD Latin American network of remote sensing and forest fires (RedLatif). The project intended to obtain monthly burned-land maps of the entire region, from Mexico to Patagonia, using MODIS (moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer) reflectance data. The project has been organized in three different phases: acquisition and preprocessing of satellite data; discrimination of burned pixels; and validation of results. In the first phase, input data consisting of 32-day composites of MODIS 500-m reflectance data generated by the Global Land Cover Facility (GLCF) of the University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland, U.S.A.) were collected and processed. The discrimination of burned areas was addressed in two steps: searching for "burned core" pixels using postfire spectral indices and multitemporal change detection and mapping of burned scars using contextual techniques. The validation phase was based on visual analysis of Landsat and CBERS (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite) images. Validation of the burned-land category showed an agreement ranging from 30% to 60%, depending on the ecosystem and vegetation species present. The total burned area for the entire year was estimated to be 153 215 km2. The most affected countries in relation to their territory were Cuba, Colombia, Bolivia, and Venezuela. Burned areas were found in most land covers; herbaceous vegetation (savannas and grasslands) presented the highest proportions of burned area, while perennial forest had the lowest proportions. The importance of croplands in the total burned area should be taken with reserve, since this cover presented the highest commission errors. The importance of generating systematic products of burned land areas for different ecological processes is emphasized. PMID:18372556

  15. [Reconstructions after periorbital burn injuries].

    PubMed

    Klett, A; Rebane, R

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays burn patients who also have periocular symptoms are usually treated by reconstructive surgeons and the role of the ophthalmic surgeon has decreased.Although periocular complications occur in a minority of burned patients, they pose a greater challenge in surgical and non-surgical treatment. Chemical, electrical and thermal burns can lead to disfiguring scar formations and delayed treatment can lead to devastating ocular complications. Achieving a successful reconstruction requires a comprehensive approach, entailing many advanced techniques with an emphasis on preserving function and balancing intricate aesthetic requirements. The theory is illustrated in this article with clinical examples. PMID:23345146

  16. Dynamics of soil physical properties under alternative systems to slash-and-burn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julio C. Alegre; D. K. Cassel

    1996-01-01

    A change from slash-and-burn to continuously cropped agricultural systems is occurring in heavily populated areas in the humid tropics. Well managed alternative systems to slash-and-burn can reduce soil structure deterioration, maintain soil fertility, and promote long-term productivity. The objectives of this paper are to describe the dynamics of soil physical properties under slash-and-burn and some alternative systems. Different land-clearing methods

  17. Process of persistent spectral hole burning in SrFCl:Sm2+

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiahua Zhang; Shihua Huang; Weiping Qin; Diankun Gao; Jiaqi Yu

    1992-01-01

    Persistent spectral hole burning in SrFCl:Sm2~ at 77 K is reported. Spectral distributions before and after burning a hole are compared. It is pointed Out that Sm34 ions act as principal electron traps in the hole-burning process. It was observed in our experiments that the total hole area reaches a maximum with increasing number of holes. We consider that the

  18. Hospital Bioterrorism Planning and Burn Surge

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Brent; Cairns, Charles B.; Rich, Preston B.; Hultman, C. Scott; Charles, Anthony G.; Jones, Samuel W.; Schmits, Grace L.; Skarote, Mary Beth; Holmes, James H.; Cairns, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    On the morning of June 9, 2009, an explosion occurred at a manufacturing plant in Garner, North Carolina. By the end of the day, 68 injured patients had been evaluated at the 3 Level I trauma centers and 3 community hospitals in the Raleigh/Durham metro area (3 people who were buried in the structural collapse died at the scene). Approximately 300 employees were present at the time of the explosion, when natural gas being vented during the repair of a hot water heater ignited. The concussion from the explosion led to structural failure in multiple locations and breached additional natural gas, electrical, and ammonia lines that ran overhead in the 1-story concrete industrial plant. Intent is the major difference between this type of accident and a terrorist using an incendiary device to terrorize a targeted population. But while this disaster lacked intent, the response, rescue, and outcomes were improved as a result of bioterrorism preparedness. This article discusses how bioterrorism hospital preparedness planning, with an all-hazards approach, became the basis for coordinated burn surge disaster preparedness. This real-world disaster challenged a variety of systems, hospitals, and healthcare providers to work efficiently and effectively to manage multiple survivors. Burn-injured patients served as a focus for this work. We describe the response, rescue, and resuscitation provided by first responders and first receivers as well as efforts made to develop burn care capabilities and surge capacity. PMID:24527874

  19. A Burning Question: Does Post-Fire Rehabilitation Alter the Likelihood of Future Fires?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman-Prideaux, C.; Newingham, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Historically, aridlands have had infrequent fire due to patchy plant distributions, which limit fire spread. However, aridland fire regimes have changed because invasive annual grasses have created continuous fuel beds, which have led to increasingly frequent fires and a greater area burned each decade since the 1970s. Climate change is predicted to further increase the number and size of fires. Post-fire rehabilitation is enacted in order to reestablish plant communities and has the potential to further alter fire regimes. Rehabilitation treatments include tilling seeds using a tractor and drill (drill seeding), dropping seed aerially with helicopters (aerial seeding), or both. Few studies examine the impact of post-fire rehabilitation on the likelihood of future fires in these aridland ecosystems. We examined the effects of post-fire rehabilitation treatments on the number of years before the next fire. Using GIS layers detailing fire history and post-fire rehabilitation treatments in the southern Idaho Great Basin, we extracted information from randomly selected sites and analyzed them with generalized linear models. Preliminary analysis on 43 sites suggests the number of years before the next fire tended to be less in seeded than unseeded sites (P=0.055). Further investigation revealed that the number of years until the next fire differed among seed application methods. Sites that were drill seeded burned approximately 12 years later while sites with combined aerial and drill seeding burned again after 6.5 years (P=0.05). The total number of burns at a site was inversely related to the time before the next fire (P=0.001). After the first fire, sites averaged 17.4 years before the next fire occurred; this decreased with each subsequent fire to 7.1 years after the fifth fire. The number of times a site burned and the rehabilitation treatment interacted to affect the number of years between fires. In sites that burned once, there was on average 27.75 years before the second burn at unseeded sites, 18 years when only drill seeded, and 8.8 years when both aerially and drill seeded (P=0.038). Likewise, at sites that burned at least six times, the number of years before the next fire was significantly lower in the combination of aerial and drill seeding compared to unseeded sites (3.3 versus 6.9 years, respectively, P=0.047). The number of fires a site experienced altered the duration between fires, but the combination of drill and aerial seeding consistently experienced fire sooner than either technique used in isolation. These preliminary results suggest that post-fire rehabilitation may decrease the time between fires after the first two fires, but can decrease the time between after a threshold number of fires depending on the technique used. Drill seeding alone maintained a fire return interval of 9-10 years after 4, 5, or 6 fires which was the longest interval past that threshold, The results are shocking in a system that historically has fire return intervals of hundreds of years.

  20. Burning coal's waste

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, J.M.; Duffy, T.J.

    1988-07-01

    In an old Pennsylvania coal valley, growing fresh produce and eliminating ancient waste piles both depend on a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant. The builders of a complex now nearing completion at Archbald, however, will soon begin to turn two of the waste piles, called culm banks, into economic assets. Culm will burn although it has a low, variable heat content. The project combines several recently developed technologies to use culm as fuel for a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant that will heat a hydroponic greenhouse. What makes the venture economically viable are the products that will be sold: 23 mw of electricity to the local utility and fresh produce to meet burgeoning demands in East Coast supermarkets. For instance, if the ''salad plant'' were completely devoted to growing lettuce, 3 million heads could be harvested in 11 hydroponic seasons a year. The owners, Archbald Power Corp., chose a 271 acre stie that had been mined for anthracite by both open pit and deep shaft methods.

  1. Refuse burning process

    SciTech Connect

    Lientz, laC.

    1983-08-23

    A process is provided for burning refuse containing polyvinyl chloride without the consequent production of phosgene. The refuse is carbonized in a rotary furnace at temperatures below 1200 degrees F., especially 700 degrees F., in an oxygen deficient atmosphere. A burnable gas containing the carbonized refuse is drawn from the furnace by an air jet wherein same is mixed with oxygen and selectively combusted. Uncarbonized refuse is collected and withdrawn after exiting the furnace. An apparatus is provided for combustion of the refuse in the nonphosgene generating process and includes the rotary furnace. Special seals are provided for the furnace to prevent excess oxygen from entering thereinto. In particular, the seals are utilized between the rotary ends of the furnace and stationary head associated with each end respectively. Each seal includes an upper and lower flap of fire resistant material secured to an end of the furnace and a companion flap of like material is secured to an associated end of the stationary head such that the intermediate flap sealably slides between the upper and lower flaps during rotation of the furnace thereby substantially sealing between the furnace and the stationary head.

  2. Resistance of the boreal forest to high burn rates.

    PubMed

    Héon, Jessie; Arseneault, Dominique; Parisien, Marc-André

    2014-09-23

    Boreal ecosystems and their large carbon stocks are strongly shaped by extensive wildfires. Coupling climate projections with records of area burned during the last 3 decades across the North American boreal zone suggests that area burned will increase by 30-500% by the end of the 21st century, with a cascading effect on ecosystem dynamics and on the boreal carbon balance. Fire size and the frequency of large-fire years are both expected to increase. However, how fire size and time since previous fire will influence future burn rates is poorly understood, mostly because of incomplete records of past fire overlaps. Here, we reconstruct the length of overlapping fires along a 190-km-long transect during the last 200 y in one of the most fire-prone boreal regions of North America to document how fire size and time since previous fire will influence future fire recurrence. We provide direct field evidence that extreme burn rates can be sustained by a few occasional droughts triggering immense fires. However, we also show that the most fire-prone areas of the North American boreal forest are resistant to high burn rates because of overabundant young forest stands, thereby creating a fuel-mediated negative feedback on fire activity. These findings will help refine projections of fire effect on boreal ecosystems and their large carbon stocks. PMID:25201981

  3. Resistance of the boreal forest to high burn rates

    PubMed Central

    Héon, Jessie; Arseneault, Dominique; Parisien, Marc-André

    2014-01-01

    Boreal ecosystems and their large carbon stocks are strongly shaped by extensive wildfires. Coupling climate projections with records of area burned during the last 3 decades across the North American boreal zone suggests that area burned will increase by 30–500% by the end of the 21st century, with a cascading effect on ecosystem dynamics and on the boreal carbon balance. Fire size and the frequency of large-fire years are both expected to increase. However, how fire size and time since previous fire will influence future burn rates is poorly understood, mostly because of incomplete records of past fire overlaps. Here, we reconstruct the length of overlapping fires along a 190-km-long transect during the last 200 y in one of the most fire-prone boreal regions of North America to document how fire size and time since previous fire will influence future fire recurrence. We provide direct field evidence that extreme burn rates can be sustained by a few occasional droughts triggering immense fires. However, we also show that the most fire-prone areas of the North American boreal forest are resistant to high burn rates because of overabundant young forest stands, thereby creating a fuel-mediated negative feedback on fire activity. These findings will help refine projections of fire effect on boreal ecosystems and their large carbon stocks. PMID:25201981

  4. Impact of trash burning on air quality in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Hodzic, A; Wiedinmyer, C; Salcedo, D; Jimenez, J L

    2012-05-01

    Air pollution experienced by expanding urban areas is responsible for serious health effects and death for millions of people every year. Trash burning is a common disposal method in poor areas, yet it is uncontrolled in many countries, and its contribution to air pollution is unclear due to uncertainties in its emissions. Here we develop a new trash burning emission inventory for Mexico City based on inverse socioeconomic levels and recently measured emission factors, and apply a chemistry-transport model to analyze the effects on pollutant concentrations. Trash burning is estimated to emit 25 tons of primary organic aerosols (POA) per day, which is comparable to fossil fuel POA emissions in Mexico City, and causes an increase in average organic aerosol concentrations of ?0.3 ?g m(-3) downtown and up to 2 ?g m(-3) in highly populated suburbs near the sources of emission. An evaluation using submicrometer antimony suggests that our emission estimates are reasonable. Mitigation of trash burning could reduce the levels of organic aerosols by 2-40% and those of PM(2.5) by 1-15% over the metropolitan area. The trash burning contributions to carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds were found to be very small (<3%), and consequently the contributions to secondary nitrate, sulfate, and secondary organic aerosols are also very small. PMID:22458823

  5. THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC RESPONSE TO SEVERE BURN INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Marc G; Chinkes, David L; Finnerty, Celeste C; Kulp, Gabriela; Suman, Oscar E; Norbury, William B; Branski, Ludwik K; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Mlcak, Ronald P; Herndon, David N

    2014-01-01

    Objective To improve clinical outcome and to determine new treatment options, we studied the pathophysiologic response postburn in a large prospective, single center, clinical trial. Summary Background Data A severe burn injury leads to marked hypermetabolism and catabolism, which are associated with morbidity and mortality. The underlying pathophysiology and the correlations between humoral changes and organ function have not been well delineated. Methods Two hundred forty-two severely burned pediatric patients [>30% total body surface area (TBSA)], who received no anabolic drugs, were enrolled in this study. Demographics, clinical data, serum hormones, serum cytokine expression profile, organ function, hypermetabolism, muscle protein synthesis, incidence of wound infection sepsis, and body composition were obtained throughout acute hospital course. Results Average age was 8 ± 0.2 years, and average burn size was 56 ± 1% TBSA with 43 ± 1% third-degree TBSA. All patients were markedly hypermetabolic throughout acute hospital stay and had significant muscle protein loss as demonstrated by a negative muscle protein net balance (?0.05% ± 0.007 nmol/100 mL leg/min) and loss of lean body mass (LBM) (?4.1% ± 1.9%); P < 0.05. Patients lost 3% ± 1% of their bone mineral content (BMC) and 2 ± 1% of their bone mineral density (BMD). Serum proteome analysis demonstrated profound alterations immediately postburn, which remained abnormal throughout acute hospital stay; P < 0.05. Cardiac function was compromised immediately after burn and remained abnormal up to discharge; P < 0.05. Insulin resistance appeared during the first week postburn and persisted until discharge. Patients were hyperinflammatory with marked changes in IL-8, MCP-1, and IL-6, which were associated with 2.5 ± 0.2 infections and 17% sepsis. Conclusions In this large prospective clinical trial, we delineated the complexity of the postburn pathophysiologic response and conclude that the postburn response is profound, occurring in a timely manner, with derangements that are greater and more protracted than previously thought. PMID:18791359

  6. Prescribed Range Burning in Texas 

    E-print Network

    White, Larry D.; Hanselka, C. Wayne

    2000-04-25

    Prescribed burning is an effective brush management technique for improving pasture accessibility and increasing the production of forage and browse. Fire also suppresses most brush and cactus species. This bulletin discusses how to plan...

  7. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Create a Legacy Join Team Phoenix Phoenix Store Who We Are Our History Our Leadership Team Financial Accountability Phoenix ... World Burn Congress Get Involved Ways to Give Who We Are Quick Links Media Blog Contact Legal Privacy Policy ...

  8. Effect of topical silver sulfadiazine on plasma copper, zinc and silver concentrations in a burn rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Shippee, R.; Boosalis, M.; McClain, C.; Becker, W.; Watiwat, S. (Army Inst. of Surgery Research, Ft. Sam Houston, TX (United States))

    1991-03-15

    One percent silver sulfadiazine cream (AgSD) is routinely used as a topical agent to prevent wound infection in burned patients. This report describes the effect of such topical therapy on plasma copper, silver and zinc concentrations in burned rats. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats received full thickness burns of 30% of the total body surface and were maintained for seven days on Purina Rat Chow and deionized water ad libitum. Twelve sham burned animals were similarly maintained. The wounds in six burned and a similar area in six sham burned animals were treated daily with 3 gms of AgSD, beginning on the day of injury. Blood was drawn on the seventh postburn day and analyzed for plasma copper, silver and zinc, using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Silver absorption was associated with decreased plasma copper concentration in both burned and sham burned animals. Zinc concentrations did not differ significantly.

  9. Biomass Burning:Significant Source of Nitrate and Sulfate for the Andean Rain Forest in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, P.; Rollenbeck, R.; Spichtinger, N.

    2009-04-01

    Forest fires are significant sources of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen compounds which, along with their photochemically generated reaction products, can be transported over very long distances, even traversing oceans. Chemical analyses of rain and fogwater samples collected on the wet eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes show frequent episodes of high sulfate and nitrate concentration, from which annual deposition rates of about14 kg/ha and 7 kg/ha ,respectively, are derived. These are comparable to those observed in polluted central Europe. Regular rain and fogwater sampling along an altitude profile between 1800 and 3185 m, has been carried out since 2002.The research area located at 30 58'S ,790 5' W is dominated by trade winds from easterly directions. The samples, generally accumulated over 1-week intervals, were analysed for pH, conductivity and major ions(K+,Na+,NH4+,Ca2+,Mg 2+,SO42-,NO3-,PO43-).For all components a strong seasonal variation is observed, while the altitudinal gradient is less pronounced. About 65 % of the weekly samples were significantly loaded with cations and anions, with pH often as low 3.5 to 4.0 and conductivity up to 50 uS/cm. Back trajectories (FLEXTRA) showed that respective air masses had passed over areas of intense biomass burning, sometimes influenced by volcanoes, ocean spray, or even episodic Sahara and/or Namib desert dust interference not discussed here. Enhanced SO4 2-and NO3- were identified, by combining satellite-based fire pixels with back trajectories, as predominantly resulting from biomass burning. For most cases, by using emission inventories, anthropogenic precursor sources other than forest fires play a minor role, thus leaving biomass burning as the main source of nitrate and sulphate in rain and fogwater. Some SO4 2- , about 10 % of the total input, could be identified to originate from active volcanoes, whose plumes were sometimes encountered by the respective back trajectories. While volcanic, oceanic and desert sources are natural, large scale biomass burning is an anthropogenic source which adds about 7 kg/ha of NO3- and 14 kg/ha of SO4 2- per year to the forest which has developed on poor acidic soil conditions. Controlled fertilizing experiments within an interdisciplinary research consortium are presently carried out to investigate the impact of this disturbance on the forest ecosystem and its biodiversity.

  10. Burlington's wood-burning utility company

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, D.F.; Dresser, S.J.

    1985-02-01

    The Burlington Electric Department operates one of the worlds largest wood-burning power plants. The factors which led to the use of wood as a fuel for the plant are outlined and discussed. The effects of the plant on the area's resource base are also discussed. Pollution levels for the plant are defined; all are well below current standards. Estimated cost of electricity from the plant is 7.2 cents per kilowatt, which compares favorably with the 15 to 18 cent estimate for the Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant. 4 references, 4 figures.

  11. Mcm Burn-In Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Bardsley; Joseph Lisowski; Steven Wilson; Steve Vanaernam

    1994-01-01

    Multi-chip module burn-in has been utilized at IBM for several years. The current module bum-in tool stresses 121 chip multi-chip modules used in the IBM ES\\/9000 mainframes. MCM level burn-in has been performed on alumina and glass-ceramic substrates with bipolar and CMOS chip technologies resulting in various challenges to tool design and process development. This paper will focus on the

  12. Chemical burns: pathophysiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Palao, R; Monge, I; Ruiz, M; Barret, J P

    2010-05-01

    Chemical burns continue to pose a variety of dilemmas to the clinician managing such cases. Assessment of burn depth is often difficult and the decision whether to excise the wound early is not always clear-cut. In this updated review, common agents are classified and the basic principles of management and specific recommendations are examined. The complications arising from exposure to these chemicals and the supportive measures needed during treatment are also described. PMID:19864073

  13. Burning Questions About a Candle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-17

    In this activity, learners will observe a deceptively simple process: a burning candle. In fact, what takes place during the initiation and dynamically stable combustion process is enormously complex. This activity gives learners important insights into basic physics and chemistry, and shows learners the importance of critical observations. The link to this activity is on the left hand side, under "Activities," and is called "How a Candle Burns." Adult supervision required.

  14. Assessment of Recovery from Burn Related Neuropathy by Electrodiagnostic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Vincent; Kowalske, Karen J.; Holavanahalli, Radha K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the recovery of burn related neuropathies by electrodiagnostic testing. Burn patients who presented to an American Burn Association verified burn center were interviewed and examined for clinical evidence of peripheral neuropathies by a physiatrist. Patients whom consented to participate were tested for electrodiagnostic evidence of peripheral neuropathy. Repeated studies were performed to assess for evidence of recovery. A total of 370 patients were screened. 36 (9.73%) patients had clinical evidence of neuropathy. Eighteen male patients with a mean total body surface area burn of 42% had nerve conduction studies performed. Etiologies of the injuries included 8 flame, 8 electrical and 3 others. Seventy three nerve conduction studies were performed and 58 of the tests were abnormal. The most commonly affected nerve was the median sensory (10). For patients with repeated tests, the mean time between tests was 169 days (SD 140 days). There was a significant difference between the initial and follow up test (McNemar’s change test p=0.009). In subset analysis of motor and sensory abnormalities, there was no significant difference (p=0.07). The most common neuropathy identified in this cohort was the median sensory. Overall, there was improvement in the nerve conduction abnormalities examined. This study suggests that the prognosis for recovery after burn related neuropathy is good. PMID:19506500

  15. Postfire soil burn severity mapping with hyperspectral image unmixing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robichaud, P.R.; Lewis, S.A.; Laes, D.Y.M.; Hudak, A.T.; Kokaly, R.F.; Zamudio, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Burn severity is mapped after wildfires to evaluate immediate and long-term fire effects on the landscape. Remotely sensed hyperspectral imagery has the potential to provide important information about fine-scale ground cover components that are indicative of burn severity after large wildland fires. Airborne hyperspectral imagery and ground data were collected after the 2002 Hayman Fire in Colorado to assess the application of high resolution imagery for burn severity mapping and to compare it to standard burn severity mapping methods. Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF), a partial spectral unmixing algorithm, was used to identify the spectral abundance of ash, soil, and scorched and green vegetation in the burned area. The overall performance of the MTMF for predicting the ground cover components was satisfactory (r2 = 0.21 to 0.48) based on a comparison to fractional ash, soil, and vegetation cover measured on ground validation plots. The relationship between Landsat-derived differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) values and the ground data was also evaluated (r2 = 0.20 to 0.58) and found to be comparable to the MTMF. However, the quantitative information provided by the fine-scale hyperspectral imagery makes it possible to more accurately assess the effects of the fire on the soil surface by identifying discrete ground cover characteristics. These surface effects, especially soil and ash cover and the lack of any remaining vegetative cover, directly relate to potential postfire watershed response processes. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. In vivo terahertz imaging of rat skin burns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewari, Priyamvada; Kealey, Colin P.; Bennett, David B.; Bajwa, Neha; Barnett, Kelli S.; Singh, Rahul S.; Culjat, Martin O.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Grundfest, Warren S.; Taylor, Zachary D.

    2012-04-01

    A reflective, pulsed terahertz (THz) imaging system was used to acquire high-resolution (d10-90/ ?~1.925) images of deep, partial thickness burns in a live rat. The rat's abdomen was burned with a brass brand heated to ~220°C and pressed against the skin with contact pressure for ~10 sec. The burn injury was imaged beneath a Mylar window every 15 to 30 min for up to 7 h. Initial images display an increase in local water concentration of the burned skin as evidenced by a marked increase in THz reflectivity, and this likely correlates to the post-injury inflammatory response. After ~1 h the area of increased reflectivity consolidated to the region of skin that had direct contact with the brand. Additionally, a low reflecting ring of tissue could be observed surrounding the highly reflective burned tissue. We hypothesize that these regions of increased and decreased reflectivity correlate to the zones of coagulation and stasis that are the classic foundation of burn wound histopathology. While further investigations are necessary to confirm this hypothesis, if true, it likely represents the first in vivo THz images of these pathologic zones and may represent a significant step forward in clinical application of THz technology.

  17. Extensive Burn Scars in Russia's Amur Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Vast areas of southeastern Russia have been scorched by fires over the last few weeks. All across Siberia fires have been raging, and this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 15, 2002, shows extensive, dark burn scars along with actively burning fires (red dots) on the north side of the Amur River, which separates Russia (north) and China (south). The southern Amur region is largely devoted to farming and other agriculture, and these fires may have been set intentionally to prepare the land for the growing season. Fire is often used to clear land of unwanted vegetation, and to return the nutrients stored in vegetation back to the soil. However, fires that are too frequent or severe can devastate the soil, eventually making it unsuitable for farming or grazing. Fires can also escape control and spread into protected areas. In this image, fires are mostly concentrated in a lowland area within the drainage basin of the Zeya River, which drains from the frozen lake at the top of the image. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  18. Smokeless burning system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, R.E.

    1988-10-04

    This patent describes a system for burning wood and other fuel materials: an elongated, pivotally mounted burning chamber having inlet and outlet ends and being capable of being tilted to different angles of inclination to facilitate movement of material through the chamber, an accumulation chamber at the inlet end of the burning chamber, a hopper for receiving fuel material to be burned, an air lock chamber positioned between the hopper and the accumulation chamber, a first gate between the hopper and the air lock chamber for passing the fuel material from the hopper to the air lock chamber when opened and preventing the passage of smoke from the air lock chamber to the hopper when closed, a second gate between the air lock chamber and the accumulation chamber for passing the fuel material from the air lock chamber to the accumulation chamber when opened and preventing the passage of smoke from the burning chamber to the air lock chamber when closed, and means for pushing the fuel material from the accumulation chamber into the inlet end of the burning chamber and thereby causing material already in the chamber to move down the inclined chamber toward the outlet end.

  19. Nitramine propellants. [gun propellant burning rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, N. S.; Strand, L. D. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    Nitramine propellants without a pressure exponent shift in the burning rate curves are prepared by matching the burning rate of a selected nitramine or combination of nitramines within 10% of burning rate of a plasticized active binder so as to smooth out the break point appearance in the burning rate curve.

  20. Grape harvest and yield responses to inter-annual changes in temperature and precipitation in an area of north-east Spain with a Mediterranean climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camps, Josep Odó; Ramos, María Concepción

    2012-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of temperature and precipitation trends and their impact on grape harvests in the Penedès region (NE Spain). It includes analyses of maximum, minimum and mean daily temperatures (for both the growing and ripening seasons) and daily rainfall (for the hydrological year, the growing season and each phenological stage) for three observatories in the immediate area. We analysed a series of factors: beginning and end harvest dates; the day on which a given potential alcoholic degree was reached; and yield for several varieties of grape grown in the area in relation to climatic variables. Maximum temperatures increased at all the observatories, with greater values being recorded in recent years (1996-2009) than in previous decades (1960s-2000s): we observed increases in average growing season temperatures of 0.11°C per year for the period 1996-2009 vs 0.04°C per year for the period 1960-2009 at Vilafranca del Penedès. These temperature changes were due mainly to increases in maximum temperatures and an increase in the incidence of extreme heat (number of days with T > 30°C). Crop evapotranspiration also increased significantly during the same period. The Winkler index also increased, so the study area would correspond to region IV according to that climatic classification. There were no significant trends in annual rainfall but rainfall recorded between bloom and veraison decreased significantly at the three observatories, with the greatest decrease corresponding to the period 1996-2009. The dates on which harvests started and ended showed a continuous advance (of between -0.7 and -1.1 days per year, depending on the variety), which was significantly correlated with the average mean and maximum daily growing season temperatures (up to -7.68 days for 1°C increase). Winegrape yield was influenced by the estimated water deficit (crop evapotranspiration minus precipitation) in the bloom-veraison period; this value increased due to a reduction in precipitation and an increase in evapotranspiration. Yield may have been reduced by up to 30 kg/ha for each millimetre increase in the estimated water deficit. Under these conditions, new strategies need to be followed in this area in order to maintain grape quality and yield.

  1. Siberian and North American Biomass Burning Contributions to the Processes that Influenced the 2008 Arctic Aircraft and Satellite Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, A. J.; Stocks, B. J.; Carr, R.; Pierce, R. B.; Natarajan, M.; Fromm, M.

    2009-05-01

    Current climate change scenarios predict increases in biomass burning in terms of increases in fire frequency, area burned, fire season length and fire season severity, particularly in boreal regions. Climate and weather control fire danger, which strongly influences the severity of fire events, and these in turn, feed back to the climate system through direct and indirect emissions, modifying cloud condensation nuclei and altering albedo (affecting the energy balance) through vegetative land cover change and deposition. Additionally, fire emissions adversely influence air quality and human health downwind of burning. The boreal zone is significant because this region stores the largest reservoir of terrestrial carbon, globally, and will experience climate change impacts earliest. Boreal biomass burning is an integral component to several of the primary goals of the ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites) and ARCPAC (Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate) 2008 field campaigns, which include its implication for atmospheric composition and climate, aerosol radiative forcing, and chemical processes with a focus on ozone and aerosols. Both the spring and summer phases of ARCTAS and ARCPAC offered substantial opportunities for sampling fresh and aged biomass burning emissions. However, the extent to which spring biomass burning influenced arctic haze was unexpected, which could inform our knowledge of the formation of arctic haze and the early deposition of black carbon on the icy arctic surface. There is already evidence of increased extreme fire seasons that correlate with warming across the circumboreal zone. In this presentation, we discuss seasonal and annual fire activity and anomalies that relate to the ARCTAS and ARCPAC spring (April 1 - 20) and summer (June 18 - July 13) periods across Siberia and North America, with particular emphasis on fire danger and fire behavior as they relate to smoke emissions. Fire severity and subsequent emission levels are directly related to fire danger conditions, which reflect and incorporate both antecedent and current weather. In this century, it is predicted that fire regime increases will be the catalyst for ecosystem change, which will force ecosystems to move more rapidly towards a new equilibrium with climate. However, the reasons for ecosystem change are often accompanied by social and political drivers of land cover change, which complicate the relationship between fire and weather. For instance, since the collapse of the former Soviet Union, financial support for fire fighting is minimal, communal agricultural lands have been abandoned and a number of species are no longer protected (e.g. Saiga in Kalmykia), and each of these factors strongly influences vegetation cover and fire regimes, leading to a complicated interaction of processes that control fire and its affect on the larger environment.

  2. Burn Injury Enhances Bone Formation in Heterotopic Ossification Model

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jonathan R.; De La Rosa, Sara; Sun, Hongli; Eboda, Oluwatobi; Cilwa, Katherine E.; Donneys, Alexis; Morris, Michael; Buchman, Steven R.; Cederna, Paul S.; Krebsbach, Paul H.; Wang, Stewart C.; Levi, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the pro-osteogenic effect of burn injury on heterotopic bone formation using a novel burn ossicle in vivo model. Background Heterotopic ossification (HO), or the abnormal formation of bone in soft tissue, is a troubling sequela of burn and trauma injuries. The exact mechanism by which burn injury influences bone formation is unknown. The aim of this study was to develop a mouse model to study the effect of burn injury on heterotopic bone formation. We hypothesized that burn injury would enhance early vascularization and subsequent bone formation of subcutaneously implanted mesenchymal stem cells. Methods Mouse adipose-derived stem cells were harvested from C57/BL6 mice, transfected with a BMP-2 adenovirus, seeded on collagen scaffolds (ossicles), and implanted subcutaneously in the flank region of 8 adult mice. Burn and sham groups were created with exposure of 30% surface area on the dorsum to 60°C water or 30°C water for 18 seconds, respectively (n = 4/group). Heterotopic bone volume was analyzed in vivo by micro-computed tomography for 3 months. Histological analysis of vasculogenesis was performed with platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule staining. Osteogenic histological analysis was performed by Safranin O, Picrosirius red, and aniline blue staining. Qualitative analysis of heterotopic bone composition was completed with ex vivo Raman spectroscopy. Results Subcutaneously implanted ossicles formed heterotopic bone. Ossicles from mice with burn injuries developed significantly more bone than sham control mice, analyzed by micro-computed tomography at 1, 2, and 3 months (P < 0.05), and had enhanced early and late endochondral ossification as demonstrated by Safranin O, Picrosirius red, and aniline blue staining. In addition, burn injury enhanced vascularization of the ossicles (P < 0.05). All ossicles demonstrated chemical composition characteristic of bone as demonstrated by Raman spectroscopy. Conclusions Burn injury increases the predilection to osteogenic differentiation of ectopically implanted ossicles. Early differences in vascularity correlated with later bone development. Understanding the role of burn injury on heterotopic bone formation is an important first step toward the development of treatment strategies aimed to prevent unwanted and detrimental heterotopic bone formation. PMID:23673767

  3. Analysis of Pollutant and Tracer Dispersion During a Prescribed Forest Burn

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    Analysis of Pollutant and Tracer Dispersion During a Prescribed Forest Burn Y. Wu1, G. Allwine1, X, fuel consumption per area burned. In this work, instrumented towers were deployed within. The objective was to investigate the dispersion of pollutants in the near field and to use the measurements

  4. Intentional burn injury: an evidence-based, clinical and forensic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam R. Greenbaum; Jeremy Donne; Diana Wilson; Kenneth W. Dunn

    2004-01-01

    Burn injury can be inflicted intentionally either by one person to another whenever one has the ability to physically control the other, or it can be self-inflicted. There is scant evidential basis for much that is written about and practiced in the evaluation and care of patients that have sustained intentional burn injuries. Yet this is an area in which

  5. Intentional burn injury: an evidence-based, clinical and forensic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam R. Greenbauma; Jeremy Donne; Diana Wilson; Kenneth W. Dunna

    Burn injury can be inflicted intentionally either by one person to another whenever one has the ability to physically control the other, or it can be self-inflicted. There is scant evidential basis for much that is written about and practiced in the evaluation and care of patients that have sustained intentional burn injuries. Yet this is an area in which

  6. Intentional burn injury: an evidence-based clinical and forensic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam R. Greenbaum; Jeremy Donne; Diana Wilson; Kenneth W. Dunn

    Abstract Burn injury can be inflicted intentionally either by one person to another whenever one has the ability to physically control the other, or it can be self-inflicted. There is scant evidential basis for much,that is written about and practiced in the evaluation and care of patients that have sustained intentional burn injuries. Yet this is an area in which

  7. The impact of diverse types of biomass burning in a tropical country

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Yokelson; I. R. Burling; S. P. Urbanski; T. J. Christian; E. L. Atlas; C. Wiedinmyer; S. K. Akagi; G. Engling

    2010-01-01

    We couple laboratory work, airborne and ground-based field measurements, remote sensing of fires, and modeling to assess the impact of diverse types of biomass burning (BB) in Mexico as a model tropical country. About 70-80% of open BB occurs in the tropics along with large amounts of biofuel use and garbage burning (GB); both in rural and urban areas. During

  8. Intercomparison of near-real-time biomass burning emissions estimates constrained by satellite fire data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jassim Al-Saadi; Amber J. Soja; R. Bradley Pierce; James Szykman; Christine Wiedinmyer; Louisa Emmons; Shobha Kondragunta; Xiaoyang Zhang; Chieko Kittaka; Todd Schaack; Kevin Bowmani

    2008-01-01

    We compare biomass burning emissions estimates from four different techniques that use satellite based fire products to determine area burned over regional to global domains. Three of the techniques use active fire detections from polar-orbiting MODIS sensors and one uses detections and instantaneous fire size estimates from geostationary GOES sensors. Each technique uses a different approach for estimating trace gas

  9. Facial burns in children: A series analysis with implications for resuscitation and forensic odontology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Acton; James Nixon; John Pearn; David Williams; Fred Leditschke

    1999-01-01

    This study comprises a continuous (1981-1995) unselected series of all children who died from thermal injuries in the State of Queensland, Australia. One hundred and six children, so identified, died from incineration (35 per cent), respiratory burns with smoke or carbon monoxide inhalation (33 per cent), body surface area burns comprising greater than 60 per cent (9 per cent) and

  10. Effects of normal acceleration on transient burning rate augmentation of an aluminized solid propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. B.

    1972-01-01

    Instantaneous burning rate data for a polybutadiene acrylic acid propellant, containing 16 weight percent aluminum, were calculated from the pressure histories of a test motor with 96.77 sq cm of burning area and a 5.08-cm-thick propellant web. Additional acceleration tests were conducted with reduced propellant web thicknesses of 3.81, 2.54, and 1.27 cm. The metallic residue collected from the various web thickness tests was characterized by weight and shape and correlated with the instantaneous burning rate measurements. Rapid depressurization extinction tests were conducted in order that surface pitting characteristics due to localized increased burning rate could be correlated with the residue analysis and the instantaneous burning rate data. The acceleration-induced burning rate augmentation was strongly dependent on propellant distance burned, or burning time, and thus was transient in nature. The results from the extinction tests and the residue analyses indicate that the transient rate augmentation was highly dependent on local enhancement of the combustion zone heat feedback to the surface by the growth of molten residue particles on or just above the burning surface. The size, shape, and number density of molten residue particles, rather than the total residue weight, determined the acceleration-induced burning rate augmentation.

  11. Effects of minoxidil gel on burn wound healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Khazaeli, Payam; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Rohani, Shohreh; Sadeghirad, Behnam; Ghalekhani, Nima

    2014-01-01

    Minoxidil has been reported to inhibit in-vitro fibroblast proliferation and lysyl hydroxylase activity, a key enzyme in collagen biosynthesis. These in-vitro effects proposed minoxidil to be a potential antifibrotic agent. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of minoxidil gel on wound healing procedure in a second-degree burn model in rats. Wistar rats were anesthetized and a second-degree burn was induced on the back of Wistar rats using a heated 2 cm diameter metal plate. Experimental groups received 2% or 5% topical minoxidil gel, dexpanthenol or sliver sulfadiazine. Histological parameters including collagen content, angiogenesis, number of preserved follicles and necrosis along with tensile strength of burn wound area were assessed on days 3, 7, 14 and 21 post-injury.Microscopic evaluation of specimens collected from sample animals were consistent and showed a second-degree burn. Main histological findings regarding minoxidil topical usage showed that collagen content and tensile strength of burned area did not differ between groups. However, minoxidil increased the number and diameter of blood vessels significantly compared with other groups.Although minoxidil improved the process of wound-healing, our results did not support the proposed idea of its usage as an antifibrotic agent. However, to reject its possible effects as an antifibrotic agent, more objective animal models should be developed and studied. PMID:24734077

  12. Effects of Minoxidil Gel on Burn Wound Healing in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khazaeli, Payam; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Rohani, Shohreh; Sadeghirad, Behnam; Ghalekhani, Nima

    2014-01-01

    Minoxidil has been reported to inhibit in-vitro fibroblast proliferation and lysyl hydroxylase activity, a key enzyme in collagen biosynthesis. These in-vitro effects proposed minoxidil to be a potential antifibrotic agent. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of minoxidil gel on wound healing procedure in a second-degree burn model in rats. Wistar rats were anesthetized and a second-degree burn was induced on the back of Wistar rats using a heated 2 cm diameter metal plate. Experimental groups received 2% or 5% topical minoxidil gel, dexpanthenol or sliver sulfadiazine. Histological parameters including collagen content, angiogenesis, number of preserved follicles and necrosis along with tensile strength of burn wound area were assessed on days 3, 7, 14 and 21 post-injury.Microscopic evaluation of specimens collected from sample animals were consistent and showed a second-degree burn. Main histological findings regarding minoxidil topical usage showed that collagen content and tensile strength of burned area did not differ between groups. However, minoxidil increased the number and diameter of blood vessels significantly compared with other groups.Although minoxidil improved the process of wound-healing, our results did not support the proposed idea of its usage as an antifibrotic agent. However, to reject its possible effects as an antifibrotic agent, more objective animal models should be developed and studied. PMID:24734077

  13. Data Management Group Annual Report

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Data Management Group Annual Report 1997 #12;Data Management Group Annual Report 1997 A co-operative project that is jointly funded by members of the Toronto Area Transportation Planning Data Collection: (416) 978-3941 #12;Data Management Group 1997 Annual Report Table of Contents 1 INTRODUCTION

  14. The influence of prescribed burning on small mammal populations of the Texas Gulf Coastal Prairie 

    E-print Network

    Brown, Wennona Ann

    1977-01-01

    ) . A shi t in suer! ca ccmposi t' cn wee c~v3 dance'd wz [h cotton rats ond sh rt-tail shrews being excluded from the burned areas, Pygmy mouse population densities were . higher on the burned area. Harvest mice densities were initially higher... to the presence of cotton rats. The con- trol grid was dominated by cotton rats vIhile pygmy mice were found to generally dominate the burned areas. Harvest mice wer. the usual secondary dominant on all grids. Sex ratios and reproductive cycles were unaffected...

  15. Helium processing for deuterium/helium burns in ITER's physics phase

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.; Sze, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    The requirements for vacuum pumping and fuel processing for deuterium/helium (D/{sup 3}He) burns in the physics operating phase for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) were assessed. These burns are expected to have low fusion power (100 MW), short burn times ({le}30 s), limited operation (2000 shots), and a fractional burn {approximately}0.3%. For the physics phase, the fuel processing system will include several units to separate deuterium and helium (activated charcoal bed, SAES getter and a Pd/Ag diffuser), as well as an isotopic separation system to separate {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He. The needed vacuum system's cryosorption surface area may be as large as 10 m{sup 2} if the burn time is {approximately}200 s, the fractional burn is <0.3%, or the fusion power is >100 MW. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. Childhood burns in Ghana: epidemiological characteristics and home-based treatment.

    PubMed

    Forjuoh, S N; Guyer, B; Smith, G S

    1995-02-01

    The objectives of this research were to study the epidemiological characteristics and home-based treatment of childhood burns in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Children aged 0-5 years with a burn history were identified through a community-based, multisite survey. A standard questionnaire was administered to mothers of 630 of these children to elicit information on their sociodemographic characteristics and the circumstances of the burn event. Ninety-two per cent of the burns occurred in the home, particularly in the kitchen (51 per cent) and the house yard (36 per cent), with most of them happening in the late morning and around the evening meal. The main causes of the burns were scalds (45 per cent), contact with a hot object (34 per cent) and flame (20 per cent). 'Cool' water was applied to the burned area in 30 per cent of cases. Otherwise, treatment with a traditional preparation was the most popular first-aid choice. Since a considerable proportion of burns happened between meals when children 'play with fire' in the house yard, the provision of alternative play activities and community play areas may reduce the incidence of burns to these children. Secondly, we recommend that education on first-aid management of burns be intensified, with special emphasis on alternatives to the use of traditional preparations. PMID:7718113

  17. Previous Fires Moderate Burn Severity of Subsequent Wildland

    E-print Network

    Previous Fires Moderate Burn Severity of Subsequent Wildland Fires in Two Large Western US Wilderness Areas Sean A. Parks,1,2 * Carol Miller,1 Cara R. Nelson,2 and Zachary A. Holden3 1 U.S.D.A. Forest, Mis- soula, Montana 59801, USA; 2 Department of Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences, College

  18. Laminar burning velocities of propeneair mixtures at elevated temperatures and

    E-print Network

    ­air List of symbols A inside surface area of the vessel B inside diameter of the vessel cp specific heat e specific internal energy E internal energy h specific enthalpy h heat transfer coefficient K stretch rate Le Lewis number m mass P pressure Q heat transfer r radius S entropy Su burning velocity

  19. Self-feeding wood burning heating unit

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, W.T.

    1982-10-26

    A wood burning heating unit capable of being stoked for continuous or extended burning, and of achieving effective combustion of volatiles contained in the smoke is provided. The stove body, a generally cylindrical casing, is supported so that its axis is substantially horizontal. A baffle divides the casing into a fire box or combustion chamber and an exhaust chamber which functions as a heat exchanger. The exhaust chamber is vented to the outside atmosphere by an exhaust conduit or flue pipe. A pair of elongate, fuel feed conduits extend downwardly and inwardly into the fire box or combustion chamber, so that respective, generally upstanding columns of logs can be formed in the fuel feeding conduits with the lower ends of the wood log columns contacting each other to define and limit the area of combustion in the fire box. Manifold means is provided for drawing combustion air from outside the stove body, passing the air through a heat exchange area in the manifold adjacent to the combustion zone for preheating the combustion air, and then supplying the heated air into proximity of the contact between the two columns of logs.

  20. [Primary treatment of burn patients].

    PubMed

    Giessler, G A; Deb, R; Germann, G; Sauerbier, M

    2004-06-01

    Burn injuries can be caused by thermal, electrical, chemical, or mechanical trauma or radiation and are relatively rare, as they represent only about 1% of all emergencies. They are caused by accidents at home, during recreational activities, or in the occupational environment. Minor burn traumas are much more common than severe burn injuries with their systemic and potentially life-threatening effects. Altogether, these circumstances may result in a lack of routine for treating such injuries properly by physicians and their colleagues in the emergency room or intensive care unit. A clearly outlined concept for preclinical and clinical treatment can be the keystone of successful further clinical progress. The following article summarizes the current guidelines for first medical aid at the injury scene, burn stabilization and assessment in the emergency room, and the interdisciplinary approach for further clinical care. The treatment of dermatologic emergencies (acute epidermolytic syndromes) or caustic injuries by chemical agents is similar to the treatment of burn victims in many aspects but must be adapted in selected cases. PMID:15103423

  1. Post Burn Contracture Neck: Clinical Profile and Management

    PubMed Central

    Bankar, Sanket S.; Patil, Avinash

    2014-01-01

    Background: Morbidity related to hypertrophic scars and contractures which are well known sequel after burns remains high and in fact has increased as more severely burned patients are surviving. This study was undertaken in order to assess the varied clinical presentation, precipitating factors, preventive measures, treatment modalities of neck contractures and evaluate the results after surgical procedures. Materials and Methods: This hospital based study was conducted on patients admitted in our institution with proven cases of Post burn neck contracture from 1st August 2009 to 31st July 2011. Twenty two patients of post burn neck contracture who underwent operative treatment were included. Observation: 10 of 22 cases were in the middle age group i.e. between 21-30 years. There were 5 males and 17 females. Accidental flame burn was the commonest aetiology. Fourteen patients were treated within 1 year of burns for functional disability. Excisional release was performed in 13 and incisional release in 9 of our patients. Resurfacing with STSG (split thickness skin graft) was carried out in 19 cases and a local or regional flap with or without a graft in 3 patients. Hypertrophy and recontracture were the commonest late complications and occurred in 3 cases. Good to fair results were obtained in 19 patients Conclusion: Local flaps have many advantages and are to be used whenever possible. It is preferable to place the grafts if used in the area surrounding the neck (donor site of flap) or at least in the non-visible area of the neck (submental area). When a combination of flap & graft is used, it’s preferable to place the flap in a horizontal intersecting fashion in between the two patches of the graft. A follow up program for reasonable period is highly desired. PMID:25478392

  2. Effects of surface voids on burning rate measurements of pulverized coal at diffusion-limited conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Bayless, D.J.; Schroeder, A.R.; Peters, J.E.; Buckius, R.O. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering] [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    1997-01-01

    This research explores the effects of voids (pores on the particle surface that are deeper than their surface radius) on burning area at diffusion-limited combustion conditions. Scanning electron microscopy and digital processing of images of quenched particles were used to quantify surface void area, perimeter, and reacting void wall area for voids with diameters larger than 1 {micro}m. After careful analysis, the most accurate determination of particle burning area at diffusion-limited conditions was achieved by measuring particle surface area using the technique of discrete revolution, subtracting surface void area, and adding reacting void wall area. In situ measurements of reacting coal particle temperatures and images were taken for three coals and spherocarb particles at conditions that limit the formation of CO{sub 2} from reacting carbon under various oxygen concentrations and heating rates. The results of these experiments indicate that correcting the measured surface area for void area and reacting void wall area produces calculated burning rates closely matching diffusion-limited burning rates for all conditions and all coals investigated. These results suggest that void area effects should be included for accurate determination of burning area at diffusion-limited conditions.

  3. Droplet burning at zero G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Questions of the importance and feasibility of performing experiments on droplet burning at zero gravity in Spacelab were studied. Information on the physics and chemistry of droplet combustion, with attention directed specifically to the chemical kinetics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid mechanics of the phenomena involved, are presented. The work was divided into three phases, the justification, the feasibility, and the conceptual development of a preliminary design. Results from the experiments performed revealed a few new facts concerning droplet burning, notably burning rates in excess of theoretical prediction and a phenomenon of flash extinction, both likely traceable to accumulation of carbon produced by gas-phase pyrolysis in the fuel-rich zone enclosed by the reaction surface. These experiments also showed that they were primarily due to timing difficulties.

  4. Burn Control Mechanisms in Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Maxwell; Stacey, Weston

    2013-10-01

    Burn control and passive safety in accident scenarios will be an important design consideration in future tokamaks, especially those used as a neutron source for fusion-fission hybrid reactors, such as the Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor (SABR) concept. At Georgia Tech, we are developing a new burning plasma dynamics code to investigate passive safety mechanisms that could prevent power excursions in tokamak reactors. This code solves the coupled set of balance equations governing burning plasmas in conjunction with a two-point SOL-divertor model. Predictions have been benchmarked against data from DIII-D. We are examining several potential negative feedback mechanisms to limit power excursions: i) ion-orbit loss, ii) thermal instabilities, iii) the degradation of alpha-particle confinement resulting from ripples in the toroidal field, iv) modifications to the radial current profile, v) ``divertor choking'' and vi) Type 1 ELMs.

  5. Detecting post-fire burn severity and vegetation recovery using multitemporal remote sensing spectral indices and field-collected composite burn index data in a ponderosa pine forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, X.; Vogelmann, J.E.; Rollins, M.; Ohlen, D.; Key, C.H.; Yang, L.; Huang, C.; Shi, H.

    2011-01-01

    It is challenging to detect burn severity and vegetation recovery because of the relatively long time period required to capture the ecosystem characteristics. Multitemporal remote sensing data can providemultitemporal observations before, during and after a wildfire, and can improve the change detection accuracy. The goal of this study is to examine the correlations between multitemporal spectral indices and field-observed burn severity, and to provide a practical method to estimate burn severity and vegetation recovery. The study site is the Jasper Fire area in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota, that burned during August and September 2000. Six multitemporal Landsat images acquired from 2000 (pre-fire), 2001 (post-fire), 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2007 were used to assess burn severity. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), normalized burn ratio (NBR), integrated forest index (IFI) and the differences of these indices between the pre-fire and post-fire years were computed and analysed with 66 field-based composite burn index (CBI) plots collected in 2002. Results showed that differences of NDVI and differences of EVI between the pre-fire year and the first two years post-fire were highly correlated with the CBI scores. The correlations were low beyond the second year post-fire. Differences of NBR had good correlation with CBI scores in all study years. Differences of IFI had low correlation with CBI in the first year post-fire and had good correlation in later years. A CBI map of the burnt area was produced using regression tree models and the multitemporal images. The dynamics of four spectral indices from 2000 to 2007 indicated that both NBR and IFI are valuable for monitoring long-term vegetation recovery. The high burn severity areas had a much slower recovery than the moderate and low burn areas. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  6. Manipulation of huisache communities with herbicides, burning, and mechanical methods 

    E-print Network

    Bontrager, Orvin Eli

    1977-01-01

    resprouting from the plant bases occurred within 6 months. Fifteen months after burning, the canopy cover was reduced by 67X and 3X of the plants were killed. The application of picloram pellets alone (0. 128 g/cm basal area) to individual huisache 2... plants killed 47 and 16% of the small and medium-sized plants, respectively, after 13 months, Burning followed by application of picloram pellets to individual-plants increased defoliation level to 83%%d and killed 66/ of the trees. Broadcast...

  7. [Findings in the detection of fibronectin in skin burns].

    PubMed

    Dao, T Q; Hirt, M; Zelený, M; Pexa, T

    2001-11-01

    Occurrence of fibronectin was detected in paraffin sections of burn skin samples, excised from surviving patients, as well as skin samples removed from the death persons, who succumbed burn wounds. The other groups of samples, used for comparison with the previous one, consisted of the intact skin excisions and skin samples post-mortem exposed to thermic changes. Indirect immunoperoxidase reaction was the immunohistochemical method used in all examinations. In post-mortem burn skin samples there was a loss of fibronectin activity in the epidermo-dermal junction area as well as in the papillary dermis. In burn skin samples, excised from patients who only survived for very short time their (serious skin) burns, no evidence of any fibronectin activity was seen. Also in two other cases, when patients--due to their severe burns--survived for several hours only, there were no conspicuous differences in the intensity of fibronectin activity seen in comparison with features found in the intact skin samples. Fibronectin activity was, however, increased in all other burn skin samples, where the survival time of patients was from 30 minutes to 5 weeks and there were following differences in its intensity and also in its pattern of distribution. In the 1st-degree and in a superficial 2nd-degree skin burn wounds, fibronectin was also present in the epidermis. In the papillary dermis, fibronectin was distributed rather diffusely or in a spot-like pattern while in the reticular dermis, there was a tendency to form net-like structures among collagen fibers. In deeper 2nd-degree and in the 3rd-degree burn wounds, fibronectin was deposited in vicinity of blood vessels and skin appendages in a fibrillar pattern. In 6 out of 11 samples, where the survival time ranged from 7 to 21 days, fibroblasts were arranged among fine collagen fibers and some of these cells exhibited positive fibronectin activity on their surface. Numerous fibroblasts with finely scattered fibronectin spots and also a decrease of fibronectin activity were observed in more mature granulation tissue, present in burn skin samples where survival time of patients was five weeks. PMID:11813493

  8. Topical Antimicrobials for Burn Infections – An Update

    PubMed Central

    Sevgi, Mert; Toklu, Ani; Vecchio, Daniela; Hamblin, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    The relentless rise in antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria and fungi, coupled with the high susceptibility of burn wounds to infection, and the difficulty of systemically administered antibiotics to reach damaged tissue, taken together have made the development of novel topical antimicrobials for burn infections a fertile area of innovation for researchers and companies. We previously covered the existing patent literature in this area in 2010, but the notable progress made since then, has highlighted the need for an update to bring the reader up to date on recent developments. New patents in the areas of topically applied antibiotics and agents that can potentiate the action of existing antibiotics may extend their useful lifetime. Developments have also been made in biofilm-disrupting agents. Antimicrobial peptides are nature’s way for many life forms to defend themselves against attack by pathogens. Silver has long been known to be a highly active antimicrobial but new inorganic metal derivatives based on bismuth, copper and gallium have emerged. Halogens such as chlorine and iodine can be delivered by novel technologies. A variety of topically applied antimicrobials include chitosan preparations, usnic acid, ceragenins and XF porphyrins. Natural product derived antimicrobials such as tannins and essential oils have also been studied. Novel techniques to deliver reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in situ have been developed. Light-mediated techniques include photodynamic therapy, ultraviolet irradiation, blue light, low-level laser therapy and titania photocatalysis. Passive immunotherapy employs antibodies against pathogens and their virulence factors. Finally an interesting new area uses therapeutic microorganisms such as phages, probiotic bacteria and protozoa to combat infections. PMID:24215506

  9. Different surgical treatment of post-burn trophic ulcers of the plantar surface in foot burns.

    PubMed

    Shakirov, Babur M

    2011-12-01

    Burns of the plantar surface of the foot with the subsequent formation of scar is often complicated by unhealing trophic ulcers. Trophic ulcers increase due to constant local irritation, reaching various depth and area, penetrating to the bone and the tendons and covering the area of several centimetres in diameter up to the whole heel area. A total of 21 patients (12 men and nine women) have been under our observation at Samarkand Inter-Regional Burn Center, Uzbekistan, for prolonged trophic ulcers of soft tissues of the plantar surface of the foot. Ulcers sizes were from 1.0-2.5 to 3-5 cm in diameter. All patients had undergone earlier unsuccessful operation (3-5 times). The method of closure should be chosen according to both severity and localisation of the injury, using local uninjured tissues and soft scars to make bilobed skin-flap plasty, one-lobed skin-flat flap, tube graft and other shaped flaps and free grafts placed on the area of the excised scars. In 18 observations, a good result was achieved and no complications were noted. The grafts were viable, sensibility was preserved and no marginal necrosis was noticed. Patients can take up their work by 1.5-2.0 months after surgery. PMID:21924835

  10. Biomass burning in boreal forests and peatlands: Effects on ecosystem carbon losses and soil carbon stabilization as black carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turetsky, M. R.; Kane, E. S.; Benscoter, B.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change has increased both annual area burned and the severity of biomass combustion in some boreal regions. For example, there has been a four-fold increase in late season fires in boreal Alaska over the last decade relative to the previous 50 years. Such changes in the fire regime are expected to stimulate ecosystem carbon losses through fuel combustion, reduced primary production, and increased decomposition. However, biomass burning also will influence the accumulation of black carbon in soils, which could promote long-term soil carbon sequestration. Variations in slope and aspect regulate soil temperatures and drainage conditions, and affect the development of permafrost and thick peat layers. Wet soil conditions in peatlands and permafrost forests often inhibit combustion during wildfires, leading to strong positive correlations between pre- and post- fire organic soil thickness that persist through multiple fire cycles. However, burning can occur in poorly drained ecosystems through smouldering combustion, which has implications for emission ratios of CO2:CH4:CO as well as black carbon formation. Our studies of combustion severity and black carbon concentrations in boreal soils show a negative relationship between concentrations of black carbon and organic carbon in soils post-fire. Relative to well drained stands, poorly drained sites with thick peat layers (such as north-facing stands) had less severe burning and low concentrations of black carbon in mineral soils post-fire. Conversely, drier forests lost a greater proportion of their organic soils during combustion but retained larger black carbon stocks following burning. Overall, we have quantified greater black carbon concentrations in surface mineral soil horizons than in organic soil horizons. This is surprising given that wildfires typically do not consume the entire organic soil layer in boreal forests, and could be indicative of the vulnerability of black carbon formed in organic horizons to burning during subsequent fire events. We also observed no correlations between black carbon stocks in soils and fire frequency, again suggesting that pyrogenic C is susceptible to re-burning, or decay in the post-burn environment. The majority of pyrogenic carbon in boreal soils appears to be derived from recent wildfire activity, as the age of the black carbon pool often is equivalent to stand age. Together these results show that landscape characteristics that control decomposition and the accumulation of peat also have strong controls on combustion processes and post-fire soil chemistry. Warmer temperatures and drier or more variable precipitation patterns are likely to result in more intense burning of organic soils in the future. Research linking the conditions of char formation with its stabilization mechanisms (either consumption in wildfire or microbial attack) will shed light on spatial patterns of black carbon formation and preservation in high latitude soils.

  11. Seasonal variations in surface ozone as influenced by Asian summer monsoon and biomass burning in agricultural fields of the northern Yangtze River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Haoye; Liu, Gang; Zhu, Jianguo; Han, Yong; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko

    2013-03-01

    Surface ozone (O3) concentration was measured continuously at an agricultural site of Jiangdu in the northern Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China for the period from March 2007 to December 2011. Extremely high O3 concentrations ([O3]) were frequently observed in May and June with the highest hourly mean of 144 ppb. The monthly 7-h mean of [O3] showed a bimodal pattern in the seasonal change with peaks in June and October. The depression of [O3] in summer was due mostly to the monsoonal climate, which was adverse to photochemical O3 generation. Analyses of the wind direction and air mass trajectories showed that pollutants from the industrialized area of YRD were carried by the prevailing wind, causing an increased [O3] in the spring, whereas, in the summer, frequent incursions of maritime air mass diluted the high [O3] in the polluted air mass. Furthermore, it was found that extensive open crop residue burning in central eastern China made a significant contribution to the peak [O3] in June. The increase of [O3] by the residue burning in June was estimated to be 39% on sunny days and 27% on rainy days. The inter-annual variation of [O3] showed that [O3] in June tends to be lower in the years with more maritime air mass incursions, and the lowest [O3] in June 2008 could be partially attributed to the low frequency of residue burning events. This study has thus demonstrated that the variations in marine air mass incursions as influenced by the monsoonal climate and the open crop residue burning are the major determinants of the seasonal trends in surface [O3] across the agricultural areas of the northern YRD.

  12. Conducting a Prescribed Burn and Prescribed Burning Checklist

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasslands of the central Great Plains developed with periodic fire. Prescribed burning is an important tool for managing grasslands to maintain desirable species composition, increase grazing livestock performance, maintain productivity, and control invasive weeds. The safe and effective use of pre...

  13. Epidemiology and Outcome of Chemical Burn Patients Admitted in Burn Unit of JNMC Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India: A 5-year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Md Sohaib; Ahmad, Imran; Khurram, M. Fahud; Kanungo, Srikanta

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the epidemiology, clinical variable of chemical burns, and their outcomes to prevent or reduce the frequency and morbidity of such injuries. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on all the patients with chemical burns admitted at author's center between November 2008 and December 2013. All the patients were evaluated in terms of age, sex, total body surface area, etiology, treatment given, morbidity, mortality, final outcome, and then educated regarding specific preventive measures. Results: A total of 96 patients (2.4% of total burn admissions) (42 males and 54 females) were admitted to our hospital with chemical burn injuries. Most of the patients were in the age group of 16–30 years. Incidence in females was slightly higher than in males. Acid was found to be the most common cause of injury. We found 55% patients admitted had <10% total body surface area (TBSA) involvement, 35% had burns involving between 11 and 20% TBSA, and 4% had burns involving 21–30% TBSA, and 6% had burns in >30% TBSA. Morbidity was noticed in the form of skin defect in 80% of cases, soft tissue defect with exposed tendon, bone, or vessels in 16% of cases, and 4% of patients developed contracture and hypertrophic scar. Eighty-six percent of patients required operative intervention. A total of three deaths (3%) were recorded. Conclusion: It was found that chemical burns, though not very common, are deeper burns and can be accidental or non-accidental, and the high-risk age group is 16–25 years. Chemical burns are largely preventable and if properly managed have a good outcome. PMID:25810999

  14. Biomass Burning in the Amazon-Fertilizer for the Mountaineous Rain Forest in Ecuador (7 pp)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Fabian; Michael Kohlpaintner; Ruetger Rollenbeck

    2005-01-01

    Background. Biomass burning is a source of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen compounds which, along with their photochemically generated reaction products, can be transported over very long distances, even traversing oceans. Chemical analyses of rain and fogwater samples collected in the mountaineous rain forest of south Ecuador show frequent episodes of high sulfate and nitrate concentration, from which annual deposition rates

  15. 40 CFR 63.5870 - How do I calculate annual uncontrolled and controlled organic HAP emissions from my wet-out area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.5870 How do I calculate annual uncontrolled and...

  16. The 18th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC'07) SUPPORTING FIRST PERSON SHOOTER GAMES IN WIRELESS LOCAL AREA

    E-print Network

    The 18th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications an affect on WLANs. As with most Internet application traffic, FPS games exhibit uplink/downlink asymmetry

  17. Texas’ Senate Bill 5 Legislation for Reducing Pollution in Non-Attainment and Affected Areas: Annual Report to the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission 

    E-print Network

    Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Turner, W. D.

    2002-01-01

    This is the first annual report by the Energy Systems Laboratory, which covers the Laboratory's efforts to support Senate Bill 5. In this report the accomplishments and progress to date are presented, along with recommendations, issues encountered...

  18. Aquatic ecological risks due to cyanide releases from biomass burning.

    PubMed

    Barber, Timothy R; Lutes, Christopher C; Doorn, Michiel R J; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Timmenga, Hubert J; Crouch, Robert L

    2003-01-01

    Aquatic toxicity due to the creation and mobilization of chemical constituents by fire has been little studied, despite reports of post-fire fish kills attributed to unspecified pyrogenic toxicants. We examined releases of cyanides from biomass burning and their effect on surface runoff water. In laboratory test burns, available cyanide concentrations in leachate from residual ash were much higher than in leachate from partially burned and unburned fuel and were similar to or higher than the 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) for rainbow trout (45 microg/l). Free cyanide concentrations in stormwater runoff collected after a wildfire in North Carolina averaged 49 microg/l, again similar to the rainbow trout LC50 and an order of magnitude higher than in samples from an adjacent unburned area. Pyrogenic cyanide inputs, together with other fire-related stressors, may contribute to post-fire fish mortalities, particularly those affecting salmonids. PMID:12656253

  19. Clothing-related burns in New South Wales, Australia: impact of legislation on a continuing problem.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Lara A; Connolley, Siobhan; Harvey, John G

    2015-02-01

    To combat the risk of nightwear burns a mandatory standard regulating the design, flammability and labelling requirements of children's nightwear was introduced in Australia in 1987. This population-based study examined the trends, characteristics and causes of clothing-related burns to inform a review of the current standard, and to facilitate the development of targeted prevention strategies. Clothing-related burns for 1998-2013 were identified from hospitalisation data for all hospitals in NSW and detailed information regarding circumstance of injury from a burn data registry. To investigate percentage annual change (PAC) in trends negative binomial regression analysis was performed. There were 541 hospitalisations for clothing-related burns, 18% were nightwear-related and 82% were for other clothing. All clothing burns decreased by an estimated 4% per year (95% CI -6.2 to -2.1). Nightwear-related burns decreased by a significantly higher rate (PAC -7.4%; 95% CI -12.5 to -2.1) than other clothing (PAC -2.5%; 95%CI -4.7 to -0.1). Exposure to open heat source (campfire/bonfire) was the most common cause, followed by cooking. Of factors known to be associated with clothing burns, accelerant use was reported in 27% of cases, cigarettes 17%, loose skirt or dress 8%, and angle grinders in 6% of cases. Hospitalisations for clothing burns are relatively uncommon in NSW and rates, particularly of nightwear burns, have decreased over the last 15 years. Strategies for continued reduction of these injuries include increasing the scope of the current clothing standard or developing new standards to include all children's clothing and adult nightwear, and increasing community awareness of the risk associated with open heat sources, accelerant use and loose clothing. PMID:25435488

  20. MOLECULAR TRACERS FOR SMOKE FROM CHARRING/BURNING OF CHITIN BIOPOLYMER. (R823990)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Monosaccharide derivatives from the breakdown of cellulose are the major organic components of smoke particles emitted to the atmosphere from biomass burning. In urban areas a related biopolymer, chitin, may contribute markers to smoke from grilling/charring o...

  1. Epidemiology of operative burns at Kijabe Hospital from 2006 to 2010: Pilot study of a web-based tool for creation of the Kenya Burn Repository

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Elizabeth L.; Mueller, Melissa A.; Wang, Li; Fogerty, Mary D.; Guy, Jeffrey S.; Nthumba, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In order to implement effective burn prevention strategies, the WHO has called for improved data collection to better characterize burn injuries in low and middle income countries (LMIC). This study was designed to gather information on burn injury in Kenya and to test a model for such data collection. Methods The study was designed as a retrospective case series study utilizing an electronic data collection tool to assess the scope of burn injuries requiring operation at Kijabe Hospital from January 2006 to May 2010. Data were entered into a web-based tool to test its utility as the potential Kenya Burn Repository (KBR). Results 174 patients were included. The median age was 10 years. There was a male predominance (59% vs. 41%). Findings included that timing of presentation was associated with burn etiology (p = 0.009). Length of stay (LOS) was associated with burn etiology (p < 0.001). Etiology differed depending on the age group, with scald being most prominent in children (p = 0.002). Conclusions Burn injuries in Kenya show similarities with other LMIC in etiology and pediatric predominance. Late presentation for care and prolonged LOS are areas for further investigation. The web-based database is an effective tool for data collection and international collaboration. PMID:23040425

  2. Prediction of Maximal Aerobic Capacity in Severely Burned Children

    PubMed Central

    Porro, Laura; Rivero, Haidy G.; Gonzalez, Dante; Tan, Alai; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) is an indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness, but requires expensive equipment and a relatively high technical skill level. Purpose The aim of this study is to provide a formula for estimating VO2 peak in burned children, using information obtained without expensive equipment. Methods Children, with ?40% total surface area burned (TBSA), underwent a modified Bruce treadmill test to asses VO2 peak at 6 months after injury. We recorded gender, age, %TBSA, %3rd degree burn, height, weight, treadmill time, maximal speed, maximal grade, and peak heart rate, and applied McHenry’s select algorithm to extract important independent variables and Robust multiple regression to establish prediction equations. Results 42 children; 7 to 17 years old were tested. Robust multiple regression model provided the equation: VO2=10.33 – 0.62 *Age (years) + 1.88 * Treadmill Time (min) + 2.3 (gender; Females = 0, Males = 1). The correlation between measured and estimated VO2 peak was R=0.80. We then validated the equation with a group of 33 burned children, which yielded a correlation between measured and estimated VO2 peak of R=0.79. Conclusions Using only a treadmill and easily gathered information, VO2 peak can be estimated in children with burns. PMID:21316155

  3. Tissue engineered fetal skin constructs for pediatric burns

    PubMed Central

    Norbury, William B; Jeschke, Marc G; Herndon, David N

    2005-01-01

    The management of patients with partial thickness (second degree) burns is problematic due to the different treatments needed for varying depths of injury. A report recently published in The Lancet describes a novel treatment for deep second degree burns using a fetal skin construct (FSC). The authors included eight pediatric patients with small second degree burns. They showed that FSCs reduced the need for autografting of deep second degree burns, with little hypertrophy of new skin and no skin contraction. This technology is new and exciting, but in our opinion several issues must be addressed before FSCs can enter the clinical arena. All of the patients were included in the treatment group, and therefore no comparison with conventional skin substitutes was possible. There is no mention of the use of laser Doppler in any initial assessment of patients. The debridement carried out before application of the FSC is not elaborated upon, and the surface areas involved in the study were very small in most cases, which limits the relevance to patients with larger burns. The use of FSCs gives us an additional option in a range of possible treatments for this notoriously difficult-to-treat patient group. PMID:16356232

  4. The Healing Effect of Curcumin on Burn Wounds in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabani, Davood; Farjam, Mojtaba; Geramizadeh, Bita; Tanideh, Nader; Amini, Masood; Panjehshahin, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Burns are still considered one of the most devastating conditions in emergency medicine affecting both genders and all age groups in developed and developing countries, resulting into physical and psychological scars and cause chronic disabilities. This study was performed to determine the healing effect of curcumin on burn wounds in rat. METHODS Seventy female Sprague-Dawley 180-220 g rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups. Groups of A-C received 0.1, 0.5 and 2% curcumin respectively and Group D, silver sulfadiazine ointment. Group E was considered as control group and received eucerin. After 7, 14 and 21 days of therapy, the animals were sacrificed and burn areas were macroscopically examined and histologically were scored. RESULTS Administration of curcumin resulted into a decrease in size of the burn wounds and a reduction in inflammation after 14th days. Reepithelialization was prominent in groups A-C while more distinguishable in group C. In group C, epidermis exhibited well structured layers without any crusting. There were spindle shaped fibroblasts in fascicular pattern, oriented parallel to the epithelial surface with eosinophilic collagen matrix. CONCLUSION Curcumin as an available and inexpensive herbal was shown be a suitable substitute in healing of burn wounds especially when 2% concentration was applied. PMID:25606474

  5. Critical Illness Polyneuropathy in Patients With Major Burn Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Queenie; Ng, Karl; Vandervord, John

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Critical illness polyneuropathy in burn patients is an underreported condition. It is associated with high mortality rates and prolonged hospital stay and rehabilitation. This study aims to further define the cause and outcome of critical illness polyneuropathy following major burn injuries. Methods: A retrospective review of all burn patients with neuropathy that presented to Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, between the period of 2004 and 2009 was performed. The neurological findings, diagnostic processes, and outcomes were examined. End points such as duration on the ventilator, length of intensive care, and hospital stay were recorded. Results: There were 7 patients in total that exhibited abnormal neurological findings. Ages ranged from 17 to 43 years with all injuries sustained in flame burns. Mean total burnt surface area is 46%. There was no mortality in this series but all 7 had evidence of sepsis and multiorgan failure with an average 42 days spent on the ventilator. Clinical findings varied greatly. Five had involvement of nerves away from the site of burns. Upper-limb weakness tended to have a slower recovery. Examination and neurophysiologic studies were often hampered by pain and bandaging over burnt skin. Conclusions: Neurological manifestations of critical illness polyneuropathy are varied and cannot always be explained by direct thermal or compression injury. This study confirms a strong link to sepsis, multiple organ failure, and slow ventilatory wean. The requirement for a precise neurophysiological diagnosis of critical illness polyneuropathy needs to be balanced with technical considerations and the likelihood of alternative diagnoses. PMID:21119768

  6. [Functional reconstruction of multiple severe deformities after extensive deep burn].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi; Jia, Chi-yu; Hu, Da-hai; Zhu, Xiong-xiang; Han, Jun-tao; Yao, Qing-jun; Xu, Ming-da

    2008-10-01

    To explore new measures for functional reconstruction of multiple severe deformities as a result of extensive deep burn (total burn surface area > or = 90% TBSA, including deep burn > or = 70%TBSA) in late stage. Twelve severe burn patients with above-mentioned deformities were hospitalized in our ward during 1960--2005, the scars resulted from burns were distributed from head to foot with 173 deformities, including 27 scar ulcers. All patients lacked of self-care ability, among them some could not stand. Due to inadequate skin source, deformities were corrected by skin from matured scars expanded with subcutaneous balloon at late postburn stage. Following our former clinical experience, anatomic investigation and experimental research, we chose the following methods to correct deformities and restore functions: application of split-thickness scar skin after expansion (88 wounds); use of scar skin flap/scar-Achilles tendon flaps (59 wounds); combination of thin split-thickness skin grafts from scar and allogeneic acellular dermal matrix (composite skin, 40 wounds). All grafts survived, the appearance and function were improved obviously without complications. Follow-up 1-40 years, all patients could take care themselves with satisfactory function and appearance, and among them 8 patients returned to work (one had worked for 40 years), 2 patients married and had children. The above-mentioned measures are safe, reliable and effective for functional reconstruction of deformities. PMID:19103016

  7. Hypoxia and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor in the Burn Wound

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Dongmei; Liu, Lixin; Marti, Guy P.; Zhang, Xianjie; Reinblatt, Maura; Milner, Stephen M.; Harmon, John W.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in promoting angiogenesis and vasculogenesis during wound healing has been demonstrated. It is widely accepted that HIF activity can be promoted by many factors, including hypoxia in the wound or cytokines from inflammatory cells infiltrating the wound. However, there has not been a systematic exploration of the relationship between HIF activity and hypoxia in the burn wound. The location of the hypoxic tissue has not been clearly delineated. The time course of the appearance of hypoxia and the increased activity of HIF and appearance of HIF’s downstream transcription products has not been described. The aim of this study was to utilize pimonidazole, a specific tissue hypoxia marker, to characterize the spatial and temporal course of hypoxia in a murine burn model and correlate this with the appearance of HIF-1? and its important angiogenic and vasculogenic transcription products VEGF and SDF-1. Hypoxia was found in the healing margin of burn wounds beginning at 48 hours after burn and peaking at day 3 after burn. On sequential sections of the same tissue block, positive staining of HIF-1?, SDF-1, and VEGF all occurred at the leading margin of the healing area and peaked at day 3, as did hypoxia. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to explore the characteristics of the hypoxic region of the wound. The localization of hypoxia was found to be related to cell growth and migration, but not to proliferation or inflammatory infiltration. PMID:21362088

  8. Pulmonary bacterial defense. Effect of the burn wound on transfer of alveolar macrophage activation in rats by parabiosis.

    PubMed

    Harmon, J W; Skornik, W A; McDonald, J; Dressler, D P

    1976-04-01

    The alveolar macrophage was studied in parabiotic rats using an inbred strain. Parabiotic pairs were sutured together at five weeks of age. Rats were subjected to a full thickness cutaneous burn of 20 per cent of the body surface area at seven weeks of age, and alveolar macrophages were washed from the lungs at six days post burn. The number of alveolar macrophages, their per cent of activation, and their ability to phagocytize and kill P aeruginosa in vitro were significantly increased at six days post burn in the burned controls and in both the burned and unburned members of the parabiotic pairs. No change in the alveolar macrophages was found in either unburned parabiotic pairs or in those which were sham-burned. These results indicate that a humoral or cellular agent produced either within the cutaneous burn wound or elsewhere as a response to the injury, traverses the parabiotic cross circulation to stimulate the alveolar macrophages. PMID:817616

  9. The application of Orem's Self-Care Model to burn care.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Joan; Gramling, Lou

    2009-01-01

    Although many studies from burn nurses are present in the literature, very little information is found that indicates a theory-based approach to care. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the deficiency of nursing theory in the specialty of burn nursing and to suggest Orem's Self-Care Model as a valid basis for delivering care and increasing the level of professionalism in this specialty area. The correlation of Orem's three systems (ie, wholly compensatory system, partially compensatory system, and supportive/educative system) to the unique care needs of burn patients with varying levels of acuity are the keys to understanding the application of this theory to the practice of burn care. In applying theory to practice, clinicians discover that no single theory addresses each aspect of care precisely. Because of this characteristic, gaps in theory exist. Consideration of various components of alternate theories is appropriate as integration of theory and practice is developed. Although Orem's theory is quite applicable to burn care, certain components of Watson's Caring Theory and Roy's Adaptation Model is also applicable to those aspects of burn care not addressed by Orem. Those in the field of burn nursing should begin looking forward and adapting a specific theory to this specialty practice. Orem's Self-Care Model is the most applicable to burn care and provides a beginning point for theory usage in burn nursing care. PMID:19692925

  10. Nest box use and productivity of great crested flycatchers in prescribed-burned longleaf pine forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Seginak, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    Managing for the endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) on federal lands requires burning large tracts of mature pine forests every 3-5 yr. Many cavity trees that serve as potential nest sites for primary and secondary hole-nesting birds are destroyed by fire. We assessed the efficacy of a nest box program for the Great Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus) at Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge, an area intensively managed for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers. During 1996-1998, we installed and monitored 330 (30 in each of 11 sites) nest boxes in mature (>60 yr) longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) tracts that were burned either in April-June (warm season) or December-March (cool season). Prescribed-burned sites were nearly devoid of snags; we estimated only 0.8/ ha in cool-season burns and 1.7/ha in warm-season burns. Great Crested Flycatchers built nests in 20% of the boxes available to them. Clutch sizes were larger in warm-season burns than in cool-season burns, but fledging success (fledglings/nest hatching -1 egg) was lower. Twenty-two of 59 Great Crested Flycatcher nests were depredated and the proportions in each burn class were similar. We recommend the installation of nest boxes for Great Crested Flycatchers in prescribed-burned pine forests, but additional research is needed in these habitats on nest depredation rates and causes.

  11. Ground-water pumpage and artificial recharge estimates for calendar year 2000 and average annual natural recharge and interbasin flow by hydrographic area, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, Thomas J.; Evetts, David M.

    2004-01-01

    Nevada's reliance on ground-water resources has increased because of increased development and surface-water resources being fully appropriated. The need to accurately quantify Nevada's water resources and water use is more critical than ever to meet future demands. Estimated ground-water pumpage, artificial and natural recharge, and interbasin flow can be used to help evaluate stresses on aquifer systems. In this report, estimates of ground-water pumpage and artificial recharge during calendar year 2000 were made using data from a variety of sources, such as reported estimates and estimates made using Landsat satellite imagery. Average annual natural recharge and interbasin flow were compiled from published reports. An estimated 1,427,100 acre-feet of ground water was pumped in Nevada during calendar year 2000. This total was calculated by summing six categories of ground-water pumpage, based on water use. Total artificial recharge during 2000 was about 145,970 acre-feet. At least one estimate of natural recharge was available for 209 of the 232 hydrographic areas (HAs). Natural recharge for the 209 HAs ranges from 1,793,420 to 2,583,150 acre-feet. Estimates of interbasin flow were available for 151 HAs. The categories and their percentage of the total ground-water pumpage are irrigation and stock watering (47 percent), mining (26 percent), water systems (14 percent), geothermal production (8 percent), self-supplied domestic (4 percent), and miscellaneous (less than 1 percent). Pumpage in the top 10 HAs accounted for about 49 percent of the total ground-water pumpage. The most ground-water pumpage in an HA was due to mining in Pumpernickel Valley (HA 65), Boulder Flat (HA 61), and Lower Reese River Valley (HA 59). Pumpage by water systems in Las Vegas Valley (HA 212) and Truckee Meadows (HA 87) were the fourth and fifth highest pumpage in 2000, respectively. Irrigation and stock watering pumpage accounted for most ground-water withdrawals in the HAs with the sixth through ninth highest pumpage. Geothermal production accounted for most pumpage in the Carson Desert (HA 101). Reinjection of ground water pumped for geothermal energy production accounted for about 64 percent (93,310 acre-feet) of the total artificial recharge. The only artificial recharge by water systems was in Las Vegas Valley, where 29,790 acre-feet of water from the Colorado River was injected into the aquifer system. Artificial recharge by mining totaled 22,870 acre-feet. Net ground-water flow was estimated only for the 143 HAs with available estimates of both natural recharge and interbasin flow. Of the 143 estimates, 58 have negative net ground-water flow, indicating that ground-water storage could be depleted if pumpage continues at the same rate. The State has designated HAs where permitted ground-water rights approach or exceed the estimated average annual recharge. Ten HAs were identified that are not designated and have a net ground-water flow between -1,000 to -35,000 acre-feet. Due to uncertainties in recharge, the water budgets for these HAs may need refining to determine if ground-water storage is being depleted.

  12. Methoxyflurane analgesia for burns dressings

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Kathleen J.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements for analgesia for burns dressings are discussed. Methoxyflurane has proved satisfactory in a clinical trial, and can be administered by one of two types of vaporizer. The possibility of nephrotoxicity due to methoxyflurane has not been eliminated. PMID:5024149

  13. Deepwater Horizon Controlled Oil Burn

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    OFF THE LOUISIANA COAST — A controlled burn of oil from the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill sends towers of fire hundreds of feet into the air over the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Coast Guard Photo by Petty Officer First Class John Masson....

  14. Suicidal burn in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, R C; Burd, A

    2012-09-01

    The aim of our study is to review our experience in the management of patients who sustained burns associated with suicidal attempts over a 10-year period. In particular, we look into the outcome and incidence of self-harm/suicide after discharge among the survivors. Thirty-one patients with median age 36 years, ranging from 10 to 74, were included. Twenty-three (74%) were males and eight (26%) were females. Nearly three quarters (74%) of our patients had a known history of psychiatric illness: 11 had known history of substance abuse; 3 of them had drug-induced psychosis; 6 had schizophrenia; 5 had depression; 4 had personality disorders; 1 had pathological gambling and another one had adjustment disorder. Relationship problems and work/financial difficulties were the commonest reason for the suicidal attempts. Self-inflicted flame burn was the most frequent (39%; 12 patients) method of burning. Six patients (19%) died. The remaining 25 patients healed and were discharged. Seventeen patients required ICU care. The median length of stay in ICU was 7 days. The overall median length of stay was 35 days. The median follow up time for those survived is 63 months. Only 4 of these patients had further suicidal/parasuicidal attempts. Despite the high mortality, once these patients survived the initial injury, they are unlikely to commit suicide again. Thus, we believe that aggressive resuscitation should therefore be advocated for all suicidal burn patients. PMID:22360959

  15. Furnance for burning flammable particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Comtois

    1985-01-01

    There is disclosed a furnace for burning wooden wastes and, more specifically, sawdust and\\/or barks. The furnace is provided with an oil burner required for starting the fire. The draught from the oil burner fan is directed within a perforated box, located in the combustion chamber of the furnace, and the sawdust or the barks or other wooden particles fall,

  16. Spectral hole burning in polysilanes

    SciTech Connect

    Trommsdorff, H.P.; Zeigler, J.M.; Hochstrasser, R.M.

    1988-10-01

    The first observation of hole burning in the optical spectra of delocalized polymer backbone states is reported. The polymer chosen for this study is poly-(di-n-hexyl)-silane, consisting of chains of roughly 5100 silicon atoms. Absorption spectra of polysilane in solution at 1.6K and 77K are reported.(AIP)

  17. Burning Mouth Syndrome and Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Kumar, Mukesh; Niti; Gupta, Rajan; Chaudhary, Karun

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder. PMID:23411996

  18. Previous Burn Injury Predisposes Mice to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Induced Changes in Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Edward A.; Paul, Kasie; Barrow, Sandra A.; Fischman, Alan J.; Tompkins, Ronald G.

    2012-01-01

    In mice, it has been demonstrated that at 7 days after burn injury, injection of LPS is more lethal than the same dose at one day after injury. In the present study, we examined the effect of LPS injection to mice burned seven days previously on glucose metabolism (18FDG uptake) in vivo. CD-1 male mice (25-28 grams, Charles River breeding laboratories) were anesthetized, backs shaven, and subjected to dorsal full thickness burn on 25% total body surface area. Sham treated animals were used as controls. Six days after burn injury all mice were fasted overnight. One half of the burned and sham controls were subsequently injected i.p. with LPS (10 mg/kg, E. Coli). The remaining animals were injected with saline i.p. Two hours later all mice were injected i.v. with 50 ?Ci of 18F FDG. One hour later the animals were euthanized and biodistribution was measured. Tissues were weighed and radioactivity was measured with a well-type gamma counter. Results were expressed as %dose/gram tissue, mean ± SEM. The combination of burn 7 days previously and LPS significantly increased mortality compared animals with burn alone, LPS alone or sham controls. Burn injury seven days previously caused a significant reduction in 18FDG uptake by the brain compared to sham controls. The combination of LPS and burn injury seven days previously produced a significant increase in 18FDG uptake by brown adipose tissue (BAT) and heart compared with either treatment separately. LPS produced a significant increase in 18FDG uptake by lung, spleen and GI tract of the sham animals, changes that were different in mice burned 7 days previously and injected with LPS. The present results suggest that burn injury seven days previously predisposes mice to alterations in 18FDG uptake produced by LPS. These changes may relate in part, to the increased lethality of LPS injection in previously burned mice. PMID:22961012

  19. Increasing percent burn is correlated with increasing inflammation in an adult rodent model.

    PubMed

    Barber, Robert C; Maass, David L; White, D Jean; Horton, Jureta W

    2008-10-01

    Burn injury has been associated with systemic/compartmental inflammatory responses and myocardial dysfunction. We hypothesized that burn size correlates with the extent of cardiac inflammatory response/contractile dysfunction. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided to receive anesthesia, a 3-degree burn covering 20%, 30%, 40%, or 60% total body surface area (TBSA) plus fluid resuscitation (lactated Ringer, 4 mL/kg per percent burn); sham burn animals were included as controls. There were seven rats in each group. Rats were euthanized Twenty-four h postburn, and TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 were measured in the plasma and in supernatant from isolated cardiac myocytes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, left ventricular function (Langendorff) was studied in vitro, and troponin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. There were progressive, statistically significant increases in plasma and myocyte inflammatory cytokine levels, as well as plasma troponin with increasing burn size. Similarly, left ventricular pressure (in millimeters of mercury) and +/-dP/dtmax (in millimeters of mercury per second) progressively fell with increasing burn size. However, myocardial contractile depression induced by 60% TBSA burn was similar to that produced by 40% TBSA burn. These data suggest that the degree of inflammatory response, cardiac tissue injury, and myocardial contractile depression were correlated directly with the percent TBSA burn. However, unlike inflammation and cardiac tissue damage, myocardial contractile depression reached a plateau, with maximal myocardial contraction and relaxation defects observed at 40% TBSA burn, which were not further aggravated by a larger (60%) burn. PMID:18277951

  20. Beneficial Effects of Hydrogen-Rich Saline on Early Burn-Wound Progression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Song Xue; Jin, Yun Yun; Fang, Quan; You, Chuan Gang; Wang, Xin Gang; Hu, Xin Lei; Han, Chun-Mao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Deep burn wounds undergo a dynamic process known as wound progression that results in a deepening and extension of the initial burn area. The zone of stasis is more likely to develop more severe during wound progression in the presence of hypoperfusion. Hydrogen has been reported to alleviate injury triggered by ischaemia/reperfusion and burns in various organs by selectively quenching oxygen free radicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effects of hydrogen against early burn-wound progression. Methods Deep-burn models were established through contact with a boiled, rectangular, brass comb for 20 s. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham, burn plus saline, and burn plus hydrogen-rich saline (HS) groups with sacrifice and analysis at various time windows (6 h, 24 h, 48 h) post burn. Indexes of oxidative stress, apoptosis and autophagy were measured in each group. The zone of stasis was evaluated using immunofluorescence staining, ELISA, and Western blot to explore the underlying effects and mechanisms post burn. Results The burn-induced increase in malondialdehyde was markedly reduced with HS, while the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased. Moreover, HS treatment attenuated increases in apoptosis and autophagy postburn in wounds, according to the TUNEL staining results and the expression analysis of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, Beclin-1 and Atg-5 proteins. Additionally, HS lowered the level of myeloperoxidase and expression of TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 in the zone of stasis while augmenting IL-10. The elevated levels of Akt phosphorylation and NF-?B p65 expression post burn were also downregulated by HS management. Conclusion Hydrogen can attenuate early wound progression following deep burn injury. The beneficial effect of hydrogen was mediated by attenuating oxidative stress, which inhibited apoptosis and inflammation, and the Akt/NF-?B signalling pathway may be involved in regulating the release of inflammatory cytokines. PMID:25874619

  1. Effect of exercise on burn-induced changes in tissue-specific glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Carter, Edward A; Paul, Kasie; Bonab, Ali A; Tompkins, Ronald G; Fischman, Alan J

    2014-01-01

    Exercise is a component of the clinical management for burn patients, to help reduce muscle wasting associated with prolonged hospitalization. In the present study the authors examined 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose (18FDG) uptake in mice subjected to burn injury with and without exercise. Mice had their the dorsums shaven, were placed in molds, and the exposed area was immersed in 90°C water for 9 seconds followed by resuscitation with saline (2 ml) to produce a 30% full-thickness burn injury. Twenty-four hours later, the mice were subjected to treadmill exercise for 1 hour. Before exercise, mice were injected with ~50 ?Ci 18FDG. Mice were killed after running and a complete biodistribution was performed. Exercise produced a stimulation of 18FDG update by skeletal muscle and heart, while reducing 18FDG accumulation in brain. Burn injury had no significant effect on 18FDG update by skeletal muscle, but did increase 18FDG accumulation in heart, while reducing 18FDG accumulation in brain. However, exercise combined with a burn injury produced a significant increase in 18FDG uptake in the skeletal muscle compared with the burned mice, as great as that produced in the sham animals subjected to exercise. The combination of burn plus exercise appeared to prevent the stimulation of 18FDG uptake by the heart produced by burn injury alone. Exercise treatment did not correct the changes in 18FDG uptake in the brain produced by burn injury. Separately, exercise and burn injury significantly increased serum interleukin-6 levels, increases that were higher when exercise was combined with the burn injury. These findings suggest that exercise may exert some therapeutic effects in burn patients by tissue-specific modulation of glucose metabolism, and these changes may be related to interleukin-6. PMID:24476988

  2. BIOMASS BURNING AND THE PRODUCTION OF METHANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomass burning and its environmental implications have also become important research elements of the International Geosphere-Bio sphere Program and the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project. he production of atmospheric methane (CH4) by biomass burning will be asse...

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSION FROM OPEN BURNING OF RICE STRAW

    PubMed Central

    Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim; Bich, Thuy Ly; Tipayarom, Danutawat; Manadhar, Bhai R.; Prapat, Pongkiatkul; Simpson, Christopher D.; Liu, L-J Sally

    2010-01-01

    Emission from field burning of crop residue, a common practice in many parts of the world today, has potential effects on air quality, atmosphere and climate. This study provides a comprehensive size and compositional characterization of particulate matter (PM) emission from rice straw (RS) burning using both in situ experiments (11 spread field burning) and laboratory hood experiments (3 pile and 6 spread burning) that were conducted during 2003–2006 in Thailand. The carbon balance and emission ratio method was used to determine PM emission factors (EF) in the field experiments. The obtained EFs varied from field to hood experiments reflecting multiple factors affecting combustion and emission. In the hood experiments, EFs were found to be depending on the burning types (spread or pile), moisture content and the combustion efficiency. In addition, in the field experiments, burning rate and EF were also influenced by weather conditions, i.e. wind. Hood pile burning produced significantly higher EF (20±8 g kg?1 RS) than hood spread burning (4.7±2.2 g kg?1 RS). The majority of PM emitted from the field burning was PM2.5 with EF of 5.1±0.7 g m?2 or 8.3±2.7 g kg?1 RS burned. The coarse PM fraction (PM10-2.5) was mainly generated by fire attention activities and was relatively small, hence the resulting EF of PM10 (9.4±3.5 g kg?1 RS) was not significantly higher than PM2.5. PM size distribution was measured across 8 size ranges (from <0.4 ?m to >9.0 ?m). The largest fractions of PM, EC and OC were associated with PM1.1. The most significant components in PM2.5 and PM10 include OC, water soluble ions and levoglucosan. Relative abundance of some methoxyphenols (e.g., acetylsyringone), PAHs (e.g., fluoranthene and pyrene), organochlorine pesticides and PCBs may also serve as additional signatures for the PM emission. Presence of these toxic compounds in PM of burning smoke increases the potential toxic effects of the emission. For illustration, an estimation of the annual RS field burning in Thailand was made using the obtained in situ field burning EFs and preliminary burning activity data. PMID:21243095

  4. Characterization of particulate matter emission from open burning of rice straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Ly, Bich Thuy; Tipayarom, Danutawat; Manandhar, Bhai Raja; Prapat, Pongkiatkul; Simpson, Christopher D.; Sally Liu, L.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Emission from field burning of crop residue, a common practice in many parts of the world today, has potential effects on air quality, atmosphere and climate. This study provides a comprehensive size and compositional characterization of particulate matter (PM) emission from rice straw (RS) burning using both in situ experiments (11 spread field burning) and laboratory hood experiments (3 pile and 6 spread burning) that were conducted during 2003-2006 in Thailand. The carbon balance and emission ratio method was used to determine PM emission factors (EF) in the field experiments. The obtained EF varied from field to hood experiments reflecting multiple factors affecting combustion and emission. In the hood experiments, EF were found to be depending on the burning types (spread or pile), moisture content and the combustion efficiency. In addition, in the field experiments, burning rate and EF were also influenced by weather conditions, i.e. wind. Hood pile burning produced significantly higher EF (20 ± 8 g kg -1 RS) than hood spread burning (4.7 ± 2.2 g kg -1 RS). The majority of PM emitted from the field burning was PM 2.5 with EF of 5.1 ± 0.7 g m -2 or 8.3 ± 2.7 g kg -1 RS burned. The coarse PM fraction (PM 10-2.5) was mainly generated by fire attention activities and was relatively small, hence the resulting EF of PM 10 (9.4 ± 3.5 g kg -1 RS) was not significantly higher than PM 2.5. PM size distribution was measured across 8 size ranges (from <0.4 ?m to >9.0 ?m). The largest fractions of PM, EC and OC were associated with PM 1.1. The most significant components in PM 2.5 and PM 10 include OC, water soluble ions and levoglucosan. Relative abundance of some methoxyphenols (e.g., acetylsyringone), PAHs (e.g., fluoranthene and pyrene), organochlorine pesticides and PCBs may also serve as additional signatures for the PM emission. Presence of these toxic compounds in PM of burning smoke increases the potential toxic effects of the emission. For illustration, an estimation of the annual RS field burning in Thailand was made using the obtained in situ field burning EF and preliminary burning activity data.

  5. Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells, but not culture modified monocytes, improve burn wound healing.

    PubMed

    Clover, Anthony J P; Kumar, Arun H S; Isakson, Matthew; Whelan, Derek; Stocca, Alecia; Gleeson, Birgitta M; Caplice, Noel M

    2015-05-01

    The use of cell therapy to improve burn wound healing is limited as a validated cell source is not rapidly available after injury. Progenitor cells have shown potential to drive the intrinsic wound regeneration. Two sources of cells, allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and autologous culture modified monocytes (CMM), were assessed for their ability to influence burn wound healing. Both could be widely available shortly after injury. Cells were delivered in a fibrin matrix following contact burns in a porcine burns model. Application of MSC significantly decreased the area of unhealed burn compared to CMM or delivery matrix alone (6% MSC, 27% CMM, 24% Matrix, p<0.001). MSC treated wounds showed histological evidence of improved wound healing with increased collagen content (MSC 49%, CMM 42%, p<0.01), increased epidermal area (MSC 8.8%, CMM 6.1%, p<0.01) and dermal thickness (MSC 1108 ?m, CMM 1007 ?m, p<0.01) compared to CMM treated wounds. Labelled MSC and CMM were identified in the wounds after 2 weeks by immunohistochemistry and FACS. A single application of allogeneic MSC improves the rate of burn wound healing and improves the histological appearance of the burn wound. These cells show potential as a cell therapy that is rapidly available following burn. PMID:25234958

  6. The epidemiology of burns in rural Ethiopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Courtright; D. Haile; E. Kohls

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aims were (1) to review inpatient burn records of Attat Hospital (Ethiopia) for the years 1983-1989, and (2) to determine the prevalence of burns and knowledge of first aid for burns in 16 communities served by Attat Hospital in rural Ethiopia. DESIGN--A retrospective review of all records was used to describe characteristics of the inpatient with burns and

  7. Up in smoke: II. Germination ofNicotiana attenuata in response to smoke-derived cues and nutrients in burned and unburned soils.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, I T; Morse, L

    1994-09-01

    Nicotiana attenuata is a native tobacco that is commonly found usually one growing season after fires in the blackbrush, sagebrush and pinyon-juniper forests of the Great Basin desert of North America. This plant also occurs in isolated dry washes and roadsides for many consecutive seasons. Postfire annuals are thought to synchronize their germination from the seed bank with the postfire environment in response to increases in (1) fire-related cues or (2) nutrient supply rates resulting from the mineralization of nutrients by fire, or (3) the removal of allelochemicals produced by the dominant vegetation occupying the sites before the burn or the microbial community associated with the dominant vegetation. We examine the effect of these three changes on the germination ofN. attenuata seed from artificial seed banks made with burned and unburned soil taken in 1993 from under four dominant shrub species (Coleogyne ramosissima, Yucca baccata, Lycium andersonnii, Purshia tridentata) of an area that burned in 1992 and from two dry washes in whichN. attenuata populations have persisted since at least 1988. We utilize our recent discovery that aqueous extracts of wood smoke contain potent germination cue(s) for this species and the established observation that nitrate stimulates germination in manyNicotiana species. In two experiments, we added smoke-derived germination cues and nutrients separately and in combinations to the artificial seed banks, measured germination rates, and inferred the effect of burning by the response of the seed banks to these additions. Germination rates of seed in burned soil were consistently higher than those in unburned soil collected from under all species tested; concentrations of nitrate, P, Mn, and Ca were also higher in burned than unburned soils. Because the addition of more cue and nitrate to burned soil increased germination rates, these soil components may not be at concentrations sufficient to saturate the germination response one year after a fire. The germination of seeds in soil collected from beneath unburnedYucca bacatta plants increased to the same level as that found under burned plants of the same species with the addition of cue and nitrate. Similarly, unburned bitterbrush soil attained the same germination potential with the addition of cue and a complete nutrient solution as burned bitterbrush soil. We conclude that the effect of fire on the germination potential of bitterbrush and yucca soil is due to increases in germination cue and nutrients. However, since the addition of cue and nutrients to the unburned soils under blackbrush and wolfberry shrubs did not elevate the germination potential of these soils to that found in burned soils, we conclude that these species alter the soil so as to inhibit germination and burning reverses this alteration. The presence of persistentN. attenuata populations in washes could not be attributed to particular chemical characteristics of these soils. Additions of cue dramatically increased germination potential of these soils, whereas the addition of nitrate did not. The concentrations of most mineral nutrients resembled those found in the unburned sites with the exception of Mn, Cu, and Zn, which were higher. However, these cations do not influence germination rates. Treatment of soil taken from these washes with cue resulted in significant increases in germination ofN. attenuata seeds in the natural seed bank compared to water-treated controls, demonstrating that the plants growing in washes also produce dormant seeds that require the smoke cue for germination. PMID:24242812

  8. Investigation of critical burning of fuel droplets. Annual report, 1974

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Faeth; S. Chanin

    1974-01-01

    The steady combustion characteristics of droplets were considered in combustion chamber environments at various pressures, flow conditions, and ambient oxidizer concentrations for a number of hydrocarbon fuels. Using data obtained earlier, predicted gasification rates were within ( or - 30% of measurements when the correction for convection was based upon average properties between the liquid surface and the flame around

  9. COMBUSTION AREA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies, documents, and evaluates data sources for stationary area source emissions, including solid waste and agricultural burning. rea source emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, reactive volatile organic compounds, and carbon monox...

  10. Epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu-Chien Chien; Lu Pai; Chao-Cheng Lin; Heng-Chang Chen

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies based on either single hospital data or sampling of specific groups of hospitalized burns victims in Taiwan have provided only minimal epidemiological information. The study is designed to provide additional data on the epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Burn Injury Information System (BIIS), which brings together information supplied by 34 contracted

  11. INTERACTIVE SIMULATION OF FIRE, BURN AND DECOMPOSITION

    E-print Network

    Keyser, John

    INTERACTIVE SIMULATION OF FIRE, BURN AND DECOMPOSITION A Dissertation by ZEKI MELEK Submitted OF FIRE, BURN AND DECOMPOSITION A Dissertation by ZEKI MELEK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Science #12;iii ABSTRACT Interactive Simulation of Fire, Burn and Decomposition. (December 2007) Zeki

  12. Treatment of burns with topical Heparin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Akhtar; R. K. Gang

    1979-01-01

    This prospective study was undertaken to analyse the incidence of relief of pain in our burn unit by the topical application of Heparin in 450 cases of burns irrespective of age and percentage of burn from Oct. 1977 to June 1978. The observations were recorded in proformas and results thus analysed. This study shows that topical Heparin is very useful

  13. Reflective Terahertz Imaging for early diagnosis of skin burn severity

    E-print Network

    TEWARI, PRIYAMVADA

    2013-01-01

    images immediate post burn and (right) three days post burn The visible pictures andpictures of a partial thickness burn on day 1, 2 & 3 and THz imagespictures of a full thickness burn on day 1, 2 & 3 and THz images

  14. Management outcome and associated factors in burn injuries with and without facial involvement in a Nigerian population.

    PubMed

    Fatusi, Olawunmi A; Fatusi, Adesegun O; Olabanji, J Kayode; Alatise, Olusegun I

    2006-01-01

    There is a high potential for the occurrence of burns in Nigeria, yet very little is known about factors that are associated with management outcomes (death/survivorship) in burns affecting facial or other body areas among Nigerian populations. This study aimed at determining patterns of occurrences of burn injuries with and without facial involvement and the factors that are associated with mortality. A standardized data-collection instrument was designed and used to extract relevant information about burn patients that were seen at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, between 1998 and 2003. During the study period, fuel-related flames constituted the leading type of agent in both facial (71.1%) and nonfacial involved burns (65.3%). There was no significant difference in the incidence of contracture and inhalation injury between burns with facial involvement and burns without facial involvement, but cases of facial involvement have significantly lower incidences of wound infections. No significant difference was seen in the incidence of mortality between burns with facial involvement (31.6 %) and burns without facial involvement (30.7%). Significant bivariate correlates for mortality were age, flame as the agent of burns, depth of the burns and wound infections. Two correlates remained significant in the multivariate analysis (binary logistic regression): BSA involved and wound infection. PMID:17091085

  15. Evidence of biomass burning aerosols in the Barcelona urban environment during winter time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, M.; Reche, C.; Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Moreno, T.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Rico, M.

    2013-06-01

    The influence of biomass burning (BB) aerosols, whether of regional or local origin, on fine aerosol levels in the Barcelona urban environment (Spain) was investigated. High-time resolved data on light-absorbing aerosols and inorganic tracers in PM2.5 were combined to this end during a dedicated sampling campaign carried out in winter 2011. The evaluation of PM inorganic components and equivalent black carbon evidenced that local-scale BB emissions were not detectable, whereas a source of K, different to vehicular traffic (road dust) and construction/demolition dust re-suspension, was detectable in the urban area. Source apportionment analysis evidenced the contribution from one source traced by S (62% of the source profile) and K (16% of the source profile), which was interpreted as regional-scale transport of secondary aerosols including BB contributions. The S/K ratio for this source (S/K = 4.4) indicated transport of the polluted air masses, as occurs from the rural areas towards the Barcelona urban environment. On average for the study period, the contribution of K-related aerosols from regional BB to PM2.5 levels in the urban environment was estimated as 1.7 ?g/m3 as a daily mean, accounting for 8% of the PM2.5 mass during the winter period under study. The contribution from this source to urban aerosols should be lower on the annual scale.

  16. Annual variations in the number of malaria cases related to two different patterns of Anopheles darlingi transmission potential in the Maroni area of French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background With an Annual Parasite Incidence (API) of 132.1, in the high and moderate risks zones, the Maroni area of French Guiana has the second highest malaria incidence of South-America after Guyana (API = 183.54) and far above Brazil (API = 28.25). Malaria transmission is occurring despite strong medical assistance and active vector control, based on general WHO recommendations. This situation is generated by two main factors that are the social and cultural characteristics of this border area, where several ethnic groups are living, and the lack of understanding of transmission dynamics of the main mosquito vector, Anopheles darlingi. In this context, entomological data collected in two villages belonging to two different ethnic groups of the French border of the Maroni River, were retrospectively analysed to find out how the mosquito bionomics are related to the malaria transmission patterns. Methods Data were provided by human landing catches of mosquitoes carried out each month for two years in two villages belonging to two ethnic groups, the Amerindians Wayanas and the Aloukous of African origin. The mosquitoes were sorted by species, sex, date, hour and place of collection and processed for Plasmodium sp. parasite detection. The data were compiled to provide the following variables: human biting rates (HBR), parity rates (PR), numbers of infective bites (IB), entomological inoculation rates (EIR) and numbers of infected mosquitoes surviving enough to transmit (IMT). Spatial and temporal differences of variables between locations and during the night were tested by the Kruskall-Wallis analysis of variance to find out significant variations. Results The populations of the main mosquito vector An. darlingi showed significant variations in the spatial and temporal HBR/person/night and HBR/person/hour, IB/person/month and IB/person/hour, and IMT/village/night and IMT/village/hour. In the village of Loca (Aloukous), the IMT peaked from June to August with a very low transmission during the other months. The risks were higher during the first part of the night and an EIR of 10 infective bites per person and per year was estimated. In the village of Twenke (Wayanas), high level of transmission was reported all year with small peaks in March and October. The risk was higher during the second part of the night and an EIR of 5 infective bites per person and per year was estimated. Conclusion For the first time in the past 40 years, the mosquito bionomics was related to the malaria transmission patterns in French Guiana. The peak of malaria cases reported from August to October in the Maroni region is concomitant with the significant peak of An. darlingi IMT, reported from the village of Loca where transmission is higher. However, the persistent number of cases reported all year long may also be related to the transmission in the Amerindian villages. The An. darlingi bionomics for these two close populations were found significantly different and may explain why a uniform vector control method is inadequate. Following these findings, malaria prevention measures adapted to the local conditions are needed. Finally, the question of the presence of An. darlingi sub-species is raised. PMID:20307300

  17. Butterfly species richness and community composition in forests affected by ENSO-induced burning and habitat isolation in Borneo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel F. R. Cleary; Arne Ø. Mooers

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT Landscape-scale studies of community,traits such as species richness and community composition,are sorely needed to explore the impact of large-scale disturbance,events such as ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation)-induced burning and habitat isolation on rain-forest communities. Here we assess butterflies in continuous forest, in unburned isolates surrounded by burned forest and in burned forest, in addition to areas sampled before the

  18. Physical and psychiatric recovery from burns.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeffrey C

    2014-08-01

    Burn injuries pose complex biopsychosocial challenges to recovery and improved comprehensive care. The physical and emotional sequelae of burns differ, depending on burn severity, individual resilience, and stage of development when they occur. Most burn survivors are resilient and recover, whereas some are more vulnerable and have complicated outcomes. Physical rehabilitation is affected by orthopedic, neurologic, and metabolic complications and disabilities. Psychiatric recovery is affected by pain, mental disorders, substance abuse, and burn stigmatization. Individual resilience, social supports, and educational or occupational achievements affect outcomes. PMID:25085093

  19. Sage grouse use of burned, non-burned, and seeded vegetation communities on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Sime, C.A.

    1991-03-01

    Sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) depend on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities to meet their life history requirements throughout the year. Alteration of sagebrush communities by chemical, mechanical, or biological means affects sage grouse distribution and abundance. From March 1988 through September 1989, a study was conducted on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to investigate sage grouse response during spring and summer to a sagebrush community altered by fire and artificial seeding of crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). Relative seasonal use of burned, non-burned, and seeded areas was investigated using radio telemetry, roadside counts, and pellet census techniques. In 1988, a drought year, telemetry efforts focused on males utilizing the seeding for strutting activities. Males left the study area at the conclusion of the breeding season. In 1989, a year of normal precipitation, females which bred on these same arenas were radio-tracked to evaluate brood-rearing potential. Telemetered females remained in the study area, attempting to nest and raise broods. In both years, sage grouse were observed during roadside counts through early September. Due to inherent biases in data collection techniques and variable conditions between years, telemetry, route counts, and pellet census results revealed slightly different movement and relative use patterns. However, all data indicated that sage grouse took advantage of the variety of vegetation types available. Non-burned areas provided essential sagebrush cover and food for wintering and nesting sage grouse. Burned areas provided open overhead canopies attractive to young grouse seeking palatable forbs. The artificial seeding will maintain an opening in the sagebrush canopy for strutting grounds. On this study area, alteration of the sagebrush community did not appear to discourage sage grouse use. 54 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Paediatric post-burn scar management in the UK: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Liuzzi, Francesca; Chadwick, Sarah; Shah, Mamta

    2015-03-01

    Thermal injuries affect 250,000 people annually in the United Kingdom. As burn survival improves, good scar management is paramount to help individuals living with the resultant scars lead a life without restrictions. Post-burn hypertrophic scars can limit growth in children, interfere with function and cause psychological problems. In the current literature there is great variation in post-burn scar management across the world and in the evidence available for the efficacy of these management modalities. The aim of this study was to investigate the variances if any, in the management of post-burn scarring in children across the UK. A telephone survey of UK paediatric burn services was conducted to obtain information on post-burn scar management and advice given to patients/carers. Of the 19 burn services that participated, all advised moisturising of scars but with variable emphasis on massaging. Silicones and pressure therapy were used by 18 services but commencement of use varied from soon after healing to onset of hypertrophic scarring. Laser therapy, ultrasound therapy and steroid therapy were used sporadically. This study highlights the common modalities of post-burn scar management in children across the UK. However, there is marked variation in timing and selection of the commonly used modalities. Although this study did not investigate the outcomes of scar management, it clearly identifies the need for a well-designed multi-centred study to establish evidence-based best practice in the management of post-burn scarring in children as these modalities are time consuming and not without potential complications. Evidence based practice could potentially lead to significant financial savings to the health service. PMID:25468478

  1. [A second-degree burn related to air bag deployment: a case report].

    PubMed

    Oktay, Cem; Cete, Yildiray

    2004-10-01

    Although air bags have been shown to reduce mortality and morbidity in motor vehicle crashes, they are associated with specific injuries. Burns due to air bag deployment account for more than 5% of all air bag injuries and typically involve upper extremities or head and neck. Aside from friction burns, thermal and chemical burns are also seen resulting from the use of certain chemicals for the deployment mechanism. We reported a female patient who presented to the emergency department with a second-degree burn in her left breast, six days after a motor vehicle crash. She was treated with irrigation with saline solution and 2% sodium fusidate ointment. The burn area healed within a week, without any further treatment. Only a slight scar tissue remained after a six-month follow-up. PMID:15497069

  2. [Anesthetic management in a patient with head and neck burn by asphalt].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nao; Niiyama, Yukitoshi; Tokinaga, Yasuyuki; Yamakage, Michiaki

    2013-10-01

    In cases of facial burns caused by molten asphalt, examination for possible airway burns and early removal of the asphalt should be carried out to prevent chemical-induced tissue damage and infection. However, asphalt that has adhered to tissues is difficult to remove. A 35-year-old male with burns caused by molten asphalt was scheduled for emergency debridement. He had 6% body surface area burns on his face and neck. He was not able to open his eyes due to the adherence of asphalt. His respiratory condition was stable and a perioperative fiberoptic view revealed no airway burns. After awake intubation, orange peel oil was used to remove the asphalt from his face and eyes. Since orange peel oil does not contain any harmful substances, it is effective for removing asphalt without causing tissue damage. PMID:24228468

  3. Fires Burning near Big Sur, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Fires near Big Sur, Calif., continued to burn unchecked when the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on Sunday, June 29. In Northern California alone, fires have consumed more than 346,000 acres.At least 18,000 people have deployed to attempt to extinguish or control the flames. Air quality as far away as San Francisco has been adversely impacted by the dense clouds of smoke and ash blowing towards the northwest. The satellite image combines a natural color portrayal of the landscape with thermal infrared data showing the active burning areas in red. The dark area in the lower right is a previous forest fire.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 35.4 by 57 kilometers (21.9 by 34.2 miles) Location: 36.1 degrees North latitude, 121.6 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49 feet) Dates Acquired: June 29, 2008

  4. Toxic emissions from open burning.

    PubMed

    Estrellan, Carl Renan; Iino, Fukuya

    2010-06-01

    This review compiled the data from recent actual and simulation studies on toxic emissions from open burning and categorized into sources, broadly as biomass and anthropogenic fuels. Emission factors, in mass of pollutant per mass of material being burned, and actual concentrations, in mass of pollutant per unit volume have been compared based on source classifications. In addition to gaseous emissions, this review presents the updated data on emissions to air in the form of particulate matter, and emissions to soil and water environment. Data from forest fires, accidental fires such as vehicle fires, house fires, and unintentional landfill fires are included in this review as well as combustion involving traditional and recreational activities. PMID:20471058

  5. Biomass burning contribution to ambient air particulate levels at Navrongo in the Savannah zone of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ofosu, Francis G; Hopke, Philip K; Aboh, Innocent J K; Bamford, Samuel A

    2013-09-01

    The concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) in Navrongo, a town in the Sahel Savannah Zone of Ghana, have been measured and the major sources have been identified. This area is prone to frequent particulate pollution episodes due to Harmattan dust and biomass burning, mostly from annual bushfires. The contribution of combustion emissions, particularly from biomass and fossil fuel, to ambient air particulate loadings was assessed. Sampling was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 in Navrongo. Two Gent samplers were equipped to collect PM10 in two size fractions, coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5). Coarse particles are collected on a coated, 8-microm-pore Nuclepore filter. Fine particle samples were sampled with 47-mm-diameter Nuclepore and quartz filters. Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were determined from the quartz filters using thermal optical reflectance (IMPROVE/TOR) methods. Elements were measured on the fine-particle Nuclepore filters using energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence. The average PM2.5 mass concentration obtained at Navrongo was 32.3 microg/m. High carbonaceous concentrations were obtained from November to March, the period of Harmattan dust and severe bush fires. Total carbon was found to contribute approximately 40% of the PM2.5 particulate mass. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) suggested six major sources contributing to the PM2.5 mass. They are two stroke engines, gasoline emissions, soil dust, diesel emissions, biomass burning, and resuspended soil dust. Biomass combustion (16.0%) was identified as second most important source next to soil dust at Navrongo. PMID:24151679

  6. Post-burn philtrum restoration.

    PubMed

    Grishkevich, Viktor M

    2010-08-01

    One of the consequences of face burn is upper lip deformation with philtrum injury. The philtrum's absence poses severe cosmetic defects. A literature review shows no effective developed technique which allows the surgeon to restore the upper lip and the philtrum in a single-stage procedure. The article presents a new method for burn-damaged philtrum restoration. Two scar stripes are deliberately left in place above the upper lip where the normal philtral ridges should be. The width of these two stripes (ridges) should be around 4mm. The upper lip scars, lateral both ridges and between them, are excised forming the philtral dimple. The wound is covered with a split thickness skin graft. Two U-shaped sutures are led through the skin graft, both scar stripes and deeper through the underlying tissues between stripes. A bolster is plunged between the ridges in order to fill the dimple and is fixed by the tie-over dressing with tension. The skin transplant lying laterally to the ridges is covered with a separate tie-over dressing. The bolster is being kept in place for the duration of 7 days. As a result, the scar ridges preserve their height and the dimple keeps its depth. Good long-time follow-up results (up to 7 years) were observed in all 18 patients. In most cases the dimple can be slightly smoothed with time. The suggested method of philtrum restoration is an important component of the burned upper lip reconstruction as part of the post-burn facial resurfacing. PMID:19969425

  7. Dermal burn during hip arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Brian; Friebe, Ilvy

    2014-08-01

    Radiofrequency devices are often used during arthroscopic surgery, most commonly of the shoulder and knee, and increasingly in hip arthroscopy. The most commonly described complication is elevation of joint temperature, leading to capsular shrinkage, chondrolysis, and nerve damage. A less commonly reported complication is that of dermal burns from the heated irrigation fluid. There are several case reports describing dermal burns after shoulder arthroscopy; however, to the authors' knowledge, there are none describing the complication in hip arthroscopy that is often performed by surgeons doing limited if any shoulder arthroscopy. The authors report this case to raise awareness that the use of radiofrequency devices can also lead to extra-articular complications because of the effect of elevated irrigant fluid temperatures on the patient's skin. Sufficiently high temperatures were generated inside the joint, causing a superficial second-degree burn from the outflow irrigant. In the course of instrument switching from sucker/shaver to radiofrequency wand, the outflow valve was inadvertently left open with no attached suction while the radiofrequency wand was in use. Most second-degree burns like the one reported require only conservative therapy with cool compresses to decrease the temperature of the wound. The authors did recommend bacitracin ointment to prevent superficial wound infection, however unlikely with no disruption of the skin. The authors continue to use radio-frequency devices in hip arthroscopy, but are vigilant to maintain dedicated suction at the outflow tubing throughout the procedure. Surgeons should take strict precautions to avoid this preventable complication and follow all manufacturer instructions on the use of such devices. PMID:25102513

  8. Game-based mass casualty burn training.

    PubMed

    Kurenov, Sergei N; Cance, William W; Noel, Ben; Mozingo, David W

    2009-01-01

    An interactive, video game-based training module, Burn Center, was developed to simulate the real-life emergency events of a mass casualty disaster scenario, involving in 40 victims.The game contains two components - triage and resuscitation. The goal of the triage game is to correctly stabilize, sort, tag and transport burn victims during a mass casualty event at a busy theme park. After complete the triage component, the player will then take on the role of a burn care provider, balancing the clinical needs of multiple burn patients through a 36-hour resuscitation period, using familiar computer-simulated hospital devices. Once complete, players of Burn Center will come away with applicable skills and knowledge of burn care, for both field triage and initial resuscitation of the burn patients. PMID:19377134

  9. Pre-hospital care in burn injury.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Prabhat; Goel, Arun

    2010-09-01

    The care provided to the victims of burn injury immediately after sustaining burns can largely affect the extent and depth of the wound. Although standard guidelines have been formulated by various burn associations, they are still not well known to public at large in our country. In burn injuries, most often, the bystanders are the first care providers. The swift implementation of the measures described in this article for first aid in thermal, chemical, electrical and inhalational injuries in the practical setting, within minutes of sustaining the burn, plays a vital role and can effectively reduce the morbidity and mortality to a great extent. In case of burn disasters, triage needs to be carried out promptly as per the defined protocols. Proper communication and transport from the scene of the accident to the primary care centre and onto the burn care facility greatly influences the execution of the management plans. PMID:21321651

  10. Pre-hospital care in burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Prabhat; Goel, Arun

    2010-01-01

    The care provided to the victims of burn injury immediately after sustaining burns can largely affect the extent and depth of the wound. Although standard guidelines have been formulated by various burn associations, they are still not well known to public at large in our country. In burn injuries, most often, the bystanders are the first care providers. The swift implementation of the measures described in this article for first aid in thermal, chemical, electrical and inhalational injuries in the practical setting, within minutes of sustaining the burn, plays a vital role and can effectively reduce the morbidity and mortality to a great extent. In case of burn disasters, triage needs to be carried out promptly as per the defined protocols. Proper communication and transport from the scene of the accident to the primary care centre and onto the burn care facility greatly influences the execution of the management plans PMID:21321651

  11. Annual Needs Assessment, 1998: Region V Head Start-Child Care Partnerships & Training and Technical Assistance Needs in the Area of Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhagwanji, Yash; Bennett, Tess

    The Great Lakes Quality Improvement Center for Disabilities (Region V QIC-D or GLQIC-D) serves Head Start Programs in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin, and conducts an annual needs assessment of the Head Start Disability Services Coordinators. For 1998, 264 coordinators completed the survey, which gathered information…

  12. Severe childhood burns in the Czech Republic: risk factors and prevention

    PubMed Central

    ?elko, Alexander Martin; Dá?ová, Jana; Barss, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess risk factors for paediatric burn injuries in the Czech Republic and to suggest preventive measures. Methods This study included all children aged 0–16 years hospitalized during 1993–2000 at the Prague Burn Centre and data from the Czech Ministry of Health on national paediatric burn hospitalizations during 1996–2006. Personal, equipment and environmental risk factors were identified from hospital records. Findings The incidence of burn admissions among 0–14 year-olds increased from 85 to 96 per 100 000 between 1996 and 2006, mainly due to a 13% increase among 1–4 year-olds. Between 1993–2000 and 2006, the proportion of burn victims in the country hospitalized at the Prague Burn Centre increased from 9% to 21%. Detailed data were available on 1064 children (64% boys). Around 31% of all burn hospitalizations were in 1 year-olds. Some 79% of burns occurred at home: 70% in the kitchen, 14% in the living room or bedroom and 11% in the bathroom. Of the 18% occurring outdoors, 80% involved boys. Scalds from hot liquids accounted for 70% of all burns. The mean hospital stay was 22 days for boys and 18 days for girls. Conclusion Most burns involved scalds from hot liquids at home: beverages in kitchens and water in bathrooms. There is a need for passive preventive measures, such as redesigned domestic cooking and eating areas, safer electrical kettles and temperature control devices for bathrooms. Educational programmes should be developed for parents and caregivers. A national plan for child burn prevention with specific targets would be helpful. PMID:19551256

  13. Sodium Butyrate Protects against Severe Burn-Induced Remote Acute Lung Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sheng; Guo, Feng; Sun, Li; Wang, Yong-Jie; Sun, Ye-Xiang; Chen, Xu-Lin

    2013-01-01

    High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a ubiquitous nuclear protein, drives proinflammatory responses when released extracellularly. It plays a key role as a distal mediator in the development of acute lung injury (ALI). Sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, has been demonstrated to inhibit HMGB1 expression. This study investigates the effect of sodium butyrate on burn-induced lung injury. Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into three groups: 1) sham group, sham burn treatment; 2) burn group, third-degree burns over 30% total body surface area (TBSA) with lactated Ringer’s solution for resuscitation; 3) burn plus sodium butyrate group, third-degree burns over 30% TBSA with lactated Ringer’s solution containing sodium butyrate for resuscitation. The burned animals were sacrificed at 12, 24, and 48 h after burn injury. Lung injury was assessed in terms of histologic changes and wet weight to dry weight (W/D) ratio. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-8 protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and HMGB1 expression in the lung was determined by Western blot analysis. Pulmonary myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were measured to reflect neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress in the lung, respectively. As a result, sodium butyrate significantly inhibited the HMGB1 expressions in the lungs, reduced the lung W/D ratio, and improved the pulmonary histologic changes induced by burn trauma. Furthermore, sodium butyrate administration decreased the TNF-? and IL-8 concentrations in BALF and serum, suppressed MPO activity, and reduced the MDA content in the lungs after severe burn. These results suggest that sodium butyrate attenuates inflammatory responses, neutrophil infiltration, and oxidative stress in the lungs, and protects against remote ALI induced by severe burn, which is associated with inhibiting HMGB1 expression. PMID:23874764

  14. Predicting gully rejuvenation after wildfire using remotely sensed burn severity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Kevin; Woods, Scott W.; Donahue, Jack

    2007-05-01

    The loss of surface vegetation and reduced infiltration caused by wildfires can trigger gully rejuvenation, resulting in damage to downstream aquatic resources and risk to human life and property. We developed a spatially explicit metric of burn severity — the Burn Severity Distribution Index (BSDI) — and tested its ability to predict post-fire gully rejuvenation in 1st and 2nd order basins burned in the 2000 Valley Complex fires in the Sapphire Mountains of western Montana. The BSDI was derived from burn severity data interpreted from Landsat 7 satellite imagery using the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) method, and ranged from 0.0 for completely unburned basins to 4.0 for basins burned entirely at high severity. In July 2001 rainstorms with peak 30-minute intensities of up to 17 mm h - 1 triggered gully rejuvenation in 66 of the 171 basins examined. The frequency of gully rejuvenation was higher in basins with higher BSDI values, increasing from zero for basins with a BSDI less than 1.3 to 67% for basins with a BSDI greater than 3.0. Binary logistic regression indicated that BSDI was a more significant predictor of gully rejuvenation than basin morphometric variables. The absence of gully rejuvenation in several basins with a high BSDI was attributed to low gradient, dense riparian vegetation, or concentration of high burn severity at lower elevations in the basin. The presence of gully rejuvenation in several basins with a low BSDI was associated with false negative NBR classification errors in northwest aspects, and concentration of severe burn impacts in the drainage headslopes. BSDI is a useful metric for predicting gully rejuvenation after wildfire. The use of the BSDI in Burned Area Emergency Response team assessments could improve the planning, implementation, and monitoring of burned area recovery treatments.

  15. Vagus nerve stimulation blocks vascular permeability following burn injury in both local and distal sites

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Pomales, Yan T; Krzyzaniak, Michael; Coimbra, Raul; Baird, Andrew; Eliceiri, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) can block the burn injury-induced systemic inflammatory response (SIRS). In this study we examined the potential for VNS to modulate vascular permeability (VP) in local sites (i.e. skin) and in secondary sites (i.e. lung) following burn injury. In a 30% total body surface area burn injury model, VP was measured using intravascular fluorescent dextran for quantification of the VP response in skin and lung. A peak in VP of the skin was observed 24 hours post-burn injury, that was blocked by VNS. Moreover, in the lung, VNS led to a reduction in burn-induced VP compared to sham-treated animals subjected to burn injury alone. The protective effects of VNS in this model were independent of the spleen, suggesting that the spleen was not a direct mediator of VNS. These studies identify a role for VNS in the regulation of VP in burns, with the translational potential of attenuating lung complications following burn injury. PMID:22694873

  16. To Burn or not to Burn: Late Quaternary Fire-History Reconstructions from Alaskan Tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipman, M. L.; Hu, F.; Hudspith, V.

    2013-12-01

    During the observational record of the past 60 years, fire was a rare occurrence in the majority of tundra ecoregions throughout Alaska. However, recent large fires in areas that have not burned in several millennia, such as the Alaskan North Slope, as well as statistical modeling of climate-driven increases in fires, suggest the possibility of future increases in tundra burning. The impact of climate change in tundra ecosystems will likely be most pronounced in regions historically characterized by rare fires if these regions cross the climatic thresholds for burning in the future. For example, a shift to high occurrence and increased severity of fires could potentially release large carbon stocks that have been accumulating in these ecosystems for thousands of years. Given the rarity of historic tundra burning, it is difficult to assess the novelty of recent burning in tundra ecosystems such as the Alaskan North Slope. To address this limitation, and to place recent fire regimes in a broader context of past variability, we reconstructed the fire history of three Alaskan ecoregions that are characterized by rare fires in the observational record and that span a range of climate conditions and tundra-vegetation types. The long temporal span of these records (~9,500-35,000 years) allows for interpreting fire trends under varying climate conditions, refining our understanding of climate thresholds that may alter fire regimes in the future. Our data suggest that fires in all three tundra regions were rare throughout the late Quaternary. Fires from a boreal /tundra transition site in the southern Brooks Range supported a mean fire-return interval of ~850 years/fire, and individual fire return intervals were as high as ~2500 years/fire. Comparably, the fire-history reconstruction from the Alaskan North Slope also reveals long fire return intervals (~3000 to 6000 years/fire). In the shrub tundra of southwestern Alaska, fires have been extremely rare (>7000 to >28,000 years/fire) throughout the past 35,000 years, despite large-scale vegetation and climate changes during this time period. The fire frequency of our three study regions is strikingly low compared to the highly flammable tundra in northwestern Alaska, which supported fire return intervals comparable to modern boreal forest (~100-200 years/fire) over the past 6000 years. Thus, the stark contrast of rare tundra fires in these regions with the frequent tundra burning in northwestern Alaska appears to have existed through time, implying that spatial differences in climate and vegetation controls remained stationary. In this context, the recent burning on the Alaskan North Slope may be a harbinger of changes to come in other tundra regions of Alaska as anthropogenic warming continues to affect this biome.

  17. An evaluation of the uncertainties in biomass burning emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, A.; Garcia Menendez, F.; Hu, Y.; Odman, M.

    2012-12-01

    The contribution of biomass burning emissions to the atmospheric loads of gases and aerosols can lead to major air quality problems and have significant climate impacts. Whether from wildfires, natural or human-induced, or controlled burns, biomass burning emissions are an important source of air pollutants regionally in certain parts of the world as well as globally. There are two common ways of estimating biomass burning emissions: by using either ground-based information or satellite observations. When there is sufficient local information about the burn area, the types of fuels and their consumption amounts, and the progression of the fire, ground-based estimation is preferred. For controlled burns a.k.a. prescribed burns and wildfires in places where land management is practiced to a certain extent there is typically sufficient ground-based information for emissions estimation. However, for remote regions where no ground-based information is available on the size, intensity, or the spread of the fire, estimates based on satellite observations are preferred. For example, burn location, size and timing information can be obtained from satellite retrievals of thermal anomalies and fuel loading information can be obtained from satellite products of vegetation cover. In both cases, reasonable emission estimates for a variety of pollutants can be obtained by using emission factors (mass of pollutant released per unit mass of fuel consumed) derived from field or laboratory studies. Here, emissions from a controlled burn and a wildfire are estimated using both ground-based information and satellite observations. The controlled burn was conducted on 17 November 2009 near Santa Barbara, California over 80 ha of land covered with chaparral. An aircraft tracked the smoke plume and measured CO2, light scattering, as well as meteorological parameters during the burn (Akagi et al., 2011). The wildfire is from the summer of 2008 when tens of thousands hectares of wild land burned in Northern California causing unprecedented damage. NASA Aircraft commissioned for the ARCTAS campaign at the time flew over the fires and collected data detailing composition of gases and aerosols in the fire plumes (Singh et al., 2012). We model the fires using a newly developed system consisting of a plume rise and dispersion model specifically designed for wild-land fire plumes (Daysmoke; Achtemeier et al., 2011) coupled with a regional-scale chemistry-transport model (CMAQ). Wind fields generated by a weather prediction model (WRF) are adjusted locally to match the aircraft measurements of wind speed and direction. The fires are simulated using both ground-based and satellite-based estimates of emissions. Predicted concentrations of gases and aerosols are compared to corresponding aircraft measurements. Satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depth are also used in evaluating model predictions. The new modeling system along with the wind adjustments reduces several of the uncertainties inherent to regional-scale modeling of plume transport. This allows for a more reliable analysis of the uncertainties related to emissions. Uncertainties in the magnitudes and timings of emissions, and in plume injection heights with respect to boundary layer heights are investigated. Uncertainties associated with ground-based and satellite-based emissions estimation methods are compared to each other.

  18. Peripherally inserted central line catheter infections in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Barsun, Alura; Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina L; Greenhalgh, David G

    2014-01-01

    Peripherally inserted central line catheter (PICC) use has increased in burn patients. While the risks of central line associated blood stream infections (CLABSI) in burn patients have been well studied, the risks of PICC infections have yet to be fully elucidated. A retrospective chart review was performed of all burn patients with a PICC admitted to our regional burn center from 2006 to 2008. Information collected included: age, total body surface area (TBSA) burn injury, length of hospital stay, duration of PICC line insertion, hospital day of PICC line insertion, and development of infections. All mean values are presented as the mean ± standard error. A total of 56 patients received a PICC during this time period. Eight patients developed PICC infections with an overall rate of 11.7/1000 catheter days. Burn patient CLABSI for the same time period was 12.9/1000 catheter days. Duration of PICC did not differ between infected and noninfected patients (13.3 ± 6 vs. 12.1 ± 9.6 days). Patients with PICC infections had a higher percentage of TBSA (42.7 ± 3.2 vs. 20.6 ± 2.4*), longer length of admission (72.4 ± 6 vs. 35 ± 3.2*), and later hospital day of PICC insertion (48 ± 4.6 vs. 17.1 ± 2.5*). On linear regression analysis, PICC infection was significantly associated with TBSA (B = 22.1*), length of admission (B = 37.4*), and hospital day of PICC insertion (B = 30.3*). On multivariate analysis, TBSA (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.05*), length of admission (OR = 1.04*), and hospital day of PICC insertion (OR = 1.05*) all independently increased the risk of developing a PICC infection. Patients with severe burn injury, long hospital admissions, and later hospital day of PICC insertions are at higher risk of developing PICC infections. This data suggests that protocols should be developed about routine PICC changes in this high-risk burn population. PMID:25055005

  19. Rice straw burning in Southeast Asia as a source of CO and COS to the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Ba Cuong; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Putaud, Jean-Philippe

    1994-08-01

    Atmospheric samples were collected during rice straw burning at four different locations in Viet Nam during the dry and wet seasons (March 1992, February 1993, and August 1992, respectively). The samples were analyzed for CO2, CO, and COS. The emission ratios relative to CO2 for rice straw burning during the dry season were comparable to those observed on samples collected during burning of savanna in Africa or forest in the United States. On the contrary, during the wet season the emission ratios for CO and COS relative to CO2 were 2 to 10 times higher. With these emission ratios and estimates of rice production from southeastern Asia, we estimated that burning of rice straw emits annually about 2.1 Tmol of CO (25 Tg C) and 0.6 Gmol of COS (0.02 Tg S) to the atmosphere. Taking into account these new results, CO and COS fluxes from biomass burning could be reevaluated by 5-21% and 10-67%, respectively, with regard to previous estimates of these gas emissions from all biomass burning activities.

  20. A Prospective Multi-Center Audit of Nutrition Support Parameters Following Burn Injury.

    PubMed

    Kurmis, Rochelle; Heath, Kathryn; Ooi, Selena; Munn, Zachary; Forbes, Sharon; Young, Vicki; Rigby, Paul; Wood, Kate; Phillips, Frances; Greenwood, John

    2015-01-01

    The importance of nutrition support delivery to the severe burn-injured patient is well recognized, however, nutrition provision to the patient may be sub optimal in practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a prospective multi-center audit across Australia and New Zealand using the Joanna Briggs Institute Burns Node Nutrition audit criteria. Thirty-four patients with severe burn injury (?20% TBSA in adults and ?10% TBSA in children) were identified on admission or on referral to the Dietitian at the eight participating Burn Units between February 1, 2012 and April 30, 2012 for inclusion in the study. De-identified patient data was analyzed using the Joanna Briggs Institute, Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System. Compliance with individual audit criterion ranged from 33 to 100%. Provision of prescribed enteral feed volumes and weekly weighing of patients were highlighted as key areas for clinical improvement. Clinical audit is a valuable tool for evaluating current practice against best evidence to ensure that quality patient care is delivered. The use of the Joanna Briggs Institute Burns Node audit criteria has allowed for a standardized multi-center audit to be conducted. Improving nutrition support delivery in burn patients was identified as a key area requiring ongoing clinical improvement across Australia and New Zealand. Clinician feedback on use of the audit criteria will allow for future refinement of individual criterion, and presentation of results of this audit has resulted in a review of the Bi-National Burns Registry nutrition quality indicators. PMID:25094004

  1. Experiments for the Measurement of LNG Mass Burning Rates

    E-print Network

    Herrera Gomez, Lady Carolina

    2012-07-16

    on the radiometers used inside the pit area after the tests ...................................................... 56#1; Figure 27. Comparison of the measured and calculated radiative heat flux received at the pool surface... of this cryogenic fluid. ? Flash fire: occurs when flammable vapors are not ignited immediately after the release, but instead, a vapor cloud forms, ignites, and burns back to the leak source. This type of combustion does not create significant overpressure...

  2. Interactive effects of grazing and burning on wind- and water-driven sediment fluxes: rangeland management implications.

    PubMed

    Field, Jason P; Breshears, David D; Whicker, Jeffrey J; Zou, Chris B

    2011-01-01

    Rangelands are globally extensive, provide fundamental ecosystem services, and are tightly coupled human-ecological systems. Rangeland sustainability depends largely on the implementation and utilization of various grazing and burning practices optimized to protect against soil erosion and transport. In many cases, however, land management practices lead to increased soil erosion and sediment fluxes for reasons that are poorly understood. Because few studies have directly measured both wind and water erosion and transport, an assessment of how they may differentially respond to grazing and burning practices is lacking. Here, we report simultaneous, co-located estimates of wind- and water-driven sediment transport in a semiarid grassland in Arizona, USA, over three years for four land management treatments: control, grazed, burned, and burned + grazed. For all treatments and most years, annual rates of wind-driven sediment transport exceeded that of water due to a combination of ongoing small but nontrivial wind events and larger, less frequent, wind events that generally preceded the monsoon season. Sediment fluxes by both wind and water differed consistently by treatment: burned + grazed > burned > grazed > or = control, with effects immediately apparent after burning but delayed after grazing until the following growing season. Notably, the wind:water sediment transport ratio decreased following burning but increased following grazing. Our results show how rangeland practices disproportionally alter sediment fluxes driven by wind and water, differences that could potentially help explain divergence between rangeland sustainability and degradation. PMID:21516885

  3. Workshop (W60) on "Burning Plasma Physics and Simulation" 4-5 July 2005, University Campus, Tarragona, Spain

    E-print Network

    The Workshop will concentrate on burning plasma research in the areas of Plasma Transport and Confinement, MHD plasma research; · identify the need for further research; and · propose a road map for burning plasma research. Venue, Dates and Accommodation The Workshop will take place in University Campus, Tarragona

  4. Photoacoustic diagnosis of edema in rat burned skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Ken; Sato, Shunichi; Hatanaka, Kosuke; Saitoh, Daizoh; Ashida, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Toshihisa; Obara, Minoru

    2010-02-01

    Diagnosis of edema, abnormal accumulation of water in tissue, is important for managing various traumatic injuries and diseases. However, there is no established method for real-time, noninvasive monitoring of edema. In severe extensive burn injuries, edema develops both topically and systemically due to the increased permeability of blood vessels. In this study, we examined photoacoustic (PA) monitoring of edema formed in rat burn models. Deep dermal burn with a 20% total body surface area was made in the dorsal skin of rats. Burn and its adjacent nonburn tissues were irradiated with 6-ns light pulses at 1430 nm, which is one of the absorption peak wavelengths of water in the near infrared. The PA signal amplitude increased until 12 - 24 hr postburn, and thereafter it gradually decreased to its initial level; the latter phase (after 24 hr postburn) coincided with a diuretic phase in the rats. There was a significant correlation between the PA signal amplitudes and water contents in the tissue measured by wet/dry weight method. These findings demonstrate the validity of PA measurement for real-time, noninvasive monitoring of edema.

  5. Changes in year-round air temperature and annual energy consumption in office building areas by urban heat-island countermeasures and energy-saving measures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomohiko Ihara; Yukihiro Kikegawa; Kazutake Asahi; Yutaka Genchi; Hiroaki Kondo

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of the installation of various countermeasures against urban heat-island (UHI) and energy-saving measures on UHI and global warming. A UHI and energy-consumption simulation model was developed by combining the one-dimensional meteorological canopy and building energy use models; further, the proposed model was expanded to evaluate the year-round air temperature and annual energy consumption. The simulation

  6. Urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and malondialdehyde as a markers of renal damage in burned patients.

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H. K.; Kim, D. K.; Lee, B. H.; Om, A. S.; Hong, J. H.; Koh, H. C.; Lee, C. H.; Shin, I. C.; Kang, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate renal dysfunction during three weeks after the burn injuries in 12 patients admitted to the Hallym University Hankang Medical Center with flame burn injuries (total body surface area, 20-40%). Parameters assessed included 24-hr urine volume, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, total urinary protein, urinary microalbumin, 24-hr urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity, and urinary malondialdehyde (MDA). Statistical analysis was performed using repeated measures ANOVA test. The 24-hr urine volume, creatinine clearance, and urinary protein significantly increased on day 3 post-burn and fell thereafter. The urine microalbumin excretion showed two peak levels on day 0 post-burn and day 3. The 24-hr urinary NAG activity significantly increased to its maximal level on day 7 post-burn and gradually fell thereafter. The urinary MDA progressively increased during 3 weeks after the burn injury. Despite recovery of general renal function through an intensive care of burn injury, renal tubular damage and lipid peroxidation of the renal tissue suggested to persist during three weeks after the burn. Therefore, a close monitoring and intensive management of renal dysfunction is necessary to prevent burn-induced acute renal failure as well as to lower mortality in patients with major burns. PMID:11641529

  7. Where are lengths of stay longer and total charges higher for pediatric burn patients?

    PubMed

    Myers, John; Lehna, Carlee

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of pediatric burn patients is costly and may require long length of stay in the hospital (LOS). Establishing where these LOS and charges are highest is warranted. The current study investigated whether pediatric burn patients had higher total charges and longer LOS when seen at teaching hospitals, when compared with nonteaching hospitals. The study reviewed inpatient admissions for pediatric burn patients in 2003, 2006, and 2009 by using the Kids' Inpatient Database, which is part of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes 940-947 were used to define burn injury, LOS, total charges, and type of hospital. The authors tested for differences between the LOS and total charges between children seen at three types of hospitals (pediatric, nonpediatric/teaching, nonpediatric/nonteaching) while adjusting for traditional risk factors (eg age, total burn surface area) by using generalized linear mixed-effects modeling. A total of N=28,777 children had burn injuries (n=16,115, 56.0% seen at pediatric hospitals; n=9353, 32.5% seen at nonpediatric/teaching hospitals; and n=3309, 11.5% seen at nonpediatric/nonteaching hospitals). Pediatric burn patients seen at pediatric hospitals, unadjusted, have significantly longer LOS (5.54 days vs 4.25 days and 4.00 days, P<.001) and more total charges in 2009 dollars ($31,319 vs $24,413 and $21,499, P<.001). In addition, patients seen at pediatric hospitals had significantly more total burn surface area (P<.001), more comorbidities (P=.021), and were younger (P<.001). After adjusting for total burn surface area, number of comorbidities, and age, no differences existed between teaching and nonteaching hospitals for LOS (P=.481) or total charges (P=.758). Although pediatric burn patients may have increased LOS and total charges when seen at teaching hospitals, when taking an unadjusted perspective, this may be an artifact that teaching hospitals see pediatric burn patients who are younger, have more comorbidities, and have more total burn surface area. As such, after adjustment, type of hospital may have no influence on LOS and total charges. PMID:25100537

  8. What could have caused pre-industrial biomass burning emissions to exceed current rates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Werf, G. R.; Peters, W.; van Leeuwen, T. T.; Giglio, L.

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies based on trace gas mixing ratios in ice cores and charcoal data indicate that biomass burning emissions over the past millennium exceeded contemporary emissions by up to a factor of 4 for certain time periods. This is surprising because various sources of biomass burning are linked with population density, which has increased over the past centuries. Here we have analyzed how emissions from several biomass burning sources could have fluctuated to yield emissions that are in correspondence with recent results based on ice core mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO) and its isotopic signature measured at South Pole station (SPO). Based on estimates of contemporary fire emissions and the TM5 chemical transport model, we found that CO mixing ratios at SPO are more sensitive to emissions from South America and Australia than from Africa, and are relatively insensitive to emissions from the Northern Hemisphere. We then explored how various biomass burning sources may have varied over the past centuries and what the resulting emissions and corresponding CO mixing ratio at SPO would be, using population density variations to reconstruct sources driven by humans (e.g. fuelwood burning) and a new model to relate savanna emissions to changes in fire return times. We found that to match the observed ice core CO data all savannas in the Southern Hemisphere had to burn annually, or bi-annually in combination with deforestation and slash and burn agriculture matching current levels despite much lower population densities and lack of machinery to aid the deforestation process. While possible, these scenarios are unlikely and in conflict with current literature. However, we do show the large potential for increased emissions from savannas in a pre-industrial world. This is mainly because in the past, fuel beds were probably less fragmented compared to the current situation; we show that the majority of savannas have not burned in the past 10 yr, even in Africa which is considered "the burning continent". Our new modelling results, together with existing literature, indicate that no definitive conclusions can be drawn about unprecedentedly high or low biomass burning rates from current data analyses.

  9. What could have caused pre-industrial biomass burning emissions to exceed current rates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Werf, G. R.; Peters, W.; van Leeuwen, T. T.; Giglio, L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies based on trace gas mixing ratios in ice cores and charcoal data indicate that biomass burning emissions over the past millennium exceeded contemporary emissions by up to a factor of 4 for certain time periods. This is surprising because various sources of biomass burning are linked with population density, which has increased over the past centuries. We have analysed how emissions from several landscape biomass burning sources could have fluctuated to yield emissions that are in correspondence with recent results based on ice core mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO) and its isotopic signature measured at South Pole station (SPO). Based on estimates of contemporary landscape fire emissions and the TM5 chemical transport model driven by present-day atmospheric transport and OH concentrations, we found that CO mixing ratios at SPO are more sensitive to emissions from South America and Australia than from Africa, and are relatively insensitive to emissions from the Northern Hemisphere. We then explored how various landscape biomass burning sources may have varied over the past centuries and what the resulting emissions and corresponding CO mixing ratio at SPO would be, using population density variations to reconstruct sources driven by humans (e.g., fuelwood burning) and a new model to relate savanna emissions to changes in fire return times. We found that to match the observed ice core CO data, all savannas in the Southern Hemisphere had to burn annually, or bi-annually in combination with deforestation and slash and burn agriculture exceeding current levels, despite much lower population densities and lack of machinery to aid the deforestation process. While possible, these scenarios are unlikely and in conflict with current literature. However, we do show the large potential for increased emissions from savannas in a pre-industrial world. This is mainly because in the past, fuel beds were probably less fragmented compared to the current situation; satellite data indicates that the majority of savannas have not burned in the past 10 yr, even in Africa, which is considered "the burning continent". Although we have not considered increased charcoal burning or changes in OH concentrations as potential causes for the elevated CO concentrations found at SPO, it is unlikely they can explain the large increase found in the CO concentrations in ice core data. Confirmation of the CO ice core data would therefore call for radical new thinking about causes of variable global fire rates over recent centuries.

  10. Carbon Monoxide from Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of images shows levels of carbon monoxide at the atmospheric pressure level of 700 millibars (roughly 12,000 feet in altitude) over the continent of South America, as observed by the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) sensor flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Data for producing the image on the left were acquired on March 3, 2000, and for the image on the right on September 7, 2000. Blue pixels show low values, yellows show intermediate values, and the red to pink and then white pixels are progressively higher values. In the lefthand image (March 3), notice the fairly low levels of carbon monoxide over the entire continent. The slightly higher equatorial values are the result of burning emissions in sub-Saharan Africa that are convected at the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and spread by the trade winds. Also, notice the effect of the elevated surface topography across the Andes Mountains running north to south along the western coastline. (In this region, white pixels show no data.) In the righthand image (September 7), a large carbon monoxide plume is seen over Brazil, produced primarily by biomass burning across Amazonia and lofted into the atmosphere by strong cloud convection. The generally higher carbon monoxide levels as compared to March are both the result of South American fire emissions and the transport of carbon monoxide across the Atlantic Ocean from widespread biomass burning over Southern Africa. These images were produced using MOPITT data, which are currently being validated. These data were assimilated into an atmospheric chemical transport model using wind vectors provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Although there is good confidence in the relative seasonal values and geographic variation measured by MOPITT, that team anticipates their level of confidence will improve further with ongoing intensive validation campaigns and comparisons with in situ and ground-based spectroscopic measurements. Images courtesy David Edwards and John Gille, MOPITT Science Team, NCAR

  11. Thigh burn associated with laptop computer use.

    PubMed

    Paulius, Karina; Napoles, Phyllis; Maguina, Pirko

    2008-01-01

    Laptop computers are an uncommon source of burns to the thighs and perineum. Burns can result from the prolonged contact of hot surfaces at the base of the computer with the user's lap. The authors report a case of second-degree burns to the thigh of an otherwise healthy patient that resulted from prolonged use of the laptop. We measured the temperatures of the patient's computer and the temperatures of other popular laptop computers. Laptops can develop temperatures that can pose a risk for burns if the skin is exposed for prolonged periods of time. Patients with impaired lower extremity sensation, altered consciousness, or decreased mobility are at higher risk for laptop burns. To their knowledge, this is the first case report of such a burn injury in the American literature. PMID:18695609

  12. Steam cooled rich-burn combustor liner

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, D.F.

    1989-04-11

    A combustor system, including a primary rich burn section having a liner and followed by one or more lean burn sections, is described, comprising: a cylindrical jacket disposed outwardly of the combustor rich burn section liner to form an annular space; a plurality of barriers disposed in the annular space, each barrier being in the form of a spiral, thereby forming a plurality of spiral passageways; a first annular manifold disposed at one end of the rich burn section liner adjacent the one lean burn section and communicating with the annular space; a second annular manifold disposed at the other end of the rich burn section liner and communicating with the annular space; and means for directing steam into the first manifold at a pressure approximately equal to the discharge pressure.

  13. Actinide Burning in CANDU Reactors