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Analysis of daily, monthly, and annual burned area using the fourth-generation global fire emissions database (GFED4)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract We describe the fourth generation of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED4) <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data set, which provides global monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> at 0.25° spatial resolution from mid-1995 through the present and daily <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> for the time series extending back to August 2000. We produced the full data set by combining 500 m MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps with active fire data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) family of sensors. We found that the global <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> for the years 1997 through 2011 varied from 301 to 377Mha, with an average of 348Mha. We assessed the interannual variability and trends in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> on the basis of a region-specific definition of fire years. With respect to trends, we found a gradual decrease of 1.7Mhayr - 1 ( - 1.4%yr - 1) in Northern Hemisphere Africa since 2000, a gradual increase of 2.3Mhayr - 1 (+1.8%yr - 1) in Southern Hemisphere Africa also since 2000, a slight increase of 0.2Mhayr - 1 (+2.5%yr - 1) in Southeast Asia since 1997, and a rapid decrease of approximately 5.5Mhayr - 1 ( - 10.7%yr - 1) from 2001 through 2011 in Australia, followed by a major upsurge in 2011 that exceeded the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in at least the previous 14 years. The net trend in global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from 2000 to 2012 was a modest decrease of 4.3Mhayr - 1 ( - 1.2%yr - 1). We also performed a spectral analysis of the daily <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> time series and found no vestiges of the 16 day MODIS repeat cycle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giglio, Louis; Randerson, James T.; Werf, Guido R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">2</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BGD.....7.4385L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in Africa</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The simulation of current and projected wildfires is crucial for predicting vegetation as well as pyrogenic emissions in the African continent. This study uses a data-driven approach to parameterize <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> models applicable to dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) and global circulation models (GCMs). Therefore we restricted our analysis to variables for which either projections based on climate scenarios are available, or which are calculated by DVMs and the spatial scale to one degree spatial resolution, a common scale for DVMs as well as GCMs. We used 9 years of data (2000-2008) for the variables tree and herb cover, precipitation over the last dry season, wet season and averaged over the last 2 years, a fire-danger index (the Nesterov index), population density and an <span class="hlt">annual</span> proportion of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> derived from the MODIS MCD45A1 product. Since the effect of fires on vegetation depends strongly on <span class="hlt">burning</span> conditions, the timing of wildfires is of high interest too. We related the seasonal occurrence of wildfires to the Nesterov index and found a lognormal relationship with a maximum at a value of 104. We parameterized two generalized linear models, one with the full variable set (model I) and one (model II) considering only climate variables. All introduced variables resulted in an increase in model performance. Model I correctly predicts the spatial distribution and extent of fire prone <span class="hlt">areas</span> though the total variability is underrepresented. Model II has a much lower performance in both aspects (correlation coefficient of predicted and observed ratio of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>: 0.71 model I and 0.58 model II). An application of the models with simulated climate data ranging from 1980 to 2060 resulted in a strong decrease of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> of ca. 20-25%. Since wildfires are an integral part of land use practices in Africa, this indicates a high loss in <span class="hlt">areas</span> favourable for food production.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lehsten, V.; Harmand, P.; Palumbo, I.; Arneth, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">3</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BGeo....7.3199L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in Africa</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The simulation of current and projected wildfires is essential for predicting crucial aspects of vegetation patterns, biogeochemical cycling as well as pyrogenic emissions across the African continent. This study uses a data-driven approach to parameterize two <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> models applicable to dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) and Earth system models (ESMs). We restricted our analysis to variables for which either projections based on climate scenarios are available, or that are calculated by DVMs, and we consider a spatial scale of one degree as the scale typical for DVMs and ESMs. By using the African continent here as an example, an analogue approach could in principle be adopted for other regions, for global scale dynamic <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> modelling. We used 9 years of data (2000-2008) for the variables: precipitation over the last dry season, the last wet season and averaged over the last 2 years, a fire-danger index (the Nesterov index), population density, and <span class="hlt">annual</span> proportion of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> derived from the MODIS MCD45A1 product. Two further variables, tree and herb cover were only available for 2001 as a remote sensing product. Since the effect of fires on vegetation depends strongly on <span class="hlt">burning</span> conditions, the timing of wildfires is of high interest too, and we were able to relate the seasonal occurrence of wildfires to the daily Nesterov index. We parameterized two generalized linear models (GLMs), one with the full variable set (model VC) and one considering only climate variables (model C). All introduced variables resulted in an increase in model performance. Model VC correctly predicts the spatial distribution and extent of fire prone <span class="hlt">areas</span> though the total variability is underrepresented. Model VC has a much lower performance in both aspects (correlation coefficient of predicted and observed ratio of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>: 0.71 for model VC and 0.58 for model C). We expect the remaining variability to be attributed to additional variables which are not available at a global scale and thus not incorporated in this study as well as its coarse resolution. An application of the models using climate hindcasts and projections ranging from 1980 to 2060 resulted in a strong decrease of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> of ca. 20-25%. Since wildfires are an integral part of land use practices in Africa, their occurrence is an indicator of <span class="hlt">areas</span> favourable for food production. In absence of other compensating land use changes, their projected decrease can hence be interpreted as a indicator for future loss of such <span class="hlt">areas</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lehsten, V.; Harmand, P.; Palumbo, I.; Arneth, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">4</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511222R"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, active fires and biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> - approaches to account for emissions from fires in Tanzania</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Eleven years of data from the globally available MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and the MODS Active Fire Product have been analysed for Tanzania in conjunction with GIS data on land use and cover to provide a baseline for fire activity in this East African country. The total radiated energy (FRE) emitted by fires that were picked up by the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and active fire product is estimated based on a spatio-temporal clustering algorithm over the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, and integration of the fire radiative power from the MODIS Active Fires product over the time of <span class="hlt">burning</span> and the <span class="hlt">area</span> of each <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> cluster. Resulting biomass combusted by unit <span class="hlt">area</span> based on Wooste?s scaling factor for FRE to biomass combusted is compared to values found in the literature, and to values found in the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). Pyrogenic emissions are then estimated using emission factors. According to our analysis, an average of 11 million ha <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">annually</span> (ranging between 8.5 and 12.9 million ha) in Tanzania corresponding to between 10 and 14 % of Tanzaniás land <span class="hlt">area</span>. Most <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is recorded in the months from May to October. The land cover types most affected are woodland and shrubland cover types: they comprise almost 70 % of Tanzania's average <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> or 6.8 million ha. Most <span class="hlt">burning</span> occurs in gazetted land, with an <span class="hlt">annual</span> average of 3.7 million ha in forest reserves, 3.3 million ha in game reserves and 1.46 million ha in national parks, totalling close to 8.5 million ha or 77 % of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> average <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> of Tanzania. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> variability of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is moderate for most of the analysed classes, and in most cases there is no clear trend to be detected in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, except for the Lindi region were <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> appears to be increasing. Preliminary results regarding emissions from fires show that for larger fires that <span class="hlt">burn</span> over a longer time, biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span> derived through the FRP method compares well to literature values, while the integration over smaller fires with fewer observations yields unstable results due to undersampling issues and uncertainty in the start and end time of the fire events. Options for mitigating these issues using ancillary data such as fire weather information are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruecker, Gernot; Hoffmann, Anja; Leimbach, David; Tiemann, Joachim; Ng'atigwa, Charles</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">5</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52106478"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in Africa</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The simulation of current and projected wildfires is essential for predicting crucial aspects of vegetation patterns, biogeochemical cycling as well as pyrogenic emissions across the African continent. This study uses a data-driven approach to parameterize two <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> models applicable to dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) and Earth system models (ESMs). We restricted our analysis to variables for which either projections</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">V. Lehsten; P. Harmand; I. Palumbo; A. Arneth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">6</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39161690"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in Africa</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The simulation of current and projected wildfires is crucial for predicting vegetation as well as pyrogenic emissions in the African continent. This study uses a data-driven approach to parameterize <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> models applicable to dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) and global circulation models (GCMs). Therefore we restricted our analysis to variables for which either projections based on climate scenarios are available,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">V. Lehsten; P. Harmand; I. Palumbo; A. Arneth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">7</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9f4011B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Is proportion <span class="hlt">burned</span> severely related to daily <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ecological effects of forest fires <span class="hlt">burning</span> with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity for individual daily <span class="hlt">areas</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily <span class="hlt">areas</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> from which we calculated the proportions of each of three <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized <span class="hlt">burn</span> ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity project. We found that the proportion of high <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity was weakly correlated (Kendall ? = 0.299) with size of daily <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> (DAB). <span class="hlt">Burn</span> severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in a day.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Birch, Donovan S.; Morgan, Penelope; Kolden, Crystal A.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Smith, Alistair M. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">8</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140000253&hterms=Southern+Africa&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2522Southern%2BAfrica%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> and Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Emissions from Small Fires</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> by computing the difference normalized <span class="hlt">burn</span> ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other <span class="hlt">areas</span>, however, we observed many active fires outside of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity analyses of key model parameters caused estimates of global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> increases from small fires to vary between 24% and 54%. Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> carbon emissions increased by 35% at a global scale when small fires were included in GFED3, from 1.9 Pg C/yr to 2.5 Pg C/yr. The contribution of tropical forest fires to year-to-year variability in carbon fluxes increased because small fires amplified emissions from Central America, South America and Southeast Asia-regions where drought stress and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> varied considerably from year to year in response to El Nino-Southern Oscillation and other climate modes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">9</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fire.uni-freiburg.de/sevilla-2007/contributions/doc/cd/SESIONES_TEMATICAS/ST4/Roy_et_al_USA.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The global MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Earth-observing satellite systems provide the potential for an accurate and timely mapping of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, also known as fire-affected <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Remote sensing algorithms developed to map <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> are difficult to implement reliably over large <span class="hlt">areas</span> however because of variations in both the surface state and those imposed by the sensing system. The availability of robustly calibrated, atmospherically corrected, cloud-screened,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David P. Roy; Luigi Boschetti; Christopher O. Justice</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">10</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18555629"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> disasters in shooting range <span class="hlt">areas</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shooting range injuries are generally caused by ballistic accidents, and so far no <span class="hlt">burn</span> disaster has been reported. In this article we reported a disaster caused by a gunpowder explosion in an indoor shooting range <span class="hlt">area</span> in Istanbul, Turkey. Fourteen injured people were evacuated from the scene. Our <span class="hlt">burn</span> center accepted 7 of them. Of the 7 injured people, 2 who were accepted by our <span class="hlt">burn</span> center, and 3 people who were admitted by another center died. It is clearly identified how this mechanism of injury differs from that of usual <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries, due to both the high temperature generated, and the combination of hot and toxic gases produced by the explosion. We described the features of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury, and possible reasons of <span class="hlt">burn</span> disasters. PMID:18555629</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Uygur, Fatih; Oksüz, Sinan; Yüksel, Fuat</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">11</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16844301"> <span id="translatedtitle">Digitisation of the total <span class="hlt">burn</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The assessment of surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of the body affected by a <span class="hlt">burn</span> (TBSA) has long been estimated with manual charts. Initial assessment of <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients is made frequently by clinicians with limited experience producing significant errors. Paper copies of <span class="hlt">burn</span> charts are unwieldy, subject to loss and tend towards overestimation. Thus, a simple method of calculation, recording and transmission via email or telemedicine may produce benefits in both initial treatment and data recording. Although computer-based systems have been reported previously none have entered routine clinical practice in the UK. We devised a PC-based program, "<span class="hlt">Burn</span> Calculator", whereby digital transcription of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> allows automatic <span class="hlt">area</span> calculation allowing not only a rapid, accurate figure for determination of fluid resuscitation, but also the potential for rapid electronic transmission. It also calculates fluid requirements to minimise errors during resuscitation. This initial pilot study compared figures from 50 paper charts with those from <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Calculator to determine its accuracy and reproducibility. Previously reported variations in TBSA estimation were confirmed, as was the tendency towards TBSA underestimation resulting from transcription of a three-dimensional clinical situation to a two-dimensional representation. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Calculator showed high correlation (r=0.9850; p<0.0001) and reproducibility (R=0.9957) that would simplify assessment and referral plus facilitate data collection, interpretation and research. PMID:16844301</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berry, M G; Goodwin, T I; Misra, R R; Dunn, K W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">12</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6489S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Future <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> projections in Iberia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The spatial and temporal variability of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> (BA) in the Iberian Peninsula (IP) was assessed and modeled through the merging of BA records from Portugal and Spain, a new dataset which allowed the construction of projections for future BA in different Iberian sectors. For this purpose, statistical models which reproduce the inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> BA variability were calibrated using the 1981-2005 period as a reference and then applied to Regional Climate Models (RCM) outputs for the 21st century. The relationship between BA and meteorological forcing was assessed using correlation and regression analysis, using the ERA-Interim reanalysis as a benchmark for the reference period. Then a stepwise regression procedure based on the best meteorology-based predictors was applied in order to develop simple BA statistical models for each cluster (models were cross-validated to avoid the danger of over fitting). We concluded that the use of predictors based on both long-term and short-term conditions provide the best results, particularly for western sectors (Pearson correlation coefficients higher than 0.7). We also showed that the daily scale is vital on the short-term, since predictors based on monthly frequencies of extremely hot days (surpassing high percentiles of noon temperature) are the most effective ones. The reference period bias of four RCM from the ENSEMBLES project was estimated in order to construct future BA scenarios using two different techniques: traditional bias correction and the delta change approach. Multiple scenarios where also developed by using either fixed or moving reference periods, thus highlighting the danger of not considering external variables (e.g. vegetation or land-use changes) when developing such models. Amongst all considered scenarios, our current ensemble projections show the potential for having 2-3 times more BA in the IP by the end of the 21st century.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sousa, Pedro; Trigo, Ricardo; Pereira, Mário; Camara, Carlos; Gouveia, Célia; Bedia, Joaquín; Gutiérrez, Jose Manuel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">13</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A11G0144D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> on African seasonal climate in regional modeling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The WRF/SSiB2 model has been employed on a series of regional simulations to investigate the impact of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> associated with wildfires on African seasonal climate and surface energy balances. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> are characterized by deposits of charcoal and ash, removal of vegetation, and alteration of the vegetation structure. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> information for the experiments was based on the MODIS <span class="hlt">burn</span> date maps with an 8-day interval on 500m spatial resolution. Monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps averaged over 2000-2011, and aggregated from the MODIS resolution, were created and incorporated in the regional model (50km resolution), whereby vegetation was reduced according to the percentage of grid cell <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> and ground albedo was reduced to 0.1 for a 10-day period after <span class="hlt">burning</span> to reproduce the ground darkening associated with the amount of grid cell <span class="hlt">burned</span>. Control (unburned) and <span class="hlt">burned</span> preliminary experiments were carried out between 01 Oct 2010 and 31 Sep 2011 and compared to examine the sensitivity of different wildfire parameters on precipitation and surface fluxes; including sensitivity to ground albedo recovery time and vegetation resistance to fire. Vegetation cover, greenness, and LAI information were taken from the Fourier-Adjusted, Sensor and Solar zenith angle corrected, Interpolated, Reconstructed data set. Analysis of <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps revealed extensive <span class="hlt">burning</span>, especially in the Sahel and between latitudes 0° and 15°S (Central Africa), with both regions exhibiting 50% or more of the <span class="hlt">area</span> of a grid cell <span class="hlt">burned</span>. Most of <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Sahel occurred between November and February, while in the southern hemisphere it took place between June and September. Extensive <span class="hlt">burning</span> was also found along eastern South Africa and Mozambique between 25° and 40° W, where some grid cells were 10% to 30% <span class="hlt">burned</span> in August and September. Preliminary results indicated that the WRF/SSiB2 is sensitive to the land degradation associated with the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. <span class="hlt">Areas</span> with widespread <span class="hlt">burning</span> experienced a reduction in evapotranspiration in the Sahel especially during the pre-monsoon months, and during monsoon withdrawal. In the Central and Southern Africa, the largest difference took place between January and April, and later August. In general, the impact on sensible heat flux was of opposite sign and significantly weaker than that of evapotranspiration in the Sahel. Changes to surface albedo in the model depends on two distinct processes; ground darkening associated with <span class="hlt">burning</span> (direct effect) and changes in soil moisture associated with precipitation variability (indirect effect). The patterns of precipitation change resulting from <span class="hlt">burn</span> degradation were complex, with <span class="hlt">areas</span> of positive and negative changes within both regions. On average, <span class="hlt">annual</span> precipitation was reduced in the Sahel by approximately 3.5%. Most of the change occurred during the monsoon season. In contrast, Central and Southern Africa experienced increase in rainfall in the austral winter but decrease in the summer months, resulting in nearly no <span class="hlt">annual</span> change. Results also revealed that vegetation resistance to fire and ground albedo recovery time are important factors that must be accounted for to realistically simulate the impact of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in Africa.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">De Sales, F.; Xue, Y.; Okin, G. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">14</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2600103"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sensory loss over grafted <span class="hlt">areas</span> in patients with <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied loss of cutaneous sensibility after grafting in 60 patients with <span class="hlt">burns</span> who had applied for impairment assessment. Fifty-eight patients (97%) demonstrated markedly diminished or absent responses to sharp/dull, hot/cold, and light touch stimuli over grafted <span class="hlt">areas</span>. However, all but one patient had intact perception over donor <span class="hlt">areas</span> and over <span class="hlt">areas</span> of healed (ungrafted) partial-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Deep touch sensation was intact over both grafted and ungrafted <span class="hlt">areas</span> in all patients. Loss of sensation was not related to patient age, <span class="hlt">burn</span> size, or type of <span class="hlt">burn</span>; nor did sensory loss correlate with the impairment rating received. Depth of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury appears to be the best predictor of altered sensation, and some abnormalities in patients appear inevitable after skin grafting. Patients should be counseled about possible outcomes. However, the decrease in sensation that was observed rarely contributed significantly to the long-term impairment rating of these <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims. PMID:2600103</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ward, R S; Saffle, J R; Schnebly, W A; Hayes-Lundy, C; Reddy, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">15</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770010316&hterms=complex+tri&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcomplex%2Btri"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and port volume in complex <span class="hlt">burning</span> regions of a solid rocket motor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An analysis of the geometry of the <span class="hlt">burning</span> in both star-cylindrical port interface regions and regions of partially inhibited slots is presented. Some characteristics parameters are defined and illustrated. Methods are proposed for calculating <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> which functionally depend only on the total distance <span class="hlt">burned</span>. According to this method, several points are defined where abrupt changes in geometry occur, and these are tracked throughout the <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Equations are developed for computing port perimeter and port <span class="hlt">area</span> at pre-established longitudinal positions. Some common formulas and some newly developed formulas are then used to compute <span class="hlt">burning</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span> and port volume. Some specific results are presented for the solid rocket motor committed to the space shuttle project.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kingsbury, J. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">16</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC21C0853L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relation between wind speed and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> on global scale</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Global datasets of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> have been analyzed with respect to different fire drivers. Various studies find, that climatic variables as well as the vegetation composition or the human influence shape the global distribution of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Wind speed datasets have not been included so far in such analysis. Local studies show that wind speed influences the rate of spread and also that the rate of spread can decrease for high wind speeds. The commonly used Rothermel equations suggest a rate of spread which does not further increase when reaching a certain wind limit. Including fire in global models is a relatively new field and analysis of recent global datasets an important source of information for improvement of global scale fire models. Fire is a climate driven and climate relevant process, therefore a realistic response of the modeled fire occurrence with respect to climate variables is crucial. We analyze the correlation between remotely sensed <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and three global wind speed datasets on different spatial and temporal scales, as well as different land cover types. We find that the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> peaks for mean wind speeds of about 2 ms-1. Using generalized additive models (GAMs) we analyze the response functions including other important drivers of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, e.g. temperature, net primary productivity, precipitation, tree cover and population density. Accounting for these other drivers the response functions confirm increasing <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> with increasing wind speed up to a certain threshold and decreasing <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> thereafter. We used this information in the global land surface model JSBACH that includes a prognostic fire model (SPITFIRE) which is based on the Rothermel fire spread equations. The SPITFIRE model did not include the wind limitation before and model residuals for the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> compared to present day observations showed a correlation with wind speed. Including the relationship between wind speed and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> as derived from the observations improved the spatial patterns of modeled <span class="hlt">burned</span> fraction on global scale.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lasslop, G.; Kloster, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">17</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5157017"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trash <span class="hlt">burns</span>, turns into $120,000 in <span class="hlt">annual</span> savings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A plan was developed to generate a major portion of the energy required for heating and air conditioning by <span class="hlt">burning</span> factory trash instead of using natural gas and electricity. Trash from the Rockwell Int'l. plant, including broken wood pallets, cardboard packing materials and office waste paper, amounted to 1,000 tons per year. Previously, a contractor was being paid to come to the plant several times a week, pick up the trash and haul it to a landfill. To supplement the 1,000 tons of usable waste generated by the plant <span class="hlt">annually</span>, the additional 500 tons of similar trash needed to operate the system are received from other industries in the vicinity. Besides accepting waste from other plants, the Marysville facility stockpiles and uses refuse corn stalks harvested from 50 acres of Rockwell-owned land adjacent to the plant. The incinerator featuring a pyrolytic heat recovery system is presented and its operation is illustrated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, W.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">18</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ba1.geog.umd.edu/Papers/tgrs-DRoy-preprint.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Southern Africa Validation of the MODIS, L3JRC, and GlobCarbon <span class="hlt">Burned-Area</span> Products</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three available global multi-<span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products (L3JRC, GlobCarbon, and MODIS) are validated for a <span class="hlt">burning</span> season across southern Africa. Validation is undertaken using the same independent reference data and using the same validation and reporting protocol. The independent reference data were derived by interpreting multitemporal Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus data to map the location and approximate date of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David P. Roy; Luigi Boschetti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">19</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3427B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-sensor merging techniques for improving <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) aims to create a set of Essential Climate Variables (ECV) to assist climate modellers. One of these is the fire ECV, a product in line with typical requirements of climate, vegetation and ecological modellers investigated by the fire ECV project and documented in the fire product specification document. The product is derived from <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates of three sensors, SPOT VEGETATION (SPOT-VGT), the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) series, and the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer at Full ReSolution (MERIS FRS). This abstract is concerned with the final stage in the production of the fire product, merging of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates from the three sensors into two products. The two products are created at monthly time steps, the pixel (1km) and the aggregated grid product (0.5° and 0.25°). The pixel product contains information on sensors detecting the <span class="hlt">burn</span>, date of <span class="hlt">burn</span> detection, confidence of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> and land cover statistics. The grid product contains aggregated information on <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> totals and proportion, major land cover <span class="hlt">burned</span>, heterogeneity of <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the grid cell, confidence and cloud cover levels. The method used to create these products needs to allow for time series gaps due to multiple sensor combinations and different orbital and swath characteristics and comprises a combination statistical, selective, stratification and fusion methods common to the satellite remote sensing community. The method is in three stages, first a combined merge of sensors in the same 1km resolution. The earliest date of detection is recorded and the sensor that performs the best over a particular vegetation type is taken as the most reliable confidence level. The second part involves fusion of the 300 m MERIS FRS data allowing confidence levels and <span class="hlt">burn</span> dates to be reported to a finer resolution. To allow for MERIS FRS pixels that cross adjacent 1km pixels from the first step the fusion is carried out at 100 m resolution. The third and final step is the statistical aggregation to the final pixel and grid resolutions. Results for the test <span class="hlt">areas</span>, Northern Australia, Canada, Brazil and Kazakhstan show that there is a good coincidence of SPOT-VGT and ATSR data and that MERIS FRS can be used to increase the detail of date of detection and confidence level. Overall the project has demonstrated the feasibility of producing a merged fire product from different satellite data sources.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bradley, A.; Tansey, K.; Chuvieco, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">20</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1040013"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interim Status Closure Plan Open <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Treatment Unit Technical <span class="hlt">Area</span> 16-399 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Tray</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open <span class="hlt">burning</span> treatment units at Technical <span class="hlt">Area</span> (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open <span class="hlt">burning</span> treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a style="font-weight: bold;">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">21</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B13I0629A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary assessment of the Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> accuracy for shrub-steppe wildfires</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fire is a common disturbance in shrub-steppe, but unlike other ecosystems, few studies have specifically tested <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping methods in these semi-arid to arid environments. The Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity (MTBS) project is an initiative by the United States Forest Service (USFS) and United States Geological Survey (USGS) aimed at mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> perimeters and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity for the entire territory of the United States. We conducted a preliminary assessment of the accuracy of the MTBS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> perimeters on wildfires that exhibited varying degrees of within-fire patch heterogeneity. We cross-compared the MTBS perimeters with a classification produced using both the Relativised differenced Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Index (RdNBR) and the mid-infrared <span class="hlt">burn</span> index (MIRBI). Overall, MIRBI provided the most consistent accuracies, with only small commission errors. The MTBS-based fire perimeters had high <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> commission errors, primarily due to inclusion of unburned islands and fingers within the fire perimeter. The RdNBR <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps exhibited very high commission errors, however, when constrained by the MTBS perimeter provided accuracies comparable to MIRBI. Studies seeking to use MTBS data for assessing trends in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> should use spectral indices able to discriminate <span class="hlt">burned</span> versus unburned pixels and constrain them by the MTBS perimeters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Argona, A. K.; Sparks, A. M.; Tinkham, W.; Smith, A. M.; Boschetti, L.; Newingham, B. A.; Lannom, K. O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">22</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112661H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using MODIS time series for <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wildfire significantly impacts forest ecosystems throughout the world. At the regional scale, wildfire affects a wide range of ecological, economic and social values related to forests. At the global scale, forest fire emissions of greenhouse gases, particulates and aerosols emissions into the atmosphere, direct and significantly impacts on atmospheric and biogeochemical cycles and the Earth radiative budget. The assessment of the timing and spatial extent of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>, as needed for different tasks, is a mission that nowadays is only affordable using remote sensing techniques. Since forest fires are a major cause of surface change mainly due to vegetation combustion, <span class="hlt">burn</span> are mapping is a task that can be achieved as a change detection process. The present study describes an algorithm developed to map fire-affected <span class="hlt">areas</span> at regional scale (Spain) using MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series data. In particular, we used MODIS surface reflectance data (MOD09A product) as well as MODIS hotspot data for two fires seasons. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps as resulted from this work were compared to official fire statistics and perimeters from the Spanish Ministry of Environment. Results were also tested against <span class="hlt">burns</span> perimeters as derived from finer spatial resolution satellite images. Reached results showed that this method would be of great interest at regional to national scales, since it was proved to be quick, accurate and cost-effective.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huesca, M.; Palacios-Orueta, A.; Merino-de-Miguel, S.; Litago, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">23</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/201144"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methodology for estimating <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from AVHRR reflectance data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is well recognized that global fire activity needs to be monitored closely, because of its potential impact on climate and the environment. Two methods are described to determined <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The first method, or the linear method, employs Channel 2 reflectance, R{sub 2}, and is based on the nearly linear relationship between the fraction of pixel <span class="hlt">burned</span>, P, and R{sub 2}. The second method, or the nonlinear method, employs the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from Channels 1 and 2 reflectances, and is based on the nonlinear relationship P = f(NDVI), a polynomial of order 2 in NDVI. The coefficients of the polynomial are parameterized as a function of the NDVI of the background before the fire event. Radiative transfer simulations indicate that the linear method, unlike the nonlinear method, must be applied to top-of-atmosphere reflectances that have been corrected for atmospheric influence. Sensitivity studies suggest that the methods are subject to some limitations. To avoid discontinuity problems, the original background (just before the fire) must be characterized by a Channel 2 reflectance above 0.07 and by a positive NDVI. To separate the useful signal from atmospheric effects, the fire scar must occupy at least 20% and 12% of the pixel <span class="hlt">area</span> in the case of savanna and green vegetation (e.g., forest), respectively. When applied to uniform pixels, the mean relative error on the fraction of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> is about 20% for the linear method and 10% for the nonlinear method. The linear method gives better results for nonuniform pixels, but neither method can be used when the pixel contains low reflectance backgrounds (e.g., water).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Razafimpanilo, H.; Frouin, R.; Iacobellis, S.F.; Somerville, R.C.J. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States)] [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">24</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57757298"> <span id="translatedtitle">Factors Influencing <span class="hlt">Burning</span> by Prescription in Mountain Fynbos Catchment <span class="hlt">Areas</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fynbos vegetation of the Cape mountains is managed by applying what is termed prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span>. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> are carried out under conditions of weather and fuel that are selected to ensure a safe and efficient <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Formal prescriptions for <span class="hlt">burning</span> in fynbos do not exist, but air temperature and days since last rain are the most important factors currently used</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. W. van Wilgen; D. M. Richardson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">25</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nigms.nih.gov/Education/Pages/Factsheet_Burns.aspx"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... In severe cases, such fluid loss can cause shock . <span class="hlt">Burns</span> often lead to infection, due to damage ... trauma teams that care exclusively for patients with traumatic injuries that may accompany <span class="hlt">burns</span>. How has basic ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">26</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.5665V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> for fragmented landscape using satellite Aster data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In Italy, after each fire season (generally summer season for the southern Mediterranean landscapes and winter/spring for the Northern alpine ecosystems) the up to date of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping is mandatory according to the current national legislation. The mapping of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> is generally performed by regional forestry service by using field GPS survey and/or helicopter in the case of large fire extension. The use of remote sensing technologies can be an effective support for mapping fire affected <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Such <span class="hlt">areas</span> are characterized by the removal of vegetation, deposits of charcoal and ash, and alteration of the vegetation structure, that can be detected by satellite remote sensed data. Due to the fact that in Italy the extension of fire is generally as small as 10 ha to 50 ha the use of high resolution data is mandatory. In order to set up a low cost technologies to be effectively applied in operational context, we assessed the capability of ASTER data for same test <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the Basilicata Region. In this paper we present results we obtained from the use of several Vegetation indices based on ASTER VNIR. Among the spectral indices proposed for burnt <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping we used and compare the Simple Vegetation Index, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, the Transformed Vegetation Index, and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). The data processing was performed using both a single date and a multidate (pre and post fire) approach. Several test cases selected from the 2007 fire season were investigated. ASTER-based results were compared with field data provided by the Basilicata regional Forestry Service</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vita, A.; Lanorte, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">27</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-98PC-0767&hterms=soaking&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2522soaking%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">A fire <span class="hlt">burns</span> in a wooded <span class="hlt">area</span> on KSC property</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A fire <span class="hlt">burns</span> in the background as members of the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service operate firefighting equipment soaking the grass and underbrush in an attempt to keep the fire away from Kennedy Parkway and the wooded <span class="hlt">area</span> on the other side of the road. Lightning touched off three different fires Sunday evening in and around Kennedy Space Center at Tel IV, Ransom Road and Pine Island Road. This <span class="hlt">area</span> is part of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge operated by the service. The fires were a short distance from operational facilities at the space center and forced the closing of Florida State Route 3. The fires are being contained by firefighters from Kennedy Space Center and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">28</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6413198"> <span id="translatedtitle">An active-fire based <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping algorithm for the MODIS sensor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present an automated method for mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> using 500-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery coupled with 1-km MODIS active fire observations. The algorithm applies dynamic thresholds to composite imagery generated from a <span class="hlt">burn</span>-sensitive vegetation index and a measure of temporal texture. Cumulative active fire maps are used to guide the selection of <span class="hlt">burned</span> and unburned training samples.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Louis Giglio; Tatiana Loboda; David P. Roy; Brad Quayle; Christopher O. Justice</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">29</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040161152&hterms=ver&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2522ver%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forest Understory Fire in the Brazilian Amazon in ENSO and Non-ENSO Years: <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burned</span> and Committed Carbon Emissions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">"Understory fires" that <span class="hlt">burn</span> the floor of standing forests are one of the most important types of forest impoverishment in the Amazon, especially during the severe droughts of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes. However, we are aware of no estimates of the areal extent of these fires for the Brazilian Amazon and, hence, of their contribution to Amazon carbon fluxes to the atmosphere. We calculated the <span class="hlt">area</span> of forest understory fires for the Brazilian Amazon region during an El Nino (1998) and a non El Nino (1995) year based on forest fire scars mapped with satellite images for three locations in eastern and southern Amazon, where deforestation is concentrated. The three study sites represented a gradient of both forest types and dry season severity. The <span class="hlt">burning</span> scar maps were used to determine how the percentage of forest that <span class="hlt">burned</span> varied with distance from agricultural clearings. These spatial functions were then applied to similar forest/climate combinations outside of the study sites to derive an initial estimate for the Brazilian Amazon. Ninety-one percent of the forest <span class="hlt">area</span> that <span class="hlt">burned</span> in the study sites was within the first kilometer of a clearing for the non ENSO year and within the first four kilometers for the ENSO year. The <span class="hlt">area</span> of forest <span class="hlt">burned</span> by understory forest fire during the severe drought (ENSO) year (3.9 millions of hectares) was 13 times greater than the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> during the average rainfall year (0.2 million hectares), and twice the <span class="hlt">area</span> of <span class="hlt">annual</span> deforestation rate. Dense forest was, proportionally, the forest <span class="hlt">area</span> most affected by understory fires during the El Nino year, while understory fires were concentrated in transitional forests during the year of average rainfall. Our estimate of aboveground tree biomass killed by fire ranged from 0.06 Pg to 0.38 Pg during the ENSO and from 0,004 Pg to 0,024 Pg during the non ENSO.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alencar, A.; Nepstad, D.; Ver-Diaz, M. Del. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">30</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.geogra.uah.es/%7Eemilio/pdf/garcia2004.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of the potential of SACC\\/MMRS imagery for mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Spain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Early and detailed information regarding the location and extension of <span class="hlt">areas</span> affected by forest fires is a critical issue for assessing their effects at several scales. Remote sensing is a valuable tool for <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping, providing spatially explicit information on the scorched <span class="hlt">areas</span>, even for remote regions.Various sensors have been used for <span class="hlt">burned</span> land mapping in recent years, covering</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mariano Garc??a; Emilio Chuvieco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">31</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://handcare.assh.org/Portals/1/Burns.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... 2nd Degree: partial thickness skin damage—blisters present 3rd Degree: full thickness skin damage—skin is white ... excision of damaged skin followed by skin grafting. 3rd Degree (Full Thickness <span class="hlt">Burns</span>): The dead skin will ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">32</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorials/burns/htm/index.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... the inner layer of the skin, contains • Blood vessels • nerves • lymph vessels • hair follicles • glands This document is for informational ... are destroyed. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> cause severe damage to blood vessels. This type of damage causes fluid to seep ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">33</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESS..14...53B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the predictability of fire occurrence and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> across phytoclimatic regions in Spain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most fire protection agencies throughout the world have developed forest fire risk forecast systems, usually building upon existing fire danger indices and meteorological forecast data. In this context, the daily predictability of wildfires is of utmost importance in order to allow the fire protection agencies to issue timely fire hazard alerts. In this study, we address the predictability of daily fire occurrence using the components of the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) System and related variables calculated from the latest ECMWF (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts) reanalysis, ERA-Interim. We develop daily fire occurrence models in peninsular Spain for the period 1990-2008 and, considering different minimum <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> thresholds for fire definition, assess their ability to reproduce the inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> fire frequency variability. We based the analysis on a phytoclimatic classification aiming the stratification of the territory into homogeneous units in terms of climatic and fuel type characteristics, allowing to test model performance under different climate/fuel conditions. We then extend the analysis in order to assess the predictability of monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The sensitivity of the models to the level of spatial aggregation of the data is also evaluated. Additionally, we investigate the gain in model performance with the inclusion of socioeconomic and land use/land cover (LULC) covariates in model formulation. Fire occurrence models have attained good performance in most of the phytoclimatic zones considered, being able to faithfully reproduce the inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability of fire frequency. Total <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> has exhibited some dependence on the meteorological drivers, although model performance was poor in most cases. We identified temperature and some FWI system components as the most important explanatory variables, highlighting the adequacy of the FWI system for fire occurrence prediction in the study <span class="hlt">area</span>. The results were improved when using aggregated data across regions compared to when data were sampled at the grid-box level. The inclusion of socioeconomic and LULC covariates contributed marginally to the improvement of the models, and in most cases attained no relevant contribution to total explained variance - excepting northern Spain, where anthropogenic factors are known to be the major driver of fires. Models of monthly fire counts performed better in the case of fires larger than 0.1 ha, and for the rest of the thresholds (1, 10 and 100 ha) the daily occurrence models improved the predicted inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability, indicating the added value of daily models. Fire frequency predictions may provide a preferable basis for past fire history reconstruction, long-term monitoring and the assessment of future climate impacts on fire regimes across regions, posing several advantages over <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> as a response variable. Our results leave the door open to the development a more complex modelling framework based on daily data from numerical climate model outputs based on the FWI system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bedia, J.; Herrera, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">34</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17046310"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatal <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Manipal <span class="hlt">area</span>: a 10 year study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate the causes and the magnitude of the fatal <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries retrospectively. An analysis of autopsy records revealed 19.4% cases of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries amongst the total autopsies done over 10years period (1993-2002) in the mortuary of the department of Forensic Medicine of Kasturba medical College, Manipal. The majority of deaths (78.5%) occurred between 11 and 40years of age group with preponderance of females (74.8%). The flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> were seen in 94.1% of the victims followed by scalds and electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> in 2.8% and 2.5% cases, respectively. The majority of <span class="hlt">burn</span> incidents were accidental (75.8%) in nature followed by suicidal (11.5%) and homicidal (3.1%) deaths. The percentage of <span class="hlt">burn</span> (TBSA) over 40% were observed in most of the cases (92.5%). The majority of deaths occurred within a week (69.87%) and most the victims died because of septicemia (50.9%). PMID:17046310</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kumar, Virendra; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar; Kanth, Sarita</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">35</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56273548"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity patterns across the Mediterranean region</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Mediterranean region is highly susceptible to wildfires. On average, about 60,000 fires take place in this region every year, <span class="hlt">burning</span> on average half a million hectares of forests and natural vegetation. Wildfires cause environmental degradation and affect the lives of thousands of people in the region. In order to minimize the consequences of these catastrophic events, fire managers and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christos Kalogeropoulos; Giuseppe Amatulli; Pieter Kempeneers; Fernando Sedano; Jesus San Miguel-Ayanz; Andrea Camia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">36</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-01-09/pdf/2013-00235.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 1833 - <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Surveys in the Manufacturing <span class="hlt">Area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...121017555-2688-01] <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Surveys in the Manufacturing <span class="hlt">Area</span> AGENCY: Bureau of the Census...conducting the 2013 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Surveys in the Manufacturing <span class="hlt">Area</span>. The 2013 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Surveys consist...CONTACT: Mendel D. Gayle, Chief, Manufacturing and Construction Division at...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">37</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020034899&hterms=Pereira&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DPereira"> <span id="translatedtitle">Brazil Fire Characterization and <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Estimation Using the Airborne Infrared Disaster Assessment (AIRDAS) System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Remotely sensed estimations of regional and global emissions from biomass combustion have been used to characterize fire behavior, determine fire intensity, and estimate <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Highly temporal, low resolution satellite data have been used to calculate estimates of fire numbers and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. These estimates of fire activity and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> have differed dramatically, resulting in a wide range of predictions on the ecological and environmental impacts of fires. As part of the Brazil/United States Fire Initiative, an aircraft campaign was initiated in 1992 and continued in 1994. This multi-aircraft campaign was designed to assist in the characterization of fire activity, document fire intensity and determine <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> over prescribed, agricultural and wildland fires in the savanna and forests of central Brazil. Using a unique, multispectral scanner (AIRDAS), designed specifically for fire characterization, a variety of fires and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> were flown with a high spatial and high thermal resolution scanner. The system was used to measure flame front size, rate of spread, ratio of smoldering to flaming fronts and fire intensity. In addition, long transects were flown to determine the size of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> within the cerrado and transitional ecosystems. The authors anticipate that the fire activity and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates reported here will lead to enhanced information for precise regional trace gas prediction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brass, J. A.; Riggan, P. J.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Lockwood, R. N.; Pereira, J. A.; Higgins, R. G.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">38</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1737c/report.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1737c/plate-1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mineral Resources of the Black Mountains North and <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Areas</span>, Mohave County, Arizona</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, approximately 19,300 acres of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> (AZ-020-009) and 23,310 acres of the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> (AZ-02D-010) were evaluated for mineral resources and mineral resource potential. In this report, the <span class="hlt">area</span> studied is referred to, collectively or individually, as the 'wilderness study <span class="hlt">area</span>' or simply 'the study <span class="hlt">area</span>'; any reference to the Black Mountains North or <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Areas</span> refers only to that part of the wilderness study <span class="hlt">area</span> for which a mineral survey was requested by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. The study <span class="hlt">area</span> is located in western Arizona, about 30 mi northwest of Kingman. There are no identified resources in the study <span class="hlt">area</span>. An <span class="hlt">area</span> surrounding the Portland mine and including the southern part of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> and the extreme northwestern part of the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> has high resource potential for gold and moderate resource potential for silver, lead, and mercury. The <span class="hlt">area</span> surrounding this and including much of the northern part of the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> has moderate potential for gold, silver, and lead. The northeastern corner of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> has moderate potential for gold and low potential for silver, copper, and molybdenum resources. The central part, including the narrow strip of land just west of the central part, of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> and the southern and extreme eastern parts of the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> have low resource potential for gold. The central and southern parts of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> and all but the southwestern part of the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> have moderate resource potential for perlite. Moderate resource potential for zeolites is assigned to a large <span class="hlt">area</span> around the Portland mine that includes parts of both study <span class="hlt">areas</span>, to a narrow strip of land just west of the central part of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span>, and to all but the southwest corner of the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span>. There is no potential for oil and gas in either study <span class="hlt">area</span>. Sand and gravel are present in both study <span class="hlt">areas</span>, but abundant quantities of these resources are available closer to existing markets.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Conrad, James E.; Hill, Randall H.; Jachens, Robert C.; Neubert, John T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">39</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESD...1.4891B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling fire frequency and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> across phytoclimatic regions in Spain using reanalysis data and the Canadian Fire Weather Index System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We develop fire occurrence and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> models in peninsular Spain, an <span class="hlt">area</span> of high variability in climate and fuel types, for the period 1990-2008. We based the analysis on a phytoclimatic classification aiming to the stratification of the territory into homogeneous units in terms of climatic and fuel type characteristics, allowing to test model performance under different climatic and fuel conditions. We used generalized linear models (GLM) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) as modelling algorithms and temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and wind speed, taken from the ERA-Interim reanalysis, as well as the components of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System as predictors. We also computed the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) as an additional predictor for the models of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. We found two contrasting fire regimes in terms of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> and number of fires: one characterized by a bimodal <span class="hlt">annual</span> pattern, characterizing the Nemoral and Oro-boreal phytoclimatic types, and another one exhibiting an unimodal <span class="hlt">annual</span> cycle, with the fire season concentrated in the summer months in the Mediterranean and Arid regions. The fire occurrence models attained good skill in most of the phytoclimatic zones considered, yielding in some zones notably high correlation coefficients between the observed and modelled inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> fire frequencies. Total <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> also exhibited a high dependence on the meteorological drivers, although their ability to reproduce the observed <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> time series was poor in most cases. We identified temperature and some FWI system components as the most important explanatory variables, and also SPEI in some of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> models, highlighting the adequacy of the FWI system for fire modelling applications and leaving the door opened to the development a more complex modelling framework based on these predictors. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential usefulness of ERA-Interim reanalysis data for the reconstruction of historical fire-climate relationships at the scale of analysis. Fire frequency predictions may provide a preferable basis for past fire history reconstruction, long-term monitoring and the assessment of future climate impacts on fire regimes across regions, posing several advantages over <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> as response variable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bedia, J.; Herrera, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">40</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC21C0855K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting high severity fire occurrence and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in a changing climate for three regions in the Western US</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A long history of fire suppression in the western United States has interrupted the fire regimes of many forest types. This interruption has significantly changed forest structure and ecological function and led to increasingly uncharacteristic fires in terms of size and severity. Research has shown that climate variability drives the occurrence of large fires and is important to predicting fire severity. We found that Western US <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in high severity fire can be accurately predicted using a generalized Pareto distribution model with covariates of climate, weather, topography, and vegetation. Our model was robust in all but the most extreme fire years, e.g. 1988, 2000, 2002, and 2003, where <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in high severity was significantly greater than in other years. We modeled the Northern Rocky Mountains, the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and the Southwestern US to determine if regional differences in controls on severity were at play in extreme years. The regional analysis improved model performance by capturing extreme fire years and identified regionally unique covariates. For the Northern Rocky Mountains the addition of elevation and fire regime condition class improved the prediction in extreme years. In the Southwest relative humidity and moisture deficit in the month of fire and total fire size were critical to capturing extreme fire years. The Sierra Nevada model had the most complex set of covariates that included: vegetation, moisture deficit, evapotranspiration, precipitation, and fire regime condition class. By incorporating regionally specific variables, our models were robust in prediction of high severity <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in all years. For this work, we will apply high and low CO2 emission scenarios from three general circulation models to our regional statistical models to predict probability of high severity fire occurrence as well as <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in high severity for the period 1950-2099. We used the downscaled climate as an input into the VIC hydrologic model to generate independent variable sets for each future scenario. The modeling output will allow us to identify potential changes in the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> with high severity fire under future climate as well as <span class="hlt">areas</span> where the probable occurrence of high severity fires might increase.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keyser, A.; Westerling, A. L.; Milostan, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> 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href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">41</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMIN52B..06B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design-based validation of the MODIS Global <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Product</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The potential research, policy and management applications of satellite products place a high priority on providing statements about their accuracy. Product comparison with independent reference data is needed to determine product accuracy. Design-based accuracy assessment methods select the independent reference data using a probability sampling and are preferred as the reference data can subsequently be used to compute accuracy metrics that explicitly take into account the sampling probability. To date, no global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product has been validated using a design-based methodology due to the technical challenges of designing an appropriate independent reference data sampling strategy, and, until recently, due to the high cost of independent reference data collection. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product errors are not randomly distributed in space and time and tend to be linked to seasonal phenomena that can be confused with <span class="hlt">burning</span>. This paper describes the design-based sampling strategy developed for the validation of the MODIS Global <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Products using more than 200 globally distributed multi-temporal pairs of Landsat scenes, processed following the recommendations of the CEOS Cal/Val <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Validation Protocol. The sampling design is illustrated and the advantages of the design-based sampling discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.; Stehman, S. V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">42</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC21C0843F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the Spatial Pattern of Wildfire Ignition and <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> in Southern Californian Mediterranean Ecosystems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wildfire ignition requires a combination of an ignition source and suitable weather and fuel conditions. Models of fire occurrence and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> provide a good understanding of the physical and climatic factors that constrain and promote fire spread and recurrence, but information on how humans influence ignition patterns and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is still lacking at a scale compatible with integrated fire management. We first investigated the relative importance of the physical, climatic, and human factors regulating ignition probability across Southern California. A 30-year exploratory analysis of one-way relationships indicated that distance to roads, distance to housing, and topographic slope were the major determinants of ignition occurrence and frequency. A logistic regression model explained 70% of spatial variability in ignition occurrence (presence or absence of an ignition in each 3 km grid cell) whereas a Poisson-type regression model explained 45% of the spatial variability in ignition frequency in national forests across Southern California. Predicted ignition probability was a key indicator of the spatial variability of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, explaining approximately 9% of the variance for Santa Ana fires and 21% of the variance for non-Santa Ana fires across Southern California. In a second step we combined the previous ignition modeling framework with other data sources to model the spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Preliminary results showed that average wind speed alone explained approximately 30% of the spatial variation in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from Santa Ana fires. Further integration of the effects of fuel continuity, moisture, and accumulation and their interaction with wind speed and direction improved our spatial assessment of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> risk in Southern California. Our results may have implications for strategic fire management in the region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Faivre, N.; Jin, Y.; Goulden, M.; Randerson, J. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">43</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMNH43A..06B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Merging satellite measurements of fire radiative energy and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products to estimate biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>: A European case study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is a key element of the terrestrial carbon cycle that influences the global radiation budget through the biomass consumption and the subsequently release of aerosols and trace gases into the atmosphere having huge impacts on the global climate. Recently, global products of daily fire activity have recorded Fire Radiative Power (FRP), providing a quantitative assessment of fire intensity across the globe. Several studies showed that FRP is proportional to the fire's fuel consumption and smoke emission rates through integration of the FRP over time, deriving the Fire Radiative Energy (FRE), which can be assumed as the total energy released over a spatio-temporal unit and used to infer total emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in various ecosystems, omitting fuel load and combustion completeness information that are characterized by significant uncertainties at continental and global scale, and at the same time simplifying the computation of spatially explicit fuel consumption estimates. This study integrates spatial and temporal analysis using FRP data from the geostationary Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) for the year 2008 and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor (MCD64A1) for the same year focusing on Europe. An intercomparison assessment of the emission estimates with the Global Fire Data Emissions Database (GFED) followed, due to lack of FRE and combustion measurements in large scale for validation. We show that the fire-emitted energy approach can be used in continental scale reducing uncertainties in emission estimates which may lead to simplification of the fire parameterization in fire modelling, yet in more robust simulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bistinas, I.; Saldaña, G. L.; Oom, D.; Sá, A. C.; Silva, J. M.; Pereira, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">44</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48930583"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal variability in <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> for the province of Ontario, Canada, during the past 200 years inferred from tree rings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> variability in the province of Ontario, Canada, was inferred from 25 tree ring width chronologies covering A.D. 1781–1982 and distributed largely across the Boreal Shield. The <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> estimates account for 39.5% of the variance in the actual <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> recorded from 1917 to 1981 and were verified using a split sample calibration-verification scheme. The reconstruction showed that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin P. Girardin; Jacques Tardif; Mike D. Flannigan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">45</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60880341"> <span id="translatedtitle">STUDIES ON LARGE <span class="hlt">AREA</span> SUB-FABRIC <span class="hlt">BURNS</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The detonation of shot one at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954, produced a ;\\u000a fallout of radioactive ash upon Rongelap Atoll, Marshall Islands. The ;\\u000a distribution of the radioactive ash on the islands and in the plants and animals ;\\u000a of the <span class="hlt">area</span> has been studied and evaluated. During the first expedition to ;\\u000a Rongelap Atoll on March 26,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. M. Berkley; H. E. Pearse</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">46</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880050191&hterms=surface+area&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsurface%2Barea"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiative surface temperatures of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> and unburned <span class="hlt">areas</span> in a tallgrass prairie</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study was conducted in a natural tallgrass prairie <span class="hlt">area</span> in the Flint Hills of Kansas. The objective was to evaluate the surface radiative temperatures of <span class="hlt">burned</span> and unburned treatments of the grassland as a means of delineating the <span class="hlt">areas</span> covered by each treatment. <span class="hlt">Burning</span> is used to remove the senescent vegetation resulting from the previous year's growth. Surface temperatures were obtained in situ and by an airborne scanner. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> and unburned grass canopies had distinctly different diurnal surface radiative temperatures. Measurements of surface energy balance components revealed a difference in partitioning of the available energy between the two canopies, which resulted in the difference in their measured surface temperatures. The magnitude of this difference is dependent on the time of measurements and topographic conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Asrar, G.; Harris, T. R.; Lapitan, R. L.; Cooper, D. I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">47</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2008105487"> <span id="translatedtitle">Atlanta High Intensity Drug Trafficking <span class="hlt">Area</span>, 2005 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report presents measures of the effectiveness of the Atlanta HIDTA program during calendar year 2005. The Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) has designated Atlanta as a High Intensity Drug Trafficking <span class="hlt">Area</span> (HIDTA), ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">48</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-05-27/pdf/2011-13286.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 30997 - National Transit Database: Amendments to Urbanized <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Reporting Manual</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...FTA-2010-0027] National Transit Database: Amendments to Urbanized <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span>...of Amendments to 2011 National Transit Database Urbanized <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Reporting Manual...Administration's (FTA) 2011 National Transit Database (NTD) Urbanized <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">49</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023939"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long lead statistical forecasts of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in western U.S. wildfires by ecosystem province</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A statistical forecast methodology exploits large-scale patterns in monthly U.S. Climatological Division Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) values over a wide region and several seasons to predict <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in western U.S. wildfires by ecosystem province a season in advance. The forecast model, which is based on canonical correlations, indicates that a few characteristic patterns determine predicted wildfire season <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. Strong negative associations between anomalous soil moisture (inferred from PDSI) immediately prior to the fire season and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> dominate in most higher elevation forested provinces, while strong positive associations between anomalous soil moisture a year prior to the fire season and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> dominate in desert and shrub and grassland provinces. In much of the western U.S., above- and below-normal fire season forecasts were successful 57% of the time or better, as compared with a 33% skill for a random guess, and with a low probability of being surprised by a fire season at the opposite extreme of that forecast.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Westerling, A. L.; Gershunov, A.; Cayan, D. R.; Barnett, T. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">50</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615581K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fire emissions simulated by prescribing <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> observations in a global vegetation model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The emissions of trace gases and aerosols from large vegetation fires into the atmosphere have an important climate impact. In this study we integrate observed <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> into a global vegetation model to derive global fire emissions. A global continuous <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products provided by GFED (Global Fire Emissions Dataset) were obtained from MODIS (and pre-MODIS) satellites and are available for the time period 1997-2011. We integrate the global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product into the global vegetation model JSBACH, a land part of the Earth-System model developed at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology. JSBACH simulates land biomass in terms of carbon, which can be combined with the satellite <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> information to derive fire carbon emissions. Some assumptions on fire fuel consumptions have to be made during the integration of satellite <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> into the JSBACH. This includes processes such as tree mortality and combustion completeness, i.e. how much of the vegetation biomass gets combusted during a fire. Partially, this information can be also obtained from measurements. In this study we follow closely the approach of GFED, incorporating also GFED supplemental information, to simulate fuel consumption in JSBACH. And we compare simulated by this approach fire carbon emissions with the fire emissions from GFED. Global vegetation models often use prescribed land cover maps. The simulated in the JSBACH vegetation biomass and thus the simulated fire carbon emissions critically depend on the land cover distribution. In our study we derive fire carbon emissions using two different land cover parameterizations, based on two different satellite datasets. We will present the results obtained from simulations using the JSBACH standard MODIS based vegetation distribution and compare them to the results derived using the recently released ESA CCI land cover satellite product to demonstrate the sensitivity of simulated fire carbon emissions to the underlying land cover distribution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Khlystova, Iryna G.; Wilkenskjeld, Stiig; Kloster, Silvia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">51</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23500819"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimating future <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> under changing climate in the EU-Mediterranean countries.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The impacts of climate change on forest fires have received increased attention in recent years at both continental and local scales. It is widely recognized that weather plays a key role in extreme fire situations. It is therefore of great interest to analyze projected changes in fire danger under climate change scenarios and to assess the consequent impacts of forest fires. In this study we estimated <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the European Mediterranean (EU-Med) countries under past and future climate conditions. Historical (1985-2004) monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in EU-Med countries were modeled by using the Canadian Fire Weather Index (CFWI). Monthly averages of the CFWI sub-indices were used as explanatory variables to estimate the monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in each of the five most affected countries in Europe using three different modeling approaches (Multiple Linear Regression - MLR, Random Forest - RF, Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines - MARS). MARS outperformed the other methods. Regression equations and significant coefficients of determination were obtained, although there were noticeable differences from country to country. Climatic conditions at the end of the 21st Century were simulated using results from the runs of the regional climate model HIRHAM in the European project PRUDENCE, considering two IPCC SRES scenarios (A2-B2). The MARS models were applied to both scenarios resulting in projected <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in each country and in the EU-Med region. Results showed that significant increases, 66% and 140% of the total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, can be expected in the EU-Med region under the A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. PMID:23500819</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Amatulli, Giuseppe; Camia, Andrea; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">52</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC24A..07K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Evaluation of Uncertainties in <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burned</span>, Land Cover, and Fuel Consumption</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wildfire is one of the main disturbance factors in the boreal zone of Russia. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russia vary substantially due to differences in ecosystem classification and mapping, <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> calculations, and estimates of fuel consumption. We examined uncertainties in different parameters used to estimate biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions. Several fire datasets (Institute of Forest <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product, MCD45, MCD64, MOD14/MYD14, official data) were compared to estimate uncertainties in <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in Siberia. <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> was found to differ significantly by data source, with satellite data being by an order of magnitude greater than ground-based data. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted on the basis of five land cover maps (GLC-2000, Globcover-2009, MODIS Collection 4 and 5 Global Land Cover, and the Digitized Ecosystem map of the Former Soviet Union) to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. The examination of land cover maps showed that estimates of relative proportion of fire by ecosystem type varied substantially for the same year from map to map. Fuel consumption remains one of the main uncertainties in estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions in Siberia. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Global climate change is expected to result in increase of fire hazard and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, leading to impacts on global air quality and human health. Accurate emission estimates are required by air quality agencies to calculate local emissions and to develop strategies to mitigate negative smoke impacts. This research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, Fulbright Program, and Russian Academy of Sciences.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kukavskaya, E.; Soja, A. J.; Ivanova, G. A.; Petkov, A.; Ponomarev, E. I.; Conard, S. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">53</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/770999"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tanks Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> report FY2000</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation effort with tanks containing hazardous and radioactive waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials. With some 90 million gallons of waste in the form of solid, sludge, liquid, and gas stored in 287 tanks across the DOE complex, containing approximately 650 million curies, radioactive waste storage tank remediation is the nation's highest cleanup priority. Differing waste types and unique technical issues require specialized science and technology to achieve tank cleanup in an environmentally acceptable manner. Some of the waste has been stored for over 50 years in tanks that have exceeded their design lives. The challenge is to characterize and maintain these contents in a safe condition and continue to remediate and close each tank to minimize the risks of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) created a group of integrated, multiorganizational teams focusing on specific <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the EM cleanup mission. These teams have evolved into five focus <span class="hlt">areas</span> managed within EM's Office of Science and Technology (OST): Tanks Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span> (TFA); Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span>; Nuclear Materials Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span>; Subsurface Contaminants Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span>; and Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">None</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">54</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52862555"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> Variability of Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Aerosol Optical Depth in Southern Amazonia, and the Impact of These Aerosols on the Diurnal Cycle of Solar Flux Reduction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability of the magnitude of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in southern Amazonia has been relatively large over the last decade. The extent of the <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the latter half of a given dry season (July-October) depends largely on the rainfall amount and timing, with drought years exhibiting many more fires and smoke than average. Additionally, new regulations aimed at controlling</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. F. Eck; B. N. Holben; J. S. Schafer; P. Artaxo; M. A. Yamasoe; A. S. Procopio; E. M. Prins; J. M. Feltz; A. Smirnov; O. Dubovik; J. S. Reid</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">55</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1214/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probability and volume of potential postwildfire debris flows in the 2011 Wallow <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, eastern Arizona</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> in 2011 by the Wallow wildfire in eastern Arizona. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> drainage basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and debris-flow volumes for selected drainage basins. Input for the models include measures of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, topographic characteristics, soil properties, and rainfall total and intensity for a (1) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall and (2) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall. Estimated debris-flow probabilities in the drainage basins of interest ranged from less than 1 percent in response to both the 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall and the 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall to a high of 41 percent in response to the 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall. The low probabilities in all modeled drainage basins are likely due to extensive low-gradient hillslopes, <span class="hlt">burned</span> at low severities, and large drainage-basin <span class="hlt">areas</span> (greater than 25 square kilometers). Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from a low of 24 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters, indicating a considerable hazard should debris flows occur</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruddy, Barbara C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">56</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/610270"> <span id="translatedtitle">Subsurface Contaminants Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> report 1997</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In support of its vision for technological excellence, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span> (SCFA) has identified three strategic goals. The three goals of the SCFA are: Contain and/or stabilize contamination sources that pose an imminent threat to surface and ground waters; Delineate DNAPL contamination in the subsurface and remediate DNAPL-contaminated soils and ground water; and Remove a full range of metal and radionuclide contamination in soils and ground water. To meet the challenges of remediating subsurface contaminants in soils and ground water, SCFA funded more than 40 technologies in fiscal year 1997. These technologies are grouped according to the following product lines: Dense Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids; Metals and Radionuclides; Source Term Containment; and Source Term Remediation. This report briefly describes the SCFA 1997 technologies and showcases a few key technologies in each product line.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NONE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">57</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H31B1154C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrologic Impact of Straw Mulch On Runoff from a <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> for Various Soil Water Content</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mountainous watersheds often exhibit increases in runoff and flash floods after wildfires. During 11 days of September 2010, the Fourmile Canyon wildfire <span class="hlt">burned</span> 2500 hectares of the foothills of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado. In an effort to minimize the risk of flash floods after the wildfire, Boulder County aerially applied straw mulch on high-risk <span class="hlt">areas</span> selected primarily on the basis of their slopes and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severities. The purpose of this research is to investigate the hydrologic response, specifically runoff, of a <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> where straw mulch is applied. We measured the runoff, at different soil water contents, from 0.8-m diameter plots. Paired plots were installed in June 2011 in a basin <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Fourmile Canyon Fire. Two sets of bounded, paired plot (two control and two experimental plots) were calibrated for 35 days without straw on either plot by measuring volumetric soil water content 2-3 times per week and measuring total runoff from each storm. Straw (5 cm thick) was added to the two experimental plots on 19 July 2011 and also to the funnels of two visual rain gages in order to measure the amount of rainfall absorbed by the straw. Initial results during the calibration period showed nearly linear relations between the volumetric soil water content of the control and experimental plots. The regression line for the runoff from the control versus the runoff from the experiment plot did not fit a linear trend; the variability may have been caused by two intense storms, which produced runoff that exceeded the capacity of the runoff gages. Also, during the calibration period, when soil water content was low the runoff coefficients were high. It is anticipated that the final results will show that the total runoff is greater on plots with no straw compared to those with straw, under conditions of various antecedent soil water content. We are continuing to collect data during the summer of 2011 to test this hypothesis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carnicle, M. M.; Moody, J. A.; Ahlstrom, A. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">58</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42527931"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the feasibility of a global model for multi-temporal <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping using SPOT-VEGETATION data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The possibility of using the Syst@me Probatoire de l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT)-VEGETATION (VGT) data for global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping with a single algorithm was investigated. Using VGT images from south-eastern Africa, the Iberian Peninsula and south-eastern Siberia\\/north-eastern China, we analysed the variability of the spectral signature of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> and its relationship with land cover, and performed the selection</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. M. N. Silva; J. F. C. L. Cadima; J. M. C. Pereira; J.-M. Grégoire</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">59</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GMDD....7.2377Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling fires in the terrestrial carbon balance by incorporating SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE - Part 1: Simulating historical global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and fire regime</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fire is an important global ecological process that determines the distribution of biomes, with consequences for carbon, water, and energy budgets. The modelling of fire is critical for understanding its role in both historical and future changes in terrestrial ecosystems and the climate system. This study incorporates the process-based prognostic fire module SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE, which was then used to simulate the historical <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and the fire regime for the 20th century. For 2001-2006, the simulated global spatial extent of fire occurrence agrees well with that given by the satellite-derived <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> datasets (L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, GFED3.1) and captures 78-92% of global total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> depending on which dataset is used for comparison. The simulated global <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is 329 Mha yr-1, which falls within the range of 287-384 Mha yr-1 given by the three global observation datasets and is close to the 344 Mha yr-1 given by GFED3.1 data when crop fires are excluded. The simulated long-term trends of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> agree best with the observation data in regions where fire is mainly driven by the climate variation, such as boreal Russia (1920-2009), and the US state of Alaska and Canada (1950-2009). At the global scale, the simulated decadal fire trend over the 20th century is in moderate agreement with the historical reconstruction, possibly because of the uncertainties of past estimates, and because land-use change fires and fire suppression are not explicitly included in the model. Over the globe, the size of large fires (the 95th quantile fire size) is systematically underestimated by the model compared with the fire patch data as reconstructed from MODIS 500 m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data. Two case studies of fire size distribution in boreal North America and southern Africa indicate that both the number and the size of big fires are underestimated, which could be related with too low fire spread rate (in the case of static vegetation) and fire duration time. Future efforts should be directed towards building consistent spatial observation datasets for key parameters of the model in order to constrain the model error at each key step of the fire modelling.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Cadule, P.; Thonicke, K.; Archibald, S.; Poulter, B.; Hao, W. M.; Hantson, S.; Mouillot, F.; Friedlingstein, P.; Maignan, F.; Viovy, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">60</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10116005"> <span id="translatedtitle">L-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Reactor - 1993 <span class="hlt">annual</span> - groundwater monitoring report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Groundwater was sampled and analyzed during 1993 from wells monitoring the water table at the following locations in L <span class="hlt">Area</span>: the L-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Acid/Caustic Basin (four LAC wells), L-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Research Wells in the southern portion of the <span class="hlt">area</span> (outside the fence; three LAW wells), the L-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Oil and Chemical Basin (four LCO wells), the L-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Disassembly Basin (two LDB wells), the L-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pit (four LRP wells), and the L-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Seepage Basin (four LSB wells). During 1993, tetrachloroethylene was detected above its drinking water standard (DWS) in the LAC, LAW, LCO, and LDB well series. Lead exceeded its 50 {mu}g/L standard in the LAW, LDB, and LRP series, and tritium was above its DWS in the LAW, LCO, and LSB series. Apparently anomalous elevated levels of the common laboratory contaminant bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate were reported during first quarter in one well each in the LAC series and LCO series, and during third quarter in a different LCO well. Extensive radionuclide analyses were performed during 1993 in the LAC, LAW, and LCO well series. No radionuclides other than tritium were reported above DWS or Flag 2 criteria.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chase, J.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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<img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">61</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1370/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using Logistic Regression to Predict the Probability of Debris Flows in <span class="hlt">Areas</span> <span class="hlt">Burned</span> by Wildfires, Southern California, 2003-2006</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Logistic regression was used to develop statistical models that can be used to predict the probability of debris flows in <span class="hlt">areas</span> recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> by wildfires by using data from 14 wildfires that <span class="hlt">burned</span> in southern California during 2003-2006. Twenty-eight independent variables describing the basin morphology, <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, rainfall, and soil properties of 306 drainage basins located within those <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> were evaluated. The models were developed as follows: (1) Basins that did and did not produce debris flows soon after the 2003 to 2006 fires were delineated from data in the National Elevation Dataset using a geographic information system; (2) Data describing the basin morphology, <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, rainfall, and soil properties were compiled for each basin. These data were then input to a statistics software package for analysis using logistic regression; and (3) Relations between the occurrence or absence of debris flows and the basin morphology, <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated, and five multivariate logistic regression models were constructed. All possible combinations of independent variables were evaluated to determine which combinations produced the most effective models, and the multivariate models that best predicted the occurrence of debris flows were identified. Percentage of high <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity and 3-hour peak rainfall intensity were significant variables in all models. Soil organic matter content and soil clay content were significant variables in all models except Model 5. Soil slope was a significant variable in all models except Model 4. The most suitable model can be selected from these five models on the basis of the availability of independent variables in the particular <span class="hlt">area</span> of interest and field checking of probability maps. The multivariate logistic regression models can be entered into a geographic information system, and maps showing the probability of debris flows can be constructed in recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> of southern California. This study demonstrates that logistic regression is a valuable tool for developing models that predict the probability of debris flows occurring in recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> landscapes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rupert, Michael G.; Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Helsel, Dennis R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">62</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37..976R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of uncertainty to estimate <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from different spatial resolution satellite imagery using a neuro-fuzzy classifier</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Remote sensing data from different instruments (AVHRR, MODIS, LANDSAT) and spatial resolutions (30m, 500m, 1Km, 4Km) were used to assess the impact of the spatial resolution in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping. Uncertainty was estimated with a neuro-fuzzy classifier. High resolution remote sensing images (Landsat5/TM) and ground data were used initially to select diverse scenes affected by the fire. The study region was located in the north-west region of the Iberian Peninsula, where several fires occurred in August 2006. A pixel approach neuro-fuzzy classifier was designed to identify <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> on those high resolution scenes but only using those bands in similar spectral region, comparable between sensors. The classifier was applied to all of the images in order to compute the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> uncertainty driven by the image resolution. Results show the inverse relationship between the spatial resolution of the images and the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in terms of uncertainty. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> pixel neighbourhood conditions could be used by the classifier in order to improve uncertainty <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rafael Garcia-Lazaro, Jose; Arbelo, Manuel; Moreno-Ruiz, Jose A.; Piedra-Fernandez, Ja</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">63</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.6439G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data to explore fire spread in coupled fire and ecosystem models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fire is a major driver of change in many ecosystems, and ecosystem models should try to understand and model the feedbacks between vegetation and fire. To achieve this, work has started on coupling fire and ecosystem models. The fire model receives modelled vegetation as input for its fuel loads, and simulates ignitions and fire spread from a number of assumptions on fire processes. The fire model simulates fire behaviour, and also estimates how vegetation is killed by the fire. This disturbance is fed back into the ecosystem model. In the current work, we focus on the LPJ ecosystem model and on the SPITFIRE fire model. Both models haven been used in conjunction in the past to model emissions over Southern Africa. SPITFIRE makes assumptions about ignitions (either anthropogenic or due to lightning strikes), live fuel moisture, fuel load and type derived from the ecosystem model, and about fire dynamics. In a typical run at daily temporal resolution, SPITFIRE will simulate an "average fire" in terms of fire dynamics, which is combined with the estimated daily number of ignitions to calculate the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> on that day. The use of an average fire simplifies modelling at the coarse resolutions (grid cell spacing is often around 0.5 - 1 °) often used in these studies, but the associated penalty of a number of important fire limiting factors, such as human-driven suppression efforts or landscape elements that act as fire blocks. In the current study, we aim to explore landscape fragmentation in fire spread. To this end, we compare LPJ+SPITFIRE simulations fire <span class="hlt">area</span> distributions with actual fire <span class="hlt">area</span> observations from spaceborne sensors over a large region in Southern Africa. We introduce the concept of "landscape impedance", a metric that describes the difficulty of a fire spreading due to fragmentation, and estimate it spatially using satellite data. Finally, we introduce these concepts into the SPITFIRE fire model. Recently, <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data from the MODIS sensor on board the TERRA and AQUA satellites has been made available. These new dataset is a major improvement on previous efforts to estimate <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from space, and with careful processing, can be used to identify individual fires with a reasonable level of uncertainty. From these individual fires, fire <span class="hlt">area</span> distributions can be easily calculated for a given <span class="hlt">area</span> and time period. It is found that over Southern Africa, fire <span class="hlt">area</span> distributions do obey a power law. Deviations from this distributions at small scales are investigated, and put in the context of landscape fragmentation, as derived from metrics calculated from Landsat ETM7+ data. These metrics are analysed to explore the effect of fragmentation on stopping fire spread. In the light of the previous analyses, the SPITFIRE model is modified so as to include a "landscape impedance" term derived from remote sensing data. Sample model runs are compared with estimates of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> derived from MODIS observations. Finally, we discuss how to adapt SPITFIRE so that it produces fire <span class="hlt">area</span> distributions that are realistic.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gomez-Dans, J. L.; Lewis, P.; Wooster, M.; Spessa, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">64</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10169422"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geophysical investigation of <span class="hlt">burn</span> pit, 128-H-1, 100-H <span class="hlt">Area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 128-H-1 <span class="hlt">burn</span> pit is located in the northeast corner of 100-H <span class="hlt">Area</span>. The objective of the survey was to delineate subsurface features in the 128-H-1 <span class="hlt">burn</span> pit that may affect the emplacement of soil-gas probes. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) were the two techniques used in the investigation. The methods were selected because they are non-intrusive, relatively fast, economical, and have been used successfully in other geophysical investigations on the Hanford Site. The GPR system used for this work utilized a 300-MHz antenna to transmit the Em energy into the ground. The transmitted energy is reflected back to a receiving antenna where variations in the return signal are recorded. Common reflectors include natural geologic conditions such as bedding, cementation, moisture, and clay, or man-made objects such as pipes, barrels, foundations, and buried wires. The studied depth, which varies from site to site, was 0--11 ft for this survey. The method is limited in depth by transmit power, receiver sensitivity, and attenuation of the transmitted energy. Depth of investigation is influenced by highly conductive material, such as metal drums, which reflect all the energy back to the receiver. Therefore, the method cannot ``see`` below such objects.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Szwartz, G.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-07-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">65</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=35239"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ANNUAL</span> REPORT ON PERFORMANCE AUDIT RESULTS FOR POHC TESTING DURING TRIAL <span class="hlt">BURNS</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Audit materials containing Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHCs) have been developed by AREAL for use by federal, state, and local agencies or their contractors to assess the accuracy of measurement methods during RCRA trial <span class="hlt">burn</span> tests. Audit materials are currently av...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">66</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960026667&hterms=statistics+biomass&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dstatistics%2Bbiomass"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> may be the overwhelming regional or continental-scale source of methane (CH4) as in tropical Africa and a significant global source of CH4. Our best estimate of present methane emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is about 51.9 Tg/yr, or 10% of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> methane emissions to the atmosphere. Increased frequency of fires that may result as the Earth warms up may result in increases in this source of atmospheric methane.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pinto, Joseph P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">67</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1992/4134/report.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrology of, and water quality in, the open <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and vicinity, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, 1989-90</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report presents the results of a study to determine whether shallow ground water at Picatinny Arsenal Morris County, New Jersey, has been con- taminated as a result of operations at the open <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, which is used for <span class="hlt">burning</span> of waste explosives and materials contaminated with explosives. Results of previous investigations indicate that the soil in this <span class="hlt">area</span> is contaminated with metals and organic compounds. Twenty-seven wells were sampled for analysis for inorganic constituents, nutrients, and explosive compounds. Selected wells also were sampled for analysis for base/neutral- and acid-extractable compounds, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and dioxin and furan compounds. Surface-water and streambed- material samples were collected at three sites in Green Pond Brook. Water-level measurements indicate that ground-water flow generally is nearly horizontal and toward Green Pond Brook. The average velocity of the ground water is estimated to be 0.03 to 1.8 feet per day. Concentrations of iron and manganese in ground-water samples from the unconfined aquifer were consistently greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary drinking-water regulations. Because similarly high concentrations of these constituents have been found in ground-water samples at the arsenal, they are not considered to be a consequence of activities at the open <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Contaminants from the open <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> appear to be contributing to elevated concentratons of lead, zinc, and explosive com- pounds found in the streambed material. Other trace element and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons probably are derived from both the open <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and upstream sources. Volatile organic compounds were detected in surface-water samples at low concentrations, although most were found upstream from the open <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. No inorganic or organic constituents were detected in ground-water or surface-water samples in concentrations that exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water regulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Storck, D. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">68</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412708H"> <span id="translatedtitle">A global comparison between MODIS hotspot and high resolution <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forest fires are an important environmental factor at a global scale, influencing vegetation dynamics, carbon stocks, land-use change and being an important emission source of CO2 and aerosols. However, large uncertainty exists on the distribution, extend and intensity of fire occurrence over the world. Satellite products are the only source of information on fire occurrence which gives a good spatial resolution at a global scale. Two types of satellite data products have been widely used to study fire occurrence, hotspots and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> (BA) maps. Hotspots are temperature anomalies registered by the thermal channels of the satellites, while the BA is detected by the contrast between the unburned land and the black carbon, ashes,... and the change between these two states. Till now the existing datasets have been poorly validated, with the hotspot global datasets only been validated by other thermal anomaly detections at higher resolution. Here we studied the relationship between high resolution BA datasets and the global MODIS hotspot dataset (MOD14). The high resolution BA dataset was produced from Landsat-TM/ETM+ scenes covering 10 different <span class="hlt">areas</span> distributed over the globe. These <span class="hlt">areas</span> include boreal, temperate, Mediterranean and tropical <span class="hlt">areas</span> with important fire activity. For each BA dataset a pre and post fire image was analysed and BA, non-<span class="hlt">burned</span> land and no-data (clouds,...) detected using the ABAMS software. This database, >100 separate BA maps, was produced under the framework of the Fire_cci project (http://www.esa-fire-cci.org/). For each of these BA datasets the MODIS hotspots were extracted for the same spatial and temporal extend. The analysis performed consists in determining the number and size of the omitted fire scares and the commission errors of the hotpots, being those hotspots that could not be related to any fire polygon. Regression analysis was performed to study more in depth the relation between number of hotspots and BA/number of fires. These results were then related to the some characteristics of the fire regime and environmental factors such as fire size, fire number, ecozone and vegetation type.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hantson, S.; Padilla, M.; Cardoso, R.; Corti, D.; Chuvieco, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">69</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/961853"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forrest Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> : Management & Implementation FY 2004 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes) acquired the Forrest Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> during July of 2002. The property is located in the Upper John Day subbasin within the Columbia basin. The property consists of two parcels comprising 4,232 acres. The Mainstem parcel consists of 3,445 acres and is located 1/2 mile to the east of Prairie City, Oregon on the mainstem John Day River. The Middle Fork parcel consists of 786 acres and is located one mile to the west of the town of Austin, OR on the Middle Fork John Day River. The Forrest Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> is under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to provide an <span class="hlt">annual</span> written report generally describing the real property interests of the project and management activities undertaken or in progress. Acquisition of the Forrest Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> was funded by BPA as part of their program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife habitat affected by hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The intent of the Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> is to partially mitigate fish and wildlife impacts for the John Day Dam on the Columbia River as outlined in the Northwest Power Planning Council's Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, {section}11.1, {section}7.6). While the Tribes hold fee-title to the property, the BPA has assured a level of management funding for the protection and restoration of fish and wildlife habitat through a memorandum of agreement.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, Brent</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">70</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.robertburns.org/encyclopedia/index.shtml"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> Encyclopedia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Provide by <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Country, this full-text, online version of "the definitive Robert <span class="hlt">Burns</span> reference volume" serves as a useful handbook to Scotland's most famous poet and the intellectual circles in which he turned. The encyclopedia, which is in HTML format, is organized alphabetically. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Country offers a number of other related resources, chief among them a songs and poems archive containing 100 of the poet's works. Other features at the site include a discussion <span class="hlt">area</span>, <span class="hlt">Burns</span> and Scottish association links, and some commercial content.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lindsay, Maurice.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">71</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/797618"> <span id="translatedtitle">ERRATA SHEET for Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Section 2.1.1.3 of the Table of Contents reference on Page v and on Page 12 of the Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada erroneously refers to the Nevada Environmental Policy Act Determination. The correct title of the referenced document is the National Environmental Policy Act Determination.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. B. Campbell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">72</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120013612&hterms=wild+fire&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dwild%2Bfire"> <span id="translatedtitle">Satellite-based Assessment of Climate Controls on US <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climate regulates fire activity through the buildup and drying of fuels and the conditions for fire ignition and spread. Understanding the dynamics of contemporary climate-fire relationships at national and sub-national scales is critical to assess the likelihood of changes in future fire activity and the potential options for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we conducted the first national assessment of climate controls on US fire activity using two satellite-based estimates of monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> (BA), the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED, 1997 2010) and Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity (MTBS, 1984 2009) BA products. For each US National Climate Assessment (NCA) region, we analyzed the relationships between monthly BA and potential evaporation (PE) derived from reanalysis climate data at 0.5 resolution. US fire activity increased over the past 25 yr, with statistically significant increases in MTBS BA for entire US and the Southeast and Southwest NCA regions. Monthly PE was strongly correlated with US fire activity, yet the climate driver of PE varied regionally. Fire season temperature and shortwave radiation were the primary controls on PE and fire activity in the Alaska, while water deficit (precipitation PE) was strongly correlated with fire activity in the Plains regions and Northwest US. BA and precipitation anomalies were negatively correlated in all regions, although fuel-limited ecosystems in the Southern Plains and Southwest exhibited positive correlations with longer lead times (6 12 months). Fire season PE in creased from the 1980s 2000s, enhancing climate-driven fire risk in the southern and western US where PE-BA correlations were strongest. Spatial and temporal patterns of increasing fire season PE and BA during the 1990s 2000s highlight the potential sensitivity of US fire activity to climate change in coming decades. However, climatefire relationships at the national scale are complex, based on the diversity of fire types, ecosystems, and ignition sources within each NCA region. Changes in the seasonality or magnitude of climate anomalies are therefore unlikely to result in uniform changes in US fire activity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Wang, D.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Chen, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">73</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H33H..06C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bare soil erosion modelling with rainfall simulations: experiments on crop and recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of numerical models is of fundamental importance in the comprehension and prediction of soil erosion. At the very basis of the calibration process of the numerical models are the direct measurements of the governing parameters, carried out during field or laboratory tests. To measure and model soil erosion rainfall simulations can be used, that allow the reproduction of project rainfall having chosen characteristics of intensity and duration. The main parameters that rainfall simulators can measure are hydraulic conductivity, parameters of soil erodibility, rate and features of splash erosion, discharge coefficient and sediment yield. Other important parameters can be estimated during the rainfall simulations through the use of photogrammetric instruments able to memorize high definition stereographic models of the soil plot under analysis at different time steps. In this research rainfall simulator experiments (rse) were conducted to measure and quantify runoff and erosion processes on selected bare soil plots. The selected plots are located in some vineyards, olive groves and crops in central Italy and in some recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in north-central Portugal, affected by a wildfire during early July 2005 and, at the time, largely covered by commercial eucalypt plantations. On the Italian crops the choice of the rainfall intensities and durations were performed on the basis of the previous knowledge of the selected test <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The procedure was based on an initial phase of soil wetting and a following phase of 3 erosion cycles. The first should reproduce the effects of a normal rainfall with a return time of 2 years (23 mm/h). The second should represent a serious episode with a return time of 10 years (34 mm/h). The third has the objective to reproduce and understand the effects of an intense precipitation event, with a return time of 50 years (41 mm/h). During vineyards experiments some photogrammetric surveys were carried out as well. In the Portugal <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, to measure the influence of rain intensities, two rainfall simulations have been carried out simultaneously, one with an intensity of 45 mm/h and one with 85 mm/h. In both cases, before the experiments, soil and vegetation cover description have been made and soil samples have been taken. During the simulations soil samples leaving the parcels were taken at suitable time intervals to measure the sediment yield and the runoff. The rse data have been thought to provide a sufficient basis for erosion modelling at the small-plot scale and, through upscaling, for predicting erosion rates at the slope scale. For this purpose two soil erosion models, WEPP and MEFIDIS, have been selected and then compared. The comparison has shown a certain degree of uncertainty in numeric erosion prediction, due to the non linearity of the overland erosion processes, and to technical and conceptual difficulties, including the data collection. In the following laboratory phase high resolution (2 by 2 mm) DEMs of the vineyards plot are being produced for each meaningful processing phase. The digital elevation models will then be analysed to asses calibration parameters such as soil roughness (expressed by standard deviation of elevations, fractal dimension and local relief energy), soil and sediment transfer (hypsometric curves, local elevation and volume differences) and rill network evolution (Horton ordering, stream lengths, contributing <span class="hlt">area</span>, drainage density, Hack's law)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Catani, F.; Menci, S.; Moretti, S.; Keizer, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">74</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol1-sec100-1103.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 100.1103 - Northern California and Lake Tahoe <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> marine events.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2013-07-01 false Northern California and Lake Tahoe <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> marine events. 100... § 100.1103 Northern California and Lake Tahoe <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> marine events. (a...and Sunday in April. Location McLeod Lake, Stockton, CA. Regulated <span class="hlt">Area</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">75</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1148/@displayLabelpdf@noteDOCUMENT#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1148/OF12-1148.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1148/Plate1.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1148/Plate2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probability and volume of potential postwildfire debris flows in the 2012 High Park <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> near Fort Collins, Colorado</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the 2012 High Park fire near Fort Collins in Larimer County, Colorado. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows along the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> drainage network and to estimate the same for 44 selected drainage basins along State Highway 14 and the perimeter of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Input data for the models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall (25 millimeters); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall (43 millimeters); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall (51 millimeters). Estimated debris-flow probabilities along the drainage network and throughout the drainage basins of interest ranged from 1 to 84 percent in response to the 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall; from 2 to 95 percent in response to the 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall; and from 3 to 97 in response to the 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall. Basins and drainage networks with the highest probabilities tended to be those on the eastern edge of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> where soils have relatively high clay contents and gradients are steep. Estimated debris-flow volumes range from a low of 1,600 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters. Estimated debris-flow volumes increase with basin size and distance along the drainage network, but some smaller drainages were also predicted to produce substantial volumes of material. The predicted probabilities and some of the volumes predicted for the modeled storms indicate a potential for substantial debris-flow impacts on structures, roads, bridges, and culverts located both within and immediately downstream from the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Colorado State Highway 14 is also susceptible to impacts from debris flows.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Verdin, Kristine L.; Dupree, Jean A.; Elliott, John G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">76</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11..890M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of vegetation spatial heterogeneity on soil enzyme activity in <span class="hlt">burned</span> Mediterranean <span class="hlt">areas</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly considered resilient to wildfires. However, depending on fire severity and recurrence, post-fire climatic conditions and plant community type, the recovery rate of the vegetation can greatly vary. Often, the post-fire vegetation cover remains low and sparsely distributed many years after the wildfire, which could have profound impacts on ecosystem functioning. In this work, we studied the influence of vegetation patchiness on soil enzyme activity (acid phosphatase, ?-glucosidase and urease), at the patch and landscape scales, in degraded dry Mediterranean shrublands affected by wildfires. At the patch scale, we assessed the variation in soil enzyme between bare soils and vegetation patches. At the landscape scale, we studied the relationships between soil enzyme activity and various landscape metrics (total patch cover, average interpatch length, average patch width, and patch density). The study was conducted in 19 sites in the Valencia Region (eastern Spain), which had been affected by large wildfires in 1991. Site selection aimed at capturing a wide range of the variability of post-fire plant recovery rates in Mediterranean <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The activities of the three enzymes were significantly higher in soils under the vegetation canopies than in adjacent bare <span class="hlt">areas</span>, which we attributed to the effect of plants on the soil amount of both enzyme substrates and enzymes. The differences between bare and plant microsites were larger in the case of the acid phosphatase and less marked for urease. The activity of acid phosphatase was also higher under patches of resprouter species than under patches of seeder species, probably due to the faster post-fire recovery and older age of resprouter patches in fire-prone ecosystems. Soil enzyme activities of ?-glucosidase and urease in both bare soils and vegetation patches showed no relationships with any of the landscape metrics analysed. However, the activity of acid phosphatase increased linearly with the total cover of vegetation patches, which is consistent with the strong effect of plant patches on the activity of this enzyme. According to our results, variations in the cover and composition of vegetation patches may have profound impacts on the soil enzyme activity and associated nutrient cycling processes in <span class="hlt">burned</span> Mediterranean <span class="hlt">areas</span>, particularly in the case of phosphorus. Keywords: wildfires, landscape metrics, Mediterranean shrublands, soil enzyme activity, resprouter species.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mayor, Á. G.; Goirán, S.; Bautista, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">77</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/ofr03500/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using Logistic Regression To Predict the Probability of Debris Flows Occurring in <span class="hlt">Areas</span> Recently <span class="hlt">Burned</span> By Wildland Fires</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Logistic regression was used to predict the probability of debris flows occurring in <span class="hlt">areas</span> recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> by wildland fires. Multiple logistic regression is conceptually similar to multiple linear regression because statistical relations between one dependent variable and several independent variables are evaluated. In logistic regression, however, the dependent variable is transformed to a binary variable (debris flow did or did not occur), and the actual probability of the debris flow occurring is statistically modeled. Data from 399 basins located within 15 wildland fires that <span class="hlt">burned</span> during 2000-2002 in Colorado, Idaho, Montana, and New Mexico were evaluated. More than 35 independent variables describing the <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, geology, land surface gradient, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated. The models were developed as follows: (1) Basins that did and did not produce debris flows were delineated from National Elevation Data using a Geographic Information System (GIS). (2) Data describing the <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, geology, land surface gradient, rainfall, and soil properties were determined for each basin. These data were then downloaded to a statistics software package for analysis using logistic regression. (3) Relations between the occurrence/non-occurrence of debris flows and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, geology, land surface gradient, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated and several preliminary multivariate logistic regression models were constructed. All possible combinations of independent variables were evaluated to determine which combination produced the most effective model. The multivariate model that best predicted the occurrence of debris flows was selected. (4) The multivariate logistic regression model was entered into a GIS, and a map showing the probability of debris flows was constructed. The most effective model incorporates the percentage of each basin with slope greater than 30 percent, percentage of land <span class="hlt">burned</span> at medium and high <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity in each basin, particle size sorting, average storm intensity (millimeters per hour), soil organic matter content, soil permeability, and soil drainage. The results of this study demonstrate that logistic regression is a valuable tool for predicting the probability of debris flows occurring in recently-<span class="hlt">burned</span> landscapes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rupert, Michael G.; Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">78</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/269024"> <span id="translatedtitle">Focused feasibility study for surface soil at the main pits and pushout <span class="hlt">area</span>, J-field toxic <span class="hlt">burning</span> pits <span class="hlt">area</span>, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study of the J-Field <span class="hlt">area</span> at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). J-Field is located within the Edgewood <span class="hlt">Area</span> of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood <span class="hlt">Area</span> have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open <span class="hlt">burning</span>/open detonation. Portions of J-Field continue to be used for the detonation and disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by open <span class="hlt">burning</span>/open detonation under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patton, T.; Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Butler, J. [and others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">79</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60697492"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of global, regional, and national <span class="hlt">annual</span> CO emissions from fossil-fuel <span class="hlt">burning</span>, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national <span class="hlt">annual</span> estimates of C0 emissions resulting from fossil-fuel <span class="hlt">burning</span>, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. A. Boden; G. Marland; R. J. Andres</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">80</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21950526"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mercury emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in China.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> covers open fires (forest and grassland fires, crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in fields, etc.) and biofuel combustion (crop residues and wood, etc., used as fuel). As a large agricultural country, China may produce large quantities of mercury emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>. A new mercury emission inventory in China is needed because previous studies reflected outdated biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> with coarse resolution. Moreover, these studies often adopted the emission factors (mass of emitted species per mass of biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span>) measured in North America. In this study, the mercury emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in China (excluding small islands in the South China Sea) were estimated, using recently measured mercury concentrations in various biomes in China as emission factors. Emissions from crop residues and fuelwood were estimated based on <span class="hlt">annual</span> reports distributed by provincial government. Emissions from forest and grassland fires were calculated by combining moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product with combustion efficiency (ratio of fuel consumption to total available fuels) considering fuel moisture. The average <span class="hlt">annual</span> emission from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> was 27 (range from 15.1 to 39.9) Mg/year. This inventory has high spatial resolution (1 km) and covers a long period (2000-2007), making it useful for air quality modeling. PMID:21950526</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, Xin; Li, Mengmeng; Friedli, Hans R; Song, Yu; Chang, Di; Zhu, Lei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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<img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">81</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1197/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probability and volume of potential postwildfire debris flows in the 2011 Horseshoe II <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, southeastern Arizona</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> in 2011 by the Horseshoe II wildfire in southeastern Arizona. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> drainage basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and debris-flows volumes for selected drainage basins. Input for the models include measures of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, topographic characteristics, soil properties, and rainfall total and intensity for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, (2) 5-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, and (3) 10-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall. Estimated debris-flow probabilities in the drainage basins of interest ranged from less than 1 percent in response to the 2-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall to a high of 100 percent in response to the 10-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall. The high probabilities in all modeled drainage basins are likely due to the abundance of steep hillslopes and the extensive <span class="hlt">areas</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> at moderate to high severities. The estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from a low of 20 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruddy, Barbara C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">82</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112829N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Can post-wildfire <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Emergency Response treatments mitigate watershed degradation?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wildfire is a natural phenomenon that began with the development of terrestrial vegetation in a lightning-filled atmosphere 350 million years ago. As human populations developed in the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs, mankind transformed fire into one of its oldest tools. A negative impact of prime concern in the 21st Century is desertification. This term refers to land degradation, not the immediate creation of classical deserts. It is about the loss of the land's proper hydrologic function and biological productivity as a result of human activities and climate change. It affects 33% of the earth's surface and over a billion people. Fire-related desertification has a number of environmental, social, and economic consequences. The two key environmental consequences are soil erosion and exotic plant invasions. Wildfires typically have exotic plant species abundances ten times that of undisturbed forests (Neary et al. 2003). Seeding has been used for many years in the USA as a prime <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Emergency Response (BAER) treatment. Until recently, this seeding contributed to exotic plant invasions since fast-growing, but non native plants seeds were used. The use of native plant seeds and sterile hybrids has reduced this problem somewhat. Erosion after wildfires documented in the USA can be in the range of <1 to 370 Mg/ha, depending on fire severity, degree of water repellency, slope, and post-fire rainfall events. Soil losses in the high end of that range definitely exceed soil loss tolerances and contribute to desertification. Soil disturbance and degradation after wildfires is a function of fire severity, and the impacts can range from the minimal to catastrophic and long-lasting. The most obvious impact is the loss of organic matter from combustion of the forest floor. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties with high-severity wildfire can produce water repellency, aggravating rainfall runoff and erosion. Since soils take long times to form (50 to 75,000 years), degradation as a result of wildfire-related erosion or soil property changes can result in severe and rapid desertification. Soil degradation is a "one-way street" not easily reversed. Although trees can be replanted on <span class="hlt">burned</span> sites, soil lost in erosion is rarely replaced, just rehabilitated. There are techniques to rehabilitate these degraded soils but they are quite expensive. Disruptions to soil micro-fauna and micro-flora can also reduce post-fire site vegetation productivity. An environmental consequence of wildfire related to soil disturbance, is the loss of hydrologic function. Again, the level of hydrologic function loss is related to fire severity. Although this ecosystem function tends to recover within 5 - 10 years after wildfire as vegetation cover returns, the immediate impacts can be considerable. The removal of the protective layer of the forest floor by combustion, and the development of water repellent layers in the soil combine to aggrevate flood potentials. Flood peak flows after wildfires with high percentages of high severity wildfire (>30%) commonly have increases of 10-fold. Higher increases (20 to 2,000 fold) have been measured as the percentage of high-severity soil damage approaches 100%. The other side of high flood runoff is the reduction in baseflow that sustains stream flow due to the reduction in rainfall infiltration. This has water supply implications for forested watersheds that are sources for municipal water supplies. In addition, post-wildfire ash slurry flows can substantially degrade the quality of municipal water sources. Although this phenomenon is relatively short lived (<2 years), it can have serious supply impacts. This paper examines the capabilities of BAER treatments in dealing with this problem.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Neary, D.; Ffolliott, P.; Bautista, S.; Wittenberg, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">83</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJAEO..11..380S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predictive fire occurrence modelling to improve <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimation at a regional scale: A case study in East Caprivi, Namibia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fires threaten human lives, property and natural resources in Southern African savannas. Due to warming climate, fire occurrence may increase and fires become more intense. It is crucial, therefore, to understand the complexity of spatiotemporal and probabilistic characteristics of fires. This study scrutinizes spatiotemporal characteristics of fires and the role played by abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors for fire probability modelling in a semiarid Southern African savanna environment. The MODIS fire products: fire hot spots (MOD14A2 and MYD14A2) and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product MODIS (MCD45A1), and GIS derived data were used in analysis. Fire hot spots occurrence was first analysed, and spatial autocorrelation for fires investigated, using Moran's I correlograms. Fire probability models were created using generalized linear models (GLMs). Separate models were produced for abiotic, biotic, anthropogenic and combined factors and an autocovariate variable was tested for model improvement. The hierarchical partitioning method was used to determine independent effects of explanatory variables. The discriminating ability of models was evaluated using <span class="hlt">area</span> under the curve (AUC) from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plot. The results showed that 19.2-24.4% of East Caprivi <span class="hlt">burned</span> when detected using MODIS hot spots fire data and these fires were strongly spatially autocorrelated. Therefore, the autocovariate variable significantly improved fire probability models when added to them. For autologistic models, i.e. models accounting for spatial autocorrelation, discrimination was good to excellent (AUC 0.858-0.942). For models not counting spatial autocorrelation, prediction success was poor to moderate (AUC 0.542-0.745). The results of this study clearly showed that spatial autocorrelation has to be taken in to account in the fire probability model building process when using remotely sensed and GIS derived data. This study also showed that fire probability models accounting for spatial autocorrelation proved to be superior in regional scale <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimation when compared with MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product (MCD45A1).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Siljander, Mika</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">84</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51999740"> <span id="translatedtitle">A GIS-based hillslope erosion and sediment delivery model and its application in the Cerro Grande <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An Erratum has been published for this article in Hydrological Processes 16(5) 2002, 1130-1130.A profile-based, analytical hillslope erosion model (HEM) is integrated into a geographical information system (GIS) framework to provide a tool to assess the impact of the Cerro Grande fire on erosion and sediment delivery to the many streams draining the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. The model, HEM-GIS, calculates rill</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cathy J. Wilson; J. William Carey; Peter C. Beeson; Marvin O. Gard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">85</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPRS...79..199P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of spectral reflectance values to different <span class="hlt">burn</span> and vegetation ratios: A multi-scale approach applied in a fire affected <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of our study was to explore the spectral properties of fire-scorched (<span class="hlt">burned</span>) and non fire-scorched (vegetation) <span class="hlt">areas</span>, as well as <span class="hlt">areas</span> with different <span class="hlt">burn</span>/vegetation ratios, using a multisource multiresolution satellite data set. A case study was undertaken following a very destructive wildfire that occurred in Parnitha, Greece, July 2007, for which we acquired satellite images from LANDSAT, ASTER, and IKONOS. Additionally, we created spatially degraded satellite data over a range of coarser resolutions using resampling techniques. The panchromatic (1 m) and multispectral component (4 m) of IKONOS were merged using the Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening method. This very high-resolution imagery served as the basis to estimate the cover percentage of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, bare land and vegetation at pixel level, by applying the maximum likelihood classification algorithm. Finally, multiple linear regression models were fit to estimate each land-cover fraction as a function of surface reflectance values of the original and the spatially degraded satellite images. The main findings of our research were: (a) the Near Infrared (NIR) and Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) are the most important channels to estimate the percentage of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, whereas the NIR and red channels are the most important to estimate the percentage of vegetation in fire-affected <span class="hlt">areas</span>; (b) when the bi-spectral space consists only of NIR and SWIR, then the NIR ground reflectance value plays a more significant role in estimating the percent of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, and the SWIR appears to be more important in estimating the percent of vegetation; and (c) semi-<span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> comprising 45-55% <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and 45-55% vegetation are spectrally closer to <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the NIR channel, whereas those <span class="hlt">areas</span> are spectrally closer to vegetation in the SWIR channel. These findings, at least partially, are attributed to the fact that: (i) completely <span class="hlt">burned</span> pixels present low variance in the NIR and high variance in the SWIR, whereas the opposite is observed in completely vegetated <span class="hlt">areas</span> where higher variance is observed in the NIR and lower variance in the SWIR, and (ii) bare land modifies the spectral signal of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> more than the spectral signal of vegetated <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the NIR, while the opposite is observed in SWIR region of the spectrum where the bare land modifies the spectral signal of vegetation more than the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> because the bare land and the vegetation are spectrally more similar in the NIR, and the bare land and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> are spectrally more similar in the SWIR.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pleniou, Magdalini; Koutsias, Nikos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">86</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec165-1191.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 165.1191 - Northern California and Lake Tahoe <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Fireworks Events.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2013-07-01 false Northern California and Lake Tahoe <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Fireworks Events. ...§ 165.1191 Northern California and Lake Tahoe <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Fireworks Events. ...waters from the Port of Stockton to Mcleod Lake; beginning at 37°57â²06â³ N, 121°19â²35â³ W, then north to...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">87</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0902028"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978-1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 Colorado.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) adopted by the Western Colorado Health Systems Agency opens with an introductory section that defines major <span class="hlt">areas</span> of concern. Five <span class="hlt">areas</span> are detailed: (1) disease prevention--school health education, personal health ha...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">88</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/911594"> <span id="translatedtitle">Engineering and Physics Optimization of Breed and <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Fast Reactor Systems: <span class="hlt">Annual</span> and Final Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) contribution to the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project number 2002-005 was divided into reactor physics, and thermal-hydraulics and plant design. The research targeted credible physics and thermal-hydraulics models for a gas-cooled fast reactor, analyzing various fuel and in-core fuel cycle options to achieve a true breed and <span class="hlt">burn</span> core, and performing a design basis Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) analysis on that design. For the physics analysis, a 1/8 core model was created using different enrichments and simulated equilibrium fuel loadings. The model was used to locate the hot spot of the reactor, and the peak to average energy deposition at that location. The model was also used to create contour plots of the flux and energy deposition over the volume of the reactor. The eigenvalue over time was evaluated using three different fuel configurations with the same core geometry. The breeding capabilities of this configuration were excellent for a 7% U-235 model and good in both a plutonium model and a 14% U-235 model. Changing the fuel composition from the Pu fuel which provided about 78% U-238 for breeding to the 14% U-235 fuel with about 86% U-238 slowed the rate of decrease in the eigenvalue a noticeable amount. Switching to the 7% U-235 fuel with about 93% U-238 showed an increase in the eigenvalue over time. For the thermal-hydraulic analysis, the reactor design used was the one forwarded by the MIT team. This reactor design uses helium coolant, a Brayton cycle, and has a thermal power of 600 MW. The core design parameters were supplied by MIT; however, the other key reactor components that were necessary for a plausible simulation of a LOCA were not defined. The thermal-hydraulic and plant design research concentrated on determining reasonable values for those undefined components. The LOCA simulation was intended to provide insights on the influence of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS), the containment building, and a Decay Heat Removal System (DHRS) on the natural circulation heat transfer of the core's decay heat. A baseline case for natural circulation had to be established in order to truly understand the impact of the added safety systems. This baseline case did not include a DHRS, although the current MIT design does have a DHRS that features the highly efficient Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHEs). The initial LOCA analysis revealed that the RCCS was insufficient to maintain the reactor core below the fuel matrix decomposition temperature. A guard containment was added to the model in order to maintain a prescribed backpressure during the LOCA to enhance the natural circulation. The backpressure approach did provide satisfactory natural convection during the LOCA. The necessary backpressure was 1.8 MPa, which was not especially different from the values reported by other gas fast reactor researchers. However, as the model evolved to be more physically representative of a nuclear reactor, i.e., it included radial peaking factors, inlet plenum orificing, and the degradation of SiC thermal properties as a result of irradiation, the LOCA-induced fuel temperatures were not consistently below the decomposition limit.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kevan D. Weaver; Theron Marshall; James Parry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">89</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB80172182"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Housing Survey: 1976. Housing Characteristics for Selected Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Areas</span>: St. Louis, Missouri-Illinois. Standard Metropolitan Statistical <span class="hlt">Area</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Statistics are presented on neighborhood and housing and household characteristics obtained from the 1976 - 1977 <span class="hlt">annual</span> housing survey conducted in the St. Louis, Mo. - Ill., region, 1 of 20 standard metropolitan statistical <span class="hlt">areas</span> (SMSA's) selected for st...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. E. Beach J. S. Maynard E. D. Montfort</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">90</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB80172190"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Housing Survey: 1976. Housing Characteristics for Selected Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Areas</span>: Seattle-Everett, Washington. Standard Metropolitan Statistical <span class="hlt">Area</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Statistics are presented on neighborhood and housing and household characteristics obtained from the 1976 - 1977 <span class="hlt">annual</span> housing survey conducted in the Seattle - Everett, Wash., region, 1 of 20 standard metropolitan statistical <span class="hlt">areas</span> (SMSA's) selected for...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. E. Beach J. S. Maynard E. D. Montfort</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">91</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901715"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1980. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 4 Florida.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan continues and refines the health systems plan of the Florida Gulf Health Systems Agency. Short-range objectives, specific actions planned, and resource requirements are indicated for the health system: (1) community health ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">92</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901332"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 1 Indiana.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) developed to meet the short-range health needs of residents in northern Indiana is presented. An introductory section covers the AIP development process, plan revision, priority setting and health problems, task force ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">93</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901610"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 Texas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In preparing this <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP), the West Texas Health Systems Agency considered the objectives, recommended actions, and resource requirements pertinent to health status and the health system. The introduction explores AIP development,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">94</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901073"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 1 Missouri.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document contains the <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) prepared by the Mid-America Health Systems Agency in Kansas City, Missouri. Contents: Introduction--discusses the statutory authority of the health systems agency and its responsibilities, the pu...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">95</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901617"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 6 Tennessee.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background information is included in the first section of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) regarding the agency, the health systems plan, the relationship between the AIP and the health systems plan, the framework for planning and the process of prio...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">96</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901173"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3, Colorado.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document contains (1) the health system components not addressed in the first volume of the Western Colorado Health Systems Agency's health systems plan; (2) supplemental documents; and (3) the <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan. The opening material deals w...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">97</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901370"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 4, Minnesota.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) contains an introductory section that covers the statutory authority for health planning, responsibilities and functions of the health systems agency, the purpose and use of the AIP, the plan framework, and definitions...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">98</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50273491"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-temporal <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping using logistic regression analysis and change metrics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Describes a procedure developed for continental-scale mapping of <span class="hlt">burned</span> boreal forest at 10-day intervals. The basis of the technique is a multiple logistic regression model applied to 1 km SPOT VEGETATION (VGT) clear-sky composites. Independent variables consist of multitemporal change metrics representing 10-day and surrounding 30-day changes in reflectance and in two vegetation indices. The metrics account for seasonal phenological</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Fernandes; R. Latifovic</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">99</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.5260C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wet deposition of major ions in a rural <span class="hlt">area</span> impacted by biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work concerns the influence of industrialized agriculture in the tropics on precipitation chemistry. A total of 264 rain events were sampled using a wet-only collector in central São Paulo State, Brazil, between January 2003 and July 2007. Electroneutrality balance calculations (considering H +, K +, Na +, NH4+, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Cl -, NO3-, SO42-, F -, PO43-, H 3CCOO -, HCOO -, CO42- and HCO3-) showed that there was an excess of cations (˜15%), which was attributed to the presence of unmeasured organic anion species originating from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and biogenic emissions. On average, the three ions NH4+, NO 3- and H + were responsible for >55% of the total ion concentrations in the rainwater samples. Concentrations (except of H +) were significantly higher ( t-test; P = 0.05), by between two to six-fold depending on species, during the winter sugar cane harvest period, due to the practice of pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span> of the crop. Principal component analysis showed that three components could explain 88% of the variance for measurements made throughout the year: PC1 (52%, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and soil dust resuspension); PC2 (26%, secondary aerosols); PC3 (10%, road transport emissions). Differences between harvest and non-harvest periods appeared to be mainly due to an increased relative importance of road transport/industrial emissions during the summer (non-harvest) period. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of ammonium (23.4 ?mol L -1) and nitrate (17.5 ?mol L -1) in rainwater samples collected during the harvest period were similar to those found in rainwater from São Paulo city, which emphasizes the importance of including rural agro-industrial emissions in regional-scale atmospheric chemistry and transport models. Since there was evidence of a biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> source throughout the year, it appears that rainwater composition will continue to be affected by vegetation fires, even after sugar cane <span class="hlt">burning</span> is phased out as envisaged by recent São Paulo State legislation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coelho, Cidelmara H.; Allen, Andrew G.; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Orlando, Eduardo A.; Grigoletto, Tahuana L. B.; Campos, M. Lucia A. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">100</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/218153"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and aerosol loading and transport in South America utilizing geostationary satellites. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> report, January-December 1995</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study attempts to assess the extent of <span class="hlt">burning</span> and associated aerosol transport regimes in South America and the South Atlantic using geostationary satellite observations, in order to explore the possible roles of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in climate change and more directly in atmospheric chemistry and radiative transfer processes. Modeling and analysis efforts have suggested that the direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> may play a major role in the radiative balance of the earth and are an important factor in climate change calculations. One of the most active regions of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is located in South America, associated with deforestation in the selva (forest), grassland management, and other agricultural practices. As part of the NASA Aerosol Interdisciplinary Program, the authors are utilizing GOES-7 (1988) and GOES-8 (1995) visible and multispectral infrared data (4, 11, and 12 microns) to document daily biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> activity in South America and to distinguish smoke/aerosols from other multi-level clouds and low-level moisture. This study catalogues the areal extent and transport of smoke/aerosols throughout the region and over the Atlantic Ocean for the 1988 (July-September) and 1995 (June-October) biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> seasons. The smoke/haze cover estimates are compared to the locations of fires to determine the source and verify the haze is actually associated with biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> activities. The temporal resolution of the GOES data (half-hourly in South America) makes it possible to determine the prevailing circulation and transport of aerosols by considering a series of visible and infrared images and tracking the motion of smoke, haze and adjacent clouds. The study <span class="hlt">area</span> extends from 40 to 70 deg W and 0 to 40 deg S with aerosol coverage extending over the Atlantic Ocean when necessary. Fire activity is estimated with the GOES Automated Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Algorithm (ABBA).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Menzel, P.; Prins, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">101</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2772003"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> in diabetic patients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">CONTEXT AND AIMS: Diabetic <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients comprise a significant population in <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic characteristics of diabetic <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data were collected on 94 diabetic <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients between March 20, 2000 and March 20, 2006. Of 3062 <span class="hlt">burns</span> patients, 94 (3.1%) had diabetes; these patients were compared with 2968 nondiabetic patients with <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical analysis software SPSS 10.05. Differences between the two groups were evaluated using Student's t-test and the chi square test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. RESULTS: The major mechanism of injury for the diabetic patients was scalding and flame <span class="hlt">burns</span>, as was also the case in the nondiabetic <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients. The diabetic <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients were significantly older, with a lower percentage of total <span class="hlt">burn</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) than the nondiabetic <span class="hlt">burn</span> population. There was significant difference between the diabetic and nondiabetic patients in terms of frequency of infection. No difference in mortality rate between diabetic and nondiabetic <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients was observed. The most common organism in diabetic and nondiabetic <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients was methicillin-resistant staphylococcus. Increasing %TBSA <span class="hlt">burn</span> and the presence of inhalation injury are significantly associated with increased mortality following <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetics have a higher propensity for infection. Education for diabetic patients must include caution about potential <span class="hlt">burn</span> mishaps and the complications that may ensue from <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Aghamohammadzadeh, Naser; Khalili, Nasim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">102</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-10-05/pdf/2010-24990.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 61553 - National Transit Database: Amendments to the Urbanized <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Reporting Manual and to the...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...FTA-2010-0027] National Transit Database: Amendments to the Urbanized <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span>...Amendments to the 2011 National Transit Database Urbanized <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Reporting Manual...Administration's (FTA) National Transit Database (NTD) reporting requirements,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">103</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-13/pdf/2013-27177.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 68023 - <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Surveys in the Manufacturing <span class="hlt">Area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...the <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Survey of Manufactures, the Business R&D and Innovation Survey (BRDIS), and the Manufacturers...authority of Title 13, United States Code. Business R&D and Innovation Survey The Business R&D and Innovation Survey (BRDIS) measures...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">104</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.burninstitute.org/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> Institute</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... do each year – a <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Learn more Fire and <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Prevention Each year, the <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Institute ... thousands of children and adults each year through fire and <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention education, <span class="hlt">burn</span> survivor support programs ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">105</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0030775"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1979-1980. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 6 Pennsylvania.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) of the Health Systems Agency of Southwestern Pennsylvania specifies short-term goals, objectives, recommended actions, and resource requirements for selected components of the health systems plan. Three major <span class="hlt">areas</span> of...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">106</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901002"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978-1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Massachusetts.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation (AIP) was developed for the <span class="hlt">area</span> served by the Central Massachusetts Health Systems Agency, Inc. The format of the AIP with respect to goals, objectives, and recommended actions is described. Goals, objectives, and recommended a...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">107</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901118"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978-1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 6 North Carolina.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Eastern Carolina Health Systems Agency devised this <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) to meet the needs of residents in its health service <span class="hlt">area</span>. Three parts of the AIP deal with the following: (1) introduction (legal requirements associated with health...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">108</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901622"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1979-1980. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 Kansas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The preface to the <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP), provides information on the agency's responsibilities concerning AIP and health systems plan implementation. <span class="hlt">Areas</span> targeted include such health status issues as chronic disease and dental problems, prev...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">109</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.A21B0031E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> Variability of Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Aerosol Optical Depth in Southern Amazonia, and the Impact of These Aerosols on the Diurnal Cycle of Solar Flux Reduction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability of the magnitude of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in southern Amazonia has been relatively large over the last decade. The extent of the <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the latter half of a given dry season (July-October) depends largely on the rainfall amount and timing, with drought years exhibiting many more fires and smoke than average. Additionally, new regulations aimed at controlling <span class="hlt">burning</span> may also affect inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability. We present measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> smoke as measured by AERONET sites in Rondonia and Mato Grosso from 1993-2002. These AOD measurements are shown to follow similar inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability as the fire counts determined by the multi-spectral radiance measurements obtained with GOES-8. However, the AOD at these sites exhibit relatively little diurnal variation despite a very large diurnal cycle in satellite detected fire counts. In order to quantify the changes in the diurnal cycle of solar flux reduction as a result of aerosol attenuation at the peak of the <span class="hlt">burning</span> season, we model the diurnal cycle of total shortwave (SW; 300-4000 nm), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm), and Ultraviolet- A (UVA; 320-400 nm) fluxes in mid-September using the AERONET monthly average AOD measurements (AOD(550 nm) = 1.11). These average diurnal cycle flux reductions show significant temporal delays in the morning for equivalent flux levels in all three spectral bands, of ~50 min to 2 hr 15 min at mid-morning (midpoint between sunrise and solar noon). The largest time delays in flux occur in the UVA band and the smallest in the total SW broadband due to a rapid decrease in AOD as wavelength increases for the accumulation mode smoke aerosols. The time delays in solar flux have implications for possible delay of the onset of cumulus convection, the shortening of the photo-period when plants photosynthesize, and reduced time interval for UVA fluxes which may have implications for photochemical reaction rates, survival of airborne bacteria, insect activity, and plant responses.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J. S.; Artaxo, P.; Yamasoe, M. A.; Procopio, A. S.; Prins, E. M.; Feltz, J. M.; Smirnov, A.; Dubovik, O.; Reid, J. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">110</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRG..119..249Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial and temporal patterns of global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in response to anthropogenic and environmental factors: Reconstructing global fire history for the 20th and early 21st centuries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">is a critical component of the Earth system, and substantially influences land surface, climate change, and ecosystem dynamics. To accurately predict the fire regimes in the 21st century, it is essential to understand the historical fire patterns and recognize the interaction among fire, human, and environment factors. Until now, few efforts are put on the studies regarding to the long-term fire reconstruction and the attribution analysis of anthropogenic and environmental factors to fire regimes at global scale. To fill this knowledge gap, we developed a 0.5° × 0.5° data set of global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from 1901 to 2007 by coupling Global Fire Emission Database version 3 with a process-based fire model and conducted factorial simulation experiments to evaluate the impacts of human, climate, and atmospheric components. The average global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is ~442 × 104 km2 yr-1 during 1901-2007 and our results suggest a notable declining rate of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> globally (1.28 × 104 km2 yr-1). <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in tropics and extratropics exhibited a significant declining trend, with no significant trend detected at high latitudes. Factorial experiments indicated that human activities were the dominant factor in determining the declining trend of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in tropics and extratropics, and climate variation was the primary factor controlling the decadal variation of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> at high latitudes. Elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition enhanced <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in tropics and southern extratropics but suppressed fire occurrence at high latitudes. Rising temperature and frequent droughts are becoming increasingly important and expected to increase wildfire activity in many regions of the world.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Jia; Tian, Hanqin; Tao, Bo; Ren, Wei; Kush, John; Liu, Yongqiang; Wang, Yuhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24906348"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> care in South Africa: a micro cosmos of Africa.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> injuries in Africa are common with between 300,000 and 17.5 million children under 5 years sustaining <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries <span class="hlt">annually</span>, resulting in a high estimated fatality rate. These <span class="hlt">burns</span> are largely environmentally conditioned and therefore preventable. The Western Cape Province in South Africa can be regarded as a prototype of paediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> seen on the continent, with large numbers, high morbidity and mortality rates and an <span class="hlt">area</span> inclusive of all factors contributing to this extraordinary burden of injury. Most of the mechanisms to prevent <span class="hlt">burns</span> are not easily modified due to the restraint of low socio-economic homes, overcrowding, unsafe appliances, multiple and complex daily demands on families and multiple psycho-social stressors. Children <4 years are at highest risk of <span class="hlt">burns</span> with an average <span class="hlt">annual</span> rate of 6.0/10,000 child-years. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> care in South Africa is predominantly emergency driven and variable in terms of organization, clinical management, facilities and staffing. Various treatment strategies were introduced. The management of HIV positive children poses a problem, as well as the conflict of achieving equity of <span class="hlt">burn</span> care for all children. Without alleviating poverty, developing minimum standards for housing, <span class="hlt">burn</span> education, safe appliances and legislation, we will not be able to reduce the "curse of poor people" and will continue to treat the consequences. PMID:24906348</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rode, H; Cox, S G; Numanoglu, A; Berg, A M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.4024C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of emissions from open biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Tropical Asia during 2000-2007</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in tropical Asia emits large amounts of trace gases and particulate matters to atmosphere, which have significant influence in climate change and atmospheric chemistry. Emissions from open biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in tropical Asia are estimated during seven fire years 2000-2006 (i.e., April 1st 2000-March 31st 2007), using newly released L3JRC <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product and MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product (MCD45A1). Over seven fire years, both <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> and fire emissions showed clearly spatial and inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variations. The L3JRC <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged from 31.3×103 km2 for fire year 2005 to 57.5×103 km2 for 2000, while the MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged from 64.9×103 km2 for fire year 2002 to 127.0×103 km2 for 2004. We compared the total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> and forest <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> derived from the two separate products with publication data for several typical countries and found that the L3JRC results were comparable to previous studies and the MODIS results showed significant overestimation. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> average L3JRC-based emissions were 29915, 1948, 90, 30, 12, 105, and 871 Gg yr-1 for CO2, CO, CH4, NOx, BC, OC, and PM2.5 respectively, while MODIS-based emissions were 86740, 5222, 230, 83, 33, 296, and 2188 Gg yr-1, 60.2%-65.5% higher than L3JRC. Forest fires were the largest contributor to fire emissions, though <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> within forest biomes only constituted a minority of total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Fire emissions were mainly concentrated in Myanmar, Cambodia and India. Furthermore, the seasonal distribution of fire emissions was in good agreement with that of total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/273755"> <span id="translatedtitle">An optimized groundwater extraction system for the toxic <span class="hlt">burning</span> pits <span class="hlt">area</span> of J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Testing and disposal of chemical warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals at the J-Field <span class="hlt">area</span> of the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) have resulted in contamination of soil and groundwater. The discharge of contaminated groundwater to on-site marshes and adjacent estuaries poses a potential risk to ecological receptors. The Toxic <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Pits (TBP) <span class="hlt">area</span> is of special concern because of its disposal history. This report describes a groundwater modeling study conducted at J-Field that focused on the TBP <span class="hlt">area</span>. The goal of this modeling effort was optimization of the groundwater extraction system at the TBP <span class="hlt">area</span> by applying linear programming techniques. Initially, the flow field in the J-Field vicinity was characterized with a three-dimensional model that uses existing data and several numerical techniques. A user-specified border was set near the marsh and used as a constraint boundary in two modeled remediation scenarios: containment of the groundwater and containment of groundwater with an impermeable cap installed over the TBP <span class="hlt">area</span>. In both cases, the objective was to extract the minimum amount of water necessary while satisfying the constraints. The smallest number of wells necessary was then determined for each case. This optimization approach provided two benefits: cost savings, in that the water to be treated and the well installation costs were minimized, and minimization of remediation impacts on the ecology of the marsh.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Quinn, J.J.; Johnson, R.L.; Patton, T.L.; Martino, L.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2008105486"> <span id="translatedtitle">Appalachia High Intensity Drug Trafficking <span class="hlt">Area</span>, CY 2005 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Established in 1998, the Appalachia HIDTA consists of 68 counties spread across Southeastern Kentucky, Eastern Tennessee, and Southwestern West Virginia. These counties comprise the predominant marijuana production and trafficking <span class="hlt">areas</span> of this tri-state ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=38009"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ANNUAL</span> REPORT ON PERFORMANCE AUDIT RESULTS FOR POHC TESTING DURING RCRA TRIAL <span class="hlt">BURNS</span>--STATUS REPORT #2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Audit materials containing Principal organic Hardous Constituents (P0HCs) have been developed by AREAL for use by federal, state, and local agencies or their contractors to assess the accuracy of measurement methods during RCA trial <span class="hlt">burn</span> tests. Audit materials are currently avail...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7562"> <span id="translatedtitle">1998 Comprehensive TNX <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX <span class="hlt">Area</span> at the Savannah River Site has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride. The Interim Action T-1 Air Stripper System began operation on September 16, 1996. A comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. The Interim Action is meeting its objectives and is capable of continuing to do so until the final groundwater remedial action is in place.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chase, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-06-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/942116"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shillapoo Wildlife <span class="hlt">Area</span>, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report 2006-2007.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report summarizes accomplishments, challenges and successes on WDFW's Shillapoo Wildlife <span class="hlt">Area</span> funded under Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wildlife Mitigation Program (BPA project No.2003-012-00) during the Fiscal Year 07 contract period October 1, 2006-September 30, 2007. The information presented here is intended to supplement that contained in BPA's PISCES contract development and reporting system. The organization below is by broad categories of work but references are made to individual work elements in the PISCES Statement of Work as appropriate. The greatest success realized during this contract period was significant positive changes in the vegetative community in several wetland basins throughout the wildlife <span class="hlt">area</span>. This major goal is being achieved in part by new equipment and operation capability funded under the BPA contract, state capital and migratory bird stamp funds, and the past or ongoing investment of other partners including Ducks Unlimited, The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Clark Public Utilities and others. We continue to be challenged by requirements under the archaeological and historic preservation act necessary to protect many sensitive sites known to occur within the wildlife <span class="hlt">area</span>. The problems encountered to date have been largely administrative in nature and those experienced this year were unforeseen and probably unavoidable. Early in the contract period, WDFW and BPA had agreed to have a BPA staff archaeologist perform the survey and reporting work. Unexpectedly, just prior to the expected start date for the surveys, the employee resigned leaving BPA's staff short handed and necessitated contracting the work with an archaeological consultant. This delay caused us to forego work on several projects that are now deferred until the next contract period. The most notable projects impacted by this unfortunate circumstance are those involving the construction or repair of fences.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Calkins, Brian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.5983R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlations between soil respiration and soil properties in sugarcane <span class="hlt">areas</span> under green and slash-and-<span class="hlt">burn</span> management systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Soil management causes changes in soil physical, chemical, and biological properties that consequently affect its CO2 emission. In this work we studied soil respiration (FCO2) in <span class="hlt">areas</span> with sugarcane production in southern Brazil under two different sugarcane management systems: green (G), consisting of mechanized harvesting that produces a large amount of crop residues left on the soil surface, and slash-and-<span class="hlt">burn</span> (SB), in which the residues are <span class="hlt">burned</span> before manual harvest, leaving no residues on the soil surface. The study was conducted after the harvest period in two side-by-side grids installed in adjacent <span class="hlt">areas</span>, having 20 measurement points each. The objective of this work was to determinate whether soil physical and chemical properties within each plot were useful in order to explain the spatial variability of FCO2, supposedly influence by each management system. Most of the soil physical properties studied showed no significant differences between management systems, but on the other hand most of the chemical properties differed significantly when SB and G <span class="hlt">areas</span> were compared. Total FCO2 was 31% higher in the SB plot (729 g CO2 m-2) when compared to the G plot (557 g CO2 m-2) throughout the 70-day period after harvest studied. This seems to be related to the sensitivity of FCO2 to precipitation events, as respiration in this plot increased significantly with increases in soil moisture. Despite temporal variability showed to be positively related to soil moisture, inside each management system there was a negative correlation (p<0.01) between the spatial changes of FCO2 and soil moisture (MS), R= -0.56 and -0.59 for G and SB respectively. There was no spatial correlation between FCO2 and soil organic matter in each management system, however, the humification index (Hum) of organic matter was negatively linear correlated with FCO2 in SB (R= -0.53, p<0.05) while positively linear correlated in G <span class="hlt">area</span> (R=0.42, p<0.10). The multiple regression model analysis applied in each management system indicates that 63% of the FCO2 spatial variability in G managed could be explained by the model: FCO2(G)= 4.11978 -0.07672MS + 0.0045Hum +1.5352K -0.04474FWP, where K and FWP are potassium content and free water porosity in G <span class="hlt">area</span>, respectively. On the other hand, 75% of FCO2 spatial variability in SB managed plot was accounted by the model: FCO2(SB) = 10.66774 -0.08624MS -0.02904Hum -2.42548K. Therefore, soil moisture, humification index of organic matter and potassium level were the main properties able to explain the spatial variability of FCO2 in both sugarcane management systems. This result indicates that changes in sugarcane management systems could result in changes on the soil chemical properties, mostly, especially humification index of organic matter. It seems that in conversion from slash-and-<span class="hlt">burn</span> to green harvest system, free water porosity turns to be an important aspect in order to explain part of FCO2 spatial variability in green managed system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rodrigo Panosso, Alan; Milori, Débora M. B. P.; Marques Júnior, José; Martin-Neto, Ladislau; La Scala, Newton, Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/942117"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shillapoo Wildlife <span class="hlt">Area</span>, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report 2004-2005.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report summarizes accomplishments, challenges and successes on WDFW's Shillapoo Wildlife <span class="hlt">Area</span> funded under Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wildlife Mitigation Program (BPA project No.2003-012-00) during the Fiscal Year 05 contract period October 1, 2004-September 30, 2005. The information presented here is intended to supplement that contained in BPA's PISCES contract development and reporting system. The organization below is by broad categories of work but references are made to individual work elements in the PISCES Statement of Work as appropriate. The greatest success realized during this contract period was completion of the water system that will provide water to wetland basins within the Vancouver Lake Unit and three independent basins on adjoining Clark County owned lands. The water system paid for by Clark Public Utilities was designed and built under the direction of Ducks Unlimited. Having a reliable water supply for these <span class="hlt">areas</span> has allowed us for the first time to begin making significant progress toward our wetland vegetation management goals on this unit. A reduction in the density of reed canary grass has already been noted and increased levels of native plant occurrence have been observed. Our most notable setback was an increase in the infestation of purple loosestrife within a portion of the Shillapoo Lakebed including parts of the North and South Units. A great deal of effort and time was spent on addressing the problem including hand cutting and spraying individual plants.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Calkins, Brian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/630837"> <span id="translatedtitle">1997 Comprehensive TNX <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX <span class="hlt">Area</span> at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and carbon tetrachloride. In November 1994, an Interim Record of Decision (IROD) was agreed to and signed by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the South Carolina Department of Health {ampersand} Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The Interim Record of Decision requires the installation of a hybrid groundwater corrective action (HGCA) to stabilize the plume of groundwater contamination and remove CVOCs dissolved in the groundwater. The hybrid groundwater corrective action included a recovery well network, purge water management facility, air stripper, and an airlift recirculation well. The recirculation well was dropped pursuant to a test that indicated it to be ineffective at the TNX <span class="hlt">Area</span>. Consequently, the groundwater corrective action was changed from a hybrid to a single action, pump-and-treat approach. The Interim Action (IA) T-1 air stripper system began operation on September 16, 1996. a comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. As of December 31, 1997, the system has treated 32 million gallons of contaminated groundwater removed 32 pounds of TCE. The recovery well network created a `capture zone` that stabilized the plume of contaminated groundwater.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chase, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5987350"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> report on performance-audit results for POHC (Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents) testing during RCRA trial <span class="hlt">burns</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Audit materials containing Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHCs) have been developed by AREAL for use by federal, state, and local agencies or their contractors to assess the accuracy of measurement methods during RCRA trial <span class="hlt">burn</span> tests. Audit materials are currently available for 27 gaseous organics in 5, 6, 7, and 9 component mixtures at parts-per-billion levels (7 to 10,000 ppb) in compressed gas cylinders in a balance gas of nitrogen. The criteria used for the selection of the gaseous organic compounds is described. Stability studies indicate that all of the organics tested (with the exception of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide below 10 ppb levels) are stable enough to be used as reliable audit materials. Subsequent to completion of the stability studies, 129 performance audits have been initiated with the audit materials to assess the accuracy of the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST) and bag measurement methods during or prior to RCRA trial <span class="hlt">burn</span> tests.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jayanty, R.K.M.; Tompkins, S.B.; Howe, G.B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23644947"> <span id="translatedtitle">Concentrations and source apportionment of PM10 and associated elemental and ionic species in a lignite-<span class="hlt">burning</span> power generation <span class="hlt">area</span> of southern Greece.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ambient concentrations of PM10 and associated elemental and ionic species were measured over the cold and the warm months of 2010 at an urban and two rural sites located in the lignite-fired power generation <span class="hlt">area</span> of Megalopolis in Peloponnese, southern Greece. The PM10 concentrations at the urban site (44.2 ± 33.6 ?g m(-3)) were significantly higher than those at the rural sites (23.7 ± 20.4 and 22.7 ± 26.9 ?g m(-3)). Source apportionment of PM10 and associated components was accomplished by an advanced computational procedure, the robotic chemical mass balance model (RCMB), using chemical profiles for a variety of local fugitive dust sources (power plant fly ash, flue gas desulfurization wet ash, feeding lignite, infertile material from the opencast mines, paved and unpaved road dusts, soil), which were resuspended and sampled through a PM10 inlet onto filters and then chemically analyzed, as well as of other common sources such as vehicular traffic, residential oil combustion, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>, uncontrolled waste <span class="hlt">burning</span>, marine aerosol, and secondary aerosol formation. Geological dusts (road/soil dust) were found to be major PM10 contributors in both the cold and warm periods of the year, with average <span class="hlt">annual</span> contribution of 32.6 % at the urban site vs. 22.0 and 29.0 % at the rural sites. Secondary aerosol also appeared to be a significant source, contributing 22.1 % at the urban site in comparison to 30.6 and 28.7 % at the rural sites. At all sites, the contribution of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> was most significant in winter (28.2 % at the urban site vs. 14.6 and 24.6 % at the rural sites), whereas vehicular exhaust contribution appeared to be important mostly in the summer (21.9 % at the urban site vs. 11.5 and 10.5 % at the rural sites). The highest contribution of fly ash (33.2 %) was found at the rural site located to the north of the power plants during wintertime, when winds are favorable. In the warm period, the highest contribution of fly ash was found at the rural site located to the south of the power plants, although it was less important (7.2 %). Moderate contributions of fly ash were found at the urban site (5.4 and 2.7 % in the cold and the warm period, respectively). Finally, the mine field was identified as a minor PM10 source, occasionally contributing with lignite dust and/or deposited wet ash dust under dry summer conditions, with the summertime contributions ranging between 3.1 and 11.0 % among the three sites. The non-parametric bootstrapped potential source contribution function analysis was further applied to localize the regions of sources apportioned by the RCMB. For the majority of sources, source regions appeared as being located within short distances from the sampling sites (within the Peloponnesse Peninsula). More distant Greek <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the NNE sector also appeared to be source regions for traffic emissions and secondary calcium sulfate dust. PMID:23644947</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Argyropoulos, G; Grigoratos, Th; Voutsinas, M; Samara, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881500"> <span id="translatedtitle">Explanation of Significant Difference (ESD) for the A-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (731-A/1A) and Rubble Pit (731-2A) (U)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The A-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (731-A/1A) and Rubble Pit (731-2A) (ABRP) operable unit (OU) is located in the northwest portion of Savannah River Site (SRS), approximately 2.4 kilometers (1.5 miles) south of the A/M <span class="hlt">Area</span> operations. Between 1951 and 1973, Pits 731-A and 731-1A were used to <span class="hlt">burn</span> paper, plastics, wood, rubber, rags, cardboard, oil, degreasers, and solvents. Combustible materials were <span class="hlt">burned</span> monthly. After <span class="hlt">burning</span> was discontinued in 1973, Pits 731-A and 731-1A were also converted to rubble pits and used to dispose of concrete rubble, bricks, tile, asphalt, plastics, metal, wood products, and rubber until about 1978. When the pits were filled to capacity, there were covered with compacted clay-rich native soils and vegetation was established. Pit 731-2A was only used as a rubble pit until 1983 after which the <span class="hlt">area</span> was backfilled and seeded. Two other potential source <span class="hlt">areas</span> within the OU were investigated and found to be clean. The water table aquifer (M-<span class="hlt">Area</span> aquifer) was also investigated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morgan, Randall</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-11-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/207068"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of global, regional, and national <span class="hlt">annual</span> CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel <span class="hlt">burning</span>, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national <span class="hlt">annual</span> estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel <span class="hlt">burning</span>, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boden, T.A.; Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Andres, R.J. [University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Inst. of Northern Engineering</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/82463"> <span id="translatedtitle">Work plan for focused feasibility study of the toxic <span class="hlt">burning</span> pits <span class="hlt">area</span> at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field <span class="hlt">area</span> at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCIA). J-Field is within the Edgewood <span class="hlt">Area</span> of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood <span class="hlt">Area</span> have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open <span class="hlt">burning</span> and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood <span class="hlt">Area</span> conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA)(predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-0021355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in which data were collected to model groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today-</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Biang, C.; Benioff, P.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29592649"> <span id="translatedtitle">The management of white phosphorus <span class="hlt">burns</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phosphorus <span class="hlt">burns</span> are a rarely encountered chemical <span class="hlt">burn</span>, typically occurring in battle, industrial accidents, or from fireworks. Death may result even with minimal <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Early recognition of affected <span class="hlt">areas</span> and adequate resuscitation is crucial. Amongst our 2765 admissions between 1984 and 1998, 326 patients had chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Seven admissions were the result of phosphorus <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Our treatment protocol comprises</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Trong-Duo Chou; Tz-Win Lee; Shao-Liang Chen; Yeou-Ming Tung; Nai-Tz Dai; Shyi-Gen Chen; Chiu-Hong Lee; Tim-Mo Chen; Hsian-Jenn Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901553"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1979-1980. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 4 Texas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 1979-80 <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) for Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 4 in Texas opens with an introductory section covering the purpose of the plan, the relationship between the health systems plan and the AIP, and the amendment process. The objectives th...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/626453"> <span id="translatedtitle">D-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (431-D and 431-1D) Corrective Measures Study/Focused Feasibility Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this report is to determine alternatives which may be used to remediate the D-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (DBRP). An objective of this process is to provide decision makers adequate information to compare alternatives, select an appropriate remediation for the DBRP, and demonstrate the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements in the Record of Decision.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Mason, J.T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2012114113"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimated Probability of Postwildfire Debris Flows in the 2012 Whitewater-Baldy Fire <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Southwestern New Mexico.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">May and June 2012, the WhitewaterBaldy Fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> approximately 1,200 square kilometers (300,000 acres) of the Gila National Forest, in southwestern New Mexico. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. C. Tillery A. M. Matherne K. L. Verdin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA297089"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> Wound.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wound care is the central theme of <span class="hlt">burn</span> patient management after successful resuscitation. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> wound care has been revolutionized during the past four decades. The development of effective topical chemo-therapy, the timely surgical removal of <span class="hlt">burned</span> tiss...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. A. Pruitt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=39588"> <span id="translatedtitle">REPLY TO DISCUSSION BY GEOFF KITE ON "RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN <span class="hlt">ANNUAL</span> RUNOFF AND WATERSHED <span class="hlt">AREA</span>" FOR THE EASTERN UNITED STATES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The study was initiated because <span class="hlt">annual</span> runoff is needed for several analyses being conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). he study was concerned with the existence of a relationship between <span class="hlt">annual</span> runoff volume per unit <span class="hlt">area</span> and <span class="hlt">area</span>; the reason underlying t...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/766540"> <span id="translatedtitle">Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training <span class="hlt">Area</span> (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near <span class="hlt">Areas</span> 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> was used from the 1960s to 1980s to <span class="hlt">burn</span> excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the <span class="hlt">area</span> was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve the question of whether or not potentially hazardous wastes were generated at three of the four CASs within CAU 490, and whether or not potentially hazardous and radioactive wastes were generated at the fourth CAS in CAU 490 (CAS 09-54-001-09L2). Suspected CAS-specific COPCs include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, explosives, and uranium and plutonium isotopes. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-06-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5382053"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physical Sciences Program <span class="hlt">area</span>: 1987 research status report. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> summary report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 1987 <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary of the research funded and managed by GRI's Physical Sciences Department discusses the status of ongoing and planned activities in thirteen research <span class="hlt">areas</span> grouped according to the elements of GRI's mission: Gas Supply Options (Gasification Chemistry, Geosciences, and Biological Sciences); End Use (Combustion, Heat and Mass Transfer Science, Electrochemistry, High Temperature Materials, Methane Reaction Science, and Bioengineering Sciences); Operations (Piping Materials Research and Gas Flow Research); Fundamental Sciences (Properties Research); and Exploratory Research (Exploratory Concepts). Presented are objectives and goals, accomplishments, strategy and basis for each project <span class="hlt">area</span>, and a status review sheet for projects within the project <span class="hlt">area</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Not Available</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1039309"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical <span class="hlt">Area</span> 54, <span class="hlt">Area</span> G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As a condition to the Disposal Authorization Statement issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) on March 17, 2010, a comprehensive performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program must be implemented for the Technical <span class="hlt">Area</span> 54, <span class="hlt">Area</span> G disposal facility. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> determinations of the adequacy of the performance assessment and composite analysis are to be conducted under the maintenance program to ensure that the conclusions reached by those analyses continue to be valid. This report summarizes the results of the fiscal year 2011 <span class="hlt">annual</span> review for <span class="hlt">Area</span> G. Revision 4 of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> G performance assessment and composite analysis was issued in 2008 and formally approved in 2009. These analyses are expected to provide reasonable estimates of the long-term performance of <span class="hlt">Area</span> G and, hence, the disposal facility's ability to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) performance objectives. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> disposal receipt reviews indicate that smaller volumes of waste will require disposal in the pits and shafts at <span class="hlt">Area</span> G relative to what was projected for the performance assessment and composite analysis. The future inventories are projected to decrease modestly for the pits but increase substantially for the shafts due to an increase in the amount of tritium that is projected to require disposal. Overall, however, changes in the projected future inventories of waste are not expected to compromise the ability of <span class="hlt">Area</span> G to satisfy DOE performance objectives. The <span class="hlt">Area</span> G composite analysis addresses potential impacts from all waste disposed of at the facility, as well as other sources of radioactive material that may interact with releases from <span class="hlt">Area</span> G. The level of knowledge about the other sources included in the composite analysis has not changed sufficiently to call into question the validity of that analysis. Ongoing environmental surveillance activities are conducted at, and in the vicinity of, <span class="hlt">Area</span> G. However, the information generated by many of these activities cannot be used to evaluate the validity of the performance assessment and composite analysis models because the monitoring data collected are specific to operational releases or address receptors that are outside the domain of the performance assessment and composite analysis. In general, applicable monitoring data are supportive of some aspects of the performance assessment and composite analysis. Several research and development (R and D) efforts have been initiated under the performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program. These investigations are designed to improve the current understanding of the disposal facility and site, thereby reducing the uncertainty associated with the projections of the long-term performance of <span class="hlt">Area</span> G. The status and results of R and D activities that were undertaken in fiscal year 2011 are discussed in this report. Special analyses have been conducted to determine the feasibility of disposing of specific waste streams, to address proposed changes in disposal operations, and to consider the impacts of changes to the models used to conduct the performance assessment and composite analysis. These analyses are described and the results of the evaluations are summarized in this report. The <span class="hlt">Area</span> G disposal facility consists of Material Disposal <span class="hlt">Area</span> (MDA) G and the Zone 4 expansion <span class="hlt">area</span>. To date, all disposal operations at <span class="hlt">Area</span> G have been confined to MDA G. Material Disposal <span class="hlt">Area</span> G is scheduled to undergo final closure in 2015; disposal of waste in the pits and shafts is scheduled to end in 2013. In anticipation of the closure of MDA G, plans are being made to ship the majority of the waste generated at LANL to off-site locations for disposal. It is not clear at this time if waste that will be disposed of at LANL will be placed in Zone 4 or if disposal operations will move to a new location at the Laboratory. Separately, efforts to optimize the final cover used in the closure of MDA G are underway; a final cover design different than that adopted for the performance assessment and composite analy</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shuman, Rob [WPS: WASTE PROJECTS AND SERVICES</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr80340"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak discharges from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Montana through September 1979</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 173 stations maintained in 1979. Data in the report are tabulated for the period of record. (USGS)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Omang, R. J.; Parrett, C.; Hull, J. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1955-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1982/0270/report.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1982/0270/plate-1.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1982/0270/plate-2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak discharges from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Montana through September 1981</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 172 stations maintained in 1981. Data in the report are tabulated for the period of record. (USGS)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Omang, R. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr78219"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak discharges from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Montana through September 1977</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak stage and stream-discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 191 stations in 1977. Data are tabulated for 336 sites throughout the period of record. (Woodard-USGS)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Omang, R. J.; Hull, J. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1981/0332/report.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1981/0332/plate-1.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1981/0332/plate-2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak discharges from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Montana through September 1980</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 172 stations maintained in 1980. Data in the report are tabulated for the period of record. (USGS)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Omang, R. J.; Parrett, Charles; Hull, J. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1955-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr79522"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak discharges from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Montana through September 1978</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 173 stations maintained in 1978. Data are tabulated for the period of record. (Woodard-USGS)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Omang, R. J.; Parrett, C.; Hull, J. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613380L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Slash and <span class="hlt">burn</span> versus "agronegócio". Tales of forest degradation in the maroon <span class="hlt">area</span> of Vila Bela da SantíssimaTrindade, Mato Grosso, Brazil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over the last four decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the <span class="hlt">area</span> known as the "arcof deforestation", an extensive geographical <span class="hlt">area</span> located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. The deforestation process replaces the forest and the slash and <span class="hlt">burn</span> agriculture systems by modern intensive agriculture systems targeted at the production of cash crops like cotton, maize or soybeans, and to graze cattle.The so called "agronegócio" system. The reduction of pristine forest <span class="hlt">areas</span> where traditional (indigenous, maroons and riverside) population conduct slash and <span class="hlt">burn</span> agriculture, reduces the recovery time of the abandoned fields after exhaustion by agriculture crops, reason why the return to the same spots for another cycle of slash and <span class="hlt">burn</span> occurs before the forest recovers completely from the previous cycle. In fact, the frequency of the cycles is increasing with the expansion of farm land and the reduction of available forest. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of the deforestation trends in the Vila Bela da SantíssimaTrindade, near the Bolivian border of Mato Grosso in Brazil, over a time span of four decades. The arc of deforestation has passed the region in the 1980's, leaving yet a large <span class="hlt">area</span> of pristine forest where the traditional communities kept practicing a slash and <span class="hlt">burn</span> agriculture system. Nevertheless, due to the reduction of available <span class="hlt">area</span>, and specially due to the exposure of traditional communities to the "western civilization culture", there is an increasing abandonment of the traditional systems and associated culture and knowledge. In this context, the traditional communities may become a deforestation/degradation factor. To prevent this situation, the GUYAGROFOR project was implemented, to value traditional knowledge, identify bottlenecks in the increase of added value to the local traditional products, and to test methodologies to maintain and if possible improve soil fertility near the small households. The deforestation/degradation processes and the impacts of the proposed mitigation action are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leite, José C.; Ferreira, António A. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdSpR..54..333K"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">annual</span> variation analysis of the ionospheric spatial gradient over a regional <span class="hlt">area</span> for GNSS applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An ionospheric spatial gradient represents the ionosphere delay difference between different locations, and its variation over a specific <span class="hlt">area</span> is important for implementing differential GNSS systems. An estimation method for the ionospheric spatial gradient over a small regional <span class="hlt">area</span> is proposed. A plate map model is implemented for the direct estimation of the gradients. Nine years of GPS data were processed to figure out the <span class="hlt">annual</span> variation of the mean gradient at the mid-geomagnetic latitude of 30° N. Gradients along the north-south direction have a mean of 0.65 mm/km and follow solar-cycle variations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Jeongrae; Lee, Seung Woo; Lee, Hyung Keun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr77172"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak discharges from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Montana through September 1976</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak discharge from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> is tabulated for 336 sites in Montana. The 1976 additions included data collected at 206 sites. The program which investigates the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Montana, was begun July 1, 1955. Originally 45 crest-stage gaging stations were established. The purpose of the program is to collect sufficient peak-flow data, which through analysis could provide methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods at any point in Montana. The ultimate objective is to provide methods for estimating the 100-year flood with the reliability needed for road design. (Woodard-USGS)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, M. V.; Omang, R. J.; Hull, J. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/jd0823/2008JD010717/2008JD010717.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between MODIS fire hot spot count and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in a degraded tropical peat swamp forest in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A number of space-borne sensors observe radiant energy at thermal wavelengths. Thermal anomaly data, otherwise known as hotspot data, have been shown to be particularly correlated with the occurrence of active fires (a fire normally with a flaming component and\\/or smoldering component). Because of a lack of high-quality <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data, recent studies have used hotspot data as a proxy</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Tansey; J. Beston; A. Hoscilo; S. E. Page; C. U. Paredes Hernández</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://iahs.info/redbooks/a309/309028.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effects of errors in measuring drainage basin <span class="hlt">area</span> on regionalized estimates of mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> flood: a simulation study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Regionalized estimates of mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> flood in ungauged drainage basins are typically found by using multiple regression equations fitted to data from neighbouring gauging stations. Amongst the explanatory variables used in fitting such regressions, basin <span class="hlt">area</span> is one of the most important, commonly showing close correlation with mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> flood, the variable to be predicted. In regions of very low</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. T. CLARKE; L. C. BRUSA</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1984/0577/report.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> ground-water use in the Twin Cities metropolitan <span class="hlt">area</span>, Minnesota, 1970-79</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> groundwater use in the Twin Cities Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Area</span> from 1970-79 is presented by aquifer and type of use. Most groundwater is withdrawn from wells in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer and major uses of the water are for self-supplied industry and public supplies. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> groundwater-use data are presented by county for each of the five major aquifers; Prairie du Chien-Jordan, Mount Simon-Hinckley, Ironton-Galesville, St. Peter, and drift. The data also are presented by county for each major use type including public supply, self-supplied industry, commercial air-conditioning, irrigation, lake-level maintenance, and dewatering. The data were collected initially by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and were supplemented by data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey. (USGS)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Horn, M. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40916768"> <span id="translatedtitle">A predictive model of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity based on 20-year satellite-inferred <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity data in a large southwestern US wilderness <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe and then model satellite-inferred severe (stand-replacing) fire occurrence relative to topography (elevation, aspect, slope, solar radiation, Heat Load Index, wetness and measures of topographic ruggedness) using data from 114 fires>40ha in <span class="hlt">area</span> that occurred between 1984 and 2004 in the Gila Wilderness and surrounding Gila National Forest. Severe fire occurred more frequently at higher elevations and on north-facing,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zachary A. Holden; Penelope Morgan; Jeffrey S. Evans</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://terra.whrc.org/policy/COP/Brazil/Alencar2006_Fireandcarbonemissions.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forest Understory Fire in the Brazilian Amazon in ENSO and Non-ENSO Years: <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burned</span> and Committed Carbon Emissions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understory fires, which <span class="hlt">burn</span> the floor of standing forests, are one of the most important types of forest impoverishment in the Amazon, especially during the severe droughts of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes. However, the authors are aware of no estimates of the areal exten to f these fires for the Brazilian Amazon and, hence, of their contribution to Ama-</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ane Alencar; Daniel Nepstad; Maria Del Carmen Vera Diaz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6914468"> <span id="translatedtitle">CO[sub 2] and temperature effects on leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> production in two <span class="hlt">annual</span> plant species</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors studied leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> production in two <span class="hlt">annual</span> plant species, Abutilon theophrasti and Amaranthus retroflexus, under three day/night temperature regimes and two concentrations of carbon dioxide. The production of whole-plant leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> during the first 30 d of growth was analyzed in terms of the leaf initiation rate, leaf expansion, individual leaf <span class="hlt">area</span>, and, in Amaranthus, production of branch leaves. Temperature and CO[sub 2] influenced leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> production through effects on the rate of development, determined by the production of nodes on the main stem, and through shifts in the relationship between whole-plant leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> and the number of main stem nodes. In Abutilon, leaf initiation rate was highest at 38[degree], but <span class="hlt">area</span> of individual leaves was greatest at 28[degree]. Total leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> was greatly reduced at 18[degree] due to slow leaf initiation rates. Elevated CO[sub 2] concentration increased leaf initiation rate at 28[degree], resulting in an increase in whole-part leaf <span class="hlt">area</span>. In Amaranthus, leaf initiation rate increased with temperature, and was increased by elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree]. Individual leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> was greatest at 28[degree], and was increased by elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree] but decreased at 38[degree]. Branch leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> displayed a similar response to CO[sub 2], butt was greater at 38[degree]. Overall, wholeplant leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> was slightly increased at 38[degree] relative to 28[degree], and elevated CO[sub 2] levels resulted in increased leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> at 28[degree] but decreased leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> at 38[degree].</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ackerly, D.D.; Coleman, J.S.; Morse, S.R.; Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/910985"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design of an Actinide <span class="hlt">Burning</span>, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor that Produces Low Cost Electricity FY-01 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report, October 2001</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this collaborative Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project is to investigate the suitability of lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. Work has been accomplished in four major <span class="hlt">areas</span> of research: core neutronic design, plant engineering, material compatibility studies, and coolant activation. The publications derived from work on this project (since project inception) are listed in Appendix A.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Herring, James Stephen; Loewen, Eric Paul; Smolik, Galen Richard; Weaver, Kevan Dean; Todreas, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/06_18_2010_im15GtrFFA_06_18_2010_48"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lava Flow <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Vegetation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lava flow activity continues to <span class="hlt">burn</span> vegetation in the kipuka adjacent to the trail, causing the viewing trail to be closed beyond the trailhead. The new viewing <span class="hlt">area</span> is still very close to the active flows. ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/bio_burn/bio_burn_table"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href=""></a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Data and Information This data set represents ... geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span>. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ... models of the atmosphere. Project Title:  Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Discipline:  Tropospheric Chemistry ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/t821526665h77j6m.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicted changes in fire weather suggest increases in lightning fire initiation and future <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in the mixedwood boreal forest</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forecasting future fire activity as a function of climate change is a step towards understanding the future state of the western\\u000a mixedwood boreal ecosystem. We developed five <span class="hlt">annual</span> weather indices based on the Daily Severity Rating (DSR) of the Canadian\\u000a Forest Fire Weather Index System and estimated their relationship with <span class="hlt">annual</span>, empirical counts of lightning fire initiation\\u000a for 588 landscapes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meg A. Krawchuk; Steve G. Cumming; Mike D. Flannigan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr79510"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak discharges from small drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Montana for stations discontinued before 1978</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> peak stage and discharge data have been tabulated for crest-stage gage sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from samll drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 172 stations maintained in 1978. From 1955 to 1978, 156 stations have been discontinued. This report is a tabulation of the stage and discharge data for the discontinued stations. (Woodard-USGS)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Omang, R. J.; Hull, J. A.; Parrett, Charles</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60861134"> <span id="translatedtitle">STUDIES ON LARGE <span class="hlt">AREA</span> SUB-FABRIC <span class="hlt">BURNS</span>: THE EFFECT OF AN AIR SPACE BETWEEN A TWO LAYER SYSTEM</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is well known that protection against radiant energy <span class="hlt">burns</span> afforded ;\\u000a by fabrics may be increased by creating an air space between the fabric and the ;\\u000a underlying skin. Earlier work in this laboratory has also shown that if one ;\\u000a layer of fabric is in contact with skin, protection of a two layer fabric system ;\\u000a increases progressively</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berkley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1248/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probability and volume of potential postwildfire debris flows in the 2011 Indian Gulch <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, near Golden, Colorado</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report presents an assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> in 2011 by the Indian Gulch wildfire near Golden, Colorado. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> drainage basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and debris-flow volumes for selected drainage basins. Input for the models include measures of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, topographic characteristics, soil properties, and rainfall total and intensity for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall. Estimated debris-flow probabilities in the drainage basins of interest ranged from 2 percent in response to the 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall to a high of 76 percent in response to the 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from a low of 840 cubic meters to a high of 26,000 cubic meters, indicating a considerable hazard should debris flows occur.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruddy, Barbara C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1345939"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clothing <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Canadian children</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A Canadian survey of 11 tertiary care pediatric centres with specialized <span class="hlt">burn</span> facilities revealed that an estimated 37 children up to 9 years of age are admitted <span class="hlt">annually</span> to such hospitals because of clothing <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Sleepwear accounts for an estimated 21 such <span class="hlt">burns</span> per year. Girls were found to suffer the most severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> and represented eight of the nine children in the series who died. Loose and flowing garments dominated the girls' styles. The results of multiple-regression analysis confirmed that style of clothing (loose and flowing as opposed to snug) was the most significant predictor of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, length of hospital stay, the need for skin grafting and survival. The ignition situation (avoidance of parental supervision at the time of injury) was the only other important predictor. The success of regulatory actions in other countries in reducing the incidence of severe clothing <span class="hlt">burns</span> is reviewed, and preventive strategies for Canada are explored. ImagesFig. 2</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stanwick, Richard S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4004872"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recent Change in the <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Incidence of Childhood Type 2 Diabetes in the Tokyo Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study evaluated recent changes in the <span class="hlt">annual</span> incidence of childhood type 2 diabetes in the Tokyo metropolitan <span class="hlt">area</span>. From 1974 to 2004, a total of 236 students were diagnosed as having type 2 diabetes by the urine glucose screening program at school. The overall incidence of type 2 diabetes was 2.55/100,000. Overall, 83.9% of students with diabetes were obese; junior high school students had a significantly higher incidence than primary school students (0.75 vs. 6.27/100,000). The <span class="hlt">annual</span> incidences over the 5-yr periods from 1974–2004 were 1.73, 3.23, 3.05, 2.90, 2.70 and 1.41/100,000, respectively. The incidences in 1974–1980 and 2001–2004 were significantly lower than those in 1981–1985, 1986–1990 and 1991–1995, because primary school students in 1974–1980 had a significantly lower incidence (0.27/100,000), and junior high school students in 2001–2004 had a somewhat lower incidence (3.66/100,000) than during 1981–2000. In recent years, Japanese children’s lifestyle and eating habits have gradually improved, and this may have contributed to the trend toward decrease in the incidence of type 2 diabetes in 2001–2004 in the Tokyo metropolitan <span class="hlt">area</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Urakami, Tatsuhiko; Morimoto, Shigeo; Nitadori, Yoshikazu; Harada, Kensuke; Owada, Misao; Kitagawa, Teruo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11307683"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> and military clothing.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Over the last hundred years, the <span class="hlt">burn</span> threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of <span class="hlt">burn</span>, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of <span class="hlt">burn</span> casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from <span class="hlt">burns</span> is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of <span class="hlt">burn</span>--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a <span class="hlt">burn</span>. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a <span class="hlt">burn</span> threat. This paper explores the incidence of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash <span class="hlt">burns</span>; the most vulnerable <span class="hlt">areas</span> are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under high heat loads in the laboratory, combat clothing can ignite, but there is little evidence that clothing ignition is a common occurrence in military <span class="hlt">burn</span> casualties. Thermoplastic materials have many benefits in civil and military clothing. There is little objective evidence that they exacerbate <span class="hlt">burns</span>, or complicate <span class="hlt">burn</span> management. Their use in military clothing must be based on objective evidence, not hearsay. PMID:11307683</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McLean, A D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/626452"> <span id="translatedtitle">Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan for the D-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (431-D and 431-1D)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan is being issued by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), which is the lead agency for the Savannah River Site (SRS) remedial activities,with concurrence by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The purpose of this Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan is to describe the preferred alternative for addressing the D-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (DBRP) (431-D and 431-1D) and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Mason, J.T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1113W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> as a natural, long-term experiment in biochar addition - Can prescribed <span class="hlt">burns</span> contribute to carbon storage in peat soils?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> is a common land management of UK peatlands where Calluna-vulgaris dominated vegetation is burnt on a cycle of 8 - 25 years. The <span class="hlt">burning</span> of Calluna by prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> does produce char and thus presents a long-term experiment in biochar addition to a soil. This study will discuss the impacts of biochar additions on soil structure, hydrology, water quality and carbon fluxes from a number of experiments including a study of a chronosequence of nine years. This study proposes that although prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> of moorland dominated by Calluna represents a direct loss of carbon to the atmosphere during the <span class="hlt">burn</span> itself and destruction of litter production after the <span class="hlt">burn</span> this loss of carbon is outweighed by the production of both dead biomass and refractory black carbon (char) during the <span class="hlt">burn</span> itself. The study has produced a model of carbon stock in a peatland under a range of <span class="hlt">burn</span> frequencies (5- 25 years) and compared this to the carbon stocks of a Calluna-dominated peatland at steady-state biomass. The model was run stochastically with all input parameters being allowed to vary by 50% and run over a period of 51 years. The study shows that: i) In the few years immediately following a <span class="hlt">burn</span>, there is elevated water colour in soil pore water, but that this is not matched by a rise in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration i.e. the composition varies rather than the absolute concentration. ii) Whilst all the sites examined were net sources of carbon but burnt sites were smaller sources than unburnt sites, i.e. a relative sink was achieved by <span class="hlt">burning</span>. iii) The conditions under which <span class="hlt">burning</span> results in a greater <span class="hlt">annual</span> average sink of carbon than an unburnt site was controlled by the maturity of the Calluna and the extent of severe <span class="hlt">burning</span>, i.e. the destruction of long term carbon reserves in litter and soil layers. iv) The <span class="hlt">annual</span> average C flux on an unburnt sink was -8.7 ± 2.6 gC/m2/yr compared to -13.3 ± 2.7 gC/m2/yr for a site burnt every 25 years (equivalent to 100% of the Calluna steady state biomass). The study shows that significant carbon savings could be achieved not by bringing <span class="hlt">areas</span> of Calluna dominated peatland under <span class="hlt">burn</span> management but by changing the <span class="hlt">burn</span> frequency on <span class="hlt">areas</span> already under <span class="hlt">burn</span> management and extending it to be as close as possible to the maximum steady-state biomass for the site.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Worrall, F.; Clay, G. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12792547"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ball lightning <span class="hlt">burn</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ball lightning is a rare physical phenomenon, which is not yet completely explained. It is similar to lightning but with different, peculiar characteristics. It can be considered a mix of fire and electricity, concentrated in a fireball with a diameter of 20-cm that most commonly appears suddenly, even in indoor conditions, during a thunderstorm. It moves quickly for several meters, can change direction, and ultimately disappears. During a great storm, a 28-year-old man and his 5-year-old daughter sustained <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds after ball lightning came from the outdoors through a chimney. These two patients demonstrated signs of fire and electrical injuries. The father, who lost consciousness, sustained superficial second-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds bilaterally on the zygomatic <span class="hlt">area</span> and deep second-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds on his right hand (total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, 4%). His daughter demonstrated superficial second-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds on the left part of the face and deep second-degree and third-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds (total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, 30%) on the left neck, both upper arms, and the back. In this article, the authors report the first two cases of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries resulting from ball lightning contact indoors. The literature on this rare phenomenon is reviewed to elucidate the nature of ball lightning. Emphasis is placed on the nature of injuries after ball lightning contact, the therapy used, and the long-term complications. PMID:12792547</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Selvaggi, Gennaro; Monstrey, Stan; von Heimburg, Dennis; Hamdi, Mustapha; Van Landuyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3945825"> <span id="translatedtitle">Is the target of 1 day length of stay per 1% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> actually being achieved? A review of paediatric thermal injuries in South East Scotland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives: Length of stay is a standard variable used to evaluate outcomes in <span class="hlt">burn</span> care. Is the target of 1 day length of stay per 1% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> actually being achieved? Methods: A retrospective analysis of 328 paediatric thermal injuries admitted to the South East Scotland Regional <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Unit between January 2003 and March 2007 to assess whether the target is met and if not, which factors are contributing to a prolonged hospitalisation. Results: 57% achieved the target and 43% failed the target. Factors associated with a lengthened hospital stay were <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth, <span class="hlt">burn</span> location, presence of infection/sepsis and the need for theatre visits for either dressing change or surgical intervention. Conclusions: Many factors can contribute to patients’ length of hospital stay. It is valuable to identify <span class="hlt">areas</span> of practice which can be altered to minimise the impact of these factors. For example, consider the use of laser Doppler imaging to help assess <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth more accurately; this leading to potentially more accurate requirements for surgery or not, early excision of deep <span class="hlt">burns</span>, improved infection control and use of dressings may all contribute to reduce the length of inpatient stay with a view to improving patient outcome.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Louise, Caton Nadine; David, McGill; John, Stewart Kenneth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....919599C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions in tropical Asia based on satellite-derived data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in tropical Asia emits large amounts of trace gases and particulate matters into the atmosphere, which has significant implications for atmospheric chemistry and climatic change. In this study, emissions from open biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> over tropical Asia were evaluated during seven fire years from 2000-2006 (1 April 2000-31 March 2007). <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> were estimated from newly published 1-km L3JRC and 500-m MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products (MCD45A1). Available fuel loads and emission factors were assigned for each vegetation type in a GlobCover characterisation map, and fuel moisture content was taken into account when calculating combustion factors. Over the whole period, both <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> and fire emissions clearly showed spatial and seasonal variations. The L3JRC <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged from 31 165 km2 in fire year 2005 to 57 313 km2 in 2000, while the MCD45A1 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged from 54 260 km2 in fire year 2001 to 127 068 km2 in 2004. Comparisons of L3JRC and MCD45A1 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> with ground-based measurements and other satellite information were constructed in several major <span class="hlt">burning</span> regions, and results suggested that MCD45A1 performed better in most <span class="hlt">areas</span> than L3JRC did although with a certain degree of underestimation of <span class="hlt">burned</span> forest <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The average <span class="hlt">annual</span> L3JRC-based emissions were 125, 12, 0.98, 1.91, 0.11, 0.89, 0.044, 0.022, 0.42, 3.40, and 3.68 Tg yr<sup-1 for CO2, CO, CH4, NMHCs, NOx, NH3, SO2, BC, OC, PM2.5, and PM10, respectively, while MCD45A1-based emissions were 130, 9.79, 0.65, 1.14, 0.12, 0.56, 0.046, 0.036, 0.42, 3.21, and 3.49 Tg yr-1. Forest <span class="hlt">burning</span> was determined as the major source of the fire emissions due to the high carbon density. Although agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span> was the second important contributor, a great deal of crop residue combustion could probably be missed by satellite observations when compared to previously published data, which may be because of its small <span class="hlt">burning</span> size. Fire emissions were mainly concentrated in Indonesia, India, Myanmar, and Cambodia. Furthermore, the peak in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was generally found in the early fire season, while the maximum fire emissions often occurred in the late fire season.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, D.; Song, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24034453"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> in children: standard and new treatments.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Outcomes of patients with <span class="hlt">burns</span> have improved substantially over the past two decades. Findings from a 2012 study in The Lancet showed that a <span class="hlt">burn</span> size of more than 60% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> (an increase from 40% a decade ago) is associated with risks and mortality. Similar data have been obtained in adults and elderly people who have been severely <span class="hlt">burned</span>. We discuss recent and future developments in <span class="hlt">burn</span> care to improve outcomes of children. PMID:24034453</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeschke, Marc G; Herndon, David N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://newsinhealth.nih.gov/issue/Dec2013/Feature2"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Issue: Handling Household <span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... cooking food unattended on the stove. Set your water heater’s thermostat to 120 °F or lower to prevent scalding <span class="hlt">burns</span>. And install smoke alarms on every floor of your home. Keep yourself and your family safe from unexpected ... For minor <span class="hlt">burns</span>: Immerse in fresh, cool water, or apply cool compresses for 10-15 minutes. ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/908408"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fiscal Year 2005 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Summary Report for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Performance Assessment (PA) maintenance plan requires an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review to determine if current operations and conditions at the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) remain consistent with PA and composite analysis (CA) assumptions and models. This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 2005 <span class="hlt">annual</span> review findings for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS PA only. The PA Maintenance Plan states that no <span class="hlt">annual</span> review or summary reporting will be carried out in years that a PA or CA revision is undertaken (Bechtel Nevada [BN], 2002). Updated PA results for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS were published in an addendum to the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS PA report in September 2005. A federal review of the draft addendum report took place in early FY 2006 (October November 2005). The review team found the addendum acceptable without conditions. The review team's recommendation will be presented to the Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group in early 2006. The addendum was revised in January 2006 and incorporated comments from the review team (BN, 2006). Table 1 summarizes the updated <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS PA results presented in the addendum.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vefa Yucel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMNS31A1217K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geothermal, Geochemical and Geomagnetic Mapping Of the <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Coal Seam in Fire- Zone 18 of the Coal Mining <span class="hlt">Area</span> Wuda, Inner Mongolia, PR China.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous combustion of coal has become a world wide problem caused by and affecting technical operations in coal mining <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The localization of the <span class="hlt">burning</span> centre is a prerequisite for any planning of fire fighting operations. In the German - Chinese coal fire project sponsored by the German Ministry of Science and Technologies (Grant No. 0330490K) the so called fire zone 18 of the coal mining <span class="hlt">area</span> of Wuda (InnerMongolia, PR China) serves as a test <span class="hlt">area</span> for geophysical measurements. For the geothermal and geochemical mapping 25 up to 1m deep boreholes with a diameter of approx. 30 mm are distributed over the particular fire-zone with an extension of 320 × 180 m2. To avoid the highly dynamic gas flow processes in fire induced fractures caused by weather conditions, all boreholes were situated in the undisturbed rock compartments. In these boreholes, plastic tubes of 12 mm diameter provide access to the borehole ground filled with highly permeable gravel. The boreholes are otherwise sealed to the atmosphere by clay. The geothermal observations consist of measurements of temperature profiles in the boreholes and thermal conductivity measurement on rock samples in the lab. For depths greater then 0.2 m diurnal variations in the temperature gradient were neglected. The derived heat flow with maximum values of 80 W/m2 is more then three orders of magnitude higher than the natural undisturbed heat flow. The high heat flow suggests that the dominant heat transport is gas convection through the system of porous rock and fractures. Any temperature anomaly caused by the <span class="hlt">burning</span> coal in a depth of more than 18 m would need years to reach the surface by a heat transport restricted to conduction. The geochemical soil gas probing is performed by gas extraction from the boreholes. Measured are the concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, H2S and CH4. The O2 deficit in the soil air and the concentrations of the other combustion products compared to the concentrations in the free atmosphere are related to the combustion <span class="hlt">area</span>. The magnetic mapping with point distances of 2 m and profile-distances of 3 to 4 m covered an <span class="hlt">area</span> of 350 × 300m with 7913 points. The detected anomalies lie in a range between -130 and 176 nT. The maxima are most likely caused by heating of the top sandstones by <span class="hlt">burning</span> coal, the origin for the high magnetization being the conversion of pyrite and markasit into maghemite, hematite and magnetite. Susceptibility measurements of clinkers in firezone 18 demonstrate this effect. Therefore the identified patches with high magnetic anomalies should have a direct connection to ranges with <span class="hlt">burning</span> coal within firezone 18. Al the discussed geophysical measurements together allow an integrated interpretation. Each result can be related to the combustion process with a particular likelihood for the vertical projection to the combustion centre. Probability calculations with chosen weight factors for each observation method are discussed. References: Kessels, W., Wuttke, M. W., Wessling, S., and Li, X. Coalfires between self ignition and fire fighting: Numerical modeling and basic geophysical measurements. In ERSEC Ecological Book Series - 4 on Coal Fire Research (2007).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kessels, W.; Han, J.; Halisch, M.; Lindner, H.; Rueter, H.; Wuttke, M. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1313079H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long term in-situ observations of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosol at a high altitude station in Venezuela - sources, impacts and inter <span class="hlt">annual</span> variability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">First long-term observations of South American biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosol within the tropical lower free troposphere are presented. The observations were conducted between 2007 and 2009 at a high altitude station (4765 m a.s.l.) on the Pico Espejo, Venezuela. Sub-micron aerosol volume, number concentrations of primary particles and particle absorption were observed. Orographic lifting and shallow convection leads to a distinct diurnal cycle at the station. It enables measurements within the lower free troposphere during night time and observations of boundary layer air masses during day time and at their transitional regions. The seasonal cycle is defined by a wet rainy season and a dry biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> season. The particle load of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosol is dominated by fires in the Venezuelan savannah. Increases of aerosol concentrations could not be linked to long-range transport of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> plumes from the Amazon basin or Africa due to effective wet scavenging of particles. Highest particle concentrations were observed within boundary layer air masses during the dry season. Ambient sub-micron aerosol volume reached 1.4 ± 1.3 ?m3 cm-3, heated (300 °C) particle number concentrations 510 ± 420 cm-3 and the absorption coefficient 0.91 ± 1.2 Mm-1. The respective concentrations were lowest within the lower free troposphere during the wet season and averaged at 0.19 ± 0.25 ?m3 cm-3, 150 ± 94 cm-3 and 0.15 ± 0.26 Mm-1. A decrease of particle concentrations during the dry seasons from 2007-2009 could be connected to a decrease in fire activity in the wider region of Venezuela using MODIS satellite observations. The variability of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is most likely linked to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Low biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> activity in the Venezuelan savannah was observed to follow La Niña conditions, high biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> activity followed El Niño conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hamburger, T.; Matis?ns, M.; Tunved, P.; Ström, J.; Calderon, S.; Hoffmann, P.; Hochschild, G.; Gross, J.; Schmeissner, T.; Krejci, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/963088"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxbow Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span>; Middle Fork John Day River, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report 2003-2004.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an '<span class="hlt">annual</span> written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The project during 2003 was crippled due to the aftermath of the BPA budget crisis. Some objectives were not completed during the first half of this contract because of limited funds in the 2003 fiscal year. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were utilized only in the early, high water season and only from diversion points with functional fish screens. After July 1, all of the OCA water rights were put instream. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks continued to promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Hundreds of willow, dogwood, Douglas-fir, and cottonwood were planted along the Middle Fork John Day River. Livestock grazing on the property was carefully managed to ensure the protection of fish and wildlife habitat, while promoting meadow vigor and producing revenue for property taxes. Monitoring of property populations, resources, and management activities continued in 2003 to build a database for future management of this and other properties in the region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cochran, Brian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54568736"> <span id="translatedtitle">Smoke hazards from <span class="hlt">burning</span> plastics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Smoke hazards to people and property from unwanted fires have attracted increasing attention. The use of plastics in construction, furnishings, clothing, and recreational and transportation equipment has increased. Actual fire experiences indicate that organic materials, whether natural or man-made, will <span class="hlt">burn</span>; those with large surface <span class="hlt">areas</span> such as films, fabrics, or foams will ignite readily and <span class="hlt">burn</span> rapidly. Addition of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. R. Gaskill</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2801053"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> Teams and <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Centers: The Importance of a Comprehensive Team Approach to <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Care</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Synopsis Advances in <span class="hlt">burn</span> care have been colossal, but while extra work is needed, it is clear that the organized effort of <span class="hlt">burn</span> teams can continue making improvements in survival rates and quality of life possible for patients. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> patients are unique, representing the most severe model of trauma,33 and hence this necessitates treatment in the best facilities available for that endeavor. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> centers have developed to meet these intricate needs but can only function productively and most efficiently through well organized, multifaceted, patient-centered teams in <span class="hlt">areas</span> of clinical care and research.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Mecott-Rivera, Gabriel A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Herndon, David N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/822594"> <span id="translatedtitle">Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Pits, and Storage <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision No. 0</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140: Waste Dumps, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Pits, and Storage <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in <span class="hlt">Areas</span> 5, 22, and 23 of the NTS, CAU 140 consists of nine corrective action sites (CASs). Investigation activities were performed from November 13 through December 11, 2002, with additional sampling to delineate the extent of contaminants of concern (COCs) conducted on February 4 and March 18 and 19, 2003. Results obtained from the investigation activities and sampling indicated that only 3 of the 9 CASs at CAU 140 had COCs identified. Following a review of existing data, future land use, and current operations at the NTS, the following preferred alternatives were developed for consideration: (1) No Further Action - six CASs (05-08-02, 05-17-01, 05-19-01, 05-35-01, 05-99-04, and 22-99-04); (2) Clean Closure - one CAS (05-08-01), and (3) Closure-in-Place - two CASs (05-23-01 and 23-17-01). These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, the alternatives meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 140.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-10-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0903512"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for Northwest Illinois Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 1 for 1981.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan (AIP) for Northwest Illinois is a statement of the priorities recommended for action during 1981 from the long range Health Systems Plan (HSP). The AIP is structured to spell out the recommended action steps, responsible age...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901100"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Florida. Revised edition.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) was prepared to resolve health care needs and problems faced by residents under the auspices of the North Central Florida Health Planning Council, Inc. The document contains the following sections: Introduction, which...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901126"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978-1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Kentucky.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The East Kentucky Health Systems Agency, Inc., developed this <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) to help meet the health needs of the residents it serves. The sections are: Introduction, which delineates the scope and content of the AIP and its relationship...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901004"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978-1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Massachusetts.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) is the statement of Southeastern Massachusetts Health Planning and Development, Inc., of specific achievements the agency desires to achieve in 1978-79. The purpose and structure of the AIP, the relationship between t...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901087"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978-1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 1 Kansas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) was developed by the Health Planning Association of Western Kansas, Inc. The introduction reviews the authority of the health systems agency and its responsibilities, the purpose and use of the AIP, and process and me...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0900449"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan 1978-1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 Kansas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) is for the 23 counties served by the Health Systems Agency of Southeast Kansas, Inc., in Wichita. Contents: Introduction--deals with the statutory authority of the agency and the AIP, the agency's responsibilities, th...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0900481"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Systems Plan and <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 4 Maryland.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The health systems plan and <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan were prepared by the Central Maryland Health Systems Agency, a voluntary nonprofit corporation serving the Maryland counties of Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Carroll, Harford, and Howard Counties, as well ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901547"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1979-1980. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Georgia. 2nd Edition.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) is designed to achieve purposes directly related to the administration and management of the Appalachian Georgia Health Systems Agency. Introductory remarks prefacing the AIP concern the legal basis of health planning...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901831"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978-1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 Michigan.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The introduction to the <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) of the Southwest Michigan Health Systems Agency considers the link between the AIP and the health systems plan and notes the significant characteristics of health services (accessibility, availabili...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901851"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1977-1978. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 1 Indiana.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Short-range goals and objectives are articulated in the <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) devised by the Northern Indiana Health Systems Agency, Inc. Prefatory remarks pertain to the plan development process, health status and health system indicators, a t...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901271"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1977-1978. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 1 Washington.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) prepared by the Puget Sound Health Systems Agency concentrates on hospital care, primary care, long-term care, and health promotion and prevention. Hospital activities focus on two overall objectives. The first is to ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7771D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> measurement of size resolved particle fluxes over an urban <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Urban <span class="hlt">areas</span> exhibit a multitude of well-known particle sources. Therefore, most flux studies over bigger cities detected almost exclusively upward fluxes or aerosol particles. In most of these studies, the total particle number concentration was measured for a broad size range, e.g. PM2.5or PM10. However, source apportionment and analytical studies suggest that particles within such wide size ranges may vary in their origin, longevity, and chemical composition. The scope of this study is to directly quantify turbulent exchange of atmospheric aerosol particles (AAP) of 16 different size classes. Aerosol dynamics are analyzed in combination with the exchange fluxes of sensible heat, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. Furthermore, <span class="hlt">annual</span> time series are analyzed for seasonal trends. We employed the Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS) and a Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP-X2), both manufactured by Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, Colorado (USA). This setup covers the aerosol particle size range between 0.6 ?m and 10 ?m diameters in up to 140 size bins. In order to reach acceptable counting statistics and to minimize random flux errors, we combine the initial 140 bins into 16 wider size bins. Nevertheless, the measurement yields a considerable improvement in terms of sizing information in comparison to that in previous studies. The measurements are conducted at a 65 m high telecommunication tower in the city of Münster (population ~ 275.000), NW Germany, throughout the year of 2012 and beyond. The results confirm the hypothesis that urban <span class="hlt">areas</span> can act both as sources and sinks for AAP at the same time. We regularly observe bi-directional fluxes as a function of particle size. While smaller particles typically exhibit (upward) emission fluxes, the larger particles show deposition (downward fluxes). The tipping point (TP) between mostly up- and downward transported particles lies in the accumulation mode at about 180 nm diameter. Large numbers of particles smaller than the TP are emitted out of the city, leading to positive daily number fluxes of 2 - 4.8 ? 108# m-2 d-1. Comparatively few particles bigger than the TP deposit into the city, often causing a negative daily mass flux of -0.1 - -0.7 ?g m-2 d-1. Number fluxes show typical daily patterns, which are correlated to traffic activity and turbulence characteristics. Spring- and summer fluxes are up to two times as high as the winter fluxes, which can be attributed to the considerably less developed turbulence within the boundary layer during the cold season. Accordingly, particle concentrations are nearly doubled during winter. The presentation will further deepen the size differentiated analysis of particle fluxes and concentrations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deventer, Malte Julian; Griessbaum, Frank; Klemm, Otto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/962978"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxbow Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span>; Middle Fork John Day River, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report 2002-2003.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an '<span class="hlt">annual</span> written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The 2002 contract period was well funded and the second year of the project. A new manager started in April, allowing the previous manager to focus his efforts on the Forrest Ranch acquisition. However, the Oxbow Habitat manager's position was vacant from October through mid February of 2003. During this time, much progress, mainly O&M, was at a minimum level. Many of the objectives were not completed during this contract due to both the size and duration needed to complete such activities (example: dredge mine tailings restoration project) or because budget crisis issues with BPA ending accrual carryover on the fiscal calendar. Although the property had been acquired a year earlier, there were numerous repairs and discoveries, which on a daily basis could pull personnel from making progress on objectives for the SOW, aside from O&M objectives. A lack of fencing on a portion of the property's boundary and deteriorating fences in other <span class="hlt">areas</span> are some reasons much time was spent chasing trespassing cattle off of the property. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were used seldom in the summer of 2002, with minor irrigation water diverted from only Granite Boulder Creek. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks help promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Trees planted in this and past years are growing and will someday provide cover fish and wildlife. Even grazing on the property was carefully managed to ensure the protection of fish and wildlife habitat. Monitoring of property populations, resources, and management activities continued in 2002 to build a database for future management of this and other properties in the region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cochran, Brian; Smith, Brent</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8148075"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phenol <span class="hlt">burns</span> and intoxications.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phenol <span class="hlt">burns</span> and intoxications are life-threatening injuries. Roughly 50 per cent of all reported cases have a fatal outcome. Only a small number of cases have been reported with high serum concentrations after phenol <span class="hlt">burns</span> who survived. In our own experience a patient with 20.5 per cent total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> deep partial skin thickness phenol <span class="hlt">burns</span> and serum concentrations of 17,400 micrograms/litre survived after immediate and repeated treatment of the scalds with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and silver sulphadiazine. A literature review of experiences with phenol intoxications reveals the advantages of PEG application. Questions on the need for enforced diuresis and haemodialysis as well as the initial treatment procedures are discussed. Advantages of different solutions for local therapy are reported. PMID:8148075</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Horch, R; Spilker, G; Stark, G B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6997095"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> report on performance audit results for POHC (Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents) testing during RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) trial <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Status report No. 2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Audit materials containing Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHSc) have been developed by AREAL for use by federal, state, and local agencies or their contractors to assess the accuracy of measurement methods during Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) trial <span class="hlt">burn</span> tests. Audit materials are currently available for 27 gaseous organics in 5, 6, 7, and 9 component mixtures at parts-per-billion levels (7 to 10,000 ppb) in compressed gas cylinders in a balance gas of nitrogen. The criteria used for the selection of gaseous organic compounds is described. Stability studies indicate that all of the organics tested (with the exception of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide below 10 ppb levels) are stable enough to be used as reliable audit materials. Subsequent to completion of the stability studies, 202 performance audits have been initiated with the audit materials to assess the accuracy of the Volatile Organic Sampling Training and bag measurement methods during or prior to RCRA trial <span class="hlt">burn</span> tests. Results of those audits and a summary table of the audit conducted for each POHC and the measurement system audited is described in the report. Audit results obtained with the audit bases during or prior to RCRA trial <span class="hlt">burn</span> tests are generally within + or - 50% of the audit concentrations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jayanty, R.K.M.; Tompkins, S.B.; Bryant, V.R.; Howe, G.B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/803837"> <span id="translatedtitle">Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Pits, and Storage <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, July 2002, Rev. No. 0</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 140 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-08-01, Detonation Pits; 05-08-02, Debris Pits; 05-17-01, Hazardous Waste Accumulation Site (Buried); 05-19-01, Waste Disposal Site; 05-23-01, Gravel Gertie; 05-35-01, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Pit; 05-99-04, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Pit; 22-99-04, Radioactive Waste Dump; 23-17-01, Hazardous Waste Storage <span class="hlt">Area</span>. All nine of these CASs are located within <span class="hlt">Areas</span> 5, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. This CAU is being investigated because disposed waste may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present or migrating at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The NTS has been used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. The CASs in CAU 140 were used for testing, material storage, waste storage, and waste disposal. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution criteria and resolve the decision statements. Phase I will determine if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels. This data will be evaluated at all CASs. Phase II will determine the extent of the contaminant(s) of concern (COCs). This data will only be evaluated for CASs with a COC identified during Phase I. Based on process knowledge, the COPCs for CAU 140 include volatile organics, semivolatile organics, petroleum hydrocarbons, explosive residues, herbicides, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and radionuclides. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NNSA /NV</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-07-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE88001370"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits: Environmental Information Document.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits, located near each of the major operating <span class="hlt">areas</span> at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), began collecting burnable waste in 1951. The waste was incinerated monthly. All <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits are currently closed except for <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble P...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">I. W. Marine L. A. Huber W. F. Johnson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55681587"> <span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate solid composite propellants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">High <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate propellants help maintain high levels of thrust without requiring complex, high surface <span class="hlt">area</span> grain geometries. Utilizing high <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate propellants allows for simplified grain geometries that not only make production of the grains easier, but the simplified grains tend to have better mechanical strength, which is important in missiles undergoing high-g accelerations. Additionally, high <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate propellants</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Timothy D. Manship</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=244941"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aztreonam pharmacokinetics in <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The pharmacokinetics of aztreonam in eight adult patients with severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries (total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burn</span>, 49% +/- 21% [mean +/- standard deviation]) were studied. The time of initiation of study following <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury was 7.0 +/- 1.4 days. Four patients at first dose and at steady state were studied. Aztreonam concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, and a two-compartment model was used to fit the data. No significant differences in any pharmacokinetic parameters between first dose and steady state were observed. Volume of distribution of the central compartment after first dose (0.14 liters/kg) and volume of distribution at steady state (0.31 liters/kg) were approximately 30% higher than those reported for other patient populations. Total drug clearance and renal drug clearance when normalized to creatinine clearance (CLCR) were similar to those previously reported for other critically ill patients. CLCR was strongly correlated with renal drug clearance (r = 0.94) and total drug clearance (r = 0.95). The extent and degree of <span class="hlt">burn</span> (percent second or third degree <span class="hlt">burn</span>) were poorly correlated with all pharmacokinetic parameters with the exception of the volume of distribution at steady state, which was correlated with both total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burn</span> (r = 0.95) and percent second degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> (r = 0.83). Aztreonam pharmacokinetics are altered as a result of thermal injury; however, CLCR can be used to assess the clearance of aztreonam in <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Friedrich, L V; White, R L; Kays, M B; Brundage, D M; Yarbrough, D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..DFD.QU005K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> manifolds and <span class="hlt">burning</span> lobes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present experimental studies of the propagation of a reaction front in a fluid flow composed of a chain of alternating vortices. We propose that the tools used to describe the transport of a passive impurity in a flow can be expanded to account for the behavior of a reaction front. In particular, we propose that motion of a reaction front from one region to another in the flow is determined by <span class="hlt">burning</span> manifolds and <span class="hlt">burning</span> lobes. These ideas are tested experimentally for both the time-independent and time-dependent vortex chain. For a time-independent flow, the time that it takes for a triggered reaction to propagate from one vortex to the next is the minimum time ? for the stable <span class="hlt">burning</span> manifold BS(?) to envelope the original trigger point. For a time-dependent (oscillatory) vortex chain, we use the <span class="hlt">burning</span> manifold/lobe framework to explain mode-locking behavior seen in earlier studies.ootnotetextM.S. Paoletti and T.H. Solomon, Europhys. Lett. 69, 819 (2005); Phys. Rev. E 72, 046204 (2005).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kingsbury, Mark; Solomon, Tom</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A11A0002M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of residual biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on the CO2 flux from a paddy field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Paddy field is one of the most important eco-system in monsoon Asia, and takes a great important role in CO2 uptake. Carbon budget in agricultural field is influenced by some artificial management. After the harvest, residual biomass is <span class="hlt">burned</span> on fields, brought out from fields, or remained and harrowed into the fields. If open <span class="hlt">burning</span> was conducted in a field, one part of biomass carbon is emitted into atmosphere as CO2, and the other part is harrowed into soils. In this study, quantity of lost carbon according to <span class="hlt">burning</span> of residual biomass were investigated at a single rice cropping field in western Japan, in which long-term continuous CO2 flux (NEE) measurement by the eddy-covariance technique was conducted. In addition, an experimental paddy field was divided into two <span class="hlt">areas</span> to investigate what impact is brought on the <span class="hlt">annual</span> CO2 flux by the difference of disposal management of residual biomass after the harvest. Residual biomass was <span class="hlt">burned</span> and plowed into soil at the one <span class="hlt">area</span> on Nov. 29th, 2011, and residue was not <span class="hlt">burned</span> and directly plowed into soil at the other <span class="hlt">area</span> as usual. We illustrate some results for the control term before the <span class="hlt">burning</span> experiment, and for the comparison term after the experiment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Murakami, H.; Kunishio, A.; Akaike, Y.; Kawamoto, Y.; Ono, K.; Iwata, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JAP...112k3104Q"> <span id="translatedtitle">The impact of the stress induced by lateral spatial hole <span class="hlt">burning</span> on the degradation of broad-<span class="hlt">area</span> AlGaAs/GaAs laser diodes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The degradation of broad-<span class="hlt">area</span> AlGaAs/GaAs laser diodes is studied experimentally and theoretically in detail, and we suggest a degradation mechanism associated with the stress which originates from the lateral spatial hole <span class="hlt">burning</span> (SHB) effects. Our analysis shows that thermal stresses have critical effects on the degradation of laser diodes, which are induced by increased local heating by nonradiative recombination and self-absorption of photons originating from the lateral SHB within the laser diode during degradation. Such results are confirmed by the simulation using the software lastip. Furthermore, the average values of the induced thermal strain and stress by lateral SHB are 0.00063 and 85 MPa, respectively, through the x-ray diffraction measurement. The stress exceeds that for the initiation of plastic deformation (as calculated to be approximately 40-50 MPa based on the finite element method), thus, suggesting that plastic deformation has occurred within the cavity due to the lateral SHB effect during degradation of laser diodes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qiao, Yanbin; Feng, Shiwei; Xiong, Cong; Ma, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Chunsheng; Wei, Guanghua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/963044"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxbow Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span>; Middle Fork John Day River, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report 2001-2002.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Middle Fork Oxbow Ranch. Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an '<span class="hlt">annual</span> written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. This report is to be provided to the BPA by 30 April of each year. This is the first <span class="hlt">annual</span> report filed for the Oxbow Ranch property.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robertson, Shaun; Smith, Brent; Cochran, Brian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9541K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory-scale experimental <span class="hlt">burning</span> of selected Palaeozoic limestones from the Barrandian <span class="hlt">area</span> (Prague Basin, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic): re-evaluation of properties of historical raw material</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Palaeozoic limestones from the Barrandian <span class="hlt">area</span> (Prague Basin, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic) have been quarried and utilized, among others, for manufacturing of inorganic binders. Certain beds, e.g. Devonian dvorecko-prokopské limestones were historically burnt for high quality hydraulic lime which is not produced recently. Aiming to evaluate potential of this specific raw material for small-scale production of restoration hydraulic lime, we have conducted some laboratory experimental <span class="hlt">burning</span> tests in an electrical furnace up to 1200°C. Prior to the <span class="hlt">burning</span>, all studied lithotypes (4 in total) have been examined for their mineralogy (optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence study, X-ray diffraction of insoluble residue) and geochemistry (wet chemical analyses). Studied biomicritic limestones can be classified as wackstones to packstones. Carbonate content varies from 80 to 90 %, the rest is due to dominant illite and silica, and subordinate kaolinite, feldspars, and/or chlorite. Specific composition of non-carbonate component (specifically high content of illite and silica) positively influences formation of CS, Ca, and/or CAS phases when burnt at calcination temperatures from 850 to 1200°C (in steps of 50°C). In the products formed during firing, mineral phases typical for hydraulic lime, such as larnite, brownmillerite, and gehlenite, along with free lime, quartz and silica phases, and portlandite were identified by X-ray diffraction. The amount of the dominant hydraulic phase, larnite, increased with higher firing temperature. On the other hand, content of free lime, quartz and silica decreased. The amount of portlandite was almost independent of the firing temperature. Higher amounts of larnite and other hydraulic phase were detected during the peak firing temperature of 1200°C in specimens containing higher amount of insoluble residue. From the study performed, it is evident that studied dvorecko-prokopské limestone, which included favourable amount of clay minerals (mainly illite) and silica represents raw material suitable for production of hydraulic limes of moderate hydraulicity. It is evident that high content of clay minerals, quartz and other forms of silica, as well as temperature of firing, have significant influence on the formation of mineral phases typical for hydraulic lime.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kozlovcev, Petr; Prikryl, Richard; Stastna, Aneta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5918658"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mass <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With only minimal sorting, garbage can be used to fire a boiler. But the design of a refuse-to-energy plant must account for the corrosive and abrasive nature of the fuel and must include means of scrubbing flue gases and removing ash. This paper describes the working of a typical mass-<span class="hlt">burning</span> plant. Topics are grouped under the following headings: Firing equipment, Boiler Design, Control and operation, Research and Development, Air Pollution Controls, Ash removal.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adkin, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GBioC..28..480O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of remote sensing to understanding fire regimes and biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions of the tropical Andes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">the tropical Andes, there have been very few systematic studies aimed at understanding the biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> dynamics in the <span class="hlt">area</span>. This paper seeks to advance on our understanding of <span class="hlt">burning</span> regimes in this region, with the first detailed and comprehensive assessment of fire occurrence and the derived gross biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions of an <span class="hlt">area</span> of the Peruvian tropical Andes. We selected an <span class="hlt">area</span> of 2.8 million hectares at altitudes over 2000 m. We analyzed fire occurrence over a 12 year period with three types of satellite data. Fire dynamics showed a large intra-<span class="hlt">annual</span> and interannual variability, with most fires occurring May-October (the period coinciding with the dry season). Total <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> decreased with increasing rainfall until a given rainfall threshold beyond which no relationship was found. The estimated fire return interval (FRI) for the <span class="hlt">area</span> is 37 years for grasslands, which is within the range reported for grasslands, and 65 years for forests, which is remarkably shorter than other reported FRI in tropical moist forests. The greatest contribution (60-70%, depending on the data source) to biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions came from <span class="hlt">burned</span> montane cloud forests (4.5 million Mg CO2 over the study period), despite accounting for only 7.4-10% of the total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Gross aboveground biomass emissions (7.55 ± 2.14 Tg CO2; 0.43 ± 0.04 Tg CO; 24,012 ± 2685 Mg CH4 for the study <span class="hlt">area</span>) were larger than previously reported for the tropical Andes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oliveras, Immaculada; Anderson, Liana O.; Malhi, Yadvinder</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.csu.edu.au/herbarium/FullText/Prober%20et%20al%202005%20sugar.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Restoring ecological function in temperate grassy woodlands: manipulating soil nutrients, exotic <span class="hlt">annuals</span> and native perennial grasses through carbon supplements and spring <span class="hlt">burns</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary 1. Ecological invasions are often associated with persistent changes to underlying ecological processes. Restoration of invaded communities is dependent on manipulation of these processes to favour the target species composition and impart resistance to further invasion. We applied these principles to extensively degraded grassy woodlands in temperate agricultural regions of Australia, where widespread invasion by mediter- ranean <span class="hlt">annuals</span> is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">SUZANNE M. PROBER; KEVIN R. THIELE; IAN D. LUNT; T. B. KOEN</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B53D0424M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carbon and Air Quality Emissions from Crop Residue <span class="hlt">Burning</span> in the Contiguous United States</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> is a global agricultural activity that is a source of carbon and air quality emissions. Carbon and air quality emissions from crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the contiguous U.S. (CONUS) were estimated for a five-year period, 2003 through 2007, using multispectral remote sensing-derived products. The atmospheric species that comprise the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were selected as air quality emissions. CO2 emissions were also calculated due to its importance to global climate change. This analysis utilized multiple remote sensing data sets and products to quantify crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in CONUS, including multi-year crop type maps, an 8-day difference Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio product, and calibrated <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates of cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> from 1 km MODIS Active Fire Points. Remote sensing products were combined in a GIS to quantify the location of cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span>, <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> size, and associated crop type. A crop-specific emission factor database was compiled from the scientific literature. Fuel loads and combustion efficiency estimates were derived from the literature as well as from in-field collaborators. These data were combined to estimate crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions using the bottom-up methodology developed by Seiler and Crutzen (1980). This analysis found that an average of 1,239,000 ha of croplands <span class="hlt">burn</span> each year in the CONUS. Florida, Arizona, Idaho, Utah, Washington, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oregon, California, and Colorado accounted for approximately 61% of the total crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> is a significant fire activity in the CONUS, averaging 43% of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> reported for wildland fires in the U.S. (including Alaska and Hawaii). Crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> was also found to be a significant source of emissions that negatively impacted air quality. Crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions occurred most often in summer and fall, with the exception of winter and early spring emission peaks in sugarcane growing <span class="hlt">areas</span>. On average, crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the CONUS emitted 6.1 Tg of CO2, 8.9 Gg of CH4, 232.4 Gg of CO, 28.5 Gg of PM10, 20.9 Gg of PM2.5, 10.6 Gg of NO2, and 4.4 Gg of SO2 <span class="hlt">annually</span>. Lead emissions were negligible (< 0.3 Gg), which warrants further investigation due to the lack of emission factors for lead. On average, air quality and carbon emissions from crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the CONUS varied less than 10% interannually. The majority of emissions from crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> originated in six states: Arkansas, California, Florida, Idaho, Texas, and Washington. Overlaying population data with average <span class="hlt">annual</span> emissions by county showed that approximately 13.8%, 17.3%, 17.5%, 17.9%, 25%, and 46.6% of the total population of Texas, California, Washington, Florida, Arkansas, and Idaho, respectively, lives in counties with the highest emissions from crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The results of this analysis are important for the refinement of the National Emissions Inventory and the Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks as well as for national and state policy makers concerned with rural air quality and agricultural carbon management.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McCarty, J. L.; Korontzi, S.; Justice, C. O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2009107482"> <span id="translatedtitle">Guidance for Creating <span class="hlt">Annual</span> On-Road Mobile Source Emission Inventories for PM2.5 Nonattainment <span class="hlt">Areas</span> for Use in SIPs and Conformity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this document is to provide <span class="hlt">areas</span> that are nonattainment or maintenance for the <span class="hlt">annual</span> PM2.5 national ambient air quality standard (standard) with guidance on developing <span class="hlt">annual</span> PM2.5 on-road motor vehicle emissions estimates to meet state a...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24252249"> <span id="translatedtitle">The year in <span class="hlt">burns</span> 2012.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Approximately 2457 research articles were published with <span class="hlt">burns</span> in the title, abstract, and/or keyword in 2012. This number continues to rise through the years; this article reviews those selected by the Editor of one of the major journals in the field (<span class="hlt">Burns</span>) and his colleague that are most likely to have the greatest likelihood of affecting <span class="hlt">burn</span> care treatment and understanding. As done previously, articles were found and divided into these topic <span class="hlt">areas</span>: epidemiology of injury and <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention, wound and scar characterization, acute care and critical care, inhalation injury, infection, psychological considerations, pain and itching management, rehabilitation, long-term outcomes, and <span class="hlt">burn</span> reconstruction. Each selected article is mentioned briefly with comment from the authors; readers are referred to the full papers for further details. PMID:24252249</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wolf, Steven E; Arnoldo, Brett D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901563"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1979-1980. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 Connecticut.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP), as noted in the introduction, is related to functions of the health systems agency. Embodied in the AIP are the concept of community participation, the framework and scope of health planning, and proced...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901327"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 6 Michigan. Volume II.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Priority short-range objectives are addressed in this <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) to meet health status and health system needs. Statutory requirements in health planning, the purpose and use of the AIP, and the relationship between the AIP and the h...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0906731"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan 5 for Vermont, 1983-1984. Vermont Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 1.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of the <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan (AIP) is to describe those activities to be undertaken between April 1, 1983 - March 31, 1984, which will facilitate achievement of the goals expressed in the Vermont Health Plan (VHP). The AIP is a one-year d...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0906746"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan 6 for Vermont, 1984-1985. Vermont Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 1.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of the <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan (AIP) is to describe those activities to be undertaken between April 1, 1984-March 31, 1985, which will facilitate achievement of the goals expressed in the Vermont Health Plan (VHP). The AIP is a one-year doc...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0905432"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan IV for Vermont, 1982-1983. Vermont Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 1.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of the <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan (AIP) is to describe those activities to be undertaken between April 1, 1982 - March 31, 1983, which will facilitate achievement of the goals expressed in the Vermont Health Plan (VHP). The AIP is a one-year d...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0905429"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for Hudson Valley, New York, 1982. New York Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 6.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An HSA is required to develop a five year health systems plan (HSP) and <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plans (AIPs). The AIP identifies changes in the health care system which could be achieved in one year, addressing priority HSP goals and objectives. The AIP is ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901558"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1979-1980. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 1 Wisconsin.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) to meet the health care needs of residents in southern Wisconsin is prefaced by an introductory section that discusses the purpose and use of the AIP, the plan development process, the format and content of the AIP, t...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901133"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1977. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 South Carolina.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP), accompanied by a summary description of health systems plan, is an expression by the Three Rivers Health Systems Agency in Columbia, S.C., of desired changes in health status and the health system. It contains three ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1527..587M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Overview of the South American biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, which results in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious negative impacts on public health. Globally, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect of 0.03 Wm-2, however the uncertainty is 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in <span class="hlt">areas</span> such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent <span class="hlt">burning</span> occurs on an <span class="hlt">annual</span> basis for several months (usually from August-October). Furthermore, a growing number of people live within the Amazon region, which means that they are subject to the deleterious effects on their health from exposure to substantial volumes of polluted air. Initial results from the South American Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil, are presented here. A suite of instrumentation was flown on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft and was supported by ground based measurements, with extensive measurements made in Porto Velho, Rondonia. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions with sampling of fresh biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> layers within the free troposphere. The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on regional air quality, weather and climate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morgan, W. T.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Darbyshire, E.; Hodgson, A.; Johnson, B. T.; Haywood, J. M.; Freitas, S.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...1222891L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the impacts of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on air quality in and around Mexico City</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> on ground-level ozone (O3) and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Area</span> (MCMA) and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> organic aerosol (BBOA), and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA) were consistent with many observation-based estimates. We did not detect significant effects of open fires and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> on surface O3 concentrations in the MCMA and surrounding region. In contrast, they had important influences on OA and elemental carbon (EC), contributing about 60, 22, 33, and 22% to primary OA (POA), secondary OA (SOA), total OA (TOA), and EC, respectively, on both the local and regional scales. Although the emissions of trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> are substantially lower than those from open fires, trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> made slightly smaller but comparable contributions to OA as open fires did, and exerted an even higher influence on EC. SOA formation due to the open fires and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> enhanced the OA concentration by about 10 and 5% in the MCMA, respectively. On the <span class="hlt">annual</span> basis and taking the biofuel use emissions into consideration, we estimated that biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> contributed about 60, 30, and 25%, respectively, to the loadings of POA, SOA and EC in both the MCMA and its surrounding region, with about 35, 18, and 15% from open fires and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> impacts in this study may contain considerable uncertainties due to the uncertainties in their emission estimates, extrapolations and the nature of spot comparison. More observation and modeling studies are needed to accurately assess the impacts of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on tropospheric chemistry, regional and global air quality, and climate change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lei, W.; Li, G.; Molina, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998IJCli..18..841K"> <span id="translatedtitle">The use of a multifactor Southern Oscillation Index for the estimation of <span class="hlt">annual</span> hailstorm frequencies in the Sydney <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Relationships between the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and hailfall activity in the Sydney <span class="hlt">area</span> were investigated with the help of a newly compiled Natural Hazards Research Centre (NHRC) hailfall database. The original hail data, which contain a record of all hailstone sizes for the period 1791-1994, were stratified into the form of (monthly, seasonal) <span class="hlt">annual</span> hailday sums for the period 1935-1994 and cross-correlated with the SOI values stratified accordingly. With the exception of a marginally significant value for the month of November (r=0.26) no other significant simultaneous or lagged correlations were found between these two types of variables. A multifactor SOI was then developed as a possible indicator of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> (June to May) hailstorm frequencies. The new three-factor SOI is composed of the sum of two SOI gradients (the differences between the October and June SOI values, and the November and February SOI values, respectively), minus the absolute value of the SOI average for the second half of the year. It is shown that high <span class="hlt">annual</span> hailstorm activity tends to be associated with a high value of this index. High index values are generally reached during years marked by a rising SOI from June to November and a trend towards negative SOI values thereafter. It is suggested that this reversal of the relationship between the hail activity and the SOI can be attributed to similar changes observable in (low and high level) geopotential height anomalies over the <span class="hlt">area</span>. The multifactor SOI leads to correlations of 0.6 (0.8) with the 1935-1994 (1985-1994) time series of <span class="hlt">annual</span> hailday numbers. The three-factor index has more of a monitoring than a predictive quality (as it relies on the SOI values for the June to February period), whereas a subset index, consisting of the first and third component only, can have a predictive character. The latter partial index relies on the June to October data only and leads to nearly as high correlations with the <span class="hlt">annual</span> hailday sums as the entire three-factor index (r=0.4-0.8). The stepwise development of the multifactor SOI is based on a multiple categorisation of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> (seasonal) hailday numbers into several broad SOI categories according to the magnitude of the concurrent SOI values. Further details about the characteristics of these indices and their association with hailfall activity are described.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kuhnel, Ivan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16647659"> <span id="translatedtitle">Work-related <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Work-related upper extremity <span class="hlt">burns</span> often occur. The cause directs the course of action. Thermal <span class="hlt">burns</span> should be assessed for system alterations, and depth of <span class="hlt">burn</span> should be determined. Deep partial-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> and more severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> require a specialist evaluation. Chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> must be irrigated and the agent identified. Some chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span>, such as those that involve phenols and metal fragments, require specific topical applications before water lavage. Hydrofluoric acid <span class="hlt">burns</span> can cause life-threatening electrolyte abnormalities with a small, highly concentrated acid <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The goal with any extremity <span class="hlt">burn</span> is to provide the patient with a multidisciplinary team approach to achieve a functional, usable extremity. PMID:16647659</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pruitt, Valerie M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4108356"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling Fire Frequency in a Cerrado Savanna Protected <span class="hlt">Area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world’s most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997–2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected <span class="hlt">area</span> in the north of the Cerrado, based on <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps derived from Landsat imagery. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of <span class="hlt">burning</span> distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an <span class="hlt">area</span> equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park <span class="hlt">burned</span> and the mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic <span class="hlt">burning</span> may be used to reduce the extent of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> and the severity of fire effects.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pereira Junior, Alfredo C.; Oliveira, Sofia L. J.; Pereira, Jose M. C.; Turkman, Maria Antonia Amaral</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3038404"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rehabilitation of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> patient</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of <span class="hlt">burn</span> treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ‘<span class="hlt">Burns</span> Rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these <span class="hlt">areas</span> following a <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of <span class="hlt">burn</span> rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Procter, Fiona</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3664532"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assault by <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Jordan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Criminal attacks by <span class="hlt">burns</span> on women in Jordan are highlighted in this retrospective study carried out of all proved cases of criminal <span class="hlt">burns</span> in female patients treated at the <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit of the Royal Rehabilitation Center in Jordan between January 2005 and June 2012. Thirteen patients were included in our study, out of a total of 550 patients admitted, all in the age range of 16-45 yr. Of these 13 women, six were <span class="hlt">burned</span> by acid throwing, five by hot water, and two by direct flames from fuel thrown over them. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> percentage ranged from 15 to 75% of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, with involvement in most cases of the face and upper trunk. The mean hospital stay was 33 days and the mortality rate was 3/13, i.e. 23%. Violence against women exists in Jordanian society, yet <span class="hlt">burning</span> assaults are rare. Of these, <span class="hlt">burning</span> by throwing acid is the most common and most disfiguring act, with a higher mortality rate in domestic environments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haddadin, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42523813"> <span id="translatedtitle">Satellite detection of tropical <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Brazil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tropical <span class="hlt">burning</span> often occurs in remote <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the world. Satellite remote sensing is the only practical solution for detecting and monitoring this <span class="hlt">burning</span>. In this paper we demonstrate the capability of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration polar orbiting satellites for detecting tropical fire activity in the Manaus, Brazil <span class="hlt">area</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael Matson; Brent Holben</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhPro..33..758L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Skin <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Degree Determined by Computer Image Processing Method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper a new method determining the degree of skin <span class="hlt">burns</span> in quantities is put forward. Firstly, with Photoshop9.0 software, we analyzed the statistical character of skin <span class="hlt">burns</span> images’ histogram, and then turned the images of <span class="hlt">burned</span> skins from RGB color space to HSV space, to analyze the transformed color histogram. Lastly through Photoshop9.0 software we get the percentage of the skin <span class="hlt">burns</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. We made the mean of images’ histogram,the standard deviation of color maps,and the percentage of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> as indicators of evaluating <span class="hlt">burns</span>,then distributed indicators the weighted values,at last get the <span class="hlt">burned</span> scores by summing the products of every indicator of the <span class="hlt">burns</span> and the weighted values. From the classification of <span class="hlt">burned</span> scores, the degree of <span class="hlt">burns</span> can be evaluated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Hong-yan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2001102450"> <span id="translatedtitle">National Drug Control Strategy. 2001 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report. The High Intensity Drug Trafficking <span class="hlt">Area</span> Program.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The High Intensity Drug Trafficking <span class="hlt">Area</span> (HIDTA) Porgram has enormous value to the United States. The HIDTA Program advances the National Drug Control Strategy by fostering coordination among local, state and federal law enforcement agencies on drug contr...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a 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showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5399342"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF <span class="hlt">burning</span> program</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Program was conceived to promote the utilization of refuse-derived fuels (RDF) as a supplement to existing fossil fuel sources in industrial-sized boilers. The program explores the design, development, and eventual construction of densified-RDF (d-RDF) for use in boiler combustion testing as a supplement to stoker coal or wood wastes. The equipment would be mounted on trailers and assembled and operated at preselected sites throughout the country where approximately 750 tons of RDF would be produced and test <span class="hlt">burned</span> in a local boiler. The equipment, to include a transportable RDF boiler metering and feed system, would then be moved and operated at two to three test sites <span class="hlt">annually</span>. The program is intended to encourage the construction of permanent resource recovery facilities by involving local waste handling groups in operating the equipment and producing fuel, and potential local fuel users in testing the fuel in their boilers. The Mobilizable Program was developed from two separate tasks. The first task developed the concept behind the program and defined its operational and organizational structure. The second task, a follow-up to the first, was intended principally to finalize test locations, develop equipment designs and specifications, and formalize a management program. This report summarizes the principal findings of both tasks. It identifies the criteria used to identify test locations, outlines the program's management structure, presents design and performance specifications for both the fuel production equipment and boiler fuel feed systems, and provides a detailed evaluation of the parameters involved in <span class="hlt">burning</span> RDF in industrial-sized boilers. Final conclusions and recommendations identify problem <span class="hlt">areas</span> encountered in the program, and discuss possible future directions for such a program.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Niemann, K.; Campbell, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/776254"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nevada Test Site 2000 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2000 groundwater sampling results from the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (IL) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. E.Townsend</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..39.9805H"> <span id="translatedtitle">New particle formation and growth in biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> plumes: An important source of cloud condensation nuclei</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experiments were performed in an environmental chamber to characterize the effects of photo-chemical aging on biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions. Photo-oxidation of dilute exhaust from combustion of 12 different North American fuels induced significant new particle formation that increased the particle number concentration by a factor of four (median value). The production of secondary organic aerosol caused these new particles to grow rapidly, significantly enhancing cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. Using inputs derived from these new data, global model simulations predict that nucleation in photo-chemically aging fire plumes produces dramatically higher CCN concentrations over widespread <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the southern hemisphere during the dry, <span class="hlt">burning</span> season (Sept.-Oct.), improving model predictions of surface CCN concentrations. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> indirect forcing from CCN resulting from nucleation and growth in biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> plumes is predicted to be -0.2 W m-2, demonstrating that this effect has a significant impact on climate that has not been previously considered.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hennigan, Christopher J.; Westervelt, Daniel M.; Riipinen, Ilona; Engelhart, Gabriella J.; Lee, Taehyoung; Collett, Jeffrey L., Jr.; Pandis, Spyros N.; Adams, Peter J.; Robinson, Allen L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A53U..02H"> <span id="translatedtitle">New Particle Formation and Growth in Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Plumes: an Important Source of Cloud Condensation Nuclei</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experiments were performed in an environmental chamber to characterize the effects of photo-chemical aging on biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions. Photo-oxidation of dilute exhaust from combustion of 12 different North American fuels induced significant new particle formation that increased the particle number concentration by a factor of four (median value). The production of secondary organic aerosol caused these new particles to grow rapidly, significantly enhancing cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. Using inputs derived from these new data, global model simulations predict that nucleation in photo-chemically aging fire plumes produces dramatically higher CCN concentrations over widespread <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the southern hemisphere during the dry, <span class="hlt">burning</span> season (Sept.-Oct.), improving model predictions of surface CCN concentrations. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> indirect forcing from CCN resulting from nucleation and growth in biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> plumes is predicted to be -0.2 W m-2, demonstrating that this effect has a significant impact on climate that has not been previously considered.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hennigan, C. J.; Westervelt, D.; Riipinen, I.; Engelhart, G.; Lee, T.; Collett, J. L.; Pandis, S. N.; Adams, P. J.; Robinson, A. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/13606"> <span id="translatedtitle">Establishing a quantitative functional relationship between capillary pressure, saturation and interfacial <span class="hlt">area</span>. 1997 <span class="hlt">annual</span> progress report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">'There is a fundamental knowledge gap associated with the in situ remediation of non-aqueous phase pollutants. Currently it is not possible to accurately determine the interfacial surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of non-aqueous contaminants. As a result it is impossible to (1) accurately establish the health and environmental risk associated with the pollution: (2) precisely quantify and evaluate the potential efficacy of various in situ treatment technologies; and (3) conduct reliable performance assessments of the applied remediation technology during and after the clean-up. The global goal of this investigation is to try to remedy these shortcomings through the development of a formalized functional relationship between interfacial <span class="hlt">area</span> (a), phase saturation (S) and capillary pressure (P). The development of this relationship will allow the direct determination of the fluid-fluid interfacial <span class="hlt">area</span> from field measurements. Quantitative knowledge of the surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of the non-aqueous phase pollutant facilitates accurate predictions of both the rate of dissolution and the contact <span class="hlt">area</span> available for treatment. In addition. if saturation and capillary pressure measurements are made during the remediation process. both the spatial and temporal effectiveness of the remediation technology can be quantified. This information can then be used to optimize the restoration program. The project objective will be achieved through an integrated and focused research program that is comprised of theoretical computational and experimental efforts. These efforts are organized into a framework of four tasks: (1) improve on newly developed laboratory techniques to quantify and directly measure the functional relationship between phase interfacial <span class="hlt">area</span> (a), saturation (S) and capillary pressure (P). (2) Develop new computational algorithms in conjunction with laboratory measurements to predict P, S and a. (3) Test existing theory and develop new theory to describe the relationship between P, S and a at the large scale. (4) Synthesize the results of the experimental, computational and theoretical investigative efforts to develop a generic model based upon an intrinsic soil metric to describe the functional dependence of P, S and a.'</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Montemagno, C.D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15555796"> <span id="translatedtitle">High incidence of suicide by <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Masjid-i-Sulaiman (southwest of Iran), a polluted <span class="hlt">area</span> with natural sour gas leakage.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Masjid-i-Sulaiman (MIS) is located in the southwest of Iran. Unfortunately, some parts of MIS are contaminated by subsurface leakage of natural gas containing H(2)S. In order to investigate the possible effect(s) of chronic exposure to sulfur compounds on suicidal behavior, the present study was done. In the 2-year period, 561 individuals attempted suicide (260 men and 301 women). Completed suicide comprised of 19 men and 32 women. The rate per 100,000 person-years was 19.9 for men and 34.8 for women aged over 15 years. Forty-two (13 men and 29 women) of 561 patients were self-immolators by fire with a male:female ratio 0.45. This represents 22.4 <span class="hlt">burns</span> per 100,000 person-years and is equivalent to 7.4% of all suicide attempts. Thirty-three of 42 patients died (78.6%) who were 9 men and 24 women with male:female ratio 0.37. There is statistically significant differences between sex groups (P((2)) = 0.0091). The self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> was the most frequent method for lethal suicide. Winter was the most common season for self-<span class="hlt">burning</span> followed by spring. Statistical analysis showed significant difference between seasons for self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> (P((2)) = 0.00001). Analysis of correlation showed statistically positive correlation coefficient between mean values of all reactive sulfur compounds and seasonal frequency of suicide (r = 0.923, P((1)) = 0.038). PMID:15555796</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saadat, Mostafa; Bahaoddini, Aminolla; Mohabatkar, Hassan; Noemani, Koorosh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60875096"> <span id="translatedtitle">STUDIES ON LARGE <span class="hlt">AREA</span> SUB-FABRIC <span class="hlt">BURNS</span>. THE EFFECT OF (1) REFLECTANCE AND SEPARATION OF FABRIC, AND (2) TREATMENT WITH FIRE-RETARDANT MATERIAL</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A series of cutaneous <span class="hlt">burns</span> was produced on swine by exploding 150 mgm ;\\u000a of magnesium powder at distances of 20 and 25 cm from the animal. This provided ;\\u000a 20 cal\\/cm² at exposure times of 0.7 and 2 to 3 sec and 16 cal\\/cm² at ;\\u000a an exposure time of 0.7 sec respectively. The effect of placing green and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berkley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60139404"> <span id="translatedtitle">Columbia River : Select <span class="hlt">Area</span> Fishery Evaluation project : 1995-96 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Reports</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water quality monitoring was conducted from November 1994 through October 1996 at five Oregon and three Washington select <span class="hlt">area</span> study sites in the lower Columbia River. Physicochemical monitoring and aquatic biomonitoring programs were established to profile baseline parameters at each study site and document differences between study sites. Data collected at study sites where fish rearing operations were initiated indicate</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul Hirose; Marc Miller; Jim Hill</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/birds/bca1998/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the Bird Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> Concept in the Northern Tallgrass Prairie <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report: 19</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This new resource on the management and conservation of grassland/prairie birds has been posted at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center site. This report "contains findings from the first year of a study to test the idea that Bird Conservation <span class="hlt">Areas</span> can maintain populations of breeding grassland birds." It is available for download in .zip format.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Donovan, Therese M.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Svedarsky, W. D.; Winter, Maiken.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23201368"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pain in the tongue or oral tissues described as "<span class="hlt">burning</span>" has been referred to by many terms including <span class="hlt">burning</span> mouth syndrome. When a <span class="hlt">burning</span> sensation in the mouth is caused by local or systemic factors, it is called secondary <span class="hlt">burning</span> mouth syndrome and when these factors are treated the pain will resolve. When <span class="hlt">burning</span> mouth syndrome occurs in the absence of identified risk indicators, the term primary <span class="hlt">burning</span> mouth syndrome is utilized. This article focuses on descriptions, etiologic theories, and management of primary <span class="hlt">burning</span> mouth syndrome, a condition for which underlying causative agents have been ruled out. PMID:23201368</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Crow, Heidi C; Gonzalez, Yoly</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.burninstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/ScaldBurns-factsheet.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scald <span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... <span class="hlt">areas</span> free from clutter. BATHROOMS: • Turn down your water heater setting to 120 degrees Fahrenheit. • Never leave a ... injury could be greatly reduced by turning your water heater to a low or warm setting (120-130).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60742115"> <span id="translatedtitle">Z-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Saltstone Disposal Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Industrial Solid Waste Permit {number_sign}025500-1603 (formerly IWP-217). No constituents were reported above SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standards or final Primary Drinking Water Standards during first or third quareters 1997. No constituents were detected above SRS</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roach; J. L. Jr</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/14215"> <span id="translatedtitle">Columbia River : Select <span class="hlt">Area</span> Fishery Evaluation project : 1995-96 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Reports.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water quality monitoring was conducted from November 1994 through October 1996 at five Oregon and three Washington select <span class="hlt">area</span> study sites in the lower Columbia River. Physicochemical monitoring and aquatic biomonitoring programs were established to profile baseline parameters at each study site and document differences between study sites. Data collected at study sites where fish rearing operations were initiated indicate a potential negative impact on the surrounding benthic invertebrate communities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hirose, Paul; Miller, Marc; Hill, Jim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/13607"> <span id="translatedtitle">Establishing a quantitative functional relationship between capillary pressure saturation and interfacial <span class="hlt">area</span>. 1998 <span class="hlt">annual</span> progress report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">'Through an integrated and focused research program that is comprised of theoretical, computational and experimental efforts this research effort is directed at: (1) improving on newly developed laboratory techniques to quantify and directly measure the functional relationship between phase interfacial <span class="hlt">area</span> (a), saturation (S) and capillary pressure (Pc), (2) developing new computational algorithms in conjunction with laboratory measurements to predict Pc, S and a, (3) testing existing theory and developing new theory to describe the relationship between Pc, S and a at the large scale, and (4) synthesizing the results of the experimental, computational and theoretical investigative efforts to develop a generic model based upon an intrinsic soil metric to describe the functional dependence of Pc, S and a. The results of this research could be used to generate a site specific soil moisture characteristic surface. Ultimately the results of this research could serve as the foundation upon which the true health and safety risk of a site could be evaluated, the applicability of various remediation technologies examined, and the performance of implemented treatment strategies controlled. This report summarizes work after 18 months of a 3-year project. The authors are working to integrate the theory, experiments, and numerical simulations into a coherent approach to study the role of interfacial <span class="hlt">areas</span> in porous media flow physics. The recent efforts have focused on quantifying the relationship between capillary pressure, saturation, and interfacial <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The theory developed by Gray et al. (1998) indicates clearly that the traditional relationship between capillary pressure and saturation is incomplete, and interfacial <span class="hlt">area</span> per unit volume must be added to the functional dependence. The theory does not, however, provide the form of that functional dependence; determination of this relationship must be done experimentally. To this end, both the network modelling and the PVI approach are being pursued.'</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Montemagno, C.D. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (US); Celia, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (US); Gray, W.G. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (US)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/586987"> <span id="translatedtitle">Z-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Saltstone Disposal Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Industrial Solid Waste Permit {number_sign}025500-1603 (formerly IWP-217). No constituents were reported above SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standards or final Primary Drinking Water Standards during first or third quareters 1997. No constituents were detected above SRS flagging criteria during first or third quarters 1997.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roach, J.L. Jr. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6662987"> <span id="translatedtitle">Large <span class="hlt">area</span> silicon sheet by EFG. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> progress report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Progress in the development of a cartridge system for growth of 10 cm wide ribbon is described. Growth speed capability, automated growth, ribbon quality and solar cell performance are <span class="hlt">areas</span> in which significant progress is reported. Routine growth of 10 cm wide ribbon at speeds in the range from 3.5 to 4.0 cm/minute has been demonstrated both in single cartridge and multiple ribbon furnaces. Simultaneous growth of three 10 cm wide ribbons over a period of several hours has also been accomplished. A system for automated control of ribbon width has been developed and successfully implemented in the multiple ribbon growth system. As-grown ribbon quality and solar cell performance has continued to improve for the 10 cm wide ribbon grown in high-speed systems. Cell efficiencies of greater than 10% have been demonstrated on large <span class="hlt">areas</span> (approx. 50 cm/sup 2/) of this ribbon. Better optimized growth conditions and cell processing have now been combined to produce greater than 13% (AMl) small <span class="hlt">area</span> (approx. 6 cm/sup 2/) cells on ribbon grown at 2 cm/minute. Optimization work for 10 cm wide ribbon is continuing aimed at understanding the factors which affect quality in these systems. Utilization of computer modeling to study interface shapes and mass transport phenomena in the meniscus are described.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wald, F.V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-02-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16869125"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Primary care and assessment of extended <span class="hlt">burn</span>].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Extended <span class="hlt">burn</span> is a severe trauma makes patients easily critical status without appropriate cure and assessment. In order to ride out hypovolemic shock, it is necessary to manage the internal water, the state of respiration and wound treatment and assess the depth of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound. Initialy we assess the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and it's depth, then we calculate the amount of water which will be necessary on acute phase for the patient We will resect the part of deep dermal <span class="hlt">burn</span> immediately to reduce the causes of infection. The patient will need a graft operation as soon as we can to avoid the severe infection. PMID:16869125</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shimamoto, Minoru; Kawai, Makoto; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18988059"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Perioral electrical <span class="hlt">burn</span> in children: case report].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Perioral electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> are rarely seen household injuries that cause both functional and aesthetic deformities requiring special consideration for reconstruction. The cause is usually a child younger than 3 years old biting an electrical cord. An eleven-month-old girl admitted to the emergency room with perioral electrical <span class="hlt">burn</span> after biting an electrical cable of a television. Her <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> included 60% of the lower lip, down to the mentum, and including left commissure, distal part of the tongue and the floor of the mouth. On the 8th day following the <span class="hlt">burn</span>, the <span class="hlt">burned</span> necrotic tissues separated from the healthy living tissues and a bleeding from the labial artery was observed. To reconstruct the lip defect, an inferior-based nasolabial flap from the lateral side was used. The mucosa of the flap was dissected and advanced to form the lower lip vermillion. With this case presentation, the principles and options for perioral electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> are presented. PMID:18988059</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keskin, Mustafa; Tosun, Zekeriya; Duymaz, Ahmet; Savaci, Nedim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A41B0081D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pre-Harvest Sugarcane <span class="hlt">Burning</span>: Determination of emission factors through laboratory measurements and quantification of emissions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sugarcane is a relevant crop to Brazilian economy and roughly 50% of its production is used to produce ethanol. São Paulo state is the largest producer of sugarcane in Brazil being responsible for almost 60% of its production in a cultivated <span class="hlt">area</span> of 4.5 Mha in 2010. Sugarcane harvest practice can be performed either with green harvest or with pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span>. A "Green Ethanol" Protocol is underway to eliminate the pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice by 2014 in most of the sugarcane cultivated land in São Paulo state. During the last five years close to 2 Mha were <span class="hlt">annually</span> harvested with the pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice. This practice emits particulate material, greenhouse gases, and tropospheric ozone precursors to the atmosphere. Even with policies to eliminate the <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice in the near future there is still a significant environmental damage due to the pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice of sugarcane. Thus the generation of reliable inventories of emissions due to this activity is crucial in order to assess the environmental impact. Presently the official Brazilian emissions inventories do not include the sugarcane pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span> contribution. Therefore, this work aims to estimate the <span class="hlt">annual</span> emissions (from 2006 to 2010) associated with pre-harvest sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice in São Paulo state, including the determination of emission factors for some trace gases and particulate material smaller than 2.5 ?m. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> remote sensing based mappings of <span class="hlt">burned</span> sugarcane fields throughout the harvest season in each crop year made in the context of Canasat Project (http://www.dsr.inpe.br/laf/canasat/en/) were added to the Brazilian Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Emission Model (3BEM) in order to estimate trace gases and aerosols emissions. Two laboratory combustion experiments were carried out to determine the emission factors estimation. Samples of different varieties of sugarcane were harvested in dry weather conditions and in distinct sites in the state of São Paulo to assure a good representativeness. In each experiment a fraction of a specific sample was put on a <span class="hlt">burning</span> tray with <span class="hlt">area</span> equal to 1 m2 inside a combustion chamber and <span class="hlt">burned</span> under controlled conditions. The bottom's tray was covered with a layer of soil with some branches aiming to reproduce the <span class="hlt">burning</span> condition in the field. The smoke emitted was conducted to trace gas and aerosol particles analyzers measuring the excess mixing ratios for CO2, CO, NOX, UHC (unburned hydrocarbons) and PM2.5, allowing the estimation of their respective emission factors. Average values for emission factors estimated (g kg -1 of <span class="hlt">burned</span> dry biomass) were 1303 ± 218 for CO2, 65 ± 14 for CO, 1.5 ± 0.4 for NOX, 16 ± 6 for UHC, and 2.5 ± 1.7 for PM2.5. These emission factors can be used to generate more realistic emission inventories and, therefore, to improve the results of quality air models. Currently, enhanced emission inventories of São Paulo state are obtained with the emission model 3BEM, available at CPTEC-INPE, by the inclusion of these improvements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Azeredo Franca, D.; Maria Longo, K.; Gomes Soares Neto, T.; Carlos dos Santos, J.; Rudorf, B. F.; Alves de Aguiar, D.; Freitas, S.; Vieira Cortez, E.; Stockler S. Lima, R.; S. Gacita, M.; Anselmo, E.; A. Carvalho, J., Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..92..240H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> variability in leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> index and isoprene and monoterpene emissions during drought years in Texas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A pathway through which drought may affect estimates of emissions of isoprene and other biogenic volatile organic compounds is through changes in leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> index (LAI), a key input parameter for biogenic emissions models. Spatial and temporal variations of an LAI product derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the relative impact of LAI versus meteorological fields and soil moisture on emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes were examined using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) for four climate regions in eastern Texas. The four regions had diverse land cover and climatology during 2006-2011, years with recurring extreme to exceptional drought. Maximum monthly interannual LAI variations exceeded 20% in the North and South Central regions, but were less than 20% in East Texas and Upper Coast. Estimates of isoprene and monoterpene emissions in the two central regions were lower by as much as -24% due to significant reductions of LAI during droughts in 2006 and 2011. Maximum interannual variability in estimated monthly isoprene emissions exceeded 30%. Reductions in LAI during drought may be accompanied by increases in temperature and surface insolation that exert competing effects on biogenic emissions estimates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, Ling; McDonald-Buller, Elena C.; McGaughey, Gary; Kimura, Yosuke; Allen, David T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19249813"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> cycle of gross beta activities in aerosol around Daya Bay <span class="hlt">area</span>, China.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, the monthly gross beta activities in aerosol during 1995-2004 at Daya Bay <span class="hlt">area</span> are reported. The gross beta activities were observed to vary in the range of 0.22-5.14 mBq m(-3) with an arithmetic average of 1.60+/-1.00 mBq m(-3) and a geometric average about 1.78+/-0.33 mBq m(-3). It is shown an obvious seasonal variation characteristic, which is ascribed to the washout mechanism and the radon-suppressing mechanism from the soil by the seasonal rainfall. The exponential attenuation with the rainfall is verified and an attenuation index is defined, which is deduced as 0.007+/-0.002 mm(-1) by regression analysis. Finally, the correlation between gross beta activities and (210)Pb concentrations is analyzed. It is indicated that the radionuclide (210)Pb contributes about 61+/-9% to the gross beta activities in the aerosol. PMID:19249813</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, Yan-Jun; Tao, Yun-Liang; Lin, Jun; Shang-Guan, Zhi-Hong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/52809"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization and monitoring of 300 <span class="hlt">Area</span> facility liquid waste streams: 1994 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during calendar year 1994: liquid waste streams from Buildings 306, 320, 324, 326, 331, and 3720 in the 300 <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Hanford Site and managed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory; treated and untreated Columbia River water (influent); and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Data were collected from March to December before the sampling system installation was completed. Data from this initial part of the program are considered tentative. Samples collected were analyzed for chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. In general, the concentrations of chemical and radiological constituents and parameters in building wastewaters which were sampled and analyzed during CY 1994 were similar to historical data. Exceptions were the occasional observances of high concentrations of chloride, nitrate, and sodium that are believed to be associated with excursions that were occurring when the samples were collected. Occasional observances of high concentrations of a few solvents also appeared to be associated with infrequent building r eases. During calendar year 1994, nitrate, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and gross beta exceeded US Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Riley, R.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Evans, J.C.; Julya, J.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Ozanich, R.M.; Thompson, C.J.; Vogel, H.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.2335C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions in tropical Asia based on satellite-derived data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in tropical Asia emits large amounts of trace gases and particulate matter into the atmosphere, which has significant implications for atmospheric chemistry and climatic change. In this study, emissions from open biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> over tropical Asia were evaluated during seven fire years from 2000 to 2006 (1 March 2000-31 February 2007). The size of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> was estimated from newly published 1-km L3JRC and 500-m MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products (MCD45A1). Available fuel loads and emission factors were assigned to each vegetation type in a GlobCover characterisation map, and fuel moisture content was taken into account when calculating combustion factors. Over the whole period, both <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> and fire emissions showed clear spatial and seasonal variations. The size of the L3JRC <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged from 36 031 km2 in fire year 2005 to 52 303 km2 in 2001, and the MCD45A1 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged from 54 790 km2 in fire year 2001 to 148 967 km2 in 2004. Comparisons of L3JRC and MCD45A1 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> using ground-based measurements and other satellite data were made in several major <span class="hlt">burning</span> regions, and the results suggest that MCD45A1 generally performed better than L3JRC, although with a certain degree of underestimation in forest <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The average <span class="hlt">annual</span> L3JRC-based emissions were 123 (102-152), 12 (9-15), 1.0 (0.7-1.3), 1.9 (1.4-2.6), 0.11 (0.09-0.12), 0.89 (0.63-1.21), 0.043 (0.036-0.053), 0.021 (0.021-0.023), 0.41 (0.34-0.52), 3.4 (2.6-4.3), and 3.6 (2.8-4.7) Tg yr-1 for CO2, CO, CH4, NMHCs, NOx, NH3, SO2, BC, OC, PM2.5, and PM10, respectively, whereas MCD45A1-based emissions were 122 (108-144), 9.3 (7.7-11.7), 0.63 (0.46-0.86), 1.1 (0.8-1.6), 0.11 (0.10-0.13), 0.54 (0.38-0.76), 0.043 (0.038-0.051), 0.033 (0.032-0.037), 0.39 (0.34-0.47), 3.0 (2.6-3.7), and 3.3 (2.8-4.0) Tg yr-1. Forest <span class="hlt">burning</span> was identified as the major source of the fire emissions due to its high carbon density. Although agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span> was the second highest contributor, it is possible that some crop residue combustion was missed by satellite observations. This possibility is supported by comparisons with previously published data, and this result may be due to the small size of the field crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Fire emissions were mainly concentrated in Indonesia, India, Myanmar, and Cambodia. Furthermore, the peak in the size of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was generally found in the early fire season, whereas the maximum fire emissions often occurred in the late fire season.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, D.; Song, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol1-sec49-11021.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>. 49.11021...open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol1-sec49-10411.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>. 49.10411...open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18538480"> <span id="translatedtitle">Topical management of facial <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The face is the central point of the physical features of the human being. It transmits expressions and emotions, communicates feelings and allows for individual identity. It contains complex musculature and a pliable and unique skin envelope that reacts to the environment through a vast network of nerve endings. The face hosts vital <span class="hlt">areas</span> that make phonation, feeding, and vision possible. Facial <span class="hlt">burns</span> disrupt these anatomical and functional structures creating pain, deformity, swelling, and contractures that may lead to lasting physical and psychological sequelae. The management of facial <span class="hlt">burns</span> may include operative and non-operative treatment or both, depending on the depth and extent of the <span class="hlt">burn</span>. This paper intends to provide a review of the available options for topical management of facial <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Topical agents will be defined as any agent applied to the surface of the skin that alters the outcome of the facial <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Therefore, the classic concept of topical therapy will be expanded and developed within two major stages: acute and rehabilitation. Comparison of the effectiveness of the different treatments and relevant literature will be discussed. PMID:18538480</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leon-Villapalos, Jorge; Jeschke, Marc G; Herndon, David N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1030912"> <span id="translatedtitle">FY2010 <span class="hlt">ANNUAL</span> REVIEW E-<span class="hlt">AREA</span> LOW-LEVEL WASTE FACILITY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AND COMPOSITE ANALYSIS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The E-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) consists of a number of disposal units described in the Performance Assessment (PA)(WSRC, 2008b) and Composite Analysis (CA)(WSRC, 1997; WSRC, 1999): Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Vault, Intermediate Level (IL) Vault, Trenches (Slit Trenches [STs], Engineered Trenches [ETs], and Component-in-Grout [CIG] Trenches), and Naval Reactor Component Disposal <span class="hlt">Areas</span> (NRCDAs). This <span class="hlt">annual</span> review evaluates the adequacy of the approved 2008 ELLWF PA along with the Special Analyses (SAs) approved since the PA was issued. The review also verifies that the Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 low-level waste (LLW) disposal operations were conducted within the bounds of the PA/SA baseline, the Savannah River Site (SRS) CA, and the Department of Energy (DOE) Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS). Important factors considered in this review include waste receipts, results from monitoring and research and development (R&D) programs, and the adequacy of controls derived from the PA/SA baseline. Sections 1.0 and 2.0 of this review are a summary of the adequacy of the PA/SA and CA, respectively. An evaluation of the FY2010 waste receipts and the resultant impact on the ELLWF is summarized in Section 3.1. The results of the monitoring program, R&D program, and other relevant factors are found in Section 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4, respectively. Section 4.0 contains the CA <span class="hlt">annual</span> determination similarly organized. SRS low-level waste management is regulated under DOE Order 435.1 (DOE, 1999a) and is authorized under a DAS as a federal permit. The original DAS was issued by the DOE-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) on September 28, 1999 (DOE, 1999b) for the operation of the ELLWF and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The 1999 DAS remains in effect for the regulation of the SDF. Those portions of that DAS applicable to the ELLWF were superseded by revision 1 of the DAS on July 15, 2008 (DOE, 2008b). The 2008 PA and DAS were officially implemented by the facility on October 31, 2008 and are the authorization documents for this FY2010 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Review. Department of Energy Headquarters approval of the 2008 DAS was subject to numerous conditions specified in the document. Two of those conditions are to update the ELLWF closure plan and monitoring plan to align with the conceptual model analyzed in the PA. Both of these conditions were met with the issuance of the PA Monitoring Plan (Millings, 2009a) and the Closure Plan (Phifer et al, 2009a). The PA Monitoring Plan was approved by DOE on July 22, 2009 and the Closure Plan was approved by DOE on May 21, 2009. Both will be updated as needed to remain consistent with the PA. The DAS also specifies that the maintenance plan include activities to resolve each of the secondary issues identified in the DOEHQ review of the 2008 PA that were not completely addressed either with supplemental material provided to the review team or in final revisions to the PA. These outstanding issues were originally documented in the 2008 update of the PA/CA Maintenance Plan (WSRC, 2008a) and in subsequent PA/CA Maintenance Plans (most recently SRNS, 2010a) as required and are actively being worked.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Butcher, T.; Swingle, R.; Crapse, K.; Millings, M.; Sink, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8TJciUBWSZ4"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Rate Emulator</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Rate Emulator is a gas fuel investigation attempting to emulate the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of solids to improve our understanding of materials''flammability over a wide range of conditions. The approa...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/patientinstructions/000662.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Minor <span class="hlt">burns</span> - aftercare</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... all clothes that have the chemical on them. Cool the <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Use cool water, not ice. If possible, especially if the ... caused by chemicals, hold the <span class="hlt">burned</span> skin under cool running water for 10 to 15 minutes until ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18323747"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> plasma transfer induces <span class="hlt">burn</span> edema in healthy rats.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thermal injuries greater than 20% body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (BSA) result in systemic shock with generalized edema in addition to local tissue destruction. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> shock is induced by a variety of mediators, mainly immunomodulative cytokines. This experimental study evaluates if <span class="hlt">burn</span> shock can be induced in healthy rats by transfer of <span class="hlt">burn</span> plasma (BP) with mediators. Thermal injury was induced by hot water (100 degrees C water, 12 s, 30% BSA) in male syngenic Wistar rats. Donor rats were killed 4 h posttrauma, and BP was harvested. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> plasma was transferred to healthy animals by continuous intravenous infusion in three types of dilution (100%, 10%, and 1%). Positive controls were directly examined 4 h after thermal injury, and negative control rats had a continuous infusion done with sham <span class="hlt">burn</span> (SB) plasma (37 degrees C water, 12 s, 30% BSA). Afterwards, intravital fluorescence microscopy was performed in postcapillary mesenteric venules at 0, 60, and 120 min. Edema formation was assessed by relative changes over time in fluorescence intensity of fluorescein isothiocyanate-albumin in the intravascular versus the extravascular space. The interactions of leucocytes and endothelium were evaluated by quantification of leukocyte sticking. Additionally, microhemodynamic (volumetric blood flow, erythrocyte velocity, venular wall shear rate, venular diameters) and macrohemodynamic parameters (blood pressure, heart frequency, temperature) were assessed online (arterial catheter). For statistics, an ANOVA was performed with Bonferroni adjustment procedure. Differences were considered significant when P < 0.05. There are no statistically significant differences in microhemodynamics or macrohemodynamics between study groups. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> plasma infusion and thermal injury lead to significant increases in fluorescein isothiocyanate-albumin extravasation, whereas SB plasma shows no significant changes. Even BP diluted in 0.9% saline (10% and 1%) results in a similar transvascular flux of plasma proteins as direct thermal injury. Differences between positive controls and BP infusion are not significant, whereas all groups are statistically different from the SB group (P<0.05). Leukocyte sticking is significantly increased in all groups except the SB group, and the number of adherent leukocytes is dose dependent. The present study demonstrates that as early as 4 h after thermal injury, there are sufficient factors (e.g., cytokines) in BP to induce systemic <span class="hlt">burn</span> shock in healthy rats even in diluted plasma (1%). However, the "key" cytokines are not identified at this point. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> tissue is no longer required for <span class="hlt">burn</span> shock induction, and the pathophysiologic process seems to be self-perpetuating as early as 4 h posttrauma. Leukocytes are activated by thermal injury and BP infusion. The role of leukocyte-endothelium interactions for edema formation remains uncertain and requires further investigation. PMID:18323747</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kremer, Thomas; Abé, Dorotheé; Weihrauch, Marc; Peters, Christopher; Gebhardt, Martha Maria; Germann, Guenter; Heitmann, Christoph; Walther, Andreas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD763585"> <span id="translatedtitle">Management of Electrical <span class="hlt">Burns</span> of the Upper Extremity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The true extent of an electrical <span class="hlt">burn</span> is even less apparent than the extent of heat <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Surface diagrams are often useless for calculating the extent of underlying injury. A benign-appearing small electrical <span class="hlt">burn</span> of the arm may cover an extensive <span class="hlt">area</span> o...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. A. Pruitt G. D. Warden J. L. Hunt R. E. Salisbury</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/v101/iD19/96JD01623/96JD01623.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The quantity of biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span> in southern Africa</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new method is described for calculating the amount of biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span>, its type and location, and the time of <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Active fires in 1989 were detected using daily advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) satellite imagery. The fire count was calibrated to <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> using a stratified sample of multitemporal multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery. The calibration factor is strongly</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. J. Scholes; J. Kendall; C. O. Justice</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29594956"> <span id="translatedtitle">Benefit–cost analysis of moist exposed <span class="hlt">burn</span> ointment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> injury is one of the most devastating injuries that may affect a patient. Even in economically deprived <span class="hlt">areas</span>, <span class="hlt">burn</span> care is largely driven by relatively plentiful resources equating quality of care with generous monitoring and clinical attention with little concern to management cost. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> care costs have been the subject of very few investigations and are among the least</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bishara S Atiyeh; Ruwayda Dham; Mohammaed Kadry; Abdel Fattah Abdallah; Mahmoud Al-Oteify; Osman Fathi; Ahmed Samir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://en.mebo.com/paper/PDFpaper/164%20Atiyeh%207%202002.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Benefit-cost analysis of moist exposed <span class="hlt">burn</span> ointment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> injury is one of the most devastating injuries that may affect a patient. Even in economically deprived <span class="hlt">areas</span>, <span class="hlt">burn</span> care is largely driven by relatively plentiful resources equating quality of care with generous monitoring and clinical attention with little concern to management cost. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> care costs have been the subject of very few investigations and are among the least</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bishara S. Atiyeh; Abdel Fattah Abdallah; Mahmoud Al-Oteifye; Osman Fathi; Ahmed Samirg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/wri034323/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrologic Effects of the 1988 Galena Fire, Black Hills <span class="hlt">Area</span>, South Dakota</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Galena Fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> about 16,788 acres of primarily ponderosa pine forest during July 5-8, 1988, in the Black Hills <span class="hlt">area</span> of South Dakota. The fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> primarily within the Grace Coolidge Creek drainage basin and almost entirely within the boundaries of Custer State Park. A U.S. Geological Survey gaging station with streamflow records dating back to 1977 was located along Grace Coolidge Creek within the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. About one-half of the gaging station's 26.8-square-mile drainage <span class="hlt">area</span> was <span class="hlt">burned</span>. The drainage basin for Bear Gulch, which is tributary to Grace Coolidge Creek, was <span class="hlt">burned</span> particularly severely, with complete deforestation occurring in nearly the entirety of the <span class="hlt">area</span> upstream from a gaging station that was installed in 1989. A study to evaluate effects of the Galena Fire on streamflow, geomorphology, and water quality was initiated in 1988. The geomorphologic and water-quality components of the study were completed by 1990 and are summarized in this report. A data-collection network consisting of streamflow- and precipitation-gaging stations was operated through water year 1998 for evaluation of effects on streamflow characteristics, including both <span class="hlt">annual</span>-yield and peak-flow characteristics, which are the main focus of this report. Moderately <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> did not experience a substantial increase in the rate of surface erosion; however, severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> underwent surficial erosion nearly twice that of the unburned <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The sediment production rate of Bear Gulch estimated 8 to 14 months after the fire was 870 ft3/acre (44 tons/acre). Substantial degradation of stream channels within the severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> headwater <span class="hlt">areas</span> of Bear Gulch was documented. Farther downstream, channel aggradation resulted from deposition of sediments transported from the headwater <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The most notable water-quality effect was on concentrations of suspended sediment, which were orders of magnitude higher for Bear Gulch than for the unburned control <span class="hlt">area</span>. Effects on several other water-quality constituents, such as organic carbon and nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient constituents, probably were influenced by the large concentrations of suspended matter that were documented in initial post-fire, storm-flow events. The first post-fire stormflow produced the highest measured concentrations of specific conductance, nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, calcium, magnesium, potassium, manganese, and sulfate in the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. For most constituents sampled, differences in concentrations between <span class="hlt">burned</span> and unburned <span class="hlt">areas</span> were no longer discernible within about 1 year following the Galena Fire. The effects of the Galena Fire on <span class="hlt">annual</span>-yield characteristics of Grace Coolidge Creek were evaluated primarily from comparisons with long-term streamflow records for Battle Creek, which is hydrogeologically similar and is located immediately to the north. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> yield for Grace Coolidge Creek increased by about 20 percent as a result of the fire. This estimate was based on relations between <span class="hlt">annual</span> yield for Grace Coolidge Creek and Battle Creek for pre- and post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> periods. Many of the post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> data points are well beyond the range of the pre-<span class="hlt">burn</span> data, which is a source of uncertainty for this estimate. Substantial increases in peak-flow characteristics for severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> drainages were visually apparent from numerous post-fire field observations. Various analyses of streamflow data indicated substantial increases in peak-flow response for <span class="hlt">burned</span> drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span>; however, quantification of effects was particularly difficult because peak-flow response diminished quickly and returned to a generally pre-<span class="hlt">burn</span> condition by about 1991. Field observations of vegetation and analysis of remotely sensed data indicated that establishment of grasses and forbs occurred within a similar timeframe. Comparison of pre-fire peak flows to post-1991 peak flows indicates that these grasses and forbs were equally effective in suppressing peak flows</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet M.; Ohlen, Donald O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/951601"> <span id="translatedtitle">2008 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Summary Report for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada: Review of the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site requires an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review to assess the adequacy of the Performance Assessments (PAs) and Composite Analyses (CAs) for each of the facilities, with the results submitted <span class="hlt">annually</span> to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters. The Disposal Authorization Statements for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) also require that such reviews be made and that secondary or minor unresolved issues be tracked and addressed as part of the maintenance plan. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) performed an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review in fiscal year (FY) 2008 by evaluating operational factors and research results that impact the continuing validity of the PAs and CAs. This <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2008 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada Test Site relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NSTec Environmental Management</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5227005"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> emissions and air-quality impacts of an urban <span class="hlt">area</span> district-heating system: Boston case study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A district-heating system, based on thermal energy from power plants retrofitted to operate in the cogeneration mode, is expected to improve local air quality. This possibility has been examined by comparing the emissions of five major atmospheric pollutants, i.e., particulates, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, from the existing heating and electric system in the City of Boston with those from a proposed district heating system. Detailed, spatial distribution of existing heating load and fuel mix is developed to specify emissions associated with existing heating systems. Actual electric-power-plant parameters and generation for the base year are specified. Additional plant fuel consumption and emissions resulting from cogeneration operation have been estimated. Six alternative fuel-emissions-control scenarios are considered. The average <span class="hlt">annual</span> ground-level concentrations of sulfur oxides are calculated using a modified form of the EPA's Climatological Dispersion Model. This report describes the methodology, the results and their implications, and the <span class="hlt">areas</span> for extended investigation. The initial results confirm expectations. Average sulfur oxides concentrations at various points within and near the city drop by up to 85% in the existing fuels scenarios and by 95% in scenarios in which different fuels and more-stringent emissions controls at the plants are used. These reductions are relative to concentrations caused by fuel combustion for heating and large commercial and industrial process uses within the city and Boston Edison Co. electric generation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bernow, S.S.; McAnulty, D.R.; Buchsbaum, S.; Levine, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22262966"> <span id="translatedtitle">Workplace-related <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction. The key element of a safe workplace for employees is the maintenance of fire safety. Thermal, chemical, and electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> are common types of <span class="hlt">burns</span> at the workplace. This study assessed the epidemiology of work-related <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries on the basis of the workers treated in a regional <span class="hlt">burn</span> centre. Methods. Two years' retrospective data (2005-2006) from the Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons of the Joseph M. Still <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center at Doctors Hospital in Augusta, Georgia, were collected and analysed. Results. During the time period studied, 2510 adult patients with acute <span class="hlt">burns</span> were admitted; 384 cases (15%) were work-related. The average age of the patients was 37 yr (range, 15-72 yr). Males constituted the majority (90%) of workrelated <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury admissions. The racial distribution was in accordance with the Centre's admission census. Industrial plant explosions accounted for the highest number of work-related <span class="hlt">burns</span> and, relatively, a significant number of patients had chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The average length of hospital stay was 5.54 days. Only three patients did not have health insurance and four patients (1%) died. Conclusion. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> injuries at the workplace predominantly occur among young male workers, and the study has shown that chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> are relatively frequent. This study functions as the basis for the evaluation of work-related <span class="hlt">burns</span> and identification of the causes of these injuries to formulate adequate safety measures, especially for young, male employees working with chemicals. PMID:22262966</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mian, M A H; Mullins, R F; Alam, B; Brandigi, C; Friedman, B C; Shaver, J R; Hassan, Z</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58836600"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prescribed <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Apparatus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The National Interagency Fire Center (NIFC) is the support center for wild land firefighting in the US located in Boise, ID. One of the many activities that the NIFC coordinates is prescribed <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Prescribed <span class="hlt">burns</span> are one of NIFC’smanagement tools to help prevent major forest fires by <span class="hlt">burning</span> undergrowth and they also help with maintaining and improving habitat. Recently, NIFC</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brett Alspach; Xander Harmon; Kyle Vogel; Matt Murdock</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.safekids.org/sites/default/files/documents/skw_burns_fact_sheet_oct_2013.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> and Fire Safety</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1 <span class="hlt">Burns</span> and Fire Safety Fact Sheet (2013) Fatalities ? 365 children ages 19 and under died from fires or <span class="hlt">burns</span> in 2010. 88% ( ... 50% from 1999 to 2010. 1 1999?2010 Fire/<span class="hlt">Burn</span> Fatalities and Death Rate Among Children Ages ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.safekids.org/sites/default/files/documents/skw_burns_fact_sheet_june_2014.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> and Fire Safety</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1 <span class="hlt">Burns</span> and Fire Safety Fact Sheet (2014) Fatalities ? 325 children ages 19 and under died from fires or <span class="hlt">burns</span> in 2011. 85% ( ... 55% from 1999 to 2011. 1 1999?2011 Fire/<span class="hlt">Burn</span> Fatalities and Death Rate Among Children Ages ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2935806"> <span id="translatedtitle">Topical Antimicrobials for <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Wound Infections</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Throughout most of history, serious <span class="hlt">burns</span> occupying a large percentage of body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the <span class="hlt">burn</span> milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the <span class="hlt">burned</span> skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make <span class="hlt">burns</span> particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to <span class="hlt">burns</span>, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat <span class="hlt">burn</span> infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating <span class="hlt">burn</span> infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active <span class="hlt">area</span> of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for <span class="hlt">burns</span> that will battle against growing multi-drug resistance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Hashmi, Javad T.; Kurup, Divya B.; Hamblin, Michael R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20429870"> <span id="translatedtitle">Topical antimicrobials for <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound infections.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Throughout most of history, serious <span class="hlt">burns</span> occupying a large percentage of body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the <span class="hlt">burn</span> milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the <span class="hlt">burned</span> skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make <span class="hlt">burns</span> particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to <span class="hlt">burns</span>, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat <span class="hlt">burn</span> infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating <span class="hlt">burn</span> infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active <span class="hlt">area</span> of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for <span class="hlt">burns</span> that will battle against growing multidrug resistance. PMID:20429870</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dai, T; Huang, Y Y; Sharma, S K; Hashmi, J T; Kurup, D B; Hamblin, M R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17091072"> <span id="translatedtitle">Self-esteem measurement before and after summer <span class="hlt">burn</span> camp in pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury results in significant mortality and morbidity, from which some children will experience prolonged psychological and social difficulty. As early as 1967, it was noted that participation in a group was important in the resolution of problems caused by severe disability and stressful experiences. Since 1982, there have been summer <span class="hlt">burn</span> camps for children and adolescent <span class="hlt">burn</span> survivors. The primary focus of camp is to have "fun" at the various daily activities. The principal goal, however, is psychosocial readjustment. Fifty-three <span class="hlt">burn</span> survivors attended the 1-week duration <span class="hlt">annual</span> summer camp. Campers were invited to complete a Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale on the first day of summer <span class="hlt">burn</span> camp and shortly after the camp ended. Younger children were assisted with the survey tool by their parents. Of the 53 campers, 45 completed both pre- and postcamp surveys. The age of the campers ranged from 6 to 18 years (mean, 12.8 years). <span class="hlt">Burn</span> size ranged from 1% to 90% TBSA (mean, 30.4% TBSA). The interval from date of injury to camp attendance was 2 months to 15.5 years. Nine campers had never attended <span class="hlt">burn</span> camp before this year. Twenty- nine percent of the campers had an increase in self-esteem score. Fifty-eight percent had no change, and 13% demonstrated a decrease. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> camp experience though an enriching summer activity, did not necessarily increase self-esteem in the majority of campers as measured by the survey tool employed. PMID:17091072</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arnoldo, Brett D; Crump, Donna; Burris, Agnes M; Hunt, John L; Purdue, Gary F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.......333M"> <span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate solid composite propellants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate propellants help maintain high levels of thrust without requiring complex, high surface <span class="hlt">area</span> grain geometries. Utilizing high <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate propellants allows for simplified grain geometries that not only make production of the grains easier, but the simplified grains tend to have better mechanical strength, which is important in missiles undergoing high-g accelerations. Additionally, high <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate propellants allow for a higher volumetric loading which reduces the overall missile's size and weight. The purpose of this study is to present methods of achieving a high <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate propellant and to develop a composite propellant formulation that <span class="hlt">burns</span> at 1.5 inches per second at 1000 psia. In this study, several means of achieving a high <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate propellant were presented. In addition, several candidate approaches were evaluated using the Kepner-Tregoe method with hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-based propellants using <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate modifiers and dicyclopentadiene (DCPD)-based propellants being selected for further evaluation. Propellants with varying levels of nano-aluminum, nano-iron oxide, FeBTA, and overall solids loading were produced using the HTPB binder and evaluated in order to determine the effect the various ingredients have on the <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate and to find a formulation that provides the <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate desired. Experiments were conducted to compare the <span class="hlt">burn</span> rates of propellants using the binders HTPB and DCPD. The DCPD formulation matched that of the baseline HTPB mix. Finally, GAP-plasticized DCPD gumstock dogbones were attempted to be made for mechanical evaluation. Results from the study show that nano-additives have a substantial effect on propellant <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate with nano-iron oxide having the largest influence. Of the formulations tested, the highest <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate was a 84% solids loading mix using nano-aluminum nano-iron oxide, and ammonium perchlorate in a 3:1(20 micron: 200 micron) ratio which achieved a <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate of 1.2 inches per second at 1000 psia. In addition, DCPD propellant was shown to <span class="hlt">burn</span> at twice the rate of HTPB propellant, most likely a result of its lower decomposition temperature. A high <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate DCPD propellant was developed, but due to poor wetting, the resulting propellant was brittle and fragmented during strand <span class="hlt">burn</span> testing. Lastly, GAP-plasticized DCPD gumstocks were not able to be produced most likely due to an interaction between GAP and the cure catalyst for DCPD.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Manship, Timothy D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA......454L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosol in the State of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A detailed aerosol source apportionment study has been performed in three sites in State of São Paulo with different land-use: sugarcane crops, cattle, urban <span class="hlt">area</span> and forest. During the summer and winter, the period when sugarcane is <span class="hlt">burned</span> every year, PM10 has been sampled during day and night in a period of 48 hours, using stacked filters units collecting fine and coarse particulate mode, providing mass, BC and elemental concentration for each aerosol mode. The concentrations of around 20 elements were determined using particle induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE). Ion chromatography was used to determine up to 11 water-soluble ion components. Highest levels of pollutants have been measured around the sugarcane crops, where the <span class="hlt">annual</span> PM10 concentration (57.1"45.2µgm-3) exceeds of the other urban and industrialized <span class="hlt">areas</span> and the BC concentration is significantly higher during the sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span> period (4.2"2.2 µgm-3) than the rest of the year (2.0"1.0 µgm-3). The main sources of the aerosol are correlated to the land cover. Factor and cluster analysis showed the main source int the State of São Paulo is biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>, followed by soil dust, biogenic emissions and industrial emissions. The sampling and analytical procedures applied in this study showed the sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span> and agricultural practices are the main source of inhalable particulate, possibly altering the aerosol concentration in some places of the State of São Paulo.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lara, L. L. S.; Artaxo, P.; Martinelli, L. A.; Camargo, P. B.; Ferraz, E. S. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3655731"> <span id="translatedtitle">Facial <span class="hlt">Burns</span> - Our Experience</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Facial <span class="hlt">burns</span> are generally considered severe. This is due to the possibility of respiratory complications. First responders check the nostrils for singed hairs. In severe cases there may be soot around the nose and mouth and coughing may produce phlegm that includes ash. Facial and inhalational <span class="hlt">burns</span> compromise airways. They pose difficulties in pre-hospital resuscitation and are challenge to clinicians managing surviving <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims in the intensive care setting. Management problems – resuscitation, airway maintenance and clinical treatment of facial injuries are compounded if the victim is child. Inhalational <span class="hlt">burns</span> reduce survivability, certainly in adult victim. In our retrospective study we found that facial <span class="hlt">burns</span> dominated in male gender, liquids and scalds are the most common causes of facial <span class="hlt">burns</span> in children whereas the flame and electricity were the most common causes of facial <span class="hlt">burns</span> in adults. We came to the conclusion in our study that surgical treatment minimizes complications and duration of recovery.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zatriqi, Violeta; Arifi, Hysni; Zatriqi, Skender; Duci, Shkelzen; Rrecaj, Sh.; Martinaj, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9601593"> <span id="translatedtitle">Major <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Cape Town: a modified <span class="hlt">burns</span> score for patient triage.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Major <span class="hlt">burns</span> equal to, or greater than, 30 per cent total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) constitute 23 per cent of the admissions to the adult <span class="hlt">burns</span> unit in Cape Town. A retrospective review over a 28-month period identified 87 cases of major <span class="hlt">burns</span>. This paper summarizes the epidemiology and mortality amongst this patient group over this period. Demand for treatment can exceed bed availability in the unit. The difficult issue, this raises, of patient triage in relation to the relatively limited resources is addressed and a simple modified <span class="hlt">burns</span> score proposed for this unit. The effect this score would have in optimizing the use of our resources is demonstrated. PMID:9601593</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Godwin, Y; Wood, S H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3387177"> <span id="translatedtitle">Myocardial Autophagy after Severe <span class="hlt">Burn</span> in Rats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Autophagy plays a major role in myocardial ischemia and hypoxia injury. The present study investigated the effects of autophagy on cardiac dysfunction in rats after severe <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Methods Protein expression of the autophagy markers LC3 and Beclin 1 were determined at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 h post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> in Sprague Dawley rats subjected to 30% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> 3rd degree <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Autophagic, apoptotic, and oncotic cell death were evaluated in the myocardium at each time point by immunofluorescence. Changes of cardiac function were measured in a Langendorff model of isolated heart at 6 h post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>, and the autophagic response was measured following activation by Rapamycin and inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA). The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat, the angiotensin receptor I blocker losartan, and the reactive oxygen species inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) were also applied to the ex vivo heart model to examine the roles of these factors in post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> cardiac function. Results Autophagic cell death was first observed in the myocardium at 3 h post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>, occurring in 0.008 ± 0.001% of total cardiomyocytes, and continued to increase to a level of 0.022 ± 0.005% by 12 h post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>. No autophagic cell death was observed in control hearts. Compared with apoptosis, autophagic cell death occurred earlier and in larger quantities. Rapamycin enhanced autophagy and decreased cardiac function in isolated hearts 6 h post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>, while 3-MA exerted the opposite response. Enalaprilat, losartan, and DPI all inhibited autophagy and enhanced heart function. Conclusion Myocardial autophagy is enhanced in severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> and autophagic cell death occurred early at 3 h post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>, which may contribute to post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> cardiac dysfunction. Angiotensin II and reactive oxygen species may play important roles in this process by regulating cell signaling transduction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Qiong; Shi, Xiao-hua; Huang, Yue-sheng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13.2299L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the impacts of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on air quality in and around Mexico City</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> on ground-level ozone (O3) and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Area</span> (MCMA) and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> organic aerosol (BBOA), and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA) were consistent with many observation-based estimates. We did not detect significant effects of open fires and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> on surface O3 concentrations in the MCMA and surrounding region. In contrast, they had important influences on OA and elemental carbon (EC), increasing primary OA (POA) by ~60%, secondary OA (SOA) by ~22%, total OA (TOA = POA + SOA) by ~33%, and EC by ~22%, on both the local (urban) and regional scales. Although the emissions of trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> are substantially lower than those from open fires, trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> made slightly smaller but comparable contributions to OA as open fires did, and exerted an even higher influence on EC. Of the ~22% enhancement in SOA concentrations (equivalent to a ~15% increase in TOA) simulated, about two third was attributed to the open fires and one-third to the trash <span class="hlt">burning</span>. On the <span class="hlt">annual</span> basis and taking the biofuel use emissions into consideration, we estimated that open fires, trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> and biofuel use together contributed about 60% to the loading of POA, 30% to SOA, and 25% to EC in both the MCMA and its surrounding region, of which the open fires and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> contributed about 35% to POA, 18% to SOA, and 15% to EC. The estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> impacts in this study may contain considerable uncertainties due to the uncertainties in their emission estimates in magnitude, temporal and spatial distribution, extrapolations and the nature of spot comparison. More observation and modeling studies are needed to accurately assess the impacts of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on tropospheric chemistry, regional and global air quality, and climate change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lei, W.; Li, G.; Molina, L. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0906796"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for Bergen and Passaic Counties, New Jersey, 1986. New Jersey Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 1.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan (AIP) is the community's expression of desired changes in the health system through a short-range community work program which will promote initiatives suggested in the Health Systems Plan. The AIP identifies the HSA's prior...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901199"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Systems Plan for 1978-1982 and <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978-1979. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Kansas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Northeast Kansas Health Systems Agency developed this health systems plan (HSP) and <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP). The HSP is organized as follows: introduction--agency history and responsibility, purpose and use of the plan, and evaluation of the ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901031"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health Systems Plan for 1978-1982 and <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1978. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 4 South Carolina.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This health systems plan (HSP) and <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) were developed by the Palmetto-Lowcountry Health Systems Agency, Inc. Ten sections comprise the HSP: (1) introduction and background (legislative aspects of health planning and a descript...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3576016"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span>: an update on current pharmacotherapy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction The world-wide occurrence of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries remains high despite efforts to reduce injury incidence through public awareness campaigns and improvements in living conditions. In 2004, almost 11 million people experienced <span class="hlt">burns</span> severe enough to warrant medical treatment. Advances over the past several decades in aggressive resuscitation, nutrition, excision, and grafting have reduced morbidity and mortality. Incorporation of pharmacotherapeutics into treatment regimens may further reduce complications of severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. <span class="hlt">Areas</span> covered Severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries, as well as other forms of stress and trauma, trigger a hypermetabolic response that, if left untreated, impedes recovery. In the past two decades, use of anabolic agents, beta adrenergic receptor antagonists, and anti-hyperglycemic agents has successfully counteracted post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> morbidities including catabolism, the catecholamine-mediated response, and insulin resistance. Here we review the most up-to-date information on currently used pharmacotherapies in the treatment of these sequelae of severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> and the insights that have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Expert opinion Existing drugs offer promising advances in the care of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. Continued gains in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving the hypermetabolic response will enable the application of additional existing drugs to be broadened to further attenuate the hypermetabolic response.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rojas, Yesinia; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S.; Herndon, David N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29590497"> <span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiological study of 3341 <span class="hlt">burns</span> patients during three years in Tehran, Iran</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A retrospective study was conducted on 3341 <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients hospitalized in a <span class="hlt">burn</span> care center in Tehran, Iran during 1995–98. The mean age was 20.4 years, and 43.5% of patients were children under 15 years old. The mean body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> was 30.6%. There were statistically significant correlations between age groups and total <span class="hlt">burn</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) <span class="hlt">burned</span> with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abdolaziz Rastegar Lari; Reza Alaghehbandan; Rahmatollah Nikui</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC33E..06B"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Sedimentary Charcoal Record of Regional and Global Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> on Multi-decadal-to-Orbital Time Scales</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The global charcoal database (GCD) assembled by the Global Palaeofire Working Group (GPWG) over the past several years provides over 800 sedimentary charcoal records of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> that allows wildfire to be examined on a range of spatial and temporal scales. These data, and other analyses of sedimentary charcoal records show that: (1) The data-analytical aspects of sedimentary charcoal have matured to the extent that we can show that biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is well represented by these records, that charcoal influx is a general indicator of <span class="hlt">area</span> or biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and that peaks of charcoal influx in records with <span class="hlt">annual</span>-to-decadal resolution provide evidence of individual fires. (2) The spatial coverage of the records is extensive enough to represent much of the global climate space, although coverage of Africa, Siberia, and grassland and desert ecosystems in general could be improved. (3) The temporal coverage is sufficient to resolve millennial-scale environmental changes over the past glacial cycle, and hemispheric and regional variations in biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> from the LGM to present. (4) Global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> was very low at the LGM, and increases in biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> into the Holocene tracked hemispheric and regional climate changes. (5) Abrupt climate changes during deglaciation caused specific responses in the charcoal records; these responses are replicated during the abrupt warming and cooling episodes accompanying D-O cycles. (6) During the Holocene, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> reflects regional climate changes and does not support the early anthropocene hypothesis. (7) Over the last millennium, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> also tracks regional climate changes, and shows an unambiguous human influence only over the past 250 years. (8) The variations in global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on multiple time scales described by the sedimentary charcoal record are supported by the emerging ice core records of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>. (9) Increases in biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> are strongly linked to temperature increases on all time scales, and are generally higher at intermediate levels of effective moisture, reflecting a tradeoff between fuel (vegetation productivity) and fire-conducive weather and climate; drought becomes an important control only on decadal and shorter time scales. (10) Human activity is neither necessary nor sufficient for explaining the large-scale, long-term variations in biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bartlein, P. J.; Marlon, J.; Global Palaeofire Working Group</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/f668770072185384.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> variations in the number of malaria cases related to two different patterns of Anopheles darlingi transmission potential in the Maroni <span class="hlt">area</span> of French Guiana</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: With an <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Parasite Incidence (API) of 132.1, in the high and moderate risks zones, the Maroni <span class="hlt">area</span> of French Guiana has the second highest malaria incidence of South-America after Guyana (API = 183.54) and far above Brazil (API = 28.25). Malaria transmission is occurring despite strong medical assistance and active vector control, based on general WHO recommendations. This</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Florence Fouque; Pascal Gaborit; Romuald Carinci; Jean Issaly; Romain Girod</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6434879"> <span id="translatedtitle">Method of <span class="hlt">burning</span> pulverized coal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method of <span class="hlt">burning</span> pulverized coal and other fuels comprises the steps of containing a primary flowing stream of coal/air mixture received adjacent an inlet end of a tubular nozzle for discharge at an outlet end into a combustion zone of a furnace for <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The stream is accelerated in a convergent venturi section upstream of the outlet to distribute and concentrate the coal particles toward a central portion of the venturi in a minimum <span class="hlt">area</span> throat, followed by decelerating the flow downstream of the venturi throat in a convergent flow section while forming a shallow, annular, conically shaped flow pattern around a hollow spreader cone mounted in the convergent section. The annular flow is caused to swirl around the axis of the cone by vanes outwardly thereof within the convergent flow section of the venturi, thus forming a stable, annularly-shaped, swirling flow pattern for discharge into the combustion zone, wherein the coal is <span class="hlt">burned</span> in an elongated flame pattern extending along the stabilized conical flow pattern. A zone of high temperature and reducing atmosphere is formed adjacent the hollow outer end of the cone due to recirculation of combustion products into the rich fuel/air mixture wherein the volatiles in the coal are driven off early in the combustion process and are rapidly <span class="hlt">burned</span> in a continuing process reducing the formation of oxides of nitrogen.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Itse, D.C.; Penterson, G.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-07-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://aac.asm.org/cgi/reprint/42/4/930.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fluconazole Pharmacokinetics in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Patients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in nine adult patients with severe (30 to 95% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>) <span class="hlt">burns</span> were studied. There was no significant difference in half-life (t1\\/2), clearance (CL), or volume of distribution (V) over time in five patients on days 3 and 8 of the study (P > 0.05). Combined parameter estimates (means 6 standard deviations) for all</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">BRADLEY A. BOUCHER; STEPHEN R. KING; HEIDI L. WANDSCHNEIDER; WILLIAM L. HICKERSON; SCOTT D. HANES; VANESSA L. HERRING; MARY M. HESS</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21107271"> <span id="translatedtitle">Deep partial scald <span class="hlt">burn</span> in a neonate: a case report of the first documented domestic neonatal <span class="hlt">burn</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">No previous publication about domestic neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span> exists in the literature. The authors have treated a 16-day-old baby boy for deep partial-thickness scalds that happened at home. The case report is followed by a literature review and discussion of the data previously published on neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Special considerations to domestic neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span> are highlighted. A 16-day-old baby boy presented to our emergency room secondary to an 18% TBSA scald <span class="hlt">burn</span> by hot tea. The patient was resuscitated and admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. Topical wound care, although started with fusidic acid ointment, was changed to Aquacel Ag Hydrofiber dressing once the final depth assessment was performed. The child's wounds, although deep at some <span class="hlt">areas</span>, healed by day 11 without the need for skin grafting. Neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span> have been previously described as iatrogenic injuries caused by various thermal sources. Part of the challenge in managing <span class="hlt">burns</span> is their extremely thin skin. Possibility of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> being inflicted should always be raised for such young victims. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> wounds are tetanus-prone wounds; however, no previous recommendation regarding tetanus immunoglobulin administration exists for neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Aquacel Ag's efficacy in the management of pediatric partial-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> has been documented extensively and from our limited experience, it seems appropriate for managing neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Although neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span> need some special considerations during treatment, the cornerstones of pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> management still apply. The role of tetanus immunoglobulin still needs to be studied. PMID:21107271</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Al-Ahdab, Maher; Al-Omawi, Maimouna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1336289"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> associated with fondues.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVE: To describe the causes of <span class="hlt">burns</span> associated with fondues. DESIGN: Descriptive case series. PATIENTS: All 17 patients admitted to a <span class="hlt">burn</span> centre between Apr. 1, 1985, and Mar. 31, 1990, whose <span class="hlt">burns</span> were associated with fondue. Eleven agreed to complete a telephone interview. RESULTS: The age of the 17 patients varied from 2 to 56 (mean 27) years. Two causes were identified: spilling of the contents of the fondue pot and explosion of the fondue fuel when added to the burner during a meal. The telephone interview revealed that eight people other than the respondents were <span class="hlt">burned</span> during the same accidents. CONCLUSION: Although we identified only badly <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients the problem may be more extensive. The knowledge of specific causes of <span class="hlt">burns</span> from handling fondue equipment indicates that preventive action should be undertaken. More epidemiologic information is needed to obtain a precise estimate of the magnitude of this public health problem.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Laliberte, D; Beaucage, C; Watts, N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23545350"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pediatric cutaneous bleach <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bleach is a common household product which can cause caustic injuries. Its effects on mucosal tissues and the eye have been well-described in the literature. However, there is little information published regarding the appearance and effect of bleach on a child's skin. We report three children who sustained chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> after contact with bleach. All three children sustained accidental bleach <span class="hlt">burns</span> while at home, and each child had a distinct brown discoloration to the skin from the injury. All three children had treatment and follow-up for their <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Two of the children sustained more severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>, which were extensive and required more time to heal. There was also long-term scarring associated with the severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Like most <span class="hlt">burns</span>, pain control is required until the injury heals. PMID:23545350</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lang, Cathleen; Cox, Matthew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ftp.fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/lib-www/la-pubs/00237335.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> and detonation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of confined <span class="hlt">burning</span> explosive abutting nonburning explosive in a variety of one-dimensional geometries has been studied by numerical simulation, demonstrating the effects of confinement, <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate, and shock sensitivity. The model includes porous bed <span class="hlt">burning</span>, compressible solids and gases, shock-induced decomposition with possible transition to detonation, and constant velocity ignition waves. Two-phase flow, gas relative to solid, is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Charles A. Forest</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/979388"> <span id="translatedtitle">2009 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Summary Report for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada: Review of the Performance Assessments and Composite Analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office performed an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Wate Management Site (RWMS) Performance Assessments (PAs) and Composite Analyses (CAs) in fiscal year (FY) 2009. This <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2009 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada Test Site relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NSTec Environmental Management</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510314M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physiochemical characterisation of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> plumes in Brazil during SAMBBA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, which results in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious negative impacts on public health. Globally, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect of 0.03 Wm-2, however the uncertainty is 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in <span class="hlt">areas</span> such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent <span class="hlt">burning</span> occurs on an <span class="hlt">annual</span> basis for several months (usually from August-October). Furthermore, a growing number of people live within the Amazon region, which means that they are subject to the deleterious effects on their health from exposure to substantial volumes of polluted air. Results are presented here from the South American Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Analysis (SAMBBA), which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil. A suite of instrumentation was flown on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft. Measurements from the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) form the major part of the analysis presented here. The aircraft sampled several fires in close proximity (approximately 150m above the most intense fires) in different <span class="hlt">areas</span> of Brazil. This included two extensive <span class="hlt">areas</span> of <span class="hlt">burning</span>, which occurred in the states of Rondonia and Tocantins. The Rondonia fire was largely dominated by smouldering combustion of a huge single <span class="hlt">area</span> of rainforest with a visible plume of smoke extending approximately 80km downwind. The Tocantins example contrasted with this as it was a collection of a large number of smaller fires, with flaming combustion being more prevalent. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was largely made up of agricultural land in a cerrado (savannah-like) region of Brazil. Initial results suggest that the chemical nature of these fires differed markedly, with BC concentrations being an order of magnitude greater in the Tocantins case (up to 50 ?g m-3 of BC) compared with the Rondonia case (up to 5 ?g m-3 of BC). Organic matter (OM) concentrations were similar in both cases, with maximum concentrations peaking between 4-5 mg m-3. Such concentrations are approximately more than 100 times greater than those sampled in the "background" regional haze. This variation of BC to OM ratio has potentially large implications for the radiative balance in the respective regions, as BC represents the major absorbing component of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosol. Further analysis will compare the aerosol mass concentrations with gas phase species, as well as probing the chemical and physical evolution of the aerosol as it advects downwind and is diluted with regional air. In particular, such analyses will focus upon the aging of the organic aerosol component as well as examining how the mixing state of the BC particles evolves. Such properties have important implications for the life cycle and formation of particulate material, which governs its subsequent impacts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morgan, William; Allan, James; Flynn, Michael; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Hodgson, Amy; Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Artaxo, Paulo; Coe, Hugh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1471990"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> Wound Infections</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> are one of the most common and devastating forms of trauma. Patients with serious thermal injury require immediate specialized care in order to minimize morbidity and mortality. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immunosuppression that predisposes <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients to infectious complications. A current summary of the classifications of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound infections, including their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, is given. Early excision of the eschar has substantially decreased the incidence of invasive <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound infection and secondary sepsis, but most deaths in severely <span class="hlt">burn</span>-injured patients are still due to <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound sepsis or complications due to inhalation injury. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> patients are also at risk for developing sepsis secondary to pneumonia, catheter-related infections, and suppurative thrombophlebitis. The introduction of silver-impregnated devices (e.g., central lines and Foley urinary catheters) may reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections due to prolonged placement of these devices. Improved outcomes for severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients have been attributed to medical advances in fluid resuscitation, nutritional support, pulmonary and <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound care, and infection control practices.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Church, Deirdre; Elsayed, Sameer; Reid, Owen; Winston, Brent; Lindsay, Robert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AtmEn..54...80Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Significant emissions of 210Po by coal <span class="hlt">burning</span> into the urban atmosphere of Seoul, Korea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We conducted a year-round survey of precipitation samples to investigate the sources of excess 210Po in the urban atmosphere of Seoul, Korea. The dominant fraction of 210Po in our samples, independent of the in-situ decay of tropospheric 210Pb, was linked with anthropogenic processes. Using vanadium and potassium as tracers, the excess 210Po was mainly attributed to combustion of coal, with minor contributions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> integrated amount of 210Po deposited over the Seoul <span class="hlt">area</span> via precipitation was estimated to be 1.75 × 1010 Bq yr-1, which might represent a potential public health risk in the vicinity of major point sources, due to its highly adverse biological effects. Since the world coal consumption is growing, the magnitude of coal <span class="hlt">burning</span> derived 210Po is expected to increase in the following decades, which should be carefully monitored.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yan, Ge; Cho, Hyung-Mi; Lee, Insung; Kim, Guebuem</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24133399"> <span id="translatedtitle">Possible risk factors associated with <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound colonization in <span class="hlt">burn</span> units of Gaza strip hospitals, Palestine.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The epidemiological pattern and risk factors of <span class="hlt">burns</span> and <span class="hlt">burn</span> infections varies widely in different parts of the world. This study aims to determine the epidemiologic pattern of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries and possible risk factors associated with <span class="hlt">burn</span> infections in <span class="hlt">burn</span> units of Gaza strip hospitals. A total of 118 patients were included in the study. The data collected included: patient age and gender, the causes, site, degree, and TBSA of the <span class="hlt">burns</span>, as well as surgical operations, length of hospital stay, and microbiological profile of samples collected from patients, the environment, and from health care staff. Pediatric and adult patients accounted for 72% and 28% respectively. 58.5% of all patients were male and 41.5% were female. The most common etiological factors in children were scalding, while in adults these were open fire and flammable liquids. The mean TBSA was 12% with a range from 1-90%. Second and third degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> accounted for 78% and 22% respectively. The <span class="hlt">area</span> of the body most often affected was the torso (39%), followed by the lower limb (29.7%), and upper limb (17.8%). The predominant microorganisms isolated from <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp. and Staphylococcus spp. The study showed the highest risk groups to be children and males, and enabled us to identify possible risk factors that can help in future efforts toward prevention and minimizing nosocomial infections in <span class="hlt">burn</span> units of Gaza strip hospitals. PMID:24133399</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Al Laham, N A; Elmanama, A A; Tayh, G A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/797309"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report RCRA Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspections for CAU 112: <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, for the period October 2000-July 2001</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">annual</span> Neutron Soil Moisture Monitoring report provides an analysis and summary for site inspections, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture monitoring data obtained at the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) unit, located in <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, during the October 2000--July 2001 monitoring period. Inspections of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches RCRA unit are conducted to determine and document the physical condition of the covers, facilities, and any unusual conditions that could impact the proper operation of the waste unit closure. Physical inspections of the closure were completed quarterly and indicated that the site is in good condition with no significant findings noted. An <span class="hlt">annual</span> subsidence survey of the elevation markers was conducted in July 2001. There has been no subsidence at any of the markers since monitoring began eight years ago. Precipitation for the period October 2000 through July 2001 was 9.42 centimeters (cm) (3.71 inches [in]) (U.S. National Weather Service, 2001). The prior year <span class="hlt">annual</span> rainfall (January 2000 through December 2000) was 10.44 cm (4.1 1 in.). The recorded average <span class="hlt">annual</span> rainfall for this site from 1972 to January 2000 is 14.91 cm (5.87 in.). The objective of the neutron logging program is to monitor the soil moisture conditions along 30 neutron access tubes and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement at a point located directly beneath each trench. All monitored access tubes are within the compliance criteria of less than 5 percent residual volumetric moisture content at the compliance point directly beneath each respective trench. Soil conditions remain dry and stable underneath the trenches.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. S. Tobiason</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41997393"> <span id="translatedtitle">Satellite monitoring of vegetation fires for EXPRESSO: Outline of activity and relative importance of the study <span class="hlt">area</span> in the global picture of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The satellite monitoring of vegetation fires for the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Experiment for Regional Sources and Sinks of Oxidants (EXPRESSO) was designed to assist the assessment of the fluxes of trace gases and aerosols emitted by savanna fires that occur during the dry season in Central Africa. It is of particular interest that the study <span class="hlt">area</span> covers the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J.-M. Grégoire; S. Pinnock; E. Dwyer; E. Janodet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://globalmonitoring.sdstate.edu/faculty/roy/roy_RSENV_BA.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping using multi-temporal moderate spatial resolution data—a bi-directional reflectance model-based expectation approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">While remote sensing offers the capability for monitoring land surface changes, extracting the change information from satellite data requires effective and automated change detection techniques. The majority of change detection techniques rely on empirically derived thresholds to differentiate changes from background variations, which are often considered noise. Over large <span class="hlt">areas</span>, reliable threshold definition is problematic due to variations in both</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. P. Roy; P. E. Lewis; C. O. Justice</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A11H0155K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of "open <span class="hlt">burning</span>" on the greenhouse gas exchange from a single-rice paddy field in Japan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Paddy fields are artificially maintained wetland and are one of the large source of CH4. Besides, a large quantity of N2O is emitted from the soil surface due to the decomposition of inorganic fertilizer. A long term continuous measurement of GHG fluxes between atmosphere and paddy ecosystem is effective method to clarify the contribution of paddy fields to recent rapid increase of GHG concentration. In this study, three techniques for flux measurement (eddy covariance, aerodynamic gradient, and chamber techniques) were applied to investigate the <span class="hlt">annual</span> variation of three GHG (CO2, CH4 and N2O) exchanges at a single-rice paddy field for two years. An observational site is located on reclaimed land in the southern part of Okayama Prefecture, Japan. In addition, an experimental paddy field was divided into two <span class="hlt">areas</span> to investigate what impact is brought on the <span class="hlt">annual</span> GHG fluxes by the difference of disposal management of residual biomass after the harvest. Residual biomass was <span class="hlt">burned</span> and plowed into soil at the one <span class="hlt">area</span> on Nov. 29th, 2011, and residue was not <span class="hlt">burned</span> and directly plowed into soil at the other <span class="hlt">area</span> as usual. We illustrate some results for the control term before the <span class="hlt">burning</span> experiment, and for the comparison term after the experiment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kawamoto, Y.; Akaike, Y.; Kunishio, A.; Murakami, H.; Ono, K.; Hayashi, K.; Iwata, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED124344.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Rural Development: First <span class="hlt">Annual</span>] Report to the Congress on the Availability of Government Services to Rural <span class="hlt">Areas</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Information derived from the Federal Information Exchange System on Federal outlays in rural America (160 Federal programs) provides the basis for this initial <span class="hlt">annual</span> report. Information is reported via narrative and tabular data and relates only to Federal assistance. Highlighting some of the recent rural socioeconomic trends, the narrative…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rural Development Service (USDA), Washington, DC.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32032282"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> shock resuscitation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The goal of fluid resuscitation in the <span class="hlt">burn</span> patient is maintenance of vital organ function at the least immediate or delayed physiological cost. To optimize fluid resuscitation in severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients, the amount of fluid should be just enough to maintain vital organ function without producing iatrogenic pathological changes. The composition of the resuscitation fluid in the first 24 hours</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Glenn D. Warden</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3377150"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tourniquet associated chemical <span class="hlt">burn</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chemical <span class="hlt">burn</span> under pneumatic tourniquet is an iatrogenic preventable injury and is rarely reported in the literature. The two important mechanisms are maceration (friction) and wetness underneath the tourniquent. In this report, our experience with two illustrative patients who presented with iatrogenic tourniquet associated <span class="hlt">burn</span> is described.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Lim, Hyungtae; Yoon, Jung-Ro; Jeong, Hyeon-Il</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA021858"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Research Progress Report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report documents the clinical and laboratory activities of the US Army Institute of Surgical Research during fiscal year 1975. These activities include patient care, clinical investigation and laboratory research in the <span class="hlt">areas</span> of (1) <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury, (2) ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11714201Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Near-real-time global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions product from geostationary satellite constellation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Near-real-time estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions are crucial for air quality monitoring and forecasting. We present here the first near-real-time global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emission product from geostationary satellites (GBBEP-Geo) produced from satellite-derived fire radiative power (FRP) for individual fire pixels. Specifically, the FRP is retrieved using WF_ABBA V65 (wildfire automated biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> algorithm) from a network of multiple geostationary satellites. The network consists of two Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) which are operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Meteosat second-generation satellites (Meteosat-09) operated by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, and the Multifunctional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency. These satellites observe wildfires at an interval of 15-30 min. Because of the impacts from sensor saturation, cloud cover, and background surface, the FRP values are generally not continuously observed. The missing observations are simulated by combining the available instantaneous FRP observations within a day and a set of representative climatological diurnal patterns of FRP for various ecosystems. Finally, the simulated diurnal variation in FRP is applied to quantify biomass combustion and emissions in individual fire pixels with a latency of 1 day. By analyzing global patterns in hourly biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions in 2010, we find that peak fire season varied greatly and that <span class="hlt">annual</span> wildfires <span class="hlt">burned</span> 1.33 × 1012 kg dry mass, released 1.27 × 1010 kg of PM2.5 (particulate mass for particles with diameter <2.5 ?m) and 1.18 × 1011kg of CO globally (excluding most parts of boreal Asia, the Middle East, and India because of no coverage from geostationary satellites). The biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions were mostly released from forest and savanna fires in Africa, South America, and North America. Evaluation of emission result reveals that the GBBEP-Geo estimates are comparable with other FRP-derived estimates in Africa, while the results are generally smaller than most of the other global products that were derived from <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and fuel loading. However, the daily emissions estimated from GOES FRP over the United States are generally consistent with those modeled from GOES <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) fuel loading, which produces an overall bias of 5.7% and a correlation slope of 0.97 ± 0.2. It is expected that near-real-time hourly emissions from GBBEP-Geo could provide a crucial component for atmospheric and chemical transport modelers to forecast air quality and weather conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Xiaoyang; Kondragunta, Shobha; Ram, Jessica; Schmidt, Christopher; Huang, Ho-Chun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24096230"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome: an enigmatic disorder.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic oral pain or <span class="hlt">burning</span> sensation affecting the oral mucosa, often unaccompanied by mucosal lesions or other evident clinical signs. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women and may be accompanied by xerostomia and altered taste. <span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome is characterized by an intense <span class="hlt">burning</span> or stinging sensation, preferably on the tongue or in other <span class="hlt">areas</span> of mouth. This disorder is one of the most common, encountered in the clinical practice. This condition is probably of multifactorial origin; however the exact underlying etiology remains uncertain. This article discusses several aspects of BMS, updates current knowledge about the etiopathogenesis and describes the clinical features as well as the diagnosis and management of BMS patients. PMID:24096230</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Javali, M A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23992444"> <span id="translatedtitle">A man with severe leg <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 52-year-old Hispanic male was transported to the emergency department after sustaining severe bilateral lower extremity <span class="hlt">burns</span> in an electroplating factory. His examination revealed circumferential <span class="hlt">burns</span> to the lower extremities with spotting in the perineum. The epidermis was stained green and sloughed off with gentle pressure. The underlying dermis was white and non-blanching, consistent with a full thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span>. His feet were partially protected by his work boots where he had small <span class="hlt">areas</span> of pink, blanchable, partial thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> (Fig. 1). Pertinent initial studies included a lactic acid level of 3.1 mmol/L and a creatinine of 1.02 mg/dL. PMID:23992444</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chapman, A J; Deschler, D; Judge, B S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22867734"> <span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology and outcome of <span class="hlt">burns</span>: early experience at the country's first national <span class="hlt">burns</span> centre.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study aims to document the epidemiologic pattern and outcome of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries in the country's first national <span class="hlt">burn</span> centre. This case series study was conducted over a 2-year period at <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Care Centre (BCC), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad. The study included all <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury patients who primarily presented to and were managed at the centre. Those patients who presented more than 24 h after injury or those who were initially managed at some other hospital were excluded from the study. Initial assessment and diagnosis was made by thorough history, physical examination and necessary investigations. Patients with major <span class="hlt">burns</span>, high voltage electric <span class="hlt">burns</span> and those needing any surgical interventions were admitted for indoor management. Patients with minor <span class="hlt">burns</span> were discharged home after necessary emergency management, home medication and follow-up advice. The sociodemographic profile of the patients, site of sustaining <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury, type and extent (total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA), skin thickness involved and associated inhalational injury) of <span class="hlt">burn</span> and outcome in terms of survival or mortality, etc., were all recorded on a proforma. The data were subjected to statistical analysis. Out of a total of 13,295 patients, there were 7503 (56.43%) males and 5792 (43.56%) females. The mean age for adults was 33.63±10.76 years and for children it was 6.71±3.47 years. The household environment constituted the commonest site of <span class="hlt">burns</span> (68%). Among all age groups and both genders, scalds were the commonest <span class="hlt">burns</span> (42.48%), followed by flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> (39%) and electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> (9.96%). The affected mean TBSA was 10.64±11.45% overall, while for the hospitalised subset of patients the mean TBSA was 38.04±15.18%. Most of the <span class="hlt">burns</span> were partial thickness (67%). Inhalation injury was found among 149 (1.12%) patients. Most of the <span class="hlt">burns</span> were non-intentional and only 96 (0.72%) were intentional. A total of 1405 patients (10.58%) were admitted while the remainder 11890 patients (89.43%) were managed on an outdoor basis. The mean hospital stay was 12.16±6.07 days (range 2-73 days). There were 197 deaths among the hospitalised patients constituting a 14% mortality rate for the hospitalised subset of patients, while there was an overall mortality rate of 1.48% for the entire study population. PMID:22867734</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iqbal, Tariq; Saaiq, Muhammad; Ali, Zahid</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/9845"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report RCRA Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspections for Corrective Action Unit 112: <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches, Nevada Test Site, Nevada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">annual</span> Neutron Soil Moisture Monitoring report provides an analysis and summary for site inspections, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture data obtained at the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) unit, located in <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada during the October 1997 - October 1998 period. Inspections of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches RCRA unit are conducted to determine and document the physical condition of the covers, facilities, and any unusual conditions that could impact the proper operation of the waste unit closure. Physical inspections of the closure were completed quarterly and indicated that the site is in good condition with no significant findings noted. An <span class="hlt">annual</span> subsidence survey of the elevation markers was conducted in July 1998. There has been no subsidence at any of the markers since monitoring began six years ago. The objective of the neutron logging program is to monitor the soil moisture conditions along 30 neutron access tubes and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement at a point located directly beneath each trench. All monitored access tubes are within the compliance criteria of less than 5 percent residual volumetric moisture content at the compliance point directly beneath each respective trench. Soil conditions remain dry and stable underneath the trenches.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dudley F. Emer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-05/pdf/2013-02432.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 8063 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility, WA AGENCY: Coast...the Captain of the Port (COTP), Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility (AOR). When these...P. Clinger, Coast Guard Sector Puget Sound, Waterways Management Division,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49670567"> <span id="translatedtitle">Efficiency of Microbial Cellulose Dressing in Partial Thickness <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Wounds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Microbial cellulose is a natural polymer that can hold an quantity of water without any disconformities. As a result it is considered to be a wound-dressing material. We report a case of 28% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> partial-thickness flame <span class="hlt">burn</span>, approximately 4.5% superficial partial-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> on anterior face, and 23.5% mixed, between superficial and deep partial-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span>, on both upper</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pornprom Muangman; Supaporn Opasanon; Supaparn Suwanchot; Orapin Thangthed</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fahrenheit&id=EJ540630"> <span id="translatedtitle">New Fashioned Book <span class="hlt">Burning</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book <span class="hlt">burning</span> as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gardner, Robert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/OralHealth/Topics/Burning/BurningMouthSyndrome.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Mouth Syndrome</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... infection in the mouth acid reflux poorly-fitting dentures or allergies to denture materials anxiety and depression. In some people, <span class="hlt">burning</span> ... to check for oral candidiasis allergy testing for denture materials, certain foods, or other substances that may ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://report.nih.gov/NIHfactsheets/ViewFactSheet.aspx?csid=33"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> and Traumatic Injury</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... than $100 billion in medical treatment and lost productivity. <span class="hlt">Burns</span>: In the mid-1970s, about 9,000 ... exceeded $99 billion in medical expenses and lost productivity. The World Health Organization projects that by 2020, ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3955925"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predictive Factors of Mortality in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Patients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: <span class="hlt">Burn</span> injuries impose a considerable burden on healthcare systems in Iran. It is among the top ten causes of mortality and a main cause of disability. Objectives: This study aimed to examine factors influencing mortality in <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients admitted to the main educational tertiary referral hospital in Kermanshah. Patients and Methods: All patients admitted to the Imam Khomeini Hospital (from March 2011 to March 2012), due to thermal <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries were included in the study. We applied multiple logistic regressions to identify risk and protective factors of mortality. Also we calculated lethal <span class="hlt">area</span> fifty percent (LA50), as an aggregate index for hospital quality. Results: During the study period, 540 <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients were admitted. Male to female ratio was 1.12:1. Twenty three percent of the patients were less than 15 years-old. Median of age was 25 years (Inter Quartile Range, 16 - 37). Overall, probability of death was 25.8%. Lethal <span class="hlt">area</span> fifty percent (LA50) was 50.82 (CI 95%: 47.76 - 54.48). In the final model, after adjustment of sex, age, total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA), cause of <span class="hlt">burn</span> and it’s severity, female gender (P < 0.05), age ? 60 years (in comparison with age less than 15 years, P < 0.05) and larger <span class="hlt">burn</span> size (P < 0.0001) were identified as the main risk factors of death in these patients. Conclusions: Findings showed that the main risk factors of death were female gender, <span class="hlt">burn</span> size and old age. Directing more attention to these vulnerable patients is required to reduce mortality and improve patient survival.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fazeli, Shahram; Karami-Matin, Reza; Kakaei, Neda; Pourghorban, Samira; Safari-Faramani, Roya; Safari-Faramani, Bahare</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://educ.kent.edu/~mweinste/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Books2<span class="hlt">burn</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Developed by Professor Matthew Weinstein of Kent State University, Books2<span class="hlt">burn</span> translates text files into a series of audio files, which may then subsequently be converted to mp3's or other formats. This program will be a great boon to scholars and the general public alike, as the application allows for the easy transfer and replication of potentially large and problematic files into a number of audio formats. Books2<span class="hlt">burn</span> is compatible with all systems running Mac OS X.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weinstein, Matthew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16869129"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Treatment of <span class="hlt">burns</span> by grafting of cultured epithelium].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The most serious problem in the treatment of extensive <span class="hlt">burns</span> is a lack of sufficient healthy skin for coverage of the affected <span class="hlt">area</span>. Several methods have been used for the coverage of extensive <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds. The grafting of cultured epithelium is a potentially effective method for a permanent covering of the wound, particularly in patients with extensive <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The condition of the recipient site is the most important factor in the success of cultured epithelium grafting and the preservation of the dermis or dermal components in the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> will enhance the grafting process. We recommend that prior to the grafting of cultured epithelial cells, the <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds should be excised and covered with an allograft or artificial dermis during the first 2 weeks after admission. An allograft of cultured epithelium is also useful. This method accelerates the epithelialization of both the <span class="hlt">burn</span> and donor sites. It is expected that cultured epithelial cell grafts will prove to be an effective treatment not only for extensive <span class="hlt">burns</span> but also to epithelialize small <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds and resurfaced <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars. PMID:16869129</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nagase, Takehiko; Kumagai, Norio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/WF06034"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Alaskan <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity patterns using remotely sensed data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wildland fire is the dominant large-scale disturbance mechanism in the Alaskan boreal forest, and it strongly influences forest structure and function. In this research, patterns of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity in the Alaskan boreal forest are characterised using 24 fires. First, the relationship between <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> is quantified using a linear regression. Second, the spatial correlation of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity as a function of topography is modelled using a variogram analysis. Finally, the relationship between vegetation type and spatial patterns of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity is quantified using linear models where variograms account for spatial correlation. These results show that: 1) average <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity increases with the natural logarithm of the <span class="hlt">area</span> of the wildfire, 2) <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity is more variable in topographically complex landscapes than in flat landscapes, and 3) there is a significant relationship between <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity and vegetation type in flat landscapes but not in topographically complex landscapes. These results strengthen the argument that differential flammability of vegetation exists in some boreal landscapes of Alaska. Additionally, these results suggest that through feedbacks between vegetation and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, the distribution of forest vegetation through time is likely more stable in flat terrain than it is in <span class="hlt">areas</span> with more complex topography. ?? IAWF 2007.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Duffy, P. A.; Epting, J.; Graham, J. M.; Rupp, T. S.; McGuire, A. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18695614"> <span id="translatedtitle">Is there an increased risk of <span class="hlt">burns</span> to Amish children?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence, causes, and demographics of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries in Amish children, treated at a pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> center located in close proximity to the Midwestern Amish country. After Institutional Review Board approval, we used our TRACS <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Registry to identify <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries in Amish and non-Amish children. We then compared the groups formed by gender and culture. We identified 37 Amish children (1.25%) among the 2972 acute <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients admitted over the 12-year period of review. Importantly, Amish girls sustained significantly more extensive and deeper <span class="hlt">burns</span> than Amish boys or non-Amish children of either gender (P < .05). Ventilator days were also greater for Amish girls than for the non-Amish groups (P < .05). A greater length of hospital stay for the Amish girls was likely because of their significantly larger <span class="hlt">burn</span> size. There were also overall significant differences in <span class="hlt">burn</span> causes among Amish and non-Amish children (P = .002). Amish patients had a higher incidence of <span class="hlt">burns</span>, by hot liquids not related to cooking, ignition of clothing, or ignition of flammable materials, than non-Amish children. Of note, Amish girls had a relatively shorter delay in admission to our <span class="hlt">burn</span> center than did Amish boys and non-Amish children. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> injuries to Amish children requiring inpatient treatment seem to be quite uncommon. When they do occur, <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Amish children tend to be more extensive than similar injuries in non-Amish children. The data suggest that there may be significant and specific educational opportunities for <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention in Amish children in our <span class="hlt">burn</span> center's referral <span class="hlt">area</span>. PMID:18695614</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rieman, Mary T; Hunley, Melissa; Woeste, Lori; Kagan, Richard J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575151"> <span id="translatedtitle">Self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Mosul: a cross-sectional study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the different characteristics of attempted suicide by self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases compared with other accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases admitted to the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Unit in Al-Jumhoori Teaching Hospital in Mosul over a one-year period from March 1, 2011 to March 1, 2012. Of 459 <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases, 103 (22.44%) had self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The mean total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of suicide attempters was 61%, markedly higher than in other cases (20%) (P= 0.0001). Among all self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases, <span class="hlt">burns</span> were caused by flame, while scald was the commonest cause (56.5%) in accidental <span class="hlt">burns</span>. There was a significant difference in the sex ratio between self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases (1:11.9) and accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases (1:1) (P = 0.0001). Case fatality rates for self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> and accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases were 80.6% and 14.9%, respectively. The overall mean ages for self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> and accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases were 24.3 and 15.6 years, respectively. Compared to all other <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases, self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases had a significantly larger mean percentage of surface body <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> (61.0±28.2 versus 20.7±15.8; P = 0.0001). In conclusion, self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burns</span> remain a common cause of admission to our <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit. The extent of <span class="hlt">burns</span> is often large, since most suicide attempters use an accelerant that accounts for the high mortality in this group.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Al-Zacko, S.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3188223"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cheiloplasty in Post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> Deformed Lips</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary The lip is a part of the face that is frequently affected by <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> scar sequelae in this <span class="hlt">area</span> often result in cosmetic disfigurement and psychological upsets in patients, especially young adult females. A <span class="hlt">burn</span> destroys the aesthetic features and lines of the lip. Plastic and reconstructive surgery of the face has a long history. Many local and regional flaps have been used for reconstruction of surgical or traumatic defects. Procedures to enhance the cosmetic features of the lips have been performed for centuries. Only within the past 25 years, however, has augmentation cheiloplasty become commonplace. Within that time, a number of different techniques have been developed. The goal of reconstruction is to achieve aesthetic results using plastic materials having the same properties as the affected <span class="hlt">area</span>. This paper describes some clinical situations and possible reconstructive solutions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saadeldeen, W.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-02-25/pdf/2010-3812.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 8566 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility AGENCY: Coast Guard...locations the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility (AOR). When these...authorized by the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound or Designated Representative....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-07/pdf/2011-22769.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 55261 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility AGENCY: Coast Guard...displays in the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">area</span> of responsibility on September 10...Mukilteo Lighthouse Festival in Possession Sound, WA and on December 3, 2011 for...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-14/pdf/2011-26601.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 63841 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility AGENCY: Coast Guard...display in the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">area</span> of responsibility during the dates...authorized by the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound or Designated Representative....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-06/pdf/2012-13684.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 33308 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility AGENCY: Coast Guard...displays in the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">area</span> of responsibility during the dates...authorized by the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound or Designated Representative....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-06-15/pdf/2010-14296.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 33698 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility AGENCY: Coast Guard...the Captain of the Port (COTP), Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility (AOR). When these...authorized by the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound or Designated Representative....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-17/pdf/2013-11750.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 29023 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility AGENCY: Coast Guard...locations in the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility. When these safety...P. Clinger, Coast Guard Sector Puget Sound, Waterways Management Division,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-09/pdf/2011-14330.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 33646 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility AGENCY: Coast Guard...displays in the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">area</span> of responsibility during the dates...authorized by the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound or Designated Representative....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-27/pdf/2012-15639.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 38179 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility AGENCY: Coast Guard...displays in the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">area</span> of responsibility during the dates...authorized by the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound or his Designated Representative....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec165-1332.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 165.1332 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">annual</span> firework displays within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...displays within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility. 165.1332...displays within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility. (a) Safety...safety zones: (1) All waters of Puget Sound, Washington, extending to a 450...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/4451/psw_2009_4451-001_289-316.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chapter 14 Smoke from Wildfires and Prescribed <span class="hlt">Burning</span> in Australia: Effects on Human Health and Ecosystems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Much of Australia is seasonally hot and dry, and fuel beds can become very flammable. Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> ranges from <span class="hlt">annual</span> savanna fires in the north to sporadic but extensive forest fires in the south. In addition, prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> (the controlled application of fire) is being used more frequently as a means of reducing fuel loads, for maintenance of plant and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tina Bell; Mark Adams</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1036770"> <span id="translatedtitle">2011 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Summary Report for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada: Review of the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007a) requires an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review to assess the adequacy of the Performance Assessments (PAs) and Composite Analyses (CAs), with the results submitted <span class="hlt">annually</span> to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management. The Disposal Authorization Statements for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) also require that such reviews be made and that secondary or minor unresolved issues be tracked and addressed as part of the maintenance plan (DOE, 1999a; 2000). The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office performed an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS PAs and CAs for fiscal year (FY) 2011. This <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2011 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R and D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R and D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs. Important developments in FY 2011 include the following: (1) Operation of a new shallow land disposal unit and a new Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-compliant lined disposal unit at the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS; (2) Development of new closure inventory estimates based on disposals through FY 2011; (3) Evaluation of new or revised waste streams by special analysis; (4) Development of version 2.102 of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS GoldSim PA model; and (5) Development of version 4.113 of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS GoldSim PA model. Analysis of the latest available data using the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS v4.113 GoldSim PA model indicates that all performance objectives can be met. The results and conclusions of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS PA are judged valid, and there is no need to the revise the PA. The <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS has been in inactive status since July 1, 2006, with the last shipment received in April 2006. In FY 2011, there were no operational changes, monitoring results, or R and D results for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS that would impact PA validity. Despite the increase in waste volume and inventory at the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS since 1996 when the PA was approved, the facility performance evaluated with the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS PA GoldSim model, version 2.0 (with the final closure inventory), remains well below the performance objectives set forth in U.S. Department of Energy Order DOE O 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management' (DOE, 2001). The conclusions of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS PA remain valid. A special analysis was prepared to update the PA and CA results for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS in FY 2011. Release of the special analysis is planned for FY 2012. The continuing adequacy of the CAs was evaluated with the new models, and no significant changes that would alter CA results or conclusions were found. Inclusion of the Frenchman Flat Underground Test <span class="hlt">Area</span> (UGTA) results in the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS CA is scheduled for FY 2016, pending the completion of the closure report for the Frenchman Flat UGTA corrective action unit (CAU) in FY 2015. An industrial site, CAU 547, with corrective action sites near the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS was found to have a significant plutonium inventory in 2009. CAU 547 will be evaluated for inclusion of future revisions or updates of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS CA. The revision of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS CA, which will include the UGTA source terms, is expected in FY 2024, following the completion of the Yucca Flat CAU Corrective Action Decision Document, scheduled for FY 2023. Near-term R and D efforts will focus on continuing development of the Are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NSTec Environmental Management</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A11B0025H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sources of black carbon in aerosols: fossil fuel <span class="hlt">burning</span> vs. biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The uncertainty in black carbon (BC) analysis and our inability to directly quantify the BC sources in the atmosphere has led to the uncertainty in compiling a regional or global BC emission inventory attributed to biomass <span class="hlt">burnings</span>. We initiate this study to demonstrate a new approach, which quantifies the source of BC in the atmosphere between biomass and fossil fuel <span class="hlt">burnings</span>. We applied the newly developed multi-element scanning thermal analysis (MESTA) technology to quantify BC and organic carbon (OC), respectively, in aerosol samples. MESTA can also separate BC from OC for subsequent radiocarbon analyses. Because fossil fuel has been depleted of radiocarbon and biomass has radiocarbon of the modern atmospheric level, we can quantify the sources of BC between fossil fuel and biomass <span class="hlt">burnings</span>. We sampled the PM2.5 in the ambient air of central Tallahassee and its rural <span class="hlt">areas</span> during the May-June (prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span>) and Nov-Dec (non-<span class="hlt">burning</span>) periods. The results indicate that biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> contributed 89×1% and 67×2% of BC, respectively, during May-June and Nov.-Dec. periods. The rest of PM2.5 BC was contributed from fossil fuel <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The radiocarbon contents of the OC was 103.42×0.55 percent modern carbon (pmC), which is consistent with the current atmospheric level with a trace of the bomb radiocarbon remained from the open atmosphere nuclear testing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hsieh, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1477757"> <span id="translatedtitle">Socioeconomic factors and <span class="hlt">burn</span> rates in persons hospitalized for <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Massachusetts.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To assess the usefulness of routinely collected socioeconomic variables from the U.S. census in predicting <span class="hlt">burn</span> incidence rates, <span class="hlt">burn</span> rates and 25 socioeconomic variables were analyzed at the level of census tracts for the Boston Standard Metropolitan Statistical <span class="hlt">Area</span>. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> rates were based on data collected during the National <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Demonstration Project and consisted of patients who sustained <span class="hlt">burns</span> between July 1, 1978, and June 30, 1979, and who required inhospital care. Analysis of the data revealed strong associations between <span class="hlt">burn</span> rates and six of the variables. The six variables were the percentage of families below the poverty level with a householder under age 65 years, the percentage of persons over 5 years of age whose residence in 1975 was a different dwelling but in the same county, the percentage of persons in the civilian labor force who were unemployed at the time of census enumeration, the average age of occupied dwelling units, the percentage of occupied housing units occupied on a rental basis, and the percentage of persons age 25 years or older who acquired some college education but did not complete college. Interpretation of the findings is not straightforward but seems to suggest that the previously observed association between poor socioeconomic status and increased <span class="hlt">burn</span> risk for individuals can be quantified at the census tract population level.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Locke, J A; Rossignol, A M; Boyle, C M; Burke, J F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/v089/iD01/JD089iD01p01350/JD089iD01p01350.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Brazil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Field measurements of hydrocarbon emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the cerrado (grasslands) and selva (tropical forest) regions of Brazil in 1979 and 1980 are characterized and quantified here. Regional consequences of <span class="hlt">burning</span> activities include increased background mixing ratios of carbon monoxide and ozone, as well as reduced visibility, over extensive <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Global extrapolation of the emission rate of hydrocarbons from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. P. Greenberg; P. R. Zimmerman; L. Heidt; W. Pollock</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53388462"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Crack Networks and Combustion Bootstrapping in Cookoff Explosions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> crack networks can play an important role in cookoff explosions of the HMX-based explosive PBX 9501. Combustion within cracks can potentially spread to connected porosity, which is believed to develop in the heated explosive. The <span class="hlt">burning</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span> would thereby increase, causing a more violent outcome. I develop an analytic model that seeks to capture the essential physical mechanisms</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Larry G. Hill</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26922985"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Rate Prediction of Composite Solid Propellants Using Fractal Geometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An investigation of the effects of Ammonium Perchlorate (AP) surface “roughness” on the <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate predictability of the “Petite Ensemble Model” (PEM) has been undertaken. By using fractal geometry, it is possible to compensate for the surface roughness of AP in the surface <span class="hlt">area</span> relations of the PEM <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate model of composite solid propellants. This fractal geometry approach required</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MAZDA A. MARVASTI; WARREN C. STRAHLE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54536305"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of Boreal Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> with Satellite and Airborne Measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is an important source of aerosol emission in the atmosphere not only for the content of black carbon relating to aerosol radiative forcing in global climate change but also the variability of <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and scale in connecting with climate cycles. The material to be presented comprises of interannual variability of smoke activity in north America and Eurasia</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. Chu; R. A. Ferrare; C. A. Hostetler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1035907"> <span id="translatedtitle">2011 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities <span class="hlt">Area</span> Sewage Treatment Plant</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities <span class="hlt">Area</span> Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2010, through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Site description; (2) Facility and system description; (3) Permit required monitoring data and loading rates; (4) Status of special compliance conditions and activities; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 permit year, approximately 1.22 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation <span class="hlt">area</span> at Central Facilities <span class="hlt">Area</span> Sewage Treatment plant.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael G. Lewis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1010676"> <span id="translatedtitle">2010 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities <span class="hlt">Area</span> Sewage Treatment Plant</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities <span class="hlt">Area</span> Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2010 permit year, approximately 2.2 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation <span class="hlt">area</span> at Central Facilities <span class="hlt">Area</span> Sewage Treatment plant.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mike lewis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1070116"> <span id="translatedtitle">2012 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central facilities <span class="hlt">Area</span> Sewage Treatment Plant</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities <span class="hlt">Area</span> Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2011, through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2012 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation <span class="hlt">area</span> of the Central Facilities <span class="hlt">Area</span> Sewage Treatment Plant.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mike Lewis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8726262"> <span id="translatedtitle">A 1-year prospective study of <span class="hlt">burns</span> in an Irish paediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> unit.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> are the fourth leading cause of injury death in children in the USA, accounting for 1300 paediatric deaths <span class="hlt">annually</span>. The majority of paediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> mortality and morbidity result from simple domestic accidents that are preventable. A prospective study of paediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> from 1 January 1992 to 1 January 1993 was undertaken at our <span class="hlt">burns</span> unit to outline the profile of the Irish paediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> problem. A total of 336 <span class="hlt">burns</span> were referred to our unit over the 12 months (80 per cent self-referrals, 15 per cent tertiary referrals from district hospitals and 5 per cent GP referrals). Sixteen per cent (57) of the patients required admission and 33 per cent (112) required prolonged dressings as outpatients. Mortality and morbidity rates were comparable to other centres at 1.8 per cent and 39 per cent respectively. The demographic analysis of the patient population was similar to that seen in other studies from developed countries but there were some notable differences. First, there was an alarmingly high incidence of serious sunburn injuries, especially among young infants. Most parents were unaware of the association between childhood sunburn and the development of skin cancer in later life. Second, 90 per cent of the accidents occurred in the home and almost all were preventable. A parent or guardian was present in 87 per cent of cases but parental knowledge of the appropriate first aid measures was poor. It is suggested that a public health education campaign on this issue would help in reducing the incidence and severity of paediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries in Ireland. PMID:8726262</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cronin, K J; Butler, P E; McHugh, M; Edwards, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/jpw37142x074p31l.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring the transport of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions in South America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The atmospheric transport of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions in the South American and African continents is being monitored <span class="hlt">annually</span> using a numerical simulation of air mass motions; we use a tracer transport capability developed within RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) coupled to an emission model. Mass conservation equations are solved for carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate material (PM2.5). Source emissions of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saulo R. Freitas; Karla M. Longo; Maria A. F. Silva Dias; Pedro L. Silva Dias; Robert Chatfield; Elaine Prins; Paulo Artaxo; Georg A. Grell; Fernando S. Recuero</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29593381"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 cream improves <span class="hlt">burn</span>-wound healing and attenuates <span class="hlt">burn</span>-gastric lesions in mice</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of the gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 were investigated when administered topically or systemically in <span class="hlt">burned</span> mice. This agent is known to have a beneficial effect in a variety of models of gastrointestinal lesions, as well as on wound or fracture healing. Deep partial skin thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> (1.5×1.5 cm) covering 20% of total body <span class="hlt">area</span>, were induced under anesthesia</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D Mikus; P Sikiric; S Seiwerth; A Petricevic; G Aralica; N Druzijancic; R Rucman; M Petek; B Pigac; D Perovic; M Kolombo; N Kokic; S Mikus; B Duplancic; I Fattorini; B Turkovic; I Rotkvic; S Mise; I Prkacin; P Konjevoda; N Stambuk; T Anic</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29457529"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Reactivation Induced by Methotrexate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solar <span class="hlt">burn</span> reactivation, a rare and idiosyncratic drug reaction, has been reported with the use of a variety of drugs. This reaction is believed to be the result of exposure to ultraviolet light during the subsiding phase of an acute inflammatory reaction. It affects <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the body that have been previously sunburned. We describe a 16-year-old girl who was</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kelli J. DeVore</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60521568"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lumber firms <span class="hlt">burn</span> waste, save energy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wood wastes are <span class="hlt">burned</span> by most lumber and wood products industries in order to conserve energy, but because some phases of the industry are not energy-intensive, no formal energy conservation programs have been made for the industry as a whole. The larger companies prefer to concentrate their efforts in the papermaking phase or in the wood products <span class="hlt">area</span>. Boise -</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. A. Schmidt; A. McCue</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6586749"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> and detonation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of confined <span class="hlt">burning</span> explosive abutting nonburning explosive in a variety of one-dimensional geometries has been studied by numerical simulation, demonstrating the effects of confinement, <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate, and shock sensitivity. The model includes porous bed <span class="hlt">burning</span>, compressible solids and gases, shock-induced decomposition with possible transition to detonation, and constant velocity ignition waves. Two-phase flow, gas relative to solid, is not allowed. Because the shock sensitivity of an explosive changes with explosive density and because such experimental data is rarely available over a range of densities, a method for the calculation of the density effect on the initial-shock-pressure, distance-to-detonation (wedge test) measure of shock sensitivity is given. The calculation uses the invariance with density of the shock particle velocity as a function of time to detonation, and the experimental data at some high density.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Forest, C.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2006/5145/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> ground-water discharge by evapotranspiration from <span class="hlt">areas</span> of spring-fed riparian vegetation along the eastern margin of Death Valley, 2000-02</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Flow from major springs and seeps along the eastern margin of Death Valley serves as the primary local water supply and sustains much of the unique habitat in Death Valley National Park. Together, these major spring complexes constitute the terminus of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System--one of the larger flow systems in the Southwestern United States. The Grapevine Springs complex is the least exploited for water supply and consequently contains the largest <span class="hlt">area</span> of undisturbed riparian habitat in the park. Because few estimates exist that quantify ground-water discharge from these spring complexes, a study was initiated to better estimate the amount of ground water being discharged <span class="hlt">annually</span> from these sensitive, spring-fed riparian <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Results of this study can be used to establish a basis for estimating water rights and as a baseline from which to assess any future changes in ground-water discharge in the park. Evapotranspiration (ET) is estimated volumetrically as the product of ET-unit (general vegetation type) acreage and a representative ET rate. ET-unit acreage is determined from high-resolution multi-spectral imagery; and a representative ET rate is computed from data collected in the Grapevine Springs <span class="hlt">area</span> using the Bowen-ratio solution to the energy budget, or from rates given in other ET studies in the Death Valley <span class="hlt">area</span>. The ground-water component of ET is computed by removing the local precipitation component from the ET rate. Two different procedures, a modified soil-adjusted vegetation index using the percent reflectance of the red and near-infrared wavelengths and land-cover classification using multi-spectral imagery were used to delineate the ET units within each major spring-discharge <span class="hlt">area</span>. On the basis of the more accurate procedure that uses the vegetation index, ET-unit acreage for the Grapevine Springs discharge <span class="hlt">area</span> totaled about 192 acres--of which 80 acres were moderate-density vegetation and 112 acres were high-density vegetation. ET-unit acreage for two other discharge <span class="hlt">areas</span> delineated in the Grapevine Springs <span class="hlt">area</span> (Surprise Springs and Staininger Spring) totaled about 6 and 43 acres, respectively; and for the discharge <span class="hlt">areas</span> delineated in the Furnace Creek <span class="hlt">area</span> (Nevares Springs, Cow Creek-Salt Springs, Texas Spring, and Travertine Springs) totaled about 29, 13, 11, and 21 acres, respectively. In discharge <span class="hlt">areas</span> other than Grapevine Springs, watering and spring diversions have altered the natural distribution of the vegetation. More...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Laczniak, Randell J.; Smith, J. LaRue; DeMeo, Guy A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23809306"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic condition that is characterized by <span class="hlt">burning</span> symptoms of the oral mucosa without obvious clinical examination findings. This syndrome has complex characteristics, but its cause remains largely enigmatic, making treatment and management of patients with BMS difficult. Despite not being accompanied by evident organic changes, BMS can significantly reduce the quality of life for such patients. Therefore, it is incumbent on dental professionals to diagnose and manage patients with BMS as a part of comprehensive care. PMID:23809306</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thoppay, Jaisri R; De Rossi, Scott S; Ciarrocca, Katharine N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1088869"> <span id="translatedtitle">2012 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Summary Report for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada: Review of the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site (National Security Technologies, LLC 2007a) requires an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review to assess the adequacy of the performance assessments (PAs) and composite analyses (CAs), with the results submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management. The Disposal Authorization Statements for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) also require that such reviews be made and that secondary or minor unresolved issues be tracked and addressed as part of the maintenance plan (DOE 1999a, 2000). The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office performed an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS PAs and CAs for fiscal year (FY) 2012. This <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2012 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs. Important developments in FY 2012 include the following: ? Release of a special analysis for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS assessing the continuing validity of the PA and CA ? Development of a new <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS closure inventory estimate based on disposals through FY 2012 ? Evaluation of new or revised waste streams by special analysis ? Development of version 4.114 of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS GoldSim PA model The <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS has been in inactive status since July 1, 2006, with the last shipment received in April 2006. The FY 2012 review of operations, facility design, closure plans, monitoring results, and R&D results for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS indicates no changes that would impact PA validity. A special analysis using the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS v2.102 GoldSim PA model was prepared to update the PA results for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS in FY 2012. The special analysis concludes that all performance objectives can be met and the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS PA remains valid. There is no need to the revise the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS PA. Review of <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS operations, design, closure plans, monitoring results, and R&D activities indicates no significant changes other than an increase in the inventory disposed. The FY 2012 PA results, generated with the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS v4.114 GoldSim PA model, indicate that there continues to be a reasonable expectation of meeting all performance objectives. The results and conclusions of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS PA are judged valid, and there is no need to the revise the PA. A review of changes potentially impacting the CAs indicates that no significant changes occurred in FY 2012. The continuing adequacy of the CAs was evaluated with the new models, and no significant changes that would alter CA results or conclusions were found. The revision of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 RWMS CA, which will include the Underground Test <span class="hlt">Area</span> source term (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 97), is scheduled for FY 2024, following the completion of the Yucca Flat CAU 97 Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan in FY 2016. Inclusion of the Frenchman Flat CAU 98 results in the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS CA is scheduled for FY 2016, pending the completion of the CAU 98 closure report in FY 2015. Near-term R&D efforts will focus on continuing development of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS GoldSim PA/CA and inventory models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shott, G. [National Security Technologies, LLC</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920055002&hterms=remote+sensing+forest+biomass&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dremote%2Bsensing%2Bforest%2Bbiomass"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> - Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present volume discusses the biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> (BMB) studies of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry project, GEO satellite estimation of Amazonian BMB, remote sensing of BMB in West Africa with NOAA-AVHRR, an orbital view of the great Chinese fire of 1987, BMB's role in tropical rainforest reduction, CO and O3 measurements of BMB in the Amazon, effects of vegetation <span class="hlt">burning</span> on the atmospheric chemistry of the Venezuelan savanna, an assessment of <span class="hlt">annually-burned</span> biomass in Africa, and light hydrocarbon emissions from African savanna <span class="hlt">burnings</span>. Also discussed are BMB in India, trace gas and particulate emissions from BMB in temperate ecosystems, ammonia and nitric acid emissions from wetlands and boreal forest fires, combustion emissions and satellite imagery of BMB, BMB in the perspective of the global carbon cycle, modeling trace-gas emissions from BMB, NO(x) emissions from BMB, and cloud-condensation nuclei from BMB.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levine, Joel S. (editor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15461163"> <span id="translatedtitle">NO2 emissions from agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span> in São Paulo, Brazil.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report here on the application of a compact ultraviolet spectrometer to measurement of NO2 emissions from sugar cane field <span class="hlt">burns</span> in São Paulo, Brazil. The time-resolved NO2 emission from a 10 ha plot peaked at about 240 g (NO2) s(-1), and amounted to a total yield of approximately 50 kg of N, or about 0.5 g (N) m(-2). Emission of N as NOx (i.e., NO + NO2) was estimated at 2.5 g (N) m(-2), equivalent to 30% of applied fertilizer nitrogen. The corresponding <span class="hlt">annual</span> emission of NOx nitrogen from São Paulo State sugar cane <span class="hlt">burning</span> was >45 Gg N. In contrast to mechanized harvesting, which does not require prior <span class="hlt">burning</span> of the crop, manual harvesting with <span class="hlt">burning</span> acts to recycle nitrogen into surface soils and ecosystems. PMID:15461163</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oppenheimer, Clive; Tsanev, Vitchko I; Allen, Andrew G; McGonigle, Andrew J S; Cardoso, Arnaldo A; Wiatr, Antony; Paterlini, Willian; Dias, Cristine de Mello</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/160394"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methane production from global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Emissions of methane from various sources of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> are determined quantitatively for tropical, temperate, and boreal regions. About 85% of the total CH{sub 4} is emitted in the tropical <span class="hlt">area</span>, which is mainly the result of shifting cultivation, fuelwood use, and deforestation. Methane emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> may have increased by at least 9% during the last decade because of increases in tropical deforestation and the use of fuelwood. Changes in land use practices and population growth in the tropics are possible causes of the increase of atmospheric CH{sub 4} concentration. 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wei Min Hao; Ward, D.E. [Department of Agriculture, Missoula, MN (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-11-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24503965"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ethnicity and etiology in <span class="hlt">burn</span> trauma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to retrieve data from the British Columbia Professional Firefighters <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Unit registry, with a focus on ethnicity and how it is involved in <span class="hlt">burn</span> trauma. It is hypothesized that mechanism, severity, and other patient characteristics are significantly different among different ethnic groups. Furthermore, it is believed that these data can be used to augment <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention strategies. Data for <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients admitted from 1979 to 2009 were reviewed from the <span class="hlt">burn</span> registry. The main focus was with differences seen among the four main ethnicities throughout the analysis, Caucasian, Aboriginal, Asian, and Indoasian, reflecting the population distribution of the region. Age and sex were also considered when looking at <span class="hlt">burn</span> mechanism, severity, contributing and copresenting factors. Caucasians were the largest group (79.1%) and included the largest male:female ratio (3.3:1), with high numbers of flame injury (53.9%). Caucasians presented with the highest mortality (6.6% compared with 4.1% for all other ethnicities; P < .006). Asian patients (8.1%) showed significantly higher occurrences of urban (64%) and workplace (28.9%) injuries with a larger proportion of scald injury (38.9%). Indoasian patients included larger numbers of women (36.4%) and household scald injuries (33.9%) whereas Aboriginals suffered the most flame injuries (60.1%) in rural <span class="hlt">areas</span> with more frequent contributing factors such as alcohol. The study found multiple significant differences in the <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury population when segmented by ethnicity. Though the exact reasons for these differences are difficult to say with certainty, it allows a unique opportunity to focus communication and prevention efforts to specific communities. PMID:24503965</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Papp, Anthony; Haythornthwaite, Jordan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60464866"> <span id="translatedtitle">Technical analysis and program management support of the tight gas sands project <span class="hlt">area</span>. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> report, November 1987October 1988</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Low permeability (tight) gas formations could provide large supplies of natural gas at reasonable cost in the near term. Properly targeted R D can resolve uncertainties about geology, extraction, technology and economics. These <span class="hlt">areas</span> of uncertainty are sufficiently complex and interrelated that a computer-based analysis system is required to assess the costs and benefits of alternative R D strategies and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/807450"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Bitcutter and Post-Shot Injection Wells Corrective Action Unit 90 Post-Closure <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Bitcutter and Post-Shot Containment Wells Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 90 Post-Closure Monitoring requirements are described in Section VII.B.8.b of the Nevada Test Site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility No. NEV HW009, Revision 4, reissued on November 20, 2000.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Glen Richardson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/656915"> <span id="translatedtitle">Third Semi-<span class="hlt">Annual</span> Groundwater Monitoring Report for the Interim Remedial Action D <span class="hlt">Area</span> Oil Seepage Basin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this report is to evaluate groundwater quality data collected from six down gradient groundwater monitoring wells for potential impact caused by the Interim Remedial Action at the D- <span class="hlt">Area</span> Oil Seepage Basin. The US Environmental Protection Agency and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control required post-IRA groundwater monitoring and this report.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-04/pdf/2011-25344.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 61263 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility AGENCY: Coast Guard...authorized by the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound or Designated Representative. DATES...Ensign Anthony P. LaBoy, USCG Sector Puget Sound Waterways Management Division, Coast...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JBO....18f1204M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Noninvasive determination of <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth in children by digital infrared thermal imaging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Digital infrared thermal imaging is used to assess noninvasively the severity of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds in 13 pediatric patients. A delta-T (?T) parameter obtained by subtracting the temperature of a healthy contralateral region from the temperature of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound is compared with the <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth measured histopathologically. Thermal imaging results show that superficial dermal <span class="hlt">burns</span> (IIa) show increased temperature compared with their contralateral healthy region, while deep dermal <span class="hlt">burns</span> (IIb) show a lower temperature than their contralateral healthy region. This difference in temperature is statistically significant (p<0.0001) and provides a way of distinguishing deep dermal from superficial dermal <span class="hlt">burns</span>. These results show that digital infrared thermal imaging could be used as a noninvasive procedure to assess <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds. An additional advantage of using thermal imaging, which can image a large skin surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, is that it can be used to identify regions with different <span class="hlt">burn</span> depths and estimate the size of the grafts needed for deep dermal <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Medina-Preciado, Jose David; Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar Samuel; Velez-Gomez, Ezequiel; Miranda-Altamirano, Ariel; González, Francisco Javier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD735827"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cardiac Infections in <span class="hlt">Burns</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The clinical and pathologic features of sixty-four cases of infection of the heart in 3,064 <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients are reviewed. In the majority of the cases, the heart became involved as part of a generalized septicemia with a portal of entry through either the...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. M. Munster B. A. Pruitt F. C. DiVincenti F. D. Foley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1971-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61324683"> <span id="translatedtitle">Refuse <span class="hlt">burning</span> process</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A process is provided for <span class="hlt">burning</span> refuse containing polyvinyl chloride without the consequent production of phosgene. The refuse is carbonized in a rotary furnace at temperatures below 1200 degrees F., especially 700 degrees F., in an oxygen deficient atmosphere. A burnable gas containing the carbonized refuse is drawn from the furnace by an air jet wherein same is mixed with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lientz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=42688"> <span id="translatedtitle">TRIAL <span class="hlt">BURNS</span>: METHODS PERSPECTIVE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">When conducting a trial <span class="hlt">burn</span>, it is necessary to make a number of measurements in order to adequately define the performance of the incinerator. n addition to flue gas emissions for particulate matter, HCl, and selected organics, it is also necessary to measure selected organics ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60326882"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wood <span class="hlt">burning</span> stove</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An air tight wood <span class="hlt">burning</span> stove (10) for heating a designated space comprises a housing (12) having an access opening (50) in the front wall (14) thereof and at least one glass panel (64) containing door (54, 56) hingedly mounted on the front wall for closing the opening (50). A latching mechanism (60) on the door (54, 56) engages with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.exo.net/~pauld/activities/food/burnapeanut.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> a Peanut</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this activity, learners <span class="hlt">burn</span> a peanut, which produces a flame that can be used to boil away water and count the calories contained in the peanut. Learners use a formula to calculate the calories in a peanut and then differentiate between food calories and physicist calories as well as calories and joules.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doherty, Paul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3188084"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> Scar Neoplasm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Marjolin's ulcer is a rare and aggressive cutaneous malignancy that occurs in previously traumatized and chronically inflamed skin, especially after <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The majority of <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar carcinomas are seen after a lag period in <span class="hlt">burns</span> that were not grafted following injury. Between 2000 and 2006, 48 patients with Marjolin's ulcer were treated in our centre (Sulaimani Teaching Hospital and Emergency Hospital). All the lesions were secondary to <span class="hlt">burns</span> from various causes. The medical records of these 48 patients were reviewed prospectively. The mean age at tumour diagnosis was 40 yr and the ratio of male to female was 2:1 (67% males and 33% female). Upon histological examination, all the cases were diagnosed as well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The scalp was most frequently affected (16 patients = 33.3%), followed by the lower limb (14 patients = 29.1%). Treatment of the neoplasm consisted of excision and grafting in 36 patients (75.0%), excision and reconstruction with flaps in eight patients (16.6%), and amputation in three patients (6.2%). A chemotherapy combination of the above treatments was used in two patients (4.1%). Local recurrence was noted in 16 patients (33.3%) out of the 48, and all died from these recurrences.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kadir, A.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26769836"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlating Aluminum <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Times</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Characteristics of aluminum combustion are summarized in an overview of the subject, focusing on the <span class="hlt">burning</span> time of individual particles. Combustion data from over ten different sources with almost 400 datum points have been cataloged and correlated. Available models have also been used to evaluate combustion trends with key environmental parameters. The fundamental concepts that control aluminum combustion are discussed,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. W. Beckstead</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cds&pg=3&id=EJ633200"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Your Own CDs.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discusses the use of CDs (Compact Disks) for backing up data as an alternative to using floppy disks and explains how to <span class="hlt">burn</span>, or record, a CD. Topics include differences between CD-R (CD-Recordable) and CD-RW (CD-Rewritable); advantages of CD-R and CD-RW; selecting a CD burner; technology trends; and care of CDs. (LRW)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ekhaml, Leticia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820012714&hterms=ambiental&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dambiental"> <span id="translatedtitle">The utilization of orbital images as an adequate form of control of preserved <span class="hlt">areas</span>. [Araguaia National Park, Brazil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The synoptic view and the repetitive acquisition of LANDSAT imagery provide precise information, in real-time, for monitoring preserved <span class="hlt">areas</span> based on spectral, temporal and spatial properties. The purpose of this study was to monitor, with the use of multispectral imagery, the systematic <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burning</span>, which causes the degradation of ecosystems in the National Park of Araguaia. LANDSAT imagery of channel 5 (0.6 a 0.7 microns) and 7 (0.8 a 1.1 microns), at the scale of 1:250.000, were used to identify and delimit vegetation units and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, based on photointerpretation parameter of tonality. The results show that the gallery forest can be discriminated from the seasonally flooded 'campo cerrado', and that 4,14% of the study <span class="hlt">area</span> was <span class="hlt">burned</span>. Conclusions point out that the LANDSAT images can be used for the implementation of environmental protection in national parks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Dossantos, J. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PATENT3201973"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solid Propellant <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Rate Detector.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The instrument measures accurately the <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate of solid propellant rocket motors. This is accomplished by use of light-transmitting rods of different lengths embedded in a propellant grain and transmitting light energy during <span class="hlt">burning</span> of the grain to ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. E. Fitzgerald N. C. Allen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1965-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29588616"> <span id="translatedtitle">Silver sulfadiazine induced Clostridium difficile toxic megacolon in a <span class="hlt">burn</span> patient: a case report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 53 yr old diabetic male presented with a 34% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) deep partial- and full-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span>. On post <span class="hlt">burn</span> days 4 and 9, all of his <span class="hlt">burns</span> were excised and grafted. Although he had only been treated with topical antibiotics, he developed Clostridium difficile colitis after his second surgery that progressed to Toxic Megacolon and perforation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lawrence J Jennings; Marella Hanumadass</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.charmerenew.com/sp/PDF/fulltext.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effectiveness of Electrolyzed Oxidized Water Irrigation in a <span class="hlt">Burn</span>-Wound Infection Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine whether electrolyzed ox- idized water (EOW) functions as a bacte- ricide in <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in a rat <span class="hlt">burn</span>-wound model. Methods: Anesthetized Sprague- Dawley rats (n 5 31) were subjected to third-degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> to 30% of total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>. Two days after injury, all rats were infected</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hajime Nakae; Hideo Inaba</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/10/2335/2010/acp-10-2335-2010.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions in tropical Asia based on satellite-derived data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in tropical Asia emits large amounts of trace gases and particulate matter into the atmosphere, which has significant implications for atmospheric chemistry and climatic change. In this study, emissions from open biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> over tropical Asia were evaluated during seven fire years from 2000 to 2006 (1 March 2000-31 February 2007). The size of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> was</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. Chang; Y. Song</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29597678"> <span id="translatedtitle">Use of subatmospheric pressure therapy to prevent <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound progression in human: first experiences</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thermal trauma causes two different types of injuries within the <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound. First, an immediate and irreversible injury, and, second, a delayed and partly reversible injury. It is a very common observation in <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients that <span class="hlt">areas</span> that initially seemed to be partial thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> have to be regarded as full thickness within the next day or days. The impairment</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L.-P Kamolz; H Andel; W Haslik; W Winter; G Meissl; M Frey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24984658"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome: update.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a chronic disorder that predominately affects middle-aged women in the postmenopausal period. The condition is distinguished by <span class="hlt">burning</span> symptoms of the oral mucosa and the absence of any clinical signs. The etiology of BMS is complex and it includes a variety of factors. Local, systemic and psychological factors such as stress, anxiety and depression are listed among the possible causes of BMS. BMS may sometimes be classified as BMS Type I, II or III. Although this syndrome is not accompanied by evident organic alterations and it does not present health risks, it can significantly reduce the patient's quality of life. This study analyzes the available literature related to BMS, and makes special reference to its therapeutic management. The pages that follow will also discuss the diagnostic criteria that should be respected, etiological factors, and clinical aspects. We used the PubMed database and searched it by using the keywords "<span class="hlt">burning</span> mouth syndrome", "BMS and review", and "<span class="hlt">burning</span> mouth and review", in the title or abstract of the publication. BMS treatment usually steers towards the management of the symptoms; however, the specific local factors that could play a significant role in worsening the oral <span class="hlt">burning</span> sensation should be eradicated. The most widely accepted treatment options that show variable results include tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines and antipsychotic drugs; nevertheless there are other therapies that can also be carried out. Professionals that work in the field of dentistry should formulate standardized symptomatic and diagnostic criteria in order to more easily identify the most effective and reliable strategies in BMS treatment through multidisciplinary research. PMID:24984658</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spanemberg, Juliana Cassol; Rodríguez de Rivera Campillo, Eugenia; Salas, Enric Jané; López López, José</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920045037&hterms=biomass+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dbiomass%2Benergy"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> - Atmospheric, climatic and biospheric implications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Changes in the trace gas composition of the atmosphere due to global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> are examined. The environmental consequences of those changes which have become <span class="hlt">areas</span> of international concern are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levine, Joel S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=132467"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">BURN</span> DATA COORDINATING CENTER (BDCC)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Data Coordinating Center (BDCC) began collecting data in 1994 and is currently the largest <span class="hlt">burn</span> database in the country. Pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> data was added in 1998. The BMS database contains over 2,800 cases supporting clinical research and research on outcomes including empl...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3341877"> <span id="translatedtitle">The overall patterns of <span class="hlt">burns</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary <span class="hlt">Burn</span> patterns differ across the whole world and not only in relation to lack of education, overcrowding, and poverty. Cultures, habits, traditions, psychiatric illness, and epilepsy are strongly correlated to <span class="hlt">burn</span> patterns. However, <span class="hlt">burns</span> may also occur because of specific religious beliefs and activities, social events and festivals, traditional medical practices, occupational activities, and war.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Almoghrabi, A.; Abu Shaban, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.smokeybear.com/prescribed_chartenlarge.asp"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anatomy of a Prescribed <span class="hlt">Burn</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This poster shows how prescribed <span class="hlt">burns</span> operate, using careful planning and preparation to start a fire that will renew habitat without threatening ecosystems or homes. This image describes the steps required to prepare a prescribed <span class="hlt">burn</span>, how fire crews set up for the <span class="hlt">burn</span>, and how the wind is used to help control the fire.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Forestry, Florida D.; Smokeybear.com</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18951702"> <span id="translatedtitle">Causative factors affecting peripheral neuropathy in <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Peripheral neuropathy in <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients may be frequently missed in clinical settings. Although its incidence has been reported, little is known regarding the factors that cause <span class="hlt">burn</span>-related peripheral neuropathy. A retrospective chart review of the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients admitted to a university hospital based <span class="hlt">burn</span> center was conducted to explore the characteristics of <span class="hlt">burn</span>-related neuropathy and factors affecting its types or extent. The variables collected were gender, age, length of hospital stay, site and surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of <span class="hlt">burn</span>, type of <span class="hlt">burn</span>, and electrodiagnostic findings. We found that flame injuries, and third degree injuries were the most common in patients with peripheral neuropathy. Axonotmesis was more common than demyelinating injury and polyneuropathy was more common than mononeuropathy. Higher degree and larger <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burns</span> were more frequently associated with axonotmesis than with demyelination. Length of hospital stay was significantly longer in patients with axonotmesis. Overall, more severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> showed a significant association with axonotmesis and a tendency to be related to polyneuropathy. PMID:18951702</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Michael Y; Liu, Gloria; Kowlowitz, Vicki; Hwang, Jeong Hye; Lee, Jung Hwan; Choi, Kyoung Hyo; Lee, Eun Shin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20171014"> <span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology of minor and moderate <span class="hlt">burns</span> in rural Ardabil, Iran.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Epidemiology of minor <span class="hlt">burns</span> is not well defined worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine epidemiological features of minor and moderate <span class="hlt">burn</span> events that could be beneficial for prevention purposes. The study was conducted in Ardabil province in north-west Iran in 2005-2006. A total of 1700 minor and moderate <span class="hlt">burns</span> were studied using a pretested questionnaire. Using the SAS 9.1 statistical program analyses were made. Females comprised the majority of cases (n=1000, 58.8%) and children, aged six and younger, made up 36.4% of <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims. The majority of <span class="hlt">burns</span> were caused by hot water and tea with the primary containers being kettles in 37.8%, cups or glasses in 24.2%, pots in 13.6% and samovars in 7.9%. Samovars, gas stoves, valors and picnic gas stoves were the primary heating devices involved in <span class="hlt">burns</span>. In 56% of the cases, overturning of liquid containers was the primary injury mechanism of scalds. 43% had a second-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> with a mean total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of 1.3%. This study provides possible beneficial information for <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention in the Ardabil <span class="hlt">area</span> and other similar settings. PMID:20171014</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Mohammadi, Reza; Svanstrom, Leif; Ekman, Robert; Arshi, Shahnam; Hekmat, Sharareh; Malekpour, Niloufar; Mashoufi, Mehrnaz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/kby4tqbvrufh7dp8.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plasma oxidative parameters and mortality in patients with severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">ObjectiveTo determine xanthine oxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter in survivors and nonsurvivors patients with severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury.Design and settingProspective, comparative observational study in an intensive care unit, <span class="hlt">burn</span> division, in a trauma hospital.PatientsTwenty-five consecutive patients who met the established criteria for severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury (total <span class="hlt">burn</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of more than</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cristiane Ritter; Michael Andrades; Márcio Guerreiro; Leonardo Zavaschi; Daniel Pens Gelain; Luis Fernando Souza; Cyntia A. Ribeiro; Nadine Clausell; Sérgio Menna-Barreto; José Cláudio F. Moreira; Felipe Dal-Pizzol</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29592183"> <span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology and mortality of <span class="hlt">burns</span> in the South West of Iran</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> injuries still produce a significant morbidity and mortality in Iran. This study was carried out to analyze the epidemioloy, mortality, and current etiological factors of 2043 <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients who were admitted to the <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers in the Fars province during 4 years (1994–1998). There were two <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers in the Fars province serving 3?817?036 people over an <span class="hlt">area</span> of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mohammad-Reza Panjeshahin; Abdolaziz Rastegar Lari; Ali-Reza Talei; Javad Shamsnia; Reza Alaghehbandan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1344165"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical Debridement of <span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The development of effective, non-toxic (local and systemic) methods for the rapid chemical (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) debridement of third degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> would dramatically reduce the morbidity and mortality of severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients. Sepsis is still the major cause of death of patients with extensive deep <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The removal of the devitalized tissue, without damage to unburned skin or skin only partially injured by <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and in ways which would permit immediate (or very prompt) skin grafting, would lessen substantially the problems of sepsis, speed convalescence and the return of these individuals to society as effective human beings, and would decrease deaths. The usefulness and limitations of surgical excision for patients with extensive third degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> are discussed. Chemical debridement lends itself to complementary use with surgical excision and has the potential advantage over surgical excision in not requiring anesthesia or a formal surgical operation. The authors' work with the chemical debridement of <span class="hlt">burns</span>, in particular the use of Bromelain, indicates that this approach will likely achieve clinical usefulness. The experimental studies indicate that rapid controlled debridement, with minimal local and systemic toxicity, is possible, and that effective chemotherapeutic agents may be combined with the Bromelain without either interfering with the actions of the other. The authors believe that rapid (hours) debridement accomplished by the combined use of chemical debriding and chemotherapeutic agents will obviate the possibility of any increase in infection, caused by the use of chemical agents for debridement, as reported for Paraenzyme21 and Travase.39,48 It is possible that the short term use of systemic antibiotics begun just before and continued during, and for a short time after, the rapid chemical debridement may prove useful for the prevention of infection, as appears to be the case for abdominal operations of the clean-contaminated and contaminated types. ImagesFigs. 1a-c.Fig. 1b.Fig. 1c.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9a.Fig. 9B.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Figs. 12a-c.Fig. 12b.Fig. 12c.Figs. 14a-c.Fig. 14b.Fig. 14c.Figs. 15a-c.Fig. 15b.Fig. 15c.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levenson, Stanley M.; Kan, Dorinne; Gruber, Charles; Crowley, Leo V.; Lent, Richard; Watford, Alvin; Seifter, Eli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1113803"> <span id="translatedtitle">Underground Test <span class="hlt">Area</span> Fiscal Year 2013 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Quality Assurance Report Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report is required by the Underground Test <span class="hlt">Area</span> (UGTA) Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) and identifies the UGTA quality assurance (QA) activities for fiscal year (FY) 2013. All UGTA organizations—U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO); Desert Research Institute (DRI); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I); National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec); and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)—conducted QA activities in FY 2013. The activities included conducting assessments, identifying findings and completing corrective actions, evaluating laboratory performance, and publishing documents. In addition, integrated UGTA required reading and corrective action tracking was instituted.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krenzien, Susan; Marutzky, Sam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1113800"> <span id="translatedtitle">Underground Test <span class="hlt">Area</span> Fiscal Year 2012 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Quality Assurance Report Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report is mandated by the Underground Test <span class="hlt">Area</span> (UGTA) Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and identifies the UGTA quality assurance (QA) activities for fiscal year (FY) 2012. All UGTA organizations—U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO); Desert Research Institute (DRI); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I); National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec); and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)—conducted QA activities in FY 2012. The activities included conducting assessments, identifying findings and completing corrective actions, evaluating laboratory performance, revising the QAPP, and publishing documents. In addition, processes and procedures were developed to address deficiencies identified in the FY 2011 QAPP gap analysis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ECSS...70...39C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> differences of ichthyofauna structure of the Guadiana estuary and adjacent coastal <span class="hlt">area</span> (SE Portugal/SW Spain): Before and after Alqueva dam construction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this study was to evaluate how inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> changes in the volume of freshwater input and water parameters (salinity, temperature, major dissolved nutrients, seston and chlorophyll a) affect fish assemblages in the Guadiana estuary (South Portugal). During the sampling period (two distinct hydrological years), 56 fish species were identified. Anchovies ( Engraulis encrasicolus) and barbells ( Barbus species) dominated the abundances in the high inflow year (2001), but Pomatoschistus species were the most important taxa in the low inflow year (2002). Barbells and Portuguese toadfish ( Halobatrachus didactylus) dominated the biomass in both years under different inflow conditions, but a reduction in barbells' biomass occurred during the low inflow year. Multivariate analysis indicated a persistent spatial structuring of the estuarine community for both years and in different seasonal periods. Changes in salinity and seston, which were mainly due to changes in freshwater input, had an important influence on the structure of the fish assemblages. In 2002, the increased salinity in the upper estuary allowed colonization by marine species of an <span class="hlt">area</span> that usually contains freshwater, decreasing even more the habitat for indigenous freshwater species in the downstream <span class="hlt">area</span> of the Guadiana River. There was also a decrease in the abundances of planktivorous and omnivorous fishes and an increase in carnivorous fishes during the low inflow year. As fishes in these systems are important regulators of processes in the trophic web, changes in the dominant feeding groups can have consequences on water quality, particularly in relation to the occurrence of plankton blooms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chícharo, M. Alexandra; Chícharo, Luis; Morais, Pedro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24757710"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome (glossalgia)].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome (glossalgia) is manifested by oral pin and tingling sensations, numbness and even <span class="hlt">burning</span> and severe pains, more frequently in the tongue. Unpleasant sensations may involve the anterior two thirds of the tongue or be extended to the front part of the hard palate and the mucous membrane of the lower lip. This condition is characterized by "mirror" and "food dominant" symptoms, disordered salivation, dysgeusia, or psychological disorders. The disease shows a chronic course. Its etiology may be multifactorial. There are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria; the diagnosis of glossalgia is made to rule out all other causes. A thorough examination should be conducted to establish a differential diagnosis. Glossalgia occurs primarily in middle-aged and elderly people. Women get sick much more frequently than men of the same age. Glossalgia remains difficult to treat. Continuous symptomatic treatment and follow-up help relieve its symptoms. PMID:24757710</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24421671"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> and beauty nails.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with <span class="hlt">burns</span> over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child's abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. The beauty nail adhesive contained cyanoacrylate. In addition to its well-appreciated adhesive capacity, cyanoacrylate, in the presence of cotton or other tissues, is known to produce an exothermic reaction that may cause <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Cyanoacrylate-based products, due to their possible adverse effects, should be kept away from children as advised. Odd injuries should always raise concerns about the possibility of inflicted injury. PMID:24421671</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bélanger, Richard E; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3680280"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> and beauty nails</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with <span class="hlt">burns</span> over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. The beauty nail adhesive contained cyanoacrylate. In addition to its well-appreciated adhesive capacity, cyanoacrylate, in the presence of cotton or other tissues, is known to produce an exothermic reaction that may cause <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Cyanoacrylate-based products, due to their possible adverse effects, should be kept away from children as advised. Odd injuries should always raise concerns about the possibility of inflicted injury.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Belanger, Richard E; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Begin, Francois</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.chemeddl.org/alfresco/service/org/chemeddl/nsdl/groups?id=chemeddl_1107&guest=true"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Magnesium (GCMP)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Magnesium: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". In this problem we will look at the reactions of two elements with oxygen in air. We will begin by observing the reaction of magnesium metal with oxygen when the metal is heated in air. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26769570"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> of hydroxylammonium nitrate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> of solid crystalline hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and its water solutions is studied in a constant-pressure bomb\\u000a within the pressure range from 0.1 to 36 MPa. Abnormally high pressure exponents are found to be typical of combustion of\\u000a the crystalline substance, its ?9-mole\\/liter water solution, and a solution containing ethanolamine nitrate as a fuel: for\\u000a pressures below ?10 MPa, the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. N. Kondrikov; V. É. Annikov; V. Yu. Egorshev; L. T. De Luca</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.5090C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide concentrations and surface to air exchanges in a rural <span class="hlt">area</span> (Québec, Canada)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The industrialization and the demographic expansion have both influenced the biogeochemical cycle of hydrogen (H 2), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO 2). In the actual context, knowledge about the spatial distribution of the natural sources and sinks of these trace gases is then crucial to infer possible effects of climate and land use changes on their global budget. This article reports the H 2, CO and CO 2 concentrations and micrometeorological fluxes measured during 1 year in a rural <span class="hlt">area</span> of the mixed wood ecozone of Canada. Land use represents a critical issue in the control of trace gas natural sources or sinks of that region, which is the most densely habited in Canada. On average, the site emitted CO 2 at a rate of 7.7 g m -2 d -1 and consumed H 2 and CO at 0.34 and 5.1 mg m -2 d -1, respectively. Temperature was the most important factor affecting the H 2 and CO surface to air exchanges. The strength of the soil sink was maximal at the end of the summer, while H 2 and CO emissions were observed at the snow-melting period. In winter, H 2 and CO depositions were attributed to their oxidation by photochemically active compounds within the snow cover. When soil temperature was above 10 °C, trace gas fluxes followed a well-defined diurnal cycle. H 2 and CO 2 deposition rates were positively correlated with H 2O fluxes, while CO followed the inverse trend. CO 2 diurnal variations resulted from a balance between photosynthesis and soil respiration, while some biotic and abiotic factors were proposed to explain the trend observed for H 2. In the case of CO, emissions originating from heat- and photo-induced reactions were involved in the attenuation in the strength of the soil sink during daytime. Measured fluxes were compared with the literature to show the relative importance of the rural <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the studied trace gases budget.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Constant, Philippe; Poissant, Laurier; Villemur, Richard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3038393"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fungal infections in <span class="hlt">burns</span>: Diagnosis and management</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> wound infection (BWI) is a major public health problem and the most devastating form of trauma worldwide. Fungi cause BWI as part of monomicrobial or polymicrobial infection, fungaemia, rare aggressive soft tissue infection and as opportunistic infections. The risk factors for acquiring fungal infection in <span class="hlt">burns</span> include age of <span class="hlt">burns</span>, total <span class="hlt">burn</span> size, body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (BSA) (30–60%), full thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span>, inhalational injury, prolonged hospital stay, late surgical excision, open dressing, artificial dermis, central venous catheters, antibiotics, steroid treatment, long-term artificial ventilation, fungal wound colonisation (FWC), hyperglycaemic episodes and other immunosuppressive disorders. Most of the fungal infections are missed owing to lack of clinical awareness and similar presentation as bacterial infection coupled with paucity of mycology laboratories. Expedient diagnosis and treatment of these mycoses can be life-saving as the mortality is otherwise very high. Emergence of resistance in non-albicans Candida spp., unusual yeasts and moulds in fungal BWI, leaves very few fungi susceptible to antifungal drugs, leaving many patients susceptible. There is a need to speciate fungi as far as the topical and systemic antifungal is concerned. Deep tissue biopsy and other relevant samples are processed by standard mycological procedures using direct microscopy, culture and histopathological examination. Patients with FWC should be treated by aggressive surgical debridement and, in the case of fungal wound infection (FWI), in addition to surgical debridement, an intravenous antifungal drug, most commonly amphotericin B or caspofungin, is prescribed followed by de-escalating with voriconazole or itraconazole, or fluconazole depending upon the species or antifungal susceptibility, if available. The propensity for fungal infection increases, the longer the wound is present. Therefore, the development of products to close the wound more rapidly, improvement in topical antifungal therapy with mould activity and implementation of appropriate systemic antifungal therapy guided by antifungal susceptibility may improve the outcome for severely injured <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Capoor, Malini R.; Sarabahi, Sujata; Tiwari, Vinay Kumar; Narayanan, Ravi Prakash</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11177068"> <span id="translatedtitle">Household oven doors: a <span class="hlt">burn</span> hazard in children.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Contact with hot oven doors is an important cause of <span class="hlt">burns</span> in pediatric patients. These <span class="hlt">burns</span> are of particular concern because of their frequent localization to the hands, with the resulting negative implications for financial cost, long-term cosmesis, and hand function. A 5-year review of pediatric oven door <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases admitted to a <span class="hlt">burn</span> referral center was conducted. Of the 14 cases identified, the median age was 12 months. The median total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) was 1.75% (range, 0.5%-4.5%). Twelve of 14 cases involved 1 or both hands. The median length of hospital stay was 10 days. In 7 cases, <span class="hlt">burns</span> were sustained from contact to an external surface of the oven. Based on the results obtained, we propose several prevention strategies. PMID:11177068</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yen, K L; Bank, D E; O'Neill, A M; Yurt, R W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3374848"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span>-Center Quality Improvement: Are <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Outcomes Dependent On Admitting Facilities and Is There a Volume-Outcome "Sweet-Spot"?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Risk factors of mortality in <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients such as inhalation injury, patient age, and percent of total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (%TBSA) <span class="hlt">burned</span> have been identified in previous publications. However, little is known about the variability of mortality outcomes between <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers and whether the admitting facilities or facility volumes can be recognized as predictors of mortality. De-identified data from 87,665 acute <span class="hlt">burn</span> observations obtained from the National <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Repository between 2003 and 2007 were used to estimate a multivariable logistic regression model that could predict patient mortality with reference to the admitting <span class="hlt">burn</span> facility/facility volume, adjusted for differences in age, inhalation injury, %TBSA <span class="hlt">burned</span>, and an additional factor, percent full thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span> (%FTB). As previously reported, all three covariates (%TBSA <span class="hlt">burned</span>, inhalation injury, and age) were found to be highly statistically significant risk factors of mortality in <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients (P value < 0.0001). The additional variable, %FTB, was also found to be a statistically significant determinant, although it did not greatly improve the multivariable model. The treatment/admitting facility was found to be an independent mortality predictor, with certain hospitals having increased odds of death and others showing a protective effect (decreased odds ratio). Hospitals with high <span class="hlt">burn</span> volumes had the highest risk of mortality. Mortality outcomes of patients with similar risk factors (%TBSA <span class="hlt">burned</span>, inhalation injury, age, and %FTB) are significantly affected by the treating facility and their admission volumes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">HRANJEC, TJASA; TURRENTINE, FLORENCE E.; STUKENBORG, GEORGE; YOUNG, JEFFREY S.; SAWYER, ROBERT G.; CALLAND, JAMES F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22546129"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span>-center quality improvement: are <span class="hlt">burn</span> outcomes dependent on admitting facilities and is there a volume-outcome "sweet-spot"?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Risk factors of mortality in <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients such as inhalation injury, patient age, and percent of total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (%TBSA) <span class="hlt">burned</span> have been identified in previous publications. However, little is known about the variability of mortality outcomes between <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers and whether the admitting facilities or facility volumes can be recognized as predictors of mortality. De-identified data from 87,665 acute <span class="hlt">burn</span> observations obtained from the National <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Repository between 2003 and 2007 were used to estimate a multivariable logistic regression model that could predict patient mortality with reference to the admitting <span class="hlt">burn</span> facility/facility volume, adjusted for differences in age, inhalation injury, %TBSA <span class="hlt">burned</span>, and an additional factor, percent full thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span> (%FTB). As previously reported, all three covariates (%TBSA <span class="hlt">burned</span>, inhalation injury, and age) were found to be highly statistically significant risk factors of mortality in <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients (P value < 0.0001). The additional variable, %FTB, was also found to be a statistically significant determinant, although it did not greatly improve the multivariable model. The treatment/admitting facility was found to be an independent mortality predictor, with certain hospitals having increased odds of death and others showing a protective effect (decreased odds ratio). Hospitals with high <span class="hlt">burn</span> volumes had the highest risk of mortality. Mortality outcomes of patients with similar risk factors (%TBSA <span class="hlt">burned</span>, inhalation injury, age, and %FTB) are significantly affected by the treating facility and their admission volumes. PMID:22546129</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hranjec, Tjasa; Turrentine, Florence E; Stukenborg, George; Young, Jeffrey S; Sawyer, Robert G; Calland, James F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AtmRe..77..100L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using meteorological data for reconstruction of <span class="hlt">annual</span> runoff series over an ungauged <span class="hlt">area</span>: Empirical orthogonal function approach to Moldova Southwest Ukraine region</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The water-management transformation of runoff and the prospective change of global climate necessitate studying the climate forcing associated with runoff processes. This paper presents some quantitative estimations for the role of climatic factors in this process on an example of the Moldova-Southwest Ukraine region. Using empirical orthogonal functions, we establish the contribution of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> evaporation, <span class="hlt">annual</span> precipitation, and warm- and cold-season precipitation to the <span class="hlt">annual</span> runoff for arid-zone rivers. An efficient approach for the reconstruction of natural <span class="hlt">annual</span> runoff time series is developed and tested. The problems relating to (i) the estimation of <span class="hlt">annual</span> runoff for rivers with lacking or deficient observational data, (ii) the definition of climate forcing for natural runoff parameters, and (iii) the modelling of <span class="hlt">annual</span> runoff time series are solved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Loboda, Nataliya S.; Glushkov, Alexander V.; Khokhlov, Valeriy N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412485D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using MODIS imagery to assign dates to maps of <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars in Portugal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the European context, Portugal presents the highest number of fire occurrences and has the largest <span class="hlt">area</span> affected by wildfires. Like other southern regions of Europe, Portugal has experienced a dramatic increase in fire incidence during the last few decades that has been attributed to modifications in land-use as well as to climatic changes and associated occurrence of weather extremes. Wildfire activity also presents a large inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability that has been related to changes in the frequency of occurrence of atmospheric conditions favorable to the onset and spreading of large-fires. Since 1990, the Portuguese Authority for Forests (AFN) has been producing yearly maps of fire perimeters under a protocol with the Department of Forest Engineering of the Institute of Agronomy (DEF/ISA). The AFN fire atlas uses end of fire season Landsat TM/ETM imagery to map all fire perimeters with <span class="hlt">area</span> larger than 5ha. Because it relies on end-of-season imagery, the atlas provides a spatial snapshot of the yearly <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, and dates of <span class="hlt">burn</span> for individual events cannot be estimated. Such information is nevertheless crucial to understand the fire regime and fire seasonality and to disentangle the complex interactions among fire, land cover and meteorology. The aim of the present work is to develop an automated procedure that allows using time series of moderate resolution imagery, such as the one provided by the MODIS instrument on-board TERRA and AQUA, to assign dates of <span class="hlt">burning</span> to scars larger than 500 ha in the Landsat based fire atlas. The procedure relies on the so-called (V,W) <span class="hlt">burned</span> index that uses daily reflectance obtained from the 1km MODIS Level 1B calibrated radiance from bands 2 (NIR) and 20 (MIR). The algorithm detects persistent changes in the (V,W) <span class="hlt">burned</span> index time series, within each Landsat <span class="hlt">burned</span> scar. The day of maximum change is then identified by means of a discrimination index, together with thresholds from the (V,W) time series. A spatial filter is finally applied to remove the outliers. An assessment of the temporal accuracy of the algorithm was conducted for the year 2005. For this year, Landsat based fire scars larger than 500ha have an associated detection date, based on field information provided by the AFN. The detection date is here assumed as ignition date of each scar. It is also assumed that each scar corresponds to a single fire event. Using 78 fire scars, we computed the time difference, in days, between the detection date and the date of <span class="hlt">burn</span>, estimated by the algorithm. Our results show that 70% of all scars were correctly dated by the algorithm with differences to the AFN detection date up to three days. These correspond to 83% of the overall <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> used in the accuracy assessment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">DaCamara, C. C.; Libonati, R.; Barros, A.; Gaspar, G.; Calado, T. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60770251"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report RCRA Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspections for Corrective Action Unit 91: <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 U-3fi Injection Well, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, for the Period October 2001 - October 2002</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">annual</span> monitoring and inspection report provides an analysis and summary for site inspections, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture monitoring data obtained at the U-3fi Injection Well during the October 2001 to October 2002 period. The U-3fi Injection Well is located in <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. Inspections of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 U-3fi</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Richardson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1752876"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of cimetidine on fluid requirement during resuscitation of third-degree <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seventy percent body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> third-degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> were produced in four groups of six guinea pigs each, after which all were resuscitated with Ringer's lactate solution. Group 1 received 4 ml/kg/%<span class="hlt">burn</span>. Group 2 received 1 ml/kg/%<span class="hlt">burn</span> with cimetidine, which was begun at 0.5 hours after <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Group 3 received 1 ml/kg/%<span class="hlt">burn</span> with cimetidine, which was begun at 1 hour after <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Group 4 received 1 ml/kg/%<span class="hlt">burn</span> without cimetidine. There were no significant differences among any of the groups in blood pressures or heart rates during the study period. Group 4 showed significantly higher hematocrit values than group 2 at 4 hours after <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury and thereafter. The cardiac outputs of group 2 were the same statistically as those of group 1. The cardiac outputs of group 3 were significantly lower than those that received cimetidine early (group 2), though still higher than those of the 1 ml control group (group 4) at 4 hours after <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury and thereafter. At 24 hours after <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury, the water content of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> skin of group 2 was significantly lower than that of the other groups. We conclude that in third-degree <span class="hlt">burns</span>, cimetidine therapy can effectively reduce <span class="hlt">burn</span> edema and the amount of required resuscitation fluid. Early administration is better than late administration of cimetidine. PMID:1752876</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tanaka, H; Wada, T; Simazaki, S; Hanumadass, M; Reyes, H M; Matsuda, T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GMD.....4..625W"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN): a high resolution global model to estimate the emissions from open <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Fire INventory from NCAR version 1.0 (FINNv1) provides daily, 1 km resolution, global estimates of the trace gas and particle emissions from open <span class="hlt">burning</span> of biomass, which includes wildfire, agricultural fires, and prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> and does not include biofuel use and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Emission factors used in the calculations have been updated with recent data, particularly for the non-methane organic compounds (NMOC). The resulting global <span class="hlt">annual</span> NMOC emission estimates are as much as a factor of 5 greater than some prior estimates. Chemical speciation profiles, necessary to allocate the total NMOC emission estimates to lumped species for use by chemical transport models, are provided for three widely used chemical mechanisms: SAPRC99, GEOS-CHEM, and MOZART-4. Using these profiles, FINNv1 also provides global estimates of key organic compounds, including formaldehyde and methanol. Uncertainties in the emissions estimates arise from several of the method steps. The use of fire hot spots, assumed <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, land cover maps, biomass consumption estimates, and emission factors all introduce error into the model estimates. The uncertainty in the FINNv1 emission estimates are about a factor of two; but, the global estimates agree reasonably well with other global inventories of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions for CO, CO2, and other species with less variable emission factors. FINNv1 emission estimates have been developed specifically for modeling atmospheric chemistry and air quality in a consistent framework at scales from local to global. The product is unique because of the high temporal and spatial resolution, global coverage, and the number of species estimated. FINNv1 can be used for both hindcast and forecast or near-real time model applications and the results are being critically evaluated with models and observations whenever possible.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wiedinmyer, C.; Akagi, S. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Emmons, L. K.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Orlando, J. J.; Soja, A. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22554530"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> contributions to urban aerosols in a coastal Mediterranean city.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> contributions to the bulk particulate matter (PM(X)) load were quantified in a southern-European urban environment (Barcelona, Spain) with special attention to typical Mediterranean winter and summer conditions. In spite of the complexity of the local air pollution cocktail and the expected low contribution of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions to PM levels in Southern Europe, the impact of these emissions was detected at an urban background site by means of tracers such as levoglucosan, K(+) and organic carbon (OC). The significant correlation between levoglucosan and OC (r(2)=0.77) and K(+) (r(2)=0.65), as well as a marked day/night variability of the levoglucosan levels and levoglucosan/OC ratios was indicative of the contribution from regional scale biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions during night-time transported by land breezes. In addition, on specific days (21-22 March), the contribution from long-range transported biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosols was detected. Quantification of the contribution of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosols to PM levels on an <span class="hlt">annual</span> basis was possible by means of the Multilinear Engine (ME). Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions accounted for 3% of PM(10) and PM(2.5) (<span class="hlt">annual</span> mean), while this percentage increased up to 5% of PM(1). During the winter period, regional-scale biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions (agricultural waste <span class="hlt">burning</span>) were estimated to contribute with 7±4% of PM(2.5) aerosols during night-time (period when emissions were clearly detected). Long-range transported biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosols (possibly from forest fires and/or agricultural waste <span class="hlt">burning</span>) accounted for 5±2% of PM(2.5) during specific episodes. <span class="hlt">Annually</span>, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions accounted for 19%-21% of OC levels in PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1). The contribution of this source to K(+) ranged between 48% for PM(10) and 97% for PM(1) (<span class="hlt">annual</span> mean). Results for K(+) from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> evidenced that this tracer is mostly emitted in the fine fraction, and thus coarse K(+) could not be taken as an appropriate tracer of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>. PMID:22554530</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reche, C; Viana, M; Amato, F; Alastuey, A; Moreno, T; Hillamo, R; Teinilä, K; Saarnio, K; Seco, R; Peñuelas, J; Mohr, C; Prévôt, A S H; Querol, X</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000086135&hterms=statistics+biomass&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dstatistics%2Bbiomass"> <span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric Effects of Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> in Madagascar</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Simultaneous tropospheric ozone and aerosols observed using the TOMS satellite instrument are reported for Madagascar during the 1979 through 1999 time period Ozone observations made using the TOMS tropospheric ozone convective-cloud differential method show that the tropospheric ozone amount associated with Madagascar has an average monthly value of 30 DU (Dobson units). The average value is enhanced by 10 to 15 DU in October This maximum coincides with the time of maximum biomass <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Madagascar and parts of southern Africa. The aerosol index derived from TOMS is examined for correlation with biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Madagascar and southern Africa. There is good correlation between a satellite observation derived fire index for different parts of Madagascar, tropospheric ozone and the TOMS aerosol index in the same geographical <span class="hlt">area</span>. Aerosols from fires were found to reach their peak in November and to persist over Madagascar until sometime in December.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aikin, Arthur C.; Hoegy, Walter R.; Ziemke, Jerry R.; Thorpe, Arthur; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780059626&hterms=strand&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dstrand"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acoustic emission strand <span class="hlt">burning</span> technique for motor <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate prediction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An acoustic emission (AE) method is being used to measure the <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate of solid propellant strands. This method has a precision of 0.5% and excellent <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate correlation with both subscale and large rocket motors. The AE procedure <span class="hlt">burns</span> the sample under water and measures the <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate from the acoustic output. The acoustic signal provides a continuous readout during testing, which allows complete data analysis rather than the start-stop clockwires used by the conventional method. The AE method helps eliminate such problems as inhibiting the sample, pressure increase and temperature rise, during testing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christensen, W. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8582940"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hemodynamic effects of delayed initiation of antioxidant therapy (beginning two hours after <span class="hlt">burn</span>) in extensive third-degree <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The hemodynamic effects of the delayed initiation of antioxidant therapy with high-dose vitamin C were studied in 12 guinea pigs with third-degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> over 70% of their body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>. All animals were resuscitated with Ringer's lactate solution (RL) according to the Parkland formula (4 ml/kg/% <span class="hlt">burn</span> during the first 24 hours) from 1/2 to 2 hours after <span class="hlt">burn</span>, and the infusion rate was reduced thereafter to 25% of that of the Parkland formula. The vitamin C group (n = 6) received RL with vitamin C (14 mg/kg/hr), and the control group (n = 6) received RL only. The 24-hour fluid intake for each group was 32.5% of the Parkland formula volume. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> wound edema in the vitamin C group was significantly less than that in the control group. The vitamin C group maintained adequate hemodynamic stability as determined with hematocrit and cardiac output values, but the control group did not. Even though the initiation of the vitamin C administration is delayed until 2 hours after <span class="hlt">burn</span>, the hourly infusion rate of the resuscitation fluid can be reduced to 25% once it is started. Thus antioxidant therapy with adjuvant vitamin C administration may be applicable to the clinical setting in which a patient with <span class="hlt">burns</span> arrives at the <span class="hlt">burn</span> care facility a few hours after the <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury occurred. PMID:8582940</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tanaka, H; Hanumadass, M; Matsuda, H; Shimazaki, S; Walter, R J; Matsuda, T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4182021"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability of summertime CO concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere explained by boreal forest fires in North America and Russia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background measurements of Carbon Monoxide in the extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere during the 1990s showed no clear trends, but significant inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variations. In this study, the measured summertime averaged CO concentrations north of 30° N were correlated with <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by forest fires in North America and Russia. According to a linear regression analysis, 14% of the CO variability in the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gerhard Wotawa; P. C. Novelli; C. Granier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2686041"> <span id="translatedtitle">Silver-coated nylon dressings for pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: Silver dressings are a proven method for <span class="hlt">burn</span> treatment. Current challenges associated with <span class="hlt">burn</span> treatment include pain management and limited hospital resources. A new silver-coated nylon dressing was used at the Montreal Children’s Hospital (Montreal, Quebec) to help reduce traumatic dressing changes and cost. METHODS: <span class="hlt">Burn</span> victims in a pediatric patient population were followed over two years. Patients were excluded if they were evaluated more than 48 h postburn or if the <span class="hlt">burn</span> affected less than 5% of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>. The same <span class="hlt">burn</span> team admitted and treated all case subjects, and one dressing nurse recorded and monitored all progress throughout the study to ensure standardization. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were included in the study. The average number of dressing changes needed was 4.13, with a median of three changes. The average total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> was 8%, with a mean of 13.9 days before superficial wounds were re-epithelialized. The average length of in-hospital stay was four days. The cost was $388 less for silver-coated nylon dressings than for silver sulfadiazine cream for seven days of treatment. Silver-coated nylon dressings did not leave any residue or pseudoeschar on the wounds and were easily maintained at home. CONCLUSION: The silver-coated nylon dressings are as effective as other silver dressings used for pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims. The dressings are less traumatic, require fewer resources and do not leave wound residue compared with other dressings.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Borsuk, Daniel E; Gallant, Michel; Richard, Diane; Williams, H Bruce</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT........38O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Accuracy of real time radiography <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate measurement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The design of a solid propellant rocket motor requires the determination of a propellant's <span class="hlt">burning</span>-rate and its dependency upon environmental parameters. The requirement that the <span class="hlt">burning</span>-rate be physically measured, establishes the need for methods and equipment to obtain such data. A literature review reveals that no measurement has provided the desired <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate accuracy. In the current study, flash x-ray modeling and digitized film-density data were employed to predict motor-port <span class="hlt">area</span> to length ratio. The pre-fired port-<span class="hlt">areas</span> and base <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate were within 2.5% and 1.2% of their known values, respectively. To verify the accuracy of the method, a continuous x-ray and a solid propellant rocket motor model (Plexiglas cylinder) were used. The solid propellant motor model was translated laterally through a real-time radiography system at different speeds simulating different <span class="hlt">burning</span> rates. X-ray images were captured and the <span class="hlt">burning</span>-rate was then determined. The measured <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate was within 1.65% of the known values.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olaniyi, Bisola</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120008046&hterms=nuclear&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dnuclear"> <span id="translatedtitle">Marginally Stable Nuclear <span class="hlt">Burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear <span class="hlt">burning</span> of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory <span class="hlt">burning</span> can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear <span class="hlt">burning</span>. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11403244"> <span id="translatedtitle">Community integration after <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Evaluation of community integration is a meaningful outcome criterion after major <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. The Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) was administered to 463 individuals with major <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. The CIQ results in Total, Home Integration, Social Integration, and Productivity scores. The purposes of this study were to determine change in CIQ scores over time and what <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury and demographic factors predict CIQ scores. The CIQ scores did not change significantly from 6 to 12 to 24 months postburn injury. Home integration scores were best predicted by sex and living situation; Social Integration scores by marital status; and Productivity scores by functional outcome, <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, age, and preburn work factors. The data demonstrate that individuals with <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries have significant difficulties with community integration due to <span class="hlt">burn</span> and nonburn related factors. CIQ scores did not improve over time but improvement may have occurred before the initial 6-month postburn injury follow-up in this study. PMID:11403244</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Esselman, P C; Ptacek, J T; Kowalske, K; Cromes, G F; deLateur, B J; Engrav, L H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/892150"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 329: <span class="hlt">Area</span> 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report presents the data collected during field activities and quarterly soil-gas sampling activities conducted from May 9, 2005, through May 20, 2006, at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 329, <span class="hlt">Area</span> 22 Desert Rock Airstrip (DRA) Fuel Spill; Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-44-01, Fuel Spill. The CAU is located at the DRA, which is located approximately two miles southwest of Mercury, Nevada, as shown in Figure 1-1. Field activities were conducted in accordance with the revised sampling approach outlined in the Addendum to the Closure Report (CR) for CAU 329 (NNSA/NSO, 2005) to support data collection requirements. The previous <span class="hlt">annual</span> monitoring program for CAU 329 was initiated in August 2000 using soil-gas samples collected from three specific intervals at the DRA-0 and DRA-3 monitoring wells. Results of four sampling events from 2000 through 2003 indicated there is uncertainty in the approach to establish a rate of natural attenuation as specified in ''Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Work Plan for Corrective Action Unit 329: <span class="hlt">Area</span> 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (DOE/NV, 1999). As a result, the Addendum to the CR (NNSA/NSO, 2005) was completed to address this uncertainty by modifying the previous approach. A risk evaluation was added to the scope of the project to determine if the residual concentration of the hazardous constituents of JP4 pose an unacceptable risk to human health or the environment and if a corrective action was required at the site, because the current quarterly monitoring program is not expected to yield a rate constant that could be used effectively to determine a biodegradation rate for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in less than the initial five years outlined in the CR. Additionally, remediation to the Tier 1 action level for TPH is not practical or technically feasible due to the depth of contamination.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alfred Wickline</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-002296&hterms=wildfires+causes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dwildfires%2Bcauses"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wildfires, smoke, and <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars, near Yakutsk, Russia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.j