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1

Reconstructing annual area burned in the northern Rockies, USA: AD 1626-2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used a tree-ring chronology as a proxy for annual area burned (AAB) in the northern Rockies, USA during AD 1626-2008. We correlated annual ring widths of alpine larch trees (Larex lyallii) sampled at a single high-elevation site in western Montana with AAB for the United States Forest Region 1. Radial growth was significantly associated with AAB (R2 = 0.35, p < 0.001), demonstrating the potential to use high-elevation conifers as markers of interannual variations in fire activity. The results suggest that the period 1929-1945 would have been the most active since the early 1600s had not extensive fire suppression and harvest activities altered the fire regime. Comparisons of the predicted values of area burned to a century-long fire atlas were significant for both the entire record (rs = 0.333, p < 0.01) and reconstruction period (rs = 0.645 p < 0.001). Similarly, predicted AAB was significantly correlated (r = 0.230) to fire-scar data during 1650-1900. These results suggest the feasibility of using tree-ring chronologies as an additional measure of fire activity, particularly as they allow an assessment and comparison of fire activity during centuries with and without fire suppression and harvest activities.

Knapp, Paul A.; Soulé, Peter T.

2011-09-01

2

Analysis of daily, monthly, and annual burned area using the fourth-generation global fire emissions database (GFED4)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract We describe the fourth generation of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED4) <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data set, which provides global monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> at 0.25° spatial resolution from mid-1995 through the present and daily <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> for the time series extending back to August 2000. We produced the full data set by combining 500 m MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps with active fire data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) family of sensors. We found that the global <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> for the years 1997 through 2011 varied from 301 to 377Mha, with an average of 348Mha. We assessed the interannual variability and trends in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> on the basis of a region-specific definition of fire years. With respect to trends, we found a gradual decrease of 1.7Mhayr - 1 ( - 1.4%yr - 1) in Northern Hemisphere Africa since 2000, a gradual increase of 2.3Mhayr - 1 (+1.8%yr - 1) in Southern Hemisphere Africa also since 2000, a slight increase of 0.2Mhayr - 1 (+2.5%yr - 1) in Southeast Asia since 1997, and a rapid decrease of approximately 5.5Mhayr - 1 ( - 10.7%yr - 1) from 2001 through 2011 in Australia, followed by a major upsurge in 2011 that exceeded the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in at least the previous 14 years. The net trend in global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from 2000 to 2012 was a modest decrease of 4.3Mhayr - 1 ( - 1.2%yr - 1). We also performed a spectral analysis of the daily <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> time series and found no vestiges of the 16 day MODIS repeat cycle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giglio, Louis; Randerson, James T.; Werf, Guido R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">3</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511222R"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, active fires and biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> - approaches to account for emissions from fires in Tanzania</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Eleven years of data from the globally available MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and the MODS Active Fire Product have been analysed for Tanzania in conjunction with GIS data on land use and cover to provide a baseline for fire activity in this East African country. The total radiated energy (FRE) emitted by fires that were picked up by the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and active fire product is estimated based on a spatio-temporal clustering algorithm over the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, and integration of the fire radiative power from the MODIS Active Fires product over the time of <span class="hlt">burning</span> and the <span class="hlt">area</span> of each <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> cluster. Resulting biomass combusted by unit <span class="hlt">area</span> based on Wooste?s scaling factor for FRE to biomass combusted is compared to values found in the literature, and to values found in the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). Pyrogenic emissions are then estimated using emission factors. According to our analysis, an average of 11 million ha <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">annually</span> (ranging between 8.5 and 12.9 million ha) in Tanzania corresponding to between 10 and 14 % of Tanzaniás land <span class="hlt">area</span>. Most <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is recorded in the months from May to October. The land cover types most affected are woodland and shrubland cover types: they comprise almost 70 % of Tanzania's average <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> or 6.8 million ha. Most <span class="hlt">burning</span> occurs in gazetted land, with an <span class="hlt">annual</span> average of 3.7 million ha in forest reserves, 3.3 million ha in game reserves and 1.46 million ha in national parks, totalling close to 8.5 million ha or 77 % of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> average <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> of Tanzania. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> variability of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is moderate for most of the analysed classes, and in most cases there is no clear trend to be detected in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, except for the Lindi region were <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> appears to be increasing. Preliminary results regarding emissions from fires show that for larger fires that <span class="hlt">burn</span> over a longer time, biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span> derived through the FRP method compares well to literature values, while the integration over smaller fires with fewer observations yields unstable results due to undersampling issues and uncertainty in the start and end time of the fire events. Options for mitigating these issues using ancillary data such as fire weather information are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruecker, Gernot; Hoffmann, Anja; Leimbach, David; Tiemann, Joachim; Ng'atigwa, Charles</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">4</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9f4011B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Is proportion <span class="hlt">burned</span> severely related to daily <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ecological effects of forest fires <span class="hlt">burning</span> with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity for individual daily <span class="hlt">areas</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily <span class="hlt">areas</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> from which we calculated the proportions of each of three <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized <span class="hlt">burn</span> ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity project. We found that the proportion of high <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity was weakly correlated (Kendall ? = 0.299) with size of daily <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> (DAB). <span class="hlt">Burn</span> severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in a day.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Birch, Donovan S.; Morgan, Penelope; Kolden, Crystal A.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Smith, Alistair M. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">5</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140000253&hterms=biomass&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbiomass"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> and Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Emissions from Small Fires</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> by computing the difference normalized <span class="hlt">burn</span> ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other <span class="hlt">areas</span>, however, we observed many active fires outside of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity analyses of key model parameters caused estimates of global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> increases from small fires to vary between 24% and 54%. Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> carbon emissions increased by 35% at a global scale when small fires were included in GFED3, from 1.9 Pg C/yr to 2.5 Pg C/yr. The contribution of tropical forest fires to year-to-year variability in carbon fluxes increased because small fires amplified emissions from Central America, South America and Southeast Asia-regions where drought stress and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> varied considerably from year to year in response to El Nino-Southern Oscillation and other climate modes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">6</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRG..117.4012R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions from small fires</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> by computing the difference normalized <span class="hlt">burn</span> ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other <span class="hlt">areas</span>, however, we observed many active fires outside of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity analyses of key model parameters caused estimates of global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> increases from small fires to vary between 24% and 54%. Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> carbon emissions increased by 35% at a global scale when small fires were included in GFED3, from 1.9 Pg C/yr to 2.5 Pg C/yr. The contribution of tropical forest fires to year-to-year variability in carbon fluxes increased because small fires amplified emissions from Central America, South America and Southeast Asia—regions where drought stress and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> varied considerably from year to year in response to El Nino-Southern Oscillation and other climate modes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">7</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fire.uni-freiburg.de/sevilla-2007/contributions/doc/cd/SESIONES_TEMATICAS/ST4/Roy_et_al_USA.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The global MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Earth-observing satellite systems provide the potential for an accurate and timely mapping of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, also known as fire-affected <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Remote sensing algorithms developed to map <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> are difficult to implement reliably over large <span class="hlt">areas</span> however because of variations in both the surface state and those imposed by the sensing system. The availability of robustly calibrated, atmospherically corrected, cloud-screened,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David P. Roy; Luigi Boschetti; Christopher O. Justice</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">8</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49130233"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating spectral indices for <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> discrimination using MODIS\\/ASTER (MASTER) airborne simulator data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wildland fires are an <span class="hlt">annually</span> recurring phenomenon in many terrestrial ecosystems. Accurate <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates are important for modeling fire-induced trace gas emissions and rehabilitating post-fire landscapes. High spatial and spectral resolution MODIS\\/ASTER (MASTER) airborne simulator data acquired over three 2007 southern California <span class="hlt">burns</span> were used to evaluate the sensitivity of different spectral indices at discriminating <span class="hlt">burned</span> land shortly after</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Veraverbeke; S. Harris; S. Hook</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">9</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://web.me.com/kathleen.nicoll/Geomorphology/08_Field_Trip_2008_files/Balling_et_al_92.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relation of surface climate and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in Yellowstone National Park</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bailing, R.C., Jr., Meyer, G.A. and Wells, S.G., 1992. Relation of surface climate and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in Yellowstone National Park. Agric. For. Meteorol., 60: 285-293. The statistical relation between <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in Yellowstone National Park and local climate conditions is established over the past century. Our analyses reveal that the summer Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) can account for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R BALLINGJR; Grant A. Meyer; Stephen G. Wells</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">10</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23064248"> <span id="translatedtitle">The impact of antecedent fire <span class="hlt">area</span> on <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in southern California coastal ecosystems.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Frequent wildfire disasters in southern California highlight the need for risk reduction strategies for the region, of which fuel reduction via prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> is one option. However, there is no consensus about the effectiveness of prescribed fire in reducing the <span class="hlt">area</span> of wildfire. Here, we use 29 years of historical fire mapping to quantify the relationship between <span class="hlt">annual</span> wildfire <span class="hlt">area</span> and antecedent fire <span class="hlt">area</span> in predominantly shrub and grassland fuels in seven southern California counties, controlling for <span class="hlt">annual</span> variation in weather patterns. This method has been used elsewhere to measure leverage: the reduction in wildfire <span class="hlt">area</span> resulting from one unit of prescribed fire treatment. We found little evidence for a leverage effect (leverage = zero). Specifically our results showed no evidence that wildfire <span class="hlt">area</span> was negatively influenced by previous fires, and only weak relationships with weather variables rainfall and Santa Ana wind occurrences, which were variables included to control for inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variation. We conclude that this is because only 2% of the vegetation <span class="hlt">burns</span> each year and so wildfires rarely encounter <span class="hlt">burned</span> patches and chaparral shrublands can carry a fire within 1 or 2 years after previous fire. Prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> is unlikely to have much influence on fire regimes in this <span class="hlt">area</span>, though targeted treatment at the urban interface may be effective at providing defensible space for protecting assets. These results fit an emerging global model of fire leverage which position California at the bottom end of a continuum, with tropical savannas at the top (leverage = 1: direct replacement of wildfire by prescribed fire) and Australian eucalypt forests in the middle (leverage ~ 0.25). PMID:23064248</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Price, Owen F; Bradstock, Ross A; Keeley, Jon E; Syphard, Alexandra D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">11</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BGeo....7.1171G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing variability and long-term trends in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> by merging multiple satellite fire products</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Long term, high quality estimates of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> are needed for improving both prognostic and diagnostic fire emissions models and for assessing feedbacks between fire and the climate system. We developed global, monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates aggregated to 0.5° spatial resolution for the time period July 1996 through mid-2009 using four satellite data sets. From 2001-2009, our primary data source was 500-m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps produced using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance imagery; more than 90% of the global <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> during this time period was mapped in this fashion. During times when the 500-m MODIS data were not available, we used a combination of local regression and regional regression trees developed over periods when <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and Terra MODIS active fire data were available to indirectly estimate <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Cross-calibration with fire observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) allowed the data set to be extended prior to the MODIS era. With our data set we estimated that the global <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> for the years 1997-2008 varied between 330 and 431 Mha, with the maximum occurring in 1998. We compared our data set to the recent GFED2, L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, and MODIS MCD45A1 global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products and found substantial differences in many regions. Lastly, we assessed the interannual variability and long-term trends in global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> over the past 13 years. This <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> time series serves as the basis for the third version of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) estimates of trace gas and aerosol emissions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giglio, L.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Collatz, G. J.; Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">12</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A11G0144D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> on African seasonal climate in regional modeling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The WRF/SSiB2 model has been employed on a series of regional simulations to investigate the impact of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> associated with wildfires on African seasonal climate and surface energy balances. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> are characterized by deposits of charcoal and ash, removal of vegetation, and alteration of the vegetation structure. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> information for the experiments was based on the MODIS <span class="hlt">burn</span> date maps with an 8-day interval on 500m spatial resolution. Monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps averaged over 2000-2011, and aggregated from the MODIS resolution, were created and incorporated in the regional model (50km resolution), whereby vegetation was reduced according to the percentage of grid cell <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> and ground albedo was reduced to 0.1 for a 10-day period after <span class="hlt">burning</span> to reproduce the ground darkening associated with the amount of grid cell <span class="hlt">burned</span>. Control (unburned) and <span class="hlt">burned</span> preliminary experiments were carried out between 01 Oct 2010 and 31 Sep 2011 and compared to examine the sensitivity of different wildfire parameters on precipitation and surface fluxes; including sensitivity to ground albedo recovery time and vegetation resistance to fire. Vegetation cover, greenness, and LAI information were taken from the Fourier-Adjusted, Sensor and Solar zenith angle corrected, Interpolated, Reconstructed data set. Analysis of <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps revealed extensive <span class="hlt">burning</span>, especially in the Sahel and between latitudes 0° and 15°S (Central Africa), with both regions exhibiting 50% or more of the <span class="hlt">area</span> of a grid cell <span class="hlt">burned</span>. Most of <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Sahel occurred between November and February, while in the southern hemisphere it took place between June and September. Extensive <span class="hlt">burning</span> was also found along eastern South Africa and Mozambique between 25° and 40° W, where some grid cells were 10% to 30% <span class="hlt">burned</span> in August and September. Preliminary results indicated that the WRF/SSiB2 is sensitive to the land degradation associated with the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. <span class="hlt">Areas</span> with widespread <span class="hlt">burning</span> experienced a reduction in evapotranspiration in the Sahel especially during the pre-monsoon months, and during monsoon withdrawal. In the Central and Southern Africa, the largest difference took place between January and April, and later August. In general, the impact on sensible heat flux was of opposite sign and significantly weaker than that of evapotranspiration in the Sahel. Changes to surface albedo in the model depends on two distinct processes; ground darkening associated with <span class="hlt">burning</span> (direct effect) and changes in soil moisture associated with precipitation variability (indirect effect). The patterns of precipitation change resulting from <span class="hlt">burn</span> degradation were complex, with <span class="hlt">areas</span> of positive and negative changes within both regions. On average, <span class="hlt">annual</span> precipitation was reduced in the Sahel by approximately 3.5%. Most of the change occurred during the monsoon season. In contrast, Central and Southern Africa experienced increase in rainfall in the austral winter but decrease in the summer months, resulting in nearly no <span class="hlt">annual</span> change. Results also revealed that vegetation resistance to fire and ground albedo recovery time are important factors that must be accounted for to realistically simulate the impact of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in Africa.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">De Sales, F.; Xue, Y.; Okin, G. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">13</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009BGD.....611577G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing variability and long-term trends in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> by merging multiple satellite fire products</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Long term, high quality estimates of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> are needed for improving both prognostic and diagnostic fire emissions models and for assessing feedbacks between fire and the climate system. We developed global, monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates aggregated to 0.5° spatial resolution for the time period July 1996 through mid-2009 using four satellite data sets. From 2001-2009, our primary data source was 500-m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps produced using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance imagery; more than 90% of the global <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> during this time period was mapped in this fashion. During times when the 500-m MODIS data were not available, we used a combination of local regression and regional regression trees to develop relationships between <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and Terra MODIS active fire data. Cross-calibration with fire observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) allowed the data set to be extended prior to the MODIS era. With our data set we estimated the global <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> for the years 1997-2008 varied between 330 and 431 Mha, with the maximum occurring in 1998. We compared our data set to the recent GFED2, L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, and MODIS MCD45A1 global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products and found substantial differences in many regions. Lastly, we assessed the interannual variability and long-term trends in global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> over the past 12 years. This <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> time series serves as the basis for the third version of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) estimates of trace gas and aerosol emissions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giglio, L.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Collatz, G. J.; Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">14</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5157017"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trash <span class="hlt">burns</span>, turns into $120,000 in <span class="hlt">annual</span> savings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A plan was developed to generate a major portion of the energy required for heating and air conditioning by <span class="hlt">burning</span> factory trash instead of using natural gas and electricity. Trash from the Rockwell Int'l. plant, including broken wood pallets, cardboard packing materials and office waste paper, amounted to 1,000 tons per year. Previously, a contractor was being paid to come to the plant several times a week, pick up the trash and haul it to a landfill. To supplement the 1,000 tons of usable waste generated by the plant <span class="hlt">annually</span>, the additional 500 tons of similar trash needed to operate the system are received from other industries in the vicinity. Besides accepting waste from other plants, the Marysville facility stockpiles and uses refuse corn stalks harvested from 50 acres of Rockwell-owned land adjacent to the plant. The incinerator featuring a pyrolytic heat recovery system is presented and its operation is illustrated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, W.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">15</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3427B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-sensor merging techniques for improving <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) aims to create a set of Essential Climate Variables (ECV) to assist climate modellers. One of these is the fire ECV, a product in line with typical requirements of climate, vegetation and ecological modellers investigated by the fire ECV project and documented in the fire product specification document. The product is derived from <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates of three sensors, SPOT VEGETATION (SPOT-VGT), the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) series, and the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer at Full ReSolution (MERIS FRS). This abstract is concerned with the final stage in the production of the fire product, merging of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates from the three sensors into two products. The two products are created at monthly time steps, the pixel (1km) and the aggregated grid product (0.5° and 0.25°). The pixel product contains information on sensors detecting the <span class="hlt">burn</span>, date of <span class="hlt">burn</span> detection, confidence of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> and land cover statistics. The grid product contains aggregated information on <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> totals and proportion, major land cover <span class="hlt">burned</span>, heterogeneity of <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the grid cell, confidence and cloud cover levels. The method used to create these products needs to allow for time series gaps due to multiple sensor combinations and different orbital and swath characteristics and comprises a combination statistical, selective, stratification and fusion methods common to the satellite remote sensing community. The method is in three stages, first a combined merge of sensors in the same 1km resolution. The earliest date of detection is recorded and the sensor that performs the best over a particular vegetation type is taken as the most reliable confidence level. The second part involves fusion of the 300 m MERIS FRS data allowing confidence levels and <span class="hlt">burn</span> dates to be reported to a finer resolution. To allow for MERIS FRS pixels that cross adjacent 1km pixels from the first step the fusion is carried out at 100 m resolution. The third and final step is the statistical aggregation to the final pixel and grid resolutions. Results for the test <span class="hlt">areas</span>, Northern Australia, Canada, Brazil and Kazakhstan show that there is a good coincidence of SPOT-VGT and ATSR data and that MERIS FRS can be used to increase the detail of date of detection and confidence level. Overall the project has demonstrated the feasibility of producing a merged fire product from different satellite data sources.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bradley, A.; Tansey, K.; Chuvieco, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">16</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1040013"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interim Status Closure Plan Open <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Treatment Unit Technical <span class="hlt">Area</span> 16-399 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Tray</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open <span class="hlt">burning</span> treatment units at Technical <span class="hlt">Area</span> (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open <span class="hlt">burning</span> treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">17</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6466417"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sources of debris flow material in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The vulnerability of recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> to debris flows has been well established. Likewise, it has been shown that many, if not most, post-fire debris flows are initiated by runoff and erosion and grow in size through erosion and scour by the moving debris flow, as opposed to landslide-initiated flows with little growth. To better understand the development and character</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul M. Santi; Victor G. deWolfe; Jerry D. Higgins; Susan H. Cannon; Joseph E. Gartner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">18</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRG..118..265M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in Europe with the Community Land Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, we present simulations of a <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> at a European scale for the period 1990-2009 conducted with the Community Land Model (CLM). By using statistics on fire counts and mean fire suppression time from the European Fire Database, we refined the parameterization of the functions describing human ignition/suppression, and we modified the description of biomass availability for fires. The results obtained with the modified model show an improvement of the description of the spatial and interannual variability of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>: the model bias is reduced by 45%, and the explained variance is increased by about 9% compared to the original parameterization of the model. The observed relationships between <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, climate (temperature and precipitation), and aboveground biomass are also reproduced more accurately by the modified model. This is particularly relevant for the applicability of the model to simulate future fire regimes under different climate conditions. However, results showed an overestimation of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> for some European countries (e.g., Spain and France) and an underestimation in years with an extreme fire season in Mediterranean countries. Our results highlight the need for refining the parameterization of human ignition/suppression and fuel availability for regional application of fire models implemented in land surface models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Migliavacca, M.; Dosio, A.; Kloster, S.; Ward, D. S.; Camia, A.; Houborg, R.; Houston Durrant, T.; Khabarov, N.; Krasovskii, A. A.; San Miguel-Ayanz, J.; Cescatti, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">19</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212573K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity patterns across the Mediterranean region</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Mediterranean region is highly susceptible to wildfires. On average, about 60,000 fires take place in this region every year, <span class="hlt">burning</span> on average half a million hectares of forests and natural vegetation. Wildfires cause environmental degradation and affect the lives of thousands of people in the region. In order to minimize the consequences of these catastrophic events, fire managers and national authorities need to have in their disposal accurate and updated spatial information concerning the size of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> as well as the <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity patterns. Mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity patterns is necessary to effectively support the decision-making process in what concerns strategic (long-term) planning with the definition of post-fire actions at European and national scales. Although a comprehensive archive of burnt <span class="hlt">areas</span> exists at the European Forest Fire Information System, the analysis of the severity of the <span class="hlt">areas</span> affected by forest fires in the region is not yet available. Fire severity is influenced by many variables, including fuel type, topography and meteorological conditions before and during the fire. The analysis of fire severity is essential to determine the socio-economic impact of forest fires, to assess fire impacts, and to determine the need of post-fire rehabilitation measures. Moreover, fire severity is linked to forest fire emissions and determines the rate of recovery of the vegetation after the fire. Satellite imagery can give important insights about the conditions of the live fuel moisture content and can be used to assess changes on vegetation structure and vitality after forest fires. Fire events occurred in Greece, Portugal and Spain during the fire season of 2009 were recorded and analyzed in a GIS environment. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and the Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio (NBR) were calculated from 8-days composites MODIS/TERRA imagery from March to October 2009. In addition, subtracting a post-fire from a pre-fire image derived index produces a measure of absolute change of the vegetation condition, like the differenced Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio index (dNBR). The aim of this study was the assessment of fire severity across diverse ecological and environmental conditions in the Mediterranean region. The specific objectives were: • The analysis of the correlation between the fire severity and local site conditions, including topography, fuel type, land use, land cover. • The analysis of the correlation between fire severity and fire danger conditions during the fire, as estimated by the European Forest Fire Information System. • Assessing the performance of several vegetation indices derived from MODIS imagery in estimating fire severity. • Assessing the permanence of the burnt signal for large fires as an estimate of fire severity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kalogeropoulos, Christos; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Kempeneers, Pieter; Sedano, Fernando; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Camia, Andrea</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">20</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B31A0395G"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED4) <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Data Set</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe major enhancements to the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> component of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED4), which now provides global, daily <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> observations at 0.25-degree spatial resolution from mid-2000 through the present. Cross-calibration of active fire observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) allowed the data set to be extended back to mid-1995, though at a reduced monthly temporal resolution. We then discuss the spatially-explicit uncertainty estimates accompanying our data set, and the use of these estimates within atmospheric and biogeochemical models. Lastly, we assess the interannual variability and long-term trends in global and regional <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> over the past 16 years. Our findings included a gradual decrease of 2.0 Mha/yr in NH Africa since 2000, a gradual increase of 2.3 Mha/yr in SH Africa, also since 2000, and a rapid though inconsistent decrease of approximately 5.5 Mha/yr from 2001 through 2011 in Australia, followed by a major upsurge in 2012 that exceeded the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in at least the previous 14 years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giglio, L.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G.; Collatz, G. J.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Morton, D.; DeFries, R. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a style="font-weight: bold;">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">21</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://spuds.agron.ksu.edu/J26.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long-term Effects of <span class="hlt">Annual</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span> at Dif-ferent Dates in Ungrazed Kansas Tallgrass</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">canescens was favored by all <span class="hlt">burning</span> treatments. Mulch buildup in unburned, undisturbed plots increased Poa pratensis and tree species and eventually reduced grass production. The long-term effects of <span class="hlt">annual</span> late</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Owensby, Clenton E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">22</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/10922564"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> forecasting using past <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> records and Southern Oscillation Index for tropical Africa (1981–1999)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An 18-year time series of monthly NOAA-AVHRR Pathfinder Land <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was analyzed for the region of tropical Africa, from July 1981 to June 1999. The transition period between NOAA-11 and NOAA-14 platforms from July 1993 to June 1995 was not included due to missing and outlier data. Stability of the time series was addressed for the input variables in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. Riaño; J. A. Moreno Ruiz; J. Barón Martínez; S. L. Ustin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">23</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39..159B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability in biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> over the South Asia: Influences on trace gases and aerosols</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Trace gases and aerosols released by biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> are now well recognized for their contribution in the air quality degradation and the radiation budget perturbation. Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> has also been shown to increase the tropospheric background levels of different species. There have been numerous efforts, over different regions, to understand the impact of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on the atmospheric composition and the budget of trace species and the physical and chemical processes occurring during the transport of its plumes. However, such efforts are scarce over the South Asia where biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> contributes significantly to the budget of the trace species and thereby affecting the radiation budget and atmospheric chemistry over this tropical region. In view of this, space-borne observations of fire counts from MODIS are analyzed for studying seasonal and inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability in biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> activity. Fire activity over South East Asia is found to be significantly higher than those over East Asia and South Asia. Over most of the South Asia, maximum fire activity is observed during spring, however a secondary peak is observed during October-November over North India. The CO, CO2 emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> over different Indian regions show seasonality similar to the fire counts and are found to be highest over North-Eastern India (during March). The CO emissions are found to be negatively correlated while NOx emissions were positively correlated with the fire counts. Analysis of limited years data also suggest significant enhancement in ozone and aerosols during biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> period. The total <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by these fires is also estimated for different Indian regions. More detailed analysis, including the radiative impact of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> will be presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bhardwaj, P.; Naja, Manish</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">24</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://fire.pppl.gov/BP_Options_V2_2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Topical <span class="hlt">Area</span>: MFE Title: <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Plasma Experimental Options______________________________ Description The options for a Next Step <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Plasma Experiment are defined by the overall strategic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">of developing and integrating <span class="hlt">burning</span> plasma physics, long pulse physics and technology, and fusion technologies and confinement program will interact closely with the <span class="hlt">burning</span> plasma experiment. Enabling technology developmentPage 1 Topical <span class="hlt">Area</span>: MFE Title: <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Plasma Experimental Options</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">25</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48924465"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of L3JRC and MODIS global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products from 2000 to 2007</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As a significant source of trace gases and particulate matter to the atmosphere, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> plays an important role in climate change and atmospheric chemistry at regional and global scales. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is a critical parameter in estimating fire emissions. Recently, multiyear global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products with medium spatial resolution (1 km or 500 m) have been released, including</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Di Chang; Yu Song</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">26</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51194647"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of Biomass <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Areas</span> Using Multiple-Satellite-Observed Active Fires</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> releases a significant amount of trace gases and aerosols into the atmosphere and affects cli- mate change, carbon cycle, and air quality. Accurate estimates of emissions depend strongly on the calculations of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Here, we present an algorithm that is used to derive <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> by blending active fire observations from multiple satellites which are provided in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xiaoyang Zhang; Shobha Kondragunta; Brad Quayle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">27</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/4564"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ravenous with color: sage, pine, sun-yellow, and canyon-brown, the rich carnelian of a Mexican sunset. Lean, leggy, pink tongue wet and lolling, she stares me straight in the eye. Silver moonlight on her back, wildfire <span class="hlt">burning</span> in her eyes... 1 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> By Vivian Kathleen Johnson...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, Vivian Kathleen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">28</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/961218"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Asia : <span class="hlt">annual</span> and seasonal estimates and atmospheric emissions.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Asia are developed to facilitate the modeling of Asian and global air quality. A survey of national, regional, and international publications on biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is conducted to yield consensus estimates of 'typical' (i.e., non-year-specific) estimates of open <span class="hlt">burning</span> (excluding biofuels). We conclude that 730 Tg of biomass are <span class="hlt">burned</span> in a typical year from both anthropogenic and natural causes. Forest <span class="hlt">burning</span> comprises 45% of the total, the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of crop residues in the field comprises 34%, and 20% comes from the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of grassland and savanna. China contributes 25% of the total, India 18%, Indonesia 13%, and Myanmar 8%. Regionally, forest <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Southeast Asia dominates. National, <span class="hlt">annual</span> totals are converted to daily and monthly estimates at 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} spatial resolution using distributions based on AVHRR fire counts for 1999--2000. Several adjustment schemes are applied to correct for the deficiencies of AVHRR data, including the use of moving averages, normalization, TOMS Aerosol Index, and masks for dust, clouds, landcover, and other fire sources. Good agreement between the national estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and adjusted fire counts is obtained (R{sup 2} = 0.71--0.78). Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> amounts are converted to atmospheric emissions, yielding the following estimates: 0.37 Tg of SO{sub 2}, 2.8 Tg of NO{sub x}, 1100 Tg of CO{sub 2}, 67 Tg of CO, 3.1 Tg of CH{sub 4}, 12 Tg of NMVOC, 0.45 Tg of BC, 3.3 Tg of OC, and 0.92 Tg of NH{sub 3}. Uncertainties in the emission estimates, measured as 95% confidence intervals, range from a low of {+-}65% for CO{sub 2} emissions in Japan to a high of {+-}700% for BC emissions in India.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Streets, D. G.; Yarber, K. F.; Woo, J.-H.; Carmichael, G. R.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Iowa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">29</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21305885"> <span id="translatedtitle">Remote sensing-based estimates of <span class="hlt">annual</span> and seasonal emissions from crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the contiguous United States.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> is an extensive agricultural practice in the contiguous United States (CONUS). This analysis presents the results of a remote sensing-based study of crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions in the CONUS for the time period 2003-2007 for the atmospheric species of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2), PM2.5 (particulate matter [PM] < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter), and PM10 (PM < or = 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter). Cropland <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and associated crop types were derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products. Emission factors, fuel load, and combustion completeness estimates were derived from the scientific literature, governmental reports, and expert knowledge. Emissions were calculated using the bottom-up approach in which emissions are the product of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, fuel load, and combustion completeness for each specific crop type. On average, <span class="hlt">annual</span> crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the CONUS emitted 6.1 Tg of CO2, 8.9 Gg of CH4, 232.4 Gg of CO, 10.6 Gg of NO2, 4.4 Gg of SO2, 20.9 Gg of PM2.5, and 28.5 Gg of PM10. These emissions remained fairly consistent, with an average interannual variability of crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions of +/- 10%. The states with the highest emissions were Arkansas, California, Florida, Idaho, Texas, and Washington. Most emissions were clustered in the southeastern United States, the Great Plains, and the Pacific Northwest. Air quality and carbon emissions were concentrated in the spring, summer, and fall, with an exception because of winter harvesting of sugarcane in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. Sugarcane, wheat, and rice residues accounted for approximately 70% of all crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> and associated emissions. Estimates of CO and CH4 from agricultural waste <span class="hlt">burning</span> by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were 73 and 78% higher than the CO and CH4 emission estimates from this analysis, respectively. This analysis also showed that crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions are a minor source of CH4 emissions (< 1%) compared with the CH4 emissions from other agricultural sources, specifically enteric fermentation, manure management, and rice cultivation. PMID:21305885</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McCarty, Jessica L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">30</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040161152&hterms=forest+fire&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dforest%2Bfire"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forest Understory Fire in the Brazilian Amazon in ENSO and Non-ENSO Years: <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burned</span> and Committed Carbon Emissions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">"Understory fires" that <span class="hlt">burn</span> the floor of standing forests are one of the most important types of forest impoverishment in the Amazon, especially during the severe droughts of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes. However, we are aware of no estimates of the areal extent of these fires for the Brazilian Amazon and, hence, of their contribution to Amazon carbon fluxes to the atmosphere. We calculated the <span class="hlt">area</span> of forest understory fires for the Brazilian Amazon region during an El Nino (1998) and a non El Nino (1995) year based on forest fire scars mapped with satellite images for three locations in eastern and southern Amazon, where deforestation is concentrated. The three study sites represented a gradient of both forest types and dry season severity. The <span class="hlt">burning</span> scar maps were used to determine how the percentage of forest that <span class="hlt">burned</span> varied with distance from agricultural clearings. These spatial functions were then applied to similar forest/climate combinations outside of the study sites to derive an initial estimate for the Brazilian Amazon. Ninety-one percent of the forest <span class="hlt">area</span> that <span class="hlt">burned</span> in the study sites was within the first kilometer of a clearing for the non ENSO year and within the first four kilometers for the ENSO year. The <span class="hlt">area</span> of forest <span class="hlt">burned</span> by understory forest fire during the severe drought (ENSO) year (3.9 millions of hectares) was 13 times greater than the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> during the average rainfall year (0.2 million hectares), and twice the <span class="hlt">area</span> of <span class="hlt">annual</span> deforestation rate. Dense forest was, proportionally, the forest <span class="hlt">area</span> most affected by understory fires during the El Nino year, while understory fires were concentrated in transitional forests during the year of average rainfall. Our estimate of aboveground tree biomass killed by fire ranged from 0.06 Pg to 0.38 Pg during the ENSO and from 0,004 Pg to 0,024 Pg during the non ENSO.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alencar, A.; Nepstad, D.; Ver-Diaz, M. Del. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">31</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-13/pdf/2013-27177.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 68023 - <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Surveys in the Manufacturing <span class="hlt">Area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Census Bureau) is conducting the 2014 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Surveys in the Manufacturing <span class="hlt">Area</span>. The 2014 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Surveys consist of the <span class="hlt">Annual</span>...between the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Census Bureau. The NSF posts the joint project's...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">32</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRG..116.4003K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> for North American forests: Implications for direct reduction of carbon stocks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A synthesis was carried out to analyze information available to quantify fire activity and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> across North America, including a comparison of different data sources and an assessment of how variations in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimate impact carbon emissions from fires. Data sets maintained by fire management agencies provide the longest record of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> information. Canada and Alaska have the most well developed data sets consisting of the perimeters of large fires (>200 ha) going back to 1959 and 1950, respectively. A similar data set back to 1980 exists for the Conterminous U.S., but contains data only from federal land management agencies. During the early half of the 20th century, average <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> across North America ranged between 10 and 20 × 106 ha yr-1, largely because of frequent surface fires in the southeastern U.S. Over the past two decades, an average of 5 × 106 ha yr-1 has <span class="hlt">burned</span>. Moderate-resolution (500-1000 m) satellite <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products information products appear to either underestimate <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> (GFED3 and MCD45A1) or significantly overestimate <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> (L3JRC and GLOBCARBON). Of all the satellite data products, the GFED3 data set provides the most consistent source of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> when compared to fire management data. Because they do not suitably reflect actual fire activity, the L3JRC and GLOBCARBON <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data sets are not suitable for use in carbon cycle studies in North America. The MCD45A1 data set appears to map a higher fraction of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in low biomass <span class="hlt">areas</span> compared to the GFED3 data set.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kasischke, Eric S.; Loboda, Tatiana; Giglio, Louis; French, Nancy H. F.; Hoy, E. E.; de Jong, Bernardus; Riano, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">33</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inside.mines.edu/~psanti/paper_pdfs/Effectiveness%20of%20DF%20Mit%20Methods%20NALC.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">EFFECTIVENESS OF DEBRIS FLOW MITIGATION METHODS IN <span class="hlt">BURNED</span> <span class="hlt">AREAS</span> Paul M. Santi1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">of this study was to quantify the effectiveness of post-fire debris flow mitigation techniques. Debris volumesEFFECTIVENESS OF DEBRIS FLOW MITIGATION METHODS IN <span class="hlt">BURNED</span> <span class="hlt">AREAS</span> Paul M. Santi1 , Victor G. deWolfe2 Survey (e-mail: jegartner@usgs.gov) Abstract: The fire-flood sequence, in which recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">34</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3865302"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationships between Human Population Density and <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> at Continental and Global Scales</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We explore the large spatial variation in the relationship between population density and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, using continental-scale Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) based on 13 years of satellite-derived <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps from the global fire emissions database (GFED) and the human population density from the gridded population of the world (GPW 2005). Significant relationships are observed over 51.5% of the global land <span class="hlt">area</span>, and the <span class="hlt">area</span> affected varies from continent to continent: population density has a significant impact on fire over most of Asia and Africa but is important in explaining fire over < 22% of Europe and Australia. Increasing population density is associated with both increased and decreased in fire. The nature of the relationship depends on land-use: increasing population density is associated with increased <span class="hlt">burned</span> are in rangelands but with decreased <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in croplands. Overall, the relationship between population density and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is non-monotonic: <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> initially increases with population density and then decreases when population density exceeds a threshold. These thresholds vary regionally. Our study contributes to improved understanding of how human activities relate to <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, and should contribute to a better estimate of atmospheric emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>. PMID:24358108</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bistinas, Ioannis; Oom, Duarte; Sa, Ana C. L.; Harrison, Sandy P.; Prentice, I. Colin; Pereira, Jose M. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">35</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESS..14...53B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the predictability of fire occurrence and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> across phytoclimatic regions in Spain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most fire protection agencies throughout the world have developed forest fire risk forecast systems, usually building upon existing fire danger indices and meteorological forecast data. In this context, the daily predictability of wildfires is of utmost importance in order to allow the fire protection agencies to issue timely fire hazard alerts. In this study, we address the predictability of daily fire occurrence using the components of the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) System and related variables calculated from the latest ECMWF (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts) reanalysis, ERA-Interim. We develop daily fire occurrence models in peninsular Spain for the period 1990-2008 and, considering different minimum <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> thresholds for fire definition, assess their ability to reproduce the inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> fire frequency variability. We based the analysis on a phytoclimatic classification aiming the stratification of the territory into homogeneous units in terms of climatic and fuel type characteristics, allowing to test model performance under different climate/fuel conditions. We then extend the analysis in order to assess the predictability of monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The sensitivity of the models to the level of spatial aggregation of the data is also evaluated. Additionally, we investigate the gain in model performance with the inclusion of socioeconomic and land use/land cover (LULC) covariates in model formulation. Fire occurrence models have attained good performance in most of the phytoclimatic zones considered, being able to faithfully reproduce the inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability of fire frequency. Total <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> has exhibited some dependence on the meteorological drivers, although model performance was poor in most cases. We identified temperature and some FWI system components as the most important explanatory variables, highlighting the adequacy of the FWI system for fire occurrence prediction in the study <span class="hlt">area</span>. The results were improved when using aggregated data across regions compared to when data were sampled at the grid-box level. The inclusion of socioeconomic and LULC covariates contributed marginally to the improvement of the models, and in most cases attained no relevant contribution to total explained variance - excepting northern Spain, where anthropogenic factors are known to be the major driver of fires. Models of monthly fire counts performed better in the case of fires larger than 0.1 ha, and for the rest of the thresholds (1, 10 and 100 ha) the daily occurrence models improved the predicted inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability, indicating the added value of daily models. Fire frequency predictions may provide a preferable basis for past fire history reconstruction, long-term monitoring and the assessment of future climate impacts on fire regimes across regions, posing several advantages over <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> as a response variable. Our results leave the door open to the development a more complex modelling framework based on daily data from numerical climate model outputs based on the FWI system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bedia, J.; Herrera, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">36</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01679.x"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the response of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> to changing climate in western boreal North America using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fire is a common disturbance in the North American boreal forest that influences ecosystem structure and function. The temporal and spatial dynamics of fire are likely to be altered as climate continues to change. In this study, we ask the question: how will <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in boreal North America by wildfire respond to future changes in climate? To evaluate this question, we developed temporally and spatially explicit relationships between air temperature and fuel moisture codes derived from the Canadian Fire Weather Index System to estimate <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> at 2.5?? (latitude ?? longitude) resolution using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS) approach across Alaska and Canada. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was substantially more predictable in the western portion of boreal North America than in eastern Canada. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was also not very predictable in <span class="hlt">areas</span> of substantial topographic relief and in <span class="hlt">areas</span> along the transition between boreal forest and tundra. At the scale of Alaska and western Canada, the empirical fire models explain on the order of 82% of the variation in <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> for the period 1960-2002. July temperature was the most frequently occurring predictor across all models, but the fuel moisture codes for the months June through August (as a group) entered the models as the most important predictors of <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. To predict changes in the temporal and spatial dynamics of fire under future climate, the empirical fire models used output from the Canadian Climate Center CGCM2 global climate model to predict <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> through the year 2100 across Alaska and western Canada. Relative to 1991-2000, the results suggest that average <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> per decade will double by 2041-2050 and will increase on the order of 3.5-5.5 times by the last decade of the 21st century. To improve the ability to better predict wildfire across Alaska and Canada, future research should focus on incorporating additional effects of long-term and successional vegetation changes on <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> to account more fully for interactions among fire, climate, and vegetation dynamics. ?? 2009 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Balshi, M. S.; McGuire, A. D.; Duffy, P.; Flannigan, M.; Walsh, J.; Melillo, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">37</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/797471"> <span id="translatedtitle">Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). CAU 490 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and includes for Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) Fire Training <span class="hlt">Area</span> (CAS 03-56-001-03BA); (2) Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> (CAS RG-56-001-RGBA); (3) Sandia Service Yard (CAS 03-58-001-03FN); and (4) Gun Propellant <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> (CAS 09-54-001-09L2).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. B. Campbell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">38</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020034899&hterms=brass&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dbrass"> <span id="translatedtitle">Brazil Fire Characterization and <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Estimation Using the Airborne Infrared Disaster Assessment (AIRDAS) System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Remotely sensed estimations of regional and global emissions from biomass combustion have been used to characterize fire behavior, determine fire intensity, and estimate <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Highly temporal, low resolution satellite data have been used to calculate estimates of fire numbers and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. These estimates of fire activity and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> have differed dramatically, resulting in a wide range of predictions on the ecological and environmental impacts of fires. As part of the Brazil/United States Fire Initiative, an aircraft campaign was initiated in 1992 and continued in 1994. This multi-aircraft campaign was designed to assist in the characterization of fire activity, document fire intensity and determine <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> over prescribed, agricultural and wildland fires in the savanna and forests of central Brazil. Using a unique, multispectral scanner (AIRDAS), designed specifically for fire characterization, a variety of fires and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> were flown with a high spatial and high thermal resolution scanner. The system was used to measure flame front size, rate of spread, ratio of smoldering to flaming fronts and fire intensity. In addition, long transects were flown to determine the size of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> within the cerrado and transitional ecosystems. The authors anticipate that the fire activity and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates reported here will lead to enhanced information for precise regional trace gas prediction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brass, J. A.; Riggan, P. J.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Lockwood, R. N.; Pereira, J. A.; Higgins, R. G.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">39</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8887E..0MA"> <span id="translatedtitle">Accuracy of fuzzy <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping as a function of the aerosol parameterization of atmospheric correction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mediterranean forests are every year affected by wildfires which have a significant effect on the ecosystem. Mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> is an important field of application for optical remote sensing techniques and several methodologies have been developed in order to improve mapping accuracy. We developed an automated procedure based on spectral indices and fuzzy theory for mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> from atmospherically corrected Landsat TM images. The algorithm proved to provide consistent accuracy over Mediterranean <span class="hlt">areas</span>. We further tested algorithm's performance to assess the influence of the atmospheric correction on the accuracy of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. In particular, we ran the Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) code with different Atmospheric Optical Thickness (AOT) levels and two aerosol models (continental and maritime) on one TM image acquired over Portugal (12/08/2003). <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps derived from atmospherically corrected images and from the non corrected image (Top Of Atmosphere, TOA) have been analyzed. In the output <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> maps the omission error varies in the range 4.6-6.5% and the commission error fluctuates between 11.9 and 22.2%; the highest omission (commission) errors occur with the continental (maritime) model. The accuracy of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps derived from non corrected image is very low, with omission error greater than 90%. These results show that, although atmospheric correction is needed for the application of the algorithm, the AOT value does not significantly affect the performance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Azar, Ramin; Stroppiana, Daniela; Bresciani, Mariano; Giardino, Claudia; Boschetti, Mirco; Brivio, Pietro A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">40</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ulmo.ucmerced.edu/pdffiles/09EA_Littelletal.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climate and wildfire <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in western U.S. ecoprovinces, 1916–2003</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this paper is to quantify climatic controls on the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by fire in different vegetation types in the western United States. We demonstrate that wildfire <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> (WFAB) in the American West was controlled by climate during the 20th century (1916-2003). Persistent ecosystem-specific correlations between climate and WFAB are grouped by vegetation type (ecoprovinces). Most mountainous</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeremy S. Littell; Donald McKenzie; David L. Peterson; Anthony L. Westerling</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">41</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1737c/report.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1737c/plate-1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mineral Resources of the Black Mountains North and <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Areas</span>, Mohave County, Arizona</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, approximately 19,300 acres of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> (AZ-020-009) and 23,310 acres of the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> (AZ-02D-010) were evaluated for mineral resources and mineral resource potential. In this report, the <span class="hlt">area</span> studied is referred to, collectively or individually, as the 'wilderness study <span class="hlt">area</span>' or simply 'the study <span class="hlt">area</span>'; any reference to the Black Mountains North or <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Areas</span> refers only to that part of the wilderness study <span class="hlt">area</span> for which a mineral survey was requested by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. The study <span class="hlt">area</span> is located in western Arizona, about 30 mi northwest of Kingman. There are no identified resources in the study <span class="hlt">area</span>. An <span class="hlt">area</span> surrounding the Portland mine and including the southern part of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> and the extreme northwestern part of the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> has high resource potential for gold and moderate resource potential for silver, lead, and mercury. The <span class="hlt">area</span> surrounding this and including much of the northern part of the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> has moderate potential for gold, silver, and lead. The northeastern corner of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> has moderate potential for gold and low potential for silver, copper, and molybdenum resources. The central part, including the narrow strip of land just west of the central part, of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> and the southern and extreme eastern parts of the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> have low resource potential for gold. The central and southern parts of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> and all but the southwestern part of the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> have moderate resource potential for perlite. Moderate resource potential for zeolites is assigned to a large <span class="hlt">area</span> around the Portland mine that includes parts of both study <span class="hlt">areas</span>, to a narrow strip of land just west of the central part of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span>, and to all but the southwest corner of the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span>. There is no potential for oil and gas in either study <span class="hlt">area</span>. Sand and gravel are present in both study <span class="hlt">areas</span>, but abundant quantities of these resources are available closer to existing markets.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Conrad, James E.; Hill, Randall H.; Jachens, Robert C.; Neubert, John T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">42</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESD...1.4891B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling fire frequency and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> across phytoclimatic regions in Spain using reanalysis data and the Canadian Fire Weather Index System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We develop fire occurrence and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> models in peninsular Spain, an <span class="hlt">area</span> of high variability in climate and fuel types, for the period 1990-2008. We based the analysis on a phytoclimatic classification aiming to the stratification of the territory into homogeneous units in terms of climatic and fuel type characteristics, allowing to test model performance under different climatic and fuel conditions. We used generalized linear models (GLM) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) as modelling algorithms and temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and wind speed, taken from the ERA-Interim reanalysis, as well as the components of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System as predictors. We also computed the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) as an additional predictor for the models of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. We found two contrasting fire regimes in terms of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> and number of fires: one characterized by a bimodal <span class="hlt">annual</span> pattern, characterizing the Nemoral and Oro-boreal phytoclimatic types, and another one exhibiting an unimodal <span class="hlt">annual</span> cycle, with the fire season concentrated in the summer months in the Mediterranean and Arid regions. The fire occurrence models attained good skill in most of the phytoclimatic zones considered, yielding in some zones notably high correlation coefficients between the observed and modelled inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> fire frequencies. Total <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> also exhibited a high dependence on the meteorological drivers, although their ability to reproduce the observed <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> time series was poor in most cases. We identified temperature and some FWI system components as the most important explanatory variables, and also SPEI in some of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> models, highlighting the adequacy of the FWI system for fire modelling applications and leaving the door opened to the development a more complex modelling framework based on these predictors. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential usefulness of ERA-Interim reanalysis data for the reconstruction of historical fire-climate relationships at the scale of analysis. Fire frequency predictions may provide a preferable basis for past fire history reconstruction, long-term monitoring and the assessment of future climate impacts on fire regimes across regions, posing several advantages over <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> as response variable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bedia, J.; Herrera, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">43</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47943331"> <span id="translatedtitle">Underestimation of GCM-Calculated Short-Wave Atmospheric Absorption in <span class="hlt">Areas</span> Affected by Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many current General Circulation Models (GCMs) exhibit a common problem, namely that their atmosphere is too transparent to\\u000a solar radiation. The underestimation of atmospheric short-wave absorption by these models is particularly large in <span class="hlt">areas</span> and\\u000a seasons where extensive biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> takes place. This is shown using surface radiation measurements combined with co-located\\u000a satellite observations at sites affected by biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin Wild</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">44</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC21C0855K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting high severity fire occurrence and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in a changing climate for three regions in the Western US</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A long history of fire suppression in the western United States has interrupted the fire regimes of many forest types. This interruption has significantly changed forest structure and ecological function and led to increasingly uncharacteristic fires in terms of size and severity. Research has shown that climate variability drives the occurrence of large fires and is important to predicting fire severity. We found that Western US <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in high severity fire can be accurately predicted using a generalized Pareto distribution model with covariates of climate, weather, topography, and vegetation. Our model was robust in all but the most extreme fire years, e.g. 1988, 2000, 2002, and 2003, where <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in high severity was significantly greater than in other years. We modeled the Northern Rocky Mountains, the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and the Southwestern US to determine if regional differences in controls on severity were at play in extreme years. The regional analysis improved model performance by capturing extreme fire years and identified regionally unique covariates. For the Northern Rocky Mountains the addition of elevation and fire regime condition class improved the prediction in extreme years. In the Southwest relative humidity and moisture deficit in the month of fire and total fire size were critical to capturing extreme fire years. The Sierra Nevada model had the most complex set of covariates that included: vegetation, moisture deficit, evapotranspiration, precipitation, and fire regime condition class. By incorporating regionally specific variables, our models were robust in prediction of high severity <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in all years. For this work, we will apply high and low CO2 emission scenarios from three general circulation models to our regional statistical models to predict probability of high severity fire occurrence as well as <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in high severity for the period 1950-2099. We used the downscaled climate as an input into the VIC hydrologic model to generate independent variable sets for each future scenario. The modeling output will allow us to identify potential changes in the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> with high severity fire under future climate as well as <span class="hlt">areas</span> where the probable occurrence of high severity fires might increase.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keyser, A.; Westerling, A. L.; Milostan, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">45</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B41D0441B"> <span id="translatedtitle">MODIS-Landsat data fusion for automated continental 30 m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Satellite data have been used to monitor fire for more than three decades using computer algorithms that detect the location of active fires at the time of satellite overpass and the spatial extent of the <span class="hlt">areas</span> affected by fire. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors have dedicated fire monitoring capabilities and their data are used to systematically generate daily global 1km active fire and monthly 500m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products. Neither MODIS product can detect the incidence or extent of fire reliably at the scale of 10's of meters. The free Landsat data policy now provides the opportunity for continental to global scale Landsat 30m resolution processing. We present a multi-temporal methodology to fuse the MODIS active fire and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products with Landsat data to map <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> at 30m on a temporally rolling basis. To demonstrate the methodology, 30m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps of the Western United States are generated using the freely available Web Enabled Landsat (WELD) mosaics (http://landsat.usgs.gov/WELD.php). Validation is conducted by systematic comparison with fire perimeter vectors provided by the USGS Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity project. Prospects for future development and continental application are discussed. The methodology demonstrates the potential use of the Landsat archive to generate a long term 30m fire data record.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.; Baraldi, A.; Humber, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">46</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B31A0394B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal Variability in Boreal Wildfire Activity Associated with Landscape Patterns of <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wildfire is the most prominent disturbance in the boreal forest, effecting changes in stand age and vegetation composition often over thousands of square kilometers. The effect of wildfire on ecosystem structure and function depends heavily on the seasonality of the <span class="hlt">burn</span>, and periods of seasonally high fire activity are highly sporadic. The majority of <span class="hlt">area</span> in Alaska that <span class="hlt">burns</span> in a fire season does so during relatively short periods of high fire activity. These periods, which can be determined from active fire detections or fire management agency data records, are caused by elevated air temperatures and low precipitation which decrease fuel moisture and encourage the spread of fire. While fire fronts dominate during periods of low fire activity, more active periods have a higher proportion of residual <span class="hlt">burning</span> which remains after a front has passed through. Residual <span class="hlt">burning</span> is likely responsible for the extensive combustion of surface organic materials in the boreal forest, which can lead to post-fire changes in dominant vegetation type. Seasonal variations in fire activity are therefore an important factor in the mosaic of severity conditions across large <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> and shifts in land cover over successional time scales. The purpose of this study is to characterize the temporal and spatial variability in periods of seasonal high fire activity that influence patterns of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. In large <span class="hlt">burns</span>, unburned <span class="hlt">areas</span> within a fire scar may serve as an important seed stock during post-fire recruitment. These <span class="hlt">areas</span> may also feedback to future fire regimes through the preservation of more fire-resistant vegetation in unburned "islands".</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barrett, K. M.; Kasischke, E. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">47</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40911767"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of long-term <span class="hlt">annual</span> and periodic <span class="hlt">burning</span> on tree survival and growth in a Missouri Ozark oak-hickory forest</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a Missouri Ozark Mountains oak-hickory forest, long-term <span class="hlt">annual</span> and periodic <span class="hlt">burning</span> regimes decreased survival of Carya and Erythrobalanus oak species, but had little impact on survival of Quercus stellata. Reductions in survival of Carya and Erythrobalanus species were greater in periodically- than in <span class="hlt">annually</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> plots. Compared with Q. stellata mortality, Carya mortality was less closely related to preatreatment</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Julie A. Huddle; Stephen G. Pallardy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">48</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJAEO..20...42L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multiscale mapping of <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and severity using multisensor satellite data and spatial autocorrelation analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Traditional methods of recording fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> and fire severity involve expensive and time-consuming field surveys. Available remote sensing technologies may allow us to develop standardized <span class="hlt">burn</span>-severity maps for evaluating fire effects and addressing post fire management activities. This paper focuses on multiscale characterization of fire severity using multisensor satellite data. To this aim, both MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) data have been processed using geo-statistic analyses to capture pattern features of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Even if in last decades different authors tried to integrate geo-statistics and remote sensing image processing, methods used since now are only variograms, semivariograms and kriging. In this paper, we propose an approach based on the use of spatial indicators of global and local autocorrelation. Spatial autocorrelation statistics, such as Moran's I and Getis-Ord Local Gi index, were used to measure and analyze dependency degree among spectral features of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. This approach enables the characterization of pattern features of a <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and improves the estimation of fire severity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lanorte, A.; Danese, M.; Lasaponara, R.; Murgante, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">49</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMNH43A..06B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Merging satellite measurements of fire radiative energy and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products to estimate biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>: A European case study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is a key element of the terrestrial carbon cycle that influences the global radiation budget through the biomass consumption and the subsequently release of aerosols and trace gases into the atmosphere having huge impacts on the global climate. Recently, global products of daily fire activity have recorded Fire Radiative Power (FRP), providing a quantitative assessment of fire intensity across the globe. Several studies showed that FRP is proportional to the fire's fuel consumption and smoke emission rates through integration of the FRP over time, deriving the Fire Radiative Energy (FRE), which can be assumed as the total energy released over a spatio-temporal unit and used to infer total emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in various ecosystems, omitting fuel load and combustion completeness information that are characterized by significant uncertainties at continental and global scale, and at the same time simplifying the computation of spatially explicit fuel consumption estimates. This study integrates spatial and temporal analysis using FRP data from the geostationary Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) for the year 2008 and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor (MCD64A1) for the same year focusing on Europe. An intercomparison assessment of the emission estimates with the Global Fire Data Emissions Database (GFED) followed, due to lack of FRE and combustion measurements in large scale for validation. We show that the fire-emitted energy approach can be used in continental scale reducing uncertainties in emission estimates which may lead to simplification of the fire parameterization in fire modelling, yet in more robust simulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bistinas, I.; Saldaña, G. L.; Oom, D.; Sá, A. C.; Silva, J. M.; Pereira, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">50</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48930583"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal variability in <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> for the province of Ontario, Canada, during the past 200 years inferred from tree rings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> variability in the province of Ontario, Canada, was inferred from 25 tree ring width chronologies covering A.D. 1781–1982 and distributed largely across the Boreal Shield. The <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> estimates account for 39.5% of the variance in the actual <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> recorded from 1917 to 1981 and were verified using a split sample calibration-verification scheme. The reconstruction showed that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin P. Girardin; Jacques Tardif; Mike D. Flannigan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">51</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/630832"> <span id="translatedtitle">Baseline Risk Assessment for the F-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits and Rubble Pit</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document provides an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a description of the F-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (BRPs) and Rubble Pit (RP) unit. It also describes the objectives and scope of the baseline risk assessment (BRA).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">52</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2515529"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reconstruction of Hair-bearing <span class="hlt">Areas</span> of the Head and Face in Patients With <span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aim: Tissue expansion is a well-documented surgical option. In patients with <span class="hlt">burns</span> with defects in hair-bearing <span class="hlt">areas</span>, the paucity of hair-bearing skin and donor-site problems presents a complicated issue. Herein we share our results in 10 patients with scalp and facial <span class="hlt">burns</span>, requesting the reconstruction of hair-bearing <span class="hlt">areas</span> and address important issues to bear in mind when undertaking this procedure. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with scalp, face, and neck <span class="hlt">burns</span> were treated with tissue expanders for generating hair in hair-bearing <span class="hlt">areas</span>, and were later treated with free or pedicle flaps. Expanders were placed in the temporal and/or the occipital or supraclavicular <span class="hlt">areas</span> for 80 to 130 days depending on defect size. Tissue expansion was done slowly at weekly intervals; after completing the predicted expansion, a wait period of 3 to 4 weeks for the expanded tissue to rest was observed before the second operation. To reconstruct the scalp and facial hair-bearing <span class="hlt">areas</span>, 2 free scalp flaps and 8 rotation flaps were prepared and transferred to the head, neck, and face in these patients. Results: Ten <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients aged 20 to 35 years (mean = 28 years) (9 men and 1 woman) were treated with expanders followed by flaps. Defects ranged in size from 5 to 20 cm2. Complications, mainly infection of the tissue-expander pocket, seroma formation, and partial flap loss (1 patient) were encountered. Conclusion: Tissue expansion is a useful method for reconstruction of hair-bearing-<span class="hlt">area</span> defects of the scalp, neck, or face, with good cosmetic results. Expansion is slightly more difficult in patients with <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars and requires greater attention to technical details to prevent untoward complications. However, hair-bearing <span class="hlt">area</span> reconstruction in <span class="hlt">burn</span> and trauma patients done with expanded scalp skin has several major advantages: (1) The ability to close the donor site primarily, (2) expanded scalp skin has less hair follicles per square centimeter, (3) thinner skin provides a near perfect match to the facial skin, and (4) expanded skin can be transferred as a free or pedicle flap and can be even used to reconstruct multiple <span class="hlt">areas</span>, such as eyebrow and cheek and mustache, simultaneously. PMID:18784831</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nazerani, Shahram; Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein Kalantar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">53</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://silvis.forest.wisc.edu/sites/default/files/pubs/Dubinin_etal_RSE_2010.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reconstructing long time series of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in arid grasslands of southern Russia by satellite remote sensing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reconstructing long time series of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in arid grasslands of southern Russia by satellite: AVHRR MODIS RESURS Landsat <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping Southern Russia Arid grasslands Grazing Fire, assessing fire regime changes is challenging, especially in grasslands because of high intra- and inter</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Radeloff, Volker C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">54</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/gb/gb0304/2003GB002040/2003GB002040.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Asia: <span class="hlt">Annual</span> and seasonal estimates and atmospheric emissions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Asia are developed to facilitate the modeling of Asian and global air quality. A survey of national, regional, and international publications on biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is conducted to yield consensus estimates of “typical” (i.e., non-year-specific) estimates of open <span class="hlt">burning</span> (excluding biofuels). We conclude that 730 Tg of biomass are <span class="hlt">burned</span> in a typical year from both</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. G. Streets; K. F. Yarber; J.-H. Woo; G. R. Carmichael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">55</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55549891"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Asia: <span class="hlt">Annual</span> and seasonal estimates and atmospheric emissions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Asia are developed to facilitate the modeling of Asian and global air quality. A survey of national, regional, and international publications on biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is conducted to yield consensus estimates of ``typical'' (i.e., non-year-specific) estimates of open <span class="hlt">burning</span> (excluding biofuels). We conclude that 730 Tg of biomass are <span class="hlt">burned</span> in a typical year from both</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. G. Streets; K. F. Yarber; J.-H. Woo; G. R. Carmichael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">56</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cgrer.uiowa.edu/EMISSION_DATA/publications/papers/Streets_BB_gbc_2003GB002040.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Asia : <span class="hlt">annual</span> and seasonal estimates and atmospheric emissions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Asia are developed to facilitate the modeling of Asian and global air quality. A survey of national, regional, and international publications on biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is conducted to yield consensus estimates of 'typical' (i.e., non-year-specific) estimates of open <span class="hlt">burning</span> (excluding biofuels). We conclude that 730 Tg of biomass are <span class="hlt">burned</span> in a typical year from both</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. G. Streets; K. F. Yarber; J.-H. Woo; G. R. Carmichael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">57</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/910952"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design of an Actinide <span class="hlt">Burning</span>, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor That Produces Low Cost Electricty - FY-02 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this collaborative Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project is to investigate the suitability of lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. Work has been accomplished in four major <span class="hlt">areas</span> of research: core neutronic design, plant engineering, material compatibility studies, and coolant activation. The publications derived from work on this project (since project inception) are listed in Appendix A. This is the third in a series of <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Reports for this project, the others are also listed in Appendix A as FY-00 and FY-01 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Reports.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">58</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9047M"> <span id="translatedtitle">MODIS 250m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping based on an algorithm using change point detection and Markov random fields.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in tropical savannas of Brazil was mapped using MODIS-AQUA daily 250m resolution imagery by adapting one of the European Space Agency fire_CCI project <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> algorithms, based on change point detection and Markov random fields. The study <span class="hlt">area</span> covers 1,44 Mkm2 and was performed with data from 2005. The daily 1000 m image quality layer was used for cloud and cloud shadow screening. The algorithm addresses each pixel as a time series and detects changes in the statistical properties of NIR reflectance values, to identify potential <span class="hlt">burning</span> dates. The first step of the algorithm is robust filtering, to exclude outlier observations, followed by application of the Pruned Exact Linear Time (PELT) change point detection technique. Near-infrared (NIR) spectral reflectance changes between time segments, and post change NIR reflectance values are combined into a fire likelihood score. Change points corresponding to an increase in reflectance are dismissed as potential <span class="hlt">burn</span> events, as are those occurring outside of a pre-defined fire season. In the last step of the algorithm, monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> probability maps and detection date maps are converted to dichotomous (<span class="hlt">burned</span>-unburned maps) using Markov random fields, which take into account both spatial and temporal relations in the potential <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps. A preliminary assessment of our results is performed by comparison with data from the MODIS 1km active fires and the 500m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products, taking into account differences in spatial resolution between the two sensors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mota, Bernardo; Pereira, Jose; Campagnolo, Manuel; Killick, Rebeca</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">59</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/770999"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tanks Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> report FY2000</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation effort with tanks containing hazardous and radioactive waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials. With some 90 million gallons of waste in the form of solid, sludge, liquid, and gas stored in 287 tanks across the DOE complex, containing approximately 650 million curies, radioactive waste storage tank remediation is the nation's highest cleanup priority. Differing waste types and unique technical issues require specialized science and technology to achieve tank cleanup in an environmentally acceptable manner. Some of the waste has been stored for over 50 years in tanks that have exceeded their design lives. The challenge is to characterize and maintain these contents in a safe condition and continue to remediate and close each tank to minimize the risks of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) created a group of integrated, multiorganizational teams focusing on specific <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the EM cleanup mission. These teams have evolved into five focus <span class="hlt">areas</span> managed within EM's Office of Science and Technology (OST): Tanks Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span> (TFA); Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span>; Nuclear Materials Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span>; Subsurface Contaminants Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span>; and Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus <span class="hlt">Area</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">None</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">60</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20111214"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probability and volume of potential postwildfire debris flows in the 2011 Wallow <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, eastern Arizona</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> in 2011 by the Wallow wildfire in eastern Arizona. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> drainage basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and debris-flow volumes for selected drainage basins. Input for the models include measures of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, topographic characteristics, soil properties, and rainfall total and intensity for a (1) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall and (2) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall. Estimated debris-flow probabilities in the drainage basins of interest ranged from less than 1 percent in response to both the 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall and the 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall to a high of 41 percent in response to the 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall. The low probabilities in all modeled drainage basins are likely due to extensive low-gradient hillslopes, <span class="hlt">burned</span> at low severities, and large drainage-basin <span class="hlt">areas</span> (greater than 25 square kilometers). Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from a low of 24 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters, indicating a considerable hazard should debris flows occur</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruddy, Barbara C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">61</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513633M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dominating soil typologies in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> of Dz¯u kija National Park (Lithuania)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A big part of the scientific community consider fire disturbance as an ecological factor which becomes an integral part of the structure and dynamics of the biotic components of forests. In Dz?kija National Park, likewise occurs in other boreal forests, fire perturbation has become over time one of the main natural components which models and structures the landscape. It is indeed know that park's forest territory presents a high sensitivity to wildfire and soil typologies could have certain implications when evaluating vulnerability to fire. To carry out this study, a total of 28 <span class="hlt">burned</span>-stands were explored. Information collected in the forest related to fire concurrence as well as current dominating overgrowing were registered. In this way, interpretation of field work results was aimed to elucidate dominating soils in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> which potentially are more prone to wildfire. The majority of fire-affected stands were found on soils of type "Na" -78% of total sites-, a few ones of "Nb" -18% of <span class="hlt">burned</span> plots- and, eventually, fire was also evidenced in "Lb" soils -4%. "Na" typology belongs to very dry and unfertilized soils and, thus, very sensitive to fire, with dominating community of Cladonio-pinetum sylvestris. In "Nb" stands there are more fertilized soils with Vaccinium vitis-idaea in some cases with transitional associations of Vaccinium myrtillus. "Lb" typology refers to wetter soils with undergrown of Vaccinium myrtillus. Overall, fire has regularly been occurring in dried and non-fertilized soils, were preconditions for <span class="hlt">burning</span> increase; whereas <span class="hlt">burned</span> stands within more humid environments were rarely found.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin-Gallego, David; Lapele, Mindaugas; Pereira, Paulo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">62</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.asc2008.com/manuscripts/l/lo-02.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">SURVIVAL OF <span class="hlt">BURNS</span> INVOLVING 90% OF THE TOTAL BODY SURFACE <span class="hlt">AREA</span> AFTER TREATMENT WITH AUTOLOGOUS ENGINEERED SKIN SUBSTITUTES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rapid and effective closure of full-thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds remains a limiting factor for survival after <span class="hlt">burns</span> involving most of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA). Hypothetically, engineered skin substitutes (ESS) consisting of autologous cultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts attached to collagen-based sponges may reduce requirements for donor skin, numbers of grafting procedures, and time of intensive care during hospitalization. To demonstrate</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steven Boyce; Peggy Simpson; Richard Kagan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">63</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AtmEn..36.3009D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Selected organic compounds from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> found in the atmospheric particulate matter over sugarcane plantation <span class="hlt">areas</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atmospheric particulate matter, from three sites in the city of Campos dos Goytacazes, and smoke samples from the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of sugarcane leaves and bagasse were analyzed for biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions. Samples were acquired using a standard high-volume air sampler; extracts were prepared and fractionated into aromatic and polar compounds. These fractions were subjected to gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Polar and aromatic fractions were identified and quantified. Compounds such as levoglucosan, galactosan, mannosan were found in the polar fractions, and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aromatic fractions. Concentrations of levoglucosan ranged from 0.15 to 1.65 ng/m 3, 0.36 to 6.83 ng/m 3 and 0.19 to 28.42 ng/m 3 at the downtown Corpo de Bombeiros, suburban (Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense) and countryside (Lake de Cima, LC) sites; and from 10.55 to 35.06 ng/m 3 and 2.7 ng/m 3 in the smoke samples from the burnt leaves and bagasse, respectively. The LC site is, at face value, a non-polluted countryside <span class="hlt">area</span>, surrounded by sugarcane plantations. This fact explains why the highest concentrations of levoglucosan were detected there. Sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span> is not the main source of toxic compounds, such as PAH, e.g. benzo( a)pyrene, in the atmospheric particulate matter. No or small concentrations of PAHs were found in the sugarcane leaves/bagasse <span class="hlt">burning</span> samples. Their presence in the studied sites can be ascribed to vehicular exhaust. Therefore, these are the two major sources of atmospheric pollution in this <span class="hlt">area</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">dos Santos, Celeste Yara Moreira; Azevedo, Débora de Almeida; de Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">64</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2492O"> <span id="translatedtitle">MERIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> algorithm in the framework of the ESA Fire CCI Project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Fire-CCI project aims at generating long and reliable time series of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> (BA) maps based on existing information provided by European satellite sensors. In this context, a BA algorithm is currently being developed using the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) sensor. The algorithm is being tested over a series of ten study sites with a <span class="hlt">area</span> of 500x500 km2 each, for the period of 2003 to 2009. The study sites are located in Canada, Colombia, Brazil, Portugal, Angola, South Africa, Kazakhstan, Borneo, Russia and Australia and include a variety of vegetation types characterized by different fire regimes. The algorithm has to take into account several limiting aspects that range from the MERIS sensor characteristics (e.g. the lack of SWIR bands) to the noise presented in the data. In addition the lack of data in some <span class="hlt">areas</span> caused either because of cloud contamination or because the sensor does not acquire full resolution data over the study <span class="hlt">area</span>, provokes a limitation difficult to overcome. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the design of the BA algorithm is based on the analysis of maximum composites of spectral indices characterized by low values of temporal standard deviation in space and associated to MODIS hot spots. Accordingly, for each study site and year, composites of maximum values of BAI are computed and the corresponding Julian day of the maximum value and number of observations in the period are registered by pixel . Then we computed the temporal standard deviation for pixels with a number of observations greater than 10 using spatial matrices of 3x3 pixels. To classify the BAI values as <span class="hlt">burned</span> or non-<span class="hlt">burned</span> we extract statistics using the MODIS hot spots. A pixel is finally classified as <span class="hlt">burned</span> if it satisfies the following conditions: i) it is associated to hot spots; ii) BAI maximum is higher than a certain threshold and iii) the standard deviation of the Julian day is less than a given number of days.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oliva, P.; Calado, T.; Gonzalez, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">65</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513632M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dominating fire direction in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> of Dz¯ u kija National Park (Lithuania)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fire perturbation has been often breaking out in Dzukija's National Park landscapes over the last 150 years -coinciding with the age of oldest forests in the park's territory. Valuable information was obtained by carrying out a retrospective analysis which helped to reveal ancient presence of fire in the park. The study was developed on previously stipulated old forest stands around the <span class="hlt">area</span> of Marcinkonys village. Of a total of 28 <span class="hlt">burned</span>-stands, direction of fire spread was noted down from all standing trees presenting fire traces within two plot <span class="hlt">areas</span> of 20 meters x 10 meters. It should be stated, however, that for half of the plots fire direction was uncertain and, hence, not taken into account. South-west direction was evidenced in half of the plots, being indeed the one with most presence in the <span class="hlt">burned</span> stands; west and south direction were dominating in 28.5% and 25% of the plots respectively; in 10.7% of plots north-west was dominating direction; whereas fire traces were rarely observed facing north -only in 3.7% of plots-. Regarding the rest of directions, they were absent in all sampling sites. The direction of fire spread is largely determined by wind flow patterns: specifically wind and relative humidity could significantly change <span class="hlt">burning</span> conditions. Despite that wind in the region blows predominantly from west and south-west, when analyzing our findings, it appears that dry continental air masses, and in general wind events associated with passing of dry cold fronts, produce more favorable conditions for the occurrence of fire. Wind-driven fires are mostly spreading to south-west as dry wind coming from north-west and west might generate the principle source of ignition and make vegetation more flammable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin-Gallego, David; Lapele, Mindaugas; Pereira, Paulo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">66</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24918947"> <span id="translatedtitle">A mobile app for measuring the surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of a <span class="hlt">burn</span> in three dimensions: comparison to the lund and browder assessment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this study was to compare the ease and accuracy of measuring the surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of a severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> through the use of a mobile software application (<span class="hlt">Burn</span>Med) to the traditional method of assessment, the Lund and Browder chart. <span class="hlt">Burn</span>Med calculates the surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of a <span class="hlt">burn</span> by enabling the user to first manipulate a three-dimensional model on a mobile device and then by touching the model at the locations representing the patient's injury. The surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> is calculated in real time. Using a cohort of 18 first-year medical students with no experience in <span class="hlt">burn</span> care, the surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of a simulated <span class="hlt">burn</span> on a mannequin was made using <span class="hlt">Burn</span>Med and compared to estimates derived from the Lund and Browder chart. At the completion of this study, students were asked to complete a questionnaire designed to assess the ease of use of <span class="hlt">Burn</span>Med. Users were able to easily and accurately measure the surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of a simulated <span class="hlt">burn</span> using the <span class="hlt">Burn</span>Med application. In addition, there was less variability in surface <span class="hlt">area</span> measurements with the application compared to the results obtained using the Lund and Browder chart. Users also reported that <span class="hlt">Burn</span>Med was easier to use than the Lund and Browder chart. A software application, <span class="hlt">Burn</span>Med, has been developed for a mobile device that easily and accurately determines the surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of a <span class="hlt">burn</span>. This system uses a three-dimensional model that can be rotated, enlarged, and transposed by the health care provider to easily determine the extent of a <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Results show that the variability of measurements using <span class="hlt">Burn</span>Med is lower than the measurements obtained using the Lund and Browder chart. <span class="hlt">Burn</span>Med is available at no charge in the Apple™ Store. PMID:24918947</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goldberg, Harry; Klaff, Justin; Spjut, Aaron; Milner, Stephen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">67</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AtmEn..39.6430S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical mass balance source apportionment of TSP in a lignite-<span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> of Western Macedonia, Greece</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Total suspended particle mass concentrations (TSP) were determined in the Kozani-Ptolemais-Florina basin (western Macedonia, Greece), an <span class="hlt">area</span> with intensive lignite <span class="hlt">burning</span> for power generation. The study was conducted over a 1-year period (November 2000-November 2001) at 10 receptor sites located at variable distances from the power plants. Ambient TSP samples were analyzed for 27 major, minor and trace elements. Particulate emissions were also collected from a variety of sources including fly ash, lignite dust, automobile traffic, domestic heating, and open-air <span class="hlt">burning</span> of agricultural biomass and refuse, and analyzed for the same chemical components. Ambient and source chemical profiles were used for source identification and apportionment of TSP by employing a chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. Diesel <span class="hlt">burning</span> in vehicular traffic and in the power plants for generator start up was found to be the major contributor to ambient TSP levels at all 10 sites. Other sources with significant contributions were domestic coal <span class="hlt">burning</span>, vegetative <span class="hlt">burning</span> (wood combustion and agricultural <span class="hlt">burns</span>) and refuse open-air <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Fly ash escaping the electrostatic precipitators of the power plants was a minor contributor to ambient TSP.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Samara, Constantini</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">68</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960026667&hterms=effect+burning+weight+object&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Deffect%2Bburning%2Bweight%2Bobject"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> may be the overwhelming regional or continental-scale source of methane (CH4) as in tropical Africa and a significant global source of CH4. Our best estimate of present methane emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is about 51.9 Tg/yr, or 10% of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> methane emissions to the atmosphere. Increased frequency of fires that may result as the Earth warms up may result in increases in this source of atmospheric methane.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pinto, Joseph P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">69</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=35239"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ANNUAL</span> REPORT ON PERFORMANCE AUDIT RESULTS FOR POHC TESTING DURING TRIAL <span class="hlt">BURNS</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Audit materials containing Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHCs) have been developed by AREAL for use by federal, state, and local agencies or their contractors to assess the accuracy of measurement methods during RCRA trial <span class="hlt">burn</span> tests. Audit materials are currently av...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">70</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24477336"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and spatial variation of organic tracers for biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in PM1 aerosols from highly insolated urban <span class="hlt">areas</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">PM1 aerosol characterization on organic tracers for biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> (levoglucosan and its isomers and dehydroabietic acid) was conducted within the AERTRANS project. PM1 filters (N?=?90) were sampled from 2010 to 2012 in busy streets in the urban centre of Madrid and Barcelona (Spain) at ground-level and at roof sites. In both urban <span class="hlt">areas</span>, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> was not expected to be an important local emission source, but regional emissions from wildfires, residential heating or biomass removal may influence the air quality in the cities. Although both <span class="hlt">areas</span> are under influence of high solar radiation, Madrid is situated in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, while Barcelona is located at the Mediterranean Coast and under influence of marine atmospheres. Two extraction methods were applied, i.e. Soxhlet and ASE, which showed equivalent results after GC-MS analyses. The ambient air concentrations of the organic tracers for biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> increased by an order of magnitude at both sites during winter compared to summer. An exception was observed during a PM event in summer 2012, when the atmosphere in Barcelona was directly affected by regional wildfire smoke and levels were four times higher as those observed in winter. Overall, there was little variation between the street and roof sites in both cities, suggesting that regional biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> sources influence the urban <span class="hlt">areas</span> after atmospheric transport. Despite the different atmospheric characteristics in terms of air relative humidity, Madrid and Barcelona exhibit very similar composition and concentrations of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> organic tracers. Nevertheless, levoglucosan and its isomers seem to be more suitable for source apportionment purposes than dehydroabietic acid. In both urban <span class="hlt">areas</span>, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> contributions to PM were generally low (2 %) in summer, except on the day when wildfire smoke arrive to the urban <span class="hlt">area</span>. In the colder periods the contribution increase to around 30 %, indicating that regional biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> has a substantial influence on the urban air quality. PMID:24477336</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van Drooge, B L; Fontal, M; Bravo, N; Fernández, P; Fernández, M A; Muñoz-Arnanz, J; Jiménez, B; Grimalt, J O</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">71</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10116025"> <span id="translatedtitle">R-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Reactor 1993 <span class="hlt">annual</span> groundwater monitoring report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Groundwater was sampled and analyzed during 1993 from wells monitoring the following locations in R <span class="hlt">Area</span>: Well cluster P20 east of R <span class="hlt">Area</span> (one well each in the water table and the McBean formation), the R-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Acid/Caustic Basin (the four water-table wells of the RAC series), the R-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Ash Basin/Coal Pile (one well of the RCP series in the Congaree formation and one in the water table), the R-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Disassembly Basin (the three water-table wells of the RDB series), the R-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (the four water-table wells of the RRP series), and the R-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Seepage Basins (numerous water-table wells in the RSA, RSB, RSC, RSD, RSE, and RSF series). Lead was the only constituent detected above its 50{mu}g/L standard in any but the seepage basin wells; it exceeded that level in one B well and in 23 of the seepage basin wells. Cadmium exceeded its drinking water standard (DWS) in 30 of the seepage basin wells, as did mercury in 10. Nitrate-nitrite was above DWS once each in two seepage basin wells. Tritium was above DWS in six seepage basin wells, as was gross alpha activity in 22. Nonvolatile beta exceeded its screening standard in 29 wells. Extensive radionuclide analyses were requested during 1993 for the RCP series and most of the seepage basin wells. Strontium-90 in eight wells was the only specific radionuclide other than tritium detected above DWS; it appeared about one-half of the nonvolatile beta activity in those wells.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Not Available</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">72</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/243444"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of soil contamination at the Riot Control <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Pit <span class="hlt">area</span> in J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A remedial investigation was conducted to identify soil contamination in the Riot Control <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Pit <span class="hlt">area</span> in J-field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The investigation included geophysical surveys to delineate the filled section of the pit, soil-gas surveys to locate the organic contamination <span class="hlt">area</span>, field X-ray fluorescence measurements along the <span class="hlt">burning</span> pit to identify the major metal contamination, and surface and subsurface soil analyses to investigate the nature and extent of contamination. This paper presents the results of this investigation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Ying-Ya; Yuen, C.R.; Martino, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">73</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www-mtl.mit.edu/research/annual_reports/2014/rasi.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">MTL <span class="hlt">ANNUAL</span> RESEARCH REPORT 2014 Faculty Research <span class="hlt">Areas</span> v Faculty Research <span class="hlt">Areas</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">and energy conversion with applications in thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, solar-thermal energy to electrical; and desalination. Rm. 3-260 617-253-0006 gchen2 @ mit . edu #12;vi Faculty Research <span class="hlt">Areas</span> MTL <span class="hlt">ANNUAL</span> RESEARCH, microwave and millimeter wave and power switching applications. Reliability of compound semiconductor</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reif, Rafael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">74</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19647857"> <span id="translatedtitle">The spatial and temporal distribution of crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the contiguous United States.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> crop residue before and/or after harvest is a common farming practice however; there is no baseline estimate for cropland <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in the contiguous U.S. (CONUS). We present the results of a study, using five years of remotely sensed satellite data to map the location and areal extent of crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the CONUS. Our <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> approach combines 500 m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio (dNBR) data, with 1 km MODIS active fire counts calibrated using coincident high resolution satellite data to generate <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates. Our results show that cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> is an extensive and recurring <span class="hlt">annual</span> event in several states in the CONUS. On average, 1,239,000 ha of croplands <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">annually</span>, which is equivalent to 43% of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> average <span class="hlt">area</span> of wildland fires in the U.S., as reported by the United States Forest Service for the same period. Several states experience high levels (>30,000 ha yr(-1)) of crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span>, including Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Kansas, Louisiana, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, and Washington. Validation with high resolution <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar imagery and GPS data collected during targeted field campaigns showed a moderate to high-level accuracy for our <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates, ranging from 78 to 90%. Our approach provides a more consistent methodology for quantifying cropland <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> at regional scales than the previously available U.S. national and state-level statistics on crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span>. PMID:19647857</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McCarty, Jessica L; Korontzi, Stefania; Justice, Christopher O; Loboda, Tatiana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">75</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B31G..04M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Potential impact of forest management and increased <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> on the C balance of Canada's managed forest in the 21st century. (Invited)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The strength and dynamics of C sinks in forest ecosystems affects the airborne fraction of future fossil fuel emissions. Climate change is expected to increase <span class="hlt">area</span> of boreal forest <span class="hlt">burned</span> by wildfire over the 21st century. If this reduces the sink strength of this biome, then achieving global atmospheric CO2 stabilization targets will become more difficult. In several recent studies, we have used empirical data from Canada’s National Forest Carbon Monitoring, Accounting and Reporting System (NFCMARS) and the Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3) to examine the potential interactive effects of a number of factors, including increases in <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, on the carbon dynamics of Canada’s managed forest over the 21st century. Our results show that forests risk being GHG sources under many foreseeable scenarios. However, significant uncertainties remain regarding the frequency and magnitude of extreme fire years, and trends in <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> cannot be statistically detected with certainty because of an extremely low signal to noise ratio, even if increases have actually occurred. Continued monitoring of forest responses to climatic and global change, the development of mitigation and adaptation strategies by forest managers, and global efforts to minimize climate change impacts on forests are all necessary. However, climate change will affect all forests every year, while forest managers can only affect a small proportion of the total forest every year. Thus, if the desire is to reduce the likelihood of potential positive feedback to climate change from forest ecosystems, then limiting the magnitude of climate change and the resulting impacts on forests is of primary importance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Metsaranta, J.; Kurz, W. A.; Stinson, G.; Neilson, E.; Canadian Forest Service Carbon Accounting Team</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">76</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.robertburns.org/encyclopedia/index.shtml"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> Encyclopedia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Provide by <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Country, this full-text, online version of "the definitive Robert <span class="hlt">Burns</span> reference volume" serves as a useful handbook to Scotland's most famous poet and the intellectual circles in which he turned. The encyclopedia, which is in HTML format, is organized alphabetically. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Country offers a number of other related resources, chief among them a songs and poems archive containing 100 of the poet's works. Other features at the site include a discussion <span class="hlt">area</span>, <span class="hlt">Burns</span> and Scottish association links, and some commercial content.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lindsay, Maurice.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">77</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://inside.mines.edu/~psanti/paper_pdfs/Sources%20of%20DF%20material%20in%20burned%20areas.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sources of debris flow material in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> Paul M. Santi a,, Victor G. deWolfe a</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">that many, if not most, post-fire debris flows are initiated by runoff and erosion and grow in size through been shown that many, if not most, post-fire debris flows are initiated by runoff and erosion (CannonSources of debris flow material in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> Paul M. Santi a,, Victor G. deWolfe a , Jerry D</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">78</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6467017"> <span id="translatedtitle">Storm rainfall conditions for floods and debris flows from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in southwestern Colorado and southern California</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Debris flows generated during rain storms on recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> have destroyed lives and property throughout the Western U.S. Field evidence indicate that unlike landslide-triggered debris flows, these events have no identifiable initiation source and can occur with little or no antecedent moisture. Using rain gage and response data from five fires in Colorado and southern California, we document the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Susan H. Cannon; Joseph E. Gartner; Raymond C. Wilson; James C. Bowers; Jayme L. Laber</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">79</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.rmrs.nau.edu/awa/publications/neary_etal_burnedareaemergwtrshedrehab.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">375USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRSP13. 2000 Abstract.--Following wildfires, <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> are assessed by</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">with severity in documentation of wildfire damage to natural resources. Severity is qualitative measure to restore watershed function and minimize damage to soil resources. The objective of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> emergency 1992). The variability in soil and watershed damage, and resource response is highly dependent on fire</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">80</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/961853"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forrest Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> : Management & Implementation FY 2004 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes) acquired the Forrest Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> during July of 2002. The property is located in the Upper John Day subbasin within the Columbia basin. The property consists of two parcels comprising 4,232 acres. The Mainstem parcel consists of 3,445 acres and is located 1/2 mile to the east of Prairie City, Oregon on the mainstem John Day River. The Middle Fork parcel consists of 786 acres and is located one mile to the west of the town of Austin, OR on the Middle Fork John Day River. The Forrest Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> is under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to provide an <span class="hlt">annual</span> written report generally describing the real property interests of the project and management activities undertaken or in progress. Acquisition of the Forrest Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> was funded by BPA as part of their program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife habitat affected by hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The intent of the Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> is to partially mitigate fish and wildlife impacts for the John Day Dam on the Columbia River as outlined in the Northwest Power Planning Council's Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, {section}11.1, {section}7.6). While the Tribes hold fee-title to the property, the BPA has assured a level of management funding for the protection and restoration of fish and wildlife habitat through a memorandum of agreement.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, Brent</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> 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href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">81</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120013612&hterms=mississippi+valley+type&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dmississippi%2Bvalley%2Btype"> <span id="translatedtitle">Satellite-based Assessment of Climate Controls on US <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climate regulates fire activity through the buildup and drying of fuels and the conditions for fire ignition and spread. Understanding the dynamics of contemporary climate-fire relationships at national and sub-national scales is critical to assess the likelihood of changes in future fire activity and the potential options for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we conducted the first national assessment of climate controls on US fire activity using two satellite-based estimates of monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> (BA), the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED, 1997 2010) and Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity (MTBS, 1984 2009) BA products. For each US National Climate Assessment (NCA) region, we analyzed the relationships between monthly BA and potential evaporation (PE) derived from reanalysis climate data at 0.5 resolution. US fire activity increased over the past 25 yr, with statistically significant increases in MTBS BA for entire US and the Southeast and Southwest NCA regions. Monthly PE was strongly correlated with US fire activity, yet the climate driver of PE varied regionally. Fire season temperature and shortwave radiation were the primary controls on PE and fire activity in the Alaska, while water deficit (precipitation PE) was strongly correlated with fire activity in the Plains regions and Northwest US. BA and precipitation anomalies were negatively correlated in all regions, although fuel-limited ecosystems in the Southern Plains and Southwest exhibited positive correlations with longer lead times (6 12 months). Fire season PE in creased from the 1980s 2000s, enhancing climate-driven fire risk in the southern and western US where PE-BA correlations were strongest. Spatial and temporal patterns of increasing fire season PE and BA during the 1990s 2000s highlight the potential sensitivity of US fire activity to climate change in coming decades. However, climatefire relationships at the national scale are complex, based on the diversity of fire types, ecosystems, and ignition sources within each NCA region. Changes in the seasonality or magnitude of climate anomalies are therefore unlikely to result in uniform changes in US fire activity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Wang, D.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Chen, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">82</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol1-sec100-1103.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 100.1103 - Northern California and Lake Tahoe <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> marine events.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2013-07-01 false Northern California and Lake Tahoe <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> marine events. 100... § 100.1103 Northern California and Lake Tahoe <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> marine events. (a...and Sunday in April. Location McLeod Lake, Stockton, CA. Regulated <span class="hlt">Area</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">83</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol1-sec100-1103.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 100.1103 - Northern California and Lake Tahoe <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> marine events.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2012-07-01 false Northern California and Lake Tahoe <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> marine events. 100... § 100.1103 Northern California and Lake Tahoe <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> marine events. (a...and Sunday in April. Location McLeod Lake, Stockton, CA. Regulated <span class="hlt">Area</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">84</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr03500"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using Logistic Regression To Predict the Probability of Debris Flows Occurring in <span class="hlt">Areas</span> Recently <span class="hlt">Burned</span> By Wildland Fires</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Logistic regression was used to predict the probability of debris flows occurring in <span class="hlt">areas</span> recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> by wildland fires. Multiple logistic regression is conceptually similar to multiple linear regression because statistical relations between one dependent variable and several independent variables are evaluated. In logistic regression, however, the dependent variable is transformed to a binary variable (debris flow did or did not occur), and the actual probability of the debris flow occurring is statistically modeled. Data from 399 basins located within 15 wildland fires that <span class="hlt">burned</span> during 2000-2002 in Colorado, Idaho, Montana, and New Mexico were evaluated. More than 35 independent variables describing the <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, geology, land surface gradient, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated. The models were developed as follows: (1) Basins that did and did not produce debris flows were delineated from National Elevation Data using a Geographic Information System (GIS). (2) Data describing the <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, geology, land surface gradient, rainfall, and soil properties were determined for each basin. These data were then downloaded to a statistics software package for analysis using logistic regression. (3) Relations between the occurrence/non-occurrence of debris flows and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, geology, land surface gradient, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated and several preliminary multivariate logistic regression models were constructed. All possible combinations of independent variables were evaluated to determine which combination produced the most effective model. The multivariate model that best predicted the occurrence of debris flows was selected. (4) The multivariate logistic regression model was entered into a GIS, and a map showing the probability of debris flows was constructed. The most effective model incorporates the percentage of each basin with slope greater than 30 percent, percentage of land <span class="hlt">burned</span> at medium and high <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity in each basin, particle size sorting, average storm intensity (millimeters per hour), soil organic matter content, soil permeability, and soil drainage. The results of this study demonstrate that logistic regression is a valuable tool for predicting the probability of debris flows occurring in recently-<span class="hlt">burned</span> landscapes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rupert, Michael G.; Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">85</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/269024"> <span id="translatedtitle">Focused feasibility study for surface soil at the main pits and pushout <span class="hlt">area</span>, J-field toxic <span class="hlt">burning</span> pits <span class="hlt">area</span>, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study of the J-Field <span class="hlt">area</span> at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). J-Field is located within the Edgewood <span class="hlt">Area</span> of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood <span class="hlt">Area</span> have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open <span class="hlt">burning</span>/open detonation. Portions of J-Field continue to be used for the detonation and disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by open <span class="hlt">burning</span>/open detonation under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patton, T.; Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Butler, J. [and others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">86</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPRS...79..199P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of spectral reflectance values to different <span class="hlt">burn</span> and vegetation ratios: A multi-scale approach applied in a fire affected <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of our study was to explore the spectral properties of fire-scorched (<span class="hlt">burned</span>) and non fire-scorched (vegetation) <span class="hlt">areas</span>, as well as <span class="hlt">areas</span> with different <span class="hlt">burn</span>/vegetation ratios, using a multisource multiresolution satellite data set. A case study was undertaken following a very destructive wildfire that occurred in Parnitha, Greece, July 2007, for which we acquired satellite images from LANDSAT, ASTER, and IKONOS. Additionally, we created spatially degraded satellite data over a range of coarser resolutions using resampling techniques. The panchromatic (1 m) and multispectral component (4 m) of IKONOS were merged using the Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening method. This very high-resolution imagery served as the basis to estimate the cover percentage of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, bare land and vegetation at pixel level, by applying the maximum likelihood classification algorithm. Finally, multiple linear regression models were fit to estimate each land-cover fraction as a function of surface reflectance values of the original and the spatially degraded satellite images. The main findings of our research were: (a) the Near Infrared (NIR) and Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) are the most important channels to estimate the percentage of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, whereas the NIR and red channels are the most important to estimate the percentage of vegetation in fire-affected <span class="hlt">areas</span>; (b) when the bi-spectral space consists only of NIR and SWIR, then the NIR ground reflectance value plays a more significant role in estimating the percent of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, and the SWIR appears to be more important in estimating the percent of vegetation; and (c) semi-<span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> comprising 45-55% <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and 45-55% vegetation are spectrally closer to <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the NIR channel, whereas those <span class="hlt">areas</span> are spectrally closer to vegetation in the SWIR channel. These findings, at least partially, are attributed to the fact that: (i) completely <span class="hlt">burned</span> pixels present low variance in the NIR and high variance in the SWIR, whereas the opposite is observed in completely vegetated <span class="hlt">areas</span> where higher variance is observed in the NIR and lower variance in the SWIR, and (ii) bare land modifies the spectral signal of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> more than the spectral signal of vegetated <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the NIR, while the opposite is observed in SWIR region of the spectrum where the bare land modifies the spectral signal of vegetation more than the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> because the bare land and the vegetation are spectrally more similar in the NIR, and the bare land and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> are spectrally more similar in the SWIR.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pleniou, Magdalini; Koutsias, Nikos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">87</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60697492"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of global, regional, and national <span class="hlt">annual</span> CO emissions from fossil-fuel <span class="hlt">burning</span>, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national <span class="hlt">annual</span> estimates of C0 emissions resulting from fossil-fuel <span class="hlt">burning</span>, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. A. Boden; G. Marland; R. J. Andres</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">88</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/46725911"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Mouth Syndrome</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome is characterized by a painful <span class="hlt">burning</span> or stinging sensation affecting the tongue or other <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the mouth without obvious signs of an organic cause on physical examination. A <span class="hlt">burning</span> mouth sensation can occur in several cutaneous or systemic diseases that must be ruled out prior to making a diagnosis of <span class="hlt">burning</span> mouth syndrome, since this term</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Brufau-Redondo; R. Martín-Brufau; R. Corbalán-Velez; A. de Concepción-Salesa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">89</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20131259"> <span id="translatedtitle">Postwildfire debris-flow hazard assessment of the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the 2013 West Fork Fire Complex, southwestern Colorado</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the 2013 West Fork Fire Complex near South Fork in southwestern Colorado. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence, potential volume of debris flows, and the combined debris-flow hazard ranking along the drainage network within and just downstream from the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, and to estimate the same for 54 drainage basins of interest within the perimeter of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Input data for the debris-flow models included topographic variables, soil characteristics, <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm; (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm; and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm. Estimated debris-flow probabilities at the pour points of the 54 drainage basins of interest ranged from less than 1 to 65 percent in response to the 2-year storm; from 1 to 77 percent in response to the 10-year storm; and from 1 to 83 percent in response to the 25-year storm. Twelve of the 54 drainage basins of interest have a 30-percent probability or greater of producing a debris flow in response to the 25-year storm. Estimated debris-flow volumes for all rainfalls modeled range from a low of 2,400 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters. Estimated debris-flow volumes increase with basin size and distance along the drainage network, but some smaller drainages also were predicted to produce substantial debris flows. One of the 54 drainage basins of interest had the highest combined hazard ranking, while 9 other basins had the second highest combined hazard ranking. Of these 10 basins with the 2 highest combined hazard rankings, 7 basins had predicted debris-flow volumes exceeding 100,000 cubic meters, while 3 had predicted probabilities of debris flows exceeding 60 percent. The 10 basins with high combined hazard ranking include 3 tributaries in the headwaters of Trout Creek, four tributaries to the West Fork San Juan River, Hope Creek draining toward a county road on the eastern edge of the <span class="hlt">burn</span>, Lake Fork draining to U.S. Highway 160, and Leopard Creek on the northern edge of the <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The probabilities and volumes for the modeled storms indicate a potential for debris-flow impacts on structures, reservoirs, roads, bridges, and culverts located within and immediately downstream from the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. U.S. Highway 160, on the eastern edge of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, also is susceptible to impacts from debris flows.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Verdin, Kristine L.; Dupree, Jean A.; Stevens, Michael R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">90</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/911594"> <span id="translatedtitle">Engineering and Physics Optimization of Breed and <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Fast Reactor Systems: <span class="hlt">Annual</span> and Final Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) contribution to the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project number 2002-005 was divided into reactor physics, and thermal-hydraulics and plant design. The research targeted credible physics and thermal-hydraulics models for a gas-cooled fast reactor, analyzing various fuel and in-core fuel cycle options to achieve a true breed and <span class="hlt">burn</span> core, and performing a design basis Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) analysis on that design. For the physics analysis, a 1/8 core model was created using different enrichments and simulated equilibrium fuel loadings. The model was used to locate the hot spot of the reactor, and the peak to average energy deposition at that location. The model was also used to create contour plots of the flux and energy deposition over the volume of the reactor. The eigenvalue over time was evaluated using three different fuel configurations with the same core geometry. The breeding capabilities of this configuration were excellent for a 7% U-235 model and good in both a plutonium model and a 14% U-235 model. Changing the fuel composition from the Pu fuel which provided about 78% U-238 for breeding to the 14% U-235 fuel with about 86% U-238 slowed the rate of decrease in the eigenvalue a noticeable amount. Switching to the 7% U-235 fuel with about 93% U-238 showed an increase in the eigenvalue over time. For the thermal-hydraulic analysis, the reactor design used was the one forwarded by the MIT team. This reactor design uses helium coolant, a Brayton cycle, and has a thermal power of 600 MW. The core design parameters were supplied by MIT; however, the other key reactor components that were necessary for a plausible simulation of a LOCA were not defined. The thermal-hydraulic and plant design research concentrated on determining reasonable values for those undefined components. The LOCA simulation was intended to provide insights on the influence of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS), the containment building, and a Decay Heat Removal System (DHRS) on the natural circulation heat transfer of the core's decay heat. A baseline case for natural circulation had to be established in order to truly understand the impact of the added safety systems. This baseline case did not include a DHRS, although the current MIT design does have a DHRS that features the highly efficient Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHEs). The initial LOCA analysis revealed that the RCCS was insufficient to maintain the reactor core below the fuel matrix decomposition temperature. A guard containment was added to the model in order to maintain a prescribed backpressure during the LOCA to enhance the natural circulation. The backpressure approach did provide satisfactory natural convection during the LOCA. The necessary backpressure was 1.8 MPa, which was not especially different from the values reported by other gas fast reactor researchers. However, as the model evolved to be more physically representative of a nuclear reactor, i.e., it included radial peaking factors, inlet plenum orificing, and the degradation of SiC thermal properties as a result of irradiation, the LOCA-induced fuel temperatures were not consistently below the decomposition limit.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kevan D. Weaver; Theron Marshall; James Parry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">91</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20111257"> <span id="translatedtitle">Postwildfire debris flows hazard assessment for the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the 2011 Track Fire, northeastern New Mexico and southeastern Colorado</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In June 2011, the Track Fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> 113 square kilometers in Colfax County, northeastern New Mexico, and Las Animas County, southeastern Colorado, including the upper watersheds of Chicorica and Raton Creeks. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Track Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. The models incorporate measures of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of post-fire debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 38 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence-interval), the probability of debris flow estimated for basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Track fire ranged between 2 and 97 percent, with probabilities greater than 80 percent identified for the majority of the tributary basins to Raton Creek in Railroad Canyon; six basins that flow into Lake Maloya, including the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins; two tributary basins to Sugarite Canyon, and an unnamed basin on the eastern flank of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 30 cubic meters to greater than 100,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 100,000 cubic meters) were estimated for Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins, which drain into Lake Maloya. The Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Ranking identifies the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins as having the highest probability of producing the largest debris flows. This finding indicates the greatest post-fire debris-flow impacts may be expected to Lake Maloya. In addition, Interstate Highway 25, Raton Creek and the rail line in Railroad Canyon, County road A-27, and State Highway 526 in Sugarite Canyon may also be affected where they cross drainages downstream from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> basins. Although this assessment indicates that a rather large debris flow (approximately 42,000 cubic meters) may be generated from the basin above the City of Raton (basin 9) in response to the design storm, the probability of such an event is relatively low (approximately 10 percent). Additional assessment is necessary to determine if the estimated volume of material is sufficient to travel into the City of Raton. In addition, even small debris flows may affect structures at or downstream from basin outlets and increase the threat of flooding downstream by damaging or blocking flood mitigation structures. The maps presented here may be used to prioritize <span class="hlt">areas</span> where erosion mitigation or other protective measures may be necessary within a 2- to 3-year window of vulnerability following the Track Fire.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">92</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.jonesctr.org/research/research_publications/Unrestricted/PlowmanAmerNaturalist156P386.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Dynamics of Bobcat (Lynx rufus) Home Range and Core Use <span class="hlt">Areas</span> in Mississippi</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the <span class="hlt">annual</span> dynamics of bobcat (Lynx rufus) home range and core use <span class="hlt">areas</span> by radiotracking 23 female and 6 male bobcats from 10 January 1989 to 31 January 1998 in Mississippi. We quantified space use by measuring changes in the dispersion and central tendency of bobcat locations (i.e., radiotelemetry locations) between <span class="hlt">annual</span> home range and core use <span class="hlt">areas</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bruce W. Plowman; L. Mike Conner; Michael J. Chamberlain; Bruce D. Leopold; Loren W. Burger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">93</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1188/@displayLabelpdf@noteDOCUMENT#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1188/ofr2012-1188.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1188/ofr2012-1188_pl1.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1188/ofr2012-1188_pl3.pdf@displayLabelpdf@notePLATE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1188/ofr2012-1188_pl2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimated probability of postwildfire debris flows in the 2012 Whitewater-Baldy Fire <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, southwestern New Mexico</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In May and June 2012, the Whitewater-Baldy Fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> approximately 1,200 square kilometers (300,000 acres) of the Gila National Forest, in southwestern New Mexico. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 128 basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Whitewater-Baldy Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed by using data from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> basins throughout the intermountain Western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows along the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> drainage network and for selected drainage basins within the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. The models incorporate measures of areal <span class="hlt">burned</span> extent and severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall intensity to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to the 2-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, modeling indicated that four basins have high probabilities of debris-flow occurrence (greater than or equal to 80 percent). For the 10-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, an additional 14 basins are included, and for the 25-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, an additional eight basins, 20 percent of the total, have high probabilities of debris-flow occurrence. In addition, probability analysis along the stream segments can identify specific reaches of greatest concern for debris flows within a basin. Basins with a high probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in the west and central parts of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, including tributaries to Whitewater Creek, Mineral Creek, and Willow Creek. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from about 3,000-4,000 cubic meters (m3) to greater than 500,000 m3 for all design storms modeled. Drainage basins with estimated volumes greater than 500,000 m3 included tributaries to Whitewater Creek, Willow Creek, Iron Creek, and West Fork Mogollon Creek. Drainage basins with estimated debris-flow volumes greater than 100,000 m3 for the 25-year-recurrence event, 24 percent of the basins modeled, also include tributaries to Deep Creek, Mineral Creek, Gilita Creek, West Fork Gila River, Mogollon Creek, and Turkey Creek, among others. Basins with the highest combined probability and volume relative hazard rankings for the 25-year-recurrence rainfall include tributaries to Whitewater Creek, Mineral Creek, Willow Creek, West Fork Gila River, West Fork Mogollon Creek, and Turkey Creek. Debris flows from Whitewater, Mineral, and Willow Creeks could affect the southwestern New Mexico communities of Glenwood, Alma, and Willow Creek. The maps presented herein may be used to prioritize <span class="hlt">areas</span> where emergency erosion mitigation or other protective measures may be necessary within a 2- to 3-year period of vulnerability following the Whitewater-Baldy Fire. This work is preliminary and is subject to revision. It is being provided because of the need for timely "best science" information. The assessment herein is provided on the condition that neither the U.S. Geological Survey nor the U.S. Government may be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the assessment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tillery, Anne C.; Matherne, Anne Marie; Verdin, Kristine L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">94</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.5260C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wet deposition of major ions in a rural <span class="hlt">area</span> impacted by biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work concerns the influence of industrialized agriculture in the tropics on precipitation chemistry. A total of 264 rain events were sampled using a wet-only collector in central São Paulo State, Brazil, between January 2003 and July 2007. Electroneutrality balance calculations (considering H +, K +, Na +, NH4+, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Cl -, NO3-, SO42-, F -, PO43-, H 3CCOO -, HCOO -, CO42- and HCO3-) showed that there was an excess of cations (˜15%), which was attributed to the presence of unmeasured organic anion species originating from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and biogenic emissions. On average, the three ions NH4+, NO 3- and H + were responsible for >55% of the total ion concentrations in the rainwater samples. Concentrations (except of H +) were significantly higher ( t-test; P = 0.05), by between two to six-fold depending on species, during the winter sugar cane harvest period, due to the practice of pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span> of the crop. Principal component analysis showed that three components could explain 88% of the variance for measurements made throughout the year: PC1 (52%, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and soil dust resuspension); PC2 (26%, secondary aerosols); PC3 (10%, road transport emissions). Differences between harvest and non-harvest periods appeared to be mainly due to an increased relative importance of road transport/industrial emissions during the summer (non-harvest) period. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of ammonium (23.4 ?mol L -1) and nitrate (17.5 ?mol L -1) in rainwater samples collected during the harvest period were similar to those found in rainwater from São Paulo city, which emphasizes the importance of including rural agro-industrial emissions in regional-scale atmospheric chemistry and transport models. Since there was evidence of a biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> source throughout the year, it appears that rainwater composition will continue to be affected by vegetation fires, even after sugar cane <span class="hlt">burning</span> is phased out as envisaged by recent São Paulo State legislation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coelho, Cidelmara H.; Allen, Andrew G.; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Orlando, Eduardo A.; Grigoletto, Tahuana L. B.; Campos, M. Lucia A. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">95</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AcO....49....1M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Responses of a small-mammal community to habitat management through controlled <span class="hlt">burning</span> in a protected Mediterranean <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fire is widely used as a management tool to achieve conservation goals. However, the consequences of such management on non-target species are frequently neglected and unknown. This study examines the effects of traditional management practices of scrubland clearance by controlled <span class="hlt">burning</span> to improve menaced carnivores on non-target species: rodent and insectivores in Doñana National Park (SW of Iberian Peninsula). We used capture-recapture methods to examine changes in abundance in <span class="hlt">areas</span> that were burnt one and three years ago, compared with unburnt <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Results showed that burnt <span class="hlt">areas</span> had higher species abundances, but mainly on the ecotonal boundaries. Species abundances showed dramatic seasonal differences with high abundances in autumn and winter, and very low abundance in summer. Our study revealed that scrubland management by controlled fires increases the abundance of small mammal species, mainly Mus spretus and Apodemus sylvaticus. We found only four small mammal species between the different treatments. However, some species that were formerly abundant in Doñana, such as Elyomis quercinus, were found only in burnt <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Our results suggest that controlled <span class="hlt">burning</span> is not contributing to the current loss of biotic diversity in this community.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">96</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/218153"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and aerosol loading and transport in South America utilizing geostationary satellites. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> report, January-December 1995</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study attempts to assess the extent of <span class="hlt">burning</span> and associated aerosol transport regimes in South America and the South Atlantic using geostationary satellite observations, in order to explore the possible roles of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in climate change and more directly in atmospheric chemistry and radiative transfer processes. Modeling and analysis efforts have suggested that the direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> may play a major role in the radiative balance of the earth and are an important factor in climate change calculations. One of the most active regions of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is located in South America, associated with deforestation in the selva (forest), grassland management, and other agricultural practices. As part of the NASA Aerosol Interdisciplinary Program, the authors are utilizing GOES-7 (1988) and GOES-8 (1995) visible and multispectral infrared data (4, 11, and 12 microns) to document daily biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> activity in South America and to distinguish smoke/aerosols from other multi-level clouds and low-level moisture. This study catalogues the areal extent and transport of smoke/aerosols throughout the region and over the Atlantic Ocean for the 1988 (July-September) and 1995 (June-October) biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> seasons. The smoke/haze cover estimates are compared to the locations of fires to determine the source and verify the haze is actually associated with biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> activities. The temporal resolution of the GOES data (half-hourly in South America) makes it possible to determine the prevailing circulation and transport of aerosols by considering a series of visible and infrared images and tracking the motion of smoke, haze and adjacent clouds. The study <span class="hlt">area</span> extends from 40 to 70 deg W and 0 to 40 deg S with aerosol coverage extending over the Atlantic Ocean when necessary. Fire activity is estimated with the GOES Automated Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Algorithm (ABBA).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Menzel, P.; Prins, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">97</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.burninstitute.org/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> Institute</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... do each year – a <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Learn more Fire and <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Prevention Each year, the <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Institute ... thousands of children and adults each year through fire and <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention education, <span class="hlt">burn</span> survivor support programs ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">98</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-10-05/pdf/2010-24990.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 61553 - National Transit Database: Amendments to the Urbanized <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Reporting Manual and to the...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...FTA-2010-0027] National Transit Database: Amendments to the Urbanized <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span>...Amendments to the 2011 National Transit Database Urbanized <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Reporting Manual...Administration's (FTA) National Transit Database (NTD) reporting requirements,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">99</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fluxnet.ornl.gov/sites/default/files/FluxLetter_Vol1_No3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">heavy-snowfall <span class="hlt">area</span>. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> NEP (net ecosystem productiv-</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">process based observations such as the respiration from coarse woody debris (CWD) and plant root dynamics al., 2008: Spatial varia- tion in respiration from coarse woody debris in a temperate secondary broad found in the temperate beech forest (API), but it had large inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability. In the coniferous</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">100</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20111308"> <span id="translatedtitle">Postwildfire preliminary debris flow hazard assessment for the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the 2011 Las Conchas Fire in north-central New Mexico</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Las Conchas Fire during the summer of 2011 was the largest in recorded history for the state of New Mexico, <span class="hlt">burning</span> 634 square kilometers in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 321 basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Las Conchas Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> basins throughout the intermountain western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. The models incorporate measures of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 28.0 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence interval), the probabilities of debris flows estimated for basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Las Conchas Fire were greater than 80 percent for two-thirds (67 percent) of the modeled basins. Basins with a high (greater than 80 percent) probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in tributaries to Santa Clara and Rio del Oso Canyons in the northeastern part of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>; some steep <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, Los Alamos, and Guaje Canyons in the east-central part of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>; tributaries to Peralta, Colle, Bland, and Cochiti canyons in the southwestern part of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>; and tributaries to Frijoles, Alamo, and Capulin Canyons in the southeastern part of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> (within Bandelier National Monument). Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 400 cubic meters to greater than 72,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 40,000 cubic meters) were estimated for basins in Santa Clara, Los Alamos, and Water Canyons, and for two basins at the northeast edge of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> tributary to Rio del Oso and Vallecitos Creek. The Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Rankings identify the <span class="hlt">areas</span> of highest probability of the largest debris flows. Basins with high Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Rankings include upper Santa Clara Canyon in the northern section of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar, and portions of Peralta, Colle, Bland, Cochiti, Capulin, Alamo, and Frijoles Canyons in the southern section of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar. Three basins with high Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Rankings also occur in <span class="hlt">areas</span> upstream from the city of Los Alamos—the city is home to and surrounded by numerous technical sites for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Potential debris flows in the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> could affect the water supply for Santa Clara Pueblo and several recreational lakes, as well as recreational and archeological resources in Bandelier National Monument. Debris flows could damage bridges and culverts along State Highway 501 and other roadways. Additional assessment is necessary to determine if the estimated volume of material is sufficient to travel into <span class="hlt">areas</span> downstream from the modeled basins along the valley floors, where they could affect human life, property, agriculture, and infrastructure in those <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Additionally, further investigation is needed to assess the potential for debris flows to affect structures at or downstream from basin outlets and to increase the threat of flooding downstream by damaging or blocking flood mitigation structures. The maps presented here may be used to prioritize <span class="hlt">areas</span> where erosion mitigation or other protective measures may be necessary within a 2- to 3-year window of vulnerability following the Las Conchas Fire.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">101</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.A21B0031E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> Variability of Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Aerosol Optical Depth in Southern Amazonia, and the Impact of These Aerosols on the Diurnal Cycle of Solar Flux Reduction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability of the magnitude of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in southern Amazonia has been relatively large over the last decade. The extent of the <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the latter half of a given dry season (July-October) depends largely on the rainfall amount and timing, with drought years exhibiting many more fires and smoke than average. Additionally, new regulations aimed at controlling <span class="hlt">burning</span> may also affect inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability. We present measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> smoke as measured by AERONET sites in Rondonia and Mato Grosso from 1993-2002. These AOD measurements are shown to follow similar inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability as the fire counts determined by the multi-spectral radiance measurements obtained with GOES-8. However, the AOD at these sites exhibit relatively little diurnal variation despite a very large diurnal cycle in satellite detected fire counts. In order to quantify the changes in the diurnal cycle of solar flux reduction as a result of aerosol attenuation at the peak of the <span class="hlt">burning</span> season, we model the diurnal cycle of total shortwave (SW; 300-4000 nm), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm), and Ultraviolet- A (UVA; 320-400 nm) fluxes in mid-September using the AERONET monthly average AOD measurements (AOD(550 nm) = 1.11). These average diurnal cycle flux reductions show significant temporal delays in the morning for equivalent flux levels in all three spectral bands, of ~50 min to 2 hr 15 min at mid-morning (midpoint between sunrise and solar noon). The largest time delays in flux occur in the UVA band and the smallest in the total SW broadband due to a rapid decrease in AOD as wavelength increases for the accumulation mode smoke aerosols. The time delays in solar flux have implications for possible delay of the onset of cumulus convection, the shortening of the photo-period when plants photosynthesize, and reduced time interval for UVA fluxes which may have implications for photochemical reaction rates, survival of airborne bacteria, insect activity, and plant responses.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J. S.; Artaxo, P.; Yamasoe, M. A.; Procopio, A. S.; Prins, E. M.; Feltz, J. M.; Smirnov, A.; Dubovik, O.; Reid, J. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">102</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4216686"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-Wattage Pulsed Irradiation of Linearly Polarized Near-Infrared Light to Stellate Ganglion <span class="hlt">Area</span> for <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Mouth Syndrome</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to apply high-wattage pulsed irradiation of linearly polarized near-infrared light to the stellate ganglion <span class="hlt">area</span> for <span class="hlt">burning</span> mouth syndrome (BMS) and to assess the efficacy of the stellate ganglion <span class="hlt">area</span> irradiation (SGR) on BMS using differential time-/frequency-domain parameters (D parameters). Three patients with BMS received high-wattage pulsed SGR; the response to SGR was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS) representing the intensity of glossalgia and D parameters used in heart rate variability analysis. High-wattage pulsed SGR significantly decreased the mean value of VAS in all cases without any adverse event such as thermal injury. D parameters mostly correlated with clinical condition of BMS. High-wattage pulsed SGR was safe and effective for the treatment of BMS; D parameters are useful for assessing efficacy of SGR on BMS. PMID:25386367</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Momota, Yukihiro; Kani, Koichi; Takano, Hideyuki; Matsumoto, Fumihiro; Aota, Keiko; Takegawa, Daisuke; Yamanoi, Tomoko; Kondo, Chika; Tomioka, Shigemasa; Azuma, Masayuki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">103</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033781"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recent acceleration of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and carbon losses in Alaskan forests and peatlands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climate change has increased the <span class="hlt">area</span> affected by forest fires each year in boreal North America. Increases in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and fire frequency are expected to stimulate boreal carbon losses. However, the impact of wildfires on carbon emissions is also affected by the severity of <span class="hlt">burning</span>. How climate change influences the severity of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> has proved difficult to assess. Here, we examined the depth of ground-layer combustion in 178 sites dominated by black spruce in Alaska, using data collected from 31 fire events between 1983 and 2005. We show that the depth of <span class="hlt">burning</span> increased as the fire season progressed when the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> was small. However, deep <span class="hlt">burning</span> occurred throughout the fire season when the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> was large. Depth of <span class="hlt">burning</span> increased late in the fire season in upland forests, but not in peatland and permafrost sites. Simulations of wildfire-induced carbon losses from Alaskan black spruce stands over the past 60 years suggest that ground-layer combustion has accelerated regional carbon losses over the past decade, owing to increases in <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and late-season <span class="hlt">burning</span>. As a result, soils in these black spruce stands have become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere, with carbon emissions far exceeding decadal uptake.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Turetsky, M.R.; Kane, E.S.; Harden, J.W.; Ottmar, R.D.; Manies, K.L.; Hoy, E.; Kasischke, E.S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">104</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24906348"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> care in South Africa: a micro cosmos of Africa.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> injuries in Africa are common with between 300,000 and 17.5 million children under 5 years sustaining <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries <span class="hlt">annually</span>, resulting in a high estimated fatality rate. These <span class="hlt">burns</span> are largely environmentally conditioned and therefore preventable. The Western Cape Province in South Africa can be regarded as a prototype of paediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> seen on the continent, with large numbers, high morbidity and mortality rates and an <span class="hlt">area</span> inclusive of all factors contributing to this extraordinary burden of injury. Most of the mechanisms to prevent <span class="hlt">burns</span> are not easily modified due to the restraint of low socio-economic homes, overcrowding, unsafe appliances, multiple and complex daily demands on families and multiple psycho-social stressors. Children <4 years are at highest risk of <span class="hlt">burns</span> with an average <span class="hlt">annual</span> rate of 6.0/10,000 child-years. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> care in South Africa is predominantly emergency driven and variable in terms of organization, clinical management, facilities and staffing. Various treatment strategies were introduced. The management of HIV positive children poses a problem, as well as the conflict of achieving equity of <span class="hlt">burn</span> care for all children. Without alleviating poverty, developing minimum standards for housing, <span class="hlt">burn</span> education, safe appliances and legislation, we will not be able to reduce the "curse of poor people" and will continue to treat the consequences. PMID:24906348</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rode, H; Cox, S G; Numanoglu, A; Berg, A M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">105</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/273755"> <span id="translatedtitle">An optimized groundwater extraction system for the toxic <span class="hlt">burning</span> pits <span class="hlt">area</span> of J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Testing and disposal of chemical warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals at the J-Field <span class="hlt">area</span> of the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) have resulted in contamination of soil and groundwater. The discharge of contaminated groundwater to on-site marshes and adjacent estuaries poses a potential risk to ecological receptors. The Toxic <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Pits (TBP) <span class="hlt">area</span> is of special concern because of its disposal history. This report describes a groundwater modeling study conducted at J-Field that focused on the TBP <span class="hlt">area</span>. The goal of this modeling effort was optimization of the groundwater extraction system at the TBP <span class="hlt">area</span> by applying linear programming techniques. Initially, the flow field in the J-Field vicinity was characterized with a three-dimensional model that uses existing data and several numerical techniques. A user-specified border was set near the marsh and used as a constraint boundary in two modeled remediation scenarios: containment of the groundwater and containment of groundwater with an impermeable cap installed over the TBP <span class="hlt">area</span>. In both cases, the objective was to extract the minimum amount of water necessary while satisfying the constraints. The smallest number of wells necessary was then determined for each case. This optimization approach provided two benefits: cost savings, in that the water to be treated and the well installation costs were minimized, and minimization of remediation impacts on the ecology of the marsh.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Quinn, J.J.; Johnson, R.L.; Patton, T.L.; Martino, L.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">106</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://fire.pppl.gov/BP_Science-V3_3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Topical <span class="hlt">Area</span> MFE Title: <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Plasma Science_____________________________________________ Description Fusion energy is released by <span class="hlt">burning</span> light elements using nuclear reactions which consume mass and</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">_____________________________________________ · Description Fusion energy is released by <span class="hlt">burning</span> light elements using nuclear reactions which consume mass to be economically attractive. With Lawson product only ~20% higher, "ignition" is obtained, where the plasma is self-sustained required for optimal stability, transport, and steady-state (long pulse high duty cycle) sustainment</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">107</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4186812"> <span id="translatedtitle">To <span class="hlt">Burn</span> or Not to <span class="hlt">Burn</span>? Effect of Management Strategy on North American Prairie Vegetation for Public Urban <span class="hlt">Areas</span> in Germany</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">North American prairie vegetation has been a role model for designing highly attractive plantings for German urban green spaces for the past decade. In combination with gravel mulch top layers on planting sites and non-selective maintenance techniques like mowing or <span class="hlt">burning</span>, prairie plantings are considered to be cost-effective and low-maintenance. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of different maintenance strategies and especially the necessity of fire management on the development success of ornamental prairie plantings in central Europe. A four factorial split-plot-block design was set up for investigation of different mixtures of prairie species under varying management conditions (mow-only, mowing plus selective weeding, mowing plus weeding and <span class="hlt">burning</span>) on two differing soil types (in-situ topsoil and in-situ topsoil with a graywacke gravel mulch top layer) over three years. Significant effects of maintenance strategy on mortality rates and vitality were documented for a number of target species, which responded species specifically, either being slightly affected by the <span class="hlt">burning</span> or thriving on it. Those effects were mostly restricted to topsoil sites. A strong impact on weed species presence and abundance and resulting maintenance times was found on both soil types. On topsoil sites, mow-only treatment resulted in a short-term loss of the original planting due to extensive weed growth. Corresponding gravel mulch sites were generally less colonised and visually dominated by weeds. Differences between weeded and weeded plus <span class="hlt">burned</span> sites were minor. Unexpectedly, weed species populations were mostly unaffected by the additional <span class="hlt">burning</span> treatment, while maintenance times and costs increased. No overall benefit of fire management for the establishment of prairie plantings was documented. The most effective management combination proved to be mowing plus regular selective weeding measures on gravel mulched planting sites. PMID:25286061</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schmithals, Anja; Kuhn, Norbert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">108</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24823340"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> therapist contributions to the american <span class="hlt">burn</span> association and the journal of <span class="hlt">burn</span> care and research: a 45th anniversary review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The year 2013 marked the 45th anniversary of American <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Association (ABA) <span class="hlt">annual</span> meetings. At this significant juncture, a review of contributions of its members is appropriate to celebrate this milestone. Since the first ABA <span class="hlt">annual</span> meeting and the initiation of the Journal of <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Care and Research (JBCR), <span class="hlt">burn</span> therapists, including both occupational and physical therapists, have grown to become integral members of the ABA, and their contributions among all members are highlighted. A systematic manual review of both ABA <span class="hlt">annual</span> meeting proceedings and the JBCR was performed. The contributions of <span class="hlt">burn</span> therapists to the ABA as a whole were classified, cataloged, and hand counted. <span class="hlt">Areas</span> included: 1) quantifying ABA abstract and JBCR articles on authorship and subject matter, 2) representation on ABA committees; 3) participation in special activities; and 4) other recognitions. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> therapists comprise 9.7% of ABA members overall. During the course of the first 44 ABA meetings, 8381 abstracts have been presented. Of this number, 634 (7.6%) have been delivered by <span class="hlt">burn</span> therapists as lead authors. Through the end of 2011, no less than 3207 publications by all disciplines have appeared in JBCR. The vast majority of articles have been written by physicians, followed by doctorate-trained professionals. One hundred-forty therapists have 249 publications (7.8%) to their credit. For both abstracts and articles, the top three subject matter topics have been: scarring, splints and casts, and outcomes. Numerous <span class="hlt">burn</span> therapists have served as faculty and moderators at ABA <span class="hlt">annual</span> meetings and on ABA committees including JBCR. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> therapists have made significant contributions to the JBCR and in support of the ABA and its <span class="hlt">annual</span> meetings over the past 45 years from the clinical, scientific, and Association perspectives. PMID:24823340</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richard, Reginald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">109</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=38009"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ANNUAL</span> REPORT ON PERFORMANCE AUDIT RESULTS FOR POHC TESTING DURING RCRA TRIAL <span class="hlt">BURNS</span>--STATUS REPORT #2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Audit materials containing Principal organic Hardous Constituents (P0HCs) have been developed by AREAL for use by federal, state, and local agencies or their contractors to assess the accuracy of measurement methods during RCA trial <span class="hlt">burn</span> tests. Audit materials are currently avail...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">110</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.5983R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlations between soil respiration and soil properties in sugarcane <span class="hlt">areas</span> under green and slash-and-<span class="hlt">burn</span> management systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Soil management causes changes in soil physical, chemical, and biological properties that consequently affect its CO2 emission. In this work we studied soil respiration (FCO2) in <span class="hlt">areas</span> with sugarcane production in southern Brazil under two different sugarcane management systems: green (G), consisting of mechanized harvesting that produces a large amount of crop residues left on the soil surface, and slash-and-<span class="hlt">burn</span> (SB), in which the residues are <span class="hlt">burned</span> before manual harvest, leaving no residues on the soil surface. The study was conducted after the harvest period in two side-by-side grids installed in adjacent <span class="hlt">areas</span>, having 20 measurement points each. The objective of this work was to determinate whether soil physical and chemical properties within each plot were useful in order to explain the spatial variability of FCO2, supposedly influence by each management system. Most of the soil physical properties studied showed no significant differences between management systems, but on the other hand most of the chemical properties differed significantly when SB and G <span class="hlt">areas</span> were compared. Total FCO2 was 31% higher in the SB plot (729 g CO2 m-2) when compared to the G plot (557 g CO2 m-2) throughout the 70-day period after harvest studied. This seems to be related to the sensitivity of FCO2 to precipitation events, as respiration in this plot increased significantly with increases in soil moisture. Despite temporal variability showed to be positively related to soil moisture, inside each management system there was a negative correlation (p<0.01) between the spatial changes of FCO2 and soil moisture (MS), R= -0.56 and -0.59 for G and SB respectively. There was no spatial correlation between FCO2 and soil organic matter in each management system, however, the humification index (Hum) of organic matter was negatively linear correlated with FCO2 in SB (R= -0.53, p<0.05) while positively linear correlated in G <span class="hlt">area</span> (R=0.42, p<0.10). The multiple regression model analysis applied in each management system indicates that 63% of the FCO2 spatial variability in G managed could be explained by the model: FCO2(G)= 4.11978 -0.07672MS + 0.0045Hum +1.5352K -0.04474FWP, where K and FWP are potassium content and free water porosity in G <span class="hlt">area</span>, respectively. On the other hand, 75% of FCO2 spatial variability in SB managed plot was accounted by the model: FCO2(SB) = 10.66774 -0.08624MS -0.02904Hum -2.42548K. Therefore, soil moisture, humification index of organic matter and potassium level were the main properties able to explain the spatial variability of FCO2 in both sugarcane management systems. This result indicates that changes in sugarcane management systems could result in changes on the soil chemical properties, mostly, especially humification index of organic matter. It seems that in conversion from slash-and-<span class="hlt">burn</span> to green harvest system, free water porosity turns to be an important aspect in order to explain part of FCO2 spatial variability in green managed system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rodrigo Panosso, Alan; Milori, Débora M. B. P.; Marques Júnior, José; Martin-Neto, Ladislau; La Scala, Newton, Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20131108"> <span id="translatedtitle">Postwildfire debris-flow hazard assessment of the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the 2012 Little Bear Fire, south-central New Mexico</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A preliminary hazard assessment was developed of the debris-flow potential from 56 drainage basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Little Bear Fire in south-central New Mexico in June 2012. The Little Bear Fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> approximately 179 square kilometers (km2) (44,330 acres), including about 143 km2 (35,300 acres) of National Forest System lands of the Lincoln National Forest. Within the Lincoln National Forest, about 72 km2 (17,664 acres) of the White Mountain Wilderness were <span class="hlt">burned</span>. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> also included about 34 km2 (8,500 acres) of private lands. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> severity was high or moderate on 53 percent of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. The <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> is at risk of substantial postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. A postwildfire debris-flow hazard assessment of the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Little Bear Fire was performed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Lincoln National Forest. A set of two empirical hazard-assessment models developed by using data from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> drainage basins throughout the intermountain Western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows along the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> drainage network and for selected drainage basins within the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. The models incorporate measures of areal <span class="hlt">burn</span> extent and severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall intensity to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. Relative hazard rankings of postwildfire debris flows were produced by summing the estimated probability and volume ranking to illustrate those <span class="hlt">areas</span> with the highest potential occurrence of debris flows with the largest volumes. The probability that a drainage basin could produce debris flows and the volume of a possible debris flow at the basin outlet were estimated for three design storms: (1) a 2-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall of 27 millimeters (mm) (a 50 percent chance of occurrence in any given year); (2) a 10-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall of 42 mm (a 10 percent chance of occurrence in any given year); and (3) a 25-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall of 51 mm (a 4 percent chance of occurrence in any given year). Thirty-nine percent of the 56 drainage basins modeled have a high (greater than 80 percent) probability of debris flows in response to the 2-year design storm; 80 percent of the modeled drainage basins have a high probability of debris flows in response to the 25-year design storm. For debris-flow volume, 7 percent of the modeled drainage basins have an estimated debris-flow volume greater than 100,000 cubic meters (m3) in response to the 2-year design storm; 9 percent of the drainage basins are included in the greater than 100,000 m3 category for both the 10-year and the 25-year design storms. Drainage basins in the greater than 100,000 m3 volume category also received the highest combined hazard ranking. The maps presented herein may be used to prioritize <span class="hlt">areas</span> where emergency erosion mitigation or other protective measures may be needed prior to rainstorms within these drainage basins, their outlets, or <span class="hlt">areas</span> downstream from these drainage basins within the 2- to 3-year period of vulnerability. This work is preliminary and is subject to revision. The assessment herein is provided on the condition that neither the U.S. Geological Survey nor the U.S. Government may be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the assessment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tillery, Anne C.; Matherne, Anne Marie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23644947"> <span id="translatedtitle">Concentrations and source apportionment of PM10 and associated elemental and ionic species in a lignite-<span class="hlt">burning</span> power generation <span class="hlt">area</span> of southern Greece.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ambient concentrations of PM10 and associated elemental and ionic species were measured over the cold and the warm months of 2010 at an urban and two rural sites located in the lignite-fired power generation <span class="hlt">area</span> of Megalopolis in Peloponnese, southern Greece. The PM10 concentrations at the urban site (44.2 ± 33.6 ?g m(-3)) were significantly higher than those at the rural sites (23.7 ± 20.4 and 22.7 ± 26.9 ?g m(-3)). Source apportionment of PM10 and associated components was accomplished by an advanced computational procedure, the robotic chemical mass balance model (RCMB), using chemical profiles for a variety of local fugitive dust sources (power plant fly ash, flue gas desulfurization wet ash, feeding lignite, infertile material from the opencast mines, paved and unpaved road dusts, soil), which were resuspended and sampled through a PM10 inlet onto filters and then chemically analyzed, as well as of other common sources such as vehicular traffic, residential oil combustion, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>, uncontrolled waste <span class="hlt">burning</span>, marine aerosol, and secondary aerosol formation. Geological dusts (road/soil dust) were found to be major PM10 contributors in both the cold and warm periods of the year, with average <span class="hlt">annual</span> contribution of 32.6 % at the urban site vs. 22.0 and 29.0 % at the rural sites. Secondary aerosol also appeared to be a significant source, contributing 22.1 % at the urban site in comparison to 30.6 and 28.7 % at the rural sites. At all sites, the contribution of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> was most significant in winter (28.2 % at the urban site vs. 14.6 and 24.6 % at the rural sites), whereas vehicular exhaust contribution appeared to be important mostly in the summer (21.9 % at the urban site vs. 11.5 and 10.5 % at the rural sites). The highest contribution of fly ash (33.2 %) was found at the rural site located to the north of the power plants during wintertime, when winds are favorable. In the warm period, the highest contribution of fly ash was found at the rural site located to the south of the power plants, although it was less important (7.2 %). Moderate contributions of fly ash were found at the urban site (5.4 and 2.7 % in the cold and the warm period, respectively). Finally, the mine field was identified as a minor PM10 source, occasionally contributing with lignite dust and/or deposited wet ash dust under dry summer conditions, with the summertime contributions ranging between 3.1 and 11.0 % among the three sites. The non-parametric bootstrapped potential source contribution function analysis was further applied to localize the regions of sources apportioned by the RCMB. For the majority of sources, source regions appeared as being located within short distances from the sampling sites (within the Peloponnesse Peninsula). More distant Greek <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the NNE sector also appeared to be source regions for traffic emissions and secondary calcium sulfate dust. PMID:23644947</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Argyropoulos, G; Grigoratos, Th; Voutsinas, M; Samara, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7562"> <span id="translatedtitle">1998 Comprehensive TNX <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX <span class="hlt">Area</span> at the Savannah River Site has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride. The Interim Action T-1 Air Stripper System began operation on September 16, 1996. A comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. The Interim Action is meeting its objectives and is capable of continuing to do so until the final groundwater remedial action is in place.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chase, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-06-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9443M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regional-scale correlation between CO2 fire emissions, <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, and mid-tropospheric CO2 diurnal variations retrieved from MetOp-A/ATOVS observations (2007-2011) over southern Africa.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Inferred from the Advanced TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (ATOVS) flying onboard the MetOp-A platform, mid-tropospheric CO2 columns are retrieved from evening (21:30 LST) and morning (09:30 LST) observations over the tropic for the period July 2007 - December 2011, using a non linear inference scheme based on neural networks initially designed for TOVS instruments onboard the NOAA platforms (Chédin et al. 2003), We find that the difference between evening and morning CO2 columns, hereafter referred to as Daily Tropospheric Excess (DTE), increases up to several ppm over regions affected by biomass fires, confirming the results obtained from TOVS observations onboard the NOAA10 platform over 1987-1991. The physical mechanism linking DTE with fire emissions comes from the diurnal cycle of fire emissions associated with enhanced convection: hot convective fire plumes injects CO2 into the troposphere during the afternoon peak of fire activity, which is seen by the satellite evening passing; it is then diluted by large scale atmospheric transport, before the next satellite morning passing. The CO2 DTE shows monthly, seasonal and <span class="hlt">annual</span> spatial patterns similar to fire products, such as CO2 emissions from the Global Fire Emission Database (GFEDv3) and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> from the MODIS instrument for ten regions of southern Africa with contrasted vegetation cover. Across these regions, a high positive correlation is found between DTE and CO2 emission (R2 ~ 0.8). There is also a good agreement in terms of seasonal variability north of 14S. South of 14S, the seasonal increase of the CO2 difference during the early fire season starts earlier and rises up more rapidly than in either GFEDv3 or MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. This misfit could come from limitations in current <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> detection algorithms owing in particular to their difficulty in detecting small fires associated with small burnt scars.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meilhac, Nicolas; Crevoisier, Cyril; Chédin, Alain; Scott, Noëlle A.; Armante, Raymond; Crépeau, Laurent</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/82463"> <span id="translatedtitle">Work plan for focused feasibility study of the toxic <span class="hlt">burning</span> pits <span class="hlt">area</span> at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field <span class="hlt">area</span> at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCIA). J-Field is within the Edgewood <span class="hlt">Area</span> of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood <span class="hlt">Area</span> have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open <span class="hlt">burning</span> and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood <span class="hlt">Area</span> conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA)(predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-0021355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in which data were collected to model groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today-</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Biang, C.; Benioff, P.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/630837"> <span id="translatedtitle">1997 Comprehensive TNX <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX <span class="hlt">Area</span> at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and carbon tetrachloride. In November 1994, an Interim Record of Decision (IROD) was agreed to and signed by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the South Carolina Department of Health {ampersand} Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The Interim Record of Decision requires the installation of a hybrid groundwater corrective action (HGCA) to stabilize the plume of groundwater contamination and remove CVOCs dissolved in the groundwater. The hybrid groundwater corrective action included a recovery well network, purge water management facility, air stripper, and an airlift recirculation well. The recirculation well was dropped pursuant to a test that indicated it to be ineffective at the TNX <span class="hlt">Area</span>. Consequently, the groundwater corrective action was changed from a hybrid to a single action, pump-and-treat approach. The Interim Action (IA) T-1 air stripper system began operation on September 16, 1996. a comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. As of December 31, 1997, the system has treated 32 million gallons of contaminated groundwater removed 32 pounds of TCE. The recovery well network created a `capture zone` that stabilized the plume of contaminated groundwater.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chase, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1273/pdfs/ofr2013-1273.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Post-Fire Debris-Flow Hazard Assessment of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burned</span> by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near Hailey, Central Idaho</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Post-Fire Debris-Flow Hazard Assessment of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burned</span> by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near­1273 Prepared in cooperation with Blaine County, Idaho #12;#12;Post-Fire Debris-Flow Hazard Assessment information products, visit http://store.usgs.gov Suggested citation: Skinner, K.D., 2013, Post-fire debris</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Torgersen, Christian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988SPIE..914..500A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multispectral Imaging Of <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Wounds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This research program successfully developed a real-time video imaging system (the Imaging <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Depth Indicator, or IBDI) which can discriminate <span class="hlt">areas</span> of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds expected to heal in three weeks or less from the day of injury from those <span class="hlt">areas</span> not expected to heal in that time period. The analysis can be performed on or about the third day post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> on debrided <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds. Early evaluation of <span class="hlt">burn</span> healing probability is a crucial factor in the decision to tangentially excise the <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound. The IBDI measures the reflectivity of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound in the red, green, and near infrared wavelength bands, which data correlate with <span class="hlt">burn</span> healing probability. The instrument uses an algorithm established in an earlier study to translate the optical data into <span class="hlt">burn</span> healing probabilities. The IBDI produces two types of images: a true-color image of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> and a false-color image of the <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The false-color image consists of up to four colors, each of which indicates a distinct range of probability that the <span class="hlt">area</span> of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> so colored will heal within 21 days. Over 100 <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound sites were studied. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> sites were evaluated on day three post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> by our instrument and by the attending physician. Of 55 sites considered to be of intermediate depth, the IBDI predicted the healing outcome accurately in 84% of the cases. By comparison, the predictions of <span class="hlt">burn</span> surgeons supervising the care of these patients were accurate in 62% of the cases.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Afromowitz, Martin A.; Callis, James B.; Heimbach, David M.; DeSoto, Larry A.; Norton, Mary K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3500004"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> comprise a major mechanism of injury, affecting millions of children worldwide, with causes including scald injury, fire injury, and child abuse. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> injuries tend to be classified based on the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> involved and the depth of injury. Large <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries have multisystemic manifestations, including injuries to all major organ systems, requiring close supportive and therapeutic measures. Management of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries requires intensive medical therapy for multi-organ dysfunction/failure, and aggressive surgical therapy to prevent sepsis and secondary complications. In addition, pain management throughout this period is vital. Specialized <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers, which care for these patients with multidisciplinary teams, may be the best places to treat children with major thermal injuries. This review highlights the major components of <span class="hlt">burn</span> care, stressing the pathophysiologic consequences of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury, circulatory and respiratory care, surgical management, and pain management of these often critically ill patients. PMID:23181206</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krishnamoorthy, Vijay; Ramaiah, Ramesh; Bhananker, Sanjay M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0901553"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Implementation Plan for 1979-1980. Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 4 Texas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 1979-80 <span class="hlt">annual</span> implementation plan (AIP) for Health Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 4 in Texas opens with an introductory section covering the purpose of the plan, the relationship between the health systems plan and the AIP, and the amendment process. The objectives th...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fhs.mcmaster.ca/pathology/documents/2013BASEFCallforJudges.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">BASEF 2013 Call for Judges The 53rd <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Bay <span class="hlt">Area</span> Science and Engineering Fair (BASEF)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">BASEF 2013 Call for Judges The 53rd <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Bay <span class="hlt">Area</span> Science and Engineering Fair (BASEF) We hope that you will join us at BASEF 2013 as a volunteer Science Fair Judge on Thursday, March 21, 2013 from 8 and international science fair organizations, and send many of our winning students on to either the Canada</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haykin, Simon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/766540"> <span id="translatedtitle">Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training <span class="hlt">Area</span> (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near <span class="hlt">Areas</span> 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> was used from the 1960s to 1980s to <span class="hlt">burn</span> excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the <span class="hlt">area</span> was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve the question of whether or not potentially hazardous wastes were generated at three of the four CASs within CAU 490, and whether or not potentially hazardous and radioactive wastes were generated at the fourth CAS in CAU 490 (CAS 09-54-001-09L2). Suspected CAS-specific COPCs include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, explosives, and uranium and plutonium isotopes. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-06-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fire.uni-freiburg.de/GlobalNetworks/Africa/Mali-Savanna-Burning-Laris-2002.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> the Seasonal Mosaic: Preventative <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Strategies in the Wooded Savanna of Southern Mali</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Data are presented indicating a seasonal mosaic pattern of <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the savanna of southern Mali. A seasonal mosaic is a landscape that is <span class="hlt">annually</span> re-created by people, and which contains patches of unburned, early <span class="hlt">burned</span>, and recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> vegetation. A survey of over 100 farmers and in-depth in- terviews demonstrates that rural inhabitants of southern Mali begin an <span class="hlt">annual</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul Laris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/787386"> <span id="translatedtitle">Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, February 2001)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended Corrective Action Alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 490 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range and the Tonopah Test Range and is approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training <span class="hlt">Area</span> (located southwest of <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> (located west of Main Lake); 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard (located north of the northwest corner of <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3); and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> (located south of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 9 Compound on the TTR). A Corrective Action Investigation was performed in July and August 2000, and analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified in soil at the Gun Propellant <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> or the Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>; therefore, there is no need for corrective actions at these two sites. Five soil samples at the Fire Training <span class="hlt">Area</span> and seven at the Sandia Service Yard exceeded PALs for total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel. Upon the identification of COCs specific to CAU 490, Corrective Action Objectives were developed based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the TTR, with the following three CAAs under consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure In Place - No Further Action With Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based on the results of this evaluation, the preferred choice for CAU 490 was Alternative 3. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site, and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at this site.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">DOE /NV</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-02-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..77..725L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fluoride and sulfur dioxide indoor pollution situation and control in coal-<span class="hlt">burning</span> endemic <span class="hlt">area</span> in Zhaotong, Yunnan, China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The presented study aims to investigate the gaseous fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution level in the kitchen, traditional flue-curing barn and outdoor environment and to find economically feasible method to reduce fluorine and sulfur release. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentrations in air of outdoor environment, kitchen and traditional flue-curing barn were determined in 56 households in coal-<span class="hlt">burning</span> endemic fluorosis <span class="hlt">areas</span> of Zhaotong. Among these, 21 households in Yujiawan Village, Zhenxiong County, Zhaotong City were chosen for this experiment to reduce gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in traditional flue-curing barn air by using calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone (CDSL) instead of clay mixed with coal. The result showed that: (1) gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the outdoor air in Mangbu Township <span class="hlt">area</span> was 0.51 ?g dm-2?day and <0.05 mg m-3, respectively and in Xiaolongdong Township was 2.7 ?g dm-2 day and <0.05 mg m-3, respectively while in Zhaotong City these concentration were lower than the ambient air standard (3 ?g dm-2?day and 0.5 mg m-3, respectively). (2) The indoor gaseous fluoride concentration (3.7 ?g m-3) in air of kitchen with the improved coal stove was within the reference value (10 ?g m-3); SO2 concentration (0.94 mg m-3) in kitchen air had decline, but its concentration was still higher than indoor air quality standard (0.5 mg m-3). (3) Average concentration of gaseous fluoride and SO2 in air of traditional flue-curing barn of Xiaolongdong Township was 7.2 ?g m-3 and 6.8 mg m-3 respectively, and in Yujiawan village were 10.1 ?g m-3 and 14.4 mg m-3, respectively. (4) After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air decreased of 45% and 91%, respectively. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 pollution in the traditional flue-curing barn is very serious. The corn and chili baked by open stoves in traditional flue-curing barn (baking room) was also seriously polluted by fluoride and sulfur. After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air have declined markedly. The way of adding calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay as a binder for briquette-making is an economically feasible way to control the indoor pollution of fluorine and sulfur in coal-<span class="hlt">burning</span> endemic in Zhaotong, Yunnan.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Yonglin; Luo, Kunli; Li, Ling; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613380L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Slash and <span class="hlt">burn</span> versus "agronegócio". Tales of forest degradation in the maroon <span class="hlt">area</span> of Vila Bela da SantíssimaTrindade, Mato Grosso, Brazil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over the last four decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the <span class="hlt">area</span> known as the "arcof deforestation", an extensive geographical <span class="hlt">area</span> located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. The deforestation process replaces the forest and the slash and <span class="hlt">burn</span> agriculture systems by modern intensive agriculture systems targeted at the production of cash crops like cotton, maize or soybeans, and to graze cattle.The so called "agronegócio" system. The reduction of pristine forest <span class="hlt">areas</span> where traditional (indigenous, maroons and riverside) population conduct slash and <span class="hlt">burn</span> agriculture, reduces the recovery time of the abandoned fields after exhaustion by agriculture crops, reason why the return to the same spots for another cycle of slash and <span class="hlt">burn</span> occurs before the forest recovers completely from the previous cycle. In fact, the frequency of the cycles is increasing with the expansion of farm land and the reduction of available forest. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of the deforestation trends in the Vila Bela da SantíssimaTrindade, near the Bolivian border of Mato Grosso in Brazil, over a time span of four decades. The arc of deforestation has passed the region in the 1980's, leaving yet a large <span class="hlt">area</span> of pristine forest where the traditional communities kept practicing a slash and <span class="hlt">burn</span> agriculture system. Nevertheless, due to the reduction of available <span class="hlt">area</span>, and specially due to the exposure of traditional communities to the "western civilization culture", there is an increasing abandonment of the traditional systems and associated culture and knowledge. In this context, the traditional communities may become a deforestation/degradation factor. To prevent this situation, the GUYAGROFOR project was implemented, to value traditional knowledge, identify bottlenecks in the increase of added value to the local traditional products, and to test methodologies to maintain and if possible improve soil fertility near the small households. The deforestation/degradation processes and the impacts of the proposed mitigation action are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leite, José C.; Ferreira, António A. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19060732"> <span id="translatedtitle">Actual <span class="hlt">burn</span> nutrition care practices: an update.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 1989, Williamson published a survey of nutrition care practices in <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers. Nutrition practices have evolved since then; we conducted a study to determine the current scope of nutrition care in <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers. With IRB approval, a 64 question survey was emailed to 103 <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers listed in the <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Care Resources in North America. Follow-up emails were sent to those who did not respond within 2 weeks. Sixty-five centers (63%) responded and included 66% of currently verified <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers. Due to incomplete surveys, most questions had 45 to 50 responses. The centers averaged 246 <span class="hlt">annual</span> admissions and all admitted non-<span class="hlt">burn</span> patients. Eighty percent of dietitians had >5 years <span class="hlt">burn</span> experience (vs 17% in 1989) and 90% also worked in other intensive care settings. Most dietitians reported advanced training or education (83%). Nutrition assessment, support and monitoring methods have changed though most centers continue to use serum proteins for assessment. Indirect calorimetry use has increased with most centers (78%) adding a 'stress factor' of 10 to 30% above measured energy needs. More centers provided specialized formulas including high-protein (82 vs 8.8%) and immune-enhancing (53 vs 12.3%) than in 1989. All gave a variety of vitamin and mineral supplements. Anabolic steroid and glutamine use was common (92 and 69%). Eighty percent of centers used glucose protocols with 54% having a goal of <or=120 mg/dl; another 42% used 121 to 150 mg/dl as a target. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> dietitians reported more experience than previously documented but continued to work in other intensive care unit <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The use of calorimetry and glucose control protocols increased in the past 20 years as did the use of anabolic steroids and supplements. Variability continued in assessment (particularly calorie estimates) and monitoring methods. PMID:19060732</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Graves, Caran; Saffle, Jeffrey; Cochran, Amalia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1039309"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical <span class="hlt">Area</span> 54, <span class="hlt">Area</span> G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As a condition to the Disposal Authorization Statement issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) on March 17, 2010, a comprehensive performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program must be implemented for the Technical <span class="hlt">Area</span> 54, <span class="hlt">Area</span> G disposal facility. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> determinations of the adequacy of the performance assessment and composite analysis are to be conducted under the maintenance program to ensure that the conclusions reached by those analyses continue to be valid. This report summarizes the results of the fiscal year 2011 <span class="hlt">annual</span> review for <span class="hlt">Area</span> G. Revision 4 of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> G performance assessment and composite analysis was issued in 2008 and formally approved in 2009. These analyses are expected to provide reasonable estimates of the long-term performance of <span class="hlt">Area</span> G and, hence, the disposal facility's ability to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) performance objectives. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> disposal receipt reviews indicate that smaller volumes of waste will require disposal in the pits and shafts at <span class="hlt">Area</span> G relative to what was projected for the performance assessment and composite analysis. The future inventories are projected to decrease modestly for the pits but increase substantially for the shafts due to an increase in the amount of tritium that is projected to require disposal. Overall, however, changes in the projected future inventories of waste are not expected to compromise the ability of <span class="hlt">Area</span> G to satisfy DOE performance objectives. The <span class="hlt">Area</span> G composite analysis addresses potential impacts from all waste disposed of at the facility, as well as other sources of radioactive material that may interact with releases from <span class="hlt">Area</span> G. The level of knowledge about the other sources included in the composite analysis has not changed sufficiently to call into question the validity of that analysis. Ongoing environmental surveillance activities are conducted at, and in the vicinity of, <span class="hlt">Area</span> G. However, the information generated by many of these activities cannot be used to evaluate the validity of the performance assessment and composite analysis models because the monitoring data collected are specific to operational releases or address receptors that are outside the domain of the performance assessment and composite analysis. In general, applicable monitoring data are supportive of some aspects of the performance assessment and composite analysis. Several research and development (R and D) efforts have been initiated under the performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program. These investigations are designed to improve the current understanding of the disposal facility and site, thereby reducing the uncertainty associated with the projections of the long-term performance of <span class="hlt">Area</span> G. The status and results of R and D activities that were undertaken in fiscal year 2011 are discussed in this report. Special analyses have been conducted to determine the feasibility of disposing of specific waste streams, to address proposed changes in disposal operations, and to consider the impacts of changes to the models used to conduct the performance assessment and composite analysis. These analyses are described and the results of the evaluations are summarized in this report. The <span class="hlt">Area</span> G disposal facility consists of Material Disposal <span class="hlt">Area</span> (MDA) G and the Zone 4 expansion <span class="hlt">area</span>. To date, all disposal operations at <span class="hlt">Area</span> G have been confined to MDA G. Material Disposal <span class="hlt">Area</span> G is scheduled to undergo final closure in 2015; disposal of waste in the pits and shafts is scheduled to end in 2013. In anticipation of the closure of MDA G, plans are being made to ship the majority of the waste generated at LANL to off-site locations for disposal. It is not clear at this time if waste that will be disposed of at LANL will be placed in Zone 4 or if disposal operations will move to a new location at the Laboratory. Separately, efforts to optimize the final cover used in the closure of MDA G are underway; a final cover design different than that adopted for the performance assessment and composite analy</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shuman, Rob [WPS: WASTE PROJECTS AND SERVICES</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/656906"> <span id="translatedtitle">Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan for the F-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (231-F, 231-1F, and 231-2F)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this source unit Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan is to describe the preferred alternative for addressing the F-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (231-F and 231-1F) and Rubble Pit (231-2F) (FBRP) source unit located at SRS, in southwestern Aiken County, South Carolina and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/626417"> <span id="translatedtitle">Record of Decision Remedial Alternative Selection for the D-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (431-D and 431-1D)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The D-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (DBRP) (431-D and 431-1D) Waste Unit is listed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3004(U) Solid Waste Management Unit/Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) unit in Appendix C of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS). This decision document presents the selected remedial alternative for the DBRP located at the SRS in Aiken, South Carolina.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Mason, J.T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57168731"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linking tree-ring and sediment-charcoal records to reconstruct fire occurrence and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in subalpine forests of Yellowstone National Park, USA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reconstructing specific fire-history metrics with charcoal records has been difficult, in part because calibration data sets are rare. We calibrated charcoal accumulation in sediments from three medium (14—19 ha) and one large (4250 ha) lake with a 300 yr tree-ring-based fire-history reconstruction from central Yellowstone National Park (YNP) to reconstruct local fire occurrence and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> within a 128 840</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Philip E. Higuera; Cathy Whitlock; Josh A. Gage</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPRS...69...88S"> <span id="translatedtitle">A method for extracting <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> from Landsat TM/ETM+ images by soft aggregation of multiple Spectral Indices and a region growing algorithm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since fire is a major threat to forests and wooded <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the Mediterranean environment of Southern Europe, systematic regional fire monitoring is a necessity. Satellite data constitute a unique cost-effective source of information on the occurrence of fire events and on the extent of the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. Our objective is to develop a (semi-)automated algorithm for mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> from medium spatial resolution (30 m) satellite data. In this article we present a multi-criteria approach based on Spectral Indices, soft computing techniques and a region growing algorithm; theoretically this approach relies on the convergence of partial evidence of <span class="hlt">burning</span> provided by the indices. Our proposal features several innovative aspects: it is flexible in adapting to a variable number of indices and to missing data; it exploits positive and negative evidence (bipolar information) and it offers different criteria for aggregating partial evidence in order to derive the layers of candidate seeds and candidate region growing boundaries. The study was conducted on a set of Landsat TM images, acquired for the year 2003 over Southern Europe and pre-processed with the LEDAPS (Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System) processing chain for deriving surface spectral reflectance ?i in the TM bands. The proposed method was applied to show its flexibility and the sensitivity of the accuracy of the resulting <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps to different aggregation criteria and thresholds for seed selection. Validation performed over an entire independent Landsat TM image shows the commission and omission errors to be below 21% and 3%, respectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stroppiana, D.; Bordogna, G.; Carrara, P.; Boschetti, M.; Boschetti, L.; Brivio, P. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/1078.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> (image)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... skin (epidermis) and cause pain, redness and swelling (erythema). Second degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> damage the epidermis and the inner layer, the dermis, causing erythema and blistering. Damage from third degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> extend ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24560434"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> resuscitation on the African continent.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A survey of members of the International Society of <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Injuries (ISBI) and the American <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Association (ABA) indicated that although there was difference in <span class="hlt">burn</span> resuscitation protocols, they all fulfilled their functions. This study presents the findings of the same survey replicated in Africa, the only continent not included in the original survey. One hundred and eight responses were received. The mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> number of admissions per unit was ninety-eight. Fluid resuscitation was usually initiated with total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burns</span> of either more than ten or more than fifteen percent. Twenty-six respondents made use of enteral resuscitation. The preferred resuscitation formula was the Parkland formula, and Ringer's Lactate was the favoured intravenous fluid. Despite satisfaction with the formula, many respondents believed that patients received volumes that differed from that predicted. Urine output was the principle guide to adequate resuscitation, with only twenty-one using the evolving clinical picture and thirty using invasive monitoring methods. Only fifty-one respondents replied to the question relating to the method of adjusting resuscitation. While colloids are not available in many parts of the African continent on account of cost, one might infer than African <span class="hlt">burn</span> surgeons make better use of enteral resuscitation. PMID:24560434</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rode, H; Rogers, A D; Cox, S G; Allorto, N L; Stefani, F; Bosco, A; Greenhalgh, D G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/06_18_2010_im15GtrFFA_06_18_2010_48"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lava Flow <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Vegetation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lava flow activity continues to <span class="hlt">burn</span> vegetation in the kipuka adjacent to the trail, causing the viewing trail to be closed beyond the trailhead. The new viewing <span class="hlt">area</span> is still very close to the active flows. ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr84577"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> ground-water use in the Twin Cities metropolitan <span class="hlt">area</span>, Minnesota, 1970-79</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> groundwater use in the Twin Cities Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Area</span> from 1970-79 is presented by aquifer and type of use. Most groundwater is withdrawn from wells in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer and major uses of the water are for self-supplied industry and public supplies. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> groundwater-use data are presented by county for each of the five major aquifers; Prairie du Chien-Jordan, Mount Simon-Hinckley, Ironton-Galesville, St. Peter, and drift. The data also are presented by county for each major use type including public supply, self-supplied industry, commercial air-conditioning, irrigation, lake-level maintenance, and dewatering. The data were collected initially by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and were supplemented by data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey. (USGS)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Horn, M.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6914468"> <span id="translatedtitle">CO[sub 2] and temperature effects on leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> production in two <span class="hlt">annual</span> plant species</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors studied leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> production in two <span class="hlt">annual</span> plant species, Abutilon theophrasti and Amaranthus retroflexus, under three day/night temperature regimes and two concentrations of carbon dioxide. The production of whole-plant leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> during the first 30 d of growth was analyzed in terms of the leaf initiation rate, leaf expansion, individual leaf <span class="hlt">area</span>, and, in Amaranthus, production of branch leaves. Temperature and CO[sub 2] influenced leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> production through effects on the rate of development, determined by the production of nodes on the main stem, and through shifts in the relationship between whole-plant leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> and the number of main stem nodes. In Abutilon, leaf initiation rate was highest at 38[degree], but <span class="hlt">area</span> of individual leaves was greatest at 28[degree]. Total leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> was greatly reduced at 18[degree] due to slow leaf initiation rates. Elevated CO[sub 2] concentration increased leaf initiation rate at 28[degree], resulting in an increase in whole-part leaf <span class="hlt">area</span>. In Amaranthus, leaf initiation rate increased with temperature, and was increased by elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree]. Individual leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> was greatest at 28[degree], and was increased by elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree] but decreased at 38[degree]. Branch leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> displayed a similar response to CO[sub 2], butt was greater at 38[degree]. Overall, wholeplant leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> was slightly increased at 38[degree] relative to 28[degree], and elevated CO[sub 2] levels resulted in increased leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> at 28[degree] but decreased leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> at 38[degree].</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ackerly, D.D.; Coleman, J.S.; Morse, S.R.; Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1345939"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clothing <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Canadian children</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A Canadian survey of 11 tertiary care pediatric centres with specialized <span class="hlt">burn</span> facilities revealed that an estimated 37 children up to 9 years of age are admitted <span class="hlt">annually</span> to such hospitals because of clothing <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Sleepwear accounts for an estimated 21 such <span class="hlt">burns</span> per year. Girls were found to suffer the most severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> and represented eight of the nine children in the series who died. Loose and flowing garments dominated the girls' styles. The results of multiple-regression analysis confirmed that style of clothing (loose and flowing as opposed to snug) was the most significant predictor of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, length of hospital stay, the need for skin grafting and survival. The ignition situation (avoidance of parental supervision at the time of injury) was the only other important predictor. The success of regulatory actions in other countries in reducing the incidence of severe clothing <span class="hlt">burns</span> is reviewed, and preventive strategies for Canada are explored. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:3995433</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stanwick, Richard S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11307683"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> and military clothing.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Over the last hundred years, the <span class="hlt">burn</span> threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of <span class="hlt">burn</span>, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of <span class="hlt">burn</span> casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from <span class="hlt">burns</span> is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of <span class="hlt">burn</span>--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a <span class="hlt">burn</span>. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a <span class="hlt">burn</span> threat. This paper explores the incidence of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash <span class="hlt">burns</span>; the most vulnerable <span class="hlt">areas</span> are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under high heat loads in the laboratory, combat clothing can ignite, but there is little evidence that clothing ignition is a common occurrence in military <span class="hlt">burn</span> casualties. Thermoplastic materials have many benefits in civil and military clothing. There is little objective evidence that they exacerbate <span class="hlt">burns</span>, or complicate <span class="hlt">burn</span> management. Their use in military clothing must be based on objective evidence, not hearsay. PMID:11307683</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McLean, A D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20131273"> <span id="translatedtitle">Post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment of the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near Hailey, central Idaho</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A preliminary hazard assessment was developed for debris-flow hazards in the 465 square-kilometer (115,000 acres) <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the 2013 Beaver Creek fire near Hailey in central Idaho. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> covers all or part of six watersheds and selected basins draining to the Big Wood River and is at risk of substantial post-fire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> basins throughout the Intermountain Region in Western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence, potential volume of debris flows, and the combined debris-flow hazard ranking along the drainage network within the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and to estimate the same for analyzed drainage basins within the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Input data for the empirical models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm (13 mm); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm (19 mm); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm (22 mm). Estimated debris-flow probabilities for drainage basins upstream of 130 selected basin outlets ranged from less than 1 to 78 percent with the probabilities increasing with each increase in storm magnitude. Probabilities were high in three of the six watersheds. For the 25-year storm, probabilities were greater than 60 percent for 11 basin outlets and ranged from 50 to 60 percent for an additional 12 basin outlets. Probability estimates for stream segments within the drainage network can vary within a basin. For the 25-year storm, probabilities for stream segments within 33 basins were higher than the basin outlet, emphasizing the importance of evaluating the drainage network as well as basin outlets. Estimated debris-flow volumes for the three modeled storms range from a minimal debris flow volume of 10 cubic meters [m3]) to greater than 100,000 m3. Estimated debris-flow volumes increased with basin size and distance downstream. For the 25-year storm, estimated debris-flow volumes were greater than 100,000 m3 for 4 basins and between 50,000 and 100,000 m3 for 10 basins. The debris-flow hazard rankings did not result in the highest hazard ranking of 5, indicating that none of the basins had a high probability of debris-flow occurrence and a high debris-flow volume estimate. The hazard ranking was 4 for one basin using the 10-year-recurrence storm model and for three basins using the 25-year-recurrence storm model. The maps presented herein may be used to prioritize <span class="hlt">areas</span> where post-wildfire remediation efforts should take place within the 2- to 3-year period of increased erosional vulnerability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Skinner, Kenneth D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.scipub.org/fulltext/ajid/ajid13132-138.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Septicemia: The Principal Killer of <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Patients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> injury is a major problem in many <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the world and it has been estimated that 75% of all deaths following <span class="hlt">burns</span> are related to infection. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> impair the skin's normal barrier function thus allowing microbial colonization of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds and even with the use of topical antimicrobial agents, contamination is almost unavoidable. It is therefore essential</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. R. Sharma; Virendar Pal Singh; Sumedha Bangar; Neha Gupta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7556863"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genital <span class="hlt">burns</span> and vaginal delivery.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Obstetric complications may result from <span class="hlt">burn</span> scarring in the genital <span class="hlt">area</span>. Women in developing countries typically squat around cooking fires, and <span class="hlt">burns</span> are common. This recent case in Nepal describes obstructed labor in a young woman whose genital <span class="hlt">area</span> had extensive scarring from a cooking fire injury. Proper antenatal assessment by health care providers can reduce the risk to mothers and infants of the consequences of a birth canal damaged or obstructed by <span class="hlt">burn</span> scarring. PMID:7556863</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pant, R; Manandhar, V; Wittgenstein, F; Fortney, J A; Fukushima, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol12/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol12-sec63-5870.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 63.5870 - How do I calculate <span class="hlt">annual</span> uncontrolled and controlled organic HAP emissions from my wet-out <span class="hlt">area</span>...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...calculate <span class="hlt">annual</span> uncontrolled and controlled organic HAP emissions from my wet-out <span class="hlt">area</span>...calculate <span class="hlt">annual</span> uncontrolled and controlled organic HAP emissions from my wet-out <span class="hlt">area</span>...your <span class="hlt">annual</span> uncontrolled and controlled organic HAP emissions from your wet-out...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3945825"> <span id="translatedtitle">Is the target of 1 day length of stay per 1% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> actually being achieved? A review of paediatric thermal injuries in South East Scotland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives: Length of stay is a standard variable used to evaluate outcomes in <span class="hlt">burn</span> care. Is the target of 1 day length of stay per 1% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> actually being achieved? Methods: A retrospective analysis of 328 paediatric thermal injuries admitted to the South East Scotland Regional <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Unit between January 2003 and March 2007 to assess whether the target is met and if not, which factors are contributing to a prolonged hospitalisation. Results: 57% achieved the target and 43% failed the target. Factors associated with a lengthened hospital stay were <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth, <span class="hlt">burn</span> location, presence of infection/sepsis and the need for theatre visits for either dressing change or surgical intervention. Conclusions: Many factors can contribute to patients’ length of hospital stay. It is valuable to identify <span class="hlt">areas</span> of practice which can be altered to minimise the impact of these factors. For example, consider the use of laser Doppler imaging to help assess <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth more accurately; this leading to potentially more accurate requirements for surgery or not, early excision of deep <span class="hlt">burns</span>, improved infection control and use of dressings may all contribute to reduce the length of inpatient stay with a view to improving patient outcome. PMID:24624311</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Louise, Caton Nadine; David, McGill; John, Stewart Kenneth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30862331"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genital <span class="hlt">burns</span> and vaginal delivery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Obstetric complications may result from <span class="hlt">burn</span> scarring in the genital <span class="hlt">area</span>. Women in developing countries typically squat around cooking fires, and <span class="hlt">burns</span> are common. This recent case in Nepal describes obstructed labor in a young woman whose genital <span class="hlt">area</span> had extensive scarring from a cooking fire injury. Proper antenatal assessment by health care providers can reduce the risk to mothers</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Pant; V. Manandhar; F. Wittgenstein; J. A. Fortney; C. Fukushima</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1690754"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> social behaviour of basking sharks associated with coastal front <span class="hlt">areas</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Comparatively little is known about reproductive behaviour in wild sharks as it has proved extremely difficult to study, especially in large pelagic sharks. Here we describe <span class="hlt">annual</span> courtship-like behaviour in the second-largest fish species, the basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus), from 25 separate episodes observed and tracked during a five-year study period (1995-1999) off south-west England. Social behaviours observed between paired, or three or four, sharks were consistent with courtship behaviours seen in other shark species, namely nose-to-tail following, close following, close flank approach, parallel and echelon swimming. Mature individuals between 5 and 8 m total body length (L(T)) exhibited these behaviours whereas smaller sharks (3-4 m L(T)) did not. Lead individuals were identified as female on a number of occasions and interactions were prolonged; the longest continuous observation of socializing was 1.8 h, although intermittent track data indicates bouts may last for up to 5-6 h. Locations of courtship-like behaviour events were not distributed randomly and were significantly associated with thermal fronts. Our results indicate that putative courtship behaviour occurs between May and July along oceanographic fronts, probably as a consequence of individuals aggregating to forage in rich prey patches before initiating courtship. Thus, locating the richest prey patches along fronts may be important for basking sharks to find mates as well as food in the pelagic ecosystem. As courtship-like behaviours occur <span class="hlt">annually</span> off south-west England we speculate that this region may represent an <span class="hlt">annual</span> breeding <span class="hlt">area</span> for this protected species, but mating itself probably takes place at depth as it was not seen at the surface. PMID:11052542</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sims, D W; Southall, E J; Quayle, V A; Fox, A M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..99..446F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pre-harvest sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span> emission inventories based on remote sensing data in the state of São Paulo, Brazil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The state of São Paulo is the largest sugarcane producer in Brazil, with a cultivated <span class="hlt">area</span> of about 5.4 Mha in 2011. Approximately 2 Mha were harvested <span class="hlt">annually</span> from 2006 to 2011 with the pre-harvest straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice, which emits trace gases and particulate material to the atmosphere. The development of emission inventories for sugarcane straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> is crucial in order to assess its environmental impacts. This study aimed to estimate <span class="hlt">annual</span> emissions associated with the pre-harvest sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice in the state of São Paulo based on remote sensing maps and emission and combustion factors for sugarcane straw <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Average estimated emissions (Gg/year) were 1130 ± 152 for CO, 26 ± 4 for NOx, 16 ± 2 for CH4, 45 ± 6 for PM2.5, 120 ± 16 for PM10 and 154 ± 21 for NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons). An intercomparison among <span class="hlt">annual</span> emissions from this study and <span class="hlt">annual</span> emissions from four other different approaches indicated that the estimates obtained by satellite fire detection or low spatial resolution approaches tend to underestimate sugarcane <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, due to unique characteristics of this type of biomass fire. Overall, our results also indicated that government actions to reduce sugarcane straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions are becoming effective.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">França, Daniela; Longo, Karla; Rudorff, Bernardo; Aguiar, Daniel; Freitas, Saulo; Stockler, Rafael; Pereira, Gabriel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/831230"> <span id="translatedtitle">Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> (Tonopah Test Range). CAU 484 consists of sites located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 484 consists of the following six Corrective Action Sites: (1) CAS RG-52-007-TAML, Davis Gun Penetrator Test; (2) CAS TA-52-001-TANL, NEDS Detonation <span class="hlt">Area</span>; (3) CAS TA-52-004-TAAL, Metal Particle Dispersion Test; (4) CAS TA-52-005-TAAL, Joint Test Assembly DU Sites; (5) CAS TA-52-006-TAPL, Depleted Uranium Site; and (6) CAS TA-54-001-TANL, Containment Tank and Steel Structure</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bechel Nevada</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1313079H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long term in-situ observations of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosol at a high altitude station in Venezuela - sources, impacts and inter <span class="hlt">annual</span> variability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">First long-term observations of South American biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosol within the tropical lower free troposphere are presented. The observations were conducted between 2007 and 2009 at a high altitude station (4765 m a.s.l.) on the Pico Espejo, Venezuela. Sub-micron aerosol volume, number concentrations of primary particles and particle absorption were observed. Orographic lifting and shallow convection leads to a distinct diurnal cycle at the station. It enables measurements within the lower free troposphere during night time and observations of boundary layer air masses during day time and at their transitional regions. The seasonal cycle is defined by a wet rainy season and a dry biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> season. The particle load of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosol is dominated by fires in the Venezuelan savannah. Increases of aerosol concentrations could not be linked to long-range transport of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> plumes from the Amazon basin or Africa due to effective wet scavenging of particles. Highest particle concentrations were observed within boundary layer air masses during the dry season. Ambient sub-micron aerosol volume reached 1.4 ± 1.3 ?m3 cm-3, heated (300 °C) particle number concentrations 510 ± 420 cm-3 and the absorption coefficient 0.91 ± 1.2 Mm-1. The respective concentrations were lowest within the lower free troposphere during the wet season and averaged at 0.19 ± 0.25 ?m3 cm-3, 150 ± 94 cm-3 and 0.15 ± 0.26 Mm-1. A decrease of particle concentrations during the dry seasons from 2007-2009 could be connected to a decrease in fire activity in the wider region of Venezuela using MODIS satellite observations. The variability of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is most likely linked to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Low biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> activity in the Venezuelan savannah was observed to follow La Niña conditions, high biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> activity followed El Niño conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hamburger, T.; Matis?ns, M.; Tunved, P.; Ström, J.; Calderon, S.; Hoffmann, P.; Hochschild, G.; Gross, J.; Schmeissner, T.; Krejci, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910040176&hterms=Acid+rain&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DAcid%2Brain"> <span id="translatedtitle">The consequences of global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> encompasses forest <span class="hlt">burning</span> for land clearing, the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burning</span> of grasslands, the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">burning</span> of agricultural stubble and waste after harvests, and the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of wood as fuel. These activities generate CO2, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, CO, H2, NO, NH3, and CH3Cl; of these, CO, CH4 and the hydrocarbons, and NO, are involved in the photochemical production of tropospheric O3, while NO is transformed to NO2 and then to nitric acid, which falls as acid rain. Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is also a major source of atmospheric particulates and aerosols which affect the transmission of incoming solar radiation and outgoing IR radiation through the atmosphere, with significant climatic effects.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levine, Joel S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40754280"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prospective use of collected fog water in the restoration of degraded <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> under dry Mediterranean conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A mountainous plot located in the interior of the Valencia region (east coast of the Iberian Peninsula) was identified for reforestation using the fog-water collection potential prevailing in the <span class="hlt">area</span>. Fog data were obtained by means of an instrument ensemble consisting of a passive cylindrical fog-water collector, a rain gauge, a wind direction and velocity sensor and a temperature and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">María J. Estrela; José A. Valiente; David Corell; David Fuentes; Alejandro Valdecantos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54568736"> <span id="translatedtitle">Smoke hazards from <span class="hlt">burning</span> plastics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Smoke hazards to people and property from unwanted fires have attracted increasing attention. The use of plastics in construction, furnishings, clothing, and recreational and transportation equipment has increased. Actual fire experiences indicate that organic materials, whether natural or man-made, will <span class="hlt">burn</span>; those with large surface <span class="hlt">areas</span> such as films, fabrics, or foams will ignite readily and <span class="hlt">burn</span> rapidly. Addition of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. R. Gaskill</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.medicinaoral.com/medoralfree01/aop/20038880.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome: An update</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome (BMS) refers to chronic orofacial pain, unaccompanied by mucosal lesions or other evident clinical signs. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women. BMS is characterized by an intense <span class="hlt">burning</span> or stinging sensation, preferably on the tongue or in other <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the oral mucosa. It can be accompanied by other sensory disorders such as</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Lopez-Jornet; Fabio Camacho-Alonso; Paz Andujar-Mateos; Mariano Sanchez-Siles; F. Gomez-Garcia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://vision.rutgers.edu/Publications/th.vss.2006.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">2006 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Meeting of the Vision Sciences Society Receptive Field Shifts in <span class="hlt">Area</span> MT during Smooth and Rapid Eye Movements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract 2006 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Meeting of the Vision Sciences Society Receptive Field Shifts in <span class="hlt">Area</span> MT during Smooth and Rapid Eye Movements Till S Hartmann1,2,4 , Frank Bremmer4 , Thomas D Albright2,3 , Bart is generally quite robust against our ever present eye movements, there are cracks in this perceptual stability</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krekelberg, Bart</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cnr.uidaho.edu/measurements/pdfs/Pocewicz%20et%20al%202007.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">View angle effects on relationships between MISR vegetation indices and leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> index in a recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> ponderosa pine forest</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">While nadir-viewing passive multispectral sensors have limited utility for characterizing the full dimensionality of forest canopies, multi-angle remote sensors such as the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) may improve detection of canopy architecture, canopy cover, and leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> index (LAI) of forest canopy versus understory vegetation. Our objective was to determine whether data from the MISR sensor could improve estimates of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Amy Pocewicz; Lee A. Vierling; Leigh B. Lentile; Rachel Smith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3860670"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mortality and Morbidity of Fireworks-Related <span class="hlt">Burns</span> on the <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Last Wednesday of the Year Festival (Charshanbeh Soori) in Iran: An 11-Year Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Management of firework-related injuries is costly for the patient, society, and government. Objectives Evaluating effective factors yielding to such injuries may lead to better management of patients and decreased costs and morbidities. Patients and Materials This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients referred to Shahid Motahari <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Hospital on Charshanbeh Soori day festival during the period extending from March 2000 to March 2011 (11 days in an 11-year period). Demographic data, causes of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury, severity, and affected body parts were recorded. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results There were164 patients in the study with a mean age of 18.34 ± 9.31 years; 87% (145/164) were male. Homemade grenades were the most frequent cause of injury. Hand injury was reported in 56% (92/164) of the cases. Amputation was executed in 7 (4.3%) cases, and 6 (3.7%) patients died due to severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries and facial damage. Conclusions Fireworks- related injuries during Charshanbeh Soori ceremony causes significant morbidities and damage to different body parts (especially upper limbs and face), and some of these injuries will lead to life time disabilities, amputations, and even death. As most of the injured patients are young teenagers and children, special consideration must be taken into account to prevent long term morbidities. PMID:24350158</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vaghardoost, Reza; Ghavami, Yaser; Sobouti, Behnam; Mobayen, Mohammad Reza</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5863228"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> rubber</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mario Andretti, look out You are about to be surpassed in the <span class="hlt">burning</span> rubber category by a joint venture between Oxford Energy Company and General Electric. The two companies are building the first whole tire-to-energy facility in the US in Modesto, California. This $41 million facility does not require tires to be shredded prior to incineration; it has the capacity to <span class="hlt">burn</span> 700 tires per minute. The electricity generated will be provided to a utility company. Oxford says there are two billion waste tires on the ground and this number is increasing by 220 million a year. Of that amount, only 18 million a year are recycled.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Not Available</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.B43B0272M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Agricultural <span class="hlt">Burning</span> in the Southeastern United States Detected by MODIS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The southeastern United States, including the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia, has a high occurrence of fire activity as detected by MODIS. The spatio-temporal analysis of the 1 km MODIS TERRA Active Fire Product (MOD 14) from 2001 to 2004 shows that agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the southeastern United States accounts for an average of 16 percent of <span class="hlt">annual</span> fire activity. In addition, the southeastern region contributes an average of 33 percent of all agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the contiguous United States. Crop types that most likely <span class="hlt">burn</span> in the southeast include rice, winter wheat, sugarcane, soybean and cotton. Much of the agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span> occurs in June and from October to January and is related to the harvest of winter wheat and rice in the spring and the harvest of sugarcane, soybean and cotton in the fall and winter. The results show that cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> is spatially dependent on crop type and temporally dependent on management practices (planting/harvesting). Three states represent more than 75 percent of all agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the southeast: Arkansas, Florida, and Louisiana. A 250 m MODIS land cover map cover was created for these three states using a decision tree classification. Compared to the MODIS 1 km Land Cover Dataset (MOD 12) (Friedl et al., 2002), the 250m classified images contain on average 50 percent more cropland <span class="hlt">area</span> and improve the estimation of cropland <span class="hlt">area</span> based on validation from ground control sites of croplands. Results from the decision tree classification for each state suggest that in 2004 agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span> contributed 73 percent, 54 percent, and 33 percent of total fires for Arkansas, Florida, and Louisiana, respectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McCarty, J. L.; Justice, C. O.; Korontzi, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2801053"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> Teams and <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Centers: The Importance of a Comprehensive Team Approach to <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Care</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Synopsis Advances in <span class="hlt">burn</span> care have been colossal, but while extra work is needed, it is clear that the organized effort of <span class="hlt">burn</span> teams can continue making improvements in survival rates and quality of life possible for patients. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> patients are unique, representing the most severe model of trauma,33 and hence this necessitates treatment in the best facilities available for that endeavor. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> centers have developed to meet these intricate needs but can only function productively and most efficiently through well organized, multifaceted, patient-centered teams in <span class="hlt">areas</span> of clinical care and research. PMID:19793550</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Mecott-Rivera, Gabriel A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Herndon, David N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/963088"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxbow Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span>; Middle Fork John Day River, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report 2003-2004.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an '<span class="hlt">annual</span> written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The project during 2003 was crippled due to the aftermath of the BPA budget crisis. Some objectives were not completed during the first half of this contract because of limited funds in the 2003 fiscal year. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were utilized only in the early, high water season and only from diversion points with functional fish screens. After July 1, all of the OCA water rights were put instream. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks continued to promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Hundreds of willow, dogwood, Douglas-fir, and cottonwood were planted along the Middle Fork John Day River. Livestock grazing on the property was carefully managed to ensure the protection of fish and wildlife habitat, while promoting meadow vigor and producing revenue for property taxes. Monitoring of property populations, resources, and management activities continued in 2003 to build a database for future management of this and other properties in the region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cochran, Brian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15049101"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sepsis in <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A prospective study was conducted from June 2001 to May 2002 at the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Unit of Hospital Regional da Asa Norte, Brasília, Brazil. During the period of the study, 252 patients were treated at the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Unit, 49 (19.4%) developed clinically and microbiologically proven sepsis. Twenty-six (53.1%) were males and 23 (46.9%) females with a mean age of 22 years (range one to 89 years) and mean <span class="hlt">burned</span> body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of 37.7 +/- 18.4% (range 7 to 84%). Forty-three patients had flame <span class="hlt">burns</span>, five a scald and one an electric <span class="hlt">burn</span>. These 49 patients had a total of 62 septic episodes. Forty (81.6%) patients had only one and nine (18.4%) had up to three episodes of sepsis. Thirty (61.2%) patients had their first septicemic episode either earlier or by one week postburn. Out of 62 septic episodes, 58 were due to bacteria and four due to Candida sp. The most common bacteria isolated from blood culture were Staphylococccus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Eleven (18.9%) episodes were due to oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Acinetobacter baumannii was sensitive to ampicillin/sulbactam in 71.4% and to imipenem in 85.7% of the cases. The primary foci of sepsis were the <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound in 15 (24.2%) episodes. The most common clinical findings of sepsis in these patients were fever, dyspnea, hypotension and oliguria. The most common laboratory findings of these patients were anemia, leukocytosis, hypoalbuminemia and thrombocytopenia. Twelve (24.5%) patients died. The appropriate knowledge of clinical, epidemiological, laboratorial and microbiological aspects of sepsis in <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients permits an adequate diagnosis and treatment of this complication. PMID:15049101</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Macedo, Jefferson Lessa; Rosa, Simone C; Castro, Cleudson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15932134"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Various conditions of the oral mucosa can give rise to a <span class="hlt">burning</span> sensation. Candidosis, geographic tongue (erythema migrans), mucocutaneous conditions and stomatitis can all cause mouth <span class="hlt">burns</span> with visible changes to the oral mucosa. The so-called '<span class="hlt">burning</span>-mouth syndrome' (BMS) is a fairly rare but extremely unpleasant condition characterised by a bilateral <span class="hlt">burning</span> sensation of the oral mucosa in the absence of clinically visible mucosal changes. Frequently-associated symptoms include dry mouth and loss or change of taste. The aetiology is unknown, even though most of the literature focuses on the role of a possible underlying psychogenic disorder. Several mucosal disorders can cause symptoms similar to BMS. Therefore, careful oral examination is required before establishing the diagnosis of BMS. Additional laboratory tests or a specialist examination rarely yield abnormal findings of relevance. Reassurance and understanding are important keywords in the management of patients suffering from BMS. Unless clearly indicated dental or medical treatment should be avoided, even if the patient insists on it, since such treatment is rarely effective. PMID:15932134</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van der Waal, I</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-05-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/822594"> <span id="translatedtitle">Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Pits, and Storage <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision No. 0</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140: Waste Dumps, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Pits, and Storage <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in <span class="hlt">Areas</span> 5, 22, and 23 of the NTS, CAU 140 consists of nine corrective action sites (CASs). Investigation activities were performed from November 13 through December 11, 2002, with additional sampling to delineate the extent of contaminants of concern (COCs) conducted on February 4 and March 18 and 19, 2003. Results obtained from the investigation activities and sampling indicated that only 3 of the 9 CASs at CAU 140 had COCs identified. Following a review of existing data, future land use, and current operations at the NTS, the following preferred alternatives were developed for consideration: (1) No Further Action - six CASs (05-08-02, 05-17-01, 05-19-01, 05-35-01, 05-99-04, and 22-99-04); (2) Clean Closure - one CAS (05-08-01), and (3) Closure-in-Place - two CASs (05-23-01 and 23-17-01). These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, the alternatives meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 140.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-10-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/803837"> <span id="translatedtitle">Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Pits, and Storage <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, July 2002, Rev. No. 0</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 140 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-08-01, Detonation Pits; 05-08-02, Debris Pits; 05-17-01, Hazardous Waste Accumulation Site (Buried); 05-19-01, Waste Disposal Site; 05-23-01, Gravel Gertie; 05-35-01, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Pit; 05-99-04, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Pit; 22-99-04, Radioactive Waste Dump; 23-17-01, Hazardous Waste Storage <span class="hlt">Area</span>. All nine of these CASs are located within <span class="hlt">Areas</span> 5, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. This CAU is being investigated because disposed waste may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present or migrating at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The NTS has been used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. The CASs in CAU 140 were used for testing, material storage, waste storage, and waste disposal. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution criteria and resolve the decision statements. Phase I will determine if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels. This data will be evaluated at all CASs. Phase II will determine the extent of the contaminant(s) of concern (COCs). This data will only be evaluated for CASs with a COC identified during Phase I. Based on process knowledge, the COPCs for CAU 140 include volatile organics, semivolatile organics, petroleum hydrocarbons, explosive residues, herbicides, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and radionuclides. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NNSA /NV</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-07-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJAEO..26...64M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ten years of global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products from spaceborne remote sensing-A review: Analysis of user needs and recommendations for future developments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Early global estimates of carbon emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> were based on empirical assumptions of fire return interval in different biomes in the 1980s. Since then, significant improvements of spaceborne remote sensing sensors have resulted in an increasing number of derived products characterizing the detection of active fire or the subsequent <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> (GFED, MODIS MCD45A1, L3JRC, Globcarbon, GBS, GLOBSCAR, GBA2000). When coupled with global land cover and vegetation models allowing for spatially explicit fuel biomass estimates, the use of these products helps to yield important information about the spatial and the temporal variability of emission estimates. The availability of multi-year products (>10 years) leads to a better understanding of uncertainties in addition to increasing accuracy. We surveyed a wide range of users of global fire data products whilst also undertaking a review of the latest scientific literature. Two user groups were identified, the first being global climate and vegetation modellers and the second being regional land managers. Based on this review, we present here the current needs covering the range of end-users. We identified the increasing use of BA products since the year 2000 with an increasing use of MODIS as a reference dataset. Scientific topics using these BA products have increased in diversity and <span class="hlt">area</span> of application, from global fire emissions (for which BA products were initially developed) to regional studies with increasing use for ecosystem management planning. There is a significant need from the atmospheric science community for low spatial resolution (gridded, 1/2 degree cell) and long time series data characterized with supplementary information concerning the accuracy in timing of the fire and reductions of omission/commission errors. There is also a strong need for precisely characterizing the perimeter and contour of the fire scar for better assimilation with land cover maps and fire intensity. Computer and earth observation facilities remain a significant gap between ideal accuracies and the realistic ones, which must be fully quantified and comprehensive for an actual use in global fire emissions or regional land management studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mouillot, Florent; Schultz, Martin G.; Yue, Chao; Cadule, Patricia; Tansey, Kevin; Ciais, Philippe; Chuvieco, Emilio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/924085"> <span id="translatedtitle">2007 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Summary Report for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report summarizes the results of an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review of conditions affecting the operation of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) and a determination of the continuing adequacy of the performance assessments (PAs) and composite analyses (CAs). The <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS PA documentation consists of the original PA (Shott et al., 1998), referred to as the 1998 <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS PA and supporting addenda (Bechtel Nevada [BN], 2001b; 2006a). The <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS CA was issued as a single document (BN, 2001a) and has a single addendum (BN, 2001c). The <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 PA and CA were issued in a single document (Shott et al., 2000). The Maintenance Plan for the PAs and CAs (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2006) and the Disposal Authorization Statements (DASs) for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and 5 RWMSs (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE], 2000; 2002) require preparation of an <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary and a determination of the continuing adequacy of the PAs and CAs. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary report is submitted to DOE Headquarters. Following the <span class="hlt">annual</span> report format in the DOE PA/CA Maintenance Guide (DOE, 1999), this report presents the <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary for the PAs in Section 2.0 and the CAs in Section 3.0. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary for the PAs includes the following: Section 2.1 summarizes changes in waste disposal operations; Section 2.1.5 provides an evaluation of the new estimates of the closure inventories derived from the actual disposals through fiscal year (FY) 2007; Section 2.2 summarizes the results of the monitoring conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's (NNSA/NSO's) Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site (BN, 2005), and the research and development (R&D) activities; Section 2.4 is a summary of changes in facility design, operation, or expected future conditions; monitoring and R&D activities; and the maintenance program; and Section 2.5 discusses the recommended changes in disposal facility design and operations, monitoring and R&D activities, and the maintenance program. Similarly, the <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary for the CAs (presented in Section 3.0) includes the following: Section 3.1 presents the assessment of the adequacy of the CAs, with a summary of the relevant factors reviewed in FY 2007; Section 3.2 presents an assessment of the relevant site activities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that would impact the sources of residual radioactive material considered in the CAs; Section 3.3 summarizes the monitoring and R&D results that were reviewed in FY 2007; Section 3.4 presents a summary of changes in relevant site programs (including monitoring, R&D, and the maintenance program) that occurred since the CAs were prepared; and Section 3.5 summarizes the recommended changes to these programs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NSTec Environmental Management</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://fire.pppl.gov/Navratil_FPA_BPS_Talk.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE SCIENCE FRONTIER OF MFE <span class="hlt">BURNING</span> PLASMA PHYSICS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">THE SCIENCE FRONTIER OF MFE <span class="hlt">BURNING</span> PLASMA PHYSICS Gerald Navratil Columbia University Fusion Power Associates <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Meeting and Symposium Frontiers in Fusion Research Washington, DC 25-26 September 2001 #12;Columbia University OUTLINE · INTRODUCTION TO <span class="hlt">BURNING</span> PLASMAS · EXAMPLES OF FRONTIER SCIENCE IN <span class="hlt">BURNING</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/962978"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxbow Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span>; Middle Fork John Day River, <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report 2002-2003.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an '<span class="hlt">annual</span> written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The 2002 contract period was well funded and the second year of the project. A new manager started in April, allowing the previous manager to focus his efforts on the Forrest Ranch acquisition. However, the Oxbow Habitat manager's position was vacant from October through mid February of 2003. During this time, much progress, mainly O&M, was at a minimum level. Many of the objectives were not completed during this contract due to both the size and duration needed to complete such activities (example: dredge mine tailings restoration project) or because budget crisis issues with BPA ending accrual carryover on the fiscal calendar. Although the property had been acquired a year earlier, there were numerous repairs and discoveries, which on a daily basis could pull personnel from making progress on objectives for the SOW, aside from O&M objectives. A lack of fencing on a portion of the property's boundary and deteriorating fences in other <span class="hlt">areas</span> are some reasons much time was spent chasing trespassing cattle off of the property. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were used seldom in the summer of 2002, with minor irrigation water diverted from only Granite Boulder Creek. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks help promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Trees planted in this and past years are growing and will someday provide cover fish and wildlife. Even grazing on the property was carefully managed to ensure the protection of fish and wildlife habitat. Monitoring of property populations, resources, and management activities continued in 2002 to build a database for future management of this and other properties in the region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cochran, Brian; Smith, Brent</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JAP...112k3104Q"> <span id="translatedtitle">The impact of the stress induced by lateral spatial hole <span class="hlt">burning</span> on the degradation of broad-<span class="hlt">area</span> AlGaAs/GaAs laser diodes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The degradation of broad-<span class="hlt">area</span> AlGaAs/GaAs laser diodes is studied experimentally and theoretically in detail, and we suggest a degradation mechanism associated with the stress which originates from the lateral spatial hole <span class="hlt">burning</span> (SHB) effects. Our analysis shows that thermal stresses have critical effects on the degradation of laser diodes, which are induced by increased local heating by nonradiative recombination and self-absorption of photons originating from the lateral SHB within the laser diode during degradation. Such results are confirmed by the simulation using the software lastip. Furthermore, the average values of the induced thermal strain and stress by lateral SHB are 0.00063 and 85 MPa, respectively, through the x-ray diffraction measurement. The stress exceeds that for the initiation of plastic deformation (as calculated to be approximately 40-50 MPa based on the finite element method), thus, suggesting that plastic deformation has occurred within the cavity due to the lateral SHB effect during degradation of laser diodes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qiao, Yanbin; Feng, Shiwei; Xiong, Cong; Ma, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Chunsheng; Wei, Guanghua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..77..959S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Particle-induced oxidative damage of indoor PM10 from coal <span class="hlt">burning</span> homes in the lung cancer <span class="hlt">area</span> of Xuan Wei, China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The lung cancer mortality rate in the rural <span class="hlt">area</span> of the Xuan Wei, Yunnan, is among the highest in China, especially in women. In this paper, the coal-<span class="hlt">burning</span> indoor and corresponding outdoor PM10 samples were collected at the Hutou village, representing the case of high lung cancer rate, and the Xize village, representing the case of low lung cancer rate. Plasmid scission assay was used to investigate the bioreactivity of the PM10. The inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was employed to investigate the trace element compositions of the PM10. The results showed that the oxidative damage caused by both indoor and outdoor PM10 at the Hutou village was obviously higher than that at the Xize village, with the indoor PM10 having higher oxidative damage than corresponding outdoors. Among all analyzed samples, the indoor night PM10 samples from the Hutou village have the highest oxidative capacity. The levels of total water-soluble elements had a higher level in the PM10 of the Hutou village than that of the Xize village. It is interesting that the levels of water-soluble As, Cd, Cs, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn in PM10 had better positive correlation with DNA damage rates, implying that these elements in their water-soluble state should be one of the main factors responsible for the high oxidative capacity of PM10, thus possibly the higher lung cancer rates, at the Hutou village.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shao, Longyi; Hu, Ying; Wang, Jing; Hou, Cong; Yang, Yuanyuan; Wu, Mingyuan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9541K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory-scale experimental <span class="hlt">burning</span> of selected Palaeozoic limestones from the Barrandian <span class="hlt">area</span> (Prague Basin, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic): re-evaluation of properties of historical raw material</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Palaeozoic limestones from the Barrandian <span class="hlt">area</span> (Prague Basin, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic) have been quarried and utilized, among others, for manufacturing of inorganic binders. Certain beds, e.g. Devonian dvorecko-prokopské limestones were historically burnt for high quality hydraulic lime which is not produced recently. Aiming to evaluate potential of this specific raw material for small-scale production of restoration hydraulic lime, we have conducted some laboratory experimental <span class="hlt">burning</span> tests in an electrical furnace up to 1200°C. Prior to the <span class="hlt">burning</span>, all studied lithotypes (4 in total) have been examined for their mineralogy (optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence study, X-ray diffraction of insoluble residue) and geochemistry (wet chemical analyses). Studied biomicritic limestones can be classified as wackstones to packstones. Carbonate content varies from 80 to 90 %, the rest is due to dominant illite and silica, and subordinate kaolinite, feldspars, and/or chlorite. Specific composition of non-carbonate component (specifically high content of illite and silica) positively influences formation of CS, Ca, and/or CAS phases when burnt at calcination temperatures from 850 to 1200°C (in steps of 50°C). In the products formed during firing, mineral phases typical for hydraulic lime, such as larnite, brownmillerite, and gehlenite, along with free lime, quartz and silica phases, and portlandite were identified by X-ray diffraction. The amount of the dominant hydraulic phase, larnite, increased with higher firing temperature. On the other hand, content of free lime, quartz and silica decreased. The amount of portlandite was almost independent of the firing temperature. Higher amounts of larnite and other hydraulic phase were detected during the peak firing temperature of 1200°C in specimens containing higher amount of insoluble residue. From the study performed, it is evident that studied dvorecko-prokopské limestone, which included favourable amount of clay minerals (mainly illite) and silica represents raw material suitable for production of hydraulic limes of moderate hydraulicity. It is evident that high content of clay minerals, quartz and other forms of silica, as well as temperature of firing, have significant influence on the formation of mineral phases typical for hydraulic lime.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kozlovcev, Petr; Prikryl, Richard; Stastna, Aneta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59317176"> <span id="translatedtitle">Firefighter Foundation and Regional <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center Collaborate to Reduce <span class="hlt">Burn</span>-Related Injuries in the Elderly</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the USA seniors (age 65 and older) account for over 250 000 <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries <span class="hlt">annually</span>. More than 1200 seniors die as a result of fire each year. These fires are usually a result of smoking materials that ignite clothing or upholstery. Cooking accidents account for the largest number of non-fatal <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries in this population. The District of Columbias</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J Woods; K Hollowed; A Pavlovich; J Shupp</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMNH41D..04H"> <span id="translatedtitle">A comparative evaluation of MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER) data and <span class="hlt">burn</span> indices for mapping southern California fires</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Large fires occur <span class="hlt">annually</span> in southern California, producing impacts at a number of scales, from local impacts on vegetation, hydrology and microclimates, to global impacts such as emissions, affecting atmospheric chemistry, air quality, radiation balance and biogeochemical cycling. As a consequence fires are routinely mapped using various sensors and <span class="hlt">burn</span> indices. However, the indices employed for mapping these fires have not been developed and optimized for mapping southern California <span class="hlt">burned</span> surfaces. Therefore, this study utilizes the high spatial and spectral resolution imagery from the MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER) to identify the most effective bands and indices specifically for <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping of the southern California region. The fire perimeter is based on the <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Reflectance Classification (BARC) map created by the United States Forest Service (USFS), Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC) and a supervised classification which defines the <span class="hlt">burned</span> and unburned regions. A separability index is employed to identify the bands and indices that can best distinguish between classes. The results identify a range of well performing indices, such as the Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio (NBR) and the Vegetation Index based on mid-infrared spectral region (VI3), and some poor performing indices, such as the Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI) and the <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Index (BAI). Additionally this study highlights the indices that perform better over certain vegetation types. These results are useful for understanding the application of remotely sensed data for mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> surfaces. Improved <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping capabilities are essential for informing land managers when identifying regions susceptible to hazards (such as debris and flood flows) and for deciding where to allocate time and resources in recovery efforts. Additionally, these results can be used to validate other sensors that are used to map <span class="hlt">burned</span> surfaces on greater spatial and temporal scales.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harris, S. L.; Hook, S. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B53D0424M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carbon and Air Quality Emissions from Crop Residue <span class="hlt">Burning</span> in the Contiguous United States</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> is a global agricultural activity that is a source of carbon and air quality emissions. Carbon and air quality emissions from crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the contiguous U.S. (CONUS) were estimated for a five-year period, 2003 through 2007, using multispectral remote sensing-derived products. The atmospheric species that comprise the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were selected as air quality emissions. CO2 emissions were also calculated due to its importance to global climate change. This analysis utilized multiple remote sensing data sets and products to quantify crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in CONUS, including multi-year crop type maps, an 8-day difference Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio product, and calibrated <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates of cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> from 1 km MODIS Active Fire Points. Remote sensing products were combined in a GIS to quantify the location of cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span>, <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> size, and associated crop type. A crop-specific emission factor database was compiled from the scientific literature. Fuel loads and combustion efficiency estimates were derived from the literature as well as from in-field collaborators. These data were combined to estimate crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions using the bottom-up methodology developed by Seiler and Crutzen (1980). This analysis found that an average of 1,239,000 ha of croplands <span class="hlt">burn</span> each year in the CONUS. Florida, Arizona, Idaho, Utah, Washington, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oregon, California, and Colorado accounted for approximately 61% of the total crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> is a significant fire activity in the CONUS, averaging 43% of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> reported for wildland fires in the U.S. (including Alaska and Hawaii). Crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> was also found to be a significant source of emissions that negatively impacted air quality. Crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions occurred most often in summer and fall, with the exception of winter and early spring emission peaks in sugarcane growing <span class="hlt">areas</span>. On average, crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the CONUS emitted 6.1 Tg of CO2, 8.9 Gg of CH4, 232.4 Gg of CO, 28.5 Gg of PM10, 20.9 Gg of PM2.5, 10.6 Gg of NO2, and 4.4 Gg of SO2 <span class="hlt">annually</span>. Lead emissions were negligible (< 0.3 Gg), which warrants further investigation due to the lack of emission factors for lead. On average, air quality and carbon emissions from crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the CONUS varied less than 10% interannually. The majority of emissions from crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> originated in six states: Arkansas, California, Florida, Idaho, Texas, and Washington. Overlaying population data with average <span class="hlt">annual</span> emissions by county showed that approximately 13.8%, 17.3%, 17.5%, 17.9%, 25%, and 46.6% of the total population of Texas, California, Washington, Florida, Arkansas, and Idaho, respectively, lives in counties with the highest emissions from crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The results of this analysis are important for the refinement of the National Emissions Inventory and the Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks as well as for national and state policy makers concerned with rural air quality and agricultural carbon management.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McCarty, J. L.; Korontzi, S.; Justice, C. O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10752740"> <span id="translatedtitle">The hair color-highlighting <span class="hlt">burn</span>: a unique <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A unique, preventable, 2.8 x 3.7-cm, full-thickness scalp <span class="hlt">burn</span> resulted after a woman underwent a professional color-highlighting procedure at a hair salon. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> appeared to result from scalp contact with aluminum foil that had been overheated by a hair dryer during the procedure. The wound required debridement and skin grafting and 3 subsequent serial excisions to eliminate the resulting <span class="hlt">area</span> of <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar alopecia. The preventive aspects of this injury are discussed. PMID:10752740</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peters, W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...1222891L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the impacts of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on air quality in and around Mexico City</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> on ground-level ozone (O3) and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Area</span> (MCMA) and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> organic aerosol (BBOA), and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA) were consistent with many observation-based estimates. We did not detect significant effects of open fires and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> on surface O3 concentrations in the MCMA and surrounding region. In contrast, they had important influences on OA and elemental carbon (EC), contributing about 60, 22, 33, and 22% to primary OA (POA), secondary OA (SOA), total OA (TOA), and EC, respectively, on both the local and regional scales. Although the emissions of trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> are substantially lower than those from open fires, trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> made slightly smaller but comparable contributions to OA as open fires did, and exerted an even higher influence on EC. SOA formation due to the open fires and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> enhanced the OA concentration by about 10 and 5% in the MCMA, respectively. On the <span class="hlt">annual</span> basis and taking the biofuel use emissions into consideration, we estimated that biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> contributed about 60, 30, and 25%, respectively, to the loadings of POA, SOA and EC in both the MCMA and its surrounding region, with about 35, 18, and 15% from open fires and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> impacts in this study may contain considerable uncertainties due to the uncertainties in their emission estimates, extrapolations and the nature of spot comparison. More observation and modeling studies are needed to accurately assess the impacts of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on tropospheric chemistry, regional and global air quality, and climate change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lei, W.; Li, G.; Molina, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1587928"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decreasing mortality and morbidity rates after the institution of a statewide <span class="hlt">burn</span> program.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the late 1970s, a statewide system for <span class="hlt">burn</span> treatment and prevention was developed in Maine; it was assumed that such a system would reduce mortality and morbidity rates. To examine the effect of this intervention and the validity of its underlying hypothesis, data for the period from 1973 to 1988 were collected from <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit registries inside and outside of the state and from hospital discharge abstracts, death certificates, and published sources. In Maine, the <span class="hlt">annual</span> number of deaths per million persons that resulted from fire- and <span class="hlt">burn</span>-related injuries declined from 41 in the years 1973-1980 to 25 in the years 1981-1988, which is a significantly greater decrease than for the United States as a whole (p less than 0.001). This decrease could not be explained by changes in the age or urban and rural distribution of the population. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> number of hospital admissions for treatment of <span class="hlt">burns</span> (per million persons) in Maine decreased from 401 to 301 over the same period, and patients with more complicated <span class="hlt">burns</span> were increasingly referred to more specialized centers within and outside of the state. Since a state system was instituted, hospital mortality rates, when grouped by age and <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, were not significantly different from those reported by the most prominent <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit in New England. The population-based methods of data collection and linkage that were developed for this investigation may be useful for other studies of injury epidemiology. A statewide <span class="hlt">burn</span> program appears to have contributed to a reduction in mortality and morbidity rates, primarily through preventive efforts. PMID:1587928</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clark, D E; Katz, M S; Campbell, S M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED362050.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">SEDL/Multifunctional Resource Center, Service <span class="hlt">Area</span> 8. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Performance Report, October, 1992-September, 1993.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">annual</span> evaluation of a Texas regional resource center is presented. The center provides training and technical assistance for school district personnel participating in programs for limited English proficient (LEP) students. Federally funded and housed in the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, it serves 800 school districts with a…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mace-Matluck, Betty J.; Liberty, Paul G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-05-27/pdf/2011-13286.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 30997 - National Transit Database: Amendments to Urbanized <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Reporting Manual</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...One public transit agency requested clarification of the logistics of the certification process, and whether it will be an <span class="hlt">annual</span>...large UZA may be allocated 100% to the large UZA, but the reverse is not true--the vehicle revenue miles physically...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ISPAr39B8...51M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity Mapping in Australia 2009</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were <span class="hlt">burned</span> by numerous bushfires. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Emergency Response (BAER) teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS) and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC) aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity " maps for over 280,000 <span class="hlt">burned</span> hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of <span class="hlt">burned</span> lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity map used to identify hazard <span class="hlt">areas</span> and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio (dNBR) algorithm.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McKinley, R.; Clark, J.; Lecker, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3664529"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hair bleaching and skin <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Hairdressing-related <span class="hlt">burns</span> are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal <span class="hlt">burns</span> to the nape of her neck and superficial <span class="hlt">burns</span> to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted <span class="hlt">area</span> resulted in subsequent scar formation. PMID:23766754</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Forster, K.; Lingitz, R.; Prattes, G.; Schneider, G.; Sutter, S.; Schintler, M.; Trop, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10104083"> <span id="translatedtitle">Semi-<span class="hlt">annual</span> sampling of Fourmile Branch and its seeplines in the F and H <span class="hlt">Areas</span> of SRS: July 1992</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In July 1992, water samples were collected from Fourmile Branch (FMB) and its seeplines in the vicinity of the F and H-<span class="hlt">Area</span> seepage basins. The samples were collected from five seepline locations in F <span class="hlt">Area</span>, five seepline locations in H <span class="hlt">Area</span>, and three stream locations on FMB. The sampling event was the first in a series of three semi-<span class="hlt">annual</span> sampling event was the first in a series of three semi-<span class="hlt">annual</span> sampling events aimed at characterizing the shallow groundwater outcropping into FMB and its wetlands. In the past, this groundwater has been shown to contain contaminants migrating from the F- and H-<span class="hlt">Area</span> seepage basins. The samples were analyzed for Appendix 9 metals, various radionuclides, selected volatile compounds, and selected inorganic constituents and parameters. Results from the July 1992 sampling event suggest that the seeplines in both F and H <span class="hlt">Areas</span> and FMB continue to be influenced by contaminants migrating from the F- and H-<span class="hlt">Area</span> seepage basins. However, when compared to 1989 measurements, the concentrations of most of the constituents have declined. Contaminant concentration measured in July 1992 were compared to primary drinking water standards (PDWS), secondary drinking water standards (SDWS), and maximum contaminant levels (MCL) enforceable in 1993. Results were also compared to 1989 measurements at corresponding sampling locations and to background samples collected as part of the July 1992 sampling event. Using two different statistical tests, concentrations of selected F- and H-<span class="hlt">Area</span> seepline analytes were compared to background samples. These tests were designed to detect if concentrations of contaminants along the F- and H-<span class="hlt">Area</span> seeplines were greater than background concentrations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dixon, K.L.; Rogers, V.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fs.fed.us/rmrs/docs/pubs/forest-grasslands-archive/burning_Badlands.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Upland, Mixed Prairie in Badlands National Park</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> research in the northern mixed prairie has focused on sites considered to be more productive, although prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> is usually conducted on heterogeneous landscapes with many different sites. Understanding the impacts of fire on less productive sites is a critical component in planning the frequency of prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> of natural <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The effects of <span class="hlt">burn</span>- ing in either April</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">STEVEN G. WHISENANT; DANIEL W. URESK</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6893024"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> system and method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A substantially smokeless <span class="hlt">burning</span> system is discussed for <span class="hlt">burning</span> waste material fuels. An elongated hollow <span class="hlt">burning</span> chamber is supported in a generally horizontal orientation. An elongated fuel accumulation chamber and a hydraulic hoist driven ram in the chamber are adapted to push elongated volumes of new fuel into the lower front end of the <span class="hlt">burning</span> chamber such that already <span class="hlt">burning</span> fuel is pushed to the rear of the chamber. This establishes a charcoal <span class="hlt">burning</span> zone which at least partially overlies a volatile <span class="hlt">burning</span> zone such that incomplete combustion products from the volatile <span class="hlt">burning</span> zone pass over and through the charcoal <span class="hlt">burning</span> zone to be substantially <span class="hlt">burned</span> before exiting at the rear of the <span class="hlt">burning</span> chamber. Integral preheat and air delivery channels are formed in the walls of the <span class="hlt">burning</span> chamber. A pipe section is mounted within the <span class="hlt">burning</span> chamber for incinerating liquid waste materials.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burton, E.B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-02-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-1983-THESIS-G812"> <span id="translatedtitle">The influence of <span class="hlt">burning</span> on nitrogen dynamics of a Pan American balsamscale community</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">the first year after a June wildfire in southern Arizona, but by the second year productivity was not different from that of unburned. <span class="hlt">areas</span> (Reynolds and. Bohning 1956). A flush of <span class="hlt">annual</span> grasses caused. production on the <span class="hlt">burned</span>. site to exceed... to death of tillers of the grass plants and to increased water stress following the fire. Recovery was com- plete after 3 years. Hopkins et al. (1948) found. large decreases in grass production on three separate vegetation types following a wildfire...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Greene, Thomas Alexander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3188107"> <span id="translatedtitle">Isolated Chemical <span class="hlt">Burns</span> to the Genitalia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Perineal or genital <span class="hlt">burns</span> are mostly part of large body surface injuries, and isolated <span class="hlt">burns</span> to the genitalia are not common. Nevertheless, they are of major concern to the patient and clinician. Highly concentrated solutions of sulphuric acid are available to unclog drains. We have noted a substantial number of both accidental and intentional cutaneous <span class="hlt">burns</span> caused by these agents and we therefore conducted a study on the incidence and treatment of isolated chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> in the genitalia. The study was performed in the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Unit, King Saud Hospital, Al-Qassim, Kingdom Saudi Arabia, from April 2001 to December 2004. During this period we received 12 patients with isolated chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> in the genitalia, representing 3.4% of all cases of <span class="hlt">burns</span> treated between 2001 and 2004 (350 patients with different causes and variable percentages of <span class="hlt">burns</span>). Of these 12 patients, 11 were males and one female. The patients' ages ranged from 9 to 75 yr. The mean <span class="hlt">burn</span> size was 2% of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>. The cause of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury was sulphuric acid, which is famous in this <span class="hlt">area</span> for water closet cleaning. Eight patients (66.7%) required skin grafting, one healed with minimal scarring, and three (25%) healed with minimal contractures treated with multiple Z-plasty. We concluded that conservative management of perineal and genital chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> was recommended until the demarcation zone became clear. Split-thickness skin grafts were durable, safe, and technically easy, with satisfactory cosmetic and functional results. PMID:21991041</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abdel-Razek, S.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25257489"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acute surgical management of hand <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A hand represents 3% of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>. The hands are involved in close to 80% of all <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The potential morbidity associated with hand <span class="hlt">burns</span> can be substantial. Imagine a patient carrying a pan of flaming cooking oil to the doorway or someone lighting a room-sized pile of leaves and branches doused with gasoline. It is clear how the hands are at risk in these common scenarios. Not all <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries will require surgical intervention. Recognizing the need for surgery is paramount to achieving good functional outcomes for the <span class="hlt">burned</span> hand. The gray <span class="hlt">area</span> between second- and third-degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> tests the skill and experience of every <span class="hlt">burn</span>/hand surgeon. Skin anatomy and the size of injury dictate the surgical technique used to close the <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound. In addition to meticulous surgical technique, preoperative and postoperative hand therapy for the <span class="hlt">burned</span> hand is essential for a good functional outcome. Recognizing the <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth is paramount to developing the appropriate treatment plan for any <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. This skill requires experience and practice. In this article, we present an approach to second- and third-degree hand <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:25257489</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richards, Winston T; Vergara, Edward; Dalaly, Dawood G; Coady-Fariborzian, Loretta; Mozingo, David W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42523813"> <span id="translatedtitle">Satellite detection of tropical <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Brazil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tropical <span class="hlt">burning</span> often occurs in remote <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the world. Satellite remote sensing is the only practical solution for detecting and monitoring this <span class="hlt">burning</span>. In this paper we demonstrate the capability of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration polar orbiting satellites for detecting tropical fire activity in the Manaus, Brazil <span class="hlt">area</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael Matson; Brent Holben</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030011413&hterms=ram&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dram"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ram <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Observations (RAMBO)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ram <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Observations (RAMBO) is a Department of Defense experiment that observes shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System engine <span class="hlt">burns</span> for the purpose of improving plume models. On STS-107 the appropriate sensors will observe selected rendezvous and orbit adjust <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/87673"> <span id="translatedtitle">Planning a Prescribed <span class="hlt">Burn</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This leaflet explains how to plan for adequate fuel for a prescribed <span class="hlt">burn</span>, control the fire, notify the proper authority, manage the <span class="hlt">burn</span> itself, and conduct follow-up management. A ranch checklist for prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> is included....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hanselka, C. Wayne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4108356"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling Fire Frequency in a Cerrado Savanna Protected <span class="hlt">Area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world’s most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997–2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected <span class="hlt">area</span> in the north of the Cerrado, based on <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps derived from Landsat imagery. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of <span class="hlt">burning</span> distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an <span class="hlt">area</span> equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park <span class="hlt">burned</span> and the mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic <span class="hlt">burning</span> may be used to reduce the extent of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> and the severity of fire effects. PMID:25054540</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pereira Junior, Alfredo C.; Oliveira, Sofia L. J.; Pereira, Jose M. C.; Turkman, Maria Antonia Amaral</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AtmEn..35.1773P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> losses of carbon estimated from ecosystem modeling and satellite data analysis for the Brazilian Amazon region</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To produce a new daily record of gross carbon emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> events and post-<span class="hlt">burning</span> decomposition fluxes in the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), 1991. Anuario Estatistico do Brasil, Vol. 51. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil pp. 1-1024). We have used vegetation greenness estimates from satellite images as inputs to a terrestrial ecosystem production model. This carbon allocation model generates new estimates of regional aboveground vegetation biomass at 8-km resolution. The modeled biomass product is then combined for the first time with fire pixel counts from the advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) to overlay regional <span class="hlt">burning</span> activities in the Amazon. Results from our analysis indicate that carbon emission estimates from <span class="hlt">annual</span> region-wide sources of deforestation and biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the early 1990s are apparently three to five times higher than reported in previous studies for the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Houghton et al., 2000. Nature 403, 301-304; Fearnside, 1997. Climatic Change 35, 321-360), i.e., studies which implied that the Legal Amazon region tends toward a net-zero <span class="hlt">annual</span> source of terrestrial carbon. In contrast, our analysis implies that the total source fluxes over the entire Legal Amazon region range from 0.2 to 1.2 Pg C yr -1, depending strongly on <span class="hlt">annual</span> rainfall patterns. The reasons for our higher <span class="hlt">burning</span> emission estimates are (1) use of combustion fractions typically measured during Amazon forest <span class="hlt">burning</span> events for computing carbon losses, (2) more detailed geographic distribution of vegetation biomass and daily fire activity for the region, and (3) inclusion of fire effects in extensive <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the Legal Amazon covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. The total <span class="hlt">area</span> of rainforest estimated <span class="hlt">annually</span> to be deforested did not differ substantially among the previous analyses cited and our own.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Potter, Christopher; Brooks Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Bobo, Matthew; Torregrosa, Alicia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20843540"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of anthropogenic and biogenic compounds on atmospheric aerosol collected in urban, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and forest <span class="hlt">areas</span> in São Paulo, Brazil.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study was conducted at three sites of different characteristics in São Paulo State: São Paulo (SPA), Piracicaba (PRB) and Mata Atlântica Forest (MAT). PM(10), n-alkanes, pristane and phytane, PAHs, water-soluble ions and biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> tracers like levoglucosan and retene, were determined in quartz fiber filters. Samplings occurred on May 8th to August 8th, 2007 at the MAT site; on August 15th to 29th in 2007 and November 10th to 29th in 2008 at the PRB site and, March 13th to April 4th in 2007 and August 7th to 29th in 2008 at the SPA site. Aliphatic compounds emitted biogenically were less abundant at the urban sites than at the forest site, and its distribution showed the influence of tropical vascular plants. Air mass transport from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> regions is likely to impact the sites with specific molecular markers. The concentrations of all species were variable and dependent of seasonal changes. In the most dry and polluted seasons, n-alkane and cation total concentrations were similar between the megacity and the biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> site. PAHs and inorganic ion abundances were higher at São Paulo than Piracicaba, yet, the site influenced by biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> seems to be the most impacted by the organic anion abundance in the atmosphere. Pristane and phytane confirm the contamination by petroleum residues at urban sites; at the MAT site, biological activity and long range transport of pollutants might influence the levels of pristane. PMID:20843540</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vasconcellos, Pérola C; Souza, Davi Z; Sanchez-Ccoyllo, Odon; Bustillos, José Oscar V; Lee, Helena; Santos, Fernando C; Nascimento, Katia H; Araújo, Maria P; Saarnio, Karri; Teinilä, Kimmo; Hillamo, Risto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25055004"> <span id="translatedtitle">Outcomes of outpatient management of pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The literature surrounding pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> has focused on inpatient management. The goal of this study is to characterize the population of <span class="hlt">burned</span> children treated as outpatients and assess outcomes validating this method of <span class="hlt">burn</span> care. A retrospective review of 953 patients treated the <span class="hlt">burn</span> clinic and <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit of a tertiary care center. Patient age, <span class="hlt">burn</span> etiology, <span class="hlt">burn</span> characteristics, <span class="hlt">burn</span> mechanism, and referral pattern were recorded. The type of wound care and incidence of outcomes including subsequent hospital admission, infection, scarring, and surgery served as the primary outcome data. Eight hundred and thirty children were treated as outpatients with a mean time of 1.8 days for the evaluation of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury in our clinic. Scalds accounted for 53% of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> mechanism, with <span class="hlt">burns</span> to the hand/wrist being the most frequent <span class="hlt">area</span> involved. The mean percentage of TBSA was 1.4% for the outpatient cohort and 8% for the inpatient cohort. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> in the outpatient cohort healed with a mean time of 13.4 days. In the outpatient cohort, nine (1%) patients had subsequent admissions and three (0.4%) patients had concern for infection. Eight patients from the outpatient cohort were treated with excision and grafting. The vast majority of pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> are small, although they may often involve more critical <span class="hlt">areas</span> such as the face and hand. Outpatient wound care is an effective treatment strategy which results in low rates of complications and should become the standard of care for children with appropriate <span class="hlt">burn</span> size and home support. PMID:25055004</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brown, Matthew; Coffee, Tammy; Adenuga, Paul; Yowler, Charles J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22124490"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Cumulative <span class="hlt">annual</span> incidence of disabling work-related musculoskeletal disorders in an urban <span class="hlt">area</span> of Brazil].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study focused on the <span class="hlt">annual</span> cumulative incidence (ACI) of disabling work-related musculoskeletal disorders affecting the neck and/or upper limbs (ULMSD) among workers covered by the National Social Insurance System in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Cases were workers who received disability compensation benefits when unable to work due to ULMSD, during the year 2008. The data were obtained from the administrative systems of the National Social Insurance Institute and Ministry of Labor and Employment. ACI was 15 per 10,000 workers. Increased ACI of ULMSD was associated with female gender, lower income, and work in financial activities or manufacturing. Women earning the minimum wage (US$ 64.00 per month) or less had the highest ACI of ULMSD (123 per 10,000), suggesting inequalities in the occurrence of these disorders. The study indicates the need to prioritize preventive actions focusing on ergonomics and work organization, early diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation. PMID:22124490</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Souza, Norma Suely Souto; Santana, Vilma Sousa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://library.eri.nau.edu/gsdl/collect/erilibra/index/assoc/hash33d4.dir/doc.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A model of ponderosa pine growth response to prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our objective was to model the radial growth response of individual ponderosa pines to prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> in northern Arizona. We sampled 188 trees from two study <span class="hlt">areas</span>, which were <span class="hlt">burned</span> in 1976. Within each study <span class="hlt">area</span>, control and <span class="hlt">burned</span> trees were of similar age, vigor, height, and competition index. At Chimney Spring, trees were older, less vigorous, and taller and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elaine Kennedy Sutherland; W. Wallace Covington; Steve Andariese</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.burninstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/ScaldBurns-factsheet.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scald <span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... <span class="hlt">areas</span> free from clutter. BATHROOMS: • Turn down your water heater setting to 120 degrees Fahrenheit. • Never leave a ... injury could be greatly reduced by turning your water heater to a low or warm setting (120-130).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol2-sec165-1191.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 165.1191 - Northern California and Lake Tahoe <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Fireworks Events.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href=""></a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Giants Baseball Team. Event Description Fireworks display in conjunction with baseball season home games. Date All season home games at AT&T Park. Location 700 feet off of Pier 48, San Francisco, CA. Regulated <span class="hlt">Area</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/776254"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nevada Test Site 2000 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2000 groundwater sampling results from the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (IL) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. E.Townsend</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/468536"> <span id="translatedtitle">Z-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Saltstone Disposal Facility groundwater monitoring report. 1996 <span class="hlt">annual</span> report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Z-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Saltstone Disposal Facility is located in the Separations <span class="hlt">Area</span>, north of H and S <span class="hlt">Areas</span>, at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The facility permanently disposes of low-level radioactive waste. The facility blends low-level radioactive salt solution with cement, slag, and flyash to form a nonhazardous cementitious waste that is pumped to aboveground disposal vaults. Z <span class="hlt">Area</span> began these operations in June 1990. Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Industrial Solid Waste Permit {number_sign}025500-1603 (formerly IWP-217). During second quarter 1996, lead was reported above the SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standard in one well. No other constituents were reported above SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standards for final Primary Drinking Water Standards during first, second, or third quarters 1996. Antimony was detected above SRS flagging criteria during third quarter 1996. In the past, tritium has been detected sporadically in the ZBG wells at levels similar to those detected before Z <span class="hlt">Area</span> began radioactive operations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NONE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/93348"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> for Improvement of Macartney Rose-Infested Coastal Prairie.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">that on other <span class="hlt">areas</span>, forbs afforded more of the ground cover. This difference occurred because forbs typical of the October <span class="hlt">burn</span>, particularly yellow woodsorrel (Oxalis dillenii Jacq.), were mat-like in growth form, whereas those following <span class="hlt">burns</span> in other... that on other <span class="hlt">areas</span>, forbs afforded more of the ground cover. This difference occurred because forbs typical of the October <span class="hlt">burn</span>, particularly yellow woodsorrel (Oxalis dillenii Jacq.), were mat-like in growth form, whereas those following <span class="hlt">burns</span> in other...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gordon, R.A.; Scifres, C.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/592443"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> epidemiology: a basis for <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An appreciation of the causes of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury is essential in order to direct <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention programs. Toward this goal, 1,564 patients treated at the UCI <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center were studied. There were 699 patients admitted acutely and 865 outpatients. The most common cause of thermal injury in both adults and children was scalding. In children scald <span class="hlt">burns</span> accounted for 42% of the total number of children treated. In children under 4 years old scalds caused 75% of all <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries, most in the kitchen. Flammable liquids were responsible for the majority of the severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> in the adult group (19% of acute admissions). Housefires, while accounting for only 5% of the adults treated, were responsible for 44% of the adult deaths. Continued public education in safety practices at home especially in the kitchen and bath, and with automobiles and outdoor stoves and fires is recommended, as well as planned escapes from homes and use of smoke detectors. PMID:592443</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jay, K M; Bartlett, R H; Danet, R; Allyn, P A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/birds/bca1998/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the Bird Conservation <span class="hlt">Area</span> Concept in the Northern Tallgrass Prairie <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report: 19</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This new resource on the management and conservation of grassland/prairie birds has been posted at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center site. This report "contains findings from the first year of a study to test the idea that Bird Conservation <span class="hlt">Areas</span> can maintain populations of breeding grassland birds." It is available for download in .zip format.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Donovan, Therese M.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Svedarsky, W. D.; Winter, Maiken.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/788443"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Bitcutter and Post-Shot Injection Wells: Corrective Action Unit 90 Post-Closure Inspection <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Bitcutter and Post-Shot Containment Shop Injection Wells Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 90 Post-Closure Monitoring requirements are described in section V.B.8.b of the Nevada Test Site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility No. NEV HW009, modified May 31, 1997, Revision 3. Post-closure care consists of the following: Semiannual inspections of the unit using an inspection checklist; Photographic documentation; Field note documentation; and Preparation and submittal of an <span class="hlt">annual</span> report. The report includes copies of the inspection checklist, photographs, and recommendations and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and a copy of the inspection photographs is found in Attachment C.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. L. Gustafason</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JSCHE..67.I391T"> <span id="translatedtitle">ANALYZING <span class="hlt">ANNUAL</span> CHANGE OF WATER AND HEAT BALANCE IN ARAL SEA BASIN INCLUDING THE IMPACT OF EXPANDING IRRIGATED <span class="hlt">AREA</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the last 60 years, huge-scale irrigation project has been carried out and this project has occurred serious water scarcity in the Aral Sea Basin. The Aral Sea has shrunk to 10% of 1960’s level and a lot of people are suffering from serious water scarcity. To solve the problem, sustainable irrigation plan is required. For the plan, quantity of water resources and the impact of global warming must be simulated. In this study, <span class="hlt">annual</span> water and heat balance in the Aral Sea Basin is analyzed from 1961 to 2003 by SiBUC. SiBUC is one of the land surface models which can analyze water for irrigation in physical way. Water balance in this basin is reproduced in the past and the impacts of expanding irrigated <span class="hlt">area</span> to water balance in this basin are analyzed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Touge, Yoshiya; Tanaka, Kenji; Kojiri, Toshiharu; Hamaguchi, Toshio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/790043"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Bitcutter and Post-Shot Injection Wells Corrective Action Unit 90 Post-Closure Inspection <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Bitcutter and Post-Shot Containment Wells Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 90 Post-Closure Monitoring requirements are described in {section} VIIB.8.b of the Nevada Test Site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility No. NEV HW009, reissued November 20, 2000, Revision 4. Post-closure care consists of the following: Semiannual inspections of the unit using an inspection checklist; photographic documentation; field note documentation; and preparation and submittal of an <span class="hlt">annual</span> report. The report includes copies of the inspection checklist, photographs, and recommendations and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and a copy of the inspection photographs is found in Attachment C.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. S. Tobiason</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3038388"> <span id="translatedtitle">Training and <span class="hlt">burn</span> care in rural India</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> care is a huge challenge in India, having the highest female mortality globally due to flame <span class="hlt">burns</span>. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> can happen anywhere, but are more common in the rural region, affecting the poor. Most common cause is flame <span class="hlt">burns</span>, the culprit being kerosene and flammable flowing garments worn by the women. The infrastructure of healthcare network is good but there is a severe resource crunch. In order to bring a positive change, there will have to be more trained personnel willing to work in the rural <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Strategies for prevention and training of <span class="hlt">burn</span> team are discussed along with suggestions on making the career package attractive and satisfying. This will positively translate into improved outcomes in the <span class="hlt">burns</span> managed in the rural region and quick transfer to appropriate facility for those requiring specialised attention. PMID:21321647</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chamania, Shobha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18988059"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Perioral electrical <span class="hlt">burn</span> in children: case report].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Perioral electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> are rarely seen household injuries that cause both functional and aesthetic deformities requiring special consideration for reconstruction. The cause is usually a child younger than 3 years old biting an electrical cord. An eleven-month-old girl admitted to the emergency room with perioral electrical <span class="hlt">burn</span> after biting an electrical cable of a television. Her <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> included 60% of the lower lip, down to the mentum, and including left commissure, distal part of the tongue and the floor of the mouth. On the 8th day following the <span class="hlt">burn</span>, the <span class="hlt">burned</span> necrotic tissues separated from the healthy living tissues and a bleeding from the labial artery was observed. To reconstruct the lip defect, an inferior-based nasolabial flap from the lateral side was used. The mucosa of the flap was dissected and advanced to form the lower lip vermillion. With this case presentation, the principles and options for perioral electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> are presented. PMID:18988059</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keskin, Mustafa; Tosun, Zekeriya; Duymaz, Ahmet; Savaci, Nedim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/14215"> <span id="translatedtitle">Columbia River : Select <span class="hlt">Area</span> Fishery Evaluation project : 1995-96 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Reports.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water quality monitoring was conducted from November 1994 through October 1996 at five Oregon and three Washington select <span class="hlt">area</span> study sites in the lower Columbia River. Physicochemical monitoring and aquatic biomonitoring programs were established to profile baseline parameters at each study site and document differences between study sites. Data collected at study sites where fish rearing operations were initiated indicate a potential negative impact on the surrounding benthic invertebrate communities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hirose, Paul; Miller, Marc; Hill, Jim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/rn/rn_nrs141.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Table 1. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> estimates and uncertainty Figure 1. <span class="hlt">Area</span> of timberland and forest land by year,</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">8.9 1,482 11.0 9 Paper birch 412 9.1 844 12.5 10 Balsam fir 371 9.8 695 11.5 Other softwoods 236 15 Large ForestLand<span class="hlt">Area</span>(1,000acres) Stand-size Class Oak/hickory Aspen/birch Spruce/fir White pine Maple-2011 2 Mature Forests are the Norm but "Old Growth" is Scarce The diversity of tree ages and sizes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/rn/rn_nrs140.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Table 1. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> estimates and uncertainty Figure 1. <span class="hlt">Area</span> of timberland and forest land by year.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">,336 10.7 8 American beech 526 7.9 1,044 12.6 9 Balsam fir 525 8.3 675 12.0 10 Paper birch 517 6.2 773 10 Medium Large ForestLand<span class="hlt">Area</span>(1,000acres) Stand-size Class Aspen/birch Oak/pine Spruce/fir Oak of tree ages and sizes in late-successional (i.e., old growth) forests provides a broad range of habitats</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/586987"> <span id="translatedtitle">Z-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Saltstone Disposal Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Industrial Solid Waste Permit {number_sign}025500-1603 (formerly IWP-217). No constituents were reported above SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standards or final Primary Drinking Water Standards during first or third quareters 1997. No constituents were detected above SRS flagging criteria during first or third quarters 1997.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roach, J.L. Jr. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/13607"> <span id="translatedtitle">Establishing a quantitative functional relationship between capillary pressure saturation and interfacial <span class="hlt">area</span>. 1998 <span class="hlt">annual</span> progress report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">'Through an integrated and focused research program that is comprised of theoretical, computational and experimental efforts this research effort is directed at: (1) improving on newly developed laboratory techniques to quantify and directly measure the functional relationship between phase interfacial <span class="hlt">area</span> (a), saturation (S) and capillary pressure (Pc), (2) developing new computational algorithms in conjunction with laboratory measurements to predict Pc, S and a, (3) testing existing theory and developing new theory to describe the relationship between Pc, S and a at the large scale, and (4) synthesizing the results of the experimental, computational and theoretical investigative efforts to develop a generic model based upon an intrinsic soil metric to describe the functional dependence of Pc, S and a. The results of this research could be used to generate a site specific soil moisture characteristic surface. Ultimately the results of this research could serve as the foundation upon which the true health and safety risk of a site could be evaluated, the applicability of various remediation technologies examined, and the performance of implemented treatment strategies controlled. This report summarizes work after 18 months of a 3-year project. The authors are working to integrate the theory, experiments, and numerical simulations into a coherent approach to study the role of interfacial <span class="hlt">areas</span> in porous media flow physics. The recent efforts have focused on quantifying the relationship between capillary pressure, saturation, and interfacial <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The theory developed by Gray et al. (1998) indicates clearly that the traditional relationship between capillary pressure and saturation is incomplete, and interfacial <span class="hlt">area</span> per unit volume must be added to the functional dependence. The theory does not, however, provide the form of that functional dependence; determination of this relationship must be done experimentally. To this end, both the network modelling and the PVI approach are being pursued.'</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Montemagno, C.D. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (US); Celia, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (US); Gray, W.G. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (US)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A41B0081D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pre-Harvest Sugarcane <span class="hlt">Burning</span>: Determination of emission factors through laboratory measurements and quantification of emissions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sugarcane is a relevant crop to Brazilian economy and roughly 50% of its production is used to produce ethanol. São Paulo state is the largest producer of sugarcane in Brazil being responsible for almost 60% of its production in a cultivated <span class="hlt">area</span> of 4.5 Mha in 2010. Sugarcane harvest practice can be performed either with green harvest or with pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span>. A "Green Ethanol" Protocol is underway to eliminate the pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice by 2014 in most of the sugarcane cultivated land in São Paulo state. During the last five years close to 2 Mha were <span class="hlt">annually</span> harvested with the pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice. This practice emits particulate material, greenhouse gases, and tropospheric ozone precursors to the atmosphere. Even with policies to eliminate the <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice in the near future there is still a significant environmental damage due to the pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice of sugarcane. Thus the generation of reliable inventories of emissions due to this activity is crucial in order to assess the environmental impact. Presently the official Brazilian emissions inventories do not include the sugarcane pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span> contribution. Therefore, this work aims to estimate the <span class="hlt">annual</span> emissions (from 2006 to 2010) associated with pre-harvest sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice in São Paulo state, including the determination of emission factors for some trace gases and particulate material smaller than 2.5 ?m. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> remote sensing based mappings of <span class="hlt">burned</span> sugarcane fields throughout the harvest season in each crop year made in the context of Canasat Project (http://www.dsr.inpe.br/laf/canasat/en/) were added to the Brazilian Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Emission Model (3BEM) in order to estimate trace gases and aerosols emissions. Two laboratory combustion experiments were carried out to determine the emission factors estimation. Samples of different varieties of sugarcane were harvested in dry weather conditions and in distinct sites in the state of São Paulo to assure a good representativeness. In each experiment a fraction of a specific sample was put on a <span class="hlt">burning</span> tray with <span class="hlt">area</span> equal to 1 m2 inside a combustion chamber and <span class="hlt">burned</span> under controlled conditions. The bottom's tray was covered with a layer of soil with some branches aiming to reproduce the <span class="hlt">burning</span> condition in the field. The smoke emitted was conducted to trace gas and aerosol particles analyzers measuring the excess mixing ratios for CO2, CO, NOX, UHC (unburned hydrocarbons) and PM2.5, allowing the estimation of their respective emission factors. Average values for emission factors estimated (g kg -1 of <span class="hlt">burned</span> dry biomass) were 1303 ± 218 for CO2, 65 ± 14 for CO, 1.5 ± 0.4 for NOX, 16 ± 6 for UHC, and 2.5 ± 1.7 for PM2.5. These emission factors can be used to generate more realistic emission inventories and, therefore, to improve the results of quality air models. Currently, enhanced emission inventories of São Paulo state are obtained with the emission model 3BEM, available at CPTEC-INPE, by the inclusion of these improvements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Azeredo Franca, D.; Maria Longo, K.; Gomes Soares Neto, T.; Carlos dos Santos, J.; Rudorf, B. F.; Alves de Aguiar, D.; Freitas, S.; Vieira Cortez, E.; Stockler S. Lima, R.; S. Gacita, M.; Anselmo, E.; A. Carvalho, J., Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5141865"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> system and method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A substantially smokeless <span class="hlt">burning</span> system for <span class="hlt">burning</span> waste material fuels. An elongated hollow <span class="hlt">burning</span> chamber is supported in a generally horizontal orientation with a slight degree of upward tilt from front to rear. An elongated fuel accumulation chamber and a hydraulic hoist driven ram in the chamber are adapted to push elongated volumes of new fuel into the lower front end of the <span class="hlt">burning</span> chamber such that already <span class="hlt">burning</span> fuel is pushed to the rear of the chamber. This establishes a charcoal <span class="hlt">burning</span> zone which at least partially overlies a volatile <span class="hlt">burning</span> zone such that incomplete combustion products from the volatile <span class="hlt">burning</span> zone pass over and through the charcoal <span class="hlt">burning</span> zone to be substantially <span class="hlt">burned</span> before exiting at the rear of the <span class="hlt">burning</span> chamber. The <span class="hlt">burning</span> chamber is formed of a plurality of pipe sections which are molded of refractory material in a concrete pipe making machine. Integral preheat and air delivery channels are formed in the walls of the <span class="hlt">burning</span> chamber during the molding process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burton, R.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-05-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AtmEn..63..223M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-year black carbon emissions from cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the Russian Federation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cropland fires are an important source of black carbon (BC) emissions. Previous research has suggested that springtime cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Eastern Europe, more specifically Russia, is a main contributor of BC in the Arctic atmosphere, acting as a short-lived climate forcer strongly influencing snow-ice albedo and radiation transmission. BC emissions from cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> were estimated for the Russian Federation for years 2003 through 2009 using three satellite fire products, the 1 km MODIS Active Fire Product, 0.5° MODIS Fire Radiative Power monthly climate modeling grid product, and the 500 m MODIS <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Product, and a agricultural statistics approach based on a modified method developed and published by the All-Russian Institute of Organic Peat and Fertilizers to estimate farm- and regional-level residue loading from straw surplus left after grain harvesting, while accounting for agricultural management and agrometeorological inputs. The satellite-based emission calculations utilized several different land cover classification schemas for defining croplands in Russia for both the 1 km MODIS Land Cover Product and the 300 m MERIS GlobCover v2.2 data sets. In general, the peaks of BC emissions from cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> occurred during the spring (April-May), summer (July-August), and the fall (October). 2008 had the highest <span class="hlt">annual</span> BC emissions. The range of average <span class="hlt">annual</span> BC emissions from cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> calculated from the different satellite fire products was 2.49 Gg-22.2 Gg, with the agricultural statistics approach <span class="hlt">annual</span> average equal to 8.90 Gg. The Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) version 3 reported an <span class="hlt">annual</span> average of 11.9 Gg of BC from agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The results from this analysis showed that the majority of BC emissions originated in European Russia, followed by smaller contributions from West Siberia, Far East Russia, and East Siberia macro-regions. An uncertainty assessment on data used to calculate the BC emissions found moderate uncertainty in some of the input data used in this first attempt to produce spatially and temporally explicit BC emission estimates from cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the Russian Federation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McCarty, Jessica L.; Ellicott, Evan A.; Romanenkov, Vladimir; Rukhovitch, Dmitry; Koroleva, Polina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8TJciUBWSZ4"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Rate Emulator</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Rate Emulator is a gas fuel investigation attempting to emulate the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of solids to improve our understanding of materials''flammability over a wide range of conditions. The approa...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol1-sec49-10411.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>. 49.10411...open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol1-sec49-11021.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>. 49.11021...open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol1-sec49-11021.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>. 49.11021...open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol1-sec49-10411.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>. 49.10411...open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol1-sec49-11021.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>. 49.11021...open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol1-sec49-10411.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>. 49.10411...open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol1-sec49-10411.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>. 49.10411...open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol1-sec49-11021.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>. 49.11021...open <span class="hlt">burning</span>, agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural <span class="hlt">burning</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/v101/iD19/96JD01623/96JD01623.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The quantity of biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span> in southern Africa</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new method is described for calculating the amount of biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span>, its type and location, and the time of <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Active fires in 1989 were detected using daily advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) satellite imagery. The fire count was calibrated to <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> using a stratified sample of multitemporal multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery. The calibration factor is strongly</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. J. Scholes; J. Kendall; C. O. Justice</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59317172"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effectiveness of a firefighter <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury awareness program</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">burn</span>-related injury to a firefighter can result in a few weeks of missed duty, can require months of complex care at a <span class="hlt">burn</span> center, and can also result in the end of a career. The greater Washington, DC metropolitan <span class="hlt">area</span> has approximately 13 000 career and volunteer firefighters. The <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center at Washington Hospital Center, which serves the metropolitan</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J Woods; K Hollowed; A Pavlovich; J Shupp</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP12B..07L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Extreme peat <span class="hlt">burning</span> along peatland-upland interfaces of the Western Boreal Plain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands in the Western Boreal Forest, releasing 4700 Gg C a-1 over ~1500 km2 <span class="hlt">annually</span>. Under future climate scenarios the amount of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in this region is forecast to increase by 25-100%, potentially converting these ecosystems into a regional net source of carbon to the atmosphere. During wildfire, the majority of carbon released from peatlands is attributable to peat smouldering with <span class="hlt">burn</span> depths generally ranging from 5 - 20 cm of peat. However, no study has documented the incidence of an extreme smouldering event and the conditions necessary for such an event to occur. Here we report on a smouldering event during the Utikuma Complex forest fire (SWF-060, ~90,000 ha) in May, 2011 at the Utikuma Lake Research Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> (URSA) in Alberta's Western Boreal Plain, where peat <span class="hlt">burn</span> depths exceeded one meter along a peatland-upland interface (range = 0.12 to 1.10 m, mean = 0.54 m). We applied the Peat Smouldering and Ignition model (PSI) at an adjacent unburned peatland-upland interface to characterize the hydrological and hydrophysical conditions necessary for these extreme <span class="hlt">burn</span> depths. Model outputs indicate that the coupling of dense peat (bulk density > 150 kg m-3) and low peat moisture (GWC < 250%) allow for severe smouldering to propagate deep into the peat profile. We argue that peatland-upland interfaces, which likely release ten times more carbon per meter squared than peatland centers, are hotspots for peat smouldering due to dynamic hydrological conditions that reduce the moisture content of high-density peat during dry periods. We suggest the hydrogeological setting of peatlands is essential for identifying peatland-upland interfaces as <span class="hlt">areas</span> highly vulnerable to smouldering and for assisting fire managers and scientists in predicting and mitigating the effects of extreme peat <span class="hlt">burning</span> events. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> peatland-upland interface</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lukenbach, M.; Hokanson, K.; Devito, K. J.; Kettridge, N.; Thompson, D.; Petrone, R. M.; Waddington, J. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18535469"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hospital costs associated with pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Modern <span class="hlt">burn</span> care is a resource intensive endeavor requiring specialized equipment, personnel, and facilities in order to provide optimum care. The costs associated with <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury to both patients and society as a whole can be multifaceted and large. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between hospital costs, patient characteristics, and injury factors in a cohort of pediatric patients admitted to a regional <span class="hlt">burn</span> center. We performed a review of the hospital charges accrued by pediatric patients (age <16 years) admitted to our <span class="hlt">burn</span> center from 1994 to 2004 and explored the relationship between baseline patient, injury and hospital course characteristics and total costs. Hospital charges were converted to 2005 dollar costs using an inflation index and a cost to charge ratio. Univariate and multivariate regressions were performed to identify the factors most significantly associated with cost. In addition, we performed a subset cost analysis for patients with <span class="hlt">burns</span> more than 20% TBSA. A total of 1443 pediatric patients (age <16) were admitted to our <span class="hlt">burn</span> center during the study period. The overall mean hospital cost in 2005 dollars was dollars 9026 (SD = dollars 25,483; median = dollars 2138). <span class="hlt">Area</span> of full thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span> was the only patient or injury factor significantly associated with greater hospital costs (P < .05) on multivariate analysis. No single anatomic <span class="hlt">area</span> was associated with increased hospital costs when adjusted for total overall <span class="hlt">burn</span> size. Injury severity was the most significant factor impacting index hospitalization costs following pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Further studies defining the long-term societal costs impact of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury are needed as are studies that evaluate the impact of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury on quality of life. PMID:18535469</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klein, Matthew B; Hollingworth, William; Rivara, Frederick P; Kramer, C Bradley; Askay, Shelley W; Heimbach, David M; Gibran, Nicole S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3793879"> <span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology of major <span class="hlt">burns</span> at the Lebanese <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center in Geitawi, Lebanon</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary <span class="hlt">Burn</span> care is one of the few <span class="hlt">areas</span> in medicine considered both medically and surgically challenging, with <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries affecting people of all ages and both sexes. Between May 1992 and March 2012, 1,524 patients were admitted to the Lebanese <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center in Geitawi, with an average length of stay (LOS) of 36.5 days. The most frequently encountered injuries were thermal <span class="hlt">burns</span>, generally resulting from domestic accidents. Of our patients, 47% were from rural <span class="hlt">areas</span> and <span class="hlt">burned</span> body surface (BBS) was the most serious factor, with 36% of all those admitted having suffered <span class="hlt">burns</span> of 20% to 40% of their total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA). Our team of experienced physicians, nurses, nutritionists and physical therapists was essential to successful <span class="hlt">burn</span> care and outcomes were improved with adequate early fluid intake. The main causes of death were multiple organ failure due to hemodynamic instability, followed by respiratory failure from inhalation injury. A week after the injury, risk of infection was the main threat to the <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims. Although this threat was compounded by malnutrition and immunodeficiency, excessive use of antibiotics was not justified. The fatality rate was about 18% and correlates with higher TBSA <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:24133397</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ghanime, G.; Rizkallah, N.; Said, J.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2935806"> <span id="translatedtitle">Topical Antimicrobials for <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Wound Infections</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Throughout most of history, serious <span class="hlt">burns</span> occupying a large percentage of body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the <span class="hlt">burn</span> milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the <span class="hlt">burned</span> skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make <span class="hlt">burns</span> particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to <span class="hlt">burns</span>, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat <span class="hlt">burn</span> infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating <span class="hlt">burn</span> infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active <span class="hlt">area</span> of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for <span class="hlt">burns</span> that will battle against growing multi-drug resistance. PMID:20429870</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Hashmi, Javad T.; Kurup, Divya B.; Hamblin, Michael R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fort.usgs.gov/Products/Publications/21521/21521.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">2004 <span class="hlt">annual</span> progress report: Stratton Sagebrush Hydrology Study <span class="hlt">Area</span>: establishment of a long-term research site in a high-elevation sagebrush steppe</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 2004 the U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Rawlins Field Office (RFO), began a cooperative effort to reestablish the Stratton Sagebrush Hydrology Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> (Stratton) as a research location, with the goal of making it a site for long-term research on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecology. No other long-term research sites in high-elevation sagebrush habitat currently exist, and the Stratton <span class="hlt">area</span>, with its 30+ year history of research and baseline data, was a logical location to restart investigations aimed at answering pertinent and timely questions about sagebrush ecology and sagebrush-obligate species. During the first year of the study, USGS scientists conducted an in-depth literature search to locate publications from research conducted at Stratton. We contacted previous researchers to acquire literature and unpublished reports of work conducted at Stratton. Collated papers and published manuscripts were presented in an annotated bibliography (Burgess and Schoenecker, 2004). A second goal was to establish Stratton as a host location for researchers interested in sagebrush ecology investigations. We contacted staff and professors from Colorado State University and Wyoming and Montana universities to notify them of the opportunities at Stratton. Several institutions showed interest in the <span class="hlt">area</span> and the potential of such a research site. A major advantage of the Stratton site is the ability of BML to coordinate activities on the land, manipulate grazing in cooperation with permit holders, and direct other activities to accommodate appropriate long-term experimental designs. A third goal was to evaluate grazing management after a prescribed <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The BLM widely uses prescribed <span class="hlt">burns</span> as a tool for land management and grazing management. In general, BLM policy restricts grazing after a wildfire for two or more years. Some BLM offices allow no grazing after a wildfire or prescribed treatment for at least two years. Conversely, the RFO often allows grazing following a prescribed <span class="hlt">burn</span> directly after the peak growing season the following year. This procedure is used for two years post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>, after which grazing management is directed by local conditions and goals. We are investigating this practice to evaluate the effects on plant production and nutrient cycling. The RFO specifically wants to know if there are any negative effects from grazing one season after a prescribed <span class="hlt">burn</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schoenecker, Kate; Lange, Bob; Calton, Mike</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10458"> <span id="translatedtitle">Data Summary Report for the <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Fourmile Branch and F- and H-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Seeplines, Appendix IX Metals and Radionuclides, 1998</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report presents a summary of the definitive data validation and verification for the 1998 RFI/RI <span class="hlt">annual</span> Appendix IX metals and radionuclides survey for Fourmile Branch and the F- and H-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Seeplines. The validation process began with project mobilization and continued through the delivery of EDDs and this report.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koch, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-08-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cscs.ch/fileadmin/Documents/reports/Annual_Report06.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report 2006 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">2 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report 2006 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report CSCS Swiss National Supercomputing Centre ual Report <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report nnual Report <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report nual Report<span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report Report port al Report<span class="hlt">Annual</span> #12;<span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report 2006</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/129100"> <span id="translatedtitle">Response of Pan American Balsamscale, Soil, and Livestock to Prescribed <span class="hlt">Burning</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">bristle grass , Comb's paspalum, yellow Indiangrass, and common sandbur. Common forbs include Texas bull nettle, Euphorbia spp., sensitivebrier, Texas geranium, <span class="hlt">annual</span> ragweed, and perennial ragweed. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Installation and Experimental Design Half... bristle grass , Comb's paspalum, yellow Indiangrass, and common sandbur. Common forbs include Texas bull nettle, Euphorbia spp., sensitivebrier, Texas geranium, <span class="hlt">annual</span> ragweed, and perennial ragweed. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Installation and Experimental Design Half...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mutz, J.L.; Greene, T.G.; Scifres, C.J.; Koerth, B.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1030912"> <span id="translatedtitle">FY2010 <span class="hlt">ANNUAL</span> REVIEW E-<span class="hlt">AREA</span> LOW-LEVEL WASTE FACILITY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AND COMPOSITE ANALYSIS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The E-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) consists of a number of disposal units described in the Performance Assessment (PA)(WSRC, 2008b) and Composite Analysis (CA)(WSRC, 1997; WSRC, 1999): Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Vault, Intermediate Level (IL) Vault, Trenches (Slit Trenches [STs], Engineered Trenches [ETs], and Component-in-Grout [CIG] Trenches), and Naval Reactor Component Disposal <span class="hlt">Areas</span> (NRCDAs). This <span class="hlt">annual</span> review evaluates the adequacy of the approved 2008 ELLWF PA along with the Special Analyses (SAs) approved since the PA was issued. The review also verifies that the Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 low-level waste (LLW) disposal operations were conducted within the bounds of the PA/SA baseline, the Savannah River Site (SRS) CA, and the Department of Energy (DOE) Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS). Important factors considered in this review include waste receipts, results from monitoring and research and development (R&D) programs, and the adequacy of controls derived from the PA/SA baseline. Sections 1.0 and 2.0 of this review are a summary of the adequacy of the PA/SA and CA, respectively. An evaluation of the FY2010 waste receipts and the resultant impact on the ELLWF is summarized in Section 3.1. The results of the monitoring program, R&D program, and other relevant factors are found in Section 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4, respectively. Section 4.0 contains the CA <span class="hlt">annual</span> determination similarly organized. SRS low-level waste management is regulated under DOE Order 435.1 (DOE, 1999a) and is authorized under a DAS as a federal permit. The original DAS was issued by the DOE-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) on September 28, 1999 (DOE, 1999b) for the operation of the ELLWF and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The 1999 DAS remains in effect for the regulation of the SDF. Those portions of that DAS applicable to the ELLWF were superseded by revision 1 of the DAS on July 15, 2008 (DOE, 2008b). The 2008 PA and DAS were officially implemented by the facility on October 31, 2008 and are the authorization documents for this FY2010 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Review. Department of Energy Headquarters approval of the 2008 DAS was subject to numerous conditions specified in the document. Two of those conditions are to update the ELLWF closure plan and monitoring plan to align with the conceptual model analyzed in the PA. Both of these conditions were met with the issuance of the PA Monitoring Plan (Millings, 2009a) and the Closure Plan (Phifer et al, 2009a). The PA Monitoring Plan was approved by DOE on July 22, 2009 and the Closure Plan was approved by DOE on May 21, 2009. Both will be updated as needed to remain consistent with the PA. The DAS also specifies that the maintenance plan include activities to resolve each of the secondary issues identified in the DOEHQ review of the 2008 PA that were not completely addressed either with supplemental material provided to the review team or in final revisions to the PA. These outstanding issues were originally documented in the 2008 update of the PA/CA Maintenance Plan (WSRC, 2008a) and in subsequent PA/CA Maintenance Plans (most recently SRNS, 2010a) as required and are actively being worked.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Butcher, T.; Swingle, R.; Crapse, K.; Millings, M.; Sink, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3655731"> <span id="translatedtitle">Facial <span class="hlt">Burns</span> - Our Experience</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Facial <span class="hlt">burns</span> are generally considered severe. This is due to the possibility of respiratory complications. First responders check the nostrils for singed hairs. In severe cases there may be soot around the nose and mouth and coughing may produce phlegm that includes ash. Facial and inhalational <span class="hlt">burns</span> compromise airways. They pose difficulties in pre-hospital resuscitation and are challenge to clinicians managing surviving <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims in the intensive care setting. Management problems – resuscitation, airway maintenance and clinical treatment of facial injuries are compounded if the victim is child. Inhalational <span class="hlt">burns</span> reduce survivability, certainly in adult victim. In our retrospective study we found that facial <span class="hlt">burns</span> dominated in male gender, liquids and scalds are the most common causes of facial <span class="hlt">burns</span> in children whereas the flame and electricity were the most common causes of facial <span class="hlt">burns</span> in adults. We came to the conclusion in our study that surgical treatment minimizes complications and duration of recovery. PMID:23687458</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zatriqi, Violeta; Arifi, Hysni; Zatriqi, Skender; Duci, Shkelzen; Rrecaj, Sh.; Martinaj, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/951601"> <span id="translatedtitle">2008 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Summary Report for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada: Review of the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site requires an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review to assess the adequacy of the Performance Assessments (PAs) and Composite Analyses (CAs) for each of the facilities, with the results submitted <span class="hlt">annually</span> to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters. The Disposal Authorization Statements for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) also require that such reviews be made and that secondary or minor unresolved issues be tracked and addressed as part of the maintenance plan. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) performed an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review in fiscal year (FY) 2008 by evaluating operational factors and research results that impact the continuing validity of the PAs and CAs. This <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2008 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada Test Site relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NSTec Environmental Management</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1649807"> <span id="translatedtitle">Project <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Prevention: outcome and implications.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Project <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Prevention was designed and implemented to determine the ability of a public education program to increase awareness about <span class="hlt">burn</span> hazards and reduce the incidence and severity of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. Media messages were transmitted to residents of a large metropolitan <span class="hlt">area</span>; separate school and community interventions were implemented in two demographically similar communities within the Standard Metropolitan Statistical <span class="hlt">Area</span> (SMSA). A second metropolitan <span class="hlt">area</span> and two of its communities served as control sites. Messages for specific, high-risk age groups emphasized flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> because of their severity and scalds because of their frequency. Knowledge gains were demonstrable only as a result of the school program. Neither the school program nor the media campaign reduced <span class="hlt">burn</span> incidence or severity; the community intervention may have brought about a moderate, temporary reduction in injuries. Multiplicity of messages, brevity of the campaign, and separation of the interventions are among possible reasons for the program's failure to significantly reduce <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. Education for personal responsibility is not sufficient. Product modification and environmental redesign must be instituted through education and legislation for successful control of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. PMID:7058963</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McLoughlin, E; Vince, C J; Lee, A M; Crawford, J D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15534461"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gas fireplace contact <span class="hlt">burns</span> in young children.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Contact <span class="hlt">burns</span> from domestic appliances are common in young children. Recently, gas fireplaces have been recognized as a potential cause of contact <span class="hlt">burns</span> in young children. We sought to quantify the frequency of gas fireplace contact <span class="hlt">burns</span> in young children, to identify the etiology of contact, to describe the clinical presentation, and to describe clinical outcomes. Children with gas fireplace contact <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries presenting to The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto (1999-2002) were identified using three data sources: the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program Database, the <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Unit Registry, and the Rehabilitation Services Database. Demographic, clinical, and outcomes data were collected on all children. During the 4-year study period, 27 children presented to the hospital because of a gas fireplace contact <span class="hlt">burn</span> (approximately 9% of all contact <span class="hlt">burns</span>). The median age of the children was 14 months (range, 8-36 months), with 16 boys (59%). Most children were <span class="hlt">burned</span> in their own home. With regard to etiology, 10 children (37%) lost their balance near the fireplace, 2 (7%) walked too close to the glass front, and 8 (30%) touched the glass front out of curiosity. Almost half (44%) of the children <span class="hlt">burned</span> the palms and digits of both hands. The median total <span class="hlt">burn</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span> was 1% (range, 0.2-2.5%). In total, 30% of children were admitted to hospital, and 11% required skin grafts. All children had full wound closure after 4 to 43 days. Given the etiology of these <span class="hlt">burns</span> (loss of balance or curiosity), passive prevention, such as barriers or changes in the composition of glass panels, may be the most effective approach to combat them. PMID:15534461</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zettel, Julie C; Khambalia, Amina; Barden, Wendy; Murthy, Trisha; Macarthur, Colin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40602140"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal variation of soil compaction and deterioration of soil quality in pasture <span class="hlt">areas</span> of Colombian Amazonia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the Amazon basin, tropical rainforest is being slashed and <span class="hlt">burned</span> at accelerated rates for <span class="hlt">annual</span> crops over a couple of years, followed by forage grasses. Because of poor management, the productivity of established pastures declines in a few years so that grazing plots are abandoned and new <span class="hlt">areas</span> are deforested. Previous studies in the region report higher bulk density</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. J Mart??nez; J. A Zinck</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11933833"> <span id="translatedtitle">[The pain from <span class="hlt">burns</span>].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The painful events associated with the treatment of a severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> can, because of their long-lasting and repetitive characteristics, be one of the most excruciating experiences in clinical practice. Moreover, <span class="hlt">burn</span> pain has been shown to be detrimental to <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients. Although nociception and peripheral hyperalgesia are considered the major causes of <span class="hlt">burn</span> pain, the study of more hypothetical mechanisms like central hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain may lead to a better understanding of <span class="hlt">burn</span> pain symptoms and to new therapeutic approaches. Continuous pain and intermittent pain due to therapeutic procedures are two distinct components of <span class="hlt">burn</span> pain. They have to be evaluated and managed separately. Although continuous pain is by far less severe than intermittent pain, the treatment is, in both cases, essentially pharmacological relying basically on opioids. Because of wide intra- and inter-individual variations, protocols will have to leave large possibilities of adaptation for each case, systematic pain evaluation being mandatory to achieve the best risk/benefit ratio. Surprisingly, the dose of medication decreases only slowly with time, a <span class="hlt">burn</span> often remaining painful for long periods after healing. Non pharmacological treatments are often useful and sometimes indispensable adjuncts; but their rationale and their feasibility depends entirely on previous optimal pharmacological control of <span class="hlt">burn</span> pain. Several recent studies show that <span class="hlt">burn</span> pain management is inadequate in most <span class="hlt">burn</span> centres. PMID:11933833</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Latarjet, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24476991"> <span id="translatedtitle">Falling clothes irons rarely cause <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Children's Hospital of Michigan's <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center treats approximately three pediatric contact <span class="hlt">burns</span> <span class="hlt">annually</span> related to clothes irons, which involve the face, torso, and extremities. These <span class="hlt">burns</span> leave well-demarcated <span class="hlt">burn</span> patterns, including the steam holes from the heat plate of the iron. The average age of these children is 15 months. The history given by the parent is that the child pulled the cord of an iron that was on an ironing board or high shelf. It seemed unlikely to the investigators that a falling iron would produce such demarcated <span class="hlt">burns</span>. A free-standing shelf unit was built with shelf heights of 36, 60, and 72 inches (the height of an ironing board and shelves at home). Three irons of different weights were put in three different positions on each shelf, with the cord dangling. A doll the approximate size of a 15-month old was positioned in front of the shelf. The dangling cord was pulled, and the falling iron was videotaped. The video was edited in freeze frame at the point at which the iron hit the doll. Two hundred seventy falls were recorded. The flat heat plate of the iron never hit the doll. The linear edge of the heat plate hit the doll on only seven falls. This study demonstrates that it is very unlikely for the flat heat plate of a falling iron to contact a toddler-sized doll. Children who allegedly sustain demarcated <span class="hlt">burns</span> in this manner need to be investigated for nonaccidental injury. PMID:24476991</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Allasio, David; Shanti, Christina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48955718"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emissions from open biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in India: Integrating the inventory approach with high-resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active-fire and land cover data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climatological mean estimates of forest <span class="hlt">burning</span> and crop waste <span class="hlt">burning</span> based on broad assumptions of the amounts <span class="hlt">burned</span> have so far been used for India in global inventories. Here we estimate open biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> representative of 1995–2000 from forests using <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and biomass density specific for Indian ecosystems and crop waste <span class="hlt">burning</span> as a balance between generation and known</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Venkataraman; G. Habib; D. Kadamba; M. Shrivastava; J.-F. Leon; B. Crouzille; O. Boucher; D. G. Streets</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.whrc.org/test/policy/COP/India/Venkataraman%20et%20al.%202006.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emissions from open biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in India: Integrating the inventory approach with high-resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active-fire and land cover data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climatological mean estimates of forest <span class="hlt">burning</span> and crop waste <span class="hlt">burning</span> based on broad assumptions of the amounts <span class="hlt">burned</span> have so far been used for India in global inventories. Here we estimate open biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> representative of 1995-2000 from forests using <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and biomass density specific for Indian ecosystems and crop waste <span class="hlt">burning</span> as a balance between generation and known</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Venkataraman; G. Habib; D. Kadamba; M. Shrivastava; J.-F. Leon; B. Crouzille; O. Boucher; D. G. Streets</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15683690"> <span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology of pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> in southern Taiwan.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 5-year retrospective review of 157 pediatric patients admitted to <span class="hlt">burn</span> center of Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital (Kaohsiung, Taiwan) was undertaken to identify the incidence, mechanism, and agents of pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The highest incidence of pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> was in children aged 1-6 years (57.3%), followed by age group 6-14 years (31.8%). Scald <span class="hlt">burn</span> (75.2%) made up the major cause of this injury and was dominant in each age group compared to non-scald <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The kitchen/dining <span class="hlt">area</span> (57.3%) and living room (29.9%) accounted for the most frequent places where pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> occurred. Among the agents of scald <span class="hlt">burn</span>, hot drink (49.2%) and soup (32.2%) were the two leading causes. There were more pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> reported in colder seasons (38.2% and 33.1% in winter and fall respectively) and during dining time (19.7% in 11 a.m.-1 p.m. and 35.0% in 5 p.m.-8 p.m.). The results of this report may be closely related to special culinary habits (use of chafing-dish and making hot tea) in the south of Taiwan. PMID:15683690</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lin, Tsai-Ming; Wang, Kai-Hung; Lai, Cheng-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Daw</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3576016"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span>: an update on current pharmacotherapy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction The world-wide occurrence of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries remains high despite efforts to reduce injury incidence through public awareness campaigns and improvements in living conditions. In 2004, almost 11 million people experienced <span class="hlt">burns</span> severe enough to warrant medical treatment. Advances over the past several decades in aggressive resuscitation, nutrition, excision, and grafting have reduced morbidity and mortality. Incorporation of pharmacotherapeutics into treatment regimens may further reduce complications of severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. <span class="hlt">Areas</span> covered Severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries, as well as other forms of stress and trauma, trigger a hypermetabolic response that, if left untreated, impedes recovery. In the past two decades, use of anabolic agents, beta adrenergic receptor antagonists, and anti-hyperglycemic agents has successfully counteracted post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> morbidities including catabolism, the catecholamine-mediated response, and insulin resistance. Here we review the most up-to-date information on currently used pharmacotherapies in the treatment of these sequelae of severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> and the insights that have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Expert opinion Existing drugs offer promising advances in the care of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. Continued gains in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving the hypermetabolic response will enable the application of additional existing drugs to be broadened to further attenuate the hypermetabolic response. PMID:23121414</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rojas, Yesinia; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S.; Herndon, David N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21131133"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prevention-oriented epidemiology of <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Ardabil provincial <span class="hlt">burn</span> centre, Iran.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In preventing <span class="hlt">burns</span>, it is essential to know how they occur and which population groups, environments and heating appliances can be targeted for prevention work. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of <span class="hlt">burns</span> leading to hospitalisation in the northwest of Iran with a focus on the pre-event phase of injury. Between 2007 and 2008, 237 <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims hospitalised in Ardabil provincial <span class="hlt">burn</span> centre were enrolled into a descriptive study. A questionnaire was filled in during hospital stay for all patients, with a focus on obtaining information necessary for prevention purposes. Males constituted 56% of victims. Mean age was 22 years. The most severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> occurred between the ages of 18 and 32 years, and were mainly flame related. Both in case of flame and non-flame <span class="hlt">burns</span>, women suffered more severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> and mortality than men. However, with respect to non-flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> of which most were scalds, the majority of the severe cases involved children under the age of 5 years. More than 80% of <span class="hlt">burns</span> occurred at home. The kitchen was the main place of injury in 47% of cases, followed by living rooms in 28%. Nearly 45% of <span class="hlt">burns</span> were scalds and 47% were flame <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The main container was the samovar in 37%, followed by kettles in 32% and pots in 22%. The overturning of a container was the major mechanism of contact with hot liquids in 86%. Bumping into a container was the main scenario of a scald injury, constituting nearly 70% of the cases. The difference between flame and non-flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> in the distribution of <span class="hlt">burns</span> in extremities was not statistically significant, but head and neck <span class="hlt">burns</span> were 3.7 times more likely to be caused by flame. The two most important injury patterns, more common among women, were getting <span class="hlt">burned</span> while using a camping gas stove or while refilling the chamber of kerosene-<span class="hlt">burning</span> appliances without first extinguishing them. Domestic <span class="hlt">burns</span> among children and young women are a priority in injury-prevention programmes. Camping gas stoves, valors (traditional dual-purpose heating and cooking appliances) and samovars can be considered as target appliances for <span class="hlt">burn</span>-specific home-safety-promotion efforts in this <span class="hlt">area</span> or in similar settings. PMID:21131133</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sadeghi Bazargani, H; Arshi, S; Ekman, R; Mohammadi, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13.2299L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the impacts of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on air quality in and around Mexico City</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> on ground-level ozone (O3) and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Area</span> (MCMA) and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> organic aerosol (BBOA), and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA) were consistent with many observation-based estimates. We did not detect significant effects of open fires and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> on surface O3 concentrations in the MCMA and surrounding region. In contrast, they had important influences on OA and elemental carbon (EC), increasing primary OA (POA) by ~60%, secondary OA (SOA) by ~22%, total OA (TOA = POA + SOA) by ~33%, and EC by ~22%, on both the local (urban) and regional scales. Although the emissions of trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> are substantially lower than those from open fires, trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> made slightly smaller but comparable contributions to OA as open fires did, and exerted an even higher influence on EC. Of the ~22% enhancement in SOA concentrations (equivalent to a ~15% increase in TOA) simulated, about two third was attributed to the open fires and one-third to the trash <span class="hlt">burning</span>. On the <span class="hlt">annual</span> basis and taking the biofuel use emissions into consideration, we estimated that open fires, trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> and biofuel use together contributed about 60% to the loading of POA, 30% to SOA, and 25% to EC in both the MCMA and its surrounding region, of which the open fires and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> contributed about 35% to POA, 18% to SOA, and 15% to EC. The estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> impacts in this study may contain considerable uncertainties due to the uncertainties in their emission estimates in magnitude, temporal and spatial distribution, extrapolations and the nature of spot comparison. More observation and modeling studies are needed to accurately assess the impacts of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on tropospheric chemistry, regional and global air quality, and climate change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lei, W.; Li, G.; Molina, L. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29590497"> <span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiological study of 3341 <span class="hlt">burns</span> patients during three years in Tehran, Iran</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A retrospective study was conducted on 3341 <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients hospitalized in a <span class="hlt">burn</span> care center in Tehran, Iran during 1995–98. The mean age was 20.4 years, and 43.5% of patients were children under 15 years old. The mean body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> was 30.6%. There were statistically significant correlations between age groups and total <span class="hlt">burn</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) <span class="hlt">burned</span> with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abdolaziz Rastegar Lari; Reza Alaghehbandan; Rahmatollah Nikui</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14595182"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oral <span class="hlt">burn</span> contractures in children.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Oral <span class="hlt">burn</span> contractures in children present major reconstructive problem. Only few reports in literature discussed oral <span class="hlt">burns</span> in children. Electrical, chemical, and thermal agents are the main causative agents for oral <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Oral contractures can be classified into anterior, posterior, and total. Anterior contractures are usually caused by electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> and involve the oral commissure, lips, anterior buccal sulcus and surrounding mucosa, and anterior tongue. Posterior oral contractures are caused by caustic ingestion and involve the posterior buccal mucosa, posterior tongue, retro-molar <span class="hlt">area</span> and oro-pharynx. Total oral contractures involve the lips, tongue, oral cavity, and oro-pharyngeal mucosa and are caused by lye caustic ingestion. This report reviews three children; one with posterior, two with total oral cavity contracture. All cases were managed by linear release of scar contracture and skin grafting followed by a prolonged intra-oral splinting with a fixed mouth-block and commissural splint. A successful outcome was observed in all cases. PMID:14595182</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hashem, Fuad K; Al Khayal, Zikra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1687146"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span>-induced Bone Loss</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: The purpose of this article is to familiarize the reader with the issue of bone loss that accompanies severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Why is this important? How does it happen? How can we treat it? Methods: The published findings on this subject are reviewed and integrated into a conceptual framework. Results: Bone loss occurs quickly following a severe <span class="hlt">burn</span>, is sustained, and increases the risk of postburn fracture. The likely mechanisms responsible are the increase in endogenous glucocorticoid production resulting from the stress response and resorptive cytokines resulting from the systemic inflammatory response and likely aggravated by progressive vitamin D deficiency. Calcium metabolism is also disrupted as the patients develop hypocalcemic hypoparathyroidism likely due to an upregulation of the parathyroid calcium-sensing receptor, possibly due to inflammatory cytokine stimulation. Treatment is achieved by use of anabolic agents and vitamin D supplementation. Studies of acute administration of the antiresorptive agent pamidronate are also promising. Conclusion: Postburn bone loss should be looked for in patients with a <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury of 40% or greater total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>. The cause is inherent to the adaptive mechanisms following <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Methods are available to treat this condition. PMID:16921418</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klein, Gordon L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23545350"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pediatric cutaneous bleach <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bleach is a common household product which can cause caustic injuries. Its effects on mucosal tissues and the eye have been well-described in the literature. However, there is little information published regarding the appearance and effect of bleach on a child's skin. We report three children who sustained chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> after contact with bleach. All three children sustained accidental bleach <span class="hlt">burns</span> while at home, and each child had a distinct brown discoloration to the skin from the injury. All three children had treatment and follow-up for their <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Two of the children sustained more severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>, which were extensive and required more time to heal. There was also long-term scarring associated with the severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Like most <span class="hlt">burns</span>, pain control is required until the injury heals. PMID:23545350</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lang, Cathleen; Cox, Matthew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4117529"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ecological Consequences of Shifting the Timing of <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Tallgrass Prairie</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the Kansas Flint Hills, grassland <span class="hlt">burning</span> is conducted during a relatively narrow window because management recommendations for the past 40 years have been to <span class="hlt">burn</span> only in late spring. Widespread prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> within this restricted time frame frequently creates smoke management issues downwind. A potential remedy for the concentrated smoke production in late spring is to expand <span class="hlt">burning</span> to times earlier in the year. Yet, previous research suggested that <span class="hlt">burning</span> in winter or early spring reduces plant productivity and cattle weight gain while increasing the proportion of undesirable plant species. In order to better understand the ecological consequences of <span class="hlt">burning</span> at different times of the year, plant production and species abundance were measured for 20 years on ungrazed watersheds <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">annually</span> in autumn, winter, or spring. We found that there were no significant differences in total grass production among the <span class="hlt">burns</span> on either upland or lowland topographic positions, although spring <span class="hlt">burned</span> watersheds had higher grass culm production and lower forb biomass than autumn and winter <span class="hlt">burned</span> watersheds. <span class="hlt">Burning</span> in autumn or winter broadened the window of grass productivity response to precipitation, which reduces susceptibility to mid-season drought. <span class="hlt">Burning</span> in autumn or winter also increased the phenological range of species by promoting cool-season graminoids without a concomitant decrease in warm-season grasses, potentially widening the seasonal window of high-quality forage. Incorporating autumn and winter <span class="hlt">burns</span> into the overall portfolio of tallgrass prairie management should increase the flexibility in managing grasslands, promote biodiversity, and minimize air quality issues caused by en masse late-spring <span class="hlt">burning</span> with little negative consequences for cattle production. PMID:25077487</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Towne, E. Gene; Craine, Joseph M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25085094"> <span id="translatedtitle">Outpatient <span class="hlt">burn</span> management.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients have injuries that may be treated on an outpatient basis. Newer silver-based dressings and improved medications for the treatment of pain and pruritus have led to further growth of outpatient care. The final barrier of distance from the <span class="hlt">burn</span> center will decrease with the growth of telemedicine. It is incumbent for <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers to develop outpatient guidelines to facilitate this growth of outpatient care. PMID:25085094</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Warner, Petra M; Coffee, Tammy L; Yowler, Charles J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC33E..06B"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Sedimentary Charcoal Record of Regional and Global Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> on Multi-decadal-to-Orbital Time Scales</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The global charcoal database (GCD) assembled by the Global Palaeofire Working Group (GPWG) over the past several years provides over 800 sedimentary charcoal records of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> that allows wildfire to be examined on a range of spatial and temporal scales. These data, and other analyses of sedimentary charcoal records show that: (1) The data-analytical aspects of sedimentary charcoal have matured to the extent that we can show that biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is well represented by these records, that charcoal influx is a general indicator of <span class="hlt">area</span> or biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and that peaks of charcoal influx in records with <span class="hlt">annual</span>-to-decadal resolution provide evidence of individual fires. (2) The spatial coverage of the records is extensive enough to represent much of the global climate space, although coverage of Africa, Siberia, and grassland and desert ecosystems in general could be improved. (3) The temporal coverage is sufficient to resolve millennial-scale environmental changes over the past glacial cycle, and hemispheric and regional variations in biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> from the LGM to present. (4) Global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> was very low at the LGM, and increases in biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> into the Holocene tracked hemispheric and regional climate changes. (5) Abrupt climate changes during deglaciation caused specific responses in the charcoal records; these responses are replicated during the abrupt warming and cooling episodes accompanying D-O cycles. (6) During the Holocene, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> reflects regional climate changes and does not support the early anthropocene hypothesis. (7) Over the last millennium, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> also tracks regional climate changes, and shows an unambiguous human influence only over the past 250 years. (8) The variations in global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on multiple time scales described by the sedimentary charcoal record are supported by the emerging ice core records of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>. (9) Increases in biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> are strongly linked to temperature increases on all time scales, and are generally higher at intermediate levels of effective moisture, reflecting a tradeoff between fuel (vegetation productivity) and fire-conducive weather and climate; drought becomes an important control only on decadal and shorter time scales. (10) Human activity is neither necessary nor sufficient for explaining the large-scale, long-term variations in biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bartlein, P. J.; Marlon, J.; Global Palaeofire Working Group</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH23C1543W"> <span id="translatedtitle">RECOVER - An Automated <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Emergency Response Decision Support System for Post-fire Rehabilitation Management of Savanna Ecosystems in the Western US</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In partnership with the Department of Interior's Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Idaho Department of Lands (IDL), we are building and evaluating the RECOVER decision support system. RECOVER - which stands for Rehabilitation Capability Convergence for Ecosystem Recovery - is an automatically deployable, context-aware decision support system for savanna wildfires that brings together in a single application the information necessary for post-fire rehabilitation decision-making and long-term ecosystem monitoring. RECOVER uses state-of-the-art cloud-based data management technologies to improve performance, reduce cost, and provide site-specific flexibility for each fire. The RECOVER Server uses Integrated Rule-Oriented Data System (iRODS) data grid technology deployed in the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). The RECOVER Client is an Adobe Flex web map application that is able to provide a suite of convenient GIS analytical capabilities. In a typical use scenario, the RECOVER Server is provided a wildfire name and geospatial extent. The Server then automatically gathers Earth observational data and other relevant products from various geographically distributed data sources. The Server creates a database in the cloud where all relevant information about the wildfire is stored. This information is made available to the RECOVER Client and ultimately to fire managers through their choice of web browser. The Server refreshes the data throughout the <span class="hlt">burn</span> and subsequent recovery period (3-5 years) with each refresh requiring two minutes to complete. Since remediation plans must be completed within 14 days of a fire's containment, RECOVER has the potential to significantly improve the decision-making process. RECOVER adds an important new dimension to post-fire decision-making by focusing on ecosystem rehabilitation in semiarid savannas. A novel aspect of RECOVER's approach involves the use of soil moisture estimates, which are an important but difficult-to-obtain element of post-fire rehabilitation planning. We will use downscaled soil moisture data from three primary observational sources to begin evaluation of soil moisture products and build the technology needed for RECOVER to use future SMAP products. As a result, RECOVER, BLM, and the fire applications community will be ready customers for data flowing out of new NASA missions, such as NPP, LDCM, and SMAP.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weber, K.; Schnase, J. L.; Carroll, M.; Brown, M. E.; Gill, R.; Haskett, G.; Gardner, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3793881"> <span id="translatedtitle">Possible risk factors associated with <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound colonization in <span class="hlt">burn</span> units of Gaza strip hospitals, Palestine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary The epidemiological pattern and risk factors of <span class="hlt">burns</span> and <span class="hlt">burn</span> infections varies widely in different parts of the world. This study aims to determine the epidemiologic pattern of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries and possible risk factors associated with <span class="hlt">burn</span> infections in <span class="hlt">burn</span> units of Gaza strip hospitals. A total of 118 patients were included in the study. The data collected included: patient age and gender, the causes, site, degree, and TBSA of the <span class="hlt">burns</span>, as well as surgical operations, length of hospital stay, and microbiological profile of samples collected from patients, the environment, and from health care staff. Pediatric and adult patients accounted for 72% and 28% respectively. 58.5% of all patients were male and 41.5% were female. The most common etiological factors in children were scalding, while in adults these were open fire and flammable liquids. The mean TBSA was 12% with a range from 1–90%. Second and third degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> accounted for 78% and 22% respectively. The <span class="hlt">area</span> of the body most often affected was the torso (39%), followed by the lower limb (29.7%), and upper limb (17.8%). The predominant microorganisms isolated from <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp. and Staphylococcus spp. The study showed the highest risk groups to be children and males, and enabled us to identify possible risk factors that can help in future efforts toward prevention and minimizing nosocomial infections in <span class="hlt">burn</span> units of Gaza strip hospitals. PMID:24133399</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Al Laham, N.A.; Elmanama, A.A.; Tayh, G.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25094008"> <span id="translatedtitle">Review of <span class="hlt">burn</span> research for the year 2013.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The diverse medical disciplines that are involved in the care of <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients is reflected in the robust and varied scientific and clinical research of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. In the calendar year of 2013, over 1000 articles were published in peer-reviewed journals in the <span class="hlt">area</span> of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. This review summarizes select, interesting, and potentially influential articles in <span class="hlt">areas</span> of critical care, epidemiology, infection, inhalation injury, nutrition and metabolism, pain and pruritus, psychology, reconstruction and rehabilitation, and wounds. PMID:25094008</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina; Greenhalgh, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eco.ib.usp.br/lepac/paisagem/Artigos_Jean/Metzger_LE_2002.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Landscape dynamics and equilibrium in <span class="hlt">areas</span> of slash-and-<span class="hlt">burn</span> agriculture with short and long fallow period (Bragantina region, NE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">words: Brazilian amazon, Fallow period, Landscape dynamics, Landscape equilibrium, Secondary forests, particularly in the spatial distribution of secondary forests, and by transition matrix. Equilibrium to disappear and agricul- tural <span class="hlt">areas</span> were being expanded at an average rate of 3% per year. Landscape</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Metzger, Jean Paul Walter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/f668770072185384.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> variations in the number of malaria cases related to two different patterns of Anopheles darlingi transmission potential in the Maroni <span class="hlt">area</span> of French Guiana</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: With an <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Parasite Incidence (API) of 132.1, in the high and moderate risks zones, the Maroni <span class="hlt">area</span> of French Guiana has the second highest malaria incidence of South-America after Guyana (API = 183.54) and far above Brazil (API = 28.25). Malaria transmission is occurring despite strong medical assistance and active vector control, based on general WHO recommendations. This</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Florence Fouque; Pascal Gaborit; Romuald Carinci; Jean Issaly; Romain Girod</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10323615"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of bath-related <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Japan.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A retrospective study of bath-related <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries was carried out at our institution. A total of 216 patients with <span class="hlt">burns</span> were admitted between 1982 and 1996. Bath-related <span class="hlt">burns</span> were identified in 58 patients (26.9%). The number of patients with bath-related <span class="hlt">burns</span> increased throughout the study period. The percentage body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> was 43.8 +/- 25.7% in the bath-related <span class="hlt">burn</span> group and 27.3 +/- 28.3% in the bath-unrelated <span class="hlt">burn</span> group. This difference was significant. There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to mortality rate. The mechanism by which the patients sustained a bath-related <span class="hlt">burn</span> clearly differed according to age. The percentage of <span class="hlt">burns</span> which are bath-related and the severity of bath-related <span class="hlt">burns</span> are higher in Japan than in any other country. This can be attributed to lifestyle, bathing systems, bathroom architecture, housing conditions and an increase in the elderly population. These <span class="hlt">burns</span> can be prevented. Education based on this study will play a critical role in the prevention of the bath-related <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. PMID:10323615</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fukunishi, K; Maruyama, J; Takahashi, H; Kitagishi, H; Uejima, T; Maruyama, K; Sakata, I</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A11H0155K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of "open <span class="hlt">burning</span>" on the greenhouse gas exchange from a single-rice paddy field in Japan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Paddy fields are artificially maintained wetland and are one of the large source of CH4. Besides, a large quantity of N2O is emitted from the soil surface due to the decomposition of inorganic fertilizer. A long term continuous measurement of GHG fluxes between atmosphere and paddy ecosystem is effective method to clarify the contribution of paddy fields to recent rapid increase of GHG concentration. In this study, three techniques for flux measurement (eddy covariance, aerodynamic gradient, and chamber techniques) were applied to investigate the <span class="hlt">annual</span> variation of three GHG (CO2, CH4 and N2O) exchanges at a single-rice paddy field for two years. An observational site is located on reclaimed land in the southern part of Okayama Prefecture, Japan. In addition, an experimental paddy field was divided into two <span class="hlt">areas</span> to investigate what impact is brought on the <span class="hlt">annual</span> GHG fluxes by the difference of disposal management of residual biomass after the harvest. Residual biomass was <span class="hlt">burned</span> and plowed into soil at the one <span class="hlt">area</span> on Nov. 29th, 2011, and residue was not <span class="hlt">burned</span> and directly plowed into soil at the other <span class="hlt">area</span> as usual. We illustrate some results for the control term before the <span class="hlt">burning</span> experiment, and for the comparison term after the experiment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kawamoto, Y.; Akaike, Y.; Kunishio, A.; Murakami, H.; Ono, K.; Hayashi, K.; Iwata, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/979388"> <span id="translatedtitle">2009 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Summary Report for the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada: Review of the Performance Assessments and Composite Analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office performed an <span class="hlt">annual</span> review of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3 and <span class="hlt">Area</span> 5 Radioactive Wate Management Site (RWMS) Performance Assessments (PAs) and Composite Analyses (CAs) in fiscal year (FY) 2009. This <span class="hlt">annual</span> summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2009 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada Test Site relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NSTec Environmental Management</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31323634"> <span id="translatedtitle">Innovative technique using heterogenous collagen and intermingled autologous split-thickness skin graft for coverage of raw <span class="hlt">areas</span> in deep <span class="hlt">burns</span> with paucity of donor site as a life-saving measure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> injuries are extremely complex and elicit physiological and metabolic interactions involving all major organ systems.\\u000a These pathological changes occur in a time dependent manner. In the last decades, <span class="hlt">burn</span> care has improved, so the trend in\\u000a the current treatment extends beyond the preservation of life. Thus, ultimate goal is complete rehabilitation of the <span class="hlt">burn</span>\\u000a victims. To investigate the effectiveness</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vijay Y Bhatia; Mayank Singh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/797309"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report RCRA Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspections for CAU 112: <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, for the period October 2000-July 2001</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This <span class="hlt">annual</span> Neutron Soil Moisture Monitoring report provides an analysis and summary for site inspections, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture monitoring data obtained at the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) unit, located in <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, during the October 2000--July 2001 monitoring period. Inspections of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches RCRA unit are conducted to determine and document the physical condition of the covers, facilities, and any unusual conditions that could impact the proper operation of the waste unit closure. Physical inspections of the closure were completed quarterly and indicated that the site is in good condition with no significant findings noted. An <span class="hlt">annual</span> subsidence survey of the elevation markers was conducted in July 2001. There has been no subsidence at any of the markers since monitoring began eight years ago. Precipitation for the period October 2000 through July 2001 was 9.42 centimeters (cm) (3.71 inches [in]) (U.S. National Weather Service, 2001). The prior year <span class="hlt">annual</span> rainfall (January 2000 through December 2000) was 10.44 cm (4.1 1 in.). The recorded average <span class="hlt">annual</span> rainfall for this site from 1972 to January 2000 is 14.91 cm (5.87 in.). The objective of the neutron logging program is to monitor the soil moisture conditions along 30 neutron access tubes and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement at a point located directly beneath each trench. All monitored access tubes are within the compliance criteria of less than 5 percent residual volumetric moisture content at the compliance point directly beneath each respective trench. Soil conditions remain dry and stable underneath the trenches.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. S. Tobiason</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.uaf.edu/ces/aiswg/pdf-documents/control-invasives-prescribed-burning.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Control of Invasive Weeds with Prescribed <span class="hlt">Burning</span> 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> has primarily been used as a tool for the control of invasive late-season <span class="hlt">annual</span> broadleaf and grass species, particularly yellow starthistle, medusahead, barb goatgrass, and several bromes. However, timely <span class="hlt">burning</span> of a few invasive biennial broadleaves (e.g., sweetclover and garlic mustard), perennial grasses (e.g., bluegrasses and smooth brome), and woody species (e.g., brooms and Chinese tallow tree) also</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">JOSEPH M. DiTOMASO; MATTHEW L. BROOKS; EDITH B. ALLEN; RALPH MINNICH; PETER M. RICE; GUY B. KYSER</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11714201Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Near-real-time global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions product from geostationary satellite constellation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Near-real-time estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions are crucial for air quality monitoring and forecasting. We present here the first near-real-time global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emission product from geostationary satellites (GBBEP-Geo) produced from satellite-derived fire radiative power (FRP) for individual fire pixels. Specifically, the FRP is retrieved using WF_ABBA V65 (wildfire automated biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> algorithm) from a network of multiple geostationary satellites. The network consists of two Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) which are operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Meteosat second-generation satellites (Meteosat-09) operated by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, and the Multifunctional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency. These satellites observe wildfires at an interval of 15-30 min. Because of the impacts from sensor saturation, cloud cover, and background surface, the FRP values are generally not continuously observed. The missing observations are simulated by combining the available instantaneous FRP observations within a day and a set of representative climatological diurnal patterns of FRP for various ecosystems. Finally, the simulated diurnal variation in FRP is applied to quantify biomass combustion and emissions in individual fire pixels with a latency of 1 day. By analyzing global patterns in hourly biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions in 2010, we find that peak fire season varied greatly and that <span class="hlt">annual</span> wildfires <span class="hlt">burned</span> 1.33 × 1012 kg dry mass, released 1.27 × 1010 kg of PM2.5 (particulate mass for particles with diameter <2.5 ?m) and 1.18 × 1011kg of CO globally (excluding most parts of boreal Asia, the Middle East, and India because of no coverage from geostationary satellites). The biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions were mostly released from forest and savanna fires in Africa, South America, and North America. Evaluation of emission result reveals that the GBBEP-Geo estimates are comparable with other FRP-derived estimates in Africa, while the results are generally smaller than most of the other global products that were derived from <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and fuel loading. However, the daily emissions estimated from GOES FRP over the United States are generally consistent with those modeled from GOES <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) fuel loading, which produces an overall bias of 5.7% and a correlation slope of 0.97 ± 0.2. It is expected that near-real-time hourly emissions from GBBEP-Geo could provide a crucial component for atmospheric and chemical transport modelers to forecast air quality and weather conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Xiaoyang; Kondragunta, Shobha; Ram, Jessica; Schmidt, Christopher; Huang, Ho-Chun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23348336"> <span id="translatedtitle">New type of sauna-related <span class="hlt">burn</span>: conductive contact <span class="hlt">burn</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 70-year-old woman visited a Korean-style hot dry sauna room. The patient had a medical history of hypertension and hyperlipidemia. During the sauna, the patient slept for 30 minutes. During the sleep, the right medial thigh was covered with a fully wet towel. The patient sustained a second-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> on the right medial thigh <span class="hlt">area</span> with multiple bullas. On physical examination, erythema, heating sensation, and swelling around the bullas were noted. The patient was admitted and received intravenous antibiotics for 7 days. A dressing with Silmazine 1% cream (sulfadiazine) was applied twice a day for prevention of local infection. The patient was discharged on day 14 without complication. In this case, the mechanism of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> was different. Hot air has much thermal energy but is not conducted to the skin directly. A wet towel will have a relatively higher thermal capacity or heat capacity than a dry or damp towel, and the sodden water might be a medium for the conduction of thermal energy. Owing to the global popularity of sauna bathing, it is important to recognize all sources of sauna-related <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:23348336</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shin, Seung Jun; Yoo, Heon; Park, Myong Chul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41860225"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal changes in species composition in Fescue Prairie: relationships with <span class="hlt">burning</span> history, time of <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and environmental conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Historically, fires occurred throughout the year in the Fescue Prairie of Canada, but little is known about plant community\\u000a responses to <span class="hlt">burning</span> at different times of the year. Composition of plant communities was determined <span class="hlt">annually</span> for 6 years\\u000a after <span class="hlt">burning</span> one or three times in a remnant Fescue Prairie in central Saskatchewan. A multiple-response permutation procedure\\u000a indicated that plant community composition</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. V. Gross; J. T. Romo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-09-07/pdf/2012-22010.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 55143 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...will enforce the safety zone for the Mukilteo Lighthouse...during the date and time noted below. This action...will enforce the safety zone established for <span class="hlt">Annual</span>...during the dates and times noted below. The following safety zone will be enforced...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22325849"> <span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology of <span class="hlt">burns</span> throughout the World. Part II: intentional <span class="hlt">burns</span> in adults.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A significant number of <span class="hlt">burns</span> and deaths from fire are intentionally wrought. Rates of intentional <span class="hlt">burns</span> are unevenly distributed throughout the world; India has a particularly high rate in young women whereas in Europe rates are higher in men in mid-life. Data from hospitalized <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients worldwide reveal incidence rates for assault by fire and scalds ranging from 3% to 10%. The average proportion of the body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in an assault by fire or scalds is approximately 20%. In different parts of the world, attempted <span class="hlt">burning</span> of others or oneself can be attributed to different motives. Circumstances under which assaults occur fall largely into the categories of interpersonal conflict, including spousal abuse, elder abuse, or interactions over contentious business transactions. Contributing social factors to assaults by <span class="hlt">burning</span> include drug and alcohol abuse, non-constructive use of leisure time, non-participation in religious and community activities, unstable relationships, and extramarital affairs. Although the incidence of self-mutilation and suicide attempts by <span class="hlt">burning</span> are relatively low, deliberate self-harm carries a significant risk of death, with an overall mortality rate of 65% worldwide. In those who resort to self-immolation, circumstantial themes reflect domestic discord, family dysfunction, and the social ramifications of unemployment. Preventing injurious <span class="hlt">burn</span>-related violence requires a multifaceted approach, including legislation and enforcement, education, and advocacy. Better standardized assessment tools are needed to screen for risks of abuse and for psychiatric disorders in perpetrators. PMID:22325849</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peck, Michael D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000059.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical <span class="hlt">burn</span> or reaction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... the skin has come in contact with the toxic substance Rash , blisters , <span class="hlt">burns</span> on the skin Unconsciousness ... locked cabinet. Avoid mixing different products that contain toxic chemicals such as ammonia and bleach. The mixture ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kidshealth.org/parent/firstaid_safe/emergencies/burns.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> (For Parents)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... hot faucet to an accidental tipping of a coffee cup, <span class="hlt">burns</span> are a potential hazard in every ... culprit (from steam, hot bath water, tipped-over coffee cups, hot foods, cooking fluids, etc.) contact with ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/injuries-emergencies/Pages/Treating-and-Preventing-Burns.aspx"> <span id="translatedtitle">Treating and Preventing <span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... injury worse. For anything more serious than a superficial <span class="hlt">burn</span>, or if redness and pain continue for ... or ignition sources. Lower the temperature of your water heater to below 120 degrees Fahrenheit (48.9 ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25253672"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burned</span> to the bone.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Heterotopic ossification-a complication of severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>, head or blast injuries, and orthopaedic trauma-can result from altered adenosine metabolism in mesenchymal stem cells in response to elevated extracellular ATP (Peterson et al., this issue). PMID:25253672</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Forsberg, Jonathan A; Davis, Thomas A; Elster, Eric A; Gimble, Jeffrey M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ameriburn.org/"> <span id="translatedtitle">American <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Association</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... center and disaster related information View the ABA U.S. Regional Map Click above to access the new ... and Exhibitor Prospectus Now Available! 2014 Western Region <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Conference November 6-8, 2014 | Las ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13019014"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic disease characterized by <span class="hlt">burning</span> of the oral mucosa associated with a sensation\\u000a of dry mouth and\\/or taste alterations. BMS occurs more frequently among postmenopausal women. The pathophysiology of the disease\\u000a is still unknown, and evidence is conflicting; although some studies suggest a central origin, others point to a peripheral\\u000a neuropathic origin. The efficacy</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">José G. Speciali; Juliana Stuginski-Barbosa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.shodor.org/interactivate/lessons/Area/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Area</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This lesson is designed to develop students' understanding of the concepts of <span class="hlt">area</span> and how it can relate to perimeter. The shapes explored in this lesson are constructed of adjacent squares on a coordinate plane. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to <span class="hlt">area</span> as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, the reading level for this resourceâs worksheet is at the grade 8 level.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3188264"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> in Nigeria: a Review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary <span class="hlt">Burn</span> injuries continue to be a major source of mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries of the world, of which Nigeria is a part. Overview data on <span class="hlt">burn</span> care in Nigeria are sparse but the available literature on <span class="hlt">burns</span> and <span class="hlt">burn</span> care in Nigeria was retrieved through Internet-based search engines, collated, and reviewed. Peculiarities of epidemiology, types of <span class="hlt">burn</span>, pattern of injuries, complications, and outcome of <span class="hlt">burn</span> care were reviewed. There were no broad-based overview statistical data on <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Nigeria in all the articles reviewed. There was no documentation on the regionalization of care and there were no national databases. All reports on epidemiology were hospital-based. Flame is emerging as the predominant cause of <span class="hlt">burns</span>, and <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury is occurring increasingly away from the domestic setting. The severity of the injuries is also increasing. Deliberate <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury remains a practice and a wide range of complications occur as <span class="hlt">burns</span> sequelae in Nigeria. Several challenges militate against optimal care for <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> injuries continue to contribute significantly to the burden of disease in Nigeria. There is a need for broad-based data collection systems. Avoidable complications are common and mortality remains high. Pooling of resources by regionalization of care could increase focus on <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention and improve the care of <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims. Nongovernmental and governmental support to reduce the burden of <span class="hlt">burns</span> is advocated. PMID:21991210</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oladele, A.O.; Olabanji, J.K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12792237"> <span id="translatedtitle">The media glorifying <span class="hlt">burns</span>: a hindrance to <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> and <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with <span class="hlt">burns</span> and <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to <span class="hlt">burns</span>, risk of <span class="hlt">burning</span>, or disrespect for the consequences of <span class="hlt">burns</span> were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of <span class="hlt">burns</span>, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Most <span class="hlt">burn</span>-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or <span class="hlt">burns</span>. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:12792237</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2658315"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mobile phones for the assessment of <span class="hlt">burns</span>: we have the technology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective To investigate the accuracy of assessment of <span class="hlt">burn</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span> and depth using a basic camera?equipped mobile phone. Methods 31 patients with minor <span class="hlt">burns</span> were assessed at the Welsh Centre for <span class="hlt">Burns</span> & Plastic Surgery. Results A high correlation was found between assessment of <span class="hlt">burn</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span> and <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth using a camera mobile phone compared with a live assessment. Conclusion There are a number of implications for the use of mobile phone technology in hospitals and its potential use in the management of major in addition to minor <span class="hlt">burns</span>, as well as other forms of trauma. The untapped potential for this technology in a hospital environment is highlighted. PMID:17954825</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shokrollahi, Kayvan; Sayed, Mobin; Dickson, William; Potokar, Tom</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030949"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Alaskan <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity patterns using remotely sensed data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wildland fire is the dominant large-scale disturbance mechanism in the Alaskan boreal forest, and it strongly influences forest structure and function. In this research, patterns of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity in the Alaskan boreal forest are characterised using 24 fires. First, the relationship between <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> is quantified using a linear regression. Second, the spatial correlation of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity as a function of topography is modelled using a variogram analysis. Finally, the relationship between vegetation type and spatial patterns of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity is quantified using linear models where variograms account for spatial correlation. These results show that: 1) average <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity increases with the natural logarithm of the <span class="hlt">area</span> of the wildfire, 2) <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity is more variable in topographically complex landscapes than in flat landscapes, and 3) there is a significant relationship between <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity and vegetation type in flat landscapes but not in topographically complex landscapes. These results strengthen the argument that differential flammability of vegetation exists in some boreal landscapes of Alaska. Additionally, these results suggest that through feedbacks between vegetation and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, the distribution of forest vegetation through time is likely more stable in flat terrain than it is in <span class="hlt">areas</span> with more complex topography. ?? IAWF 2007.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Duffy, P.A.; Epting, J.; Graham, J.M.; Rupp, T.S.; McGuire, A.D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-07-01/pdf/2010-15970.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 38021 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility...displays in the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">area</span> of responsibility...During the enforcement periods, entry into, transit through, mooring...Page 38022</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3188223"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cheiloplasty in Post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> Deformed Lips</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary The lip is a part of the face that is frequently affected by <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> scar sequelae in this <span class="hlt">area</span> often result in cosmetic disfigurement and psychological upsets in patients, especially young adult females. A <span class="hlt">burn</span> destroys the aesthetic features and lines of the lip. Plastic and reconstructive surgery of the face has a long history. Many local and regional flaps have been used for reconstruction of surgical or traumatic defects. Procedures to enhance the cosmetic features of the lips have been performed for centuries. Only within the past 25 years, however, has augmentation cheiloplasty become commonplace. Within that time, a number of different techniques have been developed. The goal of reconstruction is to achieve aesthetic results using plastic materials having the same properties as the affected <span class="hlt">area</span>. This paper describes some clinical situations and possible reconstructive solutions. PMID:21991162</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saadeldeen, W.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575151"> <span id="translatedtitle">Self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Mosul: a cross-sectional study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the different characteristics of attempted suicide by self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases compared with other accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases admitted to the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Unit in Al-Jumhoori Teaching Hospital in Mosul over a one-year period from March 1, 2011 to March 1, 2012. Of 459 <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases, 103 (22.44%) had self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The mean total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of suicide attempters was 61%, markedly higher than in other cases (20%) (P= 0.0001). Among all self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases, <span class="hlt">burns</span> were caused by flame, while scald was the commonest cause (56.5%) in accidental <span class="hlt">burns</span>. There was a significant difference in the sex ratio between self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases (1:11.9) and accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases (1:1) (P = 0.0001). Case fatality rates for self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> and accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases were 80.6% and 14.9%, respectively. The overall mean ages for self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> and accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases were 24.3 and 15.6 years, respectively. Compared to all other <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases, self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases had a significantly larger mean percentage of surface body <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> (61.0±28.2 versus 20.7±15.8; P = 0.0001). In conclusion, self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burns</span> remain a common cause of admission to our <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit. The extent of <span class="hlt">burns</span> is often large, since most suicide attempters use an accelerant that accounts for the high mortality in this group. PMID:23467337</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Al-Zacko, S.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15756118"> <span id="translatedtitle">Combat <span class="hlt">burn</span> life support: a military <span class="hlt">burn</span>-education program.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Advanced <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Life Support Course has been used to train military physicians and nurses for more than 16 years. Although it useful for teaching the fundamentals of <span class="hlt">burn</span> care, the course is designed for a civilian audience, covers only the first 24 hours of <span class="hlt">burn</span> care, and presumes the availability of a <span class="hlt">burn</span> center for patient transfer. In preparation for hostilities in Iraq, we developed several add-on modules to the standard Advanced <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Life Support course to meet specific needs of military audiences. These modules cover the treatment of white phosphorus <span class="hlt">burns</span>; the treatment of mustard gas exposure; the long-range aeromedical transfer of <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients; the management of <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients beyond the first 24 hours; and the delivery of <span class="hlt">burn</span> care in austere environments. These add-on modules are termed Combat <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Life Support. Between January 22, 2003, and May 12, 2003, Advanced <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Life Support and/or Combat <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Life Support courses were provided to a total of 1035 military health care providers in the United States, Germany, and the Middle East. Student feedback was largely positive and is being used for further course refinement. The Combat <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Life Support Course is designed to augment, rather than replace, the Advanced <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Life Support Course. Although intended for a military audience, the course material is equally applicable to civilian terrorist or mass casualty situations. PMID:15756118</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Hutton, Brad G; Mittelsteadt, Paul J; Gueller, Glen E; Holcomb, John B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1477757"> <span id="translatedtitle">Socioeconomic factors and <span class="hlt">burn</span> rates in persons hospitalized for <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Massachusetts.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To assess the usefulness of routinely collected socioeconomic variables from the U.S. census in predicting <span class="hlt">burn</span> incidence rates, <span class="hlt">burn</span> rates and 25 socioeconomic variables were analyzed at the level of census tracts for the Boston Standard Metropolitan Statistical <span class="hlt">Area</span>. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> rates were based on data collected during the National <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Demonstration Project and consisted of patients who sustained <span class="hlt">burns</span> between July 1, 1978, and June 30, 1979, and who required inhospital care. Analysis of the data revealed strong associations between <span class="hlt">burn</span> rates and six of the variables. The six variables were the percentage of families below the poverty level with a householder under age 65 years, the percentage of persons over 5 years of age whose residence in 1975 was a different dwelling but in the same county, the percentage of persons in the civilian labor force who were unemployed at the time of census enumeration, the average age of occupied dwelling units, the percentage of occupied housing units occupied on a rental basis, and the percentage of persons age 25 years or older who acquired some college education but did not complete college. Interpretation of the findings is not straightforward but seems to suggest that the previously observed association between poor socioeconomic status and increased <span class="hlt">burn</span> risk for individuals can be quantified at the census tract population level. PMID:3090604</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Locke, J A; Rossignol, A M; Boyle, C M; Burke, J F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/v089/iD01/JD089iD01p01350/JD089iD01p01350.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Brazil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Field measurements of hydrocarbon emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the cerrado (grasslands) and selva (tropical forest) regions of Brazil in 1979 and 1980 are characterized and quantified here. Regional consequences of <span class="hlt">burning</span> activities include increased background mixing ratios of carbon monoxide and ozone, as well as reduced visibility, over extensive <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Global extrapolation of the emission rate of hydrocarbons from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. P. Greenberg; P. R. Zimmerman; L. Heidt; W. Pollock</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/4451/psw_2009_4451-001_289-316.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chapter 14 Smoke from Wildfires and Prescribed <span class="hlt">Burning</span> in Australia: Effects on Human Health and Ecosystems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Much of Australia is seasonally hot and dry, and fuel beds can become very flammable. Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> ranges from <span class="hlt">annual</span> savanna fires in the north to sporadic but extensive forest fires in the south. In addition, prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> (the controlled application of fire) is being used more frequently as a means of reducing fuel loads, for maintenance of plant and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tina Bell; Mark Adams</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14501415"> <span id="translatedtitle">Use of speech pathology services in the <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) provide intervention for communication challenges and swallowing disorders (dysphagia) that are common in cases of severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> because of ventilator use, prolonged or multiple intubations, and tracheostomy tubes. To identify current inclusion of SLP services in <span class="hlt">burn</span> care management, a survey was sent to 139 <span class="hlt">burn</span> units across the United States. Results revealed limited inclusion of SLPs in <span class="hlt">burn</span> care despite pertinent <span class="hlt">areas</span> of SLP expertise. Education of <span class="hlt">burn</span> care teams on the benefits of SLP inclusion is needed. Potential benefits in pain and medical management reducing length of hospitalization and increasing cost-effective care by inclusion of SLPs in <span class="hlt">burn</span> care management warrants further research. PMID:14501415</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Snyder, C; Ubben, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22274631"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> sustained whilst priming the carburetor: an Australian perspective.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Priming the carburetor is a method that is still commonly practiced amongst trained, amateur, and backyard mechanics. This article aims to look at the data available between 1996 and 2004 in two <span class="hlt">burns</span> units in South Australia and Queensland. The authors were interested in the number of patients admitted with <span class="hlt">burns</span> related to the activity of priming the carburetor, the TBSA percentage of <span class="hlt">burns</span>, and <span class="hlt">areas</span> affected. It also gives numbers of intensive care unit admissions and the number who underwent surgery for the management of the <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The results showed that between the two centers, 48 patients were admitted following <span class="hlt">burns</span> as a result of priming the carburetor. The activity carried no mortality during the time period of study but caused significant morbidity. Through the media, the authors are embarking on an educational program to reduce the risk of such <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries from this dangerous practice. PMID:22274631</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suyapto, Dion Royce; Greenwood, John Edward; Rudd, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960028142&hterms=Acid+rain&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DAcid%2Brain"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> trees and bridges</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most <span class="hlt">burning</span> of biomass is the result of human activity, and on a global scale it is increasing. Tropospheric concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons, and ozone are all increasing with time; global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> may make an important contribution to this increase and thus to potential global climate change. The nitrogen cycle also can have important climatic effects. Nitrous oxide put into the atmosphere by biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is a greenhouse gas 250 times more powerful (molecule for molecule) than carbon dioxide. Nitric oxide, as well as being a photochemical precursor of ozone, a major pollutant in the troposphere, produces nitric acid, the fastest-growing component of acid rain. Hence, the new bridge in the nitrogen cycle is of more than mere technical interest.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levine, Joel S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.iitk.ac.in/hc/Home%20Remedy%20for%20Burns.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">HOME REMEDY FOR <span class="hlt">BURNS</span> First aid consists</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">is reduced and stops <span class="hlt">burning</span> the layers of skin. Then, spread egg whites on the affected <span class="hlt">area</span>. One woman on her hand, separated 2 egg white from the yolks, beat them slightly and dipped her hand in the solution. The whites then dried and formed a protective layer. She later learned that the egg white is a natural</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jagannatham, Aditya K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6224246"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fast <span class="hlt">burning</span> propellants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A solid or semisolid propellant is described comprising grains of propellant or propellant components bonded together to create voids within the propellant volume. The grains are of near-uniform size and have less than about a 20% size variation between the largest and smallest grains, the voids comprising from about 10% to about 50% of the propellant volume. The grains are bonded together with sufficient strength to substantially delay the fluidization of the propellant by the onset of Taylor unstable <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The propellant has a rapid <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate of from about 10 cm sec/sup -1/ to about 10/sup 4/cm sec/sup -1/.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Colgate, S.A.; Roos, G.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-07-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://stevekluge.com/geoscience/projects/nysic/burningoxygen.doc"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Down the House</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this demonstration, the teacher will use a potato and hydrogen peroxide to generate oxygen in a closed environment. Students can then observe its effects on a <span class="hlt">burning</span> wooden splint and on <span class="hlt">burning</span> steel wool. They will understand that a large amount of energy can be released by the process of oxidation. As an extension, the teacher can discuss how the appearance of oxygen (produced by cyanobacteria) in Earth's early atmosphere initially resulted in the formation of large deposits of iron oxide (Banded Iron Formations) and then aided in the evolution of more complex life forms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dolphin, Glenn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29593381"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 cream improves <span class="hlt">burn</span>-wound healing and attenuates <span class="hlt">burn</span>-gastric lesions in mice</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of the gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 were investigated when administered topically or systemically in <span class="hlt">burned</span> mice. This agent is known to have a beneficial effect in a variety of models of gastrointestinal lesions, as well as on wound or fracture healing. Deep partial skin thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> (1.5×1.5 cm) covering 20% of total body <span class="hlt">area</span>, were induced under anesthesia</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D Mikus; P Sikiric; S Seiwerth; A Petricevic; G Aralica; N Druzijancic; R Rucman; M Petek; B Pigac; D Perovic; M Kolombo; N Kokic; S Mikus; B Duplancic; I Fattorini; B Turkovic; I Rotkvic; S Mise; I Prkacin; P Konjevoda; N Stambuk; T Anic</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3961915"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decadorial of a <span class="hlt">burn</span> center in Central India</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction: <span class="hlt">Burn</span> injuries are a serious public health problem. In our study we have identified different epidemiological factors based on 10 years of our experience at a <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit in central India and recommend some strategies to prevent <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis (2001-2010) of database from <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit of S.S. Medical College, Rewa, India. Results: 2499 patients with <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury were analysed. 66.8% and 38.2% patients were females and males respectively, with a median age of 25 years. Flame (80.1%) was most common cause, home (96%) was most common place, traditional Indian stove (28.8%), kerosene lamp (26.7%), hot liquid (12.2%) and kerosene stove (10.4%) were common causes. Median Total Body Surface <span class="hlt">Area</span> (TBSA) <span class="hlt">burn</span> was 40.0%; females had significantly greater (P < 0.001) <span class="hlt">burn</span> than males (median 50% vs 26.0%). High mortality (40.3%) seen; female sex (OR 3.22, 95% CI 2.65-3.92); young age (15-29 year) (OR 3.48, 95% CI 2.45-4.94); flame <span class="hlt">burn</span> (OR 12.9, 95% CI 1.69-98.32); suicidal <span class="hlt">burn</span> OR 6.82 95%CI 4.44-10.48) and TBSA > 76% (OR 3099, 95%CI 1302-7380) were significant risk factors for death. Median hospital stays was 8 days; shorter hospital stays seen among TBSA <span class="hlt">burn</span> > 76% (2 days), suicidal intent (4 days), and those who expired (4 days). Septicemia (45.8%) and <span class="hlt">burn</span> shock (41%) were the major cause for death. Conclusions: Cooking and lighting equipments are major cause of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury among females and young age group. Equipment modification to improve safety features and public awareness programs are necessary to reduce <span class="hlt">burn</span> incidents. PMID:24678209</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bain, Jayanta; Lal, Shyam; Baghel, Vijay Singh; Yedalwar, Vinod; Gupta, Rachna; Singh, Anil Kumar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-14/pdf/2011-26601.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 63841 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility...display in the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">area</span> of responsibility...During the enforcement period, entry into, transit through, mooring...authorized by the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound or...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-09/pdf/2011-14330.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 33646 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility...displays in the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">area</span> of responsibility...During the enforcement periods, entry into, transit through, mooring...authorized by the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound or...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First 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target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-06/pdf/2012-13684.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 33308 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility...displays in the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">area</span> of responsibility...During the enforcement periods, entry into, transit through, mooring...authorized by the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound or...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-27/pdf/2012-15639.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 38179 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of Responsibility...displays in the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">area</span> of responsibility...During the enforcement periods, entry into, transit through, mooring...authorized by the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound or his...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/rn/rn_nrs153.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Table 1. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> estimates, uncertainty, and change. Figure 1. <span class="hlt">Area</span> of timberland and forest land by year.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">pollution abatement. Many studies indicate that forest land that lies in close proximity to developed land land by year. Figure 2. ­ <span class="hlt">Area</span> of forest land by stand size class for top six forest-type groups, 2007 by statewide volume estimates, 2007-2011 2 Figure 4. ­ Distribution of ownerships and <span class="hlt">area</span> of forest land</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3712406"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> mortality risk factors in a developing country’s tertiary <span class="hlt">burns</span> intensive care unit</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aim: This study aimed at identifying risk factors related to pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> mortality in a middle income country such as Ghana. Methods: The data for the three years retrospective study (May 2009 – April 2012) was obtained from the pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> admissions records and patients’ folders of the Reconstructive Plastic Surgery & <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Unit (RPSBU), Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Ghana. Data retrieved included: Demographic features, Total <span class="hlt">Burned</span> Surface <span class="hlt">Area</span> (TBSA) incurred; Aetiology of <span class="hlt">burns</span>; Duration of the admission; Outcome of admission; Part of the body affected and Cost incurred. Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the KNUST-SMS/KATH Committee on Human Research, Publications and Ethics. Data analyses were performed with SPSS 17.0 version. Results: Information on 197 patients was completely retrieved for the study. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> mortality rate for the study was identified to be 21.3% (N=42). The mean age of the 42 dead patients was 3.7±0.3 years, ranging from 0-13 years, while, males (54.8%, N= 23) outnumbered females (45.2%, N=19). The TBSA <span class="hlt">burned</span> interquartile range was 48%. In terms of etiology of <span class="hlt">burns</span> Scald (73.8%, N=31) was the commonest cause of injury. Mortality risk factors identified were Age <6 years (P=0.028); Scald especially hot water and soup (P=0.016); TBSA >36% (P=0.028) and Inhalation injury (P=0.040). Conclusion: Age, scald, TBSA and Inhalation Injury were identified as pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> mortality risk factors in a developing country such as Ghana’s RPSBU. These identified factors will serve as a guideline for plastic surgeons and other health professionals practicing in countries such as Ghana. PMID:23875121</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Agbenorku, Pius; Agbenorku, Manolo; Fiifi-Yankson, Papa Kwesi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRD..119.7684K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from open crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the Yangtze River Delta region, China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> is one of the major sources of air pollutants including the precursors of photooxidants like ozone and secondary organic aerosol. We made measurements of trace gases including nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) in a rural <span class="hlt">area</span> in central East China in June 2010. During the campaign, we identified six biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> events in total through the simultaneous enhancement of carbon monoxide and acetonitrile. Four cases represented fresh plumes (<2 h after emission), and two cases represented aged plumes (>3 h after emission), as determined by photochemical age. While we were not able to quantify formic acid, we identified an enhancement of major oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) as well as low molecular alkanes and alkenes, and aromatic hydrocarbons in these plumes. The observed normalized excess mixing ratios (NEMRs) of OVOCs and alkenes showed dependence on air mass age, even in fresh smoke plumes, supporting the view that these species are rapidly produced and destructed, respectively, during plume evolution. Based on the NEMR data in the fresh plumes, we calculated the emission factors (EFs) of individual NMVOC. The comparison to previous reports suggests that the EFs of formaldehyde and acetic acid have been overestimated, while those of alkenes have been underestimated. Finally, we suggest that open <span class="hlt">burning</span> of wheat residue in China releases about 0.34 Tg NMVOCs <span class="hlt">annually</span>. If we applied the same EFs to all crops, the <span class="hlt">annual</span> NMVOC emissions would be 2.33 Tg. The EFs of speciated NMVOCs can be used to improve the existing inventories.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kudo, Shinji; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Inomata, Satoshi; Saito, Shinji; Pan, Xiaole; Kanaya, Yugo; Taketani, Fumikazu; Wang, Zifa; Chen, Hongyan; Dong, Huabin; Zhang, Meigen; Yamaji, Kazuyo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22530219"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chlorhexidine <span class="hlt">burns</span> after shoulder arthroscopy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chlorhexidine is an antiseptic and disinfectant commonly used for surgical site preparation and cleansing. It is active against a broad spectrum of bacteria, viruses, mycobacteria, and fungi. We report 3 cases of patients with superficial partial thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> immediately following shoulder arthroscopic surgery with the use of a Chloraprep 26 mL applicator (2% chlorhexidine gluconate and 70% isopropyl alcohol; CareFusion, Leawood, Kansas). All 3 patients reported pain as the anesthetic waned at a localized <span class="hlt">area</span> on the anterior arm near the axilla. Erythema and blistering were noticeable. These <span class="hlt">areas</span> were immediately treated with irrigation and local application of ice, and subsequently with topical triple-antibiotic ointment. All 3 cases were resolved within 3 months of surgery, but noticeable scars remained. We believe a combination of chlorhexidine skin preparation, local swelling inherent to shoulder arthroscopy, and traction contributed to these postoperative complications. PMID:22530219</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sanders, Thomas H; Hawken, Samuel M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/160394"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methane production from global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Emissions of methane from various sources of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> are determined quantitatively for tropical, temperate, and boreal regions. About 85% of the total CH{sub 4} is emitted in the tropical <span class="hlt">area</span>, which is mainly the result of shifting cultivation, fuelwood use, and deforestation. Methane emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> may have increased by at least 9% during the last decade because of increases in tropical deforestation and the use of fuelwood. Changes in land use practices and population growth in the tropics are possible causes of the increase of atmospheric CH{sub 4} concentration. 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wei Min Hao; Ward, D.E. [Department of Agriculture, Missoula, MN (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-11-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920055002&hterms=deforestation+in+amazon+rainforest&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2528%2528%2528deforestation%2Bin%2529%2Bamazon%2529%2Brainforest%2529"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> - Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present volume discusses the biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> (BMB) studies of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry project, GEO satellite estimation of Amazonian BMB, remote sensing of BMB in West Africa with NOAA-AVHRR, an orbital view of the great Chinese fire of 1987, BMB's role in tropical rainforest reduction, CO and O3 measurements of BMB in the Amazon, effects of vegetation <span class="hlt">burning</span> on the atmospheric chemistry of the Venezuelan savanna, an assessment of <span class="hlt">annually-burned</span> biomass in Africa, and light hydrocarbon emissions from African savanna <span class="hlt">burnings</span>. Also discussed are BMB in India, trace gas and particulate emissions from BMB in temperate ecosystems, ammonia and nitric acid emissions from wetlands and boreal forest fires, combustion emissions and satellite imagery of BMB, BMB in the perspective of the global carbon cycle, modeling trace-gas emissions from BMB, NO(x) emissions from BMB, and cloud-condensation nuclei from BMB.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levine, Joel S. (editor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1035907"> <span id="translatedtitle">2011 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities <span class="hlt">Area</span> Sewage Treatment Plant</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities <span class="hlt">Area</span> Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2010, through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Site description; (2) Facility and system description; (3) Permit required monitoring data and loading rates; (4) Status of special compliance conditions and activities; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 permit year, approximately 1.22 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation <span class="hlt">area</span> at Central Facilities <span class="hlt">Area</span> Sewage Treatment plant.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael G. Lewis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1070116"> <span id="translatedtitle">2012 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central facilities <span class="hlt">Area</span> Sewage Treatment Plant</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities <span class="hlt">Area</span> Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2011, through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2012 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation <span class="hlt">area</span> of the Central Facilities <span class="hlt">Area</span> Sewage Treatment Plant.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mike Lewis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16566542"> <span id="translatedtitle">Face <span class="hlt">burns</span> caused by flambé drinks.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study was conducted to identify the epidemiology of face <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Korean adults caused by flambé drinks in the hope of developing preventive programs. We reviewed the medical records of 25 patients with <span class="hlt">burns</span> caused by flame drinks that were admitted to the Hallym <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Centre, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, Korea, during the 30-month period of July 2002 to December 2004. The injuries occurred while drinking and spilling the whisky on the flame (68%) during the hours of social gathering and festivity. There were more men than women (male:female ratio=21:4); the mean age was 27.5+/-5.7 years (mean 27, range 21-43 years). Alcohol flames inflicted superficial (56%) to mid-second-degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> in a relatively small <span class="hlt">area</span> of body (TBSA 3.2+/-3.0%). The head was most commonly involved, followed by the upper extremity and trunk. All patients except two were treated with observation and daily dressing changes only. The mean length of hospital stay was 12.1+/-6.5 (10, 5-25) days. Long-term cosmetic outcomes were excellent. Some victims suffered mild corneal (n=4) and ear (n=6) <span class="hlt">burns</span>, without permanent sequelae. Post-traumatic stress disorder and depression also were reported. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> injuries induced by flambé drinks may be prevented by increasing public awareness about its danger and the potential risk for corneal and facial <span class="hlt">burns</span> and by implementing a safety policy. All the involved parties--public, distillers, and bar and restaurant management--need to coordinate their efforts achieve a reduction in injuries. PMID:16566542</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jang, Young Chul; Kim, Young Joon; Lee, Jong Wook; Oh, Suk Joon; Han, Kyung Woo; Lee, Jung Wook; Han, Tae Hyung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24503965"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ethnicity and etiology in <span class="hlt">burn</span> trauma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to retrieve data from the British Columbia Professional Firefighters <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Unit registry, with a focus on ethnicity and how it is involved in <span class="hlt">burn</span> trauma. It is hypothesized that mechanism, severity, and other patient characteristics are significantly different among different ethnic groups. Furthermore, it is believed that these data can be used to augment <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention strategies. Data for <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients admitted from 1979 to 2009 were reviewed from the <span class="hlt">burn</span> registry. The main focus was with differences seen among the four main ethnicities throughout the analysis, Caucasian, Aboriginal, Asian, and Indoasian, reflecting the population distribution of the region. Age and sex were also considered when looking at <span class="hlt">burn</span> mechanism, severity, contributing and copresenting factors. Caucasians were the largest group (79.1%) and included the largest male:female ratio (3.3:1), with high numbers of flame injury (53.9%). Caucasians presented with the highest mortality (6.6% compared with 4.1% for all other ethnicities; P < .006). Asian patients (8.1%) showed significantly higher occurrences of urban (64%) and workplace (28.9%) injuries with a larger proportion of scald injury (38.9%). Indoasian patients included larger numbers of women (36.4%) and household scald injuries (33.9%) whereas Aboriginals suffered the most flame injuries (60.1%) in rural <span class="hlt">areas</span> with more frequent contributing factors such as alcohol. The study found multiple significant differences in the <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury population when segmented by ethnicity. Though the exact reasons for these differences are difficult to say with certainty, it allows a unique opportunity to focus communication and prevention efforts to specific communities. PMID:24503965</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Papp, Anthony; Haythornthwaite, Jordan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cd%27s&pg=3&id=EJ633200"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Your Own CDs.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discusses the use of CDs (Compact Disks) for backing up data as an alternative to using floppy disks and explains how to <span class="hlt">burn</span>, or record, a CD. Topics include differences between CD-R (CD-Recordable) and CD-RW (CD-Rewritable); advantages of CD-R and CD-RW; selecting a CD burner; technology trends; and care of CDs. (LRW)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ekhaml, Leticia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.safekids.org/sites/default/files/documents/skw_burns_fact_sheet_june_2014.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> and Fire Safety</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Pressman M, Blank E, Mickalide A. Hot tap water legislation in the United States. J <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Care Res . 2010; 31(6): 918?925. 13 Safe Kids Worldwide, Public Policy Department, 2005. 14 AntiScald, Inc. Available from: http:// ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7734004"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Burns</span> with lighter gas].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Attention is drawn to a particularly dangerous party activity. Balloons filled with lighter gas so as to float are used for party decorations. A case of hand <span class="hlt">burn</span> caused by accidentally lighting such a balloon with a cigarette is reported. The method is strongly advised against, it is a much better idea to use helium for such purposes. PMID:7734004</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davidsen, M T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-06-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=90469"> <span id="translatedtitle">TIRES, OPEN <span class="hlt">BURNING</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open <span class="hlt">burning</span> of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29587729"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bacteriology of <span class="hlt">burns</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A retrospective study was undertaken at University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi, to examine the bacterial isolates from the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> unit and to determine the antibiograms of the isolates to commonly used antimicrobial agents. A total of 600 pus samples from as many patients received, over a period of 5 years (June 1993–June 1997) yielded</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Revathi; J. Puri; B. K. Jain</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ozone+AND+layer&pg=4&id=EJ264984"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Earth Could <span class="hlt">Burn</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Environmental educators are worried about the ultimate ecological threat--nuclear war, which could <span class="hlt">burn</span> thousands of square miles, sterilize the soil, destroy 70 percent of the ozone layer letting in lethal ultraviolet rays, and cause severe radiation sickness. Educators must inform themselves, teach others, contact government representatives, and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yarrow, Ruth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..98....8S"> <span id="translatedtitle">A high-resolution and multi-year emissions inventory for biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Southeast Asia during 2001-2010</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> (BB) emissions from forest fires, agricultural waste <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and peatland combustion contain large amounts of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, and N2O), which significantly impact ecosystem productivity, global atmospheric chemistry, and climate change. With the help of recently released satellite products, biomass density based on satellite and observation data, and spatiotemporal variable combustion factors, this study developed a new high-resolution and multi-year emissions inventory for BB in Southeast Asia (SEA) during 2001-2010. The 1-km grid was effective for quantifying emissions from small-sized fires that were frequently misinterpreted by coarse grid data due to their large smoothed pixels. The average <span class="hlt">annual</span> BB emissions in SEA during 2001-2010 were 277 Gg SO2, 1125 Gg NOx, 55,388 Gg CO, 3831 Gg NMVOC, 553 Gg NH3, 324 Gg BC, 2406 Gg OC, 3832 Gg CH4, 817,809 Gg CO2, and 99 Gg N2O. Emissions were high in western Myanmar, Northern Thailand, eastern Cambodia, northern Laos, and South Sumatra and South Kalimantan of Indonesia. Emissions from forest <span class="hlt">burning</span> were the dominant contributor to the total emissions among all land types. The spatial pattern of BB emissions was consistent with that of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. In addition, BB emissions exhibited similar temporal trends from 2001 to 2010, with strong interannual and intraannual variability. Interannual and intraannual emission peaks were seen during 2004, 2007, 2010, and January-March and August-October, respectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shi, Yusheng; Yamaguchi, Yasushi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3431731"> <span id="translatedtitle">Current scenario in chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> in a developing country: Chennai, India</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> are not uncommon in India. Both accidental and non-accidental chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> are encountered in our setting. In the paediatric age group, chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> are mainly accidental. Analysis of chemical <span class="hlt">burn</span> admissions to the <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Units of a medical college hospital, and to an exclusively tertiary care children's hospital in Chennai, India, from 2001 to 2010 is described. A total number of 75 adults and 38 children are included in the study. Detailed analysis of age, sex, percentage of <span class="hlt">burn</span> total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA %), causative agents, aetiology (accidental or non-accidental), treatment instituted, mortality, and outcome are reported. PMID:23012609</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramakrishnan, K.M.; Mathivanan, T.; Jayaraman, V.; Babu, M.; Shankar, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24268621"> <span id="translatedtitle">Case of extreme growth deceleration after <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Studies have demonstrated deceleration in both weight and height following <span class="hlt">burns</span> in children. It is expected patients will display catch up growth and return to normal weight within three years but continued height deficiency may remain in cases of severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>. We describe a case of severe growth retardation of 8 years old orphan child from Ukraine who suffered of <span class="hlt">burn</span> less than 40% of total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> when he was a 3 years of life. His case was complicated by domestic abuse, neglect and limited medical care. He initially presented to the United States for surgical care of his contractures but his treatment quickly focused on his profound growth retardation. Despite aggressive nutritional supplementation and evaluation he did not demonstrate any weight gain. PMID:24268621</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bline, Cheryl; Dylewski, Maggie L; Driscoll, Daniel N; Fuzaylov, Gennadiy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GQS9juMxsuk"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discovery Performs Terminal Initiation <span class="hlt">Burn</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The terminal initiation <span class="hlt">burn</span>, a left Orbital Maneuvering System engine firing that gave Discovery one last big push toward the space station, took place Feb. 26, 2011 at 10:33 a.m. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> lasted ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2006/5145/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> ground-water discharge by evapotranspiration from <span class="hlt">areas</span> of spring-fed riparian vegetation along the eastern margin of Death Valley, 2000-02</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Flow from major springs and seeps along the eastern margin of Death Valley serves as the primary local water supply and sustains much of the unique habitat in Death Valley National Park. Together, these major spring complexes constitute the terminus of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System--one of the larger flow systems in the Southwestern United States. The Grapevine Springs complex is the least exploited for water supply and consequently contains the largest <span class="hlt">area</span> of undisturbed riparian habitat in the park. Because few estimates exist that quantify ground-water discharge from these spring complexes, a study was initiated to better estimate the amount of ground water being discharged <span class="hlt">annually</span> from these sensitive, spring-fed riparian <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Results of this study can be used to establish a basis for estimating water rights and as a baseline from which to assess any future changes in ground-water discharge in the park. Evapotranspiration (ET) is estimated volumetrically as the product of ET-unit (general vegetation type) acreage and a representative ET rate. ET-unit acreage is determined from high-resolution multi-spectral imagery; and a representative ET rate is computed from data collected in the Grapevine Springs <span class="hlt">area</span> using the Bowen-ratio solution to the energy budget, or from rates given in other ET studies in the Death Valley <span class="hlt">area</span>. The ground-water component of ET is computed by removing the local precipitation component from the ET rate. Two different procedures, a modified soil-adjusted vegetation index using the percent reflectance of the red and near-infrared wavelengths and land-cover classification using multi-spectral imagery were used to delineate the ET units within each major spring-discharge <span class="hlt">area</span>. On the basis of the more accurate procedure that uses the vegetation index, ET-unit acreage for the Grapevine Springs discharge <span class="hlt">area</span> totaled about 192 acres--of which 80 acres were moderate-density vegetation and 112 acres were high-density vegetation. ET-unit acreage for two other discharge <span class="hlt">areas</span> delineated in the Grapevine Springs <span class="hlt">area</span> (Surprise Springs and Staininger Spring) totaled about 6 and 43 acres, respectively; and for the discharge <span class="hlt">areas</span> delineated in the Furnace Creek <span class="hlt">area</span> (Nevares Springs, Cow Creek-Salt Springs, Texas Spring, and Travertine Springs) totaled about 29, 13, 11, and 21 acres, respectively. In discharge <span class="hlt">areas</span> other than Grapevine Springs, watering and spring diversions have altered the natural distribution of the vegetation. More...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Laczniak, Randell J.; Smith, J. LaRue; DeMeo, Guy A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27295524"> <span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring Agricultural <span class="hlt">Burning</span> in the Mississippi River Valley Region from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 2003 active fire observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), on board NASA’s Terra and Aqua satellites, were analyzed to assess <span class="hlt">burning</span> activity in the cropland <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the Mississippi River Valley region. Agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span> was found to be an important contributor to fire activity in this region, accounting for approximately one-third of all <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Agricultural fire activity</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stefania Korontzi; Jessica McCarty; Christopher Justice; Dallas Burtraw; Karen Palmer; Juha Siikamaki; Viney Aneja; S. Arya; D.-S. Kim; Ian Rumsey; H. L. Arkinson; H. Semunegus; K. S. Bajwa; D. A. Dickey; L. A. Stefanski; L. Todd; K. Mottus; W. P. Robarge; C. M. Williams; Carsten Skjøth; Thomas Ellermann; Ole Hertel; Steen Gyldenkærne; Mette Mikkelsen; Susan Schiffman; Brevick Graham; Chris Henry; Peter Watts; Peter Nicholas; Yael Laor; Jacek Koziel; Lingshuang Cai; Uzi Ravid; Stephen Goetz; Yang Zhang; Chris Occhipinti; William Showers; Dev Niyogi; Linda Geiser; Anne Ingersoll; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Scott Copeland; Semra Tuncel; Nur Oztas; M. Erduran</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29117025"> <span id="translatedtitle">Albumin supplementation during the first week after a <span class="hlt">burn</span> does not mobilise tissue oedema in humans</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: To measure water balance and changes in distribution, and the effect of giving supplementary albumin, early after a <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Design: Consecutive patients (matched groups) and healthy controls. Setting: National <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit in a Swedish university hospital. Patients and subjects: Eighteen patients with 18%-90% total <span class="hlt">burned</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span> and 16 healthy male control subjects. Interventions: The patients were given</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Zdolsek; B. Lisander; A. Jones; F. Sjöberg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cires.colorado.edu/jimenez/Papers/es203954r_complete.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Trash <span class="hlt">Burning</span> on Air Quality in Mexico City C. Wiedinmyer,</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Impact of Trash <span class="hlt">Burning</span> on Air Quality in Mexico City A. Hodzic, C. Wiedinmyer, D. Salcedo,, and J and death for millions of people every year. Trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> is a common disposal method in poor <span class="hlt">areas</span>, yet emissions. Here we develop a new trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> emission inventory for Mexico City based on inverse</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jimenez, Jose-Luis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57406088"> <span id="translatedtitle">Harborview <span class="hlt">Burns</span> – 1974 to 2009</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background<span class="hlt">Burn</span> demographics, prevention and care have changed considerably since the 1970s. The objectives were to 1) identify new and confirm previously described changes, 2) make comparisons to the American <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Association National <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Repository, 3) determine when the administration of fluids in excess of the Baxter formula began and to identify potential causes, and 4) model mortality over time, during</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Loren H. Engrav; David M. Heimbach; Frederick P. Rivara; Kathleen F. Kerr; Turner Osler; Tam N. Pham; Sam R. Sharar; Peter C. Esselman; Eileen M. Bulger; Gretchen J. Carrougher; Shari Honari; Nicole S. Gibran</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/32/82/48/PDF/acpd-7-17339-2007.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">7, 1733917366, 2007 Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> plumes during the AMMA wet season experiment C. H. Mari a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Tracing biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> plumes from. Mari (marc@aero.obs-mip.fr) 17339 #12;ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> plumes during the AMMA</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/bio_burn/bio_burn_table"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Data and Information</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href=""></a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Data and Information This data set represents ... geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span>. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ... models of the atmosphere. Project Title:  Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Discipline:  Tropospheric Chemistry ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://faculty.atmos.und.edu/dong/papers/logan_et_al_2013c_acpd.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">13, 3226932289, 2013 Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ACPD 13, 32269­32289, 2013 Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosol properties over the Northern Great Plains T (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP if available. Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosol Geosciences Union. 32269 #12;ACPD 13, 32269­32289, 2013 Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosol properties over the Northern</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dong, Xiquan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.smokeybear.com/prescribed_chartenlarge.asp"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anatomy of a Prescribed <span class="hlt">Burn</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This poster shows how prescribed <span class="hlt">burns</span> operate, using careful planning and preparation to start a fire that will renew habitat without threatening ecosystems or homes. This image describes the steps required to prepare a prescribed <span class="hlt">burn</span>, how fire crews set up for the <span class="hlt">burn</span>, and how the wind is used to help control the fire.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Forestry, Florida D.; Smokeybear.com</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JGRD..107.8056P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions of reactive gases estimated from satellite data analysis and ecosystem modeling for the Brazilian Amazon region</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To produce a new daily record of trace gas emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> events for the Brazilian Legal Amazon, we have combined satellite advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data on fire counts together for the first time with vegetation greenness imagery as inputs to an ecosystem biomass model at 8 km spatial resolution. This analysis goes beyond previous estimates for reactive gas emissions from Amazon fires, owing to a more detailed geographic distribution estimate of vegetation biomass, coupled with daily fire activity for the region (original 1 km resolution), and inclusion of fire effects in extensive <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the Legal Amazon (defined as the Brazilian states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, and Tocantins) covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. Results from our emissions model indicate that <span class="hlt">annual</span> emissions from Amazon deforestation and biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the early 1990s total to 102 Tg yr-1 carbon monoxide (CO) and 3.5 Tg yr-1 nitrogen oxides (NOx). Peak daily <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions, which occurred in early September 1992, were estimated at slightly more than 3 Tg d-1for CO and 0.1 Tg d-1for NOx flux to the atmosphere. Other <span class="hlt">burning</span> source fluxes of gases with relatively high emission factors are reported, including methane (CH4), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), in addition to total particulate matter (TPM). We estimate the Brazilian Amazon region to be a source of between one fifth and one third for each of these global emission fluxes to the atmosphere. The regional distribution of <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions appears to be highest in the Brazilian states of Maranhao and Tocantins, mainly from <span class="hlt">burning</span> outside of moist forest <span class="hlt">areas</span>, and in Pará and Mato Grosso, where we identify important contributions from primary forest cutting and <span class="hlt">burning</span>. These new daily emission estimates of reactive gases from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> fluxes are designed to be used as detailed spatial and temporal inputs to computer models and data analysis of tropospheric chemistry over the tropical region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Potter, Christopher; Brooks-Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Torregrosa, Alicia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1344165"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical Debridement of <span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The development of effective, non-toxic (local and systemic) methods for the rapid chemical (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) debridement of third degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> would dramatically reduce the morbidity and mortality of severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients. Sepsis is still the major cause of death of patients with extensive deep <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The removal of the devitalized tissue, without damage to unburned skin or skin only partially injured by <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and in ways which would permit immediate (or very prompt) skin grafting, would lessen substantially the problems of sepsis, speed convalescence and the return of these individuals to society as effective human beings, and would decrease deaths. The usefulness and limitations of surgical excision for patients with extensive third degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> are discussed. Chemical debridement lends itself to complementary use with surgical excision and has the potential advantage over surgical excision in not requiring anesthesia or a formal surgical operation. The authors' work with the chemical debridement of <span class="hlt">burns</span>, in particular the use of Bromelain, indicates that this approach will likely achieve clinical usefulness. The experimental studies indicate that rapid controlled debridement, with minimal local and systemic toxicity, is possible, and that effective chemotherapeutic agents may be combined with the Bromelain without either interfering with the actions of the other. The authors believe that rapid (hours) debridement accomplished by the combined use of chemical debriding and chemotherapeutic agents will obviate the possibility of any increase in infection, caused by the use of chemical agents for debridement, as reported for Paraenzyme21 and Travase.39,48 It is possible that the short term use of systemic antibiotics begun just before and continued during, and for a short time after, the rapid chemical debridement may prove useful for the prevention of infection, as appears to be the case for abdominal operations of the clean-contaminated and contaminated types. ImagesFigs. 1a-c.Fig. 1b.Fig. 1c.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9a.Fig. 9B.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Figs. 12a-c.Fig. 12b.Fig. 12c.Figs. 14a-c.Fig. 14b.Fig. 14c.Figs. 15a-c.Fig. 15b.Fig. 15c. PMID:4606330</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levenson, Stanley M.; Kan, Dorinne; Gruber, Charles; Crowley, Leo V.; Lent, Richard; Watford, Alvin; Seifter, Eli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3237275"> <span id="translatedtitle">Air-Freshener <span class="hlt">Burns</span>: A New Paradigm in <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Etiology?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives: We report a rare case of <span class="hlt">burns</span> following the use of automated air-fresheners. Methods: We present a case report with a brief overview of the literature relating to <span class="hlt">burns</span> associated with air-fresheners. The mechanism and treatment of these types of injuries are also described. Results: A 44 year-old female was admitted under the care of the <span class="hlt">burns</span> team following <span class="hlt">burns</span> secondary to an exploding air-freshener canister. The patient sustained <span class="hlt">burns</span> to the face, thorax and arms resulting in a seven-day hospital admission. The <span class="hlt">burns</span> were treated conservatively. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is one of the few documented cases of <span class="hlt">burns</span> as a result of air-fresheners. As they become more ubiquitous, we anticipate the incidence of such cases to increase. As such, they pose a potential public health concern on a massive scale. PMID:22174972</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sarwar, Umran; Nicolaou, M.; Khan, M. S.; Tiernan, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED109111.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating the Teacher Center Pilots: The Third <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report, 1974-1975. Volume 2, Bay <span class="hlt">Area</span> Learning Center.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This three-part report provides an analysis of the California Bay <span class="hlt">Area</span> Learning Center (BALC). Part 1 provides (a) a network design to illustrate the major project components and their interrelationships, (b) a series of component descriptions listing the primary resources and project activities, and (c) a list of project objectives. Part 2…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Covert, Robert W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/807450"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Bitcutter and Post-Shot Injection Wells Corrective Action Unit 90 Post-Closure <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Area</span> 2 Bitcutter and Post-Shot Containment Wells Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 90 Post-Closure Monitoring requirements are described in Section VII.B.8.b of the Nevada Test Site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility No. NEV HW009, Revision 4, reissued on November 20, 2000.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Glen Richardson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-07/pdf/2011-22769.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 55261 - Safety Zones; <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">Area</span> of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...displays in the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound <span class="hlt">area</span> of responsibility...2011 for Chimes and Lights in Port Orchard, WA. This action is...During the enforcement periods, entry into, transit through, mooring...authorized by the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound or...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21991231"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Epidemiology of <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Marrakech: 152 cases considered].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper is a retrospective epidemiological study of 152 <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients hospitalized between 2006 and 2008. The patients were aged less than 20 years in 65% of cases. The sex ratio (m/f) was 1.18/1. A thermal origin was responsible in 84% of the cases. Flame was the cause in 56% of cases. The average <span class="hlt">burned</span> body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> was 28% and second-degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> were the most frequent. In our study, the face and the neck were the body <span class="hlt">area</span> most frequently involved. Prevention continues to be the best weapon to combat this problem, for which objective several measures are proposed. PMID:21991231</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ibnouzahir, M; Ettalbi, S; Ouahbi, S; Droussi, H; Sousou, M; Chlihi, A; Bahaichar, N; Boukind, H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16384653"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pentoxifylline inhibits mature <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar fibroblasts in culture.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fibroblasts are thought to be (in part) responsible for the persisting contractile forces that result in <span class="hlt">burn</span> contractures. Using monolayer and fibroblast populated collagen lattice (FPCL) models we subjected <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar fibroblasts to the anti-fibrinolytic agent Pentoxifylline (PFX) in an attempt to reduce proliferation and contraction of these cells. Fibroblasts were isolated from mature <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars at reconstructive surgery. Fibroblasts were grown in monolayer or incorporated into FPCL's and exposed to PFX. Fibroblast numbers and FPCL surface <span class="hlt">areas</span> were calculated using digital photography and image analysis. PFX showed a dose-dependent inhibition of contraction and reduced proliferation of <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar fibroblasts. In monolayer, cell number proliferation was markedly reduced. FPCL's containing 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml of PFX had relative surface <span class="hlt">areas</span> of 31, 40, 43, 59, and 85%, respectively. One and 2 mg/ml FPCL's contracted significantly less than controls (p < 0.0001). This is the first study to show the dose-dependent effects of Pentoxifylline on the proliferation and contraction of <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar fibroblasts. This study suggests that Pentoxifylline has a direct effect on inhibiting <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar fibroblasts. Further study of PFX on <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars will provide opportunities to reduce <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar contractures in vivo. PMID:16384653</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rawlins, J M; Lam, W L; Karoo, R O; Naylor, I L; Sharpe, D T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....1012173S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of global inventories of CO emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> derived from remotely sensed data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We compare five global inventories of monthly CO emissions named VGT, ATSR, MODIS, GFED3 and MOPITT based on remotely sensed active fires and/or <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products for the year 2003. The objective is to highlight similarities and differences by focusing on the geographical and temporal distribution and on the emissions for three broad land cover classes (forest, savanna/grassland and agriculture). Globally, CO emissions for the year 2003 range between 365 Tg CO (GFED3) and 1422 Tg CO (VGT). Despite the large uncertainty in the total amounts, some common spatial patterns typical of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> can be identified in the boreal forests of Siberia, in agricultural <span class="hlt">areas</span> of Eastern Europe and Russia and in savanna ecosystems of South America, Africa and Australia. Regionally, the largest difference in terms of total amounts (CV > 100%) and seasonality is observed at the northernmost latitudes, especially in North America and Siberia where VGT appears to overestimate the <span class="hlt">area</span> affected by fires. On the contrary, Africa shows the best agreement both in terms of total <span class="hlt">annual</span> amounts (CV = 31%) and of seasonality despite some overestimation of emissions from forest and agriculture observed in the MODIS inventory. In Africa VGT provides the most reliable seasonality. Looking at the broad land cover types, the range of contribution to the global emissions of CO is 64-74%, 23-32% and 3-4% for forest, savanna/grassland and agriculture, respectively. These results suggest that there is still large uncertainty in global estimates of emissions and it increases if the comparison is carried by out taking into account the temporal (month) and spatial (0.5° × 0.5° cell) dimensions. Besides the <span class="hlt">area</span> affected by fires, also vegetation characteristics and conditions at the time of <span class="hlt">burning</span> should also be accurately parameterized since they can greatly influence the global estimates of CO emissions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stroppiana, D.; Brivio, P. A.; Grégoire, J.-M.; Liousse, C.; Guillaume, B.; Granier, C.; Mieville, A.; Chin, M.; Pétron, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29592183"> <span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology and mortality of <span class="hlt">burns</span> in the South West of Iran</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> injuries still produce a significant morbidity and mortality in Iran. This study was carried out to analyze the epidemioloy, mortality, and current etiological factors of 2043 <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients who were admitted to the <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers in the Fars province during 4 years (1994–1998). There were two <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers in the Fars province serving 3?817?036 people over an <span class="hlt">area</span> of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mohammad-Reza Panjeshahin; Abdolaziz Rastegar Lari; Ali-Reza Talei; Javad Shamsnia; Reza Alaghehbandan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic34-4-366.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Response of Nesting Lapland Longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus) to <span class="hlt">Burned</span> Tundra on the Seward Peninsula</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The response of breeding Lapland longspurs to <span class="hlt">burned</span> sedge tussock-shrub tundra was studied in 1978 on the Seward Peninsula in an <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by lightning-ignited fires during 1977. In late May and mid-June 1978, plant standing crop in <span class="hlt">burned</span> tundra was < 5% of standing crop in unburned tundra. Lapland longspurs were less abundant in <span class="hlt">burned</span> than in unburned tundra.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">JOHN M. WRIGHT</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001427&hterms=hanford&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dhanford"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> Scar Near the Hanford Nuclear Reservation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) image pair shows 'before and after' views of the <span class="hlt">area</span> around the Hanford Nuclear Reservation near Richland, Washington. On June 27, 2000, a fire in the dry sagebrush was sparked by an automobile crash. The flames were fanned by hot summer winds. By the day after the accident, about 100,000 acres had <span class="hlt">burned</span>, and the fire's spread forced the closure of highways and loss of homes. These images were obtained by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Compare the <span class="hlt">area</span> just above and to the right of the line of cumulus clouds in the May 15 image with the same <span class="hlt">area</span> imaged on August 3. The darkened <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar measures approximately 35 kilometers across. The Columbia River is seen wending its way around Hanford. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Science Team</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24757710"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome (glossalgia)].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome (glossalgia) is manifested by oral pin and tingling sensations, numbness and even <span class="hlt">burning</span> and severe pains, more frequently in the tongue. Unpleasant sensations may involve the anterior two thirds of the tongue or be extended to the front part of the hard palate and the mucous membrane of the lower lip. This condition is characterized by "mirror" and "food dominant" symptoms, disordered salivation, dysgeusia, or psychological disorders. The disease shows a chronic course. Its etiology may be multifactorial. There are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria; the diagnosis of glossalgia is made to rule out all other causes. A thorough examination should be conducted to establish a differential diagnosis. Glossalgia occurs primarily in middle-aged and elderly people. Women get sick much more frequently than men of the same age. Glossalgia remains difficult to treat. Continuous symptomatic treatment and follow-up help relieve its symptoms. PMID:24757710</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4027746"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neutrophil granulocyte functions in severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> wound sepsis is not only the most common but also the most severe complication following extensive thermal injury. One conceivable explanation of this problem is a reduced capacity of the polymorphonuclear neutrophil leucocytes of these patients to combat the invading microbes. Fifty patients (42 male and 8 female) with deep dermal <span class="hlt">burns</span>, covering 20-90 per cent of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, were investigated from immediately after the injury until death or until healing of the wounds. The following functions of the neutrophil granulocytes were studied: chemotaxis and random migration utilizing a modified Boyden chamber technique, phagocytosis of Staph. aureus and IgG-coated latex particles, bactericidal capacity, e.g. killing of Staph. aureus and the neutrophil granulocyte content of: myeloperoxidase, lactoferrin, and chymotrypsin-like cationic protein. The presence of stimulators and inhibitors of the granulocyte functions was studied using gel filtration of the patient's serum on Sephacryl gel columns. Sera from all patients obtained within the first 1-3 days post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> contained significantly increased amounts of heat-labile chemokinetic stimulating activity. Sera obtained between days 4 and 10 after injury contained significantly decreased amounts of heat-stable chemokinetic stimulating activity. Reduced chemokinetic activity was found during the third and fourth weeks following major <span class="hlt">burns</span> (greater than or equal to 40 per cent) due to the presence of one or both heat-stable chemokinetic inhibitory activities. During the second week post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> patients with <span class="hlt">burns</span> larger than 40 per cent of the body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> who showed an inhibition of chemotaxis, also had defects in phagocytosis, and often impaired bactericidal capacity concomitant with lower contents than normal of the granular enzymes. A hyaluronic acid preparation in low concentrations was found to counteract the migration inhibitory effect demonstrated in vitro in sera from patients with severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Based upon these results a series of patients with severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> and impaired functions of the neutrophil granulocytes have been treated with small amounts of this hyaluronic acid preparation subcutaneously. Very promising results have been noticed, similar to those found in vitro. PMID:4027746</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arturson, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20006537"> <span id="translatedtitle">Open air refuse <span class="hlt">burning</span> video: Proton Dan the science man explores open air refuse <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The goal of this video is to educate school children to the potential hazards of open air trash <span class="hlt">burning</span>; to demonstrate alternative ways to dispose of trash; and to motivate students to take action to change the behavior of their parents with regard to trash <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The <span class="hlt">burning</span> of household trash, although illegal, is still a common practice in rural <span class="hlt">areas</span> of Delaware. Enforcement has been difficult because the practice is often performed at night and is done across a wide rural <span class="hlt">area</span> that is difficult to patrol on a continuing basis. The prohibition on trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> (revised Regulation 13 of The Delaware Code of Regulations Governing The Control of Air Pollution) has been in effect since 1968, but the public has been slow to comply because trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> has been practiced for many generations and because much of the public is unaware of the environmental impacts and/or the human health risks. This video may be valuable for other States to use as a public outreach tool regarding their problems with open air refuse <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The focus of the video is a 7th grade science class is given various assignments relating to Earth Day and preservation of natural resources. Two children in particular are given the assignment to research and report on the hazards of open air trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> and are asked to investigate alternative ways to dispose of refuse. Upon brainstorming how to find information on the topic, the kids decide to contact the host of a popular children's science show on broadcast television named Proton Dan the Science Man (a fictitious character and show based on Bill Nye the Science Guy). The host then invites the kids to the studio where he films his show and takes them through the topic. The TV host character takes the children to several external locations like a landfill, recycling centers, etc..</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eastburn, M.D.; Sipple, J.L.; Deramo, A.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15082346"> <span id="translatedtitle">Women victims of self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Tabriz, Iran.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">From 20 March 1998 through 20 March 2002, a total of 412 cases of self-<span class="hlt">burning</span> were admitted to the <span class="hlt">burn</span> center of East Azarbaijan, located in the city of Tabriz, Iran. The average age was 25.5 years; 99% of self-<span class="hlt">burning</span> cases were female. A total of 76.5% of those patients were in the 15-19 and 20-29 year age groups. Most cases were married, housekeepers and illiterate and poor. Seventy-five percent of the patients had impulsive suicidal intention. The major motive was marital conflict. The mortality rate was 79.6%. The mean <span class="hlt">burned</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span> was 65.5%. Kerosene was used by 77% of the patients as a <span class="hlt">burning</span> agent. PMID:15082346</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Garadagi, Abasad; Jafary, Golam Ali; Azarmir, Gila; Aali, Nahid; Karimian, Bahram; Tabrizi, Mahnaze</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1113800"> <span id="translatedtitle">Underground Test <span class="hlt">Area</span> Fiscal Year 2012 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Quality Assurance Report Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report is mandated by the Underground Test <span class="hlt">Area</span> (UGTA) Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and identifies the UGTA quality assurance (QA) activities for fiscal year (FY) 2012. All UGTA organizations—U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO); Desert Research Institute (DRI); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I); National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec); and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)—conducted QA activities in FY 2012. The activities included conducting assessments, identifying findings and completing corrective actions, evaluating laboratory performance, revising the QAPP, and publishing documents. In addition, processes and procedures were developed to address deficiencies identified in the FY 2011 QAPP gap analysis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1113803"> <span id="translatedtitle">Underground Test <span class="hlt">Area</span> Fiscal Year 2013 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Quality Assurance Report Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report is required by the Underground Test <span class="hlt">Area</span> (UGTA) Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) and identifies the UGTA quality assurance (QA) activities for fiscal year (FY) 2013. All UGTA organizations—U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO); Desert Research Institute (DRI); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I); National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec); and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)—conducted QA activities in FY 2013. The activities included conducting assessments, identifying findings and completing corrective actions, evaluating laboratory performance, and publishing documents. In addition, integrated UGTA required reading and corrective action tracking was instituted.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krenzien, Susan; Marutzky, Sam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15687932"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Clinical aspects of corneal <span class="hlt">burns</span>].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Clinical aspects and prognosis of corneal <span class="hlt">burns</span> mainly depend on the agent responsible for the trauma. The most severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> are caustic <span class="hlt">burns</span>, which should be classified as <span class="hlt">burns</span> caused by basic agents, associated with deep and prolonged injuries, and <span class="hlt">burns</span> caused by acidic agents, associated with more superficial injuries. At the acute stage, caustic <span class="hlt">burns</span> induce epithelial defects, corneal edema, and ischemic necrosis of the limbus, conjunctiva, iris and ciliary body. At the early stage, reepithelialization occurs and is often associated with corneal vascularization and stromal infiltrates, followed by corneal scar formation. At the chronic stage, the following complications are possible: corneal scars, limbal stem cell insufficiency, lachrymal insufficiency, irregular astigmatism, ocular surface fibrosis, cataract, glaucoma, decreased intraocular pressure, and ocular atrophy. The Ropper-Hall classification is based on the extent of limbal ischemia. Thermal <span class="hlt">burns</span> induce epithelial defects at the acute stage, with the more severe forms giving the same complications as caustic <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Radiation-related <span class="hlt">burns</span> can be caused by ultraviolet radiations (acute epithelial keratitis, pterygium, droplet-like keratitis), microwaves, infrared radiations, ionizing radiations or, laser radiations. Electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> are often a result of torture and give corneal stroma opacification. PMID:15687932</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Borderie, V</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EnMan..50..451D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparing <span class="hlt">Burned</span> and Mowed Treatments in Mountain Big Sagebrush Steppe</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fires in mountain big sagebrush [ Artemisia tridentata spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle] plant communities historically shifted dominance from woody to herbaceous vegetation. However, fire return intervals have lengthened with European settlement, and sagebrush dominance has increased at the expense of herbaceous vegetation in some plant communities. Management actions may be needed to decrease sagebrush in dense sagebrush stands to increase herbaceous vegetation. Prescribed fire is often used to remove sagebrush; however, mechanical treatments, such as mowing, are increasingly used because they are more controllable and do not pose an inherent risk of escape compared with fire. However, information on the effects of <span class="hlt">burned</span> and mowed treatments on herbaceous vegetation and whether fire and mowed applications elicit similar vegetation responses are limited. We evaluated the effects of prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> and mowing for 3 years after treatment in mountain big sagebrush plant communities. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> and mowed treatments generally increased herbaceous cover, density, and production compared with untreated controls ( P < 0.05). However, neither treatment induced a response in native perennial forb cover, density, or biomass ( P > 0.05). In contrast, <span class="hlt">annual</span> forb (predominately natives) cover, density, and biomass increased with mowing and <span class="hlt">burning</span> ( P < 0.05). Vegetation generally responded similarly in <span class="hlt">burned</span> and mowed treatments; however, the <span class="hlt">burned</span> treatment had less sagebrush, greater herbaceous vegetation production, and more bare ground than the mowed treatment ( P < 0.05). These differences should be considered when selecting treatments to decrease sagebrush.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davies, K. W.; Bates, J. D.; Nafus, A. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22744159"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparing <span class="hlt">burned</span> and mowed treatments in mountain big sagebrush steppe.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fires in mountain big sagebrush [Artemisia tridentata spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle] plant communities historically shifted dominance from woody to herbaceous vegetation. However, fire return intervals have lengthened with European settlement, and sagebrush dominance has increased at the expense of herbaceous vegetation in some plant communities. Management actions may be needed to decrease sagebrush in dense sagebrush stands to increase herbaceous vegetation. Prescribed fire is often used to remove sagebrush; however, mechanical treatments, such as mowing, are increasingly used because they are more controllable and do not pose an inherent risk of escape compared with fire. However, information on the effects of <span class="hlt">burned</span> and mowed treatments on herbaceous vegetation and whether fire and mowed applications elicit similar vegetation responses are limited. We evaluated the effects of prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> and mowing for 3 years after treatment in mountain big sagebrush plant communities. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> and mowed treatments generally increased herbaceous cover, density, and production compared with untreated controls (P < 0.05). However, neither treatment induced a response in native perennial forb cover, density, or biomass (P > 0.05). In contrast, <span class="hlt">annual</span> forb (predominately natives) cover, density, and biomass increased with mowing and <span class="hlt">burning</span> (P < 0.05). Vegetation generally responded similarly in <span class="hlt">burned</span> and mowed treatments; however, the <span class="hlt">burned</span> treatment had less sagebrush, greater herbaceous vegetation production, and more bare ground than the mowed treatment (P < 0.05). These differences should be considered when selecting treatments to decrease sagebrush. PMID:22744159</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davies, K W; Bates, J D; Nafus, A M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/182799"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of deforestation on biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the tropics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fires are widely used for various land use practices in tropical countries. Large amounts of trace gases and aerosol particles are produced during the fires. It is important to assess the potential impact of these gases and particulate matter on the chemistry of the atmosphere and global climate. One of the largest uncertainties in quantifying the effects is the lack of information on the source strengths. The authors quantify the amount of biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span> due to deforestation in each tropical country on basis of the deforestation rate, the above ground density, and the fraction of above ground biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span>. Approximately 725 Tg of biomass were <span class="hlt">burned</span> in 1980 and 984 Tg were <span class="hlt">burned</span> in 1990. The 36% increase took place mostly in Latin America and tropical Asia. The largest source was Brazil, contributing about 29% of the total biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span> in the tropics. The second largest source was Indonesia accounting for 10%, followed by Zaire accounting for about 8%. The <span class="hlt">burning</span> of biomass due to increased deforestation has resulted in an additional 33 Tg CO and 2.5 Tg CH{sub 4} emitted <span class="hlt">annually</span> to the atmosphere from 1980 to 1990.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hao, W.M.; Liu, M.H. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States); Ward, D.E. [Forest Service, Missoula, MT (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1358131"> <span id="translatedtitle">Early <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound excision significantly reduces blood loss.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The hypothesis that near-total early excision of large <span class="hlt">burns</span> in children can be performed safely with a reduction in blood loss was tested. Of 1662 acutely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients admitted to this institution between 1982 and 1989, 594 underwent near-total excision of cutaneous flame or scald <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries in a single procedure. Operations took less than 3 hours and there were no operative deaths. Blood losses in <span class="hlt">burns</span> of more than 30% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) were significantly less at 0.40 +/- 0.06 mL/cm2 and 0.49 +/- 0.49 mL/cm2 excised when surgery was performed within the first 24 hours or after the 16th day after <span class="hlt">burn</span>, respectively, when compared to 0.75 +/- 0.02 mL/cm2 for those excised between 2 and 16 days after <span class="hlt">burn</span> (p less than 0.05). Blood loss for <span class="hlt">burns</span> of less than 30% TBSA was of 1.19 +/- 0.13 mL/cm2. Early excision did not increase mortality rate when compared to later excision times. We suggest that near-total excision of large <span class="hlt">burns</span> within the first 24 hours reduces blood requirements and morbidity without adversely altering hemodynamic stability or increasing mortality risks. Images Fig. 2. PMID:2357138</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Desai, M H; Herndon, D N; Broemeling, L; Barrow, R E; Nichols, R J; Rutan, R L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.8298K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Olive Tree Branches <span class="hlt">Burning</span>: A major pollution source in the Mediterranean</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Olive tree branches <span class="hlt">burning</span> is a common agricultural waste management practice after the <span class="hlt">annual</span> pruning of olive trees from November to February. Almost 1 billion (90%) of the olive trees in our planet are located around the Mediterranean, so the corresponding emissions of olive tree branches <span class="hlt">burning</span> can be a significant source of fine aerosols during the cold months. Organic aerosol produced during the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of olive tree branches (otBB-OA) was characterized with both direct source-sampling (using a mobile smog chamber) and ambient measurements during the <span class="hlt">burning</span> season in the <span class="hlt">area</span> of Patras, Greece. The aerosol emitted consists of organics, black carbon (BC), potassium, chloride, nitrate and sulfate. In addition to NOx, O3, CO and CO2, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) such as methanol, acetonitrile, benzene and toluene were also produced. The Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) mass spectrum of otBB-OA is characterized by the m-z's27, 29, 39, 41, 43, 44, 55, 57, 67, 69 and 91 and changes as the emissions react with OH and O3. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed that otBB-OA was composed of 48% alkane groups, 27% organic hydroxyl groups, 11% carboxylic acid groups, 11% primary amine groups and 4% carbonyl groups. The oxygen to carbon (O:C) ratio is 0.29±0.04. The otBB-OA AMS mass spectrum differs from the other published biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> spectra. The m-z60, used as levoglucosan tracer, is lower than in most biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> sources. This is confirmed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis on filters where the levoglucosan to OC mass ratio was between 0.034 and 0.043, close to the lower limit of the reported values for most fuel types. This may lead to an underestimation of the otBB-OA contribution in Southern Europe if levoglucosan is being used as a wood <span class="hlt">burning</span> tracer. During the olive tree branches <span class="hlt">burning</span> season, 20 days of ambient measurements were performed. Applying positive matrix factorization (PMF) to the ambient organic data 3 factors could be identified: OOA (oxygenated organic aerosol), HOA (hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol) and otBB-OA. The chamber organic AMS spectrum resembles the ambient mass spectrum during olive tree branches <span class="hlt">burning</span> events. We estimated an otBB-OA emission factor of 3.45±0.2 g kg-1. Assuming that half of the olive trees branches are <span class="hlt">burned</span> 2,300 tons of otBB-OA are emitted in Greece each winter. This is one of the most important fine aerosol emission sources during the winter months in the Mediterranean countries in which this activity is prevalent.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kostenidou, Evangelia; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Tsiflikiotou, Maria; Louvaris, Evangelos; Russell, Lynn; Pandis, Spyros</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412485D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using MODIS imagery to assign dates to maps of <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars in Portugal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the European context, Portugal presents the highest number of fire occurrences and has the largest <span class="hlt">area</span> affected by wildfires. Like other southern regions of Europe, Portugal has experienced a dramatic increase in fire incidence during the last few decades that has been attributed to modifications in land-use as well as to climatic changes and associated occurrence of weather extremes. Wildfire activity also presents a large inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability that has been related to changes in the frequency of occurrence of atmospheric conditions favorable to the onset and spreading of large-fires. Since 1990, the Portuguese Authority for Forests (AFN) has been producing yearly maps of fire perimeters under a protocol with the Department of Forest Engineering of the Institute of Agronomy (DEF/ISA). The AFN fire atlas uses end of fire season Landsat TM/ETM imagery to map all fire perimeters with <span class="hlt">area</span> larger than 5ha. Because it relies on end-of-season imagery, the atlas provides a spatial snapshot of the yearly <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, and dates of <span class="hlt">burn</span> for individual events cannot be estimated. Such information is nevertheless crucial to understand the fire regime and fire seasonality and to disentangle the complex interactions among fire, land cover and meteorology. The aim of the present work is to develop an automated procedure that allows using time series of moderate resolution imagery, such as the one provided by the MODIS instrument on-board TERRA and AQUA, to assign dates of <span class="hlt">burning</span> to scars larger than 500 ha in the Landsat based fire atlas. The procedure relies on the so-called (V,W) <span class="hlt">burned</span> index that uses daily reflectance obtained from the 1km MODIS Level 1B calibrated radiance from bands 2 (NIR) and 20 (MIR). The algorithm detects persistent changes in the (V,W) <span class="hlt">burned</span> index time series, within each Landsat <span class="hlt">burned</span> scar. The day of maximum change is then identified by means of a discrimination index, together with thresholds from the (V,W) time series. A spatial filter is finally applied to remove the outliers. An assessment of the temporal accuracy of the algorithm was conducted for the year 2005. For this year, Landsat based fire scars larger than 500ha have an associated detection date, based on field information provided by the AFN. The detection date is here assumed as ignition date of each scar. It is also assumed that each scar corresponds to a single fire event. Using 78 fire scars, we computed the time difference, in days, between the detection date and the date of <span class="hlt">burn</span>, estimated by the algorithm. Our results show that 70% of all scars were correctly dated by the algorithm with differences to the AFN detection date up to three days. These correspond to 83% of the overall <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> used in the accuracy assessment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">DaCamara, C. C.; Libonati, R.; Barros, A.; Gaspar, G.; Calado, T. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780059626&hterms=acoustic+emission&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dacoustic%2Bemission"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acoustic emission strand <span class="hlt">burning</span> technique for motor <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate prediction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An acoustic emission (AE) method is being used to measure the <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate of solid propellant strands. This method has a precision of 0.5% and excellent <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate correlation with both subscale and large rocket motors. The AE procedure <span class="hlt">burns</span> the sample under water and measures the <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate from the acoustic output. The acoustic signal provides a continuous readout during testing, which allows complete data analysis rather than the start-stop clockwires used by the conventional method. The AE method helps eliminate such problems as inhibiting the sample, pressure increase and temperature rise, during testing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christensen, W. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..87...87F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of wood <span class="hlt">burning</span> to PM10 in London</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ahead of measures to incentivise wood heating, the current level of wood <span class="hlt">burning</span> in London was assessed by two tracer methods; i) a six week campaign of daily measurements of levoglucosan along a 38 km transect across the city during winter 2010, ii) a three year (2009-2011) measurement programme of black carbon and particulate matter from wood <span class="hlt">burning</span> using differential IR and UV absorption by Aethalometer. Mean winter levoglucosan concentrations were 160 ± 17 ng m-3 in central London and 30 ± 26 ng m-3 greater in the suburbs, with good temporal correlation (r2 = 0.68-0.98) between sampling sites. Sensitivity testing found that the aethalometer wood <span class="hlt">burning</span> tracer method was more sensitive to the assumed value of the Ångström coefficient for fossil fuel black carbon than it was to the Ångström coefficient for wood <span class="hlt">burning</span> PM, and that the model was optimised with Ångström coefficient for fossil fuel black carbon of 0.96. The aethalometer and levoglucosan estimates of mean PM from wood <span class="hlt">burning</span> were in good agreement during the winter campaign; 1.8 ?g m-3 (levoglucosan) and 2.0 ?g m-3 (aethalometer); i.e. between 7% and 9% of mean PM10 across the London transect. Analysis of wood <span class="hlt">burning</span> tracers with respect to wind speed suggested that wood <span class="hlt">burning</span> PM was dominated by sources within the city. Concentrations of aethalometer and levoglucosan wood <span class="hlt">burning</span> tracers were a greatest at weekends suggesting discretionary or secondary domestic wood <span class="hlt">burning</span> rather than wood being used as a main heating source. Aethalometer wood <span class="hlt">burning</span> tracers suggests that the <span class="hlt">annual</span> mean concentration of PM10 from wood <span class="hlt">burning</span> was 1.1 ?g m-3. To put this in a policy context, this PM10 from wood <span class="hlt">burning</span> is considerably greater than the city-wide mean PM10 reduction of 0.17 ?g m-3 predicted from the first two phases of the London Low Emission Zone which was introduced to reduce PM from traffic sources.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fuller, Gary W.; Tremper, Anja H.; Baker, Timothy D.; Yttri, Karl Espen; Butterfield, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21841494"> <span id="translatedtitle">Validation of a vertical progression porcine <span class="hlt">burn</span> model.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A major potential goal of <span class="hlt">burn</span> therapy is to limit progression of partial- to full-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span>. To better test therapies, the authors developed and validated a vertical progression porcine <span class="hlt">burn</span> model in which partial-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> treated with an occlusive dressing convert to full-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> that heal with scarring and wound contraction. Forty contact <span class="hlt">burns</span> were created on the backs and flanks of two young swine using a 150 g aluminum bar preheated to 70°C, 80°C, or 90°C for 20 or 30 seconds. The necrotic epidermis was removed and the <span class="hlt">burns</span> were covered with a polyurethane occlusive dressing. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> were photographed at 1, 24, and 48 hours as well as at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days postinjury. Full-thickness biopsies were obtained at 1, 4, 24, and 48 hours as well as at 7 and 28 days. The primary outcomes were presence of deep contracted scars and wound <span class="hlt">area</span> 28 days after injury. Secondary outcomes were depth of injury, reepithelialization, and depth of scars. Data were compared across <span class="hlt">burn</span> conditions using analysis of variance and ?(2) tests. Eight replicate <span class="hlt">burns</span> were created with the aluminum bar using the following temperature/contact-time combinations: 70/20, 70/30, 80/20, 80/30, and 90/20. The percentage of <span class="hlt">burns</span> healing with contracted scars were 70/20, 0%; 70/30, 25%; 80/20, 50%; 80/30, 75%; and 90/20, 100% (P = .05). Wound <span class="hlt">areas</span> at 28 days by injury conditions were 70/20, 8.1 cm(2); 70/30, 7.8 cm(2); 80/20, 6.6 cm(2); 80/30, 4.9 cm(2); and 90/20, 4.8 cm(2) (P = .007). Depth of injury judged by depth of endothelial damage for the 80/20 and 80/30 <span class="hlt">burns</span> at 1 hour was 36% and 60% of the dermal thickness, respectively. The depth of injury to the endothelial cells 1 hour after injury was inversely correlated with the degree of scar <span class="hlt">area</span> (Pearson's correlation r = -.71, P < .001). Exposure of porcine skin to an aluminum bar preheated to 80°C for 20 or 30 seconds results initially in a partial-thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span> that when treated with an occlusive dressing progresses to a full-thickness injury and heals with significant scarring and wound contracture. PMID:21841494</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Singer, Adam J; Hirth, Douglas; McClain, Steve A; Crawford, Laurie; Lin, Fubao; Clark, Richard A F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3900018"> <span id="translatedtitle">Early Enteral Nutrition for <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Injury</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Significance: Nutrition has been recognized as a critical component of acute <span class="hlt">burn</span> care and ultimate wound healing. Debate remains over the appropriate timing of enteral nutrition and the benefit of supplemental trace elements, antioxidants, and immunonutrition for critically ill <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients. Pharmacotherapy to blunt the metabolic response to <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury plays a critical role in effective nutritional support. Recent Advances: Further evidence is demonstrating long-term benefits from pharmacologic immunomodulation given the prolonged metabolic response to injury that may last for over a year following the initial insult. Critical Issues: The majority of evidence regarding early enteral feeding comes from mixed populations and smaller studies. However, on balance, available evidence favors early feeding. Data regarding immunonutrition does not support the routine use of these products. Limited data regarding use of antioxidants and trace elements support their use. Future Directions: Further evaluation of anti-inflammatory mediators of the immune response, such as statins, will likely play a role in the future. Further data are needed on the dosing and route of micronutrients as well as the utility of immunonutrition. Finally, little is known about nutrition in the obese <span class="hlt">burn</span> patient making this an important <span class="hlt">area</span> for investigation. PMID:24761346</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mandell, Samuel P.; Gibran, Nicole S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23578794"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pharmacokinetics of ertapenem in <span class="hlt">burns</span> patients.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aims of this study were to evaluate pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of total and unbound ertapenem (ERT) in <span class="hlt">burns</span> patients and to identify which covariates influence these PK parameters. ERT plasma concentrations were measured in <span class="hlt">burns</span> patients (n = 8) who received a 0.5-h infusion of ERT (1000 mg) every 24 h. PK parameters were estimated by a non-compartmental approach and the influence of covariates was estimated by multivariate analysis using a population approach. Clearance (CL) and the volume of distribution (V) of total ERT were lower than the results for unbound ERT [CL, 22.2 ± 5.6 mL/min vs. 279.4 ± 208.2 mL/min; V, 9.7 ± 1.4L vs. 120.6 ± 130.6L (mean ± standard deviation)]. Creatinine clearance (CL(Cr)) and the <span class="hlt">burned</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (BSA) were the covariates identified that significantly (P<0.01) affected the pharmacokinetics of total ERT [CL (L/h)=0.373 +{0.00666 x CL(Cr) (mL/min)}] and unbound ERT [peripheral volume of distribution (L) = 3.05 + {0.959 x BSA (% of the total body surface)}], respectively. The influences of albuminaemia, glomerular filtration and <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound on ERT pharmacokinetics are proposed to explain these results. These first results support that the ERT plasma concentration should be closely monitored particularly for patients with high values of BSA and/or CL(Cr) to avoid suboptimal exposure. PMID:23578794</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dailly, E; Arnould, J F; Fraissinet, F; Naux, E; Letard de la Bouralière, M A; Bouquié, R; Deslandes, G; Jolliet, P; Le Floch, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11996857"> <span id="translatedtitle">Allogeneic skin substitutes applied to <span class="hlt">burns</span> patients.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Early re-surfacing of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds remains the ideal but is limited by the availability of skin graft donor sites. Cultured grafts overcome these problems and autologous keratinocytes can be grown in culture and placed on a dermal substitute, but this results in delay and requires two operations. We developed an organotypic skin substitute, which achieves cover in one procedure, and have previously found allogeneic cell survival up to 2.5 years after grafting onto clean elective wounds (tattoo removal). Here, we report a short series using the same model applied to <span class="hlt">burns</span> patients with less than 20% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> affected. The skin substitutes consisted of allogeneic dermal fibroblasts embedded in a collagen gel overlain with allogeneic epidermal keratinocytes, and were grafted to patients with tangentially excised <span class="hlt">burns</span>. A side-by-side comparison with meshed split-thickness autografts was performed. No grafts became infected. The allogeneic skin substitute showed little effective take at 1 week, and by 2 weeks only small islands of keratinocytes survived. These sites were subsequently covered with meshed split-thickness autograft, which took well. It is concluded that further development of this model is needed to overcome the hostile wound bed seen in <span class="hlt">burns</span> patients. PMID:11996857</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nanchahal, J; Dover, R; Otto, W R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15344466"> <span id="translatedtitle">CAD tool for <span class="hlt">burn</span> diagnosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper a new system for <span class="hlt">burn</span> diagnosis is proposed. The aim of the system is to separate <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds from healthy skin, and the different types of <span class="hlt">burns</span> (<span class="hlt">burn</span> depths) from each other, identifying each one. The system is based on the colour and texture information, as these are the characteristics observed by physicians in order to give a diagnosis. We use a perceptually uniform colour space (L*u*v*), since Euclidean distances calculated in this space correspond to perceptually colour differences. After the <span class="hlt">burn</span> is segmented, some colour and texture descriptors are calculated and they are the inputs to a Fuzzy-ARTMAP neural network. The neural network classifies them into three types of bums: superficial dermal, deep dermal and full thickness. Clinical effectiveness of the method was demonstrated on 62 clinical <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound images obtained from digital colour photographs, yielding an average classification success rate of 82% compared to expert classified images. PMID:15344466</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Acha, Begoña; Serrano, Carmen; Acha, José I; Roa, Laura M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2708423"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> nurse retention. Elements of success.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With the national nursing shortage most acute in the critical care <span class="hlt">area</span>, greater emphasis on effective recruitment and nurse retention is vital. Despite the high-stress environment of a busy <span class="hlt">burn</span> center, nursing turnover can be reduced to acceptable levels. The greatest "satisfiers" are centered around nursing issues such as schedule flexibility, nurse/patient ratio, and the center's reputation and standards. Salary and the physical plant environment were of little importance in comparison. PMID:2708423</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dembicki, R; Varas, R; Hammond, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GMD.....4..625W"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN): a high resolution global model to estimate the emissions from open <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Fire INventory from NCAR version 1.0 (FINNv1) provides daily, 1 km resolution, global estimates of the trace gas and particle emissions from open <span class="hlt">burning</span> of biomass, which includes wildfire, agricultural fires, and prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> and does not include biofuel use and trash <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Emission factors used in the calculations have been updated with recent data, particularly for the non-methane organic compounds (NMOC). The resulting global <span class="hlt">annual</span> NMOC emission estimates are as much as a factor of 5 greater than some prior estimates. Chemical speciation profiles, necessary to allocate the total NMOC emission estimates to lumped species for use by chemical transport models, are provided for three widely used chemical mechanisms: SAPRC99, GEOS-CHEM, and MOZART-4. Using these profiles, FINNv1 also provides global estimates of key organic compounds, including formaldehyde and methanol. Uncertainties in the emissions estimates arise from several of the method steps. The use of fire hot spots, assumed <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, land cover maps, biomass consumption estimates, and emission factors all introduce error into the model estimates. The uncertainty in the FINNv1 emission estimates are about a factor of two; but, the global estimates agree reasonably well with other global inventories of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions for CO, CO2, and other species with less variable emission factors. FINNv1 emission estimates have been developed specifically for modeling atmospheric chemistry and air quality in a consistent framework at scales from local to global. The product is unique because of the high temporal and spatial resolution, global coverage, and the number of species estimated. FINNv1 can be used for both hindcast and forecast or near-real time model applications and the results are being critically evaluated with models and observations whenever possible.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wiedinmyer, C.; Akagi, S. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Emmons, L. K.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Orlando, J. J.; Soja, A. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT........38O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Accuracy of real time radiography <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate measurement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The design of a solid propellant rocket motor requires the determination of a propellant's <span class="hlt">burning</span>-rate and its dependency upon environmental parameters. The requirement that the <span class="hlt">burning</span>-rate be physically measured, establishes the need for methods and equipment to obtain such data. A literature review reveals that no measurement has provided the desired <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate accuracy. In the current study, flash x-ray modeling and digitized film-density data were employed to predict motor-port <span class="hlt">area</span> to length ratio. The pre-fired port-<span class="hlt">areas</span> and base <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate were within 2.5% and 1.2% of their known values, respectively. To verify the accuracy of the method, a continuous x-ray and a solid propellant rocket motor model (Plexiglas cylinder) were used. The solid propellant motor model was translated laterally through a real-time radiography system at different speeds simulating different <span class="hlt">burning</span> rates. X-ray images were captured and the <span class="hlt">burning</span>-rate was then determined. The measured <span class="hlt">burning</span> rate was within 1.65% of the known values.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olaniyi, Bisola</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24050979"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adult <span class="hlt">burn</span> survivors' personal experiences of rehabilitation: an integrative review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> rehabilitation is a lengthy process associated with physical and psychosocial problems. As a critical <span class="hlt">area</span> in <span class="hlt">burn</span> care, the aim was to systematically synthesise the literature focussing on personal perceptions and experiences of adult <span class="hlt">burn</span> survivors' rehabilitation and to identify factors that influence their rehabilitation. Studies were identified through an electronic search using the databases: PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, PsycINFO and Trove of peer reviewed research published between 2002 and 2012 limited to English-language research with search terms developed to reflect <span class="hlt">burn</span> rehabilitation. From the 378 papers identified, 14 research papers met the inclusion criteria. Across all studies, there were 184 participants conducted in eight different countries. The reported mean age was 41 years with a mean total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) <span class="hlt">burn</span> of 34% and the length of stay ranging from one day to 68 months. Significant factors identified as influential in <span class="hlt">burn</span> rehabilitation were the impact of support, coping and acceptance, the importance of work, physical changes and limitations. This review suggests there is a necessity for appropriate knowledge and education based programmes for <span class="hlt">burn</span> survivors with consideration given to the timing and delivery of education to facilitate the rehabilitation journey. PMID:24050979</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kornhaber, R; Wilson, A; Abu-Qamar, M Z; McLean, L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol7/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol7-sec60-3068.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that <span class="hlt">burn</span> only...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068 What are...incinerators that <span class="hlt">burn</span> only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Keep records...<span class="hlt">annual</span> opacity test reports as electronic or paper copy on or...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol6/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol6-sec60-3068.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that <span class="hlt">burn</span> only...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068 What are...incinerators that <span class="hlt">burn</span> only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Keep records...<span class="hlt">annual</span> opacity test reports as electronic or paper copy on or...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol6/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol6-sec60-2973.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that <span class="hlt">burn</span> only...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are...incinerators that <span class="hlt">burn</span> only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Prior to commencing...<span class="hlt">annual</span> opacity test reports as electronic or paper copy on or...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol7/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol7-sec60-2973.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that <span class="hlt">burn</span> only...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are the...incinerators that <span class="hlt">burn</span> only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Prior to commencing...<span class="hlt">annual</span> opacity test reports as electronic or paper copy on or...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol7/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol7-sec60-2973.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that <span class="hlt">burn</span> only...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are...incinerators that <span class="hlt">burn</span> only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Prior to commencing...<span class="hlt">annual</span> opacity test reports as electronic or paper copy on or...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol7/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol7-sec60-3068.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 60.3068 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that <span class="hlt">burn</span> only...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3068 What are...incinerators that <span class="hlt">burn</span> only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Keep records...<span class="hlt">annual</span> opacity test reports as electronic or paper copy on or...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol6-sec60-2973.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that <span class="hlt">burn</span> only...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2973 What are...incinerators that <span class="hlt">burn</span> only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Prior to commencing...<span class="hlt">annual</span> opacity test reports as electronic or paper copy on or...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..76..189Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emission inventory of carbonaceous pollutants from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the Pearl River Delta Region, China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Emissions from <span class="hlt">burning</span> major agricultural residue were measured through laboratory simulations using a self-designed dilution chamber system. Emission factors of CO2, CO, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), PM10, PM2.5, OC and EC in PM2.5 were measured for <span class="hlt">burning</span> rice straw in flaming and smoldering combustion, and for <span class="hlt">burning</span> of sugarcane leaves. NMHCs emitted from crop straw open <span class="hlt">burning</span> were dominated by C2 hydrocarbons (ethene, ethane, ethyne), contributing (53.4 ± 4.6)% in volume in rice straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions and 41.8% in sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions, respectively. Acetone and aldehyde were major OVOCs species in open straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions. A survey was conducted to determine the fraction of field crop biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span> during harvesting season and the amounts of household firewood and crop residue consumption in 2008. Information obtained from the survey, together with measured EFs for field <span class="hlt">burning</span> of rice straw and sugarcane, and EFs from literatures for field <span class="hlt">burning</span> of other agricultural residues, biofuel combustion and forest fires, were used in developing the source inventories of carbonaceous pollutants in the PRD region. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> emissions of CO, VOCs (including NMHCs and OVOCs), NOx, PM2.5, OC and EC from <span class="hlt">burning</span> biomass were estimated to be 186.38, 15.94, 4.93, 15.56, 7.10, 2.25 kt in the year 2008, respectively. These estimates are lower than previously published estimates by 23-63%. Open <span class="hlt">burning</span> patterns (flaming and smoldering) and rural biofuel use contribute to the differences. Field <span class="hlt">burning</span> of straw contributed mainly to VOCs, PM2.5 and OC emissions while the residential sector was the dominant source of EC, CO and NOx. The contributions of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> to entire PRD emissions are estimated as 3.37-6.53%, respectively, for PM, and 1.82-3.17%, respectively, for VOCs, and 0.52-2.77%, respectively, for NOx.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Yisheng; Shao, Min; Lin, Yun; Luan, Shengji; Mao, Ning; Chen, Wentai; Wang, Ming</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3671671"> <span id="translatedtitle">Curbing Inflammation in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Patients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Patients who suffer from severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> develop metabolic imbalances and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) which can result in multiple organ failure and death. Research aimed at reducing the inflammatory process has yielded new insight into <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury therapies. In this review, we discuss strategies used to curb inflammation in <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries and note that further studies with high quality evidence are necessary. PMID:23762773</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Farina, Jayme A.; Rosique, Marina Junqueira; Rosique, Rodrigo G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-0300168&hterms=mpg&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmpg"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Fuel Droplet</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fuel ignites and <span class="hlt">burns</span> in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 4 1997, MET:2/05:40 (approximate). The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. DCE used various fuels -- in drops ranging from 1 mm (0.04 inches) to 5 mm (0.2 inches) -- and mixtures of oxidizers and inert gases to learn more about the physics of combustion in the simplest <span class="hlt">burning</span> configuration, a sphere. The experiment elapsed time is shown at the bottom of the composite image. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (121KB JPEG, 654 x 977 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300169.html.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3324235"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span>: Treatment and Outcomes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> can cause extensive and devastating injuries of the head and neck. Prevention of the initial injury must always be a priority, but once an injury has occurred, then prevention of progression of the damage together with survival of the patient must be the immediate goals. The acute care will have a major influence on the subsequent scarring, reconstructive need, and long-term outcome. In the majority of cases, the reconstruction will involve restoration of form and function to the soft tissues, and the methods used will depend very much on the extent of scarring locally and elsewhere in the body. In nearly all cases, a significant improvement in functional and aesthetic outcomes can be achieved, which, in conjunction with intensive psychosocial rehabilitation, can lead to high-quality patient outcomes. With the prospect of facial transplantation being a clinical reality, the reconstructive spectrum has opened up even further, and, with appropriate reconstruction and support, no patient should be left economically deprived or socially isolated after a <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. PMID:22550448</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burd, Andrew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7821070"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Preventing blood transfusion in a severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> Jehovah's witness].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The treatment rationale of a <span class="hlt">burn</span> victim (35% TBSA) who was child of Jehova's witnesses is described. Following a combined approach including erythropoetin and blood saving surgical techniques we were able to excise and graft the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> without blood transfusion. An extremely low hemoglobin of 3.4 g/dl was tolerated postoperatively and showed an increase to 10.9 g/dl 25 days later when the child was dismissed from the <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit in stable condition. Possibilities to minimize blood loss and to avoid blood transfusions are discussed. PMID:7821070</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vogt, P M; Kurz-Müller, K; Peter, F W; Büttemeyer, R; Tryba, M; Steinau, H U</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37412176"> <span id="translatedtitle">Managing ski resorts: the National Ski <span class="hlt">Areas</span> Association (NSAA) of the United States’ 2001 and 2002 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Progress Reports on the Environmental Charter and the reaction from conservations groups</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Protecting scenic values, optimizing efficient use of water for snowmaking, planning, designing and constructing facilities and lifts in an environmentally sensitive manner, are some of the <span class="hlt">areas</span> in which ski resorts have made substantial improvement since implementing the Environmental Principles, according to NSAA in their 2002 <span class="hlt">annual</span> report. Michael Berry, NSAA’s president, proudly indicates that the Association is succeeding in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Annette A. George</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AtmRe..77..100L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using meteorological data for reconstruction of <span class="hlt">annual</span> runoff series over an ungauged <span class="hlt">area</span>: Empirical orthogonal function approach to Moldova Southwest Ukraine region</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The water-management transformation of runoff and the prospective change of global climate necessitate studying the climate forcing associated with runoff processes. This paper presents some quantitative estimations for the role of climatic factors in this process on an example of the Moldova-Southwest Ukraine region. Using empirical orthogonal functions, we establish the contribution of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> evaporation, <span class="hlt">annual</span> precipitation, and warm- and cold-season precipitation to the <span class="hlt">annual</span> runoff for arid-zone rivers. An efficient approach for the reconstruction of natural <span class="hlt">annual</span> runoff time series is developed and tested. The problems relating to (i) the estimation of <span class="hlt">annual</span> runoff for rivers with lacking or deficient observational data, (ii) the definition of climate forcing for natural runoff parameters, and (iii) the modelling of <span class="hlt">annual</span> runoff time series are solved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Loboda, Nataliya S.; Glushkov, Alexander V.; Khokhlov, Valeriy N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39780907"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of gross and net fluxes of carbon between the biosphere and the atmosphere from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to estimate the production of charcoal and the atmospheric emissions of trace gases volatilized by <span class="hlt">burning</span> we have estimated the global amounts of biomass which are affected by fires. We have roughly calculated <span class="hlt">annual</span> gross <span class="hlt">burning</span> rates ranging between about 5 Pg and 9 Pg (1 Pg = 1015 g) of dry matter (2–4 Pg C). In comparison,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wolfgang Seiler; Paul J. Crutzen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AIPC..845..531H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Crack Networks and Combustion Bootstrapping in Cookoff Explosions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> crack networks can play an important role in cookoff explosions of the HMX-based explosive PBX 9501. Combustion within cracks can potentially spread to connected porosity, which is believed to develop in the heated explosive. The <span class="hlt">burning</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span> would thereby increase, causing a more violent outcome. I develop an analytic model that seeks to capture the essential physical mechanisms controlling how such a scenario runs away. The calibrated model behavior is consistent with Ref. 1 tests.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hill, Larry G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17337103"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of <span class="hlt">annual</span> effective dose due to natural radioactive elements in ingestion of foodstuffs in tin mining <span class="hlt">area</span> of Jos-Plateau, Nigeria.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Soils and food crops from a former tin mining location in a high background radiation <span class="hlt">area</span> on the Jos-Plateau, Nigeria were collected and analyzed by gamma spectrometry to measure their contents of 40K, 238U and 232Th. As well as collecting samples, in situ dose rates on farms were measured using a precalibrated survey meter. Activity concentrations determined in food crops were compared with the local food derivatives or diets to investigate the possible removal or addition of radionuclides during food preparation by cooking or other means. Potassium-40 was found to contribute the highest activity in all the food products. The activity concentration of 40K, 238U and 232Th in local prepared diets ranged between 60 and 494 Bq kg-1, between BDL and 48 Bq kg-1 and between BDL and 17 Bq kg-1, respectively. The internal effective dose to individuals from the consumption of the food types was estimated on the basis of the measured radionuclide contents in the food crops. It ranged between 0.2 microSv y-1 (beans) and 2164 microSv y-1 (yam) while the <span class="hlt">annual</span> external gamma effective dose in the farms due to soil radioactivity ranged between 228 microSv and 4065 microSv. PMID:17337103</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jibiri, N N; Farai, I P; Alausa, S K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4182021"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability of summertime CO concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere explained by boreal forest fires in North America and Russia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background measurements of Carbon Monoxide in the extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere during the 1990s showed no clear trends, but significant inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variations. In this study, the measured summertime averaged CO concentrations north of 30° N were correlated with <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by forest fires in North America and Russia. According to a linear regression analysis, 14% of the CO variability in the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gerhard Wotawa; P. C. Novelli; C. Granier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/892150"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 329: <span class="hlt">Area</span> 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report presents the data collected during field activities and quarterly soil-gas sampling activities conducted from May 9, 2005, through May 20, 2006, at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 329, <span class="hlt">Area</span> 22 Desert Rock Airstrip (DRA) Fuel Spill; Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-44-01, Fuel Spill. The CAU is located at the DRA, which is located approximately two miles southwest of Mercury, Nevada, as shown in Figure 1-1. Field activities were conducted in accordance with the revised sampling approach outlined in the Addendum to the Closure Report (CR) for CAU 329 (NNSA/NSO, 2005) to support data collection requirements. The previous <span class="hlt">annual</span> monitoring program for CAU 329 was initiated in August 2000 using soil-gas samples collected from three specific intervals at the DRA-0 and DRA-3 monitoring wells. Results of four sampling events from 2000 through 2003 indicated there is uncertainty in the approach to establish a rate of natural attenuation as specified in ''Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Work Plan for Corrective Action Unit 329: <span class="hlt">Area</span> 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (DOE/NV, 1999). As a result, the Addendum to the CR (NNSA/NSO, 2005) was completed to address this uncertainty by modifying the previous approach. A risk evaluation was added to the scope of the project to determine if the residual concentration of the hazardous constituents of JP4 pose an unacceptable risk to human health or the environment and if a corrective action was required at the site, because the current quarterly monitoring program is not expected to yield a rate constant that could be used effectively to determine a biodegradation rate for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in less than the initial five years outlined in the CR. Additionally, remediation to the Tier 1 action level for TPH is not practical or technically feasible due to the depth of contamination.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alfred Wickline</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21909652"> <span id="translatedtitle">Grape harvest and yield responses to inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> changes in temperature and precipitation in an <span class="hlt">area</span> of north-east Spain with a Mediterranean climate.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study presents an analysis of temperature and precipitation trends and their impact on grape harvests in the Penedès region (NE Spain). It includes analyses of maximum, minimum and mean daily temperatures (for both the growing and ripening seasons) and daily rainfall (for the hydrological year, the growing season and each phenological stage) for three observatories in the immediate <span class="hlt">area</span>. We analysed a series of factors: beginning and end harvest dates; the day on which a given potential alcoholic degree was reached; and yield for several varieties of grape grown in the <span class="hlt">area</span> in relation to climatic variables. Maximum temperatures increased at all the observatories, with greater values being recorded in recent years (1996-2009) than in previous decades (1960s-2000s): we observed increases in average growing season temperatures of 0.11°C per year for the period 1996-2009 vs 0.04°C per year for the period 1960-2009 at Vilafranca del Penedès. These temperature changes were due mainly to increases in maximum temperatures and an increase in the incidence of extreme heat (number of days with T > 30°C). Crop evapotranspiration also increased significantly during the same period. The Winkler index also increased, so the study <span class="hlt">area</span> would correspond to region IV according to that climatic classification. There were no significant trends in <span class="hlt">annual</span> rainfall but rainfall recorded between bloom and veraison decreased significantly at the three observatories, with the greatest decrease corresponding to the period 1996-2009. The dates on which harvests started and ended showed a continuous advance (of between -0.7 and -1.1 days per year, depending on the variety), which was significantly correlated with the average mean and maximum daily growing season temperatures (up to -7.68 days for 1°C increase). Winegrape yield was influenced by the estimated water deficit (crop evapotranspiration minus precipitation) in the bloom-veraison period; this value increased due to a reduction in precipitation and an increase in evapotranspiration. Yield may have been reduced by up to 30 kg/ha for each millimetre increase in the estimated water deficit. Under these conditions, new strategies need to be followed in this <span class="hlt">area</span> in order to maintain grape quality and yield. PMID:21909652</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Camps, Josep Odó; Ramos, María Concepción</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2029Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of agricultural and forest fires in Ukraine to impact of Eurasian <span class="hlt">burnings</span> on Arctic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> potentially can occur on major part of lands of Ukraine (total 57.93 million ha) and, first of all, on agricultural ones - that occupy 71% of total <span class="hlt">area</span> of the country. Forests occupy 17.6% of the <span class="hlt">area</span> of country, where from 2 to 4 thousands fires happens <span class="hlt">annually</span>. Good wildfire statistics, as well as proper fire management system only for part of forest lands of Ukraine - 68% is established, in particularly, for forests that managed by State Agency of Forest Resources of Ukraine. While other 2 million ha of forests that managed by other Ministries are out of regular fire management action, detection and protection. There are no reliable detection and accounting of wildfires, outdated or absent fire engines, lack of fire crews and facilities on most part of agricultural, grass, abandoned lands, pastures. During emergency wildfires situation in Ukraine in August 2010 only full mobilization of forest personal together with forces of internal affairs (police) for patrolling of wildfire situation nationwide allows to avoid catastrophic scenario in spite of general low preparedness and unsatisfactory technical provision of fire management on agricultural lands. That year in forest lands totally 3065 cases of fires were registered with total <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> 8916 ha (fire season 2010) and 3145 cases of wildfires on agricultural lands (August 2010). There are no reliable statistics and effective fire management system on grass and agricultural lands in Ukraine even agricultural fires <span class="hlt">burned</span> much larger <span class="hlt">area</span> of lands then forest fires and produce significant amount of black carbon both during spring and summer fire events. Results of analysis of wildfire cases in Ukraine at 1x1 km spatial resolution for the period 2006-2008 based on active detection of thermals anomaly by MODIS shows that <span class="hlt">annually</span>, during the period nearly 20,000 cases of wildfires were detected. In extreme years like 2008, amount of fires doubled. Wildfires in Ukraine make important input in total Eurasian impact of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on Arctic. In particularly, the fire hazard period, characterized by highest fire activity - 30% of the total cases of detected active ignitions, occurs in the spring (March, April, May) and 55% in summer (July, August and September). Analysis of land use type of <span class="hlt">burnings</span> shows that 93% of fires for the period occur on agricultural land and other 7% - on forest lands. Near 23% of forest fires could be ignited as a result of transfer of fires from nearest agricultural lands. Comparing of remote sensing data with official forest fire statistics of State Agency of Forest Resources of Ukraine shows that only 15% of the total official amount of forest fires was detected by MODIS. This is because the accordingly to statistics, average <span class="hlt">area</span> of forest fires in Ukraine is near 1.1 ha, and large part of fires do not exceed 0.5 ha and less, while this <span class="hlt">area</span> is lowest threshold of detection by MODIS.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zibtsev, S.; Goldammer, J. G.; Gilitukha, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25326989"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Psychological support to <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> and their treatment are among the most painful experiences a person can have. Emotional needs of <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients have long been overshadowed by the focus on survival. Today, when the survival rate is much higher than in the past, the need of psychological and psychosocial engagement in working with victims of severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> has emerged. A patient undergoing various stages of adjustment is faced with emotional challenges that accompany physical recovery. Adapting to <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury involves a complex interplay between patient characteristics before the occurrence of <span class="hlt">burn</span>, environmental factors, and the nature of the <span class="hlt">burns</span> and medical care required. Adaptation implies adoption of new ideas about themselves and their body, new body image and new self image. Psychiatric and psychological treatment must be incorporated in <span class="hlt">burn</span> treatment centers within a multidisciplinary treatment team. Psychology and psychotherapy should address the problem of loss, grief, acceptance of body image and self image, in terms of psychiatric conditions of delirium, acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression and other psychiatric disorders. Technical assistance and support should be provided to the patient family members. In some cases, psychosocial treatment never ends; it takes years, later related to rehabilitated <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:25326989</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vlastelica, Mirela</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a003000/a003075/index.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> over South America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of living and dead vegetation. It includes the human-initiated <span class="hlt">burning</span> of vegetation for land clearing and land-use change as well as natural, lightning-induced fires. Scientists estimate that humans are responsible for about 90% of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> with only a small percentage of natural fires contributing to the total amount of vegetation <span class="hlt">burned</span>. <span class="hlt">Burning</span> vegetation releases large amounts of particulates (solid carbon combustion particles) and gases, including greenhouse gases that help warm the Earth. Studies suggest that biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> has increased on a global scale over the last 100 years, and computer calculations indicate that a hotter Earth resulting from global warming will lead to more frequent and larger fires. Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> particulates impact climate and can also affect human health when they are inhaled, causing respiratory problems. Here are three images of South America on October 7, 2004. The first image is shows clouds and fires on that day. The second image is clouds and Nitrous Dioxide (NO2) concentations in the stratosphere. The last image overlays the fires on the NO2 data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Perkins, Lori; Shirah, Greg; Hilsenrath, Ernest; Schoeberl, Mark; Veefkind, Pepijn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24714880"> <span id="translatedtitle">Animal models in <span class="hlt">burn</span> research.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than 2 million people in North America each year. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of <span class="hlt">burn</span> animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury, to elucidate the pathophysiology, and to explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review aims to highlight the common animal models of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of <span class="hlt">burn</span> exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of <span class="hl