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1

Annual burned area across a precipitation gradient in northwestern patagonia steppe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is one of the most important disturbances on the Earth affecting most terrestrial ecosystems. Evidence suggests that since the last glaciations there has been a substantial interaction among climate, vegetation and fire. In fact fire is recognized as an emergent property of climate and vegetation type, which determine that distinct regions are differently affected by wildfires. For instance, it has been suggest that relative roles of weather/climate and fuel on fire activity change along the global productivity/aridity (intermediate fire-productivity hypothesis). At one extreme of the gradient we find dry-unproductive regions (deserts) where fire is absent owing to very low fuel loads, while at the other extreme we have wet-productive environments (rain forest) with fire being unlikely due to high fuel moisture. Environments located around middle of the gradient, such as Mediterranean ecosystems, have a high fire activity but is difficult to predict if the fuel moisture conditions are a stronger constrain on the fire regime or it is constrained by biomass production (i.e. fuel load). The intermediate fire-productivity hypothesis has been tested in recent works at global scale. However, data resolution at global scale is coarse and thus is not possible know the fire variability occurring at scales of more spatial detail. Therefore, it is necessary to complement the information obtained at global scale with studies at finer scales exploring fire-productivity/aridity relationships in particular portions of the gradient. We elaborate fire cartography from Landsat temporal series (1973-2011) for a portion (560250 ha - regional scale) of northwestern Patagonian steppe. The study zone corresponds to a Mediterranean environment and is part of a gradient defined by a sharp drop in the precipitation regime (600mm to 280mm). This environmental gradient predisposes a change in fuel load and fuel moisture and therefore could be affecting the fire regime. We divided the study area in relation to precipitation gradient establishing two zones (wet and xeric). To delimit area of wildfires on Landsat scenes we used the NBR index. Then, we calculated the annual burned area in each zone, compared the annual burned area between zones and also explored relationships between that variable of the fire regime and precipitation/temperature data. We expect to contribute to the discussions about the importance of drought/fuel on the fire activity across the productivity/aridity gradient, specifically on Mediterranean environments. Finally, with this work we expect to improve future management and conservation practices in Northwestern Patagonia grasslands.

Oddi, Facundo; Ghermandi, Luciana; Lasaponara, Rosa

2013-04-01

2

Burned area, active fires and biomass burning - approaches to account for emissions from fires in Tanzania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eleven years of data from the globally available MODIS burned area and the MODS Active Fire Product have been analysed for Tanzania in conjunction with GIS data on land use and cover to provide a baseline for fire activity in this East African country. The total radiated energy (FRE) emitted by fires that were picked up by the burned area and active fire product is estimated based on a spatio-temporal clustering algorithm over the burned areas, and integration of the fire radiative power from the MODIS Active Fires product over the time of burning and the area of each burned area cluster. Resulting biomass combusted by unit area based on Wooste?s scaling factor for FRE to biomass combusted is compared to values found in the literature, and to values found in the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). Pyrogenic emissions are then estimated using emission factors. According to our analysis, an average of 11 million ha burn annually (ranging between 8.5 and 12.9 million ha) in Tanzania corresponding to between 10 and 14 % of Tanzaniás land area. Most burned area is recorded in the months from May to October. The land cover types most affected are woodland and shrubland cover types: they comprise almost 70 % of Tanzania's average annual burned area or 6.8 million ha. Most burning occurs in gazetted land, with an annual average of 3.7 million ha in forest reserves, 3.3 million ha in game reserves and 1.46 million ha in national parks, totalling close to 8.5 million ha or 77 % of the annual average burned area of Tanzania. Annual variability of burned area is moderate for most of the analysed classes, and in most cases there is no clear trend to be detected in burned area, except for the Lindi region were annual burned area appears to be increasing. Preliminary results regarding emissions from fires show that for larger fires that burn over a longer time, biomass burned derived through the FRP method compares well to literature values, while the integration over smaller fires with fewer observations yields unstable results due to undersampling issues and uncertainty in the start and end time of the fire events. Options for mitigating these issues using ancillary data such as fire weather information are discussed.

Ruecker, Gernot; Hoffmann, Anja; Leimbach, David; Tiemann, Joachim; Ng'atigwa, Charles

2013-04-01

3

Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall ? = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day.

Birch, Donovan S.; Morgan, Penelope; Kolden, Crystal A.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Smith, Alistair M. S.

2014-05-01

4

Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity analyses of key model parameters caused estimates of global burned area increases from small fires to vary between 24% and 54%. Biomass burning carbon emissions increased by 35% at a global scale when small fires were included in GFED3, from 1.9 Pg C/yr to 2.5 Pg C/yr. The contribution of tropical forest fires to year-to-year variability in carbon fluxes increased because small fires amplified emissions from Central America, South America and Southeast Asia-regions where drought stress and burned area varied considerably from year to year in response to El Nino-Southern Oscillation and other climate modes.

Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

2012-01-01

5

Field Trip Guide to the 2010 Schultz Fire Burn Area  

E-print Network

-fire flooding and erosion that occurred during the 2010 monsoon (http://azgs.az.gov/arizona_geology/winter10 Schultz Wildfire, Flagstaff, Arizona Ann Youberg ­ Arizona Geological Survey, Tucson Karen KoestnerField Trip Guide to the 2010 Schultz Fire Burn Area Arizona Hydrological Society Annual Symposium

6

Beaver Creek Burn Area Precipitation Gage  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

During August 2013, the Beaver Creek wildfire burned more than 114,000 acres near the south-central Idaho communities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, and Hailey. Partnering with Blaine County, the USGS installed a network of real-time precipitation gages in the burn area. Real-time information from the gage...

7

Burned Area Emergency Response Report July 8, 2010  

E-print Network

of prehistoric and historic archaeological sites. Post- #12;Coconino National Forest, Arizona Page 2 fire soilBurned Area Emergency Response Report July 8, 2010 Schultz Fire Coconino National Forest #12;Executive Summary Burned Area Report Cost Benefit Analysis Soil Burn Severity Map Treatment Map Values

8

Fire frequency, area burned, and severity: A quantitative approach to defining a normal fire year  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fire frequency, area burned, and fire severity are important attributes of a fire regime, but few studies have quantified the interrelationships among them in evaluating a fire year. Although area burned is often used to summarize a fire season, burned area may not be well correlated with either the number or ecological effect of fires. Using the Landsat data archive, we examined all 148 wildland fires (prescribed fires and wildfires) >40 ha from 1984 through 2009 for the portion of the Sierra Nevada centered on Yosemite National Park, California, USA. We calculated mean fire frequency and mean annual area burned from a combination of field- and satellite-derived data. We used the continuous probability distribution of the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) values to describe fire severity. For fires >40 ha, fire frequency, annual area burned, and cumulative severity were consistent in only 13 of 26 years (50 %), but all pair-wise comparisons among these fire regime attributes were significant. Borrowing from long-established practice in climate science, we defined "fire normals" to be the 26 year means of fire frequency, annual area burned, and the area under the cumulative probability distribution of dNBR. Fire severity normals were significantly lower when they were aggregated by year compared to aggregation by area. Cumulative severity distributions for each year were best modeled with Weibull functions (all 26 years, r2 ??? 0.99; P < 0.001). Explicit modeling of the cumulative severity distributions may allow more comprehensive modeling of climate-severity and area-severity relationships. Together, the three metrics of number of fires, size of fires, and severity of fires provide land managers with a more comprehensive summary of a given fire year than any single metric.

Lutz, J.A.; Key, C.H.; Kolden, C.A.; Kane, J.T.; van Wagtendonk, J.W.

2011-01-01

9

Impact of burned area on African seasonal climate in regional modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The WRF/SSiB2 model has been employed on a series of regional simulations to investigate the impact of burned areas associated with wildfires on African seasonal climate and surface energy balances. Burned areas are characterized by deposits of charcoal and ash, removal of vegetation, and alteration of the vegetation structure. Burned area information for the experiments was based on the MODIS burn date maps with an 8-day interval on 500m spatial resolution. Monthly burned area maps averaged over 2000-2011, and aggregated from the MODIS resolution, were created and incorporated in the regional model (50km resolution), whereby vegetation was reduced according to the percentage of grid cell area burned and ground albedo was reduced to 0.1 for a 10-day period after burning to reproduce the ground darkening associated with the amount of grid cell burned. Control (unburned) and burned preliminary experiments were carried out between 01 Oct 2010 and 31 Sep 2011 and compared to examine the sensitivity of different wildfire parameters on precipitation and surface fluxes; including sensitivity to ground albedo recovery time and vegetation resistance to fire. Vegetation cover, greenness, and LAI information were taken from the Fourier-Adjusted, Sensor and Solar zenith angle corrected, Interpolated, Reconstructed data set. Analysis of annual burned area maps revealed extensive burning, especially in the Sahel and between latitudes 0° and 15°S (Central Africa), with both regions exhibiting 50% or more of the area of a grid cell burned. Most of burning in Sahel occurred between November and February, while in the southern hemisphere it took place between June and September. Extensive burning was also found along eastern South Africa and Mozambique between 25° and 40° W, where some grid cells were 10% to 30% burned in August and September. Preliminary results indicated that the WRF/SSiB2 is sensitive to the land degradation associated with the burned areas. Areas with widespread burning experienced a reduction in evapotranspiration in the Sahel especially during the pre-monsoon months, and during monsoon withdrawal. In the Central and Southern Africa, the largest difference took place between January and April, and later August. In general, the impact on sensible heat flux was of opposite sign and significantly weaker than that of evapotranspiration in the Sahel. Changes to surface albedo in the model depends on two distinct processes; ground darkening associated with burning (direct effect) and changes in soil moisture associated with precipitation variability (indirect effect). The patterns of precipitation change resulting from burn degradation were complex, with areas of positive and negative changes within both regions. On average, annual precipitation was reduced in the Sahel by approximately 3.5%. Most of the change occurred during the monsoon season. In contrast, Central and Southern Africa experienced increase in rainfall in the austral winter but decrease in the summer months, resulting in nearly no annual change. Results also revealed that vegetation resistance to fire and ground albedo recovery time are important factors that must be accounted for to realistically simulate the impact of burned area in Africa.

De Sales, F.; Xue, Y.; Okin, G. S.

2013-12-01

10

Relation between wind speed and burned area on global scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global datasets of burned area have been analyzed with respect to different fire drivers. Various studies find, that climatic variables as well as the vegetation composition or the human influence shape the global distribution of burned area. Wind speed datasets have not been included so far in such analysis. Local studies show that wind speed influences the rate of spread and also that the rate of spread can decrease for high wind speeds. The commonly used Rothermel equations suggest a rate of spread which does not further increase when reaching a certain wind limit. Including fire in global models is a relatively new field and analysis of recent global datasets an important source of information for improvement of global scale fire models. Fire is a climate driven and climate relevant process, therefore a realistic response of the modeled fire occurrence with respect to climate variables is crucial. We analyze the correlation between remotely sensed burned area and three global wind speed datasets on different spatial and temporal scales, as well as different land cover types. We find that the burned area peaks for mean wind speeds of about 2 ms-1. Using generalized additive models (GAMs) we analyze the response functions including other important drivers of burned area, e.g. temperature, net primary productivity, precipitation, tree cover and population density. Accounting for these other drivers the response functions confirm increasing burned area with increasing wind speed up to a certain threshold and decreasing burned area thereafter. We used this information in the global land surface model JSBACH that includes a prognostic fire model (SPITFIRE) which is based on the Rothermel fire spread equations. The SPITFIRE model did not include the wind limitation before and model residuals for the burned area compared to present day observations showed a correlation with wind speed. Including the relationship between wind speed and burned area as derived from the observations improved the spatial patterns of modeled burned fraction on global scale.

Lasslop, G.; Kloster, S.

2013-12-01

11

[Application of three-dimensional technology in assessment of burn area and treatment strategy of burns].  

PubMed

Accurate area assessment of a burn injury and its treatment according to its depth of injury are the foundation of burn treatment due to its complexity, and various techniques and methods have been employed to solve these problems for many years. As the demand of modern medicine calls for individualized and precise therapeutic measures, it is clear that the traditional diagnostic and treatment measures are insufficient. The flourishing development of three-dimensional (3D) technology seems to provide new research approaches and technical opporturities for burn surgery. A series of techniques such as 3D model, 3D scanning, and 3D printing may be promising in advancing burn surgery through basic research to achieve rational clinical applications in the future. In this paper, the applications and achievements of 3D technology in burn surgery in recent years are summarized. PMID:25508034

Sheng, Wen-bo; Dong, Guosheng; Wan, Yan; Yao, Li; Tang, Hongtai; Xia, Zhaofan

2014-08-01

12

Mapping burned areas and burn severity patterns across the Mediterranean region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean region is highly susceptible to wildfires. On average, about 60,000 fires take place in this region every year, burning on average half a million hectares of forests and natural vegetation. Wildfires cause environmental degradation and affect the lives of thousands of people in the region. In order to minimize the consequences of these catastrophic events, fire managers and national authorities need to have in their disposal accurate and updated spatial information concerning the size of the burned area as well as the burn severity patterns. Mapping burned areas and burn severity patterns is necessary to effectively support the decision-making process in what concerns strategic (long-term) planning with the definition of post-fire actions at European and national scales. Although a comprehensive archive of burnt areas exists at the European Forest Fire Information System, the analysis of the severity of the areas affected by forest fires in the region is not yet available. Fire severity is influenced by many variables, including fuel type, topography and meteorological conditions before and during the fire. The analysis of fire severity is essential to determine the socio-economic impact of forest fires, to assess fire impacts, and to determine the need of post-fire rehabilitation measures. Moreover, fire severity is linked to forest fire emissions and determines the rate of recovery of the vegetation after the fire. Satellite imagery can give important insights about the conditions of the live fuel moisture content and can be used to assess changes on vegetation structure and vitality after forest fires. Fire events occurred in Greece, Portugal and Spain during the fire season of 2009 were recorded and analyzed in a GIS environment. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) were calculated from 8-days composites MODIS/TERRA imagery from March to October 2009. In addition, subtracting a post-fire from a pre-fire image derived index produces a measure of absolute change of the vegetation condition, like the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio index (dNBR). The aim of this study was the assessment of fire severity across diverse ecological and environmental conditions in the Mediterranean region. The specific objectives were: • The analysis of the correlation between the fire severity and local site conditions, including topography, fuel type, land use, land cover. • The analysis of the correlation between fire severity and fire danger conditions during the fire, as estimated by the European Forest Fire Information System. • Assessing the performance of several vegetation indices derived from MODIS imagery in estimating fire severity. • Assessing the permanence of the burnt signal for large fires as an estimate of fire severity.

Kalogeropoulos, Christos; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Kempeneers, Pieter; Sedano, Fernando; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Camia, Andrea

2010-05-01

13

Burns  

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14

Burns  

MedlinePLUS

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15

Data Summary Report D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to verify that all analytical data collected at the D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits at the Savannah River Site for use in developing risk assessment and potential remediation procedures have been validated at the appropriate level. Any discrepancies or reasons why the data should be rejected for this purpose will be addressed. This report documents the data validation procedures used by Environmental Monitoring Section, Exploration Resources, and RUST Environment {ampersand} Infrastructure for Assigning qualifiers.

Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1994-10-01

16

Annual and diurnal african biomass burning temporal dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Africa is the single largest continental source of biomass burning emissions. Here we conduct the first analysis of one full year of geostationary active fire detections and fire radiative power data recorded over Africa at 15-min temporal interval and a 3 km sub-satellite spatial resolution by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) imaging radiometer onboard the Meteosat-8 satellite. We use these data to provide new insights into the rates and totals of open biomass burning over Africa, particularly into the extremely strong seasonal and diurnal cycles that exist across the continent. We estimate peak daily biomass combustion totals to be 9 and 6 million tonnes of fuel per day in the northern and southern hemispheres respectively, and total fuel consumption between February 2004 and January 2005 is estimated to be at least 855 million tonnes. Analysis is carried out with regard to fire pixel temporal persistence, and we note that the majority of African fires are detected only once in consecutive 15 min imaging slots. An investigation of the variability of the diurnal fire cycle is carried out with respect to 20 different land cover types, and whilst differences are noted between land covers, the fire diurnal cycle characteristics for most land cover type are very similar in both African hemispheres. We compare the Fire Radiative Power (FRP) derived biomass combustion estimates to burned-areas, both at the scale of individual fires and over the entire continent at a 1-degree scale. Fuel consumption estimates are found to be less than 2 kg/m2 for all land cover types noted to be subject to significant fire activity, and for savanna grasslands where literature values are commonly reported the FRP-derived median fuel consumption estimate of 300 g/m2 is well within commonly quoted values. Meteosat-derived FRP data of the type presented here is now available freely to interested users continuously and in near real-time for Africa, Europe and parts of South America via the EUMETSAT (European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites) Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (http://landsaf.meteo.pt/). Continuous generation of these products will allow the types of analysis presented in this paper to be improved and extended, and such multi-year records should allow relationships between climate, fire and fuel to be further examined.

Roberts, G.; Wooster, M. J.; Lagoudakis, E.

2009-05-01

17

Evaluating the accuracy of a MODIS direct broadcast algorithm for mapping burned areas over Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission inventories for open area biomass burning rely on burned area estimates as a key component. We have developed an automated algorithm based on MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite instrument data for estimating burned area from biomass fires. The algorithm is based on active fire detections, burn scars from MODIS calibrated radiances (MOD02HKM), and MODIS land cover classification (MOD12Q1). Our burned area product combines active fires and burn scar detections using spatio-temporal criteria, and has a resolution of 500 x 500 meters. The algorithm has been used for smoke emission estimates over the western United States. We will present the assessed accuracy of our algorithm in different regions of Russia with intense wildfire activity by comparing our results with the burned area product from the Sukachev Institute of Forest (SIF) of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Krasnoyarsk, Russia, as well as burn scars extracted from Landsat imagery. Landsat burned area extraction was based on threshold classification using the Jenks Natural Breaks algorithm to the histogram for each singe scene Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) image. The final evaluation consisted of a grid-based approach, where the burned area in each 3 km x 3 km grid cell was calculated and compared with the other two sources. A comparison between our burned area estimates and those from SIF showed strong correlation (R2=0.978), although our estimate is approximately 40% lower than the SIF burned areas. The linear fit between the burned area from Landsat scenes and our MODIS algorithm over 18,754 grid cells resulted with a slope of 0.998 and R2=0.7, indicating that our algorithm is suitable for mapping burned areas for fires in boreal forests and other ecosystems. The results of our burned area algorithm will be used for estimating emissions of trace gasses and aerosol particles (including black carbon) from biomass burning in Northern Eurasia for the period of 2002-2011.

Petkov, A.; Hao, W. M.; Nordgren, B.; Corley, R.; Urbanski, S. P.; Ponomarev, E. I.

2012-12-01

18

Characterizing biomass burning in shrub-steppe: Burned area and seasonal trace gas emission factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is one of the most influential disturbance agents in the Earth's terrestrial and atmospheric environments; it alters availability of nutrients for plants and directly contributes to the concentration of trace gases and particulates in the atmosphere. Global climate change, coupled with increasing use of prescribed fire, provides an ongoing need for monitoring emission fluxes of trace gases to the atmosphere. As plant communities shift due to changing temperatures and fire frequency (e.g., the cheatgrass-sagebrush systems in the Great Basin, United States), increased knowledge of the variability in timing and quantity of fire emissions is necessary. The research within this thesis is focused on characterizing the uncertainty associated with the calculation of emission flux from shrub-steppe ecosystems. Specifically, this research 1) quantifies the uncertainty within the most widely applied burned area mapping product that is used in United States shrub-steppe ecosystems, 2) characterizes season variability in nitrogenous and carbonaceous trace gas emissions for shrub-steppe systems observed from laboratory burns, and finally 3) discusses possible underlying mechanisms for these observed results.

Sparks, Aaron M.

19

Improving global fire carbon emissions estimates by combining moderate resolution burned area and active fire observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In several important biomes, including croplands and tropical forests, many small fires exist that have sizes that are well below the detection limit for the current generation of burned area products derived from moderate resolution spectroradiometers. These fires likely have important effects on greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and regional air quality. Here we developed an approach for combining 1km thermal anomalies (active fires; MOD14A2) and 500m burned area observations (MCD64A1) to estimate the prevalence of these fires and their likely contribution to burned area and carbon emissions. We first estimated active fires within and outside of 500m burn scars in 0.5 degree grid cells during 2001-2010 for which MCD64A1 burned area observations were available. For these two sets of active fires we then examined mean fire radiative power (FRP) and changes in enhanced vegetation index (EVI) derived from 16-day intervals immediately before and after each active fire observation. To estimate the burned area associated with sub-500m fires, we first applied burned area to active fire ratios derived solely from within burned area perimeters to active fires outside of burn perimeters. In a second step, we further modified our sub-500m burned area estimates using EVI changes from active fires outside and within of burned areas (after subtracting EVI changes derived from control regions). We found that in northern and southern Africa savanna regions and in Central and South America dry forest regions, the number of active fires outside of MCD64A1 burned areas increased considerably towards the end of the fire season. EVI changes for active fires outside of burn perimeters were, on average, considerably smaller than EVI changes associated with active fires inside burn scars, providing evidence for burn scars that were substantially smaller than the 25 ha area of a single 500m pixel. FRP estimates also were lower for active fires outside of burn perimeters. In our analysis we quantified how including sub-500m burned area influenced global burned area, carbon emissions, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in different continental regions using the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) biogeochemical model. We conclude by discussing validation needs using higher resolution visible and thermal imagery.

Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; Giglio, L.; Rogers, B. M.; van der Werf, G.

2011-12-01

20

Burns  

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21

Biomass burning in Asia: Annual and seasonal estimates and atmospheric emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of biomass burning in Asia are developed to facilitate the modeling of Asian and global air quality. A survey of national, regional, and international publications on biomass burning is conducted to yield consensus estimates of "typical" (i.e., non-year-specific) estimates of open burning (excluding biofuels). We conclude that 730 Tg of biomass are burned in a typical year from both anthropogenic and natural causes. Forest burning comprises 45% of the total, the burning of crop residues in the field comprises 34%, and 20% comes from the burning of grassland and savanna. China contributes 25% of the total, India 18%, Indonesia 13%, and Myanmar 8%. Regionally, forest burning in Southeast Asia dominates. National, annual totals are converted to daily and monthly estimates at 1° × 1° spatial resolution using distributions based on AVHRR fire counts for 1999-2000. Several adjustment schemes are applied to correct for the deficiencies of AVHRR data, including the use of moving averages, normalization, TOMS Aerosol Index, and masks for dust, clouds, landcover, and other fire sources. Good agreement between the national estimates of biomass burning and adjusted fire counts is obtained (R2 = 0.71-0.78). Biomass burning amounts are converted to atmospheric emissions, yielding the following estimates: 0.37 Tg of SO2, 2.8 Tg of NOx, 1100 Tg of CO2, 67 Tg of CO, 3.1 Tg of CH4, 12 Tg of NMVOC, 0.45 Tg of BC, 3.3 Tg of OC, and 0.92 Tg of NH3. Uncertainties in the emission estimates, measured as 95% confidence intervals, range from a low of ±65% for CO2 emissions in Japan to a high of ±700% for BC emissions in India.

Streets, D. G.; Yarber, K. F.; Woo, J.-H.; Carmichael, G. R.

2003-12-01

22

Burns  

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23

Burns  

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24

Assessing the response of area burned to changing climate in western boreal North America using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) approach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fire is a common disturbance in the North American boreal forest that influences ecosystem structure and function. The temporal and spatial dynamics of fire are likely to be altered as climate continues to change. In this study, we ask the question: how will area burned in boreal North America by wildfire respond to future changes in climate? To evaluate this question, we developed temporally and spatially explicit relationships between air temperature and fuel moisture codes derived from the Canadian Fire Weather Index System to estimate annual area burned at 2.5?? (latitude ?? longitude) resolution using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS) approach across Alaska and Canada. Burned area was substantially more predictable in the western portion of boreal North America than in eastern Canada. Burned area was also not very predictable in areas of substantial topographic relief and in areas along the transition between boreal forest and tundra. At the scale of Alaska and western Canada, the empirical fire models explain on the order of 82% of the variation in annual area burned for the period 1960-2002. July temperature was the most frequently occurring predictor across all models, but the fuel moisture codes for the months June through August (as a group) entered the models as the most important predictors of annual area burned. To predict changes in the temporal and spatial dynamics of fire under future climate, the empirical fire models used output from the Canadian Climate Center CGCM2 global climate model to predict annual area burned through the year 2100 across Alaska and western Canada. Relative to 1991-2000, the results suggest that average area burned per decade will double by 2041-2050 and will increase on the order of 3.5-5.5 times by the last decade of the 21st century. To improve the ability to better predict wildfire across Alaska and Canada, future research should focus on incorporating additional effects of long-term and successional vegetation changes on area burned to account more fully for interactions among fire, climate, and vegetation dynamics. ?? 2009 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Balshi, M.S.; McGuire, A.D.; Duffy, P.; Flannigan, M.; Walsh, J.; Melillo, J.

2009-01-01

25

Automated Burned Area Delineation Using IRS AWiFS satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India is endowed with a rich forest cover. Over 21% of country's area is covered by forest of varied composition and structure. Out of 67.5 million ha of Indian forests, about 55% of the forest cover is being subjected to fires each year, causing an economic loss of over 440 crores of rupees apart from other ecological effects. Studies carried out by Forest Survey of India reveals that on an average 53% forest cover of the country is prone to fires and 6.17% of the forests are prone to severe fire damage. Forest Survey of India in a countrywide study in 1995 estimated that about 1.45 million hectares of forest are affected by fire annually. According to Forest Protection Division of the Ministry of Environment and Forest (GOI), 3.73 million ha of forests are affected by fire annually in India. Karnataka is one of the southern states of India extending in between latitude 110 30' and 180 25' and longitudes 740 10' and 780 35'. As per Forest Survey of India's State of Forest Report (SFR) 2009, of the total geographic area of 191791sq.km, the state harbors 38284 sq.km of recorded forest area. Major forest types occurring in the study area are tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen, tropical moist and dry deciduous forests along with tropical scrub and dry grasslands. Typical forest fire season in the study area is from February-May with a peak during March-April every year, though sporadic fire episodes occur in other parts of the year sq.km, the state harbors 38284 sq.km of recorded forest area. Major forest types occurring in the study area are tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen, tropical moist and dry deciduous forests along with tropical scrub and dry grasslands. Significant area of the deciduous forests, scrub and grasslands is prone to recurrent forest fires every year. In this study we evaluate the feasibility of burned area mapping over a large area (Karnataka state, India) using a semi-automated detection algorithm applied to medium resolution multi spectral data from the IRS AWiFS sensor. The method is intended to be used by non-specialist users for diagnostic rapid burnt area mapping.

Singhal, J.; Kiranchand, T. R.; Rajashekar, G.; Jha, C. S.

2014-12-01

26

Historical burn area in western Canadian peatlands and its relationship to fire weather indices  

E-print Network

, 1996; Burke et al., 1997; O'Neill et al., 2002]. Between 5 and 12 million ha of boreal forest burn in the boreal region are highly variable, and area of forest burned is related to seasonal variations in temper Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Received 14 January 2004; revised 28 June 2004

Turetsky, Merritt

27

Nitrogen and sulfur emissions from the burning of forest products near large urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne measurements of trace gases and particles in the smoke from a prescribed burn of forest products in the Los Angeles basin show significantly higher emissions of NO\\/sub X\\/, SOâ, and particulate NOâ⁻ than do measurements in smokes from the burning of biomass in rural areas. It is postulated that the high emissions are due to the revolatilization of previoulsy

Dean A. Hegg; Lawrence F. Radke; Peter V. Hobbs; Charles A. Brock; Philip J. Riggan

1987-01-01

28

Multi-scale burned area mapping in tallgrass prairie using in situ spectrometry and satellite imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prescribed burning in tallgrass prairie affects a wide range of human and natural systems. Consequently, managing this biome based on sound science, and with the concerns of all stakeholders taken into account, requires a method for mapping burned areas. In order to devise such a method, many different spectral ranges and spectral indices were tested for their ability to differentiate burned from unburned areas at both the field and satellite scales. Those bands and/or indices that performed well, as well as two different classification techniques and two different satellite-based sensors, were tested in order to come up with the best combination of band/index, classification technique, and sensor for mapping burned areas in tallgrass prairie. The ideal method used both the red and near-infrared spectral regions, used imagery at a spatial resolution of at least 250 m, used satellite imagery with daily temporal resolution, and used pixel-based classification techniques rather than object-based techniques. Using this method, burned area maps were generated for the Flint Hills for every year from 2000-2010, creating a fire history of the region during that time period. These maps were compared to active fire and burned area products, and these products were found to underestimate burned areas in tallgrass prairie.

Mohler, Rhett L.

29

Effects of Range Burning on Kansas Flint Hills Soil  

E-print Network

effects of burning bluestem range. Dry plant CIOW~S of bunchgrasses may burn, destroying part or all True Prairie loamy upland range sites (Anderson and Fly, 1955) in two experi- mental units were studied plots in that area consti- tuted five duplicated burning treatments, five burned annually and five

Owensby, Clenton E.

30

Modelling fire frequency and area burned across phytoclimatic regions in Spain using reanalysis data and the Canadian Fire Weather Index System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop fire occurrence and burned area models in peninsular Spain, an area of high variability in climate and fuel types, for the period 1990-2008. We based the analysis on a phytoclimatic classification aiming to the stratification of the territory into homogeneous units in terms of climatic and fuel type characteristics, allowing to test model performance under different climatic and fuel conditions. We used generalized linear models (GLM) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) as modelling algorithms and temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and wind speed, taken from the ERA-Interim reanalysis, as well as the components of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System as predictors. We also computed the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) as an additional predictor for the models of burned area. We found two contrasting fire regimes in terms of area burned and number of fires: one characterized by a bimodal annual pattern, characterizing the Nemoral and Oro-boreal phytoclimatic types, and another one exhibiting an unimodal annual cycle, with the fire season concentrated in the summer months in the Mediterranean and Arid regions. The fire occurrence models attained good skill in most of the phytoclimatic zones considered, yielding in some zones notably high correlation coefficients between the observed and modelled inter-annual fire frequencies. Total area burned also exhibited a high dependence on the meteorological drivers, although their ability to reproduce the observed annual burned area time series was poor in most cases. We identified temperature and some FWI system components as the most important explanatory variables, and also SPEI in some of the burned area models, highlighting the adequacy of the FWI system for fire modelling applications and leaving the door opened to the development a more complex modelling framework based on these predictors. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential usefulness of ERA-Interim reanalysis data for the reconstruction of historical fire-climate relationships at the scale of analysis. Fire frequency predictions may provide a preferable basis for past fire history reconstruction, long-term monitoring and the assessment of future climate impacts on fire regimes across regions, posing several advantages over burned area as response variable.

Bedia, J.; Herrera, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

2013-09-01

31

Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area 2008 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area is a 12,718 acre complex located in Douglas County, Washington. Four distinct management units make up the area: Bridgeport, Chester Butte, Dormaier and Sagebrush Flat. The four Units are located across a wide geographic area within Douglas County. The Units are situated roughly along a north/south line from Bridgeport in the north to the Douglas/Grant county line in the south, 60 miles away. The wildlife area was established to conserve and enhance shrubsteppe habitat for the benefit shrubsteppe obligate and dependent wildlife species. In particular, the Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area is managed to promote the recovery of three state-listed species: Columbian sharp-tailed grouse (threatened), greater sage grouse (threatened) and the pygmy rabbit (endangered). The US Fish and Wildlife Service also list the pygmy rabbit as endangered. Wildlife area staff seeded 250 acres of old agricultural fields located on the Sagebrush Flat, Dormaier and Chester Butte units. This has been a three project to reestablish high quality shrubsteppe habitat on fields that had either been abandoned (Dormaier) or were dominated by non-native grasses. A mix of 17 native grasses and forbs, most of which were locally collected and grown, was used. First year maintenance included spot spraying Dalmatian toadflax on all sites and mowing annual weeds to reduce competition. Photo points were established and will be integral to long term monitoring and evaluation. Additional monitoring and evaluation will come from existing vegetation transects. This year weed control efforts included spot treatment of noxious weeds, particularly Dalmatian toadflax, in previously restored fields on the Bridgeport Unit (150 acres). Spot treatment also took place within fields scheduled for restoration (40 acres) and in areas where toadflax infestations are small and relatively easily contained. Where toadflax is so widespread that chemical treatment would be impractical, we use the bioagent Mecinus janthinus, available through Professor Gary Piper of Washington State University. This year we released 4,000 M. janthinus on the Bridgeport Unit at 6 separate locations. Since 2002 we have released approximately 14,400 of these insects, 80% of these on the Bridgeport Unit. Additional weed control activities included mowing and spot spraying more than 32 miles of roads, cutting and removal of annual weeds within fenced deer exclosures. We upgraded the solar powered irrigation system that supplies water to a stand of water birch trees planted in 2002. Wildlife area staff designed and built a new solar array and installed a higher capacity pump. The increased capacity will ensure that these trees receive adequate water through the hot summer months and allow us to create at least one additional stand. This project is an important part in our effort to expand the available winter habitat for sharp-tailed grouse on the Bridgeport Unit. Maintenance of fences, parking areas and roads continued during throughout the year. Two parking areas, at Chester Butte and Bridgeport, were graded and additional gravel added. Roads on the Bridgeport Unit were graded and repaired following spring runoff. Trespass and dumping issues have increased in recent years on the Bridgeport Unit. To address these problems we constructed four steel gates at access points on this unit. Each gate is tubular steel attached to 8-inch diameter steel posts, 10 feet long that are cemented into the ground. Two gates allow access to BPA substation facilities and power-line right-of ways so placement, construction and locking issues had to be coordinated with BPA's Real Estate staff in Spokane. Environmental Compliance Documentation issues were addressed again this year. This process has the potential to cause delays the completion of projects within the fiscal year. With this in mind and an eye toward the future, we requested that several projects planned for the coming years be surveyed this year. Beginning in August of 2007, area staff worked with BPA staff to identify work elements

Peterson, Dan [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

2008-11-03

32

Design-based validation of the MODIS Global Burned Area Product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential research, policy and management applications of satellite products place a high priority on providing statements about their accuracy. Product comparison with independent reference data is needed to determine product accuracy. Design-based accuracy assessment methods select the independent reference data using a probability sampling and are preferred as the reference data can subsequently be used to compute accuracy metrics that explicitly take into account the sampling probability. To date, no global burned area product has been validated using a design-based methodology due to the technical challenges of designing an appropriate independent reference data sampling strategy, and, until recently, due to the high cost of independent reference data collection. Burned area product errors are not randomly distributed in space and time and tend to be linked to seasonal phenomena that can be confused with burning. This paper describes the design-based sampling strategy developed for the validation of the MODIS Global Burned Area Products using more than 200 globally distributed multi-temporal pairs of Landsat scenes, processed following the recommendations of the CEOS Cal/Val Burned Area Validation Protocol. The sampling design is illustrated and the advantages of the design-based sampling discussed.

Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.; Stehman, S. V.

2012-12-01

33

MODIS-Landsat data fusion for continental scale burned area mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite data have been used to monitor fire for more than two decades using computer algorithms that detect the location of active fires at the time of satellite overpass, and in the last decade using burned area mapping algorithms that map the spatial extent of the areas affected by fires. Until the successful launch of the polar-orbiting NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors there were no environmental satellite systems with dedicated fire monitoring capabilities. The MODIS design includes bands specifically selected for fire detection and MODIS data are being used to systematically generate the daily global 1km active fire and the monthly 500m burned area products. However, neither MODIS product can detect fires reliably at the scale of 10's of meters. The recent U.S. free Landsat data policy now provides the opportunity for continental to global scale Landsat 30m resolution processing. This paper presents a multi-temporal methodology to fuse the MODIS active fire and burned area products with Landsat data to map burned areas at 30m on a temporally rolling basis. To demonstrate the fusion methodology, 30m burned area maps of the conterminous United States (CONUS) are generated using the freely available Web Enabled Landsat (WELD) ETM+ mosaics (http://landsat.usgs.gov/WELD.php). Validation is conducted by systematic comparison with the fire perimeter vectors provided by the USGS Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. Prospects for future developments and continental application are discussed. The presented methodology demonstrates the potential for the fusion of the planned NPP/NPOESS VIIRS active fire product with reflectance data sensed by the planned Landsat Data Continuity missions.

Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.

2011-12-01

34

Future climate and wildfire: ecosystem projections of area burned in the western US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The area burned by fire in ecosystems of the western United States has been closely linked to climate in the paleoecological record and in the modern record. Statistical models of area burned show that the climatic controls on area burned vary with vegetation type (Littell et al. 2009). In more arid or systems (grasslands, shrublands, woodlands), antecedent climatic controls on fire were associated first with the production of fuels and secondarily with drought in the year of fire. These relationships typically manifested as wetter and sometimes cooler conditions in the seasons prior to the fire season. Area burned in forest ecosystems and some woodlands was primarily associated with drought conditions, specifically increased temperature and decreased precipitation in the year of fire and the seasons leading up to the fire season. These climatic controls indicate the role of climate in drying existing fuels. Statistical fire models trained on the late 20th century for ecoprovinces in the West would be useful for projecting area burned, at least until vegetation type conversion driven by climate and disturbance occurs. To that end, we used ~ 2.5 degree gridded future climate fields derived for a multi-GCM ensemble of 1C and 2C temperature increase forcing to develop future ecoprovince monthly and seasonal average temperature and associated precipitation and used these as predictors in statistical fire models of future projected area burned. We also conducted modeling scenarios with the ensemble temperature increase paired with historical precipitation. Most ecoprovinces had increases in area burned, with a range of ~ 67% to over 600% . Ecoprovinces that are primarily sensitive to precipitation changes exhibit smaller increases than those most sensitive to temperature (forest systems). We also developed exceedance probabilities. Some ecoprovinces show large increases in area burned but low exceedance probabilities, suggest that the area burned is concentrated more towards the middle of the distribution - more small years are becoming medium years. In other provinces, large increases in the exceedance probability indicate that extreme fire years become more common. In summary, ecoprovince area burned increases on average by 247% over the period 1970-2003, and exceedance probability increases five-fold, from roughly 1 in 50 to roughly 1 in 10. These results suggest shifts in forest planning and fire planning within fire season. For example, landscape resilience to future fire is affected not just by climate, but also the arrangement and structure of fuels. The utility of managing fuels depends on the nature of fire in a landscape and how its behavior can be modified. Within a single fire season, the cost of fire suppression depends on whether the increase in area burned manifests as more fires of similar size or the same number of fires becoming much larger. The climatic linkages between climate and fire in different ecosystems imply, the latter is likely in both forest and grassland systems due to increases in the continuity of available fuels.

Littell, J. S.; Duffy, P.; Battisti, D. S.; McKenzie, D.; Peterson, D. L.

2010-12-01

35

Total body surface area overestimation at referring institutions in children transferred to a burn center.  

PubMed

Total body surface area (TBSA) burned is a powerful descriptor of burn severity and influences the volume of resuscitation required in burn patients. The incidence and severity of TBSA overestimation by referring institutions (RIs) in children transferred to a burn center (BC) are unclear. The association between TBSA overestimation and overresuscitation is unknown as is that between TBSA overestimation and outcome. The trauma registry at a BC was queried over 7.25 years for children presenting with burns. TBSA estimate at RIs and BC, total fluid volume given before arrival at a BC, demographic variables, and clinical variables were reviewed. Nearly 20 per cent of children arrived from RIs without TBSA estimation. Nearly 50 per cent were overestimated by 5 per cent or greater TBSA and burn sizes were overestimated by up to 44 per cent TBSA. Average TBSA measured at BC was 9.5 ± 8.3 per cent compared with 15.5 ± 11.8 per cent as measured at RIs (P < 0.0001). Burns between 10 and 19.9 per cent TBSA were overestimated most often and by the greatest amounts. There was a statistically significant relationship between overestimation of TBSA by 5 per cent or greater and overresuscitation by 10 mL/kg or greater (P = 0.02). No patient demographic or clinical factors were associated with TBSA overestimation. Education efforts aimed at emergency department physicians regarding the importance of always calculating TBSA as well as the mechanics of TBSA estimation and calculating resuscitation volume are needed. Further studies should evaluate the association of TBSA overestimation by RIs with adverse outcomes and complications in the burned child. PMID:25569067

Swords, Douglas S; Hadley, Edmund D; Swett, Katrina R; Pranikoff, Thomas

2015-01-01

36

Radiative surface temperatures of the burned and unburned areas in a tallgrass prairie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study was conducted in a natural tallgrass prairie area in the Flint Hills of Kansas. The objective was to evaluate the surface radiative temperatures of burned and unburned treatments of the grassland as a means of delineating the areas covered by each treatment. Burning is used to remove the senescent vegetation resulting from the previous year's growth. Surface temperatures were obtained in situ and by an airborne scanner. Burned and unburned grass canopies had distinctly different diurnal surface radiative temperatures. Measurements of surface energy balance components revealed a difference in partitioning of the available energy between the two canopies, which resulted in the difference in their measured surface temperatures. The magnitude of this difference is dependent on the time of measurements and topographic conditions.

Asrar, G.; Harris, T. R.; Lapitan, R. L.; Cooper, D. I.

1988-01-01

37

Long lead statistical forecasts of area burned in western U.S. wildfires by ecosystem province  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A statistical forecast methodology exploits large-scale patterns in monthly U.S. Climatological Division Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) values over a wide region and several seasons to predict area burned in western U.S. wildfires by ecosystem province a season in advance. The forecast model, which is based on canonical correlations, indicates that a few characteristic patterns determine predicted wildfire season area burned. Strong negative associations between anomalous soil moisture (inferred from PDSI) immediately prior to the fire season and area burned dominate in most higher elevation forested provinces, while strong positive associations between anomalous soil moisture a year prior to the fire season and area burned dominate in desert and shrub and grassland provinces. In much of the western U.S., above- and below-normal fire season forecasts were successful 57% of the time or better, as compared with a 33% skill for a random guess, and with a low probability of being surprised by a fire season at the opposite extreme of that forecast.

Westerling, A.L.; Gershunov, A.; Cayan, D.R.; Barnett, T.P.

2002-01-01

38

BIG SAGEBRUSH LEAF AREA DYNAMICS ON A BURNED, GRAZED AND CONTROL SITE IN THE SAGEBRUSH STEPPE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) is an important shrub for wildlife habitat and carbon sequestration in the western U.S. The effects of fire and grazing on leaf area development of big sagebrush were investigated in plots established on a 16-ha burned site, a 12-ha grazed site and 16-ha c...

39

76 FR 30997 - National Transit Database: Amendments to Urbanized Area Annual Reporting Manual  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FTA-2010-0027] National Transit Database: Amendments to Urbanized Area Annual...of Amendments to 2011 National Transit Database Urbanized Area Annual Reporting Manual...Administration's (FTA) 2011 National Transit Database (NTD) Urbanized Area Annual...

2011-05-27

40

Reconstructing long time series of burned areas in arid grasslands of southern Russia by satellite remote sensing  

E-print Network

Reconstructing long time series of burned areas in arid grasslands of southern Russia by satellite: AVHRR MODIS RESURS Landsat Burned area mapping Southern Russia Arid grasslands Grazing Fire, assessing fire regime changes is challenging, especially in grasslands because of high intra- and inter

Radeloff, Volker C.

41

Sources of debris flow material in burned areas Paul M. Santi a,, Victor G. deWolfe a  

E-print Network

Sources of debris flow material in burned areas Paul M. Santi a,, Victor G. deWolfe a , Jerry D The vulnerability of recently burned areas to debris flows has been well established. Likewise, it has been shown that many, if not most, post-fire debris flows are initiated by runoff and erosion and grow in size through

42

Design of an Actinide Burning, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor That Produces Low Cost Electricty - FY-02 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this collaborative Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project is to investigate the suitability of lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. Work has been accomplished in four major areas of research: core neutronic design, plant engineering, material compatibility studies, and coolant activation. The publications derived from work on this project (since project inception) are listed in Appendix A. This is the third in a series of Annual Reports for this project, the others are also listed in Appendix A as FY-00 and FY-01 Annual Reports.

Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo

2002-10-01

43

Biomass burning in Asia: Annual and seasonal estimates and atmospheric emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of biomass burning in Asia are developed to facilitate the modeling of Asian and global air quality. A survey of national, regional, and international publications on biomass burning is conducted to yield consensus estimates of ``typical'' (i.e., non-year-specific) estimates of open burning (excluding biofuels). We conclude that 730 Tg of biomass are burned in a typical year from both

D. G. Streets; K. F. Yarber; J.-H. Woo; G. R. Carmichael

2003-01-01

44

Biomass burning in Asia: Annual and seasonal estimates and atmospheric emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of biomass burning in Asia are developed to facilitate the modeling of Asian and global air quality. A survey of national, regional, and international publications on biomass burning is conducted to yield consensus estimates of “typical” (i.e., non-year-specific) estimates of open burning (excluding biofuels). We conclude that 730 Tg of biomass are burned in a typical year from both

D. G. Streets; K. F. Yarber; J.-H. Woo; G. R. Carmichael

2003-01-01

45

Biomass burning in Asia : annual and seasonal estimates and atmospheric emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of biomass burning in Asia are developed to facilitate the modeling of Asian and global air quality. A survey of national, regional, and international publications on biomass burning is conducted to yield consensus estimates of 'typical' (i.e., non-year-specific) estimates of open burning (excluding biofuels). We conclude that 730 Tg of biomass are burned in a typical year from both

D. G. Streets; K. F. Yarber; J.-H. Woo; G. R. Carmichael

2003-01-01

46

Daily burned area and carbon emissions from boreal fires in Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal fires burn carbon-rich organic soils, thereby releasing large quantities of trace gases and aerosols that influence atmospheric composition and climate. To better understand the factors regulating boreal fire emissions, we developed a statistical model of carbon consumption by fire for Alaska with a spatial resolution of 500 m and a temporal resolution of one day. We used the model to estimate variability in carbon emissions between 2001 and 2012. Daily burned area was mapped using imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer combined with perimeters from the Alaska Large Fire Database. Carbon consumption was calibrated using available field measurements from black spruce forests in Alaska. We built two nonlinear multiplicative models to separately predict above- and belowground carbon consumption by fire in response to environmental variables including elevation, day of burning within the fire season, pre-fire tree cover and the differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR). Higher belowground consumption occurred later in the season and for mid-elevation regions. Aboveground and belowground consumption also increased as a function of tree cover and the dNBR, suggesting a causal link between the processes regulating these two components of consumption. Between 2001 and 2012, the median fuel consumption was 2.48 kg C m-2 and the median pixel-based uncertainty (SD of prediction error) was 0.38 kg C m-2. There were considerable amounts of burning in other cover types than black spruce and consumption in pure black spruce stands was generally higher. Fuel consumption originated primarily from the belowground fraction (median = 2.30 kg C m-2 for all cover types and 2.63 kg C m-2 for pure black spruce stands). Total carbon emissions varied considerably from year to year, with the highest emissions occurring during 2004 (67 Tg C), 2005 (44 Tg C), 2009 (25 Tg C), and 2002 (16 Tg C) and a mean of 14 Tg C per year between 2001 and 2012. Our analysis highlights the importance of accounting for the spatial heterogeneity within fuels and consumption when extrapolating emissions in space and time. This data on daily burned area and emissions may be useful for in understanding controls and limits on fire growth, and predicting potential feedbacks of changing fire regimes.

Veraverbeke, S.; Rogers, B. M.; Randerson, J. T.

2014-12-01

47

TNX Area 1994 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report  

SciTech Connect

During 1994, samples from selected wells of well cluster P 26 and the TBG, TNX, XSB, and YSB well series at the TNX Area were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Nitrate and trichloroethylene exceeded the final PDWS most frequently. Five wells in this area currently are part of the Purge Water Containment Program due to high trichloroethylene concentrations. Carbon tetrachloride, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, and tetrachloroethylene were elevated sporadically in one or more wells during the year. Groundwater flow directions and rates in the Unconfined Aquifer were similar from quarter to quarter during the year.

Chase, J.A.

1995-05-01

48

Modelling fires in the terrestrial carbon balance by incorporating SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE - Part 1: Simulating historical global burned area and fire regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is an important global ecological process that determines the distribution of biomes, with consequences for carbon, water, and energy budgets. The modelling of fire is critical for understanding its role in both historical and future changes in terrestrial ecosystems and the climate system. This study incorporates the process-based prognostic fire module SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE, which was then used to simulate the historical burned area and the fire regime for the 20th century. For 2001-2006, the simulated global spatial extent of fire occurrence agrees well with that given by the satellite-derived burned area datasets (L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, GFED3.1) and captures 78-92% of global total burned area depending on which dataset is used for comparison. The simulated global annual burned area is 329 Mha yr-1, which falls within the range of 287-384 Mha yr-1 given by the three global observation datasets and is close to the 344 Mha yr-1 given by GFED3.1 data when crop fires are excluded. The simulated long-term trends of burned area agree best with the observation data in regions where fire is mainly driven by the climate variation, such as boreal Russia (1920-2009), and the US state of Alaska and Canada (1950-2009). At the global scale, the simulated decadal fire trend over the 20th century is in moderate agreement with the historical reconstruction, possibly because of the uncertainties of past estimates, and because land-use change fires and fire suppression are not explicitly included in the model. Over the globe, the size of large fires (the 95th quantile fire size) is systematically underestimated by the model compared with the fire patch data as reconstructed from MODIS 500 m burned area data. Two case studies of fire size distribution in boreal North America and southern Africa indicate that both the number and the size of big fires are underestimated, which could be related with too low fire spread rate (in the case of static vegetation) and fire duration time. Future efforts should be directed towards building consistent spatial observation datasets for key parameters of the model in order to constrain the model error at each key step of the fire modelling.

Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Cadule, P.; Thonicke, K.; Archibald, S.; Poulter, B.; Hao, W. M.; Hantson, S.; Mouillot, F.; Friedlingstein, P.; Maignan, F.; Viovy, N.

2014-04-01

49

Using burned area data to explore fire spread in coupled fire and ecosystem models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is a major driver of change in many ecosystems, and ecosystem models should try to understand and model the feedbacks between vegetation and fire. To achieve this, work has started on coupling fire and ecosystem models. The fire model receives modelled vegetation as input for its fuel loads, and simulates ignitions and fire spread from a number of assumptions on fire processes. The fire model simulates fire behaviour, and also estimates how vegetation is killed by the fire. This disturbance is fed back into the ecosystem model. In the current work, we focus on the LPJ ecosystem model and on the SPITFIRE fire model. Both models haven been used in conjunction in the past to model emissions over Southern Africa. SPITFIRE makes assumptions about ignitions (either anthropogenic or due to lightning strikes), live fuel moisture, fuel load and type derived from the ecosystem model, and about fire dynamics. In a typical run at daily temporal resolution, SPITFIRE will simulate an "average fire" in terms of fire dynamics, which is combined with the estimated daily number of ignitions to calculate the burned area on that day. The use of an average fire simplifies modelling at the coarse resolutions (grid cell spacing is often around 0.5 - 1 °) often used in these studies, but the associated penalty of a number of important fire limiting factors, such as human-driven suppression efforts or landscape elements that act as fire blocks. In the current study, we aim to explore landscape fragmentation in fire spread. To this end, we compare LPJ+SPITFIRE simulations fire area distributions with actual fire area observations from spaceborne sensors over a large region in Southern Africa. We introduce the concept of "landscape impedance", a metric that describes the difficulty of a fire spreading due to fragmentation, and estimate it spatially using satellite data. Finally, we introduce these concepts into the SPITFIRE fire model. Recently, burned area data from the MODIS sensor on board the TERRA and AQUA satellites has been made available. These new dataset is a major improvement on previous efforts to estimate burned area from space, and with careful processing, can be used to identify individual fires with a reasonable level of uncertainty. From these individual fires, fire area distributions can be easily calculated for a given area and time period. It is found that over Southern Africa, fire area distributions do obey a power law. Deviations from this distributions at small scales are investigated, and put in the context of landscape fragmentation, as derived from metrics calculated from Landsat ETM7+ data. These metrics are analysed to explore the effect of fragmentation on stopping fire spread. In the light of the previous analyses, the SPITFIRE model is modified so as to include a "landscape impedance" term derived from remote sensing data. Sample model runs are compared with estimates of burned area derived from MODIS observations. Finally, we discuss how to adapt SPITFIRE so that it produces fire area distributions that are realistic.

Gomez-Dans, J. L.; Lewis, P.; Wooster, M.; Spessa, A.

2009-04-01

50

Impact of Transverse Spatial-Hole Burning on Beam Quality in Large-Mode-Area Yb-Doped Fibers  

SciTech Connect

The beam-quality factor of an amplified spontaneous emission source based on an ytterbium-doped, large-mode-area, multi-mode fiber was found to be optimized when the gain became saturated. A model using spatially resolved gain and transverse-mode decomposition of the optical field showed that transverse spatial-hole burning was responsible for the observed behavior. A simplified model without transverse spatial-hole burning failed to predict the observed behavior of beam quality. A comparison of both models shows transverse spatial-hole burning is also critical for properly modeling beam quality in LMA fiber amplifiers.

Jiang, Z.; Marciante, J.R.

2008-01-30

51

Seasonal and spatial variation of organic tracers for biomass burning in PM1 aerosols from highly insolated urban areas.  

PubMed

PM1 aerosol characterization on organic tracers for biomass burning (levoglucosan and its isomers and dehydroabietic acid) was conducted within the AERTRANS project. PM1 filters (N = 90) were sampled from 2010 to 2012 in busy streets in the urban centre of Madrid and Barcelona (Spain) at ground-level and at roof sites. In both urban areas, biomass burning was not expected to be an important local emission source, but regional emissions from wildfires, residential heating or biomass removal may influence the air quality in the cities. Although both areas are under influence of high solar radiation, Madrid is situated in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, while Barcelona is located at the Mediterranean Coast and under influence of marine atmospheres. Two extraction methods were applied, i.e. Soxhlet and ASE, which showed equivalent results after GC-MS analyses. The ambient air concentrations of the organic tracers for biomass burning increased by an order of magnitude at both sites during winter compared to summer. An exception was observed during a PM event in summer 2012, when the atmosphere in Barcelona was directly affected by regional wildfire smoke and levels were four times higher as those observed in winter. Overall, there was little variation between the street and roof sites in both cities, suggesting that regional biomass burning sources influence the urban areas after atmospheric transport. Despite the different atmospheric characteristics in terms of air relative humidity, Madrid and Barcelona exhibit very similar composition and concentrations of biomass burning organic tracers. Nevertheless, levoglucosan and its isomers seem to be more suitable for source apportionment purposes than dehydroabietic acid. In both urban areas, biomass burning contributions to PM were generally low (2 %) in summer, except on the day when wildfire smoke arrive to the urban area. In the colder periods the contribution increase to around 30 %, indicating that regional biomass burning has a substantial influence on the urban air quality. PMID:24477336

van Drooge, B L; Fontal, M; Bravo, N; Fernández, P; Fernández, M A; Muñoz-Arnanz, J; Jiménez, B; Grimalt, J O

2014-10-01

52

Validation Framework for USGS Landsat-derived Essential Climate Variables: the Burned Area Product Example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is generating a suite of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs), as defined by the Global Climate Observing System program, from the Landsat data archive. The Landsat archive will provide high spatial resolution (30 m) and long-term (1972 to present) global land products, meeting the needs of climate and ecological studies at global, national, and regional scales. Validation protocols for these products are being established, paralleling the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) Calibration/Validation Working Groups' best practice guidelines, but also being modified to account for the unique characteristics of the Landsat data. The USGS validation plan is unique in that it incorporates protocols that span not only the breadth of ecoregions but the timespan of the ECV products and Landsat satellite sensors (MSS, TM, TM+, and OLI). To achieve these goals, the incorporation of existing data bases is essential. Protocols are being developed to perform a CEOS Working Group on Calibration/Validation Stage 2 validation with plans on performing a full Stage 4 validation ensuring the spatial and temporal consistency of the ECV products. A Stage 2 validation reports product accuracies over a large number of locations and time periods by comparison with in situ or other suitable reference data. The Stage 3 validation reports product uncertainties in a statistically robust way over multiple locations and time periods representing global conditions. Validation at this stage reports on the accuracies and confidence of products for the user communities as well as to the algorithm developers. The Stage 4 validation calls for continual assessments as new product versions of the algorithms are released. This presentation will report on the validation protocols used for the Burned Area ECV product. The burned area ECV product is unique from other ECV products such as land cover or LAI because of the transitory nature of fires. In the United States, the use of existing fire perimeter data bases from various state and federal agencies as reference data is economical and enables the validation of different time periods and locations. Additionally, the incorporation of existing satellite-derived reference data used to validate other coarser resolution global burned area data sets such as the MCD45 (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, 500 m spatial resolution), GlobCarbon (Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) sensor, 1 km spatial resolution), and L3JRC (SPOT-VEGETATION sensor, 1 km spatial resolution) is also being pursued. The validation the approach developed for the USGS ECV products and the challenges of using the vector polygons and raster layers from these reference datasets will be reported in the presentation.

Mladinich, C. S.; Brunner, N. M.; Beal, Y. G.

2013-12-01

53

Burned area mapping and post-fire impact assessment in the Kassandra peninsula (Greece) using Landsat TM and Quickbird data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the environmental impacts of forest fires on part of the Mediterranean basin. The study area is on the Kassandra peninsula, prefecture of Halkidiki, Greece. A maximum likelihood supervised classification was applied to a post-fire Landsat TM image for mapping the exact burned area. Land-cover types that had been affected by fire were

Dimitris Palandjian; Ioannis Z. Gitas; Robert Wright

2009-01-01

54

Comparison of Normalized Burn Ratio, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and Enhanced Vegetation Index in Areas Burned by the Jasper Wildfire of Black Hills South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jasper wildfire of August and September 2000 was the largest fire to occur in the Black Hills in at least a century. The disturbance on ecosystem characteristics will be widespread and long-term. Monitoring postfire vegetation changes using remote sensing data can provide unique and timely information about ecosystem dynamics. In this study, the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data were derived from Landsat imagery and compared before and after the Jasper fire. Landsat 5 images acquired on June 2, 2000 (preburn), and June 5, 2001 (10 months postburn), were analyzed. In addition, a Landsat 7 image acquired on May 31, 2002 (22 months postburn), was used in the study. Landsat data were converted to at-sensor reflectance, and NBR, NDVI, and EVI values were calculated for low, moderate, and high burn severity areas defined by using the difference of NBR between 2001 and 2000. NBR values in areas characterized as low burn severity changed very little between 2001 and 2002. Meanwhile, areas characterized as moderate or high severity showed substantial increases in NBR values between 2001 and 2002, implying some ecosystem recovery occurring for these areas over a relatively short time. EVI and NDVI show similar patterns of change, but it was found that EVI and NBR indices are more sensitive than is NDVI for capturing vegetation cover changes during the early postfire years. Further research is planned to use Landsat and MODIS imagery to assess spectral trends as a function of time in areas affected by fire.

Chen, X.; Zhu, Z.

2007-12-01

55

Investigation of soil contamination at the Riot Control Burning Pit area in J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

SciTech Connect

A remedial investigation was conducted to identify soil contamination in the Riot Control Burning Pit area in J-field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The investigation included geophysical surveys to delineate the filled section of the pit, soil-gas surveys to locate the organic contamination area, field X-ray fluorescence measurements along the burning pit to identify the major metal contamination, and surface and subsurface soil analyses to investigate the nature and extent of contamination. This paper presents the results of this investigation

Wang, Ying-Ya; Yuen, C.R.; Martino, L.

1996-05-01

56

ANNUAL REPORT ON PERFORMANCE AUDIT RESULTS FOR POHC TESTING DURING TRIAL BURNS  

EPA Science Inventory

Audit materials containing Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHCs) have been developed by AREAL for use by federal, state, and local agencies or their contractors to assess the accuracy of measurement methods during RCRA trial burn tests. Audit materials are currently av...

57

A global comparison between MODIS hotspot and high resolution burned area data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires are an important environmental factor at a global scale, influencing vegetation dynamics, carbon stocks, land-use change and being an important emission source of CO2 and aerosols. However, large uncertainty exists on the distribution, extend and intensity of fire occurrence over the world. Satellite products are the only source of information on fire occurrence which gives a good spatial resolution at a global scale. Two types of satellite data products have been widely used to study fire occurrence, hotspots and burned area (BA) maps. Hotspots are temperature anomalies registered by the thermal channels of the satellites, while the BA is detected by the contrast between the unburned land and the black carbon, ashes,... and the change between these two states. Till now the existing datasets have been poorly validated, with the hotspot global datasets only been validated by other thermal anomaly detections at higher resolution. Here we studied the relationship between high resolution BA datasets and the global MODIS hotspot dataset (MOD14). The high resolution BA dataset was produced from Landsat-TM/ETM+ scenes covering 10 different areas distributed over the globe. These areas include boreal, temperate, Mediterranean and tropical areas with important fire activity. For each BA dataset a pre and post fire image was analysed and BA, non-burned land and no-data (clouds,...) detected using the ABAMS software. This database, >100 separate BA maps, was produced under the framework of the Fire_cci project (http://www.esa-fire-cci.org/). For each of these BA datasets the MODIS hotspots were extracted for the same spatial and temporal extend. The analysis performed consists in determining the number and size of the omitted fire scares and the commission errors of the hotpots, being those hotspots that could not be related to any fire polygon. Regression analysis was performed to study more in depth the relation between number of hotspots and BA/number of fires. These results were then related to the some characteristics of the fire regime and environmental factors such as fire size, fire number, ecozone and vegetation type.

Hantson, S.; Padilla, M.; Cardoso, R.; Corti, D.; Chuvieco, E.

2012-04-01

58

Chemical burns  

PubMed Central

Objectives To report a burn unit’s experience with chemical burns and to discuss the fundamental principles in managing chemical burns. Design A chart review. Setting A burn centre at a major university-affiliated hospital. Patients Twenty-four patients with chemical burns, representing 2.6% of all burn admissions over an 8-year period at the Ross Tilley Regional Adult Burn Centre. Seventy-five percent of the burn injuries were work-related accidents. Chemicals involved included hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, black liquor, various lyes, potassium permanganate and phenol. Results Fourteen patients required excision and skin grafting. Complications were frequent and included ocular chemical contacts, wound infections, tendon exposures, toe amputation and systemic reactions from absorption of chemical. One patient died from a chemical scald burn to 98% of the body surface area. Conclusions The key principles in the management of chemical burns include removal of the chemical, copious irrigation, limited use of antidotes, correct estimation of the extent of injury, identification of systemic toxicity, treatment of ocular contacts and management of chemical inhalation injury. Individualized treatment is emphasized. PMID:8640619

Cartotto, Robert C.; Peters, Walter J.; Neligan, Peter C.; Douglas, Leith G.; Beeston, Jeff

1996-01-01

59

Left: The extent of the burned area (dark gray) as of September 6. This image was tak-  

E-print Network

Left: The extent of the burned area (dark gray) as of September 6. This image was tak- en by Terra-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) captured this perspective view of white, puffy pyrocumulus clouds rising an insect aloft? Some have one pair, others two, but how is the correct number decided--was there once some

60

Satellite-based Assessment of Climate Controls on US Burned Area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Climate regulates fire activity through the buildup and drying of fuels and the conditions for fire ignition and spread. Understanding the dynamics of contemporary climate-fire relationships at national and sub-national scales is critical to assess the likelihood of changes in future fire activity and the potential options for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we conducted the first national assessment of climate controls on US fire activity using two satellite-based estimates of monthly burned area (BA), the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED, 1997 2010) and Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS, 1984 2009) BA products. For each US National Climate Assessment (NCA) region, we analyzed the relationships between monthly BA and potential evaporation (PE) derived from reanalysis climate data at 0.5 resolution. US fire activity increased over the past 25 yr, with statistically significant increases in MTBS BA for entire US and the Southeast and Southwest NCA regions. Monthly PE was strongly correlated with US fire activity, yet the climate driver of PE varied regionally. Fire season temperature and shortwave radiation were the primary controls on PE and fire activity in the Alaska, while water deficit (precipitation PE) was strongly correlated with fire activity in the Plains regions and Northwest US. BA and precipitation anomalies were negatively correlated in all regions, although fuel-limited ecosystems in the Southern Plains and Southwest exhibited positive correlations with longer lead times (6 12 months). Fire season PE in creased from the 1980s 2000s, enhancing climate-driven fire risk in the southern and western US where PE-BA correlations were strongest. Spatial and temporal patterns of increasing fire season PE and BA during the 1990s 2000s highlight the potential sensitivity of US fire activity to climate change in coming decades. However, climatefire relationships at the national scale are complex, based on the diversity of fire types, ecosystems, and ignition sources within each NCA region. Changes in the seasonality or magnitude of climate anomalies are therefore unlikely to result in uniform changes in US fire activity.

Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Wang, D.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Chen, Y.

2012-01-01

61

Satellite-based assessment of climate controls on US burned area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate regulates fire activity through the buildup and drying of fuels and the conditions for fire ignition and spread. Understanding the dynamics of contemporary climate-fire relationships at national and sub-national scales is critical to assess the likelihood of changes in future fire activity and the potential options for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we conducted the first national assessment of climate controls on US fire activity using two satellite-based estimates of monthly burned area (BA), the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED, 1997-2010) and Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS, 1984-2009) BA products. For each US National Climate Assessment (NCA) region, we analyzed the relationships between monthly BA and potential evaporation (PE) derived from reanalysis climate data at 0.5° resolution. US fire activity increased over the past 25 yr, with statistically significant increases in MTBS BA for entire US and the Southeast and Southwest NCA regions. Monthly PE was strongly correlated with US fire activity, yet the climate driver of PE varied regionally. Fire season temperature and shortwave radiation were the primary controls on PE} and fire activity in the Alaska, while water deficit (precipitation - PE) was strongly correlated with fire activity in the Plains regions and Northwest US. BA and precipitation anomalies were negatively correlated in all regions, although fuel-limited ecosystems in the Southern Plains and Southwest exhibited positive correlations with longer lead times (6-12 months). Fire season PE increased from the 1980s-2000s, enhancing climate-driven fire risk in the southern and western US where PE-BA correlations were strongest. Spatial and temporal patterns of increasing fire season PE and BA during the 1990s-2000s highlight the potential sensitivity of US fire activity to climate change in coming decades. However, climate-fire relationships at the national scale are complex, based on the diversity of fire types, ecosystems, and ignition sources within each NCA region. Changes in the seasonality or magnitude of climate anomalies are therefore unlikely to result in uniform changes in US fire activity.

Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Wang, D.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Chen, Y.

2012-06-01

62

Satellite-based assessment of climate controls on US burned area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate regulates fire activity through the buildup and drying of fuels and the conditions for fire ignition and spread. Understanding the dynamics of contemporary climate-fire relationships at national and sub-national scales is critical to assess the likelihood of changes in future fire activity and the potential options for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we conducted the first national assessment of climate controls on US fire activity using two satellite-based estimates of monthly burned area (BA), the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED, 1997-2010) and Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS, 1984-2009) BA products. For each US National Climate Assessment (NCA) region, we analyzed the relationships between monthly BA and potential evaporation (PE) derived from reanalysis climate data at 0.5° resolution. US fire activity increased over the past 25 yr, with statistically significant increases in MTBS BA for the entire US and the Southeast and Southwest NCA regions. Monthly PE was strongly correlated with US fire activity, yet the climate driver of PE varied regionally. Fire season temperature and shortwave radiation were the primary controls on PE and fire activity in Alaska, while water deficit (precipitation - PE) was strongly correlated with fire activity in the Plains regions and Northwest US. BA and precipitation anomalies were negatively correlated in all regions, although fuel-limited ecosystems in the Southern Plains and Southwest exhibited positive correlations with longer lead times (6-12 months). Fire season PE increased from the 1980's-2000's, enhancing climate-driven fire risk in the southern and western US where PE-BA correlations were strongest. Spatial and temporal patterns of increasing fire season PE and BA during the 1990's-2000's highlight the potential sensitivity of US fire activity to climate change in coming decades. However, climate-fire relationships at the national scale are complex, based on the diversity of fire types, ecosystems, and ignition sources within each NCA region. Changes in the seasonality or magnitude of climate anomalies are therefore unlikely to result in uniform changes in US fire activity.

Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Wang, D.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Chen, Y.

2013-01-01

63

Forrest Conservation Area : Management & Implementation FY 2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes) acquired the Forrest Conservation Area during July of 2002. The property is located in the Upper John Day subbasin within the Columbia basin. The property consists of two parcels comprising 4,232 acres. The Mainstem parcel consists of 3,445 acres and is located 1/2 mile to the east of Prairie City, Oregon on the mainstem John Day River. The Middle Fork parcel consists of 786 acres and is located one mile to the west of the town of Austin, OR on the Middle Fork John Day River. The Forrest Conservation Area is under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to provide an annual written report generally describing the real property interests of the project and management activities undertaken or in progress. Acquisition of the Forrest Conservation Area was funded by BPA as part of their program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife habitat affected by hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The intent of the Conservation Area is to partially mitigate fish and wildlife impacts for the John Day Dam on the Columbia River as outlined in the Northwest Power Planning Council's Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, {section}11.1, {section}7.6). While the Tribes hold fee-title to the property, the BPA has assured a level of management funding for the protection and restoration of fish and wildlife habitat through a memorandum of agreement.

Smith, Brent

2008-12-01

64

Influence of vegetation spatial heterogeneity on soil enzyme activity in burned Mediterranean areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly considered resilient to wildfires. However, depending on fire severity and recurrence, post-fire climatic conditions and plant community type, the recovery rate of the vegetation can greatly vary. Often, the post-fire vegetation cover remains low and sparsely distributed many years after the wildfire, which could have profound impacts on ecosystem functioning. In this work, we studied the influence of vegetation patchiness on soil enzyme activity (acid phosphatase, ?-glucosidase and urease), at the patch and landscape scales, in degraded dry Mediterranean shrublands affected by wildfires. At the patch scale, we assessed the variation in soil enzyme between bare soils and vegetation patches. At the landscape scale, we studied the relationships between soil enzyme activity and various landscape metrics (total patch cover, average interpatch length, average patch width, and patch density). The study was conducted in 19 sites in the Valencia Region (eastern Spain), which had been affected by large wildfires in 1991. Site selection aimed at capturing a wide range of the variability of post-fire plant recovery rates in Mediterranean areas. The activities of the three enzymes were significantly higher in soils under the vegetation canopies than in adjacent bare areas, which we attributed to the effect of plants on the soil amount of both enzyme substrates and enzymes. The differences between bare and plant microsites were larger in the case of the acid phosphatase and less marked for urease. The activity of acid phosphatase was also higher under patches of resprouter species than under patches of seeder species, probably due to the faster post-fire recovery and older age of resprouter patches in fire-prone ecosystems. Soil enzyme activities of ?-glucosidase and urease in both bare soils and vegetation patches showed no relationships with any of the landscape metrics analysed. However, the activity of acid phosphatase increased linearly with the total cover of vegetation patches, which is consistent with the strong effect of plant patches on the activity of this enzyme. According to our results, variations in the cover and composition of vegetation patches may have profound impacts on the soil enzyme activity and associated nutrient cycling processes in burned Mediterranean areas, particularly in the case of phosphorus. Keywords: wildfires, landscape metrics, Mediterranean shrublands, soil enzyme activity, resprouter species.

Mayor, Á. G.; Goirán, S.; Bautista, S.

2009-04-01

65

Modelling the role of fires in the terrestrial carbon balance by incorporating SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE - Part 1: simulating historical global burned area and fire regimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is an important global ecological process that influences the distribution of biomes, with consequences for carbon, water, and energy budgets. Therefore it is impossible to appropriately model the history and future of the terrestrial ecosystems and the climate system without including fire. This study incorporates the process-based prognostic fire module SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE, which was then used to simulate burned area over the 20th century. Special attention was paid to the evaluation of other fire regime indicators such as seasonality, fire size and fire length, next to burned area. For 2001-2006, the simulated global spatial extent of fire agrees well with that given by satellite-derived burned area data sets (L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, GFED3.1), and 76-92% of the global burned area is simulated as collocated between the model and observation, depending on which data set is used for comparison. The simulated global mean annual burned area is 346 Mha yr-1, which falls within the range of 287-384 Mha yr-1 as given by the three observation data sets; and is close to the 344 Mha yr-1 by the GFED3.1 data when crop fires are excluded. The simulated long-term trend and variation of burned area agree best with the observation data in regions where fire is mainly driven by climate variation, such as boreal Russia (1930-2009), along with Canada and US Alaska (1950-2009). At the global scale, the simulated decadal fire variation over the 20th century is only in moderate agreement with the historical reconstruction, possibly because of the uncertainties of past estimates, and because land-use change fires and fire suppression are not explicitly included in the model. Over the globe, the size of large fires (the 95th quantile fire size) is underestimated by the model for the regions of high fire frequency, compared with fire patch data as reconstructed from MODIS 500 m burned area data. Two case studies of fire size distribution in Canada and US Alaska, and southern Africa indicate that both number and size of large fires are underestimated, which could be related with short fire patch length and low daily fire size. Future efforts should be directed towards building consistent spatial observation data sets for key parameters of the model in order to constrain the model error at each key step of the fire modelling.

Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Cadule, P.; Thonicke, K.; Archibald, S.; Poulter, B.; Hao, W. M.; Hantson, S.; Mouillot, F.; Friedlingstein, P.; Maignan, F.; Viovy, N.

2014-11-01

66

Predictive fire occurrence modelling to improve burned area estimation at a regional scale: A case study in East Caprivi, Namibia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires threaten human lives, property and natural resources in Southern African savannas. Due to warming climate, fire occurrence may increase and fires become more intense. It is crucial, therefore, to understand the complexity of spatiotemporal and probabilistic characteristics of fires. This study scrutinizes spatiotemporal characteristics of fires and the role played by abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors for fire probability modelling in a semiarid Southern African savanna environment. The MODIS fire products: fire hot spots (MOD14A2 and MYD14A2) and burned area product MODIS (MCD45A1), and GIS derived data were used in analysis. Fire hot spots occurrence was first analysed, and spatial autocorrelation for fires investigated, using Moran's I correlograms. Fire probability models were created using generalized linear models (GLMs). Separate models were produced for abiotic, biotic, anthropogenic and combined factors and an autocovariate variable was tested for model improvement. The hierarchical partitioning method was used to determine independent effects of explanatory variables. The discriminating ability of models was evaluated using area under the curve (AUC) from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plot. The results showed that 19.2-24.4% of East Caprivi burned when detected using MODIS hot spots fire data and these fires were strongly spatially autocorrelated. Therefore, the autocovariate variable significantly improved fire probability models when added to them. For autologistic models, i.e. models accounting for spatial autocorrelation, discrimination was good to excellent (AUC 0.858-0.942). For models not counting spatial autocorrelation, prediction success was poor to moderate (AUC 0.542-0.745). The results of this study clearly showed that spatial autocorrelation has to be taken in to account in the fire probability model building process when using remotely sensed and GIS derived data. This study also showed that fire probability models accounting for spatial autocorrelation proved to be superior in regional scale burned area estimation when compared with MODIS burned area product (MCD45A1).

Siljander, Mika

2009-12-01

67

Burns (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... burn. Deep second- and third-degree burns (called full-thickness burns) will likely need to be treated with skin grafts, in which healthy skin is taken from another part of the body and surgically placed over the burn wound to help the area heal. Back Continue What ...

68

33 CFR 100.1103 - Northern California and Lake Tahoe area annual marine events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Northern California and Lake Tahoe area annual marine events. 100.1103 ...SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1103 Northern California and Lake Tahoe area annual marine events. (a)...

2012-07-01

69

33 CFR 100.1103 - Northern California and Lake Tahoe area annual marine events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Northern California and Lake Tahoe area annual marine events. 100.1103 ...SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1103 Northern California and Lake Tahoe area annual marine events. (a)...

2013-07-01

70

33 CFR 100.1103 - Northern California and Lake Tahoe area annual marine events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Northern California and Lake Tahoe area annual marine events. 100.1103 ...SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1103 Northern California and Lake Tahoe area annual marine events. (a)...

2014-07-01

71

Annual Dynamics of Bobcat (Lynx rufus) Home Range and Core Use Areas in Mississippi  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the annual dynamics of bobcat (Lynx rufus) home range and core use areas by radiotracking 23 female and 6 male bobcats from 10 January 1989 to 31 January 1998 in Mississippi. We quantified space use by measuring changes in the dispersion and central tendency of bobcat locations (i.e., radiotelemetry locations) between annual home range and core use areas.

Bruce W. Plowman; L. Mike Conner; Michael J. Chamberlain; Bruce D. Leopold; Loren W. Burger

2006-01-01

72

Engineering and Physics Optimization of Breed and Burn Fast Reactor Systems: Annual and Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) contribution to the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project number 2002-005 was divided into reactor physics, and thermal-hydraulics and plant design. The research targeted credible physics and thermal-hydraulics models for a gas-cooled fast reactor, analyzing various fuel and in-core fuel cycle options to achieve a true breed and burn core, and performing a design basis Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) analysis on that design. For the physics analysis, a 1/8 core model was created using different enrichments and simulated equilibrium fuel loadings. The model was used to locate the hot spot of the reactor, and the peak to average energy deposition at that location. The model was also used to create contour plots of the flux and energy deposition over the volume of the reactor. The eigenvalue over time was evaluated using three different fuel configurations with the same core geometry. The breeding capabilities of this configuration were excellent for a 7% U-235 model and good in both a plutonium model and a 14% U-235 model. Changing the fuel composition from the Pu fuel which provided about 78% U-238 for breeding to the 14% U-235 fuel with about 86% U-238 slowed the rate of decrease in the eigenvalue a noticeable amount. Switching to the 7% U-235 fuel with about 93% U-238 showed an increase in the eigenvalue over time. For the thermal-hydraulic analysis, the reactor design used was the one forwarded by the MIT team. This reactor design uses helium coolant, a Brayton cycle, and has a thermal power of 600 MW. The core design parameters were supplied by MIT; however, the other key reactor components that were necessary for a plausible simulation of a LOCA were not defined. The thermal-hydraulic and plant design research concentrated on determining reasonable values for those undefined components. The LOCA simulation was intended to provide insights on the influence of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS), the containment building, and a Decay Heat Removal System (DHRS) on the natural circulation heat transfer of the core's decay heat. A baseline case for natural circulation had to be established in order to truly understand the impact of the added safety systems. This baseline case did not include a DHRS, although the current MIT design does have a DHRS that features the highly efficient Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHEs). The initial LOCA analysis revealed that the RCCS was insufficient to maintain the reactor core below the fuel matrix decomposition temperature. A guard containment was added to the model in order to maintain a prescribed backpressure during the LOCA to enhance the natural circulation. The backpressure approach did provide satisfactory natural convection during the LOCA. The necessary backpressure was 1.8 MPa, which was not especially different from the values reported by other gas fast reactor researchers. However, as the model evolved to be more physically representative of a nuclear reactor, i.e., it included radial peaking factors, inlet plenum orificing, and the degradation of SiC thermal properties as a result of irradiation, the LOCA-induced fuel temperatures were not consistently below the decomposition limit.

Kevan D. Weaver; Theron Marshall; James Parry

2005-10-01

73

Responses of a small-mammal community to habitat management through controlled burning in a protected Mediterranean area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is widely used as a management tool to achieve conservation goals. However, the consequences of such management on non-target species are frequently neglected and unknown. This study examines the effects of traditional management practices of scrubland clearance by controlled burning to improve menaced carnivores on non-target species: rodent and insectivores in Doñana National Park (SW of Iberian Peninsula). We used capture-recapture methods to examine changes in abundance in areas that were burnt one and three years ago, compared with unburnt areas. Results showed that burnt areas had higher species abundances, but mainly on the ecotonal boundaries. Species abundances showed dramatic seasonal differences with high abundances in autumn and winter, and very low abundance in summer. Our study revealed that scrubland management by controlled fires increases the abundance of small mammal species, mainly Mus spretus and Apodemus sylvaticus. We found only four small mammal species between the different treatments. However, some species that were formerly abundant in Doñana, such as Elyomis quercinus, were found only in burnt areas. Our results suggest that controlled burning is not contributing to the current loss of biotic diversity in this community.

Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

2013-05-01

74

Annual burning of a tallgrass prairie inhibits C and N cycling in soil, increasing recalcitrant pyrogenic organic matter storage while reducing N availability.  

PubMed

Grassland ecosystems store an estimated 30% of the world's total soil C and are frequently disturbed by wildfires or fire management. Aboveground litter decomposition is one of the main processes that form soil organic matter (SOM). However, during a fire biomass is removed or partially combusted and litter inputs to the soil are substituted with inputs of pyrogenic organic matter (py-OM). Py-OM accounts for a more recalcitrant plant input to SOM than fresh litter, and the historical frequency of burning may alter C and N retention of both fresh litter and py-OM inputs to the soil. We compared the fate of these two forms of plant material by incubating (13) C and (15) N labeled Andropogon gerardii litter and py-OM at both an annually burned and an infrequently burned tallgrass prairie site for 11 months. We traced the litter and py-OM C and N into un-complexed and organo-mineral SOM fractions and CO2 fluxes, and determined how fire history affects the fate of these two forms of aboveground biomass. Evidence from CO2 fluxes and SOM C:N ratios indicates that the litter was microbially transformed during decomposition while, besides an initial labile fraction, py-OM added to SOM largely untransformed by soil microbes. Additionally, at the N limited annually burned site, litter N was tightly conserved. Together these results demonstrate how although py-OM may contribute to C and N sequestration in the soil due to its resistance to microbial degradation, a long history of annual removal of fresh litter and input of py-OM infers N limitation due to the inhibition of microbial decomposition of aboveground plant inputs to the soil. These results provide new insight into how fire may impact plant inputs to the soil, and the effects of py-OM on SOM formation and ecosystem C and N cycling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25487951

Soong, Jennifer L; Francesca Cotrufo, M

2014-12-01

75

Burn Institute  

MedlinePLUS

... do each year – a burn injury. Learn more Fire and Burn Prevention Each year, the Burn Institute ... thousands of children and adults each year through fire and burn prevention education, burn survivor support programs ...

76

Topical Area MFE Title: Burning Plasma Science_____________________________________________ Description Fusion energy is released by burning light elements using nuclear reactions which consume mass and  

E-print Network

_____________________________________________ · Description Fusion energy is released by burning light elements using nuclear reactions which consume mass to be economically attractive. With Lawson product only ~20% higher, "ignition" is obtained, where the plasma is self

77

Postwildfire preliminary debris flow hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Las Conchas Fire in north-central New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Las Conchas Fire during the summer of 2011 was the largest in recorded history for the state of New Mexico, burning 634 square kilometers in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 321 basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 28.0 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence interval), the probabilities of debris flows estimated for basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire were greater than 80 percent for two-thirds (67 percent) of the modeled basins. Basins with a high (greater than 80 percent) probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in tributaries to Santa Clara and Rio del Oso Canyons in the northeastern part of the burned area; some steep areas in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, Los Alamos, and Guaje Canyons in the east-central part of the burned area; tributaries to Peralta, Colle, Bland, and Cochiti canyons in the southwestern part of the burned area; and tributaries to Frijoles, Alamo, and Capulin Canyons in the southeastern part of the burned area (within Bandelier National Monument). Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 400 cubic meters to greater than 72,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 40,000 cubic meters) were estimated for basins in Santa Clara, Los Alamos, and Water Canyons, and for two basins at the northeast edge of the burned area tributary to Rio del Oso and Vallecitos Creek. The Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Rankings identify the areas of highest probability of the largest debris flows. Basins with high Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Rankings include upper Santa Clara Canyon in the northern section of the burn scar, and portions of Peralta, Colle, Bland, Cochiti, Capulin, Alamo, and Frijoles Canyons in the southern section of the burn scar. Three basins with high Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Rankings also occur in areas upstream from the city of Los Alamos—the city is home to and surrounded by numerous technical sites for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Potential debris flows in the burned area could affect the water supply for Santa Clara Pueblo and several recreational lakes, as well as recreational and archeological resources in Bandelier National Monument. Debris flows could damage bridges and culverts along State Highway 501 and other roadways. Additional assessment is necessary to determine if the estimated volume of material is sufficient to travel into areas downstream from the modeled basins along the valley floors, where they could affect human life, property, agriculture, and infrastructure in those areas. Additionally, further investigation is needed to assess the potential for debris flows to affect structures at or downstream from basin outlets and to increase the threat of flooding downstream by damaging or blocking flood mitigation structures. The maps presented here may be used to prioritize areas where erosion mitigation or other protective measures may be necessary within a 2- to 3-year window of vulnerability following the Las Conchas Fire.

Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

2011-01-01

78

USDA area-wide project for annual grasses: outcomes and impacts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This document provides a record of the research, outreach, education and technology transfer that was completed as part of the area-wide project for invasive annual grasses from 2007-2012. The overall goal of the project was to catalyze a holistic integrated management program for invasive annual g...

79

Spatial and temporal patterns of global burned area in response to anthropogenic and environmental factors: Reconstructing global fire history for the 20th and early 21st centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

is a critical component of the Earth system, and substantially influences land surface, climate change, and ecosystem dynamics. To accurately predict the fire regimes in the 21st century, it is essential to understand the historical fire patterns and recognize the interaction among fire, human, and environment factors. Until now, few efforts are put on the studies regarding to the long-term fire reconstruction and the attribution analysis of anthropogenic and environmental factors to fire regimes at global scale. To fill this knowledge gap, we developed a 0.5° × 0.5° data set of global burned area from 1901 to 2007 by coupling Global Fire Emission Database version 3 with a process-based fire model and conducted factorial simulation experiments to evaluate the impacts of human, climate, and atmospheric components. The average global burned area is ~442 × 104 km2 yr-1 during 1901-2007 and our results suggest a notable declining rate of burned area globally (1.28 × 104 km2 yr-1). Burned area in tropics and extratropics exhibited a significant declining trend, with no significant trend detected at high latitudes. Factorial experiments indicated that human activities were the dominant factor in determining the declining trend of burned area in tropics and extratropics, and climate variation was the primary factor controlling the decadal variation of burned area at high latitudes. Elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition enhanced burned area in tropics and southern extratropics but suppressed fire occurrence at high latitudes. Rising temperature and frequent droughts are becoming increasingly important and expected to increase wildfire activity in many regions of the world.

Yang, Jia; Tian, Hanqin; Tao, Bo; Ren, Wei; Kush, John; Liu, Yongqiang; Wang, Yuhang

2014-03-01

80

High-Wattage Pulsed Irradiation of Linearly Polarized Near-Infrared Light to Stellate Ganglion Area for Burning Mouth Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to apply high-wattage pulsed irradiation of linearly polarized near-infrared light to the stellate ganglion area for burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and to assess the efficacy of the stellate ganglion area irradiation (SGR) on BMS using differential time-/frequency-domain parameters (D parameters). Three patients with BMS received high-wattage pulsed SGR; the response to SGR was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS) representing the intensity of glossalgia and D parameters used in heart rate variability analysis. High-wattage pulsed SGR significantly decreased the mean value of VAS in all cases without any adverse event such as thermal injury. D parameters mostly correlated with clinical condition of BMS. High-wattage pulsed SGR was safe and effective for the treatment of BMS; D parameters are useful for assessing efficacy of SGR on BMS. PMID:25386367

Momota, Yukihiro; Kani, Koichi; Takano, Hideyuki; Matsumoto, Fumihiro; Aota, Keiko; Takegawa, Daisuke; Yamanoi, Tomoko; Kondo, Chika; Tomioka, Shigemasa; Azuma, Masayuki

2014-01-01

81

An optimized groundwater extraction system for the toxic burning pits area of J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

SciTech Connect

Testing and disposal of chemical warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals at the J-Field area of the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) have resulted in contamination of soil and groundwater. The discharge of contaminated groundwater to on-site marshes and adjacent estuaries poses a potential risk to ecological receptors. The Toxic Burning Pits (TBP) area is of special concern because of its disposal history. This report describes a groundwater modeling study conducted at J-Field that focused on the TBP area. The goal of this modeling effort was optimization of the groundwater extraction system at the TBP area by applying linear programming techniques. Initially, the flow field in the J-Field vicinity was characterized with a three-dimensional model that uses existing data and several numerical techniques. A user-specified border was set near the marsh and used as a constraint boundary in two modeled remediation scenarios: containment of the groundwater and containment of groundwater with an impermeable cap installed over the TBP area. In both cases, the objective was to extract the minimum amount of water necessary while satisfying the constraints. The smallest number of wells necessary was then determined for each case. This optimization approach provided two benefits: cost savings, in that the water to be treated and the well installation costs were minimized, and minimization of remediation impacts on the ecology of the marsh.

Quinn, J.J.; Johnson, R.L.; Patton, T.L.; Martino, L.E.

1996-06-01

82

To Burn or Not to Burn? Effect of Management Strategy on North American Prairie Vegetation for Public Urban Areas in Germany  

PubMed Central

North American prairie vegetation has been a role model for designing highly attractive plantings for German urban green spaces for the past decade. In combination with gravel mulch top layers on planting sites and non-selective maintenance techniques like mowing or burning, prairie plantings are considered to be cost-effective and low-maintenance. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of different maintenance strategies and especially the necessity of fire management on the development success of ornamental prairie plantings in central Europe. A four factorial split-plot-block design was set up for investigation of different mixtures of prairie species under varying management conditions (mow-only, mowing plus selective weeding, mowing plus weeding and burning) on two differing soil types (in-situ topsoil and in-situ topsoil with a graywacke gravel mulch top layer) over three years. Significant effects of maintenance strategy on mortality rates and vitality were documented for a number of target species, which responded species specifically, either being slightly affected by the burning or thriving on it. Those effects were mostly restricted to topsoil sites. A strong impact on weed species presence and abundance and resulting maintenance times was found on both soil types. On topsoil sites, mow-only treatment resulted in a short-term loss of the original planting due to extensive weed growth. Corresponding gravel mulch sites were generally less colonised and visually dominated by weeds. Differences between weeded and weeded plus burned sites were minor. Unexpectedly, weed species populations were mostly unaffected by the additional burning treatment, while maintenance times and costs increased. No overall benefit of fire management for the establishment of prairie plantings was documented. The most effective management combination proved to be mowing plus regular selective weeding measures on gravel mulched planting sites. PMID:25286061

Schmithals, Anja; Kühn, Norbert

2014-01-01

83

Burning Issue: Handling Household Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... hot objects or liquid, fire, friction, the sun, electricity, or certain chemicals. Each year, about a half- ... infant or elderly. the burn was caused by electricity, which can lead to “invisible” burns. Burns Burns ...

84

33 CFR 165.1332 - Safety Zones; annual firework displays within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound Area of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zones; annual firework displays within...SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...Coast Guard District § 165.1332 Safety Zones; annual firework displays...

2010-07-01

85

Explanation of Significant Difference (ESD) for the A-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (731-A/1A) and Rubble Pit (731-2A) (U)  

SciTech Connect

The A-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (731-A/1A) and Rubble Pit (731-2A) (ABRP) operable unit (OU) is located in the northwest portion of Savannah River Site (SRS), approximately 2.4 kilometers (1.5 miles) south of the A/M Area operations. Between 1951 and 1973, Pits 731-A and 731-1A were used to burn paper, plastics, wood, rubber, rags, cardboard, oil, degreasers, and solvents. Combustible materials were burned monthly. After burning was discontinued in 1973, Pits 731-A and 731-1A were also converted to rubble pits and used to dispose of concrete rubble, bricks, tile, asphalt, plastics, metal, wood products, and rubber until about 1978. When the pits were filled to capacity, there were covered with compacted clay-rich native soils and vegetation was established. Pit 731-2A was only used as a rubble pit until 1983 after which the area was backfilled and seeded. Two other potential source areas within the OU were investigated and found to be clean. The water table aquifer (M-Area aquifer) was also investigated.

Morgan, Randall

2000-11-17

86

Concentrations and source apportionment of PM10 and associated elemental and ionic species in a lignite-burning power generation area of southern Greece.  

PubMed

Ambient concentrations of PM10 and associated elemental and ionic species were measured over the cold and the warm months of 2010 at an urban and two rural sites located in the lignite-fired power generation area of Megalopolis in Peloponnese, southern Greece. The PM10 concentrations at the urban site (44.2 ± 33.6 ?g m(-3)) were significantly higher than those at the rural sites (23.7 ± 20.4 and 22.7 ± 26.9 ?g m(-3)). Source apportionment of PM10 and associated components was accomplished by an advanced computational procedure, the robotic chemical mass balance model (RCMB), using chemical profiles for a variety of local fugitive dust sources (power plant fly ash, flue gas desulfurization wet ash, feeding lignite, infertile material from the opencast mines, paved and unpaved road dusts, soil), which were resuspended and sampled through a PM10 inlet onto filters and then chemically analyzed, as well as of other common sources such as vehicular traffic, residential oil combustion, biomass burning, uncontrolled waste burning, marine aerosol, and secondary aerosol formation. Geological dusts (road/soil dust) were found to be major PM10 contributors in both the cold and warm periods of the year, with average annual contribution of 32.6 % at the urban site vs. 22.0 and 29.0 % at the rural sites. Secondary aerosol also appeared to be a significant source, contributing 22.1 % at the urban site in comparison to 30.6 and 28.7 % at the rural sites. At all sites, the contribution of biomass burning was most significant in winter (28.2 % at the urban site vs. 14.6 and 24.6 % at the rural sites), whereas vehicular exhaust contribution appeared to be important mostly in the summer (21.9 % at the urban site vs. 11.5 and 10.5 % at the rural sites). The highest contribution of fly ash (33.2 %) was found at the rural site located to the north of the power plants during wintertime, when winds are favorable. In the warm period, the highest contribution of fly ash was found at the rural site located to the south of the power plants, although it was less important (7.2 %). Moderate contributions of fly ash were found at the urban site (5.4 and 2.7 % in the cold and the warm period, respectively). Finally, the mine field was identified as a minor PM10 source, occasionally contributing with lignite dust and/or deposited wet ash dust under dry summer conditions, with the summertime contributions ranging between 3.1 and 11.0 % among the three sites. The non-parametric bootstrapped potential source contribution function analysis was further applied to localize the regions of sources apportioned by the RCMB. For the majority of sources, source regions appeared as being located within short distances from the sampling sites (within the Peloponnesse Peninsula). More distant Greek areas of the NNE sector also appeared to be source regions for traffic emissions and secondary calcium sulfate dust. PMID:23644947

Argyropoulos, G; Grigoratos, Th; Voutsinas, M; Samara, C

2013-10-01

87

ANNUAL REPORT ON PERFORMANCE AUDIT RESULTS FOR POHC TESTING DURING RCRA TRIAL BURNS--STATUS REPORT #2  

EPA Science Inventory

Audit materials containing Principal organic Hardous Constituents (P0HCs) have been developed by AREAL for use by federal, state, and local agencies or their contractors to assess the accuracy of measurement methods during RCA trial burn tests. Audit materials are currently avail...

88

Work plan for focused feasibility study of the toxic burning pits area at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCIA). J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA)(predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-0021355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in which data were collected to model groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today-

Biang, C.; Benioff, P.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.

1995-03-01

89

Effects of controlled forest burning and intensity of timber harvesting on the occurrence of pine weevils, Hylobius spp., in regeneration areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently introduced modifications to timber harvesting, such as leaving retention trees and applying prescribed burning, are likely to have an influence on the occurrence of pests affecting regeneration, such as pine weevils (Hylobius spp.). We analyze here the occurrence of pine weevils in regeneration areas representing different harvesting methods. Pine weevils were monitored during three summers using flight intercept and

Aki Pitkänen; Jari Kouki; Heli Viiri; Petri Martikainen

2008-01-01

90

Post-Fire Debris-Flow Hazard Assessment of the Area Burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near Hailey, Central Idaho  

E-print Network

Hailey, Central Idaho U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2013­1273 Prepared in cooperation with Blaine County, Idaho #12;#12;Post-Fire Debris-Flow Hazard Assessment of the Area Burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near Hailey, Central Idaho By Kenneth D. Skinner Prepared

Torgersen, Christian

91

D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (431-D and 431-1D) Corrective Measures Study/Focused Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to determine alternatives which may be used to remediate the D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (DBRP). An objective of this process is to provide decision makers adequate information to compare alternatives, select an appropriate remediation for the DBRP, and demonstrate the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements in the Record of Decision.

Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Mason, J.T.

1995-09-01

92

The burning of the New World: the extent and significance of broadcast burning by early humans.  

PubMed

It is possible to delimit the areas of the North, Central, and South America that are most susceptible to fire and would have been most affected by burning practices of early Americans. Areas amounting to approximately 155 x 10(5) km2 are here designated as the most burnable part of the New World. Using estimates of burnable biomass, burning frequency, and burning efficiency, the authors determine the amount of biomass burned annually in an environment in which anthropogenic fires were at a hypothesized maximum. The amount of carbon released annually approximates estimates for present-day burning. Changes in carbon sinks may have been the most significant aspect of a shift to a low-biomass state. Decreases in stored biomass, soil carbon, and charcoal production may have had effects on a global scale. Likewise, the shift to a higher biomass/lower fire-frequency state over the last 400-500 years may be one component of an increased mid- to high-latitude carbon sink. The assessment made here is preliminary but may aid in clarifying the state of the climate system during the pre-industrial period. PMID:7525003

Woodcock, D W; Wells, P V

1994-09-01

93

Portland Area Office Bureau of Indian Affairs: 1980 Annual Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1980 the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Portland Area Office served 43,500 Indians of 33 federally recognized tribes, bands, and groups living on or near 4 million acres of reservation land in Idaho, Washington, and Oregon. Highlights of the fiscal 1980 BIA/tribal partnership included the joint review of overall Office operations and…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Portland, OR.

94

TNX-Area groundwater monitoring report. 1993 Annual report  

SciTech Connect

During 1993, samples from well cluster P 26 and the TBG, TNX, XSB, and YSB well series at the TNX Area were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Seven parameters exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Dichloromethane (methylene chloride), a common laboratory contaminant, nitrate, and trichloroethylene exceeded PDWS most frequently. Four wells in this area currently are part of the Purge Water Contaminant Program due to high trichloroethylene concentrations. Carbon tetrachloride, gross alpha, lead, and tetrachloroethylene were elevated sporadically in one or more wells during the year. Groundwater flow directions and rates in the Unconfined Aquifer were similar from quarter to quarter during the year.

Not Available

1994-05-01

95

Scotch Creek Wildlife Area 2007-2008 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Scotch Creek Wildlife Area is a complex of 6 separate management units located in Okanogan County in North-central Washington State. The project is located within the Columbia Cascade Province (Okanogan sub-basin) and partially addresses adverse impacts caused by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee hydroelectric dams. With the acquisition of the Eder unit in 2007, the total size of the wildlife area is now 19,860 acres. The Scotch Creek Wildlife Area was approved as a wildlife mitigation project in 1996 and habitat enhancement efforts to meet mitigation objectives have been underway since the spring of 1997 on Scotch Creek. Continuing efforts to monitor the threatened Sharp-tailed grouse population on the Scotch Creek unit are encouraging. The past two spring seasons were unseasonably cold and wet, a dangerous time for the young of the year. This past spring, Scotch Creek had a cold snap with snow on June 10th, a critical period for young chicks just hatched. Still, adult numbers on the leks have remained stable the past two years. Maintenance of BPA funded enhancements is necessary to protect and enhance shrub-steppe and to recover and sustain populations of Sharp-tailed grouse and other obligate species.

Olson, Jim [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

2008-11-03

96

Estimates of global, regional, and national annual CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national annual estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.

Boden, T.A.; Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Andres, R.J. [University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Inst. of Northern Engineering

1995-12-01

97

Mean annual streamflow of selected drainage basins in the coal area of southeastern Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Streamflow characteristics of drainage basins within the Forst Union coal region of southeastern Montana were estimated to provide premining data for evaluating the future effects of mining on the environment. Estimated annual mean streamflow at 22 data-collection stations for water years 1975-77 ranged from 0 to 887 cubic feet per second. These estimates are based on miscellaneous-streamflow records at each station and continuous-streamflow records from other stations in the study area. Estimated mean annual streamflow for a 10-year period (water years 1968-77) ranged from 0 to 572 cubic feet per second. These long-term estimates were based on data from stations in the surrounding area having continuous-streamflow records. Estimates mean annual runoff in inches for selected drainage basins within the study area showed no discernible pattern. Many of the drainage basins had a mean annual runoff of less than 0.60 inch; the maximum observed mean annual runoff was 4.45 inches. (USGS)

Ferreira, Rodger F.

1981-01-01

98

TNX area groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report  

SciTech Connect

During 1996, samples from selected wells of well cluster P 26 and the TBG, TIR, TNX, TRW, XSB, and YSB well series at the TNX Area of the Savannah River Plant were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Sixteen parameters exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Trichloroethylene exceeded the final PDWS most frequently. Antimony, arsenic beryllium, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chromium, copper, dichloromethane, gross alpha, lead, mercury, nitrate, nitrate-nitrite, tetrachloroethylene, or trichloroethylene were evaluated in one or more wells during the year. Groundwater flow directions and rates in the Unconfined Aquifer were similar from quarter to quarter during the year.

NONE

1997-04-01

99

Shillapoo Wildlife Area, Annual Report 2004-2005.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes accomplishments, challenges and successes on WDFW's Shillapoo Wildlife Area funded under Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wildlife Mitigation Program (BPA project No.2003-012-00) during the Fiscal Year 05 contract period October 1, 2004-September 30, 2005. The information presented here is intended to supplement that contained in BPA's PISCES contract development and reporting system. The organization below is by broad categories of work but references are made to individual work elements in the PISCES Statement of Work as appropriate. The greatest success realized during this contract period was completion of the water system that will provide water to wetland basins within the Vancouver Lake Unit and three independent basins on adjoining Clark County owned lands. The water system paid for by Clark Public Utilities was designed and built under the direction of Ducks Unlimited. Having a reliable water supply for these areas has allowed us for the first time to begin making significant progress toward our wetland vegetation management goals on this unit. A reduction in the density of reed canary grass has already been noted and increased levels of native plant occurrence have been observed. Our most notable setback was an increase in the infestation of purple loosestrife within a portion of the Shillapoo Lakebed including parts of the North and South Units. A great deal of effort and time was spent on addressing the problem including hand cutting and spraying individual plants.

Calkins, Brian

2004-10-01

100

Shillapoo Wildlife Area, Annual Report 2007-2008.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes accomplishments, challenges and successes on WDFW's Shillapoo Wildlife Area funded under Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wildlife Mitigation Program (BPA project No.2003-012-00) during the Fiscal Year 08 contract period October 1, 2007-September 30, 2008. The information presented here is intended to supplement that contained in BPA's PISCES contract development and reporting system. The organization below is by broad categories of work but references are made to individual work elements in the PISCES Statement of Work as appropriate. Significant progress was realized in almost all major work types. Of particular note was progress made in tree plantings and pasture rehabilitation efforts. This year's tree planting effort included five sites detailed below and in terms of the number of plants was certainly the largest effort on the wildlife area to date in one season. The planting itself took a significant amount of time, which was anticipated. However, installation of mats and tubes took much longer than expected which impacted planned fence projects in particular. Survival of the plantings appears to be good. Improvement to the quality of waterfowl pasture habitats is evident on a number of sites due to replanting and weed control efforts. Continuing long-term weed control efforts will be key in improving this particular type of habitat. A prolonged cold, wet spring and a number of equipment breakdowns presented stumbling blocks that impacted schedules and ultimately progress on planned activities. The unusual spring weather delayed fieldwork on pasture planting projects as well as weed control and slowed the process of maintaining trees and shrubs. This time lag also caused the continued deferral of some of our fencing projects. The large brush hog mower had the driveline break twice and the smaller tractor had an engine failure that caused it to be down for over a month. We have modified our budget plan for next year to include a temporary employee that will work primarily on tree maintenance and fencing projects to make sure that we make progress in these areas and we will be investigating whether a heavier duty driveline can be obtained for the mower.

Calkins, Brian

2007-10-01

101

Planning a Prescribed Burn  

E-print Network

up. And the belly-high broomweeds should burn hot enough to kill most of the mesquite, whitebrush, and prickly pear.? Wait a minute?this thinking contains at least eight misconceptions, including those dealing with timing, wind, help, fuel... large area are attracted to a burn, the excessive grazing pressure can considerably slow the recovery of desirable grasses, forbs, and browse. Conversely, if prickly pear is abundant in the burned pasture, you may turn in cattle for 2 weeks...

Hanselka, C. Wayne

2009-04-01

102

Slash and burn versus "agronegócio". Tales of forest degradation in the maroon area of Vila Bela da SantíssimaTrindade, Mato Grosso, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last four decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arcof deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. The deforestation process replaces the forest and the slash and burn agriculture systems by modern intensive agriculture systems targeted at the production of cash crops like cotton, maize or soybeans, and to graze cattle.The so called "agronegócio" system. The reduction of pristine forest areas where traditional (indigenous, maroons and riverside) population conduct slash and burn agriculture, reduces the recovery time of the abandoned fields after exhaustion by agriculture crops, reason why the return to the same spots for another cycle of slash and burn occurs before the forest recovers completely from the previous cycle. In fact, the frequency of the cycles is increasing with the expansion of farm land and the reduction of available forest. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of the deforestation trends in the Vila Bela da SantíssimaTrindade, near the Bolivian border of Mato Grosso in Brazil, over a time span of four decades. The arc of deforestation has passed the region in the 1980's, leaving yet a large area of pristine forest where the traditional communities kept practicing a slash and burn agriculture system. Nevertheless, due to the reduction of available area, and specially due to the exposure of traditional communities to the "western civilization culture", there is an increasing abandonment of the traditional systems and associated culture and knowledge. In this context, the traditional communities may become a deforestation/degradation factor. To prevent this situation, the GUYAGROFOR project was implemented, to value traditional knowledge, identify bottlenecks in the increase of added value to the local traditional products, and to test methodologies to maintain and if possible improve soil fertility near the small households. The deforestation/degradation processes and the impacts of the proposed mitigation action are discussed.

Leite, José C.; Ferreira, António A. J.

2014-05-01

103

Annual Report for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011  

SciTech Connect

As a condition to the Disposal Authorization Statement issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) on March 17, 2010, a comprehensive performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program must be implemented for the Technical Area 54, Area G disposal facility. Annual determinations of the adequacy of the performance assessment and composite analysis are to be conducted under the maintenance program to ensure that the conclusions reached by those analyses continue to be valid. This report summarizes the results of the fiscal year 2011 annual review for Area G. Revision 4 of the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis was issued in 2008 and formally approved in 2009. These analyses are expected to provide reasonable estimates of the long-term performance of Area G and, hence, the disposal facility's ability to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) performance objectives. Annual disposal receipt reviews indicate that smaller volumes of waste will require disposal in the pits and shafts at Area G relative to what was projected for the performance assessment and composite analysis. The future inventories are projected to decrease modestly for the pits but increase substantially for the shafts due to an increase in the amount of tritium that is projected to require disposal. Overall, however, changes in the projected future inventories of waste are not expected to compromise the ability of Area G to satisfy DOE performance objectives. The Area G composite analysis addresses potential impacts from all waste disposed of at the facility, as well as other sources of radioactive material that may interact with releases from Area G. The level of knowledge about the other sources included in the composite analysis has not changed sufficiently to call into question the validity of that analysis. Ongoing environmental surveillance activities are conducted at, and in the vicinity of, Area G. However, the information generated by many of these activities cannot be used to evaluate the validity of the performance assessment and composite analysis models because the monitoring data collected are specific to operational releases or address receptors that are outside the domain of the performance assessment and composite analysis. In general, applicable monitoring data are supportive of some aspects of the performance assessment and composite analysis. Several research and development (R and D) efforts have been initiated under the performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program. These investigations are designed to improve the current understanding of the disposal facility and site, thereby reducing the uncertainty associated with the projections of the long-term performance of Area G. The status and results of R and D activities that were undertaken in fiscal year 2011 are discussed in this report. Special analyses have been conducted to determine the feasibility of disposing of specific waste streams, to address proposed changes in disposal operations, and to consider the impacts of changes to the models used to conduct the performance assessment and composite analysis. These analyses are described and the results of the evaluations are summarized in this report. The Area G disposal facility consists of Material Disposal Area (MDA) G and the Zone 4 expansion area. To date, all disposal operations at Area G have been confined to MDA G. Material Disposal Area G is scheduled to undergo final closure in 2015; disposal of waste in the pits and shafts is scheduled to end in 2013. In anticipation of the closure of MDA G, plans are being made to ship the majority of the waste generated at LANL to off-site locations for disposal. It is not clear at this time if waste that will be disposed of at LANL will be placed in Zone 4 or if disposal operations will move to a new location at the Laboratory. Separately, efforts to optimize the final cover used in the closure of MDA G are underway; a final cover design different than that adopted for the performance assessment and composite analy

French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shuman, Rob [WPS: WASTE PROJECTS AND SERVICES

2012-05-22

104

Biomass burning and oceanic primary production estimates in the Sulu Sea area over the last 380 kyr and the East Asian monsoon dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coccolithophorid assemblages and micro-charcoal content were analysed in giant piston core MD97-2141 recovered in the Sulu Sea (Philippines). These proxies help to reconstruct respectively the dynamics of the oceanic primary production (PP) and biomass burning in that area. PP in the Sulu Sea intensifies during the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) and therefore PP constitutes a proxy for EAWM dynamics.

L. Beaufort; T. de Garidel-Thoron; B. Linsley; D. Oppo; N. Buchet

2003-01-01

105

A method for extracting burned areas from Landsat TM/ETM+ images by soft aggregation of multiple Spectral Indices and a region growing algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since fire is a major threat to forests and wooded areas in the Mediterranean environment of Southern Europe, systematic regional fire monitoring is a necessity. Satellite data constitute a unique cost-effective source of information on the occurrence of fire events and on the extent of the area burned. Our objective is to develop a (semi-)automated algorithm for mapping burned areas from medium spatial resolution (30 m) satellite data. In this article we present a multi-criteria approach based on Spectral Indices, soft computing techniques and a region growing algorithm; theoretically this approach relies on the convergence of partial evidence of burning provided by the indices. Our proposal features several innovative aspects: it is flexible in adapting to a variable number of indices and to missing data; it exploits positive and negative evidence (bipolar information) and it offers different criteria for aggregating partial evidence in order to derive the layers of candidate seeds and candidate region growing boundaries. The study was conducted on a set of Landsat TM images, acquired for the year 2003 over Southern Europe and pre-processed with the LEDAPS (Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System) processing chain for deriving surface spectral reflectance ?i in the TM bands. The proposed method was applied to show its flexibility and the sensitivity of the accuracy of the resulting burned area maps to different aggregation criteria and thresholds for seed selection. Validation performed over an entire independent Landsat TM image shows the commission and omission errors to be below 21% and 3%, respectively.

Stroppiana, D.; Bordogna, G.; Carrara, P.; Boschetti, M.; Boschetti, L.; Brivio, P. A.

2012-04-01

106

Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1980  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 172 stations maintained in 1980. Data in the report are tabulated for the period of record. (USGS)

Omang, R.J.; Parrett, Charles; Hull, J.A.

1955-01-01

107

Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1981  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 172 stations maintained in 1981. Data in the report are tabulated for the period of record. (USGS)

Omang, R.J.

1982-01-01

108

Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1977  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual peak stage and stream-discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 191 stations in 1977. Data are tabulated for 336 sites throughout the period of record. (Woodard-USGS)

Omang, R.J.; Hull, J.A.

1978-01-01

109

Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1979  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 173 stations maintained in 1979. Data in the report are tabulated for the period of record. (USGS)

Omang, R.J.; Parrett, C.; Hull, J.A.

1955-01-01

110

Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1978  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual peak stage and discharge data have been collected and tabulated for crest-stage gaging sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 173 stations maintained in 1978. Data are tabulated for the period of record. (Woodard-USGS)

Omang, R.J.; Parrett, C.; Hull, J.A.

1979-01-01

111

Specific leaf area and leaf nitrogen concentration in annual and perennial grass species growing in Mediterranean old-fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific leaf area (the ratio of leaf area to leaf dry mass) and leaf nitrogen concentration were measured on ten annual\\u000a and nine perennial grass species growing in two old-fields of southern France, under a sub-humid Mediterranean climate. Specific\\u000a leaf area (SLA) was found to be significantly higher in annuals than in perennials, but leaf nitrogen concentration expressed\\u000a on a

E. Garnier; P. Cordonnier; J.-L. Guillerm; L. Sonié

1997-01-01

112

Lava Flow Burning Vegetation  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Lava flow activity continues to burn vegetation in the kipuka adjacent to the trail, causing the viewing trail to be closed beyond the trailhead. The new viewing area is still very close to the active flows. ...

2010-06-18

113

Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana through September 1976  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual peak discharge from small drainage areas is tabulated for 336 sites in Montana. The 1976 additions included data collected at 206 sites. The program which investigates the magnitude and frequency of floods from small drainage areas in Montana, was begun July 1, 1955. Originally 45 crest-stage gaging stations were established. The purpose of the program is to collect sufficient peak-flow data, which through analysis could provide methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods at any point in Montana. The ultimate objective is to provide methods for estimating the 100-year flood with the reliability needed for road design. (Woodard-USGS)

Johnson, M.V.; Omang, R.J.; Hull, J.A.

1977-01-01

114

MTL ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT 2014 Faculty Research Areas v Faculty Research Areas  

E-print Network

Work centers on the mid-IR (MIR) regime. Although previous silicon microphotonic devices predominantly Akinwande Micro- and Nano- structures for Sensors & Actuators and Vacuum Microelectronics. Devices for Large Area electronics and flat panel displays. Rm. 39-553 617-258-7974 akinwand @ mtl . mit . edu Polina O

Reif, Rafael

115

Controlled Burn  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

GULF OF MEXICO — Dark clouds of smoke and fire emerge as oil burns during a controlled burn in the Gulf of Mexico. The U.S. Coast Guard working in partnership with BP PLC, local residents, and other Federal agencies conducted the controlled burn to aid in preventing the spread of oil following...

116

Estimating inter-annual diversity of seasonal agricultural area using multi-temporal resourcesat data.  

PubMed

The present study aims at analysis of spatial and temporal variability in agricultural land cover during 2005-6 and 2011-12 from an ongoing program of annual land use mapping using multidate Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) data aboard Resourcesat-1 and 2. About 640-690 multi-temporal AWiFS quadrant data products per year (depending on cloud cover) were co-registered and radiometrically normalized to prepare state (administrative unit) mosaics. An 18-fold classification was adopted in this project. Rule-based techniques along with maximum-likelihood algorithm were employed to deriving land cover information as well as changes within agricultural land cover classes. The agricultural land cover classes include - kharif (June-October), rabi (November-April), zaid (April-June), area sown more than once, fallow lands and plantation crops. Mean kappa accuracy of these estimates varied from 0.87 to 0.96 for various classes. Standard error of estimate has been computed for each class annually and the area estimates were corrected using standard error of estimate. The corrected estimates range between 99 and 116 Mha for kharif and 77-91 Mha for rabi. The kharif, rabi and net sown area were aggregated at 10 km × 10 km grid on annual basis for entire India and CV was computed at each grid cell using temporal spatially-aggregated area as input. This spatial variability of agricultural land cover classes was analyzed across meteorological zones, irrigated command areas and administrative boundaries. The results indicate that out of various states/meteorological zones, Punjab was consistently cropped during kharif as well as rabi seasons. Out of all irrigated commands, Tawa irrigated command was consistently cropped during rabi season. PMID:25435154

Sreenivas, K; Sekhar, N Seshadri; Saxena, Manoj; Paliwal, R; Pathak, S; Porwal, M C; Fyzee, M A; Rao, S V C Kameswara; Wadodkar, M; Anasuya, T; Murthy, M S R; Ravisankar, T; Dadhwal, V K

2014-11-27

117

Design of an Actinide Burning, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor that Produces Low Cost Electricity FY-01 Annual Report, October 2001  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this collaborative Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project is to investigate the suitability of lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. Work has been accomplished in four major areas of research: core neutronic design, plant engineering, material compatibility studies, and coolant activation. The publications derived from work on this project (since project inception) are listed in Appendix A.

Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Herring, James Stephen; Loewen, Eric Paul; Smolik, Galen Richard; Weaver, Kevan Dean; Todreas, N.

2001-10-01

118

Annual ground-water use in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1970-79  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual groundwater use in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area from 1970-79 is presented by aquifer and type of use. Most groundwater is withdrawn from wells in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer and major uses of the water are for self-supplied industry and public supplies. Annual groundwater-use data are presented by county for each of the five major aquifers; Prairie du Chien-Jordan, Mount Simon-Hinckley, Ironton-Galesville, St. Peter, and drift. The data also are presented by county for each major use type including public supply, self-supplied industry, commercial air-conditioning, irrigation, lake-level maintenance, and dewatering. The data were collected initially by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and were supplemented by data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey. (USGS)

Horn, M.A.

1984-01-01

119

CO[sub 2] and temperature effects on leaf area production in two annual plant species  

SciTech Connect

The authors studied leaf area production in two annual plant species, Abutilon theophrasti and Amaranthus retroflexus, under three day/night temperature regimes and two concentrations of carbon dioxide. The production of whole-plant leaf area during the first 30 d of growth was analyzed in terms of the leaf initiation rate, leaf expansion, individual leaf area, and, in Amaranthus, production of branch leaves. Temperature and CO[sub 2] influenced leaf area production through effects on the rate of development, determined by the production of nodes on the main stem, and through shifts in the relationship between whole-plant leaf area and the number of main stem nodes. In Abutilon, leaf initiation rate was highest at 38[degree], but area of individual leaves was greatest at 28[degree]. Total leaf area was greatly reduced at 18[degree] due to slow leaf initiation rates. Elevated CO[sub 2] concentration increased leaf initiation rate at 28[degree], resulting in an increase in whole-part leaf area. In Amaranthus, leaf initiation rate increased with temperature, and was increased by elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree]. Individual leaf area was greatest at 28[degree], and was increased by elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree] but decreased at 38[degree]. Branch leaf area displayed a similar response to CO[sub 2], butt was greater at 38[degree]. Overall, wholeplant leaf area was slightly increased at 38[degree] relative to 28[degree], and elevated CO[sub 2] levels resulted in increased leaf area at 28[degree] but decreased leaf area at 38[degree].

Ackerly, D.D.; Coleman, J.S.; Morse, S.R.; Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States))

1992-08-01

120

Detecting changes over time in annual sulfate deposition in a geographical area  

SciTech Connect

Annual 1979 and 1980 sulfate deposition data for 21 NADP monitoring stations with at least 20 weekly samples and with samples from each quarter are used to investigate the magnitude of change that is detectable in a statistical sense with high confidence. A statistical technique called Kriging is applied to obtain block area estimates and standard errors for average sulfate deposition. The block area covers most of New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Ohio. The estimates obtained are 35.0 kg/ha (3.5 g/m/sup 2/) and 31.8 kg/ha (3.2 g/m/sup 2/) for 1979 and 1980, respectively. The associated standard errors are 2.1 kg/ha (0.2 g/m/sup 2/) for both 1979 and 1980. Estimates of the minimum magnitude of annual sulfate deposition change detectable with 90% confidence are 8.8, 5.1 and 3.9 kg/ha (0.88, 0.51 and 0.39 g/m/sup 2/) when one, three and five years, respectively, of annual data are available before and after an intervention occurs. These estimates are based on optimum conditions and may be lower than minimum change detectable in practice. For example, the presence of trends or cycles in annual deposition would increase the minimum change detectable. An increase in the number of monitoring stations will provide additional information but not directly proportional to the increase. A preliminary estimate of the effect of doubling the number of monitoring stations is that the minimum detectable limit is 60% of the previous estimates. For one year before and after this reduces the value to 5.3 kg/ha compared to 8.8 kg/ha. 1 figure, 3 tables.

Olsen, A.R.; Simpson, J.C.; Watson, C.R.

1983-10-01

121

The quantity of biomass burned in southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method is described for calculating the amount of biomass burned, its type and location, and the time of burning. Active fires in 1989 were detected using daily advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) satellite imagery. The fire count was calibrated to area burned using a stratified sample of multitemporal multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery. The calibration factor is strongly dependent on mean individual fire area, which is in turn strongly related to cumulative normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The best available vegetation maps for southern hemisphere Africa were combined and reclassified into functional vegetation types with a similar fire ecology. The fuel load was calculated in each 0.5° × 0.5° grid square using a production model specific for each vegetation type, driven by monthly rainfall data. Multiyear fuel accumulation, herbivory, and decay were accounted for. Combustion completeness was modeled as a function of fuel mass and fuel type, established from field-collected data. The method was compared to the conventional procedure for calculating biomass burned, based on classification. The estimated amount of biomass burned in vegetation fires in southern hemisphere Africa annually is 90-264 Tg dry matter (DM) by the new modeling method and 247-2719 Tg DM by the conventional classification method. The modeling method is conservative since it does not include burning due to forest clearing or the burning of agricultural waste or domestic biomass fuels, but it is believed to be more realistic than the classification method and provides space-and-time-resolved output. The bulk of the burning occurs between June and September, with a peak in August. Half of the burning takes place in the broad-leaved, low-nutrient-status savannas which dominate the zone between 5° and 18°S.

Scholes, R. J.; Kendall, J.; Justice, C. O.

1996-10-01

122

Burns and military clothing.  

PubMed

Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under high heat loads in the laboratory, combat clothing can ignite, but there is little evidence that clothing ignition is a common occurrence in military burn casualties. Thermoplastic materials have many benefits in civil and military clothing. There is little objective evidence that they exacerbate burns, or complicate burn management. Their use in military clothing must be based on objective evidence, not hearsay. PMID:11307683

McLean, A D

2001-02-01

123

Rice Area Inter Annual Variation through a Remote Sensing Based Mapping Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rice is the main water-consuming crop planted in Egypt Delta. Constrained with the limited water resources, mapping rice is essential for any better water resources management. Xiao (2005) developed an algorithm for rice mapping by studying the dynamics of three vegetation indices the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and the Land surface water index (LSWI). Rice main differentiating feature is being planted in flooded land. Thus moisture sensitive index like LSWI will temporally exceed the EVI or the NDVI signalling rice transplanting. Xiao (2005) utilized MODIS free satellite imagery (500 m spatial resolution). However its coarse resolution combined with the Egyptian complex landscape raised the need for the algorithm modification. In this piece of work a low - cost rice mapping algorithm was developed. The multi resolution (MODIS 250 m red and near infrared bands) and (MODIS 500 m - shortwave infrared and blue bands) were utilized. The arable land was mapped through the utilization of the NDVI and applying it on MODIS 250 m (fine spatial resolution) scenes. The MODIS fine temporal resolution (MOD09A1 product) was utilized to study the LSWI, NDVI and EVI dynamics throughout the rice planting season. The non-arable land from MODIS 250 m was then used to refine the rice area calculated from the MODIS 500 m imagery. The algorithm was applied on the Egypt delta region in years 2008, 2009, and 2010. The mapped rice areas were enhanced from the MODIS 250 m arable mapping module and the results of the algorithm were validated against annual areas reports. There was good agreement between the estimated areas from the algorithm and the reports. Inter annual variation in rice areas was successfully mapped. In addition, the rice area and probable transplanting dates conforms to local planting practices. The findings of this study indicate that the algorithm can be used for rice mapping on a timely and frequent manner.

Elshorbagy, A. M.; Imam, E. H.; Nour, M. H.

2013-10-01

124

Post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near Hailey, central Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A preliminary hazard assessment was developed for debris-flow hazards in the 465 square-kilometer (115,000 acres) area burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek fire near Hailey in central Idaho. The burn area covers all or part of six watersheds and selected basins draining to the Big Wood River and is at risk of substantial post-fire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the Intermountain Region in Western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence, potential volume of debris flows, and the combined debris-flow hazard ranking along the drainage network within the burn area and to estimate the same for analyzed drainage basins within the burn area. Input data for the empirical models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm (13 mm); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm (19 mm); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm (22 mm). Estimated debris-flow probabilities for drainage basins upstream of 130 selected basin outlets ranged from less than 1 to 78 percent with the probabilities increasing with each increase in storm magnitude. Probabilities were high in three of the six watersheds. For the 25-year storm, probabilities were greater than 60 percent for 11 basin outlets and ranged from 50 to 60 percent for an additional 12 basin outlets. Probability estimates for stream segments within the drainage network can vary within a basin. For the 25-year storm, probabilities for stream segments within 33 basins were higher than the basin outlet, emphasizing the importance of evaluating the drainage network as well as basin outlets. Estimated debris-flow volumes for the three modeled storms range from a minimal debris flow volume of 10 cubic meters [m3]) to greater than 100,000 m3. Estimated debris-flow volumes increased with basin size and distance downstream. For the 25-year storm, estimated debris-flow volumes were greater than 100,000 m3 for 4 basins and between 50,000 and 100,000 m3 for 10 basins. The debris-flow hazard rankings did not result in the highest hazard ranking of 5, indicating that none of the basins had a high probability of debris-flow occurrence and a high debris-flow volume estimate. The hazard ranking was 4 for one basin using the 10-year-recurrence storm model and for three basins using the 25-year-recurrence storm model. The maps presented herein may be used to prioritize areas where post-wildfire remediation efforts should take place within the 2- to 3-year period of increased erosional vulnerability.

Skinner, Kenneth D.

2013-01-01

125

Annual peak discharges from small drainage areas in Montana for stations discontinued before 1978  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual peak stage and discharge data have been tabulated for crest-stage gage sites in Montana. The crest-stage program was begun in July 1955 to investigate the magnitude and frequency of floods from samll drainage areas. The program has expanded from 45 crest-stage gaging stations initially to 172 stations maintained in 1978. From 1955 to 1978, 156 stations have been discontinued. This report is a tabulation of the stage and discharge data for the discontinued stations. (Woodard-USGS)

Omang, R.J.; Hull, J.A.; Parrett, Charles

1979-01-01

126

Ball lightning burn.  

PubMed

Ball lightning is a rare physical phenomenon, which is not yet completely explained. It is similar to lightning but with different, peculiar characteristics. It can be considered a mix of fire and electricity, concentrated in a fireball with a diameter of 20-cm that most commonly appears suddenly, even in indoor conditions, during a thunderstorm. It moves quickly for several meters, can change direction, and ultimately disappears. During a great storm, a 28-year-old man and his 5-year-old daughter sustained burn wounds after ball lightning came from the outdoors through a chimney. These two patients demonstrated signs of fire and electrical injuries. The father, who lost consciousness, sustained superficial second-degree burn wounds bilaterally on the zygomatic area and deep second-degree burn wounds on his right hand (total body surface area, 4%). His daughter demonstrated superficial second-degree burn wounds on the left part of the face and deep second-degree and third-degree burn wounds (total body surface area, 30%) on the left neck, both upper arms, and the back. In this article, the authors report the first two cases of burn injuries resulting from ball lightning contact indoors. The literature on this rare phenomenon is reviewed to elucidate the nature of ball lightning. Emphasis is placed on the nature of injuries after ball lightning contact, the therapy used, and the long-term complications. PMID:12792547

Selvaggi, Gennaro; Monstrey, Stan; von Heimburg, Dennis; Hamdi, Mustapha; Van Landuyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip

2003-05-01

127

Lightning burns.  

PubMed

We present the case of a lightning-strike victim. This case illustrates the importance of in-field care, appropriate referral to a burn center, and the tendency of lightning burns to progress to full-thickness injury. PMID:23799482

Russell, Katie W; Cochran, Amalia L; Mehta, Sagar T; Morris, Stephen E; McDevitt, Marion C

2014-01-01

128

Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (Tonopah Test Range). CAU 484 consists of sites located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 484 consists of the following six Corrective Action Sites: (1) CAS RG-52-007-TAML, Davis Gun Penetrator Test; (2) CAS TA-52-001-TANL, NEDS Detonation Area; (3) CAS TA-52-004-TAAL, Metal Particle Dispersion Test; (4) CAS TA-52-005-TAAL, Joint Test Assembly DU Sites; (5) CAS TA-52-006-TAPL, Depleted Uranium Site; and (6) CAS TA-54-001-TANL, Containment Tank and Steel Structure

Bechel Nevada

2004-05-01

129

Geothermal, Geochemical and Geomagnetic Mapping Of the Burning Coal Seam in Fire- Zone 18 of the Coal Mining Area Wuda, Inner Mongolia, PR China.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous combustion of coal has become a world wide problem caused by and affecting technical operations in coal mining areas. The localization of the burning centre is a prerequisite for any planning of fire fighting operations. In the German - Chinese coal fire project sponsored by the German Ministry of Science and Technologies (Grant No. 0330490K) the so called fire zone 18 of the coal mining area of Wuda (InnerMongolia, PR China) serves as a test area for geophysical measurements. For the geothermal and geochemical mapping 25 up to 1m deep boreholes with a diameter of approx. 30 mm are distributed over the particular fire-zone with an extension of 320 × 180 m2. To avoid the highly dynamic gas flow processes in fire induced fractures caused by weather conditions, all boreholes were situated in the undisturbed rock compartments. In these boreholes, plastic tubes of 12 mm diameter provide access to the borehole ground filled with highly permeable gravel. The boreholes are otherwise sealed to the atmosphere by clay. The geothermal observations consist of measurements of temperature profiles in the boreholes and thermal conductivity measurement on rock samples in the lab. For depths greater then 0.2 m diurnal variations in the temperature gradient were neglected. The derived heat flow with maximum values of 80 W/m2 is more then three orders of magnitude higher than the natural undisturbed heat flow. The high heat flow suggests that the dominant heat transport is gas convection through the system of porous rock and fractures. Any temperature anomaly caused by the burning coal in a depth of more than 18 m would need years to reach the surface by a heat transport restricted to conduction. The geochemical soil gas probing is performed by gas extraction from the boreholes. Measured are the concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, H2S and CH4. The O2 deficit in the soil air and the concentrations of the other combustion products compared to the concentrations in the free atmosphere are related to the combustion area. The magnetic mapping with point distances of 2 m and profile-distances of 3 to 4 m covered an area of 350 × 300m with 7913 points. The detected anomalies lie in a range between -130 and 176 nT. The maxima are most likely caused by heating of the top sandstones by burning coal, the origin for the high magnetization being the conversion of pyrite and markasit into maghemite, hematite and magnetite. Susceptibility measurements of clinkers in firezone 18 demonstrate this effect. Therefore the identified patches with high magnetic anomalies should have a direct connection to ranges with burning coal within firezone 18. Al the discussed geophysical measurements together allow an integrated interpretation. Each result can be related to the combustion process with a particular likelihood for the vertical projection to the combustion centre. Probability calculations with chosen weight factors for each observation method are discussed. References: Kessels, W., Wuttke, M. W., Wessling, S., and Li, X. Coalfires between self ignition and fire fighting: Numerical modeling and basic geophysical measurements. In ERSEC Ecological Book Series - 4 on Coal Fire Research (2007).

Kessels, W.; Han, J.; Halisch, M.; Lindner, H.; Rueter, H.; Wuttke, M. W.

2008-12-01

130

First Aid: Burns  

MedlinePLUS

... burn may peel off after 1 or 2 days. Second-degree burns are thicker burns, are very painful and ... degree burns usually heal in 3 to 6 days. Second-degree burns usually heal in 2 to 3 weeks. ...

131

The consequences of global biomass burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global biomass burning encompasses forest burning for land clearing, the annual burning of grasslands, the annual burning of agricultural stubble and waste after harvests, and the burning of wood as fuel. These activities generate CO2, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, CO, H2, NO, NH3, and CH3Cl; of these, CO, CH4 and the hydrocarbons, and NO, are involved in the photochemical production of tropospheric O3, while NO is transformed to NO2 and then to nitric acid, which falls as acid rain. Biomass burning is also a major source of atmospheric particulates and aerosols which affect the transmission of incoming solar radiation and outgoing IR radiation through the atmosphere, with significant climatic effects.

Levine, Joel S.

1991-01-01

132

The daily fluorine and arsenic intake for residents with different dietaries and fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area, Yunnan, Southwest China.  

PubMed

The daily fluorine (F)/arsenic (As) intake (DFI/DAsI) for residents at different ages with different dietaries and dietary changes was investigated to analyze the fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area in Yunnan, Southwest China. The DFI for residents with a dietary of roasted corn and roasted chili was 5.06, 9.60, and 14.38 mg for age groups 3-7, 8-15, and over 15 years, respectively. Over 90 % of DFI was from roasted foodstuffs. The DFI for residents of the same age group living on rice and roasted chili was 1.94, 3.50, and 4.95 mg, respectively, which were less than that for the former dietary type, and 65 % of DFI was from roasted chili. The main sources for their DFI are roasted foodstuffs. Both were higher than the dietaries with non-roasted foodstuffs and the recommended daily allowances (RDAs) for USA and China at different levels. The DAsI for all residents ranged from 25 to 135 ?g, and at this level of DAsI, it would not influence human health. However, As pollution of roasted foodstuffs might have an important influence for the fluorosis. Residents are changing their staple food from roasted corn to rice, and especially, younger people are more focused on quality life. However, even if residents change their staple food, the habit of eating chili will not change, which also may cause them getting fluorosis. Developing economy, changing dietary types, and changing the habit of drying and keeping chili will help to reduce the fluorosis risk in coal-burning fluorosis area of Southwest China. PMID:25167821

Li, Ling; Luo, Kun-Li; Tang, Yue-Gang; Liu, Yong-Lin

2015-02-01

133

Wood-burning stoves produce new market  

SciTech Connect

The annual report of the Forestry Commission for Wales, notes that wood-burning stoves have produced a new market for timber as fuel, and the Commission are selling cutting rights for hardwood thinnings to contractors.

Not Available

1982-06-05

134

Long term in-situ observations of biomass burning aerosol at a high altitude station in Venezuela - sources, impacts and inter annual variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First long-term observations of South American biomass burning aerosol within the tropical lower free troposphere are presented. The observations were conducted between 2007 and 2009 at a high altitude station (4765 m a.s.l.) on the Pico Espejo, Venezuela. Sub-micron aerosol volume, number concentrations of primary particles and particle absorption were observed. Orographic lifting and shallow convection leads to a distinct diurnal cycle at the station. It enables measurements within the lower free troposphere during night time and observations of boundary layer air masses during day time and at their transitional regions. The seasonal cycle is defined by a wet rainy season and a dry biomass burning season. The particle load of biomass burning aerosol is dominated by fires in the Venezuelan savannah. Increases of aerosol concentrations could not be linked to long-range transport of biomass burning plumes from the Amazon basin or Africa due to effective wet scavenging of particles. Highest particle concentrations were observed within boundary layer air masses during the dry season. Ambient sub-micron aerosol volume reached 1.4 ± 1.3 ?m3 cm-3, heated (300 °C) particle number concentrations 510 ± 420 cm-3 and the absorption coefficient 0.91 ± 1.2 Mm-1. The respective concentrations were lowest within the lower free troposphere during the wet season and averaged at 0.19 ± 0.25 ?m3 cm-3, 150 ± 94 cm-3 and 0.15 ± 0.26 Mm-1. A decrease of particle concentrations during the dry seasons from 2007-2009 could be connected to a decrease in fire activity in the wider region of Venezuela using MODIS satellite observations. The variability of biomass burning is most likely linked to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Low biomass burning activity in the Venezuelan savannah was observed to follow La Niña conditions, high biomass burning activity followed El Niño conditions.

Hamburger, T.; Matis?ns, M.; Tunved, P.; Ström, J.; Calderon, S.; Hoffmann, P.; Hochschild, G.; Gross, J.; Schmeissner, T.; Krejci, R.

2013-05-01

135

Intake of ²³?U and ²³²Th through the consumption of foodstuffs by tribal populations practicing slash and burn agriculture in an extremely high rainfall area.  

PubMed

The concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides ²³²Th, ²³?U was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in different food groups namely cereals, vegetables, leafy vegetables, roots and tubers cultivated and consumed by tribal population residing around the proposed uranium mine. The study area is a part of rural area K. P. Mawthabah (Domiasiat) in the west Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya, India located in the tropical region of high rainfall that remains steeped in tribal tradition without much outside influence. Agriculture by Jhum (slash and burn) cultivation and animal husbandry are the main occupation of the tribal populations. A total of 89 samples from locally grown food products were analyzed. The concentration of ²³?U and ²³²Th in the soil of the study area was found to vary 1.6-15.5 and 2.0-5.0 times respectively to the average mean value observed in India. The estimated daily dietary intake of ²³?U and ²³²Th were 2.0 ?g d?¹ (25 mBq d?¹) and 3.4 ?g d?¹ (14 mBq d?¹) is comparable with reported range 0.5-5.0 ?g d?¹ and 0.15-3.5 ?g d?¹ respectively for the Asian population. PMID:22036151

Jha, S K; Gothankar, S; Iongwai, P S; Kharbuli, B; War, S A; Puranik, V D

2012-01-01

136

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved wood burning stove for providing heated air to a room or similar area includes an enclosed fire chamber, a hearth at the bottom of the fire chamber, draft inlet means at the front of the fire chamber and a flue at the rear of the fire chamber. Within the fire chamber is an enclosed air chamber having lower

1983-01-01

137

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove for providing heated air to a room or similar area is disclosed which includes a fire chamber, a hearth in the forward portion of the fire chamber, draft inlet means at the front of the fire chamber and a flue at the rear of the fire chamber. Between the hearth and the flue is an enclosed

1978-01-01

138

Burning rubber  

SciTech Connect

Mario Andretti, look out You are about to be surpassed in the burning rubber category by a joint venture between Oxford Energy Company and General Electric. The two companies are building the first whole tire-to-energy facility in the US in Modesto, California. This $41 million facility does not require tires to be shredded prior to incineration; it has the capacity to burn 700 tires per minute. The electricity generated will be provided to a utility company. Oxford says there are two billion waste tires on the ground and this number is increasing by 220 million a year. Of that amount, only 18 million a year are recycled.

Not Available

1987-09-01

139

Emerging Infections in Burns  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Patients who suffer severe burns are at higher risk for local and systemic infections. In recent years, emerging resistant pathogens have forced burn care providers world wide to search for alternative forms of treatment. Multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., and various fungal strains have been the major contributors to the increase in morbidity and mortality rates. Multi-drug-resistant S. aureus remains the major cause of gram-positive burn wound infections world wide. Treatment strategies include rigorous isolation protocols and new types of antibiotics where necessary. Methods We reviewed 398 severely burned patients (burns >40% total body surface area [TBSA]) admitted to our hospital between 2000 and 2006. Patients who did not contract multi-drug-resistant gram-negative organisms during their hospital course and received our standard antibiotic regimen—vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam—served as controls (piperacillin/tazobactam; n?=?280). The treatment group consisted of patients who, during their acute hospital stay, developed infections with multi-drug-resistant gram-negative pathogens and were treated with vancomycin and colistin for at least three days (colistin; n?=?118). Results Gram-negative organisms continue to cause the most severe infections in burn patients. Colistin has re-emerged as a highly effective antibiotic against multiresistant Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter infections of burns. Patients who required colistin therapy had a significantly larger average total and full-thickness burn than patients treated with piperacillin/tazobactam and vancomycin, and the mortality rate was significantly higher in the colistin group (p?burn patients are Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., and Fusarium spp. A definitive diagnosis is more difficult to obtain than in bacterial infections. Amphotericin B and voriconazole remain the two most important anti-fungal substances in our practice. Conclusions Innovations in fluid management, ventilatory support, surgical care, and antimicrobial therapy have contributed to a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality rates in burn patients. Vancomycin and clindamycin are the two most important reserve antibiotics for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Oxazolidinones and streptogramins have showed high effectiveness against gram-positive infections. Colistin has re-emerged as a highly effective antibiotic against multiresistant Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter infections. Current challenges include Candida, Aspergillus, and molds. The development of new agents, prudent and appropriate use of antibiotics, and better infection control protocols are paramount in the ongoing battle against multi-resistant organisms. PMID:19810827

Branski, Ludwik K.; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed; Rivero, Haidy; Jeschke, Marc G.; Sanford, Arthur P.

2009-01-01

140

Mortality and Morbidity of Fireworks-Related Burns on the Annual Last Wednesday of the Year Festival (Charshanbeh Soori) in Iran: An 11-Year Study  

PubMed Central

Background Management of firework-related injuries is costly for the patient, society, and government. Objectives Evaluating effective factors yielding to such injuries may lead to better management of patients and decreased costs and morbidities. Patients and Materials This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on burn patients referred to Shahid Motahari Burns Hospital on Charshanbeh Soori day festival during the period extending from March 2000 to March 2011 (11 days in an 11-year period). Demographic data, causes of burn injury, severity, and affected body parts were recorded. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results There were164 patients in the study with a mean age of 18.34 ± 9.31 years; 87% (145/164) were male. Homemade grenades were the most frequent cause of injury. Hand injury was reported in 56% (92/164) of the cases. Amputation was executed in 7 (4.3%) cases, and 6 (3.7%) patients died due to severe burn injuries and facial damage. Conclusions Fireworks- related injuries during Charshanbeh Soori ceremony causes significant morbidities and damage to different body parts (especially upper limbs and face), and some of these injuries will lead to life time disabilities, amputations, and even death. As most of the injured patients are young teenagers and children, special consideration must be taken into account to prevent long term morbidities. PMID:24350158

Vaghardoost, Reza; Ghavami, Yaser; Sobouti, Behnam; Mobayen, Mohammad Reza

2013-01-01

141

2010 Annual Summary Report for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Management Sites at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office performed an annual review of the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) Performance Assessments (PAs) and Composite Analyses (CAs) in fiscal year (FY) 2010. This annual summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2010 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs.

NSTec Environmental Management

2011-03-01

142

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, July 2002, Rev. No. 0  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 140 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-08-01, Detonation Pits; 05-08-02, Debris Pits; 05-17-01, Hazardous Waste Accumulation Site (Buried); 05-19-01, Waste Disposal Site; 05-23-01, Gravel Gertie; 05-35-01, Burn Pit; 05-99-04, Burn Pit; 22-99-04, Radioactive Waste Dump; 23-17-01, Hazardous Waste Storage Area. All nine of these CASs are located within Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. This CAU is being investigated because disposed waste may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present or migrating at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The NTS has been used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. The CASs in CAU 140 were used for testing, material storage, waste storage, and waste disposal. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution criteria and resolve the decision statements. Phase I will determine if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels. This data will be evaluated at all CASs. Phase II will determine the extent of the contaminant(s) of concern (COCs). This data will only be evaluated for CASs with a COC identified during Phase I. Based on process knowledge, the COPCs for CAU 140 include volatile organics, semivolatile organics, petroleum hydrocarbons, explosive residues, herbicides, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and radionuclides. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

NNSA /NV

2002-07-18

143

Ten years of global burned area products from spaceborne remote sensing-A review: Analysis of user needs and recommendations for future developments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early global estimates of carbon emissions from biomass burning were based on empirical assumptions of fire return interval in different biomes in the 1980s. Since then, significant improvements of spaceborne remote sensing sensors have resulted in an increasing number of derived products characterizing the detection of active fire or the subsequent burned area (GFED, MODIS MCD45A1, L3JRC, Globcarbon, GBS, GLOBSCAR, GBA2000). When coupled with global land cover and vegetation models allowing for spatially explicit fuel biomass estimates, the use of these products helps to yield important information about the spatial and the temporal variability of emission estimates. The availability of multi-year products (>10 years) leads to a better understanding of uncertainties in addition to increasing accuracy. We surveyed a wide range of users of global fire data products whilst also undertaking a review of the latest scientific literature. Two user groups were identified, the first being global climate and vegetation modellers and the second being regional land managers. Based on this review, we present here the current needs covering the range of end-users. We identified the increasing use of BA products since the year 2000 with an increasing use of MODIS as a reference dataset. Scientific topics using these BA products have increased in diversity and area of application, from global fire emissions (for which BA products were initially developed) to regional studies with increasing use for ecosystem management planning. There is a significant need from the atmospheric science community for low spatial resolution (gridded, 1/2 degree cell) and long time series data characterized with supplementary information concerning the accuracy in timing of the fire and reductions of omission/commission errors. There is also a strong need for precisely characterizing the perimeter and contour of the fire scar for better assimilation with land cover maps and fire intensity. Computer and earth observation facilities remain a significant gap between ideal accuracies and the realistic ones, which must be fully quantified and comprehensive for an actual use in global fire emissions or regional land management studies.

Mouillot, Florent; Schultz, Martin G.; Yue, Chao; Cadule, Patricia; Tansey, Kevin; Ciais, Philippe; Chuvieco, Emilio

2014-02-01

144

Table 1. Annual estimates, uncertainty, and change. Figure 1. Area of forest land and timberland.  

E-print Network

.8 Annual mortality of live trees (thousand ft3 yr-1 ) 238,586.7 4.0 4.0 Annual harvest removals of live wood-using industry, its use of roundwood, and the generation and disposition of wood residues. Below is processed. There was 102.6 million cubic feet of industrial roundwood harvested from Missouri's forests

145

Estimates of global biomass burning emissions for reactive greenhouse gases (CO, NMHCs, and NOx) and CO2  

E-print Network

, along with biofuel consumption rate data. The estimated global and annual total dry matter (DM) burned burning emissions of these gases. Estimated DM burned associated with domestic biofuel burning is 3,114 TgEstimates of global biomass burning emissions for reactive greenhouse gases (CO, NMHCs, and NOx

Jain, Atul K.

146

Epidemiology of U.K. military burns.  

PubMed

The authors review the etiology of U.K. military burns in light of increasing hybrid warfare. Analysis of the nature of these injured personnel will provide commanders with the evidence to plan for on-going and future operations. Case notes of all U.K. Armed Forces burn injured patients who were evacuated to the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine were reviewed. Demographics, burn severity, pattern, and mortality details were included. There were 134 U.K. military personnel with burns requiring return to the United Kingdom during 2001-2007. The median age was 27 (20-62) years. Overall, 60% of burns seen were "accidental." Burning waste, misuse or disrespect of fuel, and scalds were the most prevalent noncombat burns. Areas commonly burned were the face, legs, and hands. During 2006-2007 in the two major conflicts, more than 59% (n = 36) of the burned patients evacuated to the United Kingdom were injured during combat. Burns sustained in combat represent 5.8% of all combat casualties and were commonly associated with other injuries. Improvised explosive device, minestrike, and rocket-propelled grenade were common causes. The mean TBSA affected for both groups was 5% (1-70). The majority of combat burn injuries have been small in size. Greater provision of flame retardant equipment and clothing may reduce the extent and number of combat burns in the future. The numbers of noncombat burns are being reduced by good military discipline. PMID:21422938

Foster, Mark Anthony; Moledina, Jamil; Jeffery, Steve L A

2011-01-01

147

A comparison of burn season effects on nesting birds in North Dakota mixed-grass prairie  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1982-1985, the effects of single spring and fall burn treatments on ground nesting birds and residual cover were studied on five paired areas of native mixed-grass prairie in northwestern Stutsman County, ND. Annually, visual obstruction readings to index the height-density of residual cover were taken once and nest searches were made four times on each area. Residual nesting cover on fall burn plots averaged taller and denser than on spring burn plots during post-fire growing years 2-4. A total of 259 duck nests and 63 nests of non-passerine birds were found during the four years. Duck nesting success was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in fall burn plots than in spring burn plots for all species and years combined. Too few nests of other bird species were found for valid comparisons. Results suggest that vegetation structure and duck nesting response to spring and fall burns became similar again by the third post-fire growing season.

Higgins, K.F.

1986-01-01

148

Ken Burns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ken Burns is a popular documentarian and, as it turns out, he is now a popular app, in a manner of speaking. This particular app gives interested parties the ability to view scenes from his documentaries (such as "Baseball" and "Jazz") in a variety of settings. The latest version allows visitors to access the Innovation playlist absolutely free while other playlists containing clips from his other programs are available for a small fee. This version is compatible with iPads running iOS 7.0 and newer.

2014-02-10

149

Bone disease in burn patients.  

PubMed

Burn patients are at risk for bone disease due to aluminum (Al) exposure from use of antacids and albumin, partial immobilization, and increased production of endogenous glucocorticoids. Moreover, severely burned children are growth impaired up to 3 years after the burn. To determine the extent of bone disease, we studied nine men and three women, ages 18-41 years, with greater than 50% body surface area burn. Seven patients underwent iliac crest bone biopsy following double tetracycline labeling, one additional patient expired after a single label, and three others had postmortem specimens obtained for quantitative Al only. Serial serum and urine samples were obtained weekly until biopsy or death. All biopsied patients had reduced bone formation and osteoid area, surface, and width, with mineral apposition rate, osteoblast surface, and osteoclast number with normal eroded surfaces compared to age- and sex-matched normal ambulatory volunteers. Burn patients also had reduced bone formation, mineral apposition rate, osteoid area, and surface compared to age-matched volunteers at short-term bed rest. Serum levels of osteocalcin were low. Most patients had mild hypercalcemia but only a third had hypercalciuria. All patients had elevated Al in blood or urine; urine Al correlated inversely with serum osteocalcin. In 60% significant bone Al was detectable by stain or quantitation. Our data are compatible with burn patients having markedly reduced bone turnover. Al loading, partial immobilization, endogenous corticosteroids, and cytokine production may be among the etiologic factors. PMID:8456588

Klein, G L; Herndon, D N; Rutan, T C; Sherrard, D J; Coburn, J W; Langman, C B; Thomas, M L; Haddad, J G; Cooper, C W; Miller, N L

1993-03-01

150

Distribution of ecotypes of the genus Trifolium and annual Medicago in grazing areas in southwest Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - The need for genetic material to improve the grazing lands of the dehesa has led the Research and Technology Development Service of the Regional Government in Extremadura to establish a germplasm bank for annual leguminous forage plants. This bank contains 3361 accessions of the genus Trifolium, mainly Trifolium subterraneum, and 684 of the genus Medicago, with the majority

F. González; N. Martínez; E. Moreno

151

Annual fossil organic carbon delivery due to mechanical and chemical weathering of marly badlands areas  

E-print Network

1 Annual fossil organic carbon delivery due to mechanical and chemical weathering of marly badlands Carbon (FOC) release by weathering of outcropping sedimentary rocks on continental surfaces is still weathering of marls in two experimental watersheds showing a typical badlands geomorphology (Draix watersheds

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

152

Satellite detection of tropical burning in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical burning often occurs in remote areas of the world. Satellite remote sensing is the only practical solution for detecting and monitoring this burning. In this paper we demonstrate the capability of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration polar orbiting satellites for detecting tropical fire activity in the Manaus, Brazil area.

Michael Matson; Brent Holben

1987-01-01

153

Rehabilitation of the burn patient  

PubMed Central

Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ‘Burns Rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration PMID:21321643

Procter, Fiona

2010-01-01

154

Skin Burns Degree Determined by Computer Image Processing Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a new method determining the degree of skin burns in quantities is put forward. Firstly, with Photoshop9.0 software, we analyzed the statistical character of skin burns images' histogram, and then turned the images of burned skins from RGB color space to HSV space, to analyze the transformed color histogram. Lastly through Photoshop9.0 software we get the percentage of the skin burns area. We made the mean of images' histogram,the standard deviation of color maps,and the percentage of burned areas as indicators of evaluating burns,then distributed indicators the weighted values,at last get the burned scores by summing the products of every indicator of the burns and the weighted values. From the classification of burned scores, the degree of burns can be evaluated.

Li, Hong-yan

155

Relationship of Serum Paraoxonase Enzyme Activity and Thermal Burn Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study investigated changes in serum oxidative stress parameters in burn cases compared to healthy controls. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in 41 burn patients with mild to severe thermal burn injuries and 38 healthy volunteers. The burn cases were selected from patients who were hospitalized in the burn unit for the treatment of second- and third-degree burns. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and PON-1 paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were measured in patient serum samples. Results: PON-1 paraoxonase activity and MDA levels in patients with major thermal burn injury were significantly higher than healthy controls, but PON-1 arylesterase activities were lower. A significant negative correlation was observed between the burn percentage of the total body surface area and the PON-1 arylesterase activities in patients. Conclusion: Human thermal burn injury was associated with an increase in MDA production and a decrease in PON-1 arylesterase activity, which was proportional to the percentage of total burned surface area.

Yildirim, Serap; Doganay, Songul; Yildirim, Abdulkadir; Aydin, Osman Enver; Karakoc, Akar; Laloglu, Esra

2012-01-01

156

Causes and treatment of burns from grease.  

PubMed

A large number of burns are sustained every year as the result of kitchen grease. A review of a 13-month period at the Joseph M. Still Burn Center in Augusta, Georgia, revealed 60 cases (9.4% of acute burn admissions). Forty-five (75%) of these patients were adults and 25% were children. There were 23 females and 37 males. Forty-two percent of the adults and 33% of the children had some percentage of third-degree injury. The average total body surface area burn in adults was 5.9% and in children 6.3%. There were no deaths in this series. Burns usually occurred as the result of scalds with grease while cooking. Spilling grease on children in the kitchen was a frequent problem. Burns due to ignition of grease was also a cause of injury. Most of the injuries were potentially preventable, and therefore the importance of burn appropriate safety programs is stressed. PMID:15247839

Fiebiger, Barbara; Whitmire, Faye; Law, Edward; Still, Joseph M

2004-01-01

157

Annual social behaviour of basking sharks associated with coastal front areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparatively little is known about reproductive behaviour in wild sharks as it has proved extremely dicult to study, especially in large pelagic sharks. Here we describe annual courtship-like behaviour in the second-largest ¢ sh species, the basking shark ( Cetorhinus maximus ), from 25 separate episodes observed and tracked during a ¢ ve-year study period (1995^1999) o¡ south-west England. Social

David W. Sims; Emily J. Southall; Victoria A. Quayle; Adrian M. Fox

2000-01-01

158

Biomass burning emission inventory from burnt area data given by the SPOT-VEGETATION system in the frame of TRACE-P and ACE-Asia campaigns  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main uncertainties in the estimation of the climatic impact of aerosols is linked to our knowledge of gas and aerosol emissions. This is particularly crucial over Asia, where a strong regional fingerprint is observed, with different emission types, depending on the various vegetation and climate conditions (biomass burning emissions) and on the very fast changes of the

C. Michel; C. Liousse; J.-M. Grégoire; K. Tansey; G. R. Carmichael; J.-H. Woo

2005-01-01

159

Landscape dynamics and equilibrium in areas of slash-and-burn agriculture with short and long fallow period (Bragantina region, NE Brazilian Amazon)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fallow periods used in slash-and-burn agriculture in the Bragantinaregion, the oldest agricultural frontier in the Brazilian Amazon, are beingreduced. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a shortenedfallow period on the Bragantina landscape dynamics and equilibrium. Dynamicswere characterized by landscape structural changes, particularly in the spatialdistribution of secondary forests, and by transition matrix. Equilibrium wasdefined by

Jean Paul Metzger

2002-01-01

160

Determination of anthropogenic and biogenic compounds on atmospheric aerosol collected in urban, biomass burning and forest areas in São Paulo, Brazil.  

PubMed

This study was conducted at three sites of different characteristics in São Paulo State: São Paulo (SPA), Piracicaba (PRB) and Mata Atlântica Forest (MAT). PM(10), n-alkanes, pristane and phytane, PAHs, water-soluble ions and biomass burning tracers like levoglucosan and retene, were determined in quartz fiber filters. Samplings occurred on May 8th to August 8th, 2007 at the MAT site; on August 15th to 29th in 2007 and November 10th to 29th in 2008 at the PRB site and, March 13th to April 4th in 2007 and August 7th to 29th in 2008 at the SPA site. Aliphatic compounds emitted biogenically were less abundant at the urban sites than at the forest site, and its distribution showed the influence of tropical vascular plants. Air mass transport from biomass burning regions is likely to impact the sites with specific molecular markers. The concentrations of all species were variable and dependent of seasonal changes. In the most dry and polluted seasons, n-alkane and cation total concentrations were similar between the megacity and the biomass burning site. PAHs and inorganic ion abundances were higher at São Paulo than Piracicaba, yet, the site influenced by biomass burning seems to be the most impacted by the organic anion abundance in the atmosphere. Pristane and phytane confirm the contamination by petroleum residues at urban sites; at the MAT site, biological activity and long range transport of pollutants might influence the levels of pristane. PMID:20843540

Vasconcellos, Pérola C; Souza, Davi Z; Sanchez-Ccoyllo, Odon; Bustillos, José Oscar V; Lee, Helena; Santos, Fernando C; Nascimento, Katia H; Araújo, Maria P; Saarnio, Karri; Teinilä, Kimmo; Hillamo, Risto

2010-11-01

161

Recovery trajectories after burn injury in young adults: does burn size matter?  

PubMed

The impact of burn size on mortality is well known, but the association of burn size with the trajectories of long-term functional outcomes remains poorly studied. This prospective multi-center study included burned adults ages 19 to 30 years who completed the Young Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaire at initial baseline contact, 2 weeks, and at 6 and 12 months after initial questionnaire administration. Non-burned adults of comparable ages also completed the questionnaire as a reference group. The association between functional recovery and TBSA burned was analyzed longitudinally using generalized linear models with the generalized estimation equation technique. Functional status was characterized in 15 domains: physical function, fine motor function, pain, itch, social function limited by physical function, perceived appearance, social function limited by appearance, sexual function, emotion, family function, family concern, satisfaction with symptom relief, satisfaction with role, work reintegration, and religion. Scores were standardized to a mean of 50 and a SD of 10 based on non-burned controls. There were 153 burned and 112 non-burned subjects with a total of 620 questionnaires. TBSA burned was 11 ± 14% (mean ± SD); 31% had face involvement and 57% had hand involvement. The lag time from burn injury to questionnaire administration was on average 7 ± 7.7 months, with a maximum of 36 months. Lower recovery levels were associated with increasing burn size for physical function, pain, itch, work reintegration, emotion, satisfaction with symptom relief, satisfaction with role, family function, and family concern (P value ranged from .04-<.0001). No significant differences in recovery levels were found with increasing burn size for fine motor function, social function limited by physical function, sexual function, and religion; these areas tracked toward the age-matched non-burned group regardless of burn size. Perceived appearance and social function limited by appearance remained below the non-burn levels throughout the 3-year period regardless of burn size. Three-year recovery trajectories of survivors with larger burn size showed improvements in most areas, but these improvements lagged behind those with smaller burns. Poor perceived appearance was persistent and prevalent regardless of burn size and was found to limit social function in these young adult burn survivors. Expectations for multidimensional recovery from burns in young adults can be benchmarked based on burn size with important implications for patient monitoring and intervening in clinical care. PMID:25501787

Ryan, Colleen M; Lee, Austin; Kazis, Lewis E; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Sheridan, Robert L; Meyer, Walter J; Palmieri, Tina; Pidcock, Frank S; Reilly, Debra; Tompkins, Ronald G

2015-01-01

162

Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF burning program  

SciTech Connect

The Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF Burning Program was conceived to promote the utilization of refuse-derived fuels (RDF) as a supplement to existing fossil fuel sources in industrial-sized boilers. The program explores the design, development, and eventual construction of densified-RDF (d-RDF) for use in boiler combustion testing as a supplement to stoker coal or wood wastes. The equipment would be mounted on trailers and assembled and operated at preselected sites throughout the country where approximately 750 tons of RDF would be produced and test burned in a local boiler. The equipment, to include a transportable RDF boiler metering and feed system, would then be moved and operated at two to three test sites annually. The program is intended to encourage the construction of permanent resource recovery facilities by involving local waste handling groups in operating the equipment and producing fuel, and potential local fuel users in testing the fuel in their boilers. The Mobilizable Program was developed from two separate tasks. The first task developed the concept behind the program and defined its operational and organizational structure. The second task, a follow-up to the first, was intended principally to finalize test locations, develop equipment designs and specifications, and formalize a management program. This report summarizes the principal findings of both tasks. It identifies the criteria used to identify test locations, outlines the program's management structure, presents design and performance specifications for both the fuel production equipment and boiler fuel feed systems, and provides a detailed evaluation of the parameters involved in burning RDF in industrial-sized boilers. Final conclusions and recommendations identify problem areas encountered in the program, and discuss possible future directions for such a program.

Niemann, K.; Campbell, J.

1982-03-01

163

33 CFR 165.1191 - Northern California and Lake Tahoe Area Annual Fireworks Events.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Harbor Fireworks Sponsor Various sponsors. Event Description Fireworks Display. Date July 4th. Location Half Moon Bay, CA. Regulated Area Pillar Point Harbor within the area of navigable waters within a 1,000-foot radius of the...

2012-07-01

164

Longitudinal burn scar quantification.  

PubMed

Quantitative studies of the clinical recovery of burn scars are currently lacking. Previous reports validate the objective, precise, diagnostic capabilities of high-frequency ultrasound to measure thickness, the Cutometer(®) to measure pliability and the Mexameter(®) to measure erythema and pigmentation of scars. Thus, we prospectively quantified clinical characteristics of patient-matched, after burn hypertrophic scar (HSc), donor site scar (D) and normal skin (N) using these instruments. One investigator measured 3 sites (HSc, D, N) in 46 burn survivors at 3, 6, and 12 months after-burn. A mixed model regression analysis, adjusting p-values for multiplicity of testing, was used to compare means among sites and time points. Participants were 41.2±13.5 years old, 87% males, predominantly Caucasian, with an average of 19.5% body surface area burned. HSc thickness decreased significantly between 3 and 6, 6 and 12, and 3 and 12 months (all p<0.0001), but remained thicker than D and N skin (all p<0.0001). Pliability differed significantly between HSc, D and N sites at all time points (all p<0.0001), with HSc and D increasing between 3 and 12 months (p<0.05) but not reaching normal. HSc and D sites were significantly more erythematous than normal skin (p<0.05) at 3 and 6 months but D sites approached normal by 12 months. The only time points at which pigmentation significantly differed were the HSc and D sites at 6 months. Thickness, pliability, erythema and pigmentation of N skin remained similar over the 12 months. We found that post-burn HSc thickness, pliability and erythema differed significantly from D and N skin at 3, 6, and 12 months and does not return to normal by 12 months after-injury; however, significant improvements towards normal can be expected. Donor sites are redder than normal skin at 3 and 6 months but can be expected to return to normal by 12 months. Although the color of HSc and D sites change markedly with time these color changes are primarily due to changes in redness of the site, not melanin in this primarily Caucasian population. PMID:24703337

Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; de Oliveira, Ana; LaSalle, Leo; Perrault, Isabelle

2014-12-01

165

Educational Cooperative Service Unit of the Metropolitan Twin Cities Area. 1985-86 Annual Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The accomplishments of the Educational Cooperative Service Unit of the Metropolitan Twin Cities Area (Minnesota) are described. The unit serves a seven-county metropolitan area, 13 associate member agencies, and 48 member public school districts and provides effective programs for school and educational personnel. During the 1985-86 school year,…

Educational Cooperative Service Unit of the Metropolitan Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minn.

166

Epidemiologic Characteristics of Occupational Burns in Yazd, Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective: Occupational burns are among the important causes of work-related fatalities and absenteeism. Epidemiologic assessment of these injuries is important to define high-risk jobs. We designed this study to evaluate the epidemiology of occupational burns in Yazd, an industrial province in Iran. Methods: This is a prospective study on work-related burns in a 1-year period (2008-2009). A questionnaire was completed for them about the characteristics of the burn injury. Results: Three Hundred and Thirty Eight patients with occupational burns were identified. Their mean age was 29.64 years. Most burn victims were male workers in the metal industry. The most common job was smelting. Most burns were happened in the morning. Thermal burns were observed more than chemical and electrical burns. Mean total body surface area burned was 6.5%. The most common cause of burn was hot fluid, followed by hot object and flame. There was no any significant relationship between burn type, and burn degree or burned body surface. Conclusions: The highest incidence of occupational burns was in 21-30 year-old workers. There was a male preponderance in work-related burns. Metal industry had the most injured workers and among them, smelters were more frequently injured. PMID:23930193

Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Kazemeini, Kazem; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad

2013-01-01

167

Epidemiology of paediatric burns in Iran  

PubMed Central

Summary We surveyed the epidemiology of the patients in a tertiary burn care centre (the Motahari Burn Hospital) in Tehran in the 4-yr period 2005-2009. Scalding was the major cause of burn injury for patients under the age of 6, while there were many more flame and electrical burns in late childhood. Males were mainly affected (male to female ratio, 1.7:1). Most burns occurred in the summer, probably due to older children’s increased outdoor activities during school vacations. Most of the injuries took place in the kitchen. Age was directly related to the higher total body surface area and mortality rate. Explosion of propane gas at home had a high incidence. Length of hospital stay increased in relation to the burn surface area. Infants were found to be at greatest risk for burn injuries, while older children were at higher risk for severe burns. Before arriving at the hospital, 22 patients had received traditional therapy in the home which was not effective and caused some problems. Pre-hospital care by emergency medicine service personnel was complete and effective. 374 patients had positive results for wound culture (42.9%). The most frequent bacteria found in burn wound cultures was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (66.8%). Blood culture was positive in 12% of the patients with positive burn wound culture and the most frequent bacteria in blood culture was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The overall mortality rate was 10.6%. Treatment and prevention programmes should target high risk groups. Important criteria include older age, flame burn, presence of inhalation injury, total body surface area burned above 40%, and sepsis. PMID:23466950

Karimi, H.; Montevalian, A.; Motabar, A.R.; Safari, R.; Parvas, M.S.; Vasigh, M.

2012-01-01

168

Burn Incidence and Treatment in the U.S.  

MedlinePLUS

... annual estimates of hospital admissions and visits to hospital emergency departments. The estimate range acknowledges that some burns may have been treated solely at hospital clinics, community health centers, or private medical offices. ...

169

Annual compilation and analysis of hydrologic data for urban studies in the Bryan, Texas, metropolitan area, 1969  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic investigations of urban areas in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. These studies are now in progress in Austin, Houston, Dallas, Dallas County, Fort Worth, San Antonio, and Bryan. Hydrologic investigations of urban areas in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. These studies are now in progress in Austin, Houston, Dallas, Dallas County, Fort Worth, San Antonio, and Bryan. 1. To determine, on the basis of historical data and hydrologic analyses, the magnitude and frequency of floods. 2. To document and define the areal extent of floods of greater than ordinary magnitude. 3. To determine the effect of urban development on flood peaks and volume. 4. To provide applied research facilities for studies at Texas A & M University at College Stations. This report, the first in a series of reports to be published annually, is primarily applicable to objectives 2, 3, and 4. The report presents the basic hydrologic data collected in two study areas during the 1969 water year (October 1, 1968, to September 30, 1969) and basic hydrologic data collected during part of the 1968 water year (April 5, 1968, to September 30, 1968). The locations of the two basins within the study area, Burton Creek and Hudson Creek, are shown on figure 1.

Robbins, W.D.

1972-01-01

170

Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility groundwater monitoring report. 1996 annual report  

SciTech Connect

The Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility is located in the Separations Area, north of H and S Areas, at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The facility permanently disposes of low-level radioactive waste. The facility blends low-level radioactive salt solution with cement, slag, and flyash to form a nonhazardous cementitious waste that is pumped to aboveground disposal vaults. Z Area began these operations in June 1990. Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Industrial Solid Waste Permit {number_sign}025500-1603 (formerly IWP-217). During second quarter 1996, lead was reported above the SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standard in one well. No other constituents were reported above SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standards for final Primary Drinking Water Standards during first, second, or third quarters 1996. Antimony was detected above SRS flagging criteria during third quarter 1996. In the past, tritium has been detected sporadically in the ZBG wells at levels similar to those detected before Z Area began radioactive operations.

NONE

1996-12-01

171

Biomass burning emissions estimates in the boreal forests of Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire is the main boreal forest disturbance and can burn 10-30 million hectares annually, thus modifying the global carbon budget through direct fire emissions, postfire biogenic emissions, and by maintaining or altering ecosystems through establishing the beginning and end of successional processes. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russian boreal forests vary substantially due to differences in ecosystems types, burned area calculations, and the amount of fuel consumed. There is an urgent need to obtain more accurate and impartial fire carbon loss estimates in the boreal forests of Siberia due to their considerable contribution to the regional and global carbon balance. We examined uncertainties in estimates of carbon emissions. Area burned in the Siberian region was analyzed and compared using distinct methodologies. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Carbon emissions from fires vary annually and interannually and can increase several times in extreme fire years in comparison to normal fire years. Climate change and increasing drought length have increased the probability of high-severity fire occurrences. This would result in greater carbon losses and efflux to the atmosphere. This research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, Fulbright Program, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

Kukavskaya, E. A.; Ivanova, G. A.; Soja, A. J.; Conard, S. G.

2012-04-01

172

Burn epidemiology: a basis for burn prevention.  

PubMed

An appreciation of the causes of burn injury is essential in order to direct burn prevention programs. Toward this goal, 1,564 patients treated at the UCI Burn Center were studied. There were 699 patients admitted acutely and 865 outpatients. The most common cause of thermal injury in both adults and children was scalding. In children scald burns accounted for 42% of the total number of children treated. In children under 4 years old scalds caused 75% of all burn injuries, most in the kitchen. Flammable liquids were responsible for the majority of the severe burns in the adult group (19% of acute admissions). Housefires, while accounting for only 5% of the adults treated, were responsible for 44% of the adult deaths. Continued public education in safety practices at home especially in the kitchen and bath, and with automobiles and outdoor stoves and fires is recommended, as well as planned escapes from homes and use of smoke detectors. PMID:592443

Jay, K M; Bartlett, R H; Danet, R; Allyn, P A

1977-12-01

173

Area 2 Bitcutter and Postshot Injection Wells Corrective Action Unit 90 Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

A Post-Closure Program was agreed upon in the 1996 Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Report Area 2 Bitcutter and Postshot Containment Shops Injection Wells Corrective Action Unit 90, Report No. DOE/NV--461. Post Closure care consists of: Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; Verify that the site is secure and the gates are locked; Note any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; Remedy those deficiencies within 60 days of discovery; Discuss them in the annual report. The report included an executive summary, copies of the inspection checklist, and recommendations and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A and a copy of the field notes are found in Attachment B.

Bechtel Nevada

1999-08-01

174

Area 2 Bitcutter and Post-Shot Injection Wells Corrective Action Unit 90 Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

Area 2 Bitcutter and Post-Shot Containment Wells Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 90 Post-Closure Monitoring requirements are described in {section} VIIB.8.b of the Nevada Test Site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility No. NEV HW009, reissued November 20, 2000, Revision 4. Post-closure care consists of the following: Semiannual inspections of the unit using an inspection checklist; photographic documentation; field note documentation; and preparation and submittal of an annual report. The report includes copies of the inspection checklist, photographs, and recommendations and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and a copy of the inspection photographs is found in Attachment C.

D. S. Tobiason

2001-09-01

175

Evaluation of the Bird Conservation Area Concept in the Northern Tallgrass Prairie Annual Report: 19  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new resource on the management and conservation of grassland/prairie birds has been posted at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center site. This report "contains findings from the first year of a study to test the idea that Bird Conservation Areas can maintain populations of breeding grassland birds." It is available for download in .zip format.

Donovan, Therese M.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Svedarsky, W. D.; Winter, Maiken.

2007-08-14

176

Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report (1998 Annual Report)  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with SRS Z-Area Saltstone Industrial Solid Waste Permit, wells ZBG-1, ZBG-1A and ZBG-2 are monitored for the parameters listed in this document. Sampling was done during the first and third quarters of 1998. Additional Analyses were also run. The analytical results appear in Appendix 1.

Wells, D.

1999-04-27

177

Measuring burn injury outcomes.  

PubMed

Burn injury affects all facets of life. Burn care has improved over time. Improved survival after burn injury has resulted in a shift in outcome measurement from inpatient morbidity and mortality to long-term functional and health-related quality-of-life measures. Integration of professionals from different disciplines has enabled burn centers to develop collaborative methods of assessing the quality of care delivered to patients with burns based on their ability to reintegrate into their normal physical, social, psychological, and functional activities. Burn outcomes will continue to develop on the foundation that has been built and will generate evidence-based best practices in the future. PMID:25085096

Palmieri, Tina L; Przkora, Rene; Meyer, Walter J; Carrougher, Gretchen J

2014-08-01

178

Extreme peat burning along peatland-upland interfaces of the Western Boreal Plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands in the Western Boreal Forest, releasing 4700 Gg C a-1 over ~1500 km2 annually. Under future climate scenarios the amount of area burned in this region is forecast to increase by 25-100%, potentially converting these ecosystems into a regional net source of carbon to the atmosphere. During wildfire, the majority of carbon released from peatlands is attributable to peat smouldering with burn depths generally ranging from 5 - 20 cm of peat. However, no study has documented the incidence of an extreme smouldering event and the conditions necessary for such an event to occur. Here we report on a smouldering event during the Utikuma Complex forest fire (SWF-060, ~90,000 ha) in May, 2011 at the Utikuma Lake Research Study Area (URSA) in Alberta's Western Boreal Plain, where peat burn depths exceeded one meter along a peatland-upland interface (range = 0.12 to 1.10 m, mean = 0.54 m). We applied the Peat Smouldering and Ignition model (PSI) at an adjacent unburned peatland-upland interface to characterize the hydrological and hydrophysical conditions necessary for these extreme burn depths. Model outputs indicate that the coupling of dense peat (bulk density > 150 kg m-3) and low peat moisture (GWC < 250%) allow for severe smouldering to propagate deep into the peat profile. We argue that peatland-upland interfaces, which likely release ten times more carbon per meter squared than peatland centers, are hotspots for peat smouldering due to dynamic hydrological conditions that reduce the moisture content of high-density peat during dry periods. We suggest the hydrogeological setting of peatlands is essential for identifying peatland-upland interfaces as areas highly vulnerable to smouldering and for assisting fire managers and scientists in predicting and mitigating the effects of extreme peat burning events. Burned peatland-upland interface

Lukenbach, M.; Hokanson, K.; Devito, K. J.; Kettridge, N.; Thompson, D.; Petrone, R. M.; Waddington, J. M.

2013-12-01

179

Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Industrial Solid Waste Permit {number_sign}025500-1603 (formerly IWP-217). No constituents were reported above SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standards or final Primary Drinking Water Standards during first or third quareters 1997. No constituents were detected above SRS flagging criteria during first or third quarters 1997.

Roach, J.L. Jr. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1997-12-01

180

Hydrologic Effects of the 1988 Galena Fire, Black Hills Area, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Galena Fire burned about 16,788 acres of primarily ponderosa pine forest during July 5-8, 1988, in the Black Hills area of South Dakota. The fire burned primarily within the Grace Coolidge Creek drainage basin and almost entirely within the boundaries of Custer State Park. A U.S. Geological Survey gaging station with streamflow records dating back to 1977 was located along Grace Coolidge Creek within the burned area. About one-half of the gaging station's 26.8-square-mile drainage area was burned. The drainage basin for Bear Gulch, which is tributary to Grace Coolidge Creek, was burned particularly severely, with complete deforestation occurring in nearly the entirety of the area upstream from a gaging station that was installed in 1989. A study to evaluate effects of the Galena Fire on streamflow, geomorphology, and water quality was initiated in 1988. The geomorphologic and water-quality components of the study were completed by 1990 and are summarized in this report. A data-collection network consisting of streamflow- and precipitation-gaging stations was operated through water year 1998 for evaluation of effects on streamflow characteristics, including both annual-yield and peak-flow characteristics, which are the main focus of this report. Moderately burned areas did not experience a substantial increase in the rate of surface erosion; however, severely burned areas underwent surficial erosion nearly twice that of the unburned areas. The sediment production rate of Bear Gulch estimated 8 to 14 months after the fire was 870 ft3/acre (44 tons/acre). Substantial degradation of stream channels within the severely burned headwater areas of Bear Gulch was documented. Farther downstream, channel aggradation resulted from deposition of sediments transported from the headwater areas. The most notable water-quality effect was on concentrations of suspended sediment, which were orders of magnitude higher for Bear Gulch than for the unburned control area. Effects on several other water-quality constituents, such as organic carbon and nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient constituents, probably were influenced by the large concentrations of suspended matter that were documented in initial post-fire, storm-flow events. The first post-fire stormflow produced the highest measured concentrations of specific conductance, nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, calcium, magnesium, potassium, manganese, and sulfate in the burned areas. For most constituents sampled, differences in concentrations between burned and unburned areas were no longer discernible within about 1 year following the Galena Fire. The effects of the Galena Fire on annual-yield characteristics of Grace Coolidge Creek were evaluated primarily from comparisons with long-term streamflow records for Battle Creek, which is hydrogeologically similar and is located immediately to the north. Annual yield for Grace Coolidge Creek increased by about 20 percent as a result of the fire. This estimate was based on relations between annual yield for Grace Coolidge Creek and Battle Creek for pre- and post-burn periods. Many of the post-burn data points are well beyond the range of the pre-burn data, which is a source of uncertainty for this estimate. Substantial increases in peak-flow characteristics for severely burned drainages were visually apparent from numerous post-fire field observations. Various analyses of streamflow data indicated substantial increases in peak-flow response for burned drainage areas; however, quantification of effects was particularly difficult because peak-flow response diminished quickly and returned to a generally pre-burn condition by about 1991. Field observations of vegetation and analysis of remotely sensed data indicated that establishment of grasses and forbs occurred within a similar timeframe. Comparison of pre-fire peak flows to post-1991 peak flows indicates that these grasses and forbs were equally effective in suppressing peak flows

Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet M.; Ohlen, Donald O.

2004-01-01

181

Benefit-cost analysis of moist exposed burn ointment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burn injury is one of the most devastating injuries that may affect a patient. Even in economically deprived areas, burn care is largely driven by relatively plentiful resources equating quality of care with generous monitoring and clinical attention with little concern to management cost. Burn care costs have been the subject of very few investigations and are among the least

Bishara S. Atiyeh; Abdel Fattah Abdallah; Mahmoud Al-Oteifye; Osman Fathi; Ahmed Samirg

182

The quantity of biomass burned in southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is described for calculating the amount of biomass burned, its type and location, and the time of burning. Active fires in 1989 were detected using daily advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) satellite imagery. The fire count was calibrated to area burned using a stratified sample of multitemporal multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery. The calibration factor is strongly

R. J. Scholes; J. Kendall; C. O. Justice

1996-01-01

183

Efficacy of topical silver against fungal burn wound pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Fungal infections of burn wounds have become an important cause of burn-associated morbidity and mortality. The nature of fungal infections dictates aggressive treatment to minimize the morbidity associated with these infections. Persons with large total body surface area burns are particularly susceptible to fungal infections and are treated in such a manner as to minimize their risk of infection.

J. B. Wright; K. Lam; D. Hansen; R. E. Burrell

1999-01-01

184

40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2013-07-01

185

40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2014-07-01

186

40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2011-07-01

187

40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2010-07-01

188

40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2010-07-01

189

40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2012-07-01

190

40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2014-07-01

191

40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2013-07-01

192

40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2011-07-01

193

40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021...open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a...of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning...

2012-07-01

194

50 CFR Table 4 to Subpart E of... - Determination of Commission Regulatory Area 3A Annual Charter Halibut Allocation From the Annual...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Halibut Allocation From the Annual Combined Catch Limit 4 Table 4 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL... Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart E of Part 300—Determination of...

2014-10-01

195

Pellet burning system  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for burning pelletized fuel, comprising: a furnace housing means having a heat exchanger means, an exhaust gas flue means and an ash collecting bin therein; a burn chamber in the housing above the ash collecting bin, the heat exchanger means being oriented in heat exchanging relation to the burn chamber and intermediate the burn chamber and the flue means; a conduit extending through a wall of the housing means and terminating at an end in the burn chamber, the conduit being inclined to the horizontal; shaft means and means for supporting the shaft means for rotation; and a burn basket in the burn chamber and having a bottom wall, a perforate side wall and an open top, the end of the conduit in the burn chamber terminating adjacent the open top and spaced from the bottom wall.

Resh, D.R.

1987-06-02

196

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

An improved wood burning stove for providing heated air to a room or similar area includes an enclosed fire chamber, a hearth at the bottom of the fire chamber, draft inlet means at the front of the fire chamber and a flue at the rear of the fire chamber. Within the fire chamber is an enclosed air chamber having lower and upper portions; the lower portion communicates at the bottom of the stove with the ambient air and extends upwardly adjacent the rear wall of the fire chamber to a point below the flue, where it joins with the upper portion. The upper portion of the air chamber extends upwardly toward the front of the fire chamber at an acute angle with the horizontal, preferably between five and twenty-five degrees; at the forward end of the upper portion the air chamber communicates with one or more air pipes which extend to the front of the stove and there open to the ambient air. Ambient air is heated by passing it through the air chamber and air pipes after they have been heated by hot gases rising from a fire burning on the hearth; the hot gases contact the air pipes and the bottom surface of the air chamber's upper portion and, because their normal path of travel to the flue is altered by the positioning of the upper portion of the air chamber, contact the top surface of the air chamber's upper portion as well.

Baker, A.L.

1983-02-08

197

Burns mortality and hospitalization time — a prospective statistical study of 352 patients in an Asian National Burn Centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective study of 352 patients in an Asian National Burn Centre has been used to develop statistical predictive models for mortality and hospitalization time. The patients are largely of Asian origin. Total burn surface area (% TBSA) and presence of respiratory burns are significant independent predictors of mortality in the multiple logistic regression analysis with an accuracy of 98.3

M. K. Wong; R. C. K. Ngim

1995-01-01

198

Temporal variation of soil compaction and deterioration of soil quality in pasture areas of Colombian Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Amazon basin, tropical rainforest is being slashed and burned at accelerated rates for annual crops over a couple of years, followed by forage grasses. Because of poor management, the productivity of established pastures declines in a few years so that grazing plots are abandoned and new areas are deforested. Previous studies in the region report higher bulk density

L. J Mart??nez; J. A Zinck

2004-01-01

199

Topical antimicrobials for burn wound infections.  

PubMed

Throughout most of history, serious burns occupying a large percentage of body surface area were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the burn milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the burned skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make burns particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to burns, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat burn infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating burn infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active area of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for burns that will battle against growing multidrug resistance. PMID:20429870

Dai, T; Huang, Y Y; Sharma, S K; Hashmi, J T; Kurup, D B; Hamblin, M R

2010-06-01

200

Topical Antimicrobials for Burn Wound Infections  

PubMed Central

Throughout most of history, serious burns occupying a large percentage of body surface area were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the burn milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the burned skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make burns particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to burns, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat burn infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating burn infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active area of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for burns that will battle against growing multi-drug resistance. PMID:20429870

Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Hashmi, Javad T.; Kurup, Divya B.; Hamblin, Michael R.

2010-01-01

201

Burns and Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

1 Burns and Fire Safety Fact Sheet (2014) Fatalities ? 325 children ages 19 and under died from fires or burns in 2011. 85% ( ... 55% from 1999 to 2011. 1 1999?2011 Fire/Burn Fatalities and Death Rate Among Children Ages ...

202

Workplace-related burns  

PubMed Central

Summary Introduction. The key element of a safe workplace for employees is the maintenance of fire safety. Thermal, chemical, and electrical burns are common types of burns at the workplace. This study assessed the epidemiology of work-related burn injuries on the basis of the workers treated in a regional burn centre. Methods. Two years’ retrospective data (2005-2006) from the Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons of the Joseph M. Still Burn Center at Doctors Hospital in Augusta, Georgia, were collected and analysed. Results. During the time period studied, 2510 adult patients with acute burns were admitted; 384 cases (15%) were work-related. The average age of the patients was 37 yr (range, 15-72 yr). Males constituted the majority (90%) of workrelated burn injury admissions. The racial distribution was in accordance with the Centre’s admission census. Industrial plant explosions accounted for the highest number of work-related burns and, relatively, a significant number of patients had chemical burns. The average length of hospital stay was 5.54 days. Only three patients did not have health insurance and four patients (1%) died. Conclusion. Burn injuries at the workplace predominantly occur among young male workers, and the study has shown that chemical burns are relatively frequent. This study functions as the basis for the evaluation of work-related burns and identification of the causes of these injuries to formulate adequate safety measures, especially for young, male employees working with chemicals. PMID:22262966

Mian, M.A.H.; Mullins, R.F.; Alam, B.; Brandigi, C.; Friedman, B.C.; Shaver, J.R.; Hassan, Z.

2011-01-01

203

Annual subsurface transport of a red tide dinoflagellate to its bloom area: Water circulation patterns and organism distributions in the Chesapeake Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

An annual, long range, subsurface transport of Prorocentrum mariae-lebouriae, from the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay to its bloom area in the upper bay, a distance of 240 km, is described and completely documented. Prorocentrum in surface outflowing waters at the mouth of the bay is recruited in late winter into more dense inflowing coastal waters. Strong stratification produced by

MARY ALTALO TYLER; H. H. Seliger

1978-01-01

204

50 CFR Table 16 to Part 679 - Area Codes and Descriptions for Use With State of Alaska ADF&G Commercial Operator's Annual...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

50 ? Wildlife and Fisheries ? 9 ? 2010-10-01 ? 2010-10-01 ? false ? Area Codes and Descriptions for Use With State of Alaska ADF&G Commercial Operator's Annual Report (COAR) ? 16 ? Table 16 to Part 679 ? Wildlife and Fisheries ? FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

2010-10-01

205

Data Summary Report for the Annual Fourmile Branch and F- and H-Area Seeplines, Appendix IX Metals and Radionuclides, 1998  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a summary of the definitive data validation and verification for the 1998 RFI/RI annual Appendix IX metals and radionuclides survey for Fourmile Branch and the F- and H-Area Seeplines. The validation process began with project mobilization and continued through the delivery of EDDs and this report.

Koch, J.

1999-08-23

206

2004 annual progress report: Stratton Sagebrush Hydrology Study Area: establishment of a long-term research site in a high-elevation sagebrush steppe  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2004 the U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Rawlins Field Office (RFO), began a cooperative effort to reestablish the Stratton Sagebrush Hydrology Study Area (Stratton) as a research location, with the goal of making it a site for long-term research on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecology. No other long-term research sites in high-elevation sagebrush habitat currently exist, and the Stratton area, with its 30+ year history of research and baseline data, was a logical location to restart investigations aimed at answering pertinent and timely questions about sagebrush ecology and sagebrush-obligate species. During the first year of the study, USGS scientists conducted an in-depth literature search to locate publications from research conducted at Stratton. We contacted previous researchers to acquire literature and unpublished reports of work conducted at Stratton. Collated papers and published manuscripts were presented in an annotated bibliography (Burgess and Schoenecker, 2004). A second goal was to establish Stratton as a host location for researchers interested in sagebrush ecology investigations. We contacted staff and professors from Colorado State University and Wyoming and Montana universities to notify them of the opportunities at Stratton. Several institutions showed interest in the area and the potential of such a research site. A major advantage of the Stratton site is the ability of BML to coordinate activities on the land, manipulate grazing in cooperation with permit holders, and direct other activities to accommodate appropriate long-term experimental designs. A third goal was to evaluate grazing management after a prescribed burn. The BLM widely uses prescribed burns as a tool for land management and grazing management. In general, BLM policy restricts grazing after a wildfire for two or more years. Some BLM offices allow no grazing after a wildfire or prescribed treatment for at least two years. Conversely, the RFO often allows grazing following a prescribed burn directly after the peak growing season the following year. This procedure is used for two years post-burn, after which grazing management is directed by local conditions and goals. We are investigating this practice to evaluate the effects on plant production and nutrient cycling. The RFO specifically wants to know if there are any negative effects from grazing one season after a prescribed burn.

Schoenecker, Kate; Lange, Bob; Calton, Mike

2005-01-01

207

Annual variability in leaf area index and isoprene and monoterpene emissions during drought years in Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pathway through which drought may affect estimates of emissions of isoprene and other biogenic volatile organic compounds is through changes in leaf area index (LAI), a key input parameter for biogenic emissions models. Spatial and temporal variations of an LAI product derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the relative impact of LAI versus meteorological fields and soil moisture on emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes were examined using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) for four climate regions in eastern Texas. The four regions had diverse land cover and climatology during 2006-2011, years with recurring extreme to exceptional drought. Maximum monthly interannual LAI variations exceeded 20% in the North and South Central regions, but were less than 20% in East Texas and Upper Coast. Estimates of isoprene and monoterpene emissions in the two central regions were lower by as much as -24% due to significant reductions of LAI during droughts in 2006 and 2011. Maximum interannual variability in estimated monthly isoprene emissions exceeded 30%. Reductions in LAI during drought may be accompanied by increases in temperature and surface insolation that exert competing effects on biogenic emissions estimates.

Huang, Ling; McDonald-Buller, Elena C.; McGaughey, Gary; Kimura, Yosuke; Allen, David T.

2014-08-01

208

[Evaluation and first aid of burned patients].  

PubMed

First cares of burned patients depend of an accurate evaluation of the injury severity. Total body surface area burned can be estimated taking into account the fact that the area of one hand face is equivalent to 1% of the total body surface (TBS) of the individual. Second-degree burns are characterized by the occurrence of phlyctena, third-degree burns appear like adhering necrosis without any sensibility. Smoke inhalation injuries are frequent and can be recognized on the presence of tare deposits inside the mouse and on the respiratory conducts. Taking care of the patient begins with making the victim safe from the thermal aggression. Then, cooling the burn is to be performed. The emergency medical care consists in securing respiratory function, and, as early as possible, in beginning perfusions of Ringer Lactate Lavoisier exceeding 20 mL/kg during the first post-burn hours for patient suffering of burns exceeding 10% of the total body area. Pain must be controlled using preferentially morphine or related products. Transport to the specialized unit, in case of severe injury, will be performed assuring thermal comfort, wound protection and vital function monitoring. PMID:12621940

Wassermann, Daniel

2002-12-15

209

Emissions from open biomass burning in India: Integrating the inventory approach with high-resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active-fire and land cover data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climatological mean estimates of forest burning and crop waste burning based on broad assumptions of the amounts burned have so far been used for India in global inventories. Here we estimate open biomass burning representative of 1995-2000 from forests using burned area and biomass density specific for Indian ecosystems and crop waste burning as a balance between generation and known

C. Venkataraman; G. Habib; D. Kadamba; M. Shrivastava; J.-F. Leon; B. Crouzille; O. Boucher; D. G. Streets

2006-01-01

210

Emissions from open biomass burning in India: Integrating the inventory approach with high-resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active-fire and land cover data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climatological mean estimates of forest burning and crop waste burning based on broad assumptions of the amounts burned have so far been used for India in global inventories. Here we estimate open biomass burning representative of 1995–2000 from forests using burned area and biomass density specific for Indian ecosystems and crop waste burning as a balance between generation and known

C. Venkataraman; G. Habib; D. Kadamba; M. Shrivastava; J.-F. Leon; B. Crouzille; O. Boucher; D. G. Streets

2006-01-01

211

Annual Report 2005 Annual Report  

E-print Network

Annual Report 2005 Annual Report Annual Report Annual Report CSCS Swiss National Supercomputing Centre ual Report Annual Report Annual Report Annual Report Annual Report nnual Report Annual Report Annual Report Annual Report nual ReportAnnual Report Report port al ReportAnnual #12;Annual Report 2005

212

Annual Report 2006 Annual Report  

E-print Network

2 Annual Report 2006 Annual Report Annual Report Annual Report CSCS Swiss National Supercomputing Centre ual Report Annual Report Annual Report Annual Report Annual Report nnual Report Annual Report Annual Report Annual Report nual ReportAnnual Report Report port al ReportAnnual #12;Annual Report 2006

213

Annual Report 2009 Annual Report  

E-print Network

2 Annual Report 2009 Annual Report Annual Report Annual Report CSCS Swiss National Supercomputing Centre ual Report Annual Report Annual Report Annual Report Annual Report nnual Report Annual Report Annual Report Annual Report nual ReportAnnual Report Report port al ReportAnnual #12;AnnualReport2009

214

Annual Report 2008 Annual Report  

E-print Network

2 Annual Report 2008 Annual Report Annual Report Annual Report CSCS Swiss National Supercomputing Centre ual Report Annual Report Annual Report Annual Report Annual Report nnual Report Annual Report Annual Report Annual Report nual ReportAnnual Report Report port al ReportAnnual #12;Annual Report 2008

215

Myocardial Autophagy after Severe Burn in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Autophagy plays a major role in myocardial ischemia and hypoxia injury. The present study investigated the effects of autophagy on cardiac dysfunction in rats after severe burn. Methods Protein expression of the autophagy markers LC3 and Beclin 1 were determined at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 h post-burn in Sprague Dawley rats subjected to 30% total body surface area 3rd degree burns. Autophagic, apoptotic, and oncotic cell death were evaluated in the myocardium at each time point by immunofluorescence. Changes of cardiac function were measured in a Langendorff model of isolated heart at 6 h post-burn, and the autophagic response was measured following activation by Rapamycin and inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA). The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat, the angiotensin receptor I blocker losartan, and the reactive oxygen species inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) were also applied to the ex vivo heart model to examine the roles of these factors in post-burn cardiac function. Results Autophagic cell death was first observed in the myocardium at 3 h post-burn, occurring in 0.008 ± 0.001% of total cardiomyocytes, and continued to increase to a level of 0.022 ± 0.005% by 12 h post-burn. No autophagic cell death was observed in control hearts. Compared with apoptosis, autophagic cell death occurred earlier and in larger quantities. Rapamycin enhanced autophagy and decreased cardiac function in isolated hearts 6 h post-burn, while 3-MA exerted the opposite response. Enalaprilat, losartan, and DPI all inhibited autophagy and enhanced heart function. Conclusion Myocardial autophagy is enhanced in severe burns and autophagic cell death occurred early at 3 h post-burn, which may contribute to post-burn cardiac dysfunction. Angiotensin II and reactive oxygen species may play important roles in this process by regulating cell signaling transduction. PMID:22768082

Zhang, Qiong; Shi, Xiao-hua; Huang, Yue-sheng

2012-01-01

216

Postburn roof stability analysis for the TONO CRIP UCG burn  

SciTech Connect

During the Ninth Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium, Sutherland, Hommert, Taylor, and Benzley presented a preburn prediction for the burn, roof fall and surface subsidence for the TONO CRIP UCG site in Washington state. That burn has now been completed and postburn measurements of cavity sizes have become available. In this manuscript the authors show that the preburn predictions are, in general, in good agreement with the postburn examination of the burn site. Discrepancies between the predictions and the measurements are shown to arise for two reasons. The first is that the burn sequence analyzed in the prediction was not allowed during the course of the experiment due to experimental difficulties. The second reason is that the stratigraphic section analyzed in the preburn predictions is slightly different form that observed above the burn. To clarify the discrepancies, the roof stability of the measured burn cavity is analyzed using the two analysis schemes that were used in the preburn analysis.

Taylor, L.M.; Sutherland, H.J.; Kuszmaul, J.S.

1986-01-01

217

Global biomass burning - Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics discussed at the March 1990 American Geophysical Union's Conference on biomass burning which was attended by more than 175 participants representing 19 countries are presented. Conference highlights include discussion of remote sensing data concerning biomass burning (BB), gaseous and particle emissions resulting from BB in the tropics, BB in temperate and boreal ecosystems, the historic and prehistoric perspectives on BB, BB and global budgets for carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, and the BB and the greenhouse effect. Global estimates of annual amounts of biomass burning and of the resulting release of carbon to the atmosphere and the mean gaseous emission ratios for fires in wetlands, chaparral, and boreal ecosystems are given. An overview is presented of some conference discussions including global burning from 1850-1980, the global impact of biomass burning, the great Chinese/Soviet fire of 1987, and burning and biogenic emissions.

Levine, Joel S.

1990-01-01

218

An autopsy case of chemical burns by hydrochloric acid.  

PubMed

A 34-year-old man was discovered by his coworkers in a tank filled with 35% (w/w) hydrochloric acid. Despite undergoing intensive treatment, he died one and a half days later. An autopsy revealed generalized high tensity, overall grayish brown skin color, heavy gastric submucosal hemorrhage and heavy pulmonary edema. We concluded that death was caused by burn shock due to wide, generalized chemical burn. Microscopic investigation of the burn in the area with grayish brown skin considered coagulation necrosis of full-thickness of the skin (third-degree or deep burn), revealed that the burn was judged to cover the partial thickness of the skin (second-degree or dermal burn). These findings suggest that chemical burn by hydrochloric acid results in a change of skin color due to chemical reaction so that the appearance of the chemical burn is more severe than the degree assigned by histological examination. PMID:19269213

Kozawa, Shuji; Kakizaki, Eiji; Muraoka, Eri; Koketsu, Hideki; Setoyama, Mitsuru; Yukawa, Nobuhiro

2009-04-01

219

Burns: an update on current pharmacotherapy  

PubMed Central

Introduction The world-wide occurrence of burn injuries remains high despite efforts to reduce injury incidence through public awareness campaigns and improvements in living conditions. In 2004, almost 11 million people experienced burns severe enough to warrant medical treatment. Advances over the past several decades in aggressive resuscitation, nutrition, excision, and grafting have reduced morbidity and mortality. Incorporation of pharmacotherapeutics into treatment regimens may further reduce complications of severe burn injuries. Areas covered Severe burn injuries, as well as other forms of stress and trauma, trigger a hypermetabolic response that, if left untreated, impedes recovery. In the past two decades, use of anabolic agents, beta adrenergic receptor antagonists, and anti-hyperglycemic agents has successfully counteracted post-burn morbidities including catabolism, the catecholamine-mediated response, and insulin resistance. Here we review the most up-to-date information on currently used pharmacotherapies in the treatment of these sequelae of severe burns and the insights that have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe burns. Expert opinion Existing drugs offer promising advances in the care of burn injuries. Continued gains in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving the hypermetabolic response will enable the application of additional existing drugs to be broadened to further attenuate the hypermetabolic response. PMID:23121414

Rojas, Yesinia; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S.; Herndon, David N.

2013-01-01

220

Epidemiology of pediatric burn in southern Taiwan.  

PubMed

A 5-year retrospective review of 157 pediatric patients admitted to burn center of Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital (Kaohsiung, Taiwan) was undertaken to identify the incidence, mechanism, and agents of pediatric burn. The highest incidence of pediatric burn was in children aged 1-6 years (57.3%), followed by age group 6-14 years (31.8%). Scald burn (75.2%) made up the major cause of this injury and was dominant in each age group compared to non-scald burn. The kitchen/dining area (57.3%) and living room (29.9%) accounted for the most frequent places where pediatric burns occurred. Among the agents of scald burn, hot drink (49.2%) and soup (32.2%) were the two leading causes. There were more pediatric burns reported in colder seasons (38.2% and 33.1% in winter and fall respectively) and during dining time (19.7% in 11 a.m.-1 p.m. and 35.0% in 5 p.m.-8 p.m.). The results of this report may be closely related to special culinary habits (use of chafing-dish and making hot tea) in the south of Taiwan. PMID:15683690

Lin, Tsai-Ming; Wang, Kai-Hung; Lai, Cheng-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Daw

2005-03-01

221

The Sedimentary Charcoal Record of Regional and Global Biomass Burning on Multi-decadal-to-Orbital Time Scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global charcoal database (GCD) assembled by the Global Palaeofire Working Group (GPWG) over the past several years provides over 800 sedimentary charcoal records of biomass burning that allows wildfire to be examined on a range of spatial and temporal scales. These data, and other analyses of sedimentary charcoal records show that: (1) The data-analytical aspects of sedimentary charcoal have matured to the extent that we can show that biomass burning is well represented by these records, that charcoal influx is a general indicator of area or biomass burning, and that peaks of charcoal influx in records with annual-to-decadal resolution provide evidence of individual fires. (2) The spatial coverage of the records is extensive enough to represent much of the global climate space, although coverage of Africa, Siberia, and grassland and desert ecosystems in general could be improved. (3) The temporal coverage is sufficient to resolve millennial-scale environmental changes over the past glacial cycle, and hemispheric and regional variations in biomass burning from the LGM to present. (4) Global biomass burning was very low at the LGM, and increases in biomass burning into the Holocene tracked hemispheric and regional climate changes. (5) Abrupt climate changes during deglaciation caused specific responses in the charcoal records; these responses are replicated during the abrupt warming and cooling episodes accompanying D-O cycles. (6) During the Holocene, biomass burning reflects regional climate changes and does not support the early anthropocene hypothesis. (7) Over the last millennium, biomass burning also tracks regional climate changes, and shows an unambiguous human influence only over the past 250 years. (8) The variations in global biomass burning on multiple time scales described by the sedimentary charcoal record are supported by the emerging ice core records of biomass burning. (9) Increases in biomass burning are strongly linked to temperature increases on all time scales, and are generally higher at intermediate levels of effective moisture, reflecting a tradeoff between fuel (vegetation productivity) and fire-conducive weather and climate; drought becomes an important control only on decadal and shorter time scales. (10) Human activity is neither necessary nor sufficient for explaining the large-scale, long-term variations in biomass burning.

Bartlein, P. J.; Marlon, J.; Global Palaeofire Working Group

2011-12-01

222

75 FR 38021 - Safety Zones; Annual Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound Area of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2010-0063] Safety Zones; Annual Firework Displays Within the Captain of the Port...will enforce the safety zones for annual firework displays in the Captain of the Port...from the hazards associated with the firework displays. During the enforcement...

2010-07-01

223

Spatial variation of chemical constituents from the burning of commonly used biomass fuels in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, we have determined emission factor of chemical composition of the emission from the burning of biomass (e.g. Dung cake, Acacia, Neem, Mulberry, Indian Rosewood, Pigeon pea etc.) commonly used as a residential fuel in the rural sector of Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) (Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal), India. For comparison, we have selected only those biomass fuels, which are used in at least three of the above mentioned states. Dung cake from all the states reports highest emission of particulate matter (PM) (15.68 g kg-1), Organic Carbon (OC) (4.32 g kg-1) and Elemental Carbon (EC) (0.51 g kg-1). Among all biomass fuels studied, agricultural residue reports substantial amount of emission of Na+ (104 mg kg-1), K+ (331 mg kg-1) and Cl- (447 mg kg-1) particularly in Pigeon pea and Mustard stem. Eucalyptus (fuel wood) emits large amounts of Ca2+ (21.47 mg kg-1) and NO3- (614 mg kg-1). The emission of PM from dung cake is higher in Delhi (19.31 g kg-1) and followed by Uttar Pradesh (17.58 g kg-1) > Haryana (15.46 g kg-1) > Bihar (14.99 g kg-1) > Punjab (12.06 g kg-1) > West Bengal (5.90 g kg-1). Carbonaceous aerosols (OC and EC) and dominant Ionic species (Cl-, K+, SO42-, NO3- and PO43-) are altogether contributing 40-70% of total emissions. Characteristics and ratios of chemical species of emissions may help to develop a methodology of discriminating the sources of ambient particulate matter. Using a laboratory determined emission factor of chemical species, we have determined the emission budget over IGP, India.

Saud, T.; Saxena, M.; Singh, D. P.; Saraswati; Dahiya, Manisha; Sharma, S. K.; Datta, A.; Gadi, Ranu; Mandal, T. K.

2013-06-01

224

Oral burn contractures in children.  

PubMed

Oral burn contractures in children present major reconstructive problem. Only few reports in literature discussed oral burns in children. Electrical, chemical, and thermal agents are the main causative agents for oral burns. Oral contractures can be classified into anterior, posterior, and total. Anterior contractures are usually caused by electrical burns and involve the oral commissure, lips, anterior buccal sulcus and surrounding mucosa, and anterior tongue. Posterior oral contractures are caused by caustic ingestion and involve the posterior buccal mucosa, posterior tongue, retro-molar area and oro-pharynx. Total oral contractures involve the lips, tongue, oral cavity, and oro-pharyngeal mucosa and are caused by lye caustic ingestion. This report reviews three children; one with posterior, two with total oral cavity contracture. All cases were managed by linear release of scar contracture and skin grafting followed by a prolonged intra-oral splinting with a fixed mouth-block and commissural splint. A successful outcome was observed in all cases. PMID:14595182

Hashem, Fuad K; Al Khayal, Zikra

2003-11-01

225

Deep partial scald burn in a neonate: a case report of the first documented domestic neonatal burn.  

PubMed

No previous publication about domestic neonatal burns exists in the literature. The authors have treated a 16-day-old baby boy for deep partial-thickness scalds that happened at home. The case report is followed by a literature review and discussion of the data previously published on neonatal burns. Special considerations to domestic neonatal burns are highlighted. A 16-day-old baby boy presented to our emergency room secondary to an 18% TBSA scald burn by hot tea. The patient was resuscitated and admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. Topical wound care, although started with fusidic acid ointment, was changed to Aquacel Ag Hydrofiber dressing once the final depth assessment was performed. The child's wounds, although deep at some areas, healed by day 11 without the need for skin grafting. Neonatal burns have been previously described as iatrogenic injuries caused by various thermal sources. Part of the challenge in managing burns is their extremely thin skin. Possibility of the burn being inflicted should always be raised for such young victims. Burn wounds are tetanus-prone wounds; however, no previous recommendation regarding tetanus immunoglobulin administration exists for neonatal burns. Aquacel Ag's efficacy in the management of pediatric partial-thickness burns has been documented extensively and from our limited experience, it seems appropriate for managing neonatal burns. Although neonatal burns need some special considerations during treatment, the cornerstones of pediatric burn management still apply. The role of tetanus immunoglobulin still needs to be studied. PMID:21107271

Al-Ahdab, Maher; Al-Omawi, Maimouna

2011-01-01

226

Physiochemical characterisation of biomass burning plumes in Brazil during SAMBBA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, which results in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious negative impacts on public health. Globally, biomass burning aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect of 0.03 Wm-2, however the uncertainty is 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months (usually from August-October). Furthermore, a growing number of people live within the Amazon region, which means that they are subject to the deleterious effects on their health from exposure to substantial volumes of polluted air. Results are presented here from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA), which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil. A suite of instrumentation was flown on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft. Measurements from the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) form the major part of the analysis presented here. The aircraft sampled several fires in close proximity (approximately 150m above the most intense fires) in different areas of Brazil. This included two extensive areas of burning, which occurred in the states of Rondonia and Tocantins. The Rondonia fire was largely dominated by smouldering combustion of a huge single area of rainforest with a visible plume of smoke extending approximately 80km downwind. The Tocantins example contrasted with this as it was a collection of a large number of smaller fires, with flaming combustion being more prevalent. Furthermore, the burned area was largely made up of agricultural land in a cerrado (savannah-like) region of Brazil. Initial results suggest that the chemical nature of these fires differed markedly, with BC concentrations being an order of magnitude greater in the Tocantins case (up to 50 ?g m-3 of BC) compared with the Rondonia case (up to 5 ?g m-3 of BC). Organic matter (OM) concentrations were similar in both cases, with maximum concentrations peaking between 4-5 mg m-3. Such concentrations are approximately more than 100 times greater than those sampled in the "background" regional haze. This variation of BC to OM ratio has potentially large implications for the radiative balance in the respective regions, as BC represents the major absorbing component of biomass burning aerosol. Further analysis will compare the aerosol mass concentrations with gas phase species, as well as probing the chemical and physical evolution of the aerosol as it advects downwind and is diluted with regional air. In particular, such analyses will focus upon the aging of the organic aerosol component as well as examining how the mixing state of the BC particles evolves. Such properties have important implications for the life cycle and formation of particulate material, which governs its subsequent impacts.

Morgan, William; Allan, James; Flynn, Michael; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Hodgson, Amy; Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Artaxo, Paulo; Coe, Hugh

2013-04-01

227

Identification and estimate of biomass burning contribution to the urban aerosol organic carbon concentrations in Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily particulate matter samples were collected during 1 year from 7 November 1997 to 31 October 1998 in Beijing area, at two monitoring sites, the Ming Tomb (a background site) situated northernmost of the basin and the Temple of Heaven (a residential site) inside the city. For 110 atmospheric aerosol samples organic carbon (OC) was determined with a two-step thermal procedure using a CHN elemental analyzer, and water-soluble potassium (K +) with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The annual average of OC and K + concentrations of the Ming Tomb site were 22.0 ?g C m -3 and 1.21 ?g m -3, respectively, while that of the Temple Heaven site were 41.5 ?g C m -3 and 1.94 ?g m -3. At the Ming Tomb site the monthly average of K + concentration appeared the highest in June (3.07 ?g m -3), three times as much as that in May (1.02 ?g m -3). At the Temple Heaven site, the highest value was also in June (4.22 ?g m -3 while 1.97 ?g m -3 in May). Regression analysis results showed that at both sites the OC/K + concentration ratio value (5) is what expected for biomass burning. Our results thus suggest that biomass burning influence is on a regional scale. It was calculated as an upper estimate, that at Ming Tomb site about 50%, 70%, and 46% of the OC concentrations in May, June, and July, respectively, were attributed to biomass burning while at the more urban site of Temple of Heaven, the biomass burning OC contribution is still high (32%, 43%, and 10% respectively). In the case of a severe pollution event in June 2000 in Beijing, it has been shown that temperature inversion and wind direction aggravated substantially air pollution caused by biomass burning. Our work suggests that biomass burning in the Beijing region is a significant repetitive pollution factor that cannot be neglected.

Duan, Fengkui; Liu, Xiande; Yu, Tong; Cachier, Hélène

228

Getting beyond burning dirt  

SciTech Connect

To fix and make the nation's Superfund law work, two related questions must be answered. First, where will the innovative technology come from the clean up Superfund and other waste sites Burning dirt--the best technology currently available--is an expensive nonsolution. Second, can man muster the political will to make Superfund a waste cleanup law instead of an expanding welfare program for lawyers Under the sponsorship of EPA, a number of companies and other groups are participating in the Remediation Technology Development Forum, focusing on the areas where the real breakthroughs might occur and the most promising collaborations. Currently, this effort is focused on bioremediation, the lasagna process, soil flushing, and characterization. Another area of investigation is stabilization technology--stabilizing a site to keep contaminants from flowing away. Some scientists, for example, are looking at vitrification technology, which fuses contaminated soil into a glass-like brick. And still other technology efforts include air flushing of contaminated sites and vapor extraction and heating processes. A number of groups and consortia have been working on waste remediation technologies. For the first time since 1980, when Superfund became law, one can give positive answers to the two critical questions. Groups are finding innovative technologies to clean up Superfund and other waste sites. And, as a nation, Americans are exercising the political will to create a Superfund law that will work effectively and fairly.

Mahoney, R.J. (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO (United States))

1994-05-01

229

Role of desert annuals in nutrient flow in arid area of Northwestern China: a nutrient reservoir and provider  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have tested the “vernal dam” hypothesis of spring ephemeral herbs in hardwood forests. The desert annual\\u000a is a component of the desert ecosystem that takes advantage of water resources and temperature conditions during the rainy\\u000a season to rapidly complete its life cycle within several months. To understand the role desert annual\\/ephemeral plants play\\u000a in nutrient flow, we studied

Bao-Ming Chen; Gen-Xuan Wang; Shao-Lin Peng

2009-01-01

230

Role of desert annuals in nutrient flow in arid area of Northwestern China: a nutrient reservoir and provider  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have tested the “vernal dam” hypothesis of spring ephemeral herbs in hardwood forests. The desert annual\\u000a is a component of the desert ecosystem that takes advantage of water resources and temperature conditions during the rainy\\u000a season to rapidly complete its life cycle within several months. To understand the role desert annual\\/ephemeral plants play\\u000a in nutrient flow, we studied

Bao-Ming Chen; Gen-Xuan Wang; Shao-Lin Peng

231

Solid fuel burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A solid fuel burning stove includes a firebox having an insulated bottom chamber in which fuel is burned. The bottom chamber includes an insulated bottom surface and walls which provides for heat retention when fuel is burn therein thereby creating high temperatures. The bottom chamber of the firebox is divided from a top chamber by a horizontally extending baffle which directs flow of exhaust gases from the bottom to the top of the firebox. The exhaust gases are burned in the top portion of the firebox by means of the heat generated within the lower chamber and the introduction of fresh combustion air. This fresh combustion air is drawn in through an orificed pipe extending along the length of the firebox. After the gases are burned in the top portion of the stove, they are communicated to a heat saver including an inverted v-shaped flow diverter which reduces the velocity of the exiting gases and provides for greater recovery of heat therefrom. The stove in accordance with the invention provides for a two-stage burning process wherein solid fuel is burned in the first stage and the volatile gases released by the fuel are burned in the second stage. In this way, the fuel is consumed in a most efficient manner.

Good, L.D.

1982-07-13

232

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove is disclosed which includes a stove housing that defines an upper zone comprising storage and exhaust chambers, and a lower zone for accommodating a wood burning fire. The exhaust and storage chambers are separated by a divider, both chambers having bottom openings that communicate directly with the top of the lower fire zone. Covering one opening

1982-01-01

233

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove is formed with double front and rear side walls of heat conductive metal interconnected by heat conductive spacer fins and providing air passageways by which room air is heated by conduction from the walls which are heated by the burning of wood deposited on a firebox grate made up of spaced bricks supported by metal holders

Willson

1981-01-01

234

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove is formed with double front and rear side walls of heat conductive metal interconnected by heat conductive spacer fins and providing air passageways by which room air is heated by conduction from the walls which are heated by the burning of wood deposited on a firebox grate made up of spaced bricks supported by metal holders

Willson

1979-01-01

235

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a stove primarily for the burning of wood, but also capable of burning other combustible materials. The stove is characterized by a unique combustion chamber, together with a recirculating combustion chamber and baffle for more perfect combustion and characterized by a heat radiating chamber which may be closed so as to be used as an oven, and by

R. F. Bruce; W. W. Byrd

1980-01-01

236

2013 Annual Summary Report for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada; Review of the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses  

SciTech Connect

The Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site (National Security Technologies, LLC 2007a) requires an annual review to assess the adequacy of the performance assessments (PAs) and composite analyses (CAs), with the results submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management. The Disposal Authorization Statements for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) also require that such reviews be made and that secondary or minor unresolved issues be tracked and addressed as part of the maintenance plan (DOE 1999a, 2000). The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office performed an annual review of the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS PAs and CAs for fiscal year (FY) 2013. This annual summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2013 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs. Important developments in FY 2013 include the following: • Development of a new Area 5 RWMS closure inventory estimate based on disposals through FY 2013 • Evaluation of new or revised waste streams by special analysis • Development of version 4.115 of the Area 5 RWMS GoldSim PA/CA model The Area 3 RWMS has been in inactive status since July 1, 2006, with the last shipment received in April 2006. The FY 2013 review of operations, facility design, closure plans, monitoring results, and R&D results for the Area 3 RWMS indicates no changes that would impact PA validity. The conclusion of the annual review is that all performance objectives can be met and the Area 3 RWMS PA remains valid. There is no need to the revise the Area 3 RWMS PA. Review of Area 5 RWMS operations, design, closure plans, monitoring results, and R&D activities indicates that no significant changes have occurred. The FY 2013 PA results, generated with the Area 5 RWMS v4.115 GoldSim PA model, indicate that there continues to be a reasonable expectation of meeting all performance objectives. The results and conclusions of the Area 5 RWMS PA are judged valid, and there is no need to the revise the PA. A review of changes potentially impacting the CAs indicates that no significant changes occurred in FY 2013. The continuing adequacy of the CAs was evaluated with the new models, and no significant changes that would alter the CAs results or conclusions were found. The revision of the Area 3 RWMS CA, which will include the Yucca Flat Underground Test Area (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 97) source term, is scheduled for FY 2024, following the completion of the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan in FY 2015. Inclusion of the Frenchman Flat Underground Test Area (CAU 98) results in the Area 5 RWMS CA is scheduled for FY 2016, pending the completion of the CAU 98 Closure Report in FY 2015. Near-term R&D efforts will focus on continuing development of the PA, CA, and inventory models for the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS.

Shott, Gregory [NSTec] [NSTec

2014-03-01

237

Near-real-time global biomass burning emissions product from geostationary satellite constellation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-real-time estimates of biomass burning emissions are crucial for air quality monitoring and forecasting. We present here the first near-real-time global biomass burning emission product from geostationary satellites (GBBEP-Geo) produced from satellite-derived fire radiative power (FRP) for individual fire pixels. Specifically, the FRP is retrieved using WF_ABBA V65 (wildfire automated biomass burning algorithm) from a network of multiple geostationary satellites. The network consists of two Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) which are operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Meteosat second-generation satellites (Meteosat-09) operated by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, and the Multifunctional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency. These satellites observe wildfires at an interval of 15-30 min. Because of the impacts from sensor saturation, cloud cover, and background surface, the FRP values are generally not continuously observed. The missing observations are simulated by combining the available instantaneous FRP observations within a day and a set of representative climatological diurnal patterns of FRP for various ecosystems. Finally, the simulated diurnal variation in FRP is applied to quantify biomass combustion and emissions in individual fire pixels with a latency of 1 day. By analyzing global patterns in hourly biomass burning emissions in 2010, we find that peak fire season varied greatly and that annual wildfires burned 1.33 × 1012 kg dry mass, released 1.27 × 1010 kg of PM2.5 (particulate mass for particles with diameter <2.5 ?m) and 1.18 × 1011kg of CO globally (excluding most parts of boreal Asia, the Middle East, and India because of no coverage from geostationary satellites). The biomass burning emissions were mostly released from forest and savanna fires in Africa, South America, and North America. Evaluation of emission result reveals that the GBBEP-Geo estimates are comparable with other FRP-derived estimates in Africa, while the results are generally smaller than most of the other global products that were derived from burned area and fuel loading. However, the daily emissions estimated from GOES FRP over the United States are generally consistent with those modeled from GOES burned area and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) fuel loading, which produces an overall bias of 5.7% and a correlation slope of 0.97 ± 0.2. It is expected that near-real-time hourly emissions from GBBEP-Geo could provide a crucial component for atmospheric and chemical transport modelers to forecast air quality and weather conditions.

Zhang, Xiaoyang; Kondragunta, Shobha; Ram, Jessica; Schmidt, Christopher; Huang, Ho-Chun

2012-07-01

238

Two-year hospital records of burns from a referral center in Western Iran: March 2010-March 2012  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Background: Burns are among the most common injuries affecting a great number of people worldwide annually. In Iran, especially in its western region and in Kermanshah province, burns have a relatively high incidence. The present study was aimed at investigating epidemiological characteristics in Western Iran. Methods: Within a cross-sectional study, the data on all patients attending the Burns Center at Imam Khomeini Hospital (Kermanshah, Iran) during 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 (24 months) were collected. Then, age, gender, cause of burns, total body surface area, and time of the occurrence were extracted from the hospital records. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical package (Version 19, for Windows). We used chi-squared test when we compared the categorical responses between two or more groups. For comparing means between two groups we used t-test. In addition, trends were investigated using linear regression. Results: Overall 13 248 people were referred to the Burns Center at Imam Khomeini Hospital (Kermanshah, Iran) during the period of study, including 328 cases of self-immolation. The mean age of the patients was 27±19 years and 29±13 years for unintentional burns and self-immolation respectively. Out of the total number of unintentional cases, 6 519 (50.5%) were men, while the corresponding percentage of men among the self-immolation cases was 16.6% (p less than 0.001). Trends in the number of cases were cyclic, with the highest and lowest number of burns cases being in March and May. Overall, hot liquids and flammable materials were the two most important causes of unintentional burns. However, flammable materials were the main cause of burns among self-immolation cases. During hospital admission, 168 (51%) self-immolation victims and 43 (0.33%) unintentional burn victims died. Conclusions: While major preventive measures are not adequately used in developing countries, burns and their burden can be significantly reduced by increasing public awareness and by applying simple preventive measures. PMID:23831739

Ahmadijouybari, Touraj; Najafi, Farid; Moradinazar, Mehdi; Karami-matin, Behzad; Karami-matin, Reza; Ataie, Maria; Hatami, Masoumeh; Purghorbani, Samira; Amee, Vahid

2014-01-01

239

Innovative technique using heterogenous collagen and intermingled autologous split-thickness skin graft for coverage of raw areas in deep burns with paucity of donor site as a life-saving measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burns injuries are extremely complex and elicit physiological and metabolic interactions involving all major organ systems.\\u000a These pathological changes occur in a time dependent manner. In the last decades, burn care has improved, so the trend in\\u000a the current treatment extends beyond the preservation of life. Thus, ultimate goal is complete rehabilitation of the burn\\u000a victims. To investigate the effectiveness

Vijay Y Bhatia; Mayank Singh

2011-01-01

240

Evaluation of Satellite Detected Prescribed Burns  

E-print Network

: Di Tian, Georgia EPD #12;Ground Measurements Name Fort Stewart Fort Benning Fort Gordon Area (km2 bases in 2008 (BA : daily Burned Area) #12;All three sites Fort Stewart Fort Benning Fort Gordon #12 Ground Measurement #12;Fort Gordon Large underestimation in December Small clustered fires or more

Jacob, Daniel J.

241

Temporal changes in species composition in Fescue Prairie: relationships with burning history, time of burning, and environmental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, fires occurred throughout the year in the Fescue Prairie of Canada, but little is known about plant community\\u000a responses to burning at different times of the year. Composition of plant communities was determined annually for 6 years\\u000a after burning one or three times in a remnant Fescue Prairie in central Saskatchewan. A multiple-response permutation procedure\\u000a indicated that plant community composition

D. V. Gross; J. T. Romo

2010-01-01

242

A man with severe leg burns.  

PubMed

A 52-year-old Hispanic male was transported to the emergency department after sustaining severe bilateral lower extremity burns in an electroplating factory. His examination revealed circumferential burns to the lower extremities with spotting in the perineum. The epidermis was stained green and sloughed off with gentle pressure. The underlying dermis was white and non-blanching, consistent with a full thickness burn. His feet were partially protected by his work boots where he had small areas of pink, blanchable, partial thickness burns (Fig. 1). Pertinent initial studies included a lactic acid level of 3.1 mmol/L and a creatinine of 1.02 mg/dL. PMID:23992444

Chapman, A J; Deschler, D; Judge, B S

2013-11-01

243

A burn formula in clinical practice.  

PubMed Central

In a retrospective review of the 10-year period 1969-78 the intravenous plasma loads given to patients admitted to one burn centre were studied and compared with the volumes predicted by the formula used at that centre. Of 1728 patients admitted 342 (19.8%) received intravenous resuscitation with plasma. The formula appeared to be a good empirical guide to transfusion needs in the 36 h after burning. Patients with burns in excess of 45% body surface area (BSA), and particularly children, were likely to require more fluid than that indicated by the formula estimate. However, as burns in excess of 50% BSA are uncommon (50/1728 admissions) it seems reasonable to use a formula which is a guide to the probable needs of most patients while accepting the clinical response as the best means of assessing the actual fluid need of each patient, especially those with extensive injury. PMID:7247262

Griffiths, R. W.; Laing, J. E.

1981-01-01

244

Epidemiology of burns throughout the World. Part II: intentional burns in adults.  

PubMed

A significant number of burns and deaths from fire are intentionally wrought. Rates of intentional burns are unevenly distributed throughout the world; India has a particularly high rate in young women whereas in Europe rates are higher in men in mid-life. Data from hospitalized burn patients worldwide reveal incidence rates for assault by fire and scalds ranging from 3% to 10%. The average proportion of the body surface area burned in an assault by fire or scalds is approximately 20%. In different parts of the world, attempted burning of others or oneself can be attributed to different motives. Circumstances under which assaults occur fall largely into the categories of interpersonal conflict, including spousal abuse, elder abuse, or interactions over contentious business transactions. Contributing social factors to assaults by burning include drug and alcohol abuse, non-constructive use of leisure time, non-participation in religious and community activities, unstable relationships, and extramarital affairs. Although the incidence of self-mutilation and suicide attempts by burning are relatively low, deliberate self-harm carries a significant risk of death, with an overall mortality rate of 65% worldwide. In those who resort to self-immolation, circumstantial themes reflect domestic discord, family dysfunction, and the social ramifications of unemployment. Preventing injurious burn-related violence requires a multifaceted approach, including legislation and enforcement, education, and advocacy. Better standardized assessment tools are needed to screen for risks of abuse and for psychiatric disorders in perpetrators. PMID:22325849

Peck, Michael D

2012-08-01

245

Mapping and monitoring cropland burning in European Russia: a multi-sensor approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short lived aerosols and pollutants transported from high northern latitudes have amplified the short term warming in the Arctic region. Specifically, black carbon (BC) is recognized as the second most important human emission in regards to climate forcing, behind carbon dioxide with a total climate forcing of +1.1Wm-2. Early studies have suggested that cropland burning may be a high contributor to the BC emissions which are directly deposited above the Arctic Circle. However, accurate monitoring of cropland burning from existing active fire and burned area products is limited. Most existing algorithms are focused on mapping hotter and larger wildfire events. The timing of cropland burning differs from wildfire events and their transient nature adds a further challenge to the product development. In addition, the analysis of multi-year cloud cover over Russian croplands, using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily surface reflectance data showed that on average early afternoon observations from MODIS/ Aqua provided 68 clear views per growing period (defined 1st March 2003 - 30th November 2012) with a range from 30 to 101 clear views; whereas MODIS/Terra provided 75 clear views per growing period (defined 1st March 2001 - 30th November 2012) with a range from 37 to 113 clear views. Here we present a new approach to burned area mapping in croplands from satellite imagery. Our algorithm is designed to detect burned area only within croplands and does not have the requirements to perform well outside those. The algorithm focuses on tracking the natural intra-annual development curve specific for crops rather than natural vegetation and works by identifying the subtle spectral nuances between varieties of cropland field categories. Using a combination of the high visual accuracy from very high resolution (VHR, defined as spatial resolution < 5m) imagery and the temporal trend of MODIS data, we are able to differentiate between burned and plowed cropland fields in European Russia. The VHR imagery allows for more accurate identification of field condition (burned, bare, residue) through visual interpretation and by the incorporation of the 1km MODIS Active Fire (MCD14) dataset as a means of independent validation for the selection of burned training and validation samples. Confirmed by active fire and visual assessment, these fields then serve as a subset of training data to extract a larger sample set of burned fields from VHR imagery, using the Near Infrared (NIR) band (760-900 nm). NIR showed the largest statistical differences between the burned and unburned field samples using ANOVA and post-hoc statistics with an f value (625.8) far exceeding the critical F-value of 2.665 at p < 0.05. Early-stage validation of the algorithm has shown notable improvement in accuracy over the existing MODIS-based global (MCD64 and MCD45) and regional approaches. Large confusion is found over the mollisol (dark-soil) regions compared to the lighter soil areas of the north. Further algorithm improvements, which rely on in situ observations and other auxiliary sources of information, are underway. In the future, we plan to expand applications of this algorithm to cover all Russian croplands between 2001 and 2013.

Hall, J.; Loboda, T. V.; Mccarty, G.; McConnell, L.; Woldemariam, T.

2013-12-01

246

Comparison of traditional burn wound mapping with a computerized program.  

PubMed

Accurate burn estimation affects the use of burn resuscitation formulas and treatment strategies, and thus can affect patient outcomes. The objective of this process-improvement project was to compare the accuracy of a computer-based burn mapping program, WoundFlow (WF), with the widely used hand-mapped Lund-Browder (LB) diagram. Manikins with various burn representations (from 1% to more than 60% TBSA) were used for comparison of the WF system and LB diagrams. Burns were depicted on the manikins using red vinyl adhesive. Healthcare providers responsible for mapping of burn patients were asked to perform burn mapping of the manikins. Providers were randomized to either an LB or a WF group. Differences in the total map area between groups were analyzed. Also, direct measurements of the burn representations were taken and compared with LB and WF results. The results of 100 samples, compared using Bland-Altman analysis, showed no difference between the two methods. WF was as accurate as LB mapping for all burn surface areas. WF may be additionally beneficial in that it can track daily progress until complete wound closure, and can automatically calculate burn size, thus decreasing the chances of mathematical errors. PMID:23292593

Williams, James F; King, Booker T; Aden, James K; Serio-Melvin, Maria; Chung, Kevin K; Fenrich, Craig A; Salinas, José; Renz, Evan M; Wolf, Steven E; Blackbourne, Lorne H; Cancio, Leopoldo C

2013-01-01

247

A comparison of the annual cycle of sea level in coastal areas from gridded satellite altimetry and tide gauges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we compare the annual component of sea level variations derived from 478 worldwide-distributed tide gauges with the annual component computed from a weekly gridded multi-mission altimeter product. Gridded altimetry data products allow for spatio-temporal analyses that are not possible based on along-track altimetry data. However, a precise validation is necessary in the coastal region before the gridded data can be used. Results of the comparisons show that root-mean-square differences (RMSD) between the two datasets are ?2 cm for 76.4% of the sites. RMSD higher than 4 cm are caused by narrow coastal currents, nearby river outflows or other local phenomena. A methodology is proposed to assess the accuracy of the seasonal component of the gridded altimeter product in regions with a low density net of tide gauges. As a case study it is shown that the Southwestern Atlantic coast is a suitable region to study the spatio-temporal variability of the annual cycle of sea level since RMSD between annual altimetry data and in-situ data are lower than 2.1 cm.

Ruiz Etcheverry, L. A.; Saraceno, M.; Piola, A. R.; Valladeau, G.; Möller, O. O.

2015-01-01

248

[Rural Development: First Annual] Report to the Congress on the Availability of Government Services to Rural Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information derived from the Federal Information Exchange System on Federal outlays in rural America (160 Federal programs) provides the basis for this initial annual report. Information is reported via narrative and tabular data and relates only to Federal assistance. Highlighting some of the recent rural socioeconomic trends, the narrative…

Rural Development Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

249

Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' understanding of the concepts of area and how it can relate to perimeter. The shapes explored in this lesson are constructed of adjacent squares on a coordinate plane. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to area as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, the reading level for this resourceâs worksheet is at the grade 8 level.

2010-01-01

250

Prevalence burn injuries and risk factors in persons older the 15 years in Urmia burn center in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Burn injuries in many respects is the most tragic that a person may experience. The purpose of this study was to know the burn casualties prevalence in people over 15 years old to identify the risk and predisposing factors in the province of west Azarbaijan of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed from March 2008 to March 2010. The demographic and epidemiologic information about burn and its complications were extracted from the data banks and records. Data were collected and analyzed. Results:Four hundred twenty eight patients (44.9% female and 56.1% male) were studied. Most of the admissions were in 16 to 25 years age bracket. Burning with fire accounted (39.2%) of admission in males and (53.2%) in females which was the most common cause of burning. Percentage patients who had more than 40% body surface area (BSA) burned was 42.0% in males, and 30.1% in females. Patients with >40% BSA burn had a mortality of 73.8%. The mean body surface area burned was 33.8% in males and 25.2% in females. The mean duration of hospitalization was 6.19 days. Conclusion: The results of this study show that the prevalence of burn injuries is relatively high with high mortality rate in those with BSA> 40%. The commonest cause of burn was fire. PMID:24024024

Aghakhani, Nader; Sharif Nia, Hamid; Soleimani, Mohammad Ali; Bahrami, Nasim; Rahbar, Narges; Fattahi, Yadegar; Beheshti, Zahra

2011-01-01

251

Analysis of Alaskan burn severity patterns using remotely sensed data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildland fire is the dominant large-scale disturbance mechanism in the Alaskan boreal forest, and it strongly influences forest structure and function. In this research, patterns of burn severity in the Alaskan boreal forest are characterised using 24 fires. First, the relationship between burn severity and area burned is quantified using a linear regression. Second, the spatial correlation of burn severity as a function of topography is modelled using a variogram analysis. Finally, the relationship between vegetation type and spatial patterns of burn severity is quantified using linear models where variograms account for spatial correlation. These results show that: 1) average burn severity increases with the natural logarithm of the area of the wildfire, 2) burn severity is more variable in topographically complex landscapes than in flat landscapes, and 3) there is a significant relationship between burn severity and vegetation type in flat landscapes but not in topographically complex landscapes. These results strengthen the argument that differential flammability of vegetation exists in some boreal landscapes of Alaska. Additionally, these results suggest that through feedbacks between vegetation and burn severity, the distribution of forest vegetation through time is likely more stable in flat terrain than it is in areas with more complex topography. ?? IAWF 2007.

Duffy, P.A.; Epting, J.; Graham, J.M.; Rupp, T.S.; McGuire, A.D.

2007-01-01

252

Burning Mouth Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Most clinicians dread seeing the patient presenting with a primary complaint of a burning pain on one or more oral mucosal surfaces. Unlike most other clinical conditions presenting in a dental office, burning mouth syndrome is poorly understood with few evidence based remedies. More recently, advances have been made towards clarifying the possible etiology of the disorder and testing the possible therapeutic modalities available. This article attempts to summarize the “state of the art” today. PMID:20690412

Mock, David; Chugh, Deepika

2010-01-01

253

Burn Depth Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the companyused technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

1993-01-01

254

Burn Depth Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications

1993-01-01

255

Burn Depth Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

1993-01-01

256

Wood burning related injuries.  

PubMed

During the past two years, 80 patients were seen in the emergency department of The Mary Imogene Bassett Hospital (Cooperstown, NY) for injuries related to the use of wood burning stoves. The types of injuries included 25 lacerations, 19 crush injuries, 10 fractures, 7 eye injuries and 7 burns. Seven of these patients required hospitalization, and five required operative procedures. There was no mortality. Physician and patient education about the potential dangers of wood stove use may help prevent these injuries. PMID:2733888

Nicholson, J J; Dietz, P A

1989-05-01

257

Books2burn  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by Professor Matthew Weinstein of Kent State University, Books2burn translates text files into a series of audio files, which may then subsequently be converted to mp3's or other formats. This program will be a great boon to scholars and the general public alike, as the application allows for the easy transfer and replication of potentially large and problematic files into a number of audio formats. Books2burn is compatible with all systems running Mac OS X.

Weinstein, Matthew

258

Wood and coal burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stove for burning wood, coal and other fuels comprised of flammable solids that among other things produce one or more flammable gases when heating or burning. The preferred form of the stove has three modes of operation-a rapid burning mode, a normal or medium burning mode and a banked mode. The user makes a preliminary decision as to whether

G. H. Barsness; R. A. Kleine

1985-01-01

259

Burns in Nigeria: a Review  

PubMed Central

Summary Burn injuries continue to be a major source of mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries of the world, of which Nigeria is a part. Overview data on burn care in Nigeria are sparse but the available literature on burns and burn care in Nigeria was retrieved through Internet-based search engines, collated, and reviewed. Peculiarities of epidemiology, types of burn, pattern of injuries, complications, and outcome of burn care were reviewed. There were no broad-based overview statistical data on burns in Nigeria in all the articles reviewed. There was no documentation on the regionalization of care and there were no national databases. All reports on epidemiology were hospital-based. Flame is emerging as the predominant cause of burns, and burn injury is occurring increasingly away from the domestic setting. The severity of the injuries is also increasing. Deliberate burn injury remains a practice and a wide range of complications occur as burns sequelae in Nigeria. Several challenges militate against optimal care for burn victims. Burn injuries continue to contribute significantly to the burden of disease in Nigeria. There is a need for broad-based data collection systems. Avoidable complications are common and mortality remains high. Pooling of resources by regionalization of care could increase focus on burn prevention and improve the care of burn victims. Nongovernmental and governmental support to reduce the burden of burns is advocated. PMID:21991210

Oladele, A.O.; Olabanji, J.K.

2010-01-01

260

Terrestrial cycling of 13CO2 by photosynthesis, respiration, and biomass burning in SiBCASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an enhanced version of the SiBCASA terrestrial biosphere model that is extended with (a) biomass burning emissions from the SiBCASA carbon pools using remotely sensed burned area from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED), (b) an isotopic discrimination scheme that calculates 13C signatures of photosynthesis and autotrophic respiration, and (c) a separate set of 13C pools to carry isotope ratios into heterotrophic respiration. We quantify in this study the terrestrial exchange of CO2 and 13CO2 as a function of environmental changes in humidity and biomass burning. The implementation of biomass burning yields similar fluxes as CASA-GFED both in magnitude and spatial patterns. The implementation of isotope exchange gives a global mean discrimination value of 15.2‰, ranges between 4 and 20‰ depending on the photosynthetic pathway in the plant, and compares favorably (annually and seasonally) with other published values. Similarly, the isotopic disequilibrium is similar to other studies that include a small effect of biomass burning as it shortens the turnover of carbon. In comparison to measurements, a newly modified starch/sugar storage pool propagates the isotopic discrimination anomalies to respiration much better. In addition, the amplitude of the drought response by SiBCASA is lower than suggested by the measured isotope ratios. We show that a slight increase in the stomatal closure for large vapor pressure deficit would amplify the respired isotope ratio variability. Our study highlights the importance of isotope ratio observations of 13C to assess and improve biochemical models like SiBCASA, especially with regard to the allocation and turnover of carbon and the responses to drought.

van der Velde, I. R.; Miller, J. B.; Schaefer, K.; van der Werf, G. R.; Krol, M. C.; Peters, W.

2014-12-01

261

Transdermal fluid loss in severely burned patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The skin protects against fluid and electrolyte loss. Burn injury does affect skin integrity and protection against fluid loss is lost. Thus, a systemic dehydration can be provoked by underestimation of fluid loss through burn wounds. Purpose: We wanted to quantify transdermal fluid loss in burn wounds. Method: Retrospective study. 40 patients admitted to a specialized burn unit were analyzed and separated in two groups without (Group A) or with (Group B) hypernatremia. Means of daily infusion-diuresis-ratio (IDR) and the relationship to totally burned surface area (TBSA) were analyzed. Results: In Group A 25 patients with a mean age of 47±18 years, a mean TBSA of 23±11%, and a mean abbreviated burned severity index (ABSI) score of 6.9±2.1 were summarized. In Group B 15 patients with a mean age of 47±22 years, a mean TBSA of 30±13%, and a mean ABSI score of 8.1±1.7 were included. Statistical analysis of the period from day 3 to day 6 showed a significant higher daily IDR-amount in Group A (Group A vs. Group B: 786±1029 ml vs. –181±1021 ml; p<0.001) and for daily IDR-TBSA-ratio (Group A vs. Group B: 40±41 ml/% vs. –4±36 ml/%; p<0.001). Conclusions: There is a systemic relevant transdermal fluid loss in burn wounds after severe burn injury. Serum sodium concentration can be used to calculate need of fluid resuscitation for fluid maintenance. There is a need of an established fluid removal strategy to avoid water and electrolyte imbalances. PMID:21063470

Namdar, Thomas; Stollwerck, Peter L.; Stang, Felix H.; Siemers, Frank; Mailänder, Peter; Lange, Thomas

2010-01-01

262

Characterization of aerosols from biomass burning--a case study from Mizoram (Northeast), India.  

PubMed

Physical and optical properties of biomass burning aerosols in Northeastern region, India analyzed based on measurements made during February 2002. Large spatial extent of Northeastern Region moist tropical to moist sub-tropical forests in India have high frequency of burning in annual dry seasons. Characterization of resultant trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning is important for the atmospheric radiative process. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) observed to be high during burning period compared to pre- and post-burning days. Peak period of biomass burning is highly correlated with measured AOD and total columnar water vapor. Size distribution of aerosols showed bimodal size distribution during burning day and unimodal size distribution during pre- and post-burning days. Size distribution retrievals from biomass burning aerosols show dominance of accumulation mode particles. Weighted mean radius is high (0.22 microm) during burning period. Columnar content of aerosols observed to be high during burning period in addition to the drastic reduction of visibility. During the burning day Anderson sampler measurements showed dominance of accumulation mode particles. The diurnal averaged values of surface shortwave aerosol radiative forcing af biomass burning aerosols varies from -59 to -87 Wm(-2) on different days. Measured and modeled solar irradiances are also discussed in the paper. PMID:14559268

Badarinath, K V S; Madhavi Latha, K; Kiran Chand, T R; Gupta, Prabhat K; Ghosh, A B; Jain, S L; Gera, B S; Singh, Risal; Sarkar, A K; Singh, Nahar; Parmar, R S; Koul, S; Kohli, R; Nath, Shambhu; Ojha, V K; Singh, Gurvir

2004-01-01

263

Annual Report RCRA Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspections for Corrective Action Unit 112: Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This annual Neutron Soil Moisture Monitoring report provides an analysis and summary for site inspections, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture data obtained at the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) unit, located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada during the October 1997 - October 1998 period. Inspections of the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches RCRA unit are conducted to determine and document the physical condition of the covers, facilities, and any unusual conditions that could impact the proper operation of the waste unit closure. Physical inspections of the closure were completed quarterly and indicated that the site is in good condition with no significant findings noted. An annual subsidence survey of the elevation markers was conducted in July 1998. There has been no subsidence at any of the markers since monitoring began six years ago. The objective of the neutron logging program is to monitor the soil moisture conditions along 30 neutron access tubes and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement at a point located directly beneath each trench. All monitored access tubes are within the compliance criteria of less than 5 percent residual volumetric moisture content at the compliance point directly beneath each respective trench. Soil conditions remain dry and stable underneath the trenches.

Dudley F. Emer

1999-01-01

264

On the burning behavior of pulverized coal chars  

SciTech Connect

A model that predicts the physical changes that pulverized coal char particles undergo during combustion has been developed. In the model, a burning particle is divided into a number of concentric annular volume elements. The mass loss rate, specific surface area, and apparent density in each volume element depend upon the local particle conditions, which vary as a consequence of the adsorbed oxygen and gas-phase oxygen concentration gradients inside the particle. The model predicts the particle's burning rate, temperature, diameter, apparent density, and specific surface area as combustion proceeds, given ambient conditions and initial char properties. A six-step heterogeneous reaction mechanism is used to describe carbon reactivity to oxygen. A distributed activation energy approach is used to account for the variation in desorption energies of adsorbed O-atoms on the carbonaceous surface. Model calculations support the three burning zones established for the oxidation of pulverized coal chars. The model indicates two types of zone II behavior, however. Under weak zone II burning conditions, constant-diameter burning occurs up to 30% to 50% conversion before burning commences with reductions in both size and apparent density. Under strong zone II conditions, particles burn with reductions in both size and apparent density after an initial short period (conversion) of constant-diameter burning. Model predictions reveal that early in the oxidation process, there is mass loss at constant diameter under all zone II burning conditions. Such weak and strong burning behavior cannot be predicted with the commonly used power-law model for the mode of burning employing a single value for the burning mode parameter. Model calculations also reveal how specific surface area evolves when oxidation occurs in the zone II burning regime. Based on the calculated results, a surface area submodel that accounts for the effects of pore growth and coalescence during combustion under zone I conditions was modified to permit the characterization of the variations in specific surface area that occur during char conversion under zones II conditions. The modified surface area model is applicable to all burning regimes. Calculations also indicate that the particle's effectiveness factor varies during conversion under zone II burning conditions. With the adsorption/desorption mechanism employed, a near first-order Thiele modulus-effectiveness factor relationship is obeyed over the particle's lifetime. (author)

Mitchell, Reginald E.; Ma, Liqiang; Kim, BumJick [Thermosciences Group, Mechanical Engineering Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-3032 (United States)

2007-11-15

265

Instant cup of soup: design flaws increase risk of burns.  

PubMed

Prepackaged soups are a frequent cause of burn injury. We hypothesize that package design increases the risk for burn injury by affecting container stability. All pediatric scald burns caused by soup, between June 1997 and August 2004, were reviewed for burn and patient characteristics. Instant or "ready-to-eat" soups also were purchased. Safety statements and recommendations as to use of the microwave oven were documented. The height and the areas of the base and top were compared to the angle that a container would tip over on to its side. During the study period, 99 admissions and 80 outpatients were treated for burns caused by soup. Although the burn size was small (mean 5% TBSA) 22 patients required grafting. Of 13 different soups, 11 required the addition of hot water, and 2 were prepackaged for eating out of the container. Twelve containers had round bases and were tall and narrow, with one being shorter and rectangular. The measurements that correlated with the ease of tipping over were the base area, top area, and the ratio of height/base area. The most significant contributor to the ease of tipping over was height. Instant soups are packaged in containers that tend to be tall with a narrow base that predisposes them to being knocked over and spilled. Simple redesigning of instant soup packaging with a wider base and shorter height, along with the requirement for warnings about the risks of burns would reduce the frequency of soup burns. PMID:16819351

Greenhalgh, David G; Bridges, Peggy; Coombs, Elena; Chapyak, Debbie; Doyle, William; O'Mara, Michael S; Palmieri, Tina L

2006-01-01

266

Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from biomass burning in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field measurements of hydrocarbon emissions from biomass burning in the cerrado (grasslands) and selva (tropical forest) regions of Brazil in 1979 and 1980 are characterized and quantified here. Regional consequences of burning activities include increased background mixing ratios of carbon monoxide and ozone, as well as reduced visibility, over extensive areas. Global extrapolation of the emission rate of hydrocarbons from

J. P. Greenberg; P. R. Zimmerman; L. Heidt; W. Pollock

1984-01-01

267

Range Vegetation Response to Burning Thicketized Live Oak Savannah.  

E-print Network

as mulch accumulated after burn- ing. The fires initially top killed the live oak, but den- sities of new sprouts the growing season after burn- ing exceeded preburn stern densities by as much as five times. Although live oak densities recovered... the mottes was emphasized in this study since it cov- ered the majority of the area. Initial top kill of live oak after burning the inter- spaces exceeded 95 percent, regardless of the date of burning. However, stem densities at 6 to 12 menths after...

Scifres, C.J.; Kelly, D.M.

1979-01-01

268

Epidemiology of burn injuries in Singapore from 1997 to 2003.  

PubMed

The Singapore General Hospital (SGH) Burn Centre receives more than 93% of burn cases occurring in Singapore. The Centre also received patients from the Southeast Asian region. The collection and analysis of burn epidemiology data in recent years from Singapore would provide insights into new prevention/management strategies in terms of population profile and economic activities. Data pertaining to burn patients admitted to SGH Burn Centre between January 1997 and December 2003 were studied retrospectively in terms of admissions' demographics, extent of burn (TBSA), causes of burns, length of hospital stay (LOS) and mortality. A total of 2019 burn patients were admitted with an annual admission of 288. This presented an incidence rate for burn injury (with admission) of 0.07 per 1000 general population. The male to female ratio is 2.2:1 and the mean age of admission is 32.5years. The mean extent of burn was 11.5% and patients with burn size 10% TBSA and less made up the majority of admissions at 70.7% while patients with burn size 30% TBSA and more made up 8.2%. The most common cause of burn injury is scald at 45.6% followed by flame at 35.2%. The overall mean LOS and mortality are 10.8days and 4.61%, respectively. An annual trend of falling mortality rate for admissions with burn size >30% TBSA was observed-60% in year 2000 to 30% in 2003. This is a result of massive early excision and grafting of severe burn patients. 17.6% of patients were children of 12years and below, showing a 11.9% reduction from previous study in the 80s. This is consistent with the city's demographics of falling fertility rate and improved living and social conditions. Occupational burn admissions account for 33.4% of total admissions, a reduction of 11.6% from a study in the early 90s. Occurrence of occupational flame burns decreased by 9.5% due to an improvement in fire prevention and management of the industrial sectors. However, chemical burns increased by 12.6% as the chemical sector in Singapore grew at a rate of 10% from year 1995 to 2000. Singapore has also derived much experience from the management of mass casualties resulting from SQ006 plane crash and bomb blasts in Bali as well as in Jakarta. In total, 315 victims were treated (4 from SQ006, 16 from Bali and 15 from Jakarta) with 1 mortality. The burns admissions in Singapore has a profile consistent with population demographics. Scald is the major cause of burns and most of these injuries are preventable. While the industries have made inroads into good fire prevention and management, management of chemical burns and other occupational hazards will continue to be scrutinized and advice given in terms of regulations, work processes and personal protective gears. PMID:15649612

Song, Colin; Chua, Alvin

2005-01-01

269

EARLY POST-FIRE PLANT ESTABLISHMENT ON A MOJAVE DESERT BURN SCOTT R. ABELLA  

E-print Network

cover of the exotic annual Bromus rubens averaged nine times lower on the burn than on a paired unburnedH, conductivity, and total P and K on burned Yucca microsites. Bromus rubens density in 0­5 cm soil seed banks

Abella, Scott R.

270

Sources of black carbon in aerosols: fossil fuel burning vs. biomass burning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uncertainty in black carbon (BC) analysis and our inability to directly quantify the BC sources in the atmosphere has led to the uncertainty in compiling a regional or global BC emission inventory attributed to biomass burnings. We initiate this study to demonstrate a new approach, which quantifies the source of BC in the atmosphere between biomass and fossil fuel burnings. We applied the newly developed multi-element scanning thermal analysis (MESTA) technology to quantify BC and organic carbon (OC), respectively, in aerosol samples. MESTA can also separate BC from OC for subsequent radiocarbon analyses. Because fossil fuel has been depleted of radiocarbon and biomass has radiocarbon of the modern atmospheric level, we can quantify the sources of BC between fossil fuel and biomass burnings. We sampled the PM2.5 in the ambient air of central Tallahassee and its rural areas during the May-June (prescribed burning) and Nov-Dec (non-burning) periods. The results indicate that biomass burning contributed 89×1% and 67×2% of BC, respectively, during May-June and Nov.-Dec. periods. The rest of PM2.5 BC was contributed from fossil fuel burning. The radiocarbon contents of the OC was 103.42×0.55 percent modern carbon (pmC), which is consistent with the current atmospheric level with a trace of the bomb radiocarbon remained from the open atmosphere nuclear testing.

Hsieh, Y.

2013-12-01

271

Emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from open crop residue burning in the Yangtze River Delta region, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

crop residue burning is one of the major sources of air pollutants including the precursors of photooxidants like ozone and secondary organic aerosol. We made measurements of trace gases including nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) in a rural area in central East China in June 2010. During the campaign, we identified six biomass burning events in total through the simultaneous enhancement of carbon monoxide and acetonitrile. Four cases represented fresh plumes (<2 h after emission), and two cases represented aged plumes (>3 h after emission), as determined by photochemical age. While we were not able to quantify formic acid, we identified an enhancement of major oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) as well as low molecular alkanes and alkenes, and aromatic hydrocarbons in these plumes. The observed normalized excess mixing ratios (NEMRs) of OVOCs and alkenes showed dependence on air mass age, even in fresh smoke plumes, supporting the view that these species are rapidly produced and destructed, respectively, during plume evolution. Based on the NEMR data in the fresh plumes, we calculated the emission factors (EFs) of individual NMVOC. The comparison to previous reports suggests that the EFs of formaldehyde and acetic acid have been overestimated, while those of alkenes have been underestimated. Finally, we suggest that open burning of wheat residue in China releases about 0.34 Tg NMVOCs annually. If we applied the same EFs to all crops, the annual NMVOC emissions would be 2.33 Tg. The EFs of speciated NMVOCs can be used to improve the existing inventories.

Kudo, Shinji; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Inomata, Satoshi; Saito, Shinji; Pan, Xiaole; Kanaya, Yugo; Taketani, Fumikazu; Wang, Zifa; Chen, Hongyan; Dong, Huabin; Zhang, Meigen; Yamaji, Kazuyo

2014-06-01

272

An unusual electrical burn caused by alkaline batteries.  

PubMed

Electrical burns caused by low-voltage batteries are rarely reported. We recently encountered a male patient who suffered from a superficial second-degree burn over his left elbow and back. The total body surface area of the burn was estimated to be 6%. After interviewing the patient, the cause was suspected to be related to the explosion of a music player on the left-side of his waist, carried on his belt while he was painting a bathroom wall. Elevated creatine kinase levels and hematuria indicated rhabdomyolysis and suggested an electrical burn. Initial treatment was done in the burn intensive care unit with fluid challenge and wound care. The creatine kinase level decreased gradually and the hematuria was gone after 4 days in the intensive care unit. He was then transferred to the general ward for further wound management and discharged from our burn center after a total of 11 days without surgical intervention. PMID:25678181

Roan, Tyng-Luen; Yeong, Eng-Kean; Tang, Yueh-Bih

2015-02-01

273

Characterization of burns using hyperspectral imaging technique - A preliminary study.  

PubMed

Surgical burn treatment depends on accurate estimation of burn depth. Many methods have been used to asses burns, but none has gained wide acceptance. Hyperspectral imaging technique has recently entered the medical research field with encouraging results. In this paper we present a preliminary study (case presentation) that aims to point out the value of this optical method in burn wound characterization and to set up future lines of investigation. A hyperspectral image of a leg and foot with partial thickness burns was obtained in the fifth postburn day. The image was analyzed using linear spectral unmixing model as a tool for mapping the investigated areas. The article gives details on the mathematical bases of the interpretation model and correlations with clinical examination pointing out the advantages of hyperspectral imaging technique. While the results were encouraging, further more extended and better founded studies are being prepared before recognizing hyperspectral imaging technique as an applicable method of burn wound assessment. PMID:24997530

Calin, Mihaela Antonina; Parasca, Sorin Viorel; Savastru, Roxana; Manea, Dragos

2015-02-01

274

Lightning density and burning frequency in South African vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates lightning density in relation to burning frequency in five South African biomes. Data from automatic lightning flash counters distributed throughout South Africa are used to estimate the range and mean values of annual lightning ground-strike density in each biome. The lowest average lightning frequencies were recorded in the karoo and fynbos biomes, while the highest values were

D. E. Manry; R. S. Knight

1986-01-01

275

Decadorial of a burn center in Central India  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Burn injuries are a serious public health problem. In our study we have identified different epidemiological factors based on 10 years of our experience at a burn unit in central India and recommend some strategies to prevent burn injuries. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis (2001-2010) of database from burn unit of S.S. Medical College, Rewa, India. Results: 2499 patients with burn injury were analysed. 66.8% and 38.2% patients were females and males respectively, with a median age of 25 years. Flame (80.1%) was most common cause, home (96%) was most common place, traditional Indian stove (28.8%), kerosene lamp (26.7%), hot liquid (12.2%) and kerosene stove (10.4%) were common causes. Median Total Body Surface Area (TBSA) burn was 40.0%; females had significantly greater (P < 0.001) burn than males (median 50% vs 26.0%). High mortality (40.3%) seen; female sex (OR 3.22, 95% CI 2.65-3.92); young age (15-29 year) (OR 3.48, 95% CI 2.45-4.94); flame burn (OR 12.9, 95% CI 1.69-98.32); suicidal burn OR 6.82 95%CI 4.44-10.48) and TBSA > 76% (OR 3099, 95%CI 1302-7380) were significant risk factors for death. Median hospital stays was 8 days; shorter hospital stays seen among TBSA burn > 76% (2 days), suicidal intent (4 days), and those who expired (4 days). Septicemia (45.8%) and burn shock (41%) were the major cause for death. Conclusions: Cooking and lighting equipments are major cause of burn injury among females and young age group. Equipment modification to improve safety features and public awareness programs are necessary to reduce burn incidents. PMID:24678209

Bain, Jayanta; Lal, Shyam; Baghel, Vijay Singh; Yedalwar, Vinod; Gupta, Rachna; Singh, Anil Kumar

2014-01-01

276

Pediatric burns mortality risk factors in a developing country’s tertiary burns intensive care unit  

PubMed Central

Aim: This study aimed at identifying risk factors related to pediatric burns mortality in a middle income country such as Ghana. Methods: The data for the three years retrospective study (May 2009 – April 2012) was obtained from the pediatric burn admissions records and patients’ folders of the Reconstructive Plastic Surgery & Burns Unit (RPSBU), Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Ghana. Data retrieved included: Demographic features, Total Burned Surface Area (TBSA) incurred; Aetiology of burns; Duration of the admission; Outcome of admission; Part of the body affected and Cost incurred. Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the KNUST-SMS/KATH Committee on Human Research, Publications and Ethics. Data analyses were performed with SPSS 17.0 version. Results: Information on 197 patients was completely retrieved for the study. Burns mortality rate for the study was identified to be 21.3% (N=42). The mean age of the 42 dead patients was 3.7±0.3 years, ranging from 0-13 years, while, males (54.8%, N= 23) outnumbered females (45.2%, N=19). The TBSA burned interquartile range was 48%. In terms of etiology of burns Scald (73.8%, N=31) was the commonest cause of injury. Mortality risk factors identified were Age <6 years (P=0.028); Scald especially hot water and soup (P=0.016); TBSA >36% (P=0.028) and Inhalation injury (P=0.040). Conclusion: Age, scald, TBSA and Inhalation Injury were identified as pediatric burns mortality risk factors in a developing country such as Ghana’s RPSBU. These identified factors will serve as a guideline for plastic surgeons and other health professionals practicing in countries such as Ghana. PMID:23875121

Agbenorku, Pius; Agbenorku, Manolo; Fiifi-Yankson, Papa Kwesi

2013-01-01

277

Burning trees and bridges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most burning of biomass is the result of human activity, and on a global scale it is increasing. Tropospheric concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons, and ozone are all increasing with time; global biomass burning may make an important contribution to this increase and thus to potential global climate change. The nitrogen cycle also can have important climatic effects. Nitrous oxide put into the atmosphere by biomass burning is a greenhouse gas 250 times more powerful (molecule for molecule) than carbon dioxide. Nitric oxide, as well as being a photochemical precursor of ozone, a major pollutant in the troposphere, produces nitric acid, the fastest-growing component of acid rain. Hence, the new bridge in the nitrogen cycle is of more than mere technical interest.

Levine, Joel S.

1990-01-01

278

Wood burning stove heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

A wood burning stove includes a water circulating grate within the stove fire chamber which includes horizontally extending, vertically spaced, first and second tubular manifolds. Fuel supporting pipes, including bottom portions which define a ''V'', physically and fluidly interconnect the manifolds. An inlet pipe extends throughout the majority of the length of the bottom manifold, and the top manifold is connected-through a container having a larger cross-sectional area than the cross-sectional area of the manifold-to an outlet. The inlet to and outlet from the manifold are connected up to a hydronic space heating system. The container supports a heat exchanger comprising a finned copper tube, so that the heat exchanger extends generally horizontally and within the first manifold. The heat exchanger is connected up to a domestic hot water supply. The container also supports one or more electric resistance heating coils, which heat liquid within the container in emergency situations.

Manno, J. T.

1985-08-13

279

Methane production from global biomass burning  

SciTech Connect

Emissions of methane from various sources of biomass burning are determined quantitatively for tropical, temperate, and boreal regions. About 85% of the total CH{sub 4} is emitted in the tropical area, which is mainly the result of shifting cultivation, fuelwood use, and deforestation. Methane emissions from biomass burning may have increased by at least 9% during the last decade because of increases in tropical deforestation and the use of fuelwood. Changes in land use practices and population growth in the tropics are possible causes of the increase of atmospheric CH{sub 4} concentration. 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Wei Min Hao; Ward, D.E. [Department of Agriculture, Missoula, MN (United States)

1993-11-20

280

Fast burning propellants  

SciTech Connect

A solid or semisolid propellant is described comprising grains of propellant or propellant components bonded together to create voids within the propellant volume. The grains are of near-uniform size and have less than about a 20% size variation between the largest and smallest grains, the voids comprising from about 10% to about 50% of the propellant volume. The grains are bonded together with sufficient strength to substantially delay the fluidization of the propellant by the onset of Taylor unstable burning. The propellant has a rapid burn rate of from about 10 cm sec/sup -1/ to about 10/sup 4/cm sec/sup -1/.

Colgate, S.A.; Roos, G.E.

1987-07-21

281

Burning Down the House  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this demonstration, the teacher will use a potato and hydrogen peroxide to generate oxygen in a closed environment. Students can then observe its effects on a burning wooden splint and on burning steel wool. They will understand that a large amount of energy can be released by the process of oxidation. As an extension, the teacher can discuss how the appearance of oxygen (produced by cyanobacteria) in Earth's early atmosphere initially resulted in the formation of large deposits of iron oxide (Banded Iron Formations) and then aided in the evolution of more complex life forms.

Dolphin, Glenn

282

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

This is a stove primarily for the burning of wood, but also capable of burning other combustible materials. The stove is characterized by a unique combustion chamber, together with a recirculating combustion chamber and baffle for more perfect combustion and characterized by a heat radiating chamber which may be closed so as to be used as an oven, and by a unique damper placement in combination with the exhaust flue pipe so adapted as to automatically activate in order to cool the flue pipe in the event it should exceed safe heat limits.

Bruce, R.F.; Byrd, W.W.

1980-01-08

283

Science at Burning Man  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, the Exploratorium Museum in San Francisco sent a dedicated crew to check out the activities at the Burning Man festival in Nevada. The results of their journey and explorations can be seen here, and interested parties can learn about pyrotechnics, flight, dust devils, and rainbows. The site contains several dozen short films that feature Exploratorium scientists like Paul Doherty investigating the properties of alkali and a rare double rainbow sighting. One of the most impressive videos is a bird's eye view from an 88-NV plane over the Burning Man site. Finally, visitors are also encouraged to share these resources with others via social media sites, including Twitter and Facebook.

284

2011 Annual Summary Report for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada: Review of the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses  

SciTech Connect

The Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007a) requires an annual review to assess the adequacy of the Performance Assessments (PAs) and Composite Analyses (CAs), with the results submitted annually to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management. The Disposal Authorization Statements for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) also require that such reviews be made and that secondary or minor unresolved issues be tracked and addressed as part of the maintenance plan (DOE, 1999a; 2000). The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office performed an annual review of the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS PAs and CAs for fiscal year (FY) 2011. This annual summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2011 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R and D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R and D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs. Important developments in FY 2011 include the following: (1) Operation of a new shallow land disposal unit and a new Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-compliant lined disposal unit at the Area 5 RWMS; (2) Development of new closure inventory estimates based on disposals through FY 2011; (3) Evaluation of new or revised waste streams by special analysis; (4) Development of version 2.102 of the Area 3 RWMS GoldSim PA model; and (5) Development of version 4.113 of the Area 5 RWMS GoldSim PA model. Analysis of the latest available data using the Area 5 RWMS v4.113 GoldSim PA model indicates that all performance objectives can be met. The results and conclusions of the Area 5 RWMS PA are judged valid, and there is no need to the revise the PA. The Area 3 RWMS has been in inactive status since July 1, 2006, with the last shipment received in April 2006. In FY 2011, there were no operational changes, monitoring results, or R and D results for the Area 3 RWMS that would impact PA validity. Despite the increase in waste volume and inventory at the Area 3 RWMS since 1996 when the PA was approved, the facility performance evaluated with the Area 3 RWMS PA GoldSim model, version 2.0 (with the final closure inventory), remains well below the performance objectives set forth in U.S. Department of Energy Order DOE O 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management' (DOE, 2001). The conclusions of the Area 3 RWMS PA remain valid. A special analysis was prepared to update the PA and CA results for the Area 3 RWMS in FY 2011. Release of the special analysis is planned for FY 2012. The continuing adequacy of the CAs was evaluated with the new models, and no significant changes that would alter CA results or conclusions were found. Inclusion of the Frenchman Flat Underground Test Area (UGTA) results in the Area 5 RWMS CA is scheduled for FY 2016, pending the completion of the closure report for the Frenchman Flat UGTA corrective action unit (CAU) in FY 2015. An industrial site, CAU 547, with corrective action sites near the Area 3 RWMS was found to have a significant plutonium inventory in 2009. CAU 547 will be evaluated for inclusion of future revisions or updates of the Area 3 RWMS CA. The revision of the Area 3 RWMS CA, which will include the UGTA source terms, is expected in FY 2024, following the completion of the Yucca Flat CAU Corrective Action Decision Document, scheduled for FY 2023. Near-term R and D efforts will focus on continuing development of the Are

NSTec Environmental Management

2012-03-20

285

Current scenario in chemical burns in a developing country: Chennai, India  

PubMed Central

Summary Chemical burns are not uncommon in India. Both accidental and non-accidental chemical burns are encountered in our setting. In the paediatric age group, chemical burns are mainly accidental. Analysis of chemical burn admissions to the Burn Units of a medical college hospital, and to an exclusively tertiary care children's hospital in Chennai, India, from 2001 to 2010 is described. A total number of 75 adults and 38 children are included in the study. Detailed analysis of age, sex, percentage of burn total body surface area (TBSA %), causative agents, aetiology (accidental or non-accidental), treatment instituted, mortality, and outcome are reported. PMID:23012609

Ramakrishnan, K.M.; Mathivanan, T.; Jayaraman, V.; Babu, M.; Shankar, J

2012-01-01

286

Ethnicity and etiology in burn trauma.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to retrieve data from the British Columbia Professional Firefighters Burn Unit registry, with a focus on ethnicity and how it is involved in burn trauma. It is hypothesized that mechanism, severity, and other patient characteristics are significantly different among different ethnic groups. Furthermore, it is believed that these data can be used to augment burn prevention strategies. Data for burn patients admitted from 1979 to 2009 were reviewed from the burn registry. The main focus was with differences seen among the four main ethnicities throughout the analysis, Caucasian, Aboriginal, Asian, and Indoasian, reflecting the population distribution of the region. Age and sex were also considered when looking at burn mechanism, severity, contributing and copresenting factors. Caucasians were the largest group (79.1%) and included the largest male:female ratio (3.3:1), with high numbers of flame injury (53.9%). Caucasians presented with the highest mortality (6.6% compared with 4.1% for all other ethnicities; P < .006). Asian patients (8.1%) showed significantly higher occurrences of urban (64%) and workplace (28.9%) injuries with a larger proportion of scald injury (38.9%). Indoasian patients included larger numbers of women (36.4%) and household scald injuries (33.9%) whereas Aboriginals suffered the most flame injuries (60.1%) in rural areas with more frequent contributing factors such as alcohol. The study found multiple significant differences in the burn injury population when segmented by ethnicity. Though the exact reasons for these differences are difficult to say with certainty, it allows a unique opportunity to focus communication and prevention efforts to specific communities. PMID:24503965

Papp, Anthony; Haythornthwaite, Jordan

2014-01-01

287

Noninvasive determination of burn depth in children by digital infrared thermal imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital infrared thermal imaging is used to assess noninvasively the severity of burn wounds in 13 pediatric patients. A delta-T (?T) parameter obtained by subtracting the temperature of a healthy contralateral region from the temperature of the burn wound is compared with the burn depth measured histopathologically. Thermal imaging results show that superficial dermal burns (IIa) show increased temperature compared with their contralateral healthy region, while deep dermal burns (IIb) show a lower temperature than their contralateral healthy region. This difference in temperature is statistically significant (p<0.0001) and provides a way of distinguishing deep dermal from superficial dermal burns. These results show that digital infrared thermal imaging could be used as a noninvasive procedure to assess burn wounds. An additional advantage of using thermal imaging, which can image a large skin surface area, is that it can be used to identify regions with different burn depths and estimate the size of the grafts needed for deep dermal burns.

Medina-Preciado, Jose David; Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar Samuel; Velez-Gomez, Ezequiel; Miranda-Altamirano, Ariel; González, Francisco Javier

2013-06-01

288

The utilization of orbital images as an adequate form of control of preserved areas. [Araguaia National Park, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The synoptic view and the repetitive acquisition of LANDSAT imagery provide precise information, in real-time, for monitoring preserved areas based on spectral, temporal and spatial properties. The purpose of this study was to monitor, with the use of multispectral imagery, the systematic annual burning, which causes the degradation of ecosystems in the National Park of Araguaia. LANDSAT imagery of channel 5 (0.6 a 0.7 microns) and 7 (0.8 a 1.1 microns), at the scale of 1:250.000, were used to identify and delimit vegetation units and burned area, based on photointerpretation parameter of tonality. The results show that the gallery forest can be discriminated from the seasonally flooded 'campo cerrado', and that 4,14% of the study area was burned. Conclusions point out that the LANDSAT images can be used for the implementation of environmental protection in national parks.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Dossantos, J. R.

1981-01-01

289

Survival after burn in a sub-Saharan burn unit: Challenges and opportunities  

PubMed Central

Background Burns are among the most devastating of all injuries and a major global public health crisis, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. In developed countries, aggressive management of burns continues to lower overall mortality and increase lethal total body surface area (TBSA) at which 50% of patients die (LA50). However, lack of resources and inadequate infrastructure significantly impede such improvements in developing countries. Methods This study is a retrospective analysis of patients admitted to the burn center at Kamuzu Central Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi between June 2011 and December 2012. We collected information including patient age, gender, date of admission, mechanism of injury, time to presentation to hospital, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, comorbidities, date and type of operative procedures, date of discharge, length of hospital stay, and survival. We then performed bivariate analysis and logistic regression to identify characteristics associated with increased mortality. Results A total of 454 patients were admitted during the study period with a median age of 4 years (range 0.5 months to 79 years). Of these patients, 53% were male. The overall mean TBSA was 18.5%, and average TBSA increased with age—17% for 0–18 year olds, 24% for 19–60 year olds, and 41% for patients over 60 years old. Scald and flame burns were the commonest mechanisms, 52% and 41% respectively, and flame burns were associated with higher mortality. Overall survival in this population was 82%; however survival reduced with increasing age categories (84% in patients 0–18 years old, 79% in patients 19–60 years old, and 36% in patients older than 60 years). TBSA remained the strongest predictor of mortality after adjusting for age and mechanism of burn. The LA50 for this population was 39% TBSA. Discussion Our data reiterate that burn in Malawi is largely a pediatric disease and that the high burn mortality and relatively low LA50 have modestly improved over the past two decades. The lack of financial resources, health care personnel, and necessary infrastructure will continue to pose a significant challenge in this developing nation. Efforts to increase burn education and prevention in addition to improvement of burn care delivery are imperative. PMID:23768710

Tyson, Anna F.; Boschini, Laura P.; Kiser, Michelle M.; Samuel, Jonathan C.; Mjuweni, Steven N.; Cairns, Bruce A.; Charles, Anthony G.

2013-01-01

290

Effectiveness of Electrolyzed Oxidized Water Irrigation in a Burn-Wound Infection Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine whether electrolyzed ox- idized water (EOW) functions as a bacte- ricide in burn injury with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in a rat burn-wound model. Methods: Anesthetized Sprague- Dawley rats (n 5 31) were subjected to third-degree burns to 30% of total body surface area. Two days after injury, all rats were infected

Hajime Nakae; Hideo Inaba

2000-01-01

291

Monitoring Agricultural Burning in the Mississippi River Valley Region from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2003 active fire observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), on board NASA’s Terra and Aqua satellites, were analyzed to assess burning activity in the cropland areas of the Mississippi River Valley region. Agricultural burning was found to be an important contributor to fire activity in this region, accounting for approximately one-third of all burning. Agricultural fire activity

Stefania Korontzi; Jessica McCarty; Christopher Justice; Dallas Burtraw; Karen Palmer; Juha Siikamaki; Viney Aneja; S. Arya; D.-S. Kim; Ian Rumsey; H. L. Arkinson; H. Semunegus; K. S. Bajwa; D. A. Dickey; L. A. Stefanski; L. Todd; K. Mottus; W. P. Robarge; C. M. Williams; Carsten Skjøth; Thomas Ellermann; Ole Hertel; Steen Gyldenkærne; Mette Mikkelsen; Susan Schiffman; Brevick Graham; Chris Henry; Peter Watts; Peter Nicholas; Yael Laor; Jacek Koziel; Lingshuang Cai; Uzi Ravid; Stephen Goetz; Yang Zhang; Chris Occhipinti; William Showers; Dev Niyogi; Linda Geiser; Anne Ingersoll; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Scott Copeland; Semra Tuncel; Nur Oztas; M. Erduran

2008-01-01

292

Increased mortality in hypernatremic burned patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In-hospital hypernatremia develops usually iatrogenically from inadequate or inappropriate fluid prescription. In severely burned patient an extensive initial fluid resuscitation is necessary for burn shock survival. After recovering of cellular integrity the circulating volume has to be normalized. Hereby extensive water and electrolyte shifts can provoke hypernatremia. Purpose: Is a hypernatremic state associated with increased mortality? Method: Retrospective study for the incidence of hypernatremia and survival in 40 patients with a totally burned surface area (TBSA) >10%. Age, sex, TBSA, ABSI-Score and fluid resuscitation within the first 24 hours were analyzed. Patients were separated in two groups without (Group A) or with (Group B) hypernatremia. Results: Hypernatremia occurred on day 5±1.4. No significant difference for age, sex, TBSA, ABSI-Score and fluid resuscitation within the first 24 hours were calculated. In Group A all patients survived, while 3 of the hypernatremic patient in Group B died during ICU-stay (Odds-ratio = 1.25; 95% CI 0.971–1.61; p=0.046). Conclusion: Burned patients with an in-hospital acquired hypernatremia have an increased mortality risk. In case of a hypernatremic state early intervention is obligatory. There is a need of a fluid removal strategy in severely burned patient to avoid water imbalance. PMID:20577644

Namdar, Thomas; Siemers, Frank; Stollwerck, Peter L.; Stang, Felix H.; Mailänder, Peter; Lange, Thomas

2010-01-01

293

Responses of soil carbon, nitrogen and cations to the frequency and seasonality of prescribed burning in a Cape Cod oak-pine forest  

E-print Network

compared soil bulk density, pH and acidity, total extractable cations and total soil carbon (C in the annual summer burns and did not affect bulk density of mineral soil. Burn frequency had no effect on pH in organic soil, but burning every year in summer increased pH of organic soil from 4.01 to 4

Schweik, Charles M.

294

Burn a Peanut  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners burn a peanut, which produces a flame that can be used to boil away water and count the calories contained in the peanut. Learners use a formula to calculate the calories in a peanut and then differentiate between food calories and physicist calories as well as calories and joules.

2012-06-26

295

TIRES, OPEN BURNING  

EPA Science Inventory

The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

296

Gas Hydrates Burning  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

An image of gas hydrates burning. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring “ice-like” combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions....

297

Correlating Aluminum Burning Times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of aluminum combustion are summarized in an overview of the subject, focusing on the burning time of individual particles. Combustion data from over ten different sources with almost 400 datum points have been cataloged and correlated. Available models have also been used to evaluate combustion trends with key environmental parameters. The fundamental concepts that control aluminum combustion are discussed,

M. W. Beckstead

2005-01-01

298

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning heating unit has walls defining a combustion chamber, the walls having wall cavities therein for heating a liquid; baffle means within the walls dividing the wall cavities to provide directional liquid flow paths; a heat absorption unit formed of spaced tubes communicating with the wall cavities positioned above the combustion chamber; and inlet outlet water conduit means

1982-01-01

299

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air tight wood burning stove (10) for heating a designated space comprises a housing (12) having an access opening (50) in the front wall (14) thereof and at least one glass panel (64) containing door (54, 56) hingedly mounted on the front wall for closing the opening (50). A latching mechanism (60) on the door (54, 56) engages with

1982-01-01

300

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove having a combustion chamber and a flue for removing exhaust from the chamber wherein the improvement comprises the addition of a catalytic converter means for oxidizing oxidizable species in the exhaust. In one embodiment, the catalytic converter means is situated in a flue immediately adjacent the combustion chamber. In another embodiment, the

van Dewoestine

1983-01-01

301

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove employing a combustion chamber and a flue for removing exhaust therefrom and also a catalytic converter means for oxidizing oxidizable species in the exhaust. A passageway is provided for bypassing the exhaust around the catalytic converter means, the passageway being controlled by a bypass damper for controlling access to the passageway for

R. A. Allaire; W. F. Pardue; R. V. Vandewoestine

1982-01-01

302

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood or coal burning metal stove is described that is formed with a base, a top wall, a casing between the two and a lining extending completely around the lower part of the casing, the base having no openings for draft, but the draft openings being through a casing door and the lower edge of the liner. Bolts between

Bette

1978-01-01

303

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

This disclosure relates to a wood burning stove which includes an innermost combustion chamber within and generally spaced from an intermediate air-circulating chamber in turn generally within an outermost chamber, all of the chambers having generally spaced top, rear, bottom and pairs of side walls, all of the side walls having openings and ducts associated therewith through which air is

Burnette

1983-01-01

304

Log-burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A log-burning stove having a stove door with an angled plate element secured thereto, the top portion of the plate element deflecting combustion gases inwardly to the combustion chamber, and the lower portion deflecting draft air inwardly and downwardly into the combustion chamber, the plate element also forming a log-support and log-sliding surface.

Choate, J.R.

1982-11-23

305

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove comprises a fire chamber of which the upper part is constituted as a heat exchanger. A primary air supply is provided as is a secondary air supply, the secondary air supply permitting air to be mixed with the gaseous products of combustion to support complete combustion of those gaseous products. Both air supplies have dampers, the

Down

1982-01-01

306

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove employing a combustion chamber and a flue in communication therewith for removal of exhaust from the chamber with a catalytic converter means being movably mounted in the flue whereby the impedance presented to the exhaust by the converter may be selectively varied so as to minimize the impedance presented by the converter

R. A. Allaire; R. V. Vandewoestine

1982-01-01

307

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A wood burning stove is disclosed which includes a stove housing that defines an upper zone comprising storage and exhaust chambers, and a lower zone for accommodating a wood burning fire. The exhaust and storage chambers are separated by a divider, both chambers having bottom openings that communicate directly with the top of the lower fire zone. Covering one opening in the housing and providing access to the fire zone is a fire door while another opening provides access at the top of the storage chamber and is covered by a wood fill door. The exhaust chamber communicates with and discharges smoke into a stovepipe or flue retaining chimney. A supply of logs is loaded into the storage chamber through its fill door. These feed automatically and sequentially by gravity from the storage chamber bottom into the fire zone for consumption by a fire burning therein. The frequency of wood loading operations is reduced in that a suitable supply of logs for burning and maintaining a continuous fire over a long period of time is provided in one loading operation.

Sullivan, P.D.

1982-07-27

308

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove having improved air flow characteristics for effective combustion and purging of gaseous combustion by-products. A primary air inlet is provided below the loading door of the stove for feeding air to the firebox proper for combustion. A plurality of opposing supplementary air inlets are provided in opposite sides of the stove, at least two of the

Halchek

1984-01-01

309

Wood-burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove is the most practical, least expensive way to alternative heating. It is easy to install, non-polluting, and fun. With wood as fuel, the air can be clean. This thoroughly detailed and illustrated guide offers tips on whether one wishes to convert the home or to supplement the present heating system with wood heat. Information is included

1977-01-01

310

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood burning stoves are of a type having a lower chamber and an upper chamber interconnected by a port. Air inlets are located laterally of the base of a fire in the lower chamber with a natural draft therein effecting a multitude of upwardly rising air streams of which one type is hot and oxygen poor and which carry and

Nason

1984-01-01

311

Pelletized fuel burning heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a bio-mass fuel burning heater. It comprises: a combustion chamber having top and bottom ends with side walls extending between the top and bottom ends; pot means for holding the bio-mass fuel, the pot means located adjacent to the lower end of the combustion chamber, the pot means having an open upper combustion end and an open

D. Nuesmeyer; G. Brondt

1990-01-01

312

2010 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2010 permit year, approximately 2.2 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area at Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment plant.

Mike lewis

2011-02-01

313

2012 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2011, through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2012 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant.

Mike Lewis

2013-02-01

314

2012 Annual Summary Report for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada: Review of the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses  

SciTech Connect

The Maintenance Plan for the Performance Assessments and Composite Analyses for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site (National Security Technologies, LLC 2007a) requires an annual review to assess the adequacy of the performance assessments (PAs) and composite analyses (CAs), with the results submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management. The Disposal Authorization Statements for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) also require that such reviews be made and that secondary or minor unresolved issues be tracked and addressed as part of the maintenance plan (DOE 1999a, 2000). The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office performed an annual review of the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS PAs and CAs for fiscal year (FY) 2012. This annual summary report presents data and conclusions from the FY 2012 review, and determines the adequacy of the PAs and CAs. Operational factors (e.g., waste forms and containers, facility design, and waste receipts), closure plans, monitoring results, and research and development (R&D) activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the PAs. Likewise, the environmental restoration activities at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) relevant to the sources of residual radioactive material that are considered in the CAs, the land-use planning, and the results of the environmental monitoring and R&D activities were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the CAs. Important developments in FY 2012 include the following: ? Release of a special analysis for the Area 3 RWMS assessing the continuing validity of the PA and CA ? Development of a new Area 5 RWMS closure inventory estimate based on disposals through FY 2012 ? Evaluation of new or revised waste streams by special analysis ? Development of version 4.114 of the Area 5 RWMS GoldSim PA model The Area 3 RWMS has been in inactive status since July 1, 2006, with the last shipment received in April 2006. The FY 2012 review of operations, facility design, closure plans, monitoring results, and R&D results for the Area 3 RWMS indicates no changes that would impact PA validity. A special analysis using the Area 3 RWMS v2.102 GoldSim PA model was prepared to update the PA results for the Area 3 RWMS in FY 2012. The special analysis concludes that all performance objectives can be met and the Area 3 RWMS PA remains valid. There is no need to the revise the Area 3 RWMS PA. Review of Area 5 RWMS operations, design, closure plans, monitoring results, and R&D activities indicates no significant changes other than an increase in the inventory disposed. The FY 2012 PA results, generated with the Area 5 RWMS v4.114 GoldSim PA model, indicate that there continues to be a reasonable expectation of meeting all performance objectives. The results and conclusions of the Area 5 RWMS PA are judged valid, and there is no need to the revise the PA. A review of changes potentially impacting the CAs indicates that no significant changes occurred in FY 2012. The continuing adequacy of the CAs was evaluated with the new models, and no significant changes that would alter CA results or conclusions were found. The revision of the Area 3 RWMS CA, which will include the Underground Test Area source term (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 97), is scheduled for FY 2024, following the completion of the Yucca Flat CAU 97 Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan in FY 2016. Inclusion of the Frenchman Flat CAU 98 results in the Area 5 RWMS CA is scheduled for FY 2016, pending the completion of the CAU 98 closure report in FY 2015. Near-term R&D efforts will focus on continuing development of the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS GoldSim PA/CA and inventory models.

Shott, G. [National Security Technologies, LLC

2013-03-18

315

Annual ground-water discharge by evapotranspiration from areas of spring-fed riparian vegetation along the eastern margin of Death Valley, 2000-02  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flow from major springs and seeps along the eastern margin of Death Valley serves as the primary local water supply and sustains much of the unique habitat in Death Valley National Park. Together, these major spring complexes constitute the terminus of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System--one of the larger flow systems in the Southwestern United States. The Grapevine Springs complex is the least exploited for water supply and consequently contains the largest area of undisturbed riparian habitat in the park. Because few estimates exist that quantify ground-water discharge from these spring complexes, a study was initiated to better estimate the amount of ground water being discharged annually from these sensitive, spring-fed riparian areas. Results of this study can be used to establish a basis for estimating water rights and as a baseline from which to assess any future changes in ground-water discharge in the park. Evapotranspiration (ET) is estimated volumetrically as the product of ET-unit (general vegetation type) acreage and a representative ET rate. ET-unit acreage is determined from high-resolution multi-spectral imagery; and a representative ET rate is computed from data collected in the Grapevine Springs area using the Bowen-ratio solution to the energy budget, or from rates given in other ET studies in the Death Valley area. The ground-water component of ET is computed by removing the local precipitation component from the ET rate. Two different procedures, a modified soil-adjusted vegetation index using the percent reflectance of the red and near-infrared wavelengths and land-cover classification using multi-spectral imagery were used to delineate the ET units within each major spring-discharge area. On the basis of the more accurate procedure that uses the vegetation index, ET-unit acreage for the Grapevine Springs discharge area totaled about 192 acres--of which 80 acres were moderate-density vegetation and 112 acres were high-density vegetation. ET-unit acreage for two other discharge areas delineated in the Grapevine Springs area (Surprise Springs and Staininger Spring) totaled about 6 and 43 acres, respectively; and for the discharge areas delineated in the Furnace Creek area (Nevares Springs, Cow Creek-Salt Springs, Texas Spring, and Travertine Springs) totaled about 29, 13, 11, and 21 acres, respectively. In discharge areas other than Grapevine Springs, watering and spring diversions have altered the natural distribution of the vegetation. More...

Laczniak, Randell J.; Smith, J. LaRue; DeMeo, Guy A.

2006-01-01

316

Response of Nesting Lapland Longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus) to Burned Tundra on the Seward Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of breeding Lapland longspurs to burned sedge tussock-shrub tundra was studied in 1978 on the Seward Peninsula in an area burned by lightning-ignited fires during 1977. In late May and mid-June 1978, plant standing crop in burned tundra was < 5% of standing crop in unburned tundra. Lapland longspurs were less abundant in burned than in unburned tundra.

JOHN M. WRIGHT

317

Burn injury in Utah: demographic and geographic risks.  

PubMed

Burns are preventable injuries, and prevention campaigns have been conducted with varying success. To develop successful prevention programs, it is imperative that burn risk be identified and factors associated with increased risk elucidated. The aims of this study were to determine the risk of burn injury to Utah residents, identify demographic and geographic subgroups at increased risk, and to examine sociodemographic factors associated with risk. Probabilistic record linkage of databases from five states was performed to identify Utah residents burned over a 5-year period and to calculate the burn rates and risk. Geographic Information Systems mapping allowed for the identification and characterization of high risk areas. Men had a higher rate of injury than women. Children under the age of 5 years had the highest rate of burn injury. Adults aged > 65 years had the lowest rate. Seven Utah counties were identified as high-risk counties. The counties were predominantly rural and tended to have higher rates of American-Indian populations, increased poverty levels, lower percentages of individuals with high school degrees, and lower employment rates. The characteristics of these high-risk counties do not imply causality, and further research is warranted to determine whether these factors contribute to burn risk. The results of this study provide the foundation for future research and prevention programs targeted toward populations and geographic areas with the greatest risk of burn injury. PMID:20375697

Edelman, Linda S; Cook, Lawrence J; Saffle, Jeffrey R

2010-01-01

318

Epidemiology of minor and moderate burns in rural Ardabil, Iran.  

PubMed

Epidemiology of minor burns is not well defined worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine epidemiological features of minor and moderate burn events that could be beneficial for prevention purposes. The study was conducted in Ardabil province in north-west Iran in 2005-2006. A total of 1700 minor and moderate burns were studied using a pretested questionnaire. Using the SAS 9.1 statistical program analyses were made. Females comprised the majority of cases (n=1000, 58.8%) and children, aged six and younger, made up 36.4% of burn victims. The majority of burns were caused by hot water and tea with the primary containers being kettles in 37.8%, cups or glasses in 24.2%, pots in 13.6% and samovars in 7.9%. Samovars, gas stoves, valors and picnic gas stoves were the primary heating devices involved in burns. In 56% of the cases, overturning of liquid containers was the primary injury mechanism of scalds. 43% had a second-degree burn with a mean total body surface area of 1.3%. This study provides possible beneficial information for burn prevention in the Ardabil area and other similar settings. PMID:20171014

Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Mohammadi, Reza; Svanstrom, Leif; Ekman, Robert; Arshi, Shahnam; Hekmat, Sharareh; Malekpour, Niloufar; Mashoufi, Mehrnaz

2010-09-01

319

Characteristics of adult scald burn patients-a single center study in western Kanagawa Prefecture.  

PubMed

Burns sustained in bathtubs are a social and medical problem in Japan, especially among the elderly. Between October 2003 and March 2009, 22 adult scald burn patients (men, 17; average age, 65.3 ± 21.2 years) were transferred to Tokai University. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of these patients, and compared clinical parameters among patients with burns sustained in a bathtub (n = 10) and those with burns sustained due to other causes (n = 12). The average percentage total body surface area (%TBSA), dermal and deep burn area, and abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) were 27.6 ± 23.8, 19.9 ± 20.5%, 7.8 ± 13.1%, and 7.7 ± 3.1, respectively. All patients in the bathtub burn group were elderly, 6 developed internal diseases, 3 had alcohol-related burns, and 4 died. Additionally, their %TBSA and ABSI were higher than those of the non-bathtub burn group patients. Burns sustained in bathtubs were more severe than those sustained due to other causes. The bathtub-related burn patients were elderly, and their burns were extensive and deep; hence, they were at a higher risk of developing internal diseases. Thus, introduction of safer bathing styles and bath systems will decrease incidences of bathtub-related burns. PMID:21146315

Morita, S; Higami, S; Aoki, H; Yamagiwa, T; Akieda, K; Inokuchi, S

2011-05-01

320

BURN DATA COORDINATING CENTER (BDCC)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Burn Data Coordinating Center (BDCC) began collecting data in 1994 and is currently the largest burn database in the country. Pediatric burn data was added in 1998. The BMS database contains over 2,800 cases supporting clinical research and research on outcomes including empl...

321

Burn Scar Near the Hanford Nuclear Reservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) image pair shows 'before and after' views of the area around the Hanford Nuclear Reservation near Richland, Washington. On June 27, 2000, a fire in the dry sagebrush was sparked by an automobile crash. The flames were fanned by hot summer winds. By the day after the accident, about 100,000 acres had burned, and the fire's spread forced the closure of highways and loss of homes. These images were obtained by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Compare the area just above and to the right of the line of cumulus clouds in the May 15 image with the same area imaged on August 3. The darkened burn scar measures approximately 35 kilometers across. The Columbia River is seen wending its way around Hanford. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Science Team

2002-01-01

322

2013 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2012, through October 31, 2013. The report contains, as applicable, the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant and therefore, no effluent flow volumes or samples were collected from wastewater sampling point WW-014102. However, soil samples were collected in October from soil monitoring unit SU-014101.

Mike Lewis

2014-02-01

323

Open air refuse burning video: Proton Dan the science man explores open air refuse burning  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this video is to educate school children to the potential hazards of open air trash burning; to demonstrate alternative ways to dispose of trash; and to motivate students to take action to change the behavior of their parents with regard to trash burning. The burning of household trash, although illegal, is still a common practice in rural areas of Delaware. Enforcement has been difficult because the practice is often performed at night and is done across a wide rural area that is difficult to patrol on a continuing basis. The prohibition on trash burning (revised Regulation 13 of The Delaware Code of Regulations Governing The Control of Air Pollution) has been in effect since 1968, but the public has been slow to comply because trash burning has been practiced for many generations and because much of the public is unaware of the environmental impacts and/or the human health risks. This video may be valuable for other States to use as a public outreach tool regarding their problems with open air refuse burning. The focus of the video is a 7th grade science class is given various assignments relating to Earth Day and preservation of natural resources. Two children in particular are given the assignment to research and report on the hazards of open air trash burning and are asked to investigate alternative ways to dispose of refuse. Upon brainstorming how to find information on the topic, the kids decide to contact the host of a popular children's science show on broadcast television named Proton Dan the Science Man (a fictitious character and show based on Bill Nye the Science Guy). The host then invites the kids to the studio where he films his show and takes them through the topic. The TV host character takes the children to several external locations like a landfill, recycling centers, etc..

Eastburn, M.D.; Sipple, J.L.; Deramo, A.R.

1999-07-01

324

Wood and coal burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A stove for burning wood, coal and other fuels comprised of flammable solids that among other things produce one or more flammable gases when heating or burning. The preferred form of the stove has three modes of operation-a rapid burning mode, a normal or medium burning mode and a banked mode. The user makes a preliminary decision as to whether the stove is to be operated in its normal mode or banked mode. Thereafter, controlled by temperature responsive means, the stove moves itself fully automatically back and forth from the rapid burning mode to whichever one of the other two modes of operation has been preselected by the user.

Barsness, G. H.; Kleine, R. A.

1985-12-03

325

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A wood burning heating unit has walls defining a combustion chamber, the walls having wall cavities therein for heating a liquid; baffle means within the walls dividing the wall cavities to provide directional liquid flow paths; a heat absorption unit formed of spaced tubes communicating with the wall cavities positioned above the combustion chamber; and inlet outlet water conduit means communicating with the wall cavities.

Smith, J.H.

1982-07-20

326

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove employing a combustion chamber and a flue in communication therewith for removal of exhaust from the chamber with a catalytic converter means being movably mounted in the flue whereby the impedance presented to the exhaust by the converter may be selectively varied so as to minimize the impedance presented by the converter means when additional fuel is added to the stove.

Allaire, R.A.; Vandewoestine, R.V.

1982-08-24

327

Wood-burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood-burning stove includes side walls joined together in an airtight manner to form a firebox and a heat chamber thereabove. The firebox contains upstanding rails to support wood logs for combustion. Streams of heated air are discharged from a manifold that extends from rail-to-rail outwardly from one terminal end of each rail between opposite side walls of the stove.

Squires

1983-01-01

328

Burning Magnesium (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Burning Magnesium: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". In this problem we will look at the reactions of two elements with oxygen in air. We will begin by observing the reaction of magnesium metal with oxygen when the metal is heated in air. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

329

Third Semi-Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report for the Interim Remedial Action D Area Oil Seepage Basin  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to evaluate groundwater quality data collected from six down gradient groundwater monitoring wells for potential impact caused by the Interim Remedial Action at the D- Area Oil Seepage Basin. The US Environmental Protection Agency and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control required post-IRA groundwater monitoring and this report.

Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1998-06-01

330

Table 1.Annual estimates, uncertainty, and change Figure 1.Area of forest land and timberland by year.  

E-print Network

5.Area of forest land, 2005-2009, in 1,000s of acres, by major ownership group. #12;Black walnut in Missouri Black walnut (Juglans nigra) is a highly valuable hardwood found throughout Missouri (Fig. 6 and gunstocks. The presence of black walnut on a landowner's property can provide considerable income and can

331

Using MODIS imagery to assign dates to maps of burn scars in Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the European context, Portugal presents the highest number of fire occurrences and has the largest area affected by wildfires. Like other southern regions of Europe, Portugal has experienced a dramatic increase in fire incidence during the last few decades that has been attributed to modifications in land-use as well as to climatic changes and associated occurrence of weather extremes. Wildfire activity also presents a large inter-annual variability that has been related to changes in the frequency of occurrence of atmospheric conditions favorable to the onset and spreading of large-fires. Since 1990, the Portuguese Authority for Forests (AFN) has been producing yearly maps of fire perimeters under a protocol with the Department of Forest Engineering of the Institute of Agronomy (DEF/ISA). The AFN fire atlas uses end of fire season Landsat TM/ETM imagery to map all fire perimeters with area larger than 5ha. Because it relies on end-of-season imagery, the atlas provides a spatial snapshot of the yearly area burned, and dates of burn for individual events cannot be estimated. Such information is nevertheless crucial to understand the fire regime and fire seasonality and to disentangle the complex interactions among fire, land cover and meteorology. The aim of the present work is to develop an automated procedure that allows using time series of moderate resolution imagery, such as the one provided by the MODIS instrument on-board TERRA and AQUA, to assign dates of burning to scars larger than 500 ha in the Landsat based fire atlas. The procedure relies on the so-called (V,W) burned index that uses daily reflectance obtained from the 1km MODIS Level 1B calibrated radiance from bands 2 (NIR) and 20 (MIR). The algorithm detects persistent changes in the (V,W) burned index time series, within each Landsat burned scar. The day of maximum change is then identified by means of a discrimination index, together with thresholds from the (V,W) time series. A spatial filter is finally applied to remove the outliers. An assessment of the temporal accuracy of the algorithm was conducted for the year 2005. For this year, Landsat based fire scars larger than 500ha have an associated detection date, based on field information provided by the AFN. The detection date is here assumed as ignition date of each scar. It is also assumed that each scar corresponds to a single fire event. Using 78 fire scars, we computed the time difference, in days, between the detection date and the date of burn, estimated by the algorithm. Our results show that 70% of all scars were correctly dated by the algorithm with differences to the AFN detection date up to three days. These correspond to 83% of the overall burned area used in the accuracy assessment.

DaCamara, C. C.; Libonati, R.; Barros, A.; Gaspar, G.; Calado, T. J.

2012-04-01

332

Table 1. -Annual estimates, uncertainty, and change Figure 1. Area of timberland and forest land by year.  

E-print Network

Green ash 127.6 12.1 -2.8 154.4 24.6 -3.2 4 Quaking aspen 69.0 22.7 -31.5 99.4 38.5 -31.3 5 Boxelder 50 juniper Aspen Otherhardwoods Elm/ash Hackberry/elm/greenash Buroak Small diameter Medium diameter Larger tree species in rural, nonforest areas, North Dakota 2008-09. 3 Emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus

333

Table 1. Annual estimates, uncertainty, and change Figure 1. Area of timberland and forest land by year.  

E-print Network

.2 2 Cottonwood 167.8 32.6 4.1 549.2 41.4 10.3 3 Green ash 131.1 11.9 -0.2 156.6 24.8 -1.8 4 Quaking) Nonforest #12;North Dakota Issue Update --The Emerald Ash Borer Figure 6. ­ Number of ash trees, by diameter class, forest land area, North Dakota 2010. 3 Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (EAB

334

Impact of deforestation on biomass burning in the tropics  

SciTech Connect

Fires are widely used for various land use practices in tropical countries. Large amounts of trace gases and aerosol particles are produced during the fires. It is important to assess the potential impact of these gases and particulate matter on the chemistry of the atmosphere and global climate. One of the largest uncertainties in quantifying the effects is the lack of information on the source strengths. The authors quantify the amount of biomass burned due to deforestation in each tropical country on basis of the deforestation rate, the above ground density, and the fraction of above ground biomass burned. Approximately 725 Tg of biomass were burned in 1980 and 984 Tg were burned in 1990. The 36% increase took place mostly in Latin America and tropical Asia. The largest source was Brazil, contributing about 29% of the total biomass burned in the tropics. The second largest source was Indonesia accounting for 10%, followed by Zaire accounting for about 8%. The burning of biomass due to increased deforestation has resulted in an additional 33 Tg CO and 2.5 Tg CH{sub 4} emitted annually to the atmosphere from 1980 to 1990.

Hao, W.M.; Liu, M.H. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States); Ward, D.E. [Forest Service, Missoula, MT (United States)

1994-12-31

335

Comparing burned and mowed treatments in mountain big sagebrush steppe.  

PubMed

Fires in mountain big sagebrush [Artemisia tridentata spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle] plant communities historically shifted dominance from woody to herbaceous vegetation. However, fire return intervals have lengthened with European settlement, and sagebrush dominance has increased at the expense of herbaceous vegetation in some plant communities. Management actions may be needed to decrease sagebrush in dense sagebrush stands to increase herbaceous vegetation. Prescribed fire is often used to remove sagebrush; however, mechanical treatments, such as mowing, are increasingly used because they are more controllable and do not pose an inherent risk of escape compared with fire. However, information on the effects of burned and mowed treatments on herbaceous vegetation and whether fire and mowed applications elicit similar vegetation responses are limited. We evaluated the effects of prescribed burning and mowing for 3 years after treatment in mountain big sagebrush plant communities. The burned and mowed treatments generally increased herbaceous cover, density, and production compared with untreated controls (P < 0.05). However, neither treatment induced a response in native perennial forb cover, density, or biomass (P > 0.05). In contrast, annual forb (predominately natives) cover, density, and biomass increased with mowing and burning (P < 0.05). Vegetation generally responded similarly in burned and mowed treatments; however, the burned treatment had less sagebrush, greater herbaceous vegetation production, and more bare ground than the mowed treatment (P < 0.05). These differences should be considered when selecting treatments to decrease sagebrush. PMID:22744159

Davies, K W; Bates, J D; Nafus, A M

2012-09-01

336

Comparing Burned and Mowed Treatments in Mountain Big Sagebrush Steppe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires in mountain big sagebrush [ Artemisia tridentata spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle] plant communities historically shifted dominance from woody to herbaceous vegetation. However, fire return intervals have lengthened with European settlement, and sagebrush dominance has increased at the expense of herbaceous vegetation in some plant communities. Management actions may be needed to decrease sagebrush in dense sagebrush stands to increase herbaceous vegetation. Prescribed fire is often used to remove sagebrush; however, mechanical treatments, such as mowing, are increasingly used because they are more controllable and do not pose an inherent risk of escape compared with fire. However, information on the effects of burned and mowed treatments on herbaceous vegetation and whether fire and mowed applications elicit similar vegetation responses are limited. We evaluated the effects of prescribed burning and mowing for 3 years after treatment in mountain big sagebrush plant communities. The burned and mowed treatments generally increased herbaceous cover, density, and production compared with untreated controls ( P < 0.05). However, neither treatment induced a response in native perennial forb cover, density, or biomass ( P > 0.05). In contrast, annual forb (predominately natives) cover, density, and biomass increased with mowing and burning ( P < 0.05). Vegetation generally responded similarly in burned and mowed treatments; however, the burned treatment had less sagebrush, greater herbaceous vegetation production, and more bare ground than the mowed treatment ( P < 0.05). These differences should be considered when selecting treatments to decrease sagebrush.

Davies, K. W.; Bates, J. D.; Nafus, A. M.

2012-09-01

337

Epidemiology of adults hospitalized with burns in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Burns are a leading cause of adult death in Karachi slums, therefore we reviewed 1 year's logged experience (November 1992 to October 1993) at Karachi's two adult burn units for patient age, sex, burn severity and outcome. Also 47 inpatients were interviewed regarding their circumstances of injury. We grouped these using Haddon's Matrix. The log identified 832 patients. Females (57 per cent) outnumbered males and were younger on average (25.1 vs 27.6 years, P = 0.002). Females had more severe burns than males (57 per cent vs 50 per cent total body surface area (TBSA) burn, P = 0.002). At the unit with outcome data (n = 556), the case fatality was 56 per cent. The estimated adult mortality due to burns in Karachi was 10.2/100 000, 6.8/100 000 and 14.1/100 000 for men and women, respectively. Burns of interviewed patients were most often associated with flames (33/47), but stove bursts caused the most severe injury (52 per cent TBSA). These patients were predominantly young uneducated female houseworkers, clothed in loose attire who were injured during daylight at home around a floor-level stove, unaware of fire safety, and who received no first aid. It was concluded that the high burn severity and case fatality rates demand: (1) preventive measures, such as kitchen sand buckets, safer stove design and placement and education on fire safety and first aid, and (2) risk factor analysis to refine interventions. PMID:8726263

Marsh, D; Sheikh, A; Khalil, A; Kamil, S; Jaffer-uz-Zaman; Qureshi, I; Siraj, Y; Luby, S; Effendi, S

1996-05-01

338

Burn injury caused by motor vehicle use and repair.  

PubMed

Despite continued efforts to increase safety, burns associated with motor vehicles have accounted for as much as 10% of all burn admissions. Our objective was to characterize the mechanism of these burn types. We undertook a retrospective review of all patients admitted to a regional burn center from 1997 through 2003. A total of 2745 patients were admitted; 8.0% (n = 220) had automobile-associated injuries. Their mean age was 29.6 +/- 18.1 years, and 83.6% (n = 184) were men. Mean burn size was 14 +/- 15.6% TBSA, 7.5 +/- 15.2% full-thickness. Inhalation injury occurred in 25 patients, and 25 patients had associated nonburn injuries. Mean length of stay was 14.8 +/- 23.6 days. Those patients undergoing procedures (n = 108) had an average of 2.1 operations, with a mean area grafted of 2780 cm. There were two deaths in this group of patients. Hospital charges amounted to 53,200 dollars +/- 78,000 per patient. Automobile burns still account for a significant portion of burn unit admissions. The most severe injuries appear to be from the regular use and maintenance of vehicles. The most common burn injuries are from radiators and carburetors. Simple prevention should be adequate to avoid these injuries. Current efforts appear to have made minimal headway. PMID:17091090

O'Mara, Michael Shay; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

2006-01-01

339

Burning Rate of Composite Propellants under the Conditions of Strain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, a correlation between propellant burning rate and strain was established. In order to investigate the effects of strain and pressure, and to measure burning rate of composite propellants, a novel apparatus was designed and prepared. Burning rates of three formula composite propellants under different pressures and strains were measured using such device. Based on the measurements, a model for the analysis on the experimental results was proposed. It was demonstrated that the model corresponded with the experimental data if the propellant samples were under tensile strain increasing from 0 to 20%. Burning rate ratio and tensile strain obeyed the quadratic relationship, burning rate increased with strain, but there was no mutation in less than 20% deformation. Furthermore, burning rate ratio of composite propellants which had low Poisson ratio increased fast as tensile strain decreased. And the less binder component of composite propellants, the burning ratio changed more significantly under a given strain state. In addition, as the exposed area increased, the burning rate ratio became larger.

Hu, Songqi; Chen, Jing; Wu, Guanjie; Liu, Yingji; Hua, Yijin

2014-12-01

340

2001 annual report 2001 annual report  

E-print Network

2001 annual report 2001 annual report 2001 annual report 2001 annual report 2001 annual report 2001 annual report 2001 annual report 2001 annual reportelectrical & computer engineering 2001 annual report the university of new mexico department of 2001 annual report 2001 annual report 2001 annual report 2001 annual

New Mexico, University of

341

40 CFR 63.1217 - What are the standards for liquid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...lbs mercury attributable to the hazardous waste per million Btu heat input from the hazardous waste on an (not-to-exceed) annual averaging...identification number TND982109142, and which burns radioactive waste mixed with hazardous waste, must...

2012-07-01

342

40 CFR 63.1217 - What are the standards for liquid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...lbs mercury attributable to the hazardous waste per million Btu heat input from the hazardous waste on an (not-to-exceed) annual averaging...identification number TND982109142, and which burns radioactive waste mixed with hazardous waste, must...

2014-07-01

343

40 CFR 63.1217 - What are the standards for liquid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...lbs mercury attributable to the hazardous waste per million Btu heat input from the hazardous waste on an (not-to-exceed) annual averaging...identification number TND982109142, and which burns radioactive waste mixed with hazardous waste, must...

2013-07-01

344

Contribution of wood burning to PM10 in London  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ahead of measures to incentivise wood heating, the current level of wood burning in London was assessed by two tracer methods; i) a six week campaign of daily measurements of levoglucosan along a 38 km transect across the city during winter 2010, ii) a three year (2009-2011) measurement programme of black carbon and particulate matter from wood burning using differential IR and UV absorption by Aethalometer. Mean winter levoglucosan concentrations were 160 ± 17 ng m-3 in central London and 30 ± 26 ng m-3 greater in the suburbs, with good temporal correlation (r2 = 0.68-0.98) between sampling sites. Sensitivity testing found that the aethalometer wood burning tracer method was more sensitive to the assumed value of the Ångström coefficient for fossil fuel black carbon than it was to the Ångström coefficient for wood burning PM, and that the model was optimised with Ångström coefficient for fossil fuel black carbon of 0.96. The aethalometer and levoglucosan estimates of mean PM from wood burning were in good agreement during the winter campaign; 1.8 ?g m-3 (levoglucosan) and 2.0 ?g m-3 (aethalometer); i.e. between 7% and 9% of mean PM10 across the London transect. Analysis of wood burning tracers with respect to wind speed suggested that wood burning PM was dominated by sources within the city. Concentrations of aethalometer and levoglucosan wood burning tracers were a greatest at weekends suggesting discretionary or secondary domestic wood burning rather than wood being used as a main heating source. Aethalometer wood burning tracers suggests that the annual mean concentration of PM10 from wood burning was 1.1 ?g m-3. To put this in a policy context, this PM10 from wood burning is considerably greater than the city-wide mean PM10 reduction of 0.17 ?g m-3 predicted from the first two phases of the London Low Emission Zone which was introduced to reduce PM from traffic sources.

Fuller, Gary W.; Tremper, Anja H.; Baker, Timothy D.; Yttri, Karl Espen; Butterfield, David

2014-04-01

345

Paediatric burns in sulaimani, iraq.  

PubMed

Burns are the most frequent injury among paediatric patients. The injury, treatment, and rehabilitation process affect children not only physiologically but also psychologically. In this prospective study of burn victims aged 12 yr and less hospitalized in our burns centre (Emergency Hospital) between July 2001 and August 2005, three age groups were considered (0-12 months, 1-6 yr, and 7-12 yr), distinguished on the basis of children's predominant activity and behaviour. The study reports on the characteristics of burn injuries in children hospitalized in the Emergency Hospital at the burns centre in Sulaimani, Iraq. In the period of study, 3550 children with burn injuries were treated in our burns centre (in-patients and out-patients), made up 44% (3550/8000) of all burn victims treated in our burns centre in that period. The children's mean age was 4.03 ± 1.62 yr. The male/female ratio was 1:1.1 (1725/1825). Scald burns, accounting for 79.4% of the cases, were the commonest injuries in the study, compared with 20.6% non-scald burns. Most of the injuries happened in the home (74.7%). The trunk was affected in 78.6% of all patients studied. Meal times (especially dinner, 6-9 p.m., and lunch 11 a.m.-2 p.m) clearly had the highest number of accidents. There were more paediatric burns in the colder months (38.2% in winter). Surgery was performed in 553 patients (15.6%). In the five years studied, there were 411 in-hospital child deaths due to burns (11.5%). PMID:21991081

Kadir, A R

2007-09-30

346

[Application of topical drugs in burn wound].  

PubMed

For burn patients, topical treatment is as important as systemic treatment. Reasonable and timely wound treatment will influence the homeostatic equilibrium, and the progression, the prognosis, and the outcome of the disease. The therapeutic principle should be varied for wounds with different depth of injury. But avoiding or at least alleviating infection, and accelerating healing period, were the common principles. In common, the medication for local wound treatment includes: topical antiseptic, surgical dressing products, artificial skins, and so on. Ideal topical antiseptic should have the following characteristics: the antimicrobial spectrum is broad, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA; be able to penetrate necrotic tissue; does not induce drug resistance easily; no local irritating effect and not painful; no side effect to body;can be applied easily; low cost. The functions of surgical dressing include: protect the wounds, keep the microcirculation open, and accelerate wound healing. Artificial skin has been used as the autoskin carrier in skin transplantation operation for large burn area to protect the autoskin grafts, accelerate wound healing, and cover the wounds temporarily. Burns therapy has developed for 50 years in China, the study of local treatment for burn wounds has also experienced a tortuous path of trial and error. This review might contribute some ideas future research. PMID:19103013

Zhang, Guo-an

2008-10-01

347

Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-08, Annual Monitoring Status Report for Fiscal Year 2009  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the status of Fiscal Year 2009 groundwater monitoring performed in Waste Area Group 10 at the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho National Laboratory Site, as identified in the Groundwater Monitoring and Field Sampling Plan for Operable Unit 10-08. Twelve of the fourteen required wells were sampled, and all ten required intervals from the Westbay wells were sampled. Two wells were not sampled because they were in the process of being converted into multiple-sample-interval Westbay wells by the U.S. Geological Survey. Groundwater samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds identified on the Contract Laboratory Program target analyte list as well as metals (filtered), anions, and radionuclides (i.e., I-129, tritium, Tc-99, gross alpha, gross beta, and Sr-90). No contaminant exceeded maximum contaminant levels in wells along the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory Site or in guard wells. Iron was above its secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 ug/L in one well. The cause of the elevated iron concentration is uncertain. Lead was detected just below its action level. However, the zinc concentration was also elevated in these wells, and the source of the lead is probably galvanized riser pipe in the wells. Once the galvanized pipe is replaced, both lead and zinc concentrations should decline, as has been observed at other Waste Area Group 10 wells.

Howard Forsythe

2010-02-04

348

Wildfires, smoke, and burn scars, near Yakutsk, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lena River in central Siberia is hidden beneath a veil of smoke from multiple wildfires burning around the city of Yakutsk, Russia. Fires have been burning in the region off and on since late May 2002, and may be agricultural in cause. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 23, 2002. In the false=-color image, vegetation is bright green, smoke is blueish-white, and burned areas are reddish-brown. In both images, fire detections are marked with red outlines. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

349

Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

2012-01-01

350

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A wood burning stove having improved air flow characteristics for effective combustion and purging of gaseous combustion by-products. A primary air inlet is provided below the loading door of the stove for feeding air to the firebox proper for combustion. A plurality of opposing supplementary air inlets are provided in opposite sides of the stove, at least two of the supplementary inlets being on the level of the primary air inlet, for introducing air into the firebox supplemental to the air flow through the primary inlet.

Halchek, J.

1984-09-18

351

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove employing a combustion chamber and a flue for removing exhaust therefrom and also a catalytic converter means for oxidizing oxidizable species in the exhaust. A passageway is provided for bypassing the exhaust around the catalytic converter means, the passageway being controlled by a bypass damper for controlling access to the passageway for varying impedance otherwise presented to the exhaust by the converter, for example, during the addition of fuel to the stove. Such an arrangement minimizes back pressure caused by the converter means.

Allaire, R.A.; Pardue, W.F.; Vandewoestine, R.V.

1982-05-18

352

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove having a combustion chamber and a flue for removing exhaust from the chamber wherein the improvement comprises the addition of a catalytic converter means for oxidizing oxidizable species in the exhaust. In one embodiment, the catalytic converter means is situated in a flue immediately adjacent the combustion chamber. In another embodiment, the catalytic converter means is situated in the combustion chamber itself. In addition, the nature and structure of a catalytic converter means have been determined for marginal acceptable and optimum performance with adequate pressure drop thereacross.

van Dewoestine, R.V.

1983-02-15

353

Pelletized fuel burning heater  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a bio-mass fuel burning heater. It comprises: a combustion chamber having top and bottom ends with side walls extending between the top and bottom ends; pot means for holding the bio-mass fuel, the pot means located adjacent to the lower end of the combustion chamber, the pot means having an open upper combustion end and an open lower fuel feed end passing through a side wall of the combustion chamber; an enclosure surrounding the combustion chamber and pot means; air manifold means within the combustion chamber for delivering combustion air above the combustion end of the pot means.

Nuesmeyer, D.; Brondt, G.

1990-05-08

354

CAD tool for burn diagnosis.  

PubMed

In this paper a new system for burn diagnosis is proposed. The aim of the system is to separate burn wounds from healthy skin, and the different types of burns (burn depths) from each other, identifying each one. The system is based on the colour and texture information, as these are the characteristics observed by physicians in order to give a diagnosis. We use a perceptually uniform colour space (L*u*v*), since Euclidean distances calculated in this space correspond to perceptually colour differences. After the burn is segmented, some colour and texture descriptors are calculated and they are the inputs to a Fuzzy-ARTMAP neural network. The neural network classifies them into three types of bums: superficial dermal, deep dermal and full thickness. Clinical effectiveness of the method was demonstrated on 62 clinical burn wound images obtained from digital colour photographs, yielding an average classification success rate of 82% compared to expert classified images. PMID:15344466

Acha, Begoña; Serrano, Carmen; Acha, José I; Roa, Laura M

2003-07-01

355

Physical rehabilitation of pediatric burns  

PubMed Central

Summary Significant improvements have been made in the acute treatment of pediatric burn injuries over the past 3 decades which have significantly decreased mortality. Each year, more burned children are necessitating serious medical attention during their convalescence. For children with serious consequences resulting from burns that can persist from childhood through adolescence into adulthood, the value of long-term rehabilitation cannot be over stated. Burn injury management should not focus only on the immediate treatment. Long-term functional outcome and the required rehabilitation that burn victims must go through should be given equal if not more attention. The present is a review of the available modalities utilized for the physical rehabilitation of convalescent pediatric burns in order to overcome the catabolic state, improve muscle power and fitness, reduce disfiguring scars and prevent contractures. PMID:25249846

Atiyeh, B.; Janom, H.H.

2014-01-01

356

Underground Test Area Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Quality Assurance Report Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

This report is mandated by the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and identifies the UGTA quality assurance (QA) activities for fiscal year (FY) 2012. All UGTA organizations—U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO); Desert Research Institute (DRI); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I); National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec); and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)—conducted QA activities in FY 2012. The activities included conducting assessments, identifying findings and completing corrective actions, evaluating laboratory performance, revising the QAPP, and publishing documents. In addition, processes and procedures were developed to address deficiencies identified in the FY 2011 QAPP gap analysis.

Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam

2013-01-01

357

Getting wood to burn clean  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to decrease their dependence on expensive foreign and domestic oil supplies, an increasing number of U.S. citizens are using wood stoves to heat their residences. Air pollution resulting from this new heating trend in several U.S. locations is discussed. Steps that individual wood stove users can take to make their stoves pollute less include burning seasoned hardwood, allowing each new load of burn to burn briskly for at least 15 minutes before changing the draft control, burning small loads of wood, installing a stack thermometer to determine peak stove efficiencies, and keeping chimneys clean.

Lafavore, M.

1980-11-01

358

Burning mouth syndrome  

PubMed Central

Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and metabolic disorders, as well as drug reactions. BMS has clear predisposition to peri-/post menopausal females. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated and involves peripheral and central neuropathic pathways. Clinical diagnosis relies on careful history taking, physical examination and laboratory analysis. Treatment is often tedious and is aimed at correction of underlying medical conditions, supportive therapy, and behavioral feedback. Drug therapy with alpha lipoic acid, clonazepam, capsaicin, and antidepressants may provide symptom relief. Psychotherapy may be helpful. Short term follow up data is promising, however, long term prognosis with treatment is lacking. BMS remains an important medical condition which often places a recognizable burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate recognition and treatment. PMID:23429751

Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

2013-01-01

359

Burns: Treatment and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Burns can cause extensive and devastating injuries of the head and neck. Prevention of the initial injury must always be a priority, but once an injury has occurred, then prevention of progression of the damage together with survival of the patient must be the immediate goals. The acute care will have a major influence on the subsequent scarring, reconstructive need, and long-term outcome. In the majority of cases, the reconstruction will involve restoration of form and function to the soft tissues, and the methods used will depend very much on the extent of scarring locally and elsewhere in the body. In nearly all cases, a significant improvement in functional and aesthetic outcomes can be achieved, which, in conjunction with intensive psychosocial rehabilitation, can lead to high-quality patient outcomes. With the prospect of facial transplantation being a clinical reality, the reconstructive spectrum has opened up even further, and, with appropriate reconstruction and support, no patient should be left economically deprived or socially isolated after a burn injury. PMID:22550448

Burd, Andrew

2010-01-01

360

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A wood burning stove is formed with double front and rear side walls of heat conductive metal interconnected by heat conductive spacer fins and providing air passageways by which room air is heated by conduction from the walls which are heated by the burning of wood deposited on a firebox grate made up of spaced bricks supported by metal holders secured in heat conducting relation to said inner side walls. The rear side air passageway is divided into central and outer vertical sections, the central one of which is closed at the bottom end and communicates with the atmosphere through an opening in the outer wall intermediate to its vertical ends and with the stove interior above the firebox and below the grate through openings in the inner wall intermediate to its vertical ends and adjacent to its bottom end, respectively. A vertical baffle between these inner and outer walls separates said intermediate openings from each other, and a thermostatically controlled damper associated with the opening in the outer wall controls the amount of room air delivered either under the firebox grate or above it. The front side air passageway is divided into upper and lower sections separated by a viewing box closed at its outer end by a glass window and removably closed at its inner end by a pair of hinged doors.

Willson, A.C.

1981-02-03

361

Data-model comparison reveals unprecedented recent burning of Alaskan boreal forests since CE 1860  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is the primary disturbance in the boreal-forest biome, and variations in fire regime have important ecological, biogeochemical, and socioeconomic implications. In Alaska, several of the most active fire seasons on record (i.e. since ca. CE 1950) have occurred in the last decade, possibly as a result of anthropogenic warming. Given that climate change is expected to accelerate at high latitudes, it is important to understand climate-fire linkages in order to predict the trajectory of fire-regime shifts over coming decades. Paleo-fire data offer a valuable extension to the short observational record of boreal-forest fires. They are also essential for evaluating models used to predict future changes. We created a composite of eleven high-resolution charcoal records from lakes in the Yukon Flats ecoregion, an area with the highest historic fire frequency in Alaska. The record was used to infer sub-decadal variations in annual area burned (AAB) over the last 150 yrs. We then compared these results to AAB simulated for the same region by ALFRESCO, a stochastic model of boreal-forest fire dynamics. This data-model comparison allows us to test ALFRESCO’s ability to simulate beyond the model-calibration period, and to evaluate recent increased burning in a longer context than the observational record. Results show good agreement between simulated and proxy-based estimates of area burned over the last 150 years. When transformed to a common scale and resampled annually, the two records correlate with r>0.7 (p<0.0001). In both datasets, the greatest AAB occurs during the last 10-20 yr, coincident with the sustained highest temperatures in the climate series input to ALFRESCO. Within 50-yr moving windows, the correlation is strongest from ca. CE 1950-present (0.6annual to decadal variability in AAB in interior Alaska over the last 150 yrs, and that the magnitude of burning over the last 10-20 yrs is unprecedented during this period. The overall consistency of ALFRESCO simulations with charcoal-based inferences of burning confirms the utility of the model for elucidating fire-regime controls over a range of time scales, and for projecting patterns and consequences (e.g., carbon and energy fluxes) of future fire-regime shifts in boreal ecosystems.

Hu, F.; Kelly, R.; Olson, M.; Higuera, P. E.; Rupp, S.

2010-12-01

362

Burn Depth Estimation Using Thermal Excitation and Imaging  

SciTech Connect

Accurate estimation of the depth of partial-thickness burns and the early prediction of a need for surgical intervention are difficult. A non-invasive technique utilizing the difference in thermal relaxation time between burned and normal skin may be useful in this regard. In practice, a thermal camera would record the skin's response to heating or cooling by a small amount-roughly 5{degrees} Celsius for a short duration. The thermal stimulus would be provided by a heat lamp, hot or cold air, or other means. Processing of the thermal transients would reveal areas that returned to equilibrium at different rates, which should correspond to different burn depths. In deeper thickness burns, the outside layer of skin is further removed from the constant-temperature region maintained through blood flow. Deeper thickness areas should thus return to equilibrium more slowly than other areas. Since the technique only records changes in the skin's temperature, it is not sensitive to room temperature, the burn's location, or the state of the patient. Preliminary results are presented for analysis of a simulated burn, formed by applying a patch of biosynthetic wound dressing on top of normal skin tissue.

Dickey, F.M.; Holswade, S.C.; Yee, M.L.

1998-12-17

363

Burn-depth estimation using thermal excitation and imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate estimation of the depth of partial-thickness burns and the early prediction of a need for surgical intervention are difficult. A non-invasive technique utilizing the difference in thermal relaxation time between burned and normal skin may be useful in this regard. In practice, a thermal camera would record the skin's response to heating or cooling by a small amount--roughly 5 degree(s) Celsius for a short duration. The thermal stimulus would be provided by a heat lamp, hot or cold air, or other means. Processing of the thermal transients would reveal areas that returned to equilibrium at different rates, which should correspond to different burn depths. In deeper thickness burns, the outside layer of skin is further removed from the constant- temperature region maintained through blood flow. Deeper thickness areas should thus return to equilibrium more slowly than other areas. Since the technique only records changes in the skin's temperature, it is not sensitive to room temperature, the burn's location, or the state of the patient. Preliminary results are presented for analysis of a simulated burn, formed by applying a patch of biosynthetic wound dressing on top of normal skin tissue.

Dickey, Fred M.; Holswade, Scott C.; Yee, Mark L.

1999-07-01

364

Wood-burning stove and method for burning wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood-burning stove utilizes a volatilization chamber inserted within the combustion chamber of the stove. The volatilization chamber contains a charge of wood which is heated to drive off combustible gases and vapors. The combustible gases and vapors are thereafter burned in the combustion chamber of the stove by being passed through a layer of solid fuel W hich includes

Van Der Linden

1983-01-01

365

Uncoupled skeletal muscle mitochondria contribute to hypermetabolism in severely burned adults.  

PubMed

Elevated metabolic rate is a hallmark of the stress response to severe burn injury. This response is mediated in part by adrenergic stress and is responsive to changes in ambient temperature. We hypothesize that uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle mitochondria contributes to increased metabolic rate in burn survivors. Here, we determined skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in healthy and severely burned adults. Indirect calorimetry was used to estimate metabolic rate in burn patients. Quadriceps muscle biopsies were collected on two separate occasions (11 ± 5 and 21 ± 8 days postinjury) from six severely burned adults (68 ± 19% of total body surface area burned) and 12 healthy adults. Leak, coupled, and uncoupled mitochondrial respiration was determined in permeabilized myofiber bundles. Metabolic rate was significantly greater than predicted values for burn patients at both time points (P < 0.05). Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, citrate synthase activity, a marker of mitochondrial abundance, and mitochondrial sensitivity to oligomycin were all lower in burn patients vs. controls at both time points (P < 0.05). A greater proportion of maximal mitochondrial respiration was linked to thermogenesis in burn patients compared with controls (P < 0.05). Increased metabolic rate in severely burned adults is accompanied by derangements in skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Skeletal muscle mitochondria from burn victims are more uncoupled, indicating greater heat production within skeletal muscle. Our findings suggest that skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to increased metabolic rate in burn victims. PMID:25074988

Porter, Craig; Herndon, David N; Børsheim, Elisabet; Chao, Tony; Reidy, Paul T; Borack, Michael S; Rasmussen, Blake B; Chondronikola, Maria; Saraf, Manish K; Sidossis, Labros S

2014-09-01

366

Thermal injury induces impaired function in polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes and reduced control of burn wound infection  

PubMed Central

Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6% third-degree burn injury was induced in mice with a hot-air blower. The third-degree burn was confirmed histologically. The mice were allocated into five groups: control, shave, burn, infection and burn infection group. At 48 h, a decline in the concentration of peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in the group of mice with burn wound. The reduction was ascribed to the decline in concentration of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leucocytes and monocytes. When infecting the skin with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a dissemination of bacteria was observed only in the burn wound group. Histological characterization of the skin showed a more polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMNs)-dominated inflammation in the group of mice with infected burn wound compared with the with burn wound group. In contrast, a higher degree of inflammation was observed in the burn wound group compared with the group of mice with infected burn wound. Furthermore, the oxidative burst and the phagocytic capacity of the PMNs were reduced in the group of mice with burn wound. Using this novel mouse model of thermal injury a decline of peripheral leucocytes was observed, whereas the increased local inflammatory response at the site of infection showed reduced capacity to contain and eliminate the infection. PMID:19210518

Calum, H; Moser, C; Jensen, P Ø; Christophersen, L; Maling, D S; van Gennip, M; Bjarnsholt, T; Hougen, H P; Givskov, M; Jacobsen, G K; Høiby, N

2009-01-01

367

Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

2014-04-24

368

30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization...MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine waste fires shall be...

2010-07-01

369

30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization...MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine waste fires shall be...

2010-07-01

370

Occupational PAH Exposures during Prescribed Pile Burns  

PubMed Central

Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to evaluate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a PAH metabolite. Personal and area sampling for particulate and PAH exposures were conducted on the White Mountain Apache Tribe reservation, working with 21 Bureau of Indian Affairs/Fort Apache Agency wildland firefighters during the fall of 2006. Urine samples were collected pre- and post-exposure and pulmonary function was measured. Personal PAH exposures were detectable for only 3 of 16 PAHs analyzed: naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene, all of which were identified only in vapor-phase samples. Condensed-phase PAHs were detected in PM2.5 area samples (20 of 21 PAHs analyzed were detected, all but naphthalene) at concentrations below 1 ?g m?3. The total PAH/PM2.5 mass fractions were roughly a factor of two higher during smoldering (1.06 ± 0.15) than ignition (0.55 ± 0.04 ?g mg?1). There were no significant changes in urinary 1-HP or pulmonary function following exposure to pile burning. In summary, PAH exposures were low in pile burns, and urinary testing for a PAH metabolite failed to show a significant difference between baseline and post-exposure measurements. PMID:18515848

Robinson, M. S.; Anthony, T. R.; Littau, S. R.; Herckes, P.; Nelson, X.; Poplin, G. S.; Burgess, J. L.

2008-01-01

371

Changing Children's Conceptions of Burning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines children's understanding of burning focusing on questions such as: "What are children's views of burning prior to and after instruction?," and "Do children's views become more scientific?" A significant difference was found in children's understanding before and after instruction. (Author/MM)

Gabel, Dorothy L.; Stockton, Jamie D.; Monaghan, Diane L.; MaKinster, James G.

2001-01-01

372

Animal models in burn research.  

PubMed

Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than 2 million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury, to elucidate the pathophysiology, and to explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research. PMID:24714880

Abdullahi, A; Amini-Nik, S; Jeschke, M G

2014-09-01

373

Burned Wetland Near Tebicuary River  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

In the rangelands of southern Paraguay, wetlands are burned to encourage new growth for cattle grazing. The burned wetland grasses are in the Family Poaceae (Gramineae), and may be in one of these genera: Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, Tripogon. The Ñeembucú Region is typified by exten...

374

Burning crude oil without pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crude oil can be burned at drilling sites by two-stage combustion process without producing pollution. Process allows easier conformance to strict federal or state clean air standards without installation of costly pollution removal equipment. Secondary oil recovery can be accomplished with injection of steam heating by burning oil.

Houseman, J.

1979-01-01

375

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

Wood burning stoves are of a type having a lower chamber and an upper chamber interconnected by a port. Air inlets are located laterally of the base of a fire in the lower chamber with a natural draft therein effecting a multitude of upwardly rising air streams of which one type is hot and oxygen poor and which carry and heat another type of air stream which is oxygen rich. The port is so dimensioned and spaced in relation to the lower chamber and to the flue outlet of the upper chamber that a secondary combustion zone is provided in which the upwardly rising streams are suddenly contracted, expanded and intermingled with simultaneous heat loss minimized ensuring the maintenance of a temperature adequate to result in the combustion of pyrolitic products.

Nason, M.L.

1984-09-25

376

Wood-burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A wood-burning stove includes side walls joined together in an airtight manner to form a firebox and a heat chamber thereabove. The firebox contains upstanding rails to support wood logs for combustion. Streams of heated air are discharged from a manifold that extends from rail-to-rail outwardly from one terminal end of each rail between opposite side walls of the stove. A plate is adjusted to control the flow of air into the manifold. An access door has openings in a spacer side wall for supplying air as desired to the firebox. The spacer walls of the door support a glass panel at an outwardly spaced location from a deflector to prevent deposits of creosote and other materials on the glass.

Squires, W.

1983-09-06

377

Annual Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 329: Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the data collected during field activities and quarterly soil-gas sampling activities conducted from May 9, 2005, through May 20, 2006, at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 329, Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip (DRA) Fuel Spill; Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-44-01, Fuel Spill. The CAU is located at the DRA, which is located approximately two miles southwest of Mercury, Nevada, as shown in Figure 1-1. Field activities were conducted in accordance with the revised sampling approach outlined in the Addendum to the Closure Report (CR) for CAU 329 (NNSA/NSO, 2005) to support data collection requirements. The previous annual monitoring program for CAU 329 was initiated in August 2000 using soil-gas samples collected from three specific intervals at the DRA-0 and DRA-3 monitoring wells. Results of four sampling events from 2000 through 2003 indicated there is uncertainty in the approach to establish a rate of natural attenuation as specified in ''Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Work Plan for Corrective Action Unit 329: Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (DOE/NV, 1999). As a result, the Addendum to the CR (NNSA/NSO, 2005) was completed to address this uncertainty by modifying the previous approach. A risk evaluation was added to the scope of the project to determine if the residual concentration of the hazardous constituents of JP4 pose an unacceptable risk to human health or the environment and if a corrective action was required at the site, because the current quarterly monitoring program is not expected to yield a rate constant that could be used effectively to determine a biodegradation rate for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in less than the initial five years outlined in the CR. Additionally, remediation to the Tier 1 action level for TPH is not practical or technically feasible due to the depth of contamination.

Alfred Wickline

2006-09-01

378

Data Management Group Annual Report  

E-print Network

Data Management Group Annual Report 1997 #12;Data Management Group Annual Report 1997 A co-operative project that is jointly funded by members of the Toronto Area Transportation Planning Data Collection: (416) 978-3941 #12;Data Management Group 1997 Annual Report Table of Contents 1 INTRODUCTION

Toronto, University of

379

Cryopreserved cadaveric allografts for treatment of unexcised partial thickness flame burns: clinical experience with 12 patients.  

PubMed

Partial thickness burns (PTB) usually heal within 3 weeks. Prevention of infection and desiccation of the wounds are crucial for optimal healing. Early tangential excision of the burn eschar and allografting prevent deepening of the burns, and are therefore advocated for treatment with the best functional and aesthetic results. For superficial partial thickness burns (SPTB) conservative use of topical antimicrobial agents with frequent dressing changes are implemented. We compared the conservative treatment for PTBs and SPTBs to grafting cryopreserved cadaveric allografts with no prior excision. Twelve patients with flame PTB areas were allografted after mechanical debridement without excision of the burn wounds. The allografts were cadaveric skin cryopreserved by programmed freezing and stored at -180 degrees C for 30-48 months. Matching burns for depth and area were treated with silver sulfadiazine (SSD) one to two times daily until healing or debridement and grafting were required. It was found that 80 per cent of the cryopreserved allografts adhered well and 76 per cent of the treated areas healed within 21 days, whereas only 40 per cent of the SSD-treated burns healed within 21 days. Partial thickness burns can be treated successfully with viable human allografts (cryopreserved cadaveric skin) with no prior surgical excision. The burn wounds heal well within 3 weeks. For deep partial thickness burns (DPTB) treatment with allografts has no advantage if they have not been previously excised. PMID:9568334

Eldad, A; Din, A; Weinberg, A; Neuman, A; Lipton, H; Ben-Bassat, H; Chaouat, M; Wexler, M R

1997-01-01

380

Suicidal burns in Samarkand burn centers and their consequences  

PubMed Central

Summary Suicide is a global public health problem, particularly in Asia where few countries with large populations have high suicide rates accounting for the majority of the world’s suicides. During a 14-year period, 76 individuals, aged 17 to 66 years, committed suicide from 1995 to 2008 and were included in this report. Data was collected on each patient including, age, sex, place of injury, patient occupation, accommodation, psychiatric illness, suicidal motives, flammable substances used, place of burn, season of the year, and total body surface area (TBSA) burnt. Most suicidal cases (55 out of 76) had a history of depressive episodes and emotional unstable disorders, and 18 of them had a known history of psychiatric illness. In 5 cases alcohol intoxication was present at the moment of suicide, and 3 patients had chronic alcohol dependence together with basic psychiatric disease. It is also evident from this study that the causes of suicide in females are mainly socio-economical and psychological. PMID:24799853

Shakirov, B.M.; Ahmedov, Y.M.; Hakimov, E.A.; Tagaev, K.R.; Karabaev, B.H.

2013-01-01

381

Response of Bighorn Sheep to Pinyon­ Juniper Burning Along the Green River Corridor, Dagget County, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract-Rocky Mountain,bighorn,sheep,(Ovis canadensis,can­ adensis),within,the Green,River Corridor,have,shown,a high preference,for burned,areas within the pinyon,pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus osteosperma,and J. scopulorum),belt and within ponderosa,pine (Pinus ponderosa),communities.,Burns lo­ cated within or adjacent to steep rocky habitat, and within core bighorn use areas, received significantly higher use than non­ burned areas. Increased use of an area occurred,where,fire left more open,areas with a reduced,density,of

Charles L. Greenwood; Sherel Goodrich; John A. Lytle

382

Derivation of Burn Scar Depths with Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) in Indonesian Peatlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical deforestation and forest degradation contribute to about 20% of the global greenhouse gas emissions and Indonesia is a leading emitter. Forests are certainly critical; but the peat soils beneath can store 30 times more carbon than the trees above. Indonesia has the fourth-largest area of peatland in the world, ranging from 30 to 45 million ha, which is approximately 10 - 12% of the global peatland resource. Fire has a long tradition in Indonesian land clearing, where almost all fires are related to human activities. The 1997 - 1998 fires throughout Indonesia caused significant haze and smoke-related health problems across Southeast Asia. Strong and weak El Niño events in 1998 and 2002 accelerated burning as soil was parched. Green house gas emissions from the fires were the source of 60% of all anomalies globally for 1997 - 2000, particularly from drained peatlands. In 2007/08 we participated in a study conducted by the World Wildlife Fund which focused on Sumatra's 8.3 million ha province of Riau, along the island's northeastern coastline. In this study CO2 emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, peat decomposition and burning over 17 years from 1990 - 2007 were estimated. Fire hotspot data for the years 1997 - 2000 from the NOAA AVHRR and MODIS sensors was used to identify burned peatland. Based on soil water availability the depths of peat burns were estimated. El Nino years with a water table of lower than 1.5 m propel intense burning so that a peat burn depth of 0.50 m was assumed, while normally only a peat burn depth of 0.15 m. Total emissions for the 1990 - 2007 period were estimated at 3.66 Gt CO2, composed of 1.17 Gt CO2 from deforestation, 0.32 Gt CO2 from forest degradation, 0.78 Gt CO2 from peat decomposition, and 1.39 Gt CO2 from peat burning. Average annual CO2 emissions were 0.22 Gt, equal to 58% of Australia's total CO2 annual emissions (including emissions/removals from LULUCF, in 2005); between 1990 and 2007, Riau produced more CO2 per year than the fourth-largest industrial nation, Germany, saved to achieve its Kyoto target. Since 1990, emissions from peat burning and peat decomposition have exceeded that of above ground biomass deforestation. These numbers show how important it is to have more accurate estimations for peat burn depth in the future. Until now few field measurements were made, which would require to know the fire affected area in advance or ignite peatland on purpose. Furthermore fire scars are quickly covered by regenerating vegetation. Another problem is the lack of a method without actually having to go into the field (e.g. through remote sensing techniques), due to the fact that many of the fire locations are remote and very difficult to access. We investigated if airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR), an active laser pulse technology by which the height of objects can be precisely measured, can be used to determine the amount of peat burned during a fire event. From a LIDAR data set acquired in Central Kalimantan, Borneo, in 2007, one year after severe fires resulting from the 2006 El Niño drought, we calculated that the average depth of a burn scar was 0.30 ± 0.15 m .This was achieved through the construction of digital terrain models (DTMs) by interpolating the LIDAR ground return signals in burnt and adjacent unburned peatland. These calculated depths were compared to in situ measurements, which came to similar results. We believe that the method presented here to estimate burnt peat depth has the potential to considerably improve the accuracy of regional and global carbon emission models but would also be helpful for monitoring projects under the Kyoto Protocol like the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) or the proposed Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) mechanism.

Ballhorn, U.; Siegert, F.

2009-04-01

383

Protect the Ones You Love: Burns Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... injuries from flame burns that are caused by direct contact with fire. Thankfully, there are ways you can help protect the children you love from burns. Prevention Tips To prevent burns from fires: Be alarmed. Install and maintain ...

384

Radiative effects due to biomass burning aerosols - a study from tropical forests of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning is widespread, especially in tropics and serves to clear land for shifting cultivation, to convert forests to agricultural and pastoral lands and to remove the vegetation in order to promote agricultural productivity and the growth of high yield grasses. Biomass burning is an important source of trace gas emission, aerosols and has important effects on atmospheric chemistry and radiation budget. The present study is a part of Indian Space Research Organization(ISRO) Geosphere Biosphere Programme, detailed field based experiments have been conducted to quantify aerosols, trace gas emissions from biomass burning. Aerosols reduce surface reaching solar flux by scattering incoming solar radiation out to space. The effect of radiative forcing by anthropogenic aerosols is one of the largest source of uncertainty in climate predictions. Erythmal UV and Total solar radiation measurements suggest reduction of solar irradiance during biomass burning. During biomass burning direct radiation has been drastically reduced in contrast to global radiation. Large spatial extent of Northeastern Region moist tropical to moist sub-tropical forests in India have high frequency of burning in annual dry seasons. Characterization of resultant trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning is important for the atmospheric radiative processes. Aerosol Optical Depth(AOD) observed to be high during burning period compared to pre and post burning days. Peak period of biomass burning is highly correlated with measured AOD and total columnar water vapor. Size distribution of aerosols showed bimodal size distribution during burning day and monomodal size distribution during pre and post burning days. Size distribution retrievals from biomass burning aerosols show dominance of accumulation mode particles. Columnar content of aerosols observed to be high during burning period in addition to the drastic reduction of visibility. During the burning day Anderson sampler measurements and size distribution of aerosols from inversion methods applied on wavelength dependence of aerosol optical depth showed dominance of accumulation mode particles. The diurnal averaged values of Shortwave Aerosol Radiative Forcing (SWARF) of biomass burning aerosols varies from - 59 to -87Wm -2 on different days. Measured and modeled solar irradiance has been discussed in the paper. Emission factors of CH_4, CO_2, NO_x, N_2O, Black carbon, Total Carbon, Organic Carbon have been estimated from field based measurements. Remote sensing data from IRS WiFS of different years have been analyzed to estimate extent of biomass burning. Key Words: Radiative Forcing, size distribution, biomass burning, shifting cultivation, Aerosol Optical Depth

Madhavi Latha, K.; Badarinath, K. V. S.; Kiran Chand, T. R.; Gupta, P. K.

385

Spatio-Temporal Trends of Fire in Slash and Burn Agriculture Landscape: A Case Study from Nagaland, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing incidences of fire from land conversion and residue burning in tropics is the major concern in global warming. Spatial and temporal monitoring of trends of fire incidences is, therefore, significant in order to determine contribution of carbon emissions from slash and burn agriculture. In this study, we analyzed time-series Terra / Aqua MODIS satellite hotspot products from 2001 to 2013 to derive intra- and inter-annual trends in fire incidences in Nagaland state, located in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. Time-series regression was applied to MODIS fire products at variable spatial scales in GIS. Significance of change in fire frequency at each grid level was tested using t statistic. Spatial clustering of higher or lower fire incidences across study area was determined using Getis-OrdGi statistic. Maximum fire incidences were encountered in moist mixed deciduous forests (46%) followed by secondary moist bamboo brakes (30%). In most parts of the study area fire incidences peaked during March while in warmer parts (e.g. Mon district dominated by indigenous people) fire activity starts as early as during November and peaks in January. Regression trend analysis captured noticeable areas with statistically significant positive (e.g. Mokokchung, Wokha, Mon, Tuensang and Kiphire districts) and negative (e.g. Kohima and north-western part of Mokokchung district) inter-annual fire frequency trends based on area-based aggregation of fire occurrences at different grid sizes. Localization of spatial clusters of high fire incidences was observed in Mokokchung, Wokha, Mon,Tuensang and Kiphire districts.

Padalia, H.; Mondal, P. P.

2014-11-01

386

Burn prevention mechanisms and outcomes: pitfalls, failures and successes.  

PubMed

Burns are responsible for significant mortality and morbidity worldwide and are among the most devastating of all injuries, with outcomes spanning the spectrum from physical impairments and disabilities to emotional and mental consequences. Management of burns and their sequelae even in well-equipped, modern burn units of advanced affluent societies remains demanding and extremely costly. Undoubtedly, in most low and middle income countries (LMICs) with limited resources and inaccessibility to sophisticated skills and technologies, the same standard of care is obviously not possible. Unfortunately, over 90% of fatal fire-related burns occur in developing or LMICs with South-East Asia alone accounting for over half of these fire-related deaths. If burn prevention is an essential part of any integrated burn management protocol anywhere, focusing on burn prevention in LMICs rather than treatment cannot be over-emphasized where it remains the major and probably the only available way of reducing the current state of morbidity and mortality. Like other injury mechanisms, the prevention of burns requires adequate knowledge of the epidemiological characteristics and associated risk factors, it is hence important to define clearly, the social, cultural and economic factors, which contribute to burn causation. While much has been accomplished in the areas of primary and secondary prevention of fires and burns in many developed or high-income countries (HICs) such as the United States due to sustained research on the epidemiology and risk factors, the same cannot be said for many LMICs. Many health authorities, agencies, corporations and even medical personnel in LMICs consider injury prevention to have a much lower priority than disease prevention for understandable reasons. Consequently, burns prevention programmes fail to receive the government funding that they deserve. Prevention programmes need to be executed with patience, persistence, and precision, targeting high-risk groups. Depending on the population of the country, burns prevention could be a national programme. This can ensure sufficient funds are available and lead to proper coordination of district, regional, and tertiary care centres. It could also provide for compulsory reporting of all burn admissions to a central registry, and these data could be used to evaluate strategies and prevention programmes that should be directed at behavioural and environmental changes which can be easily adopted into lifestyle. Particularly in LMICs, the emphasis in burn prevention should be by advocating change from harmful cultural practices. This needs to be done with care and sensitivity. The present review is a summary of what has already been accomplished in terms of burn prevention highlighting some of the successes but above all the numerous pitfalls and failures. Recognizing these failures is the first step towards development of more effective burn prevention strategies particularly in LMICs in which burn injury remains endemic and associated with a high mortality rate. Burn prevention is not easy, but easy or not, we have no options; burns must be prevented. PMID:18926639

Atiyeh, Bishara S; Costagliola, Michel; Hayek, Shady N

2009-03-01

387

Derivation of burn scar depths and estimation of carbon emissions with LIDAR in Indonesian peatlands  

PubMed Central

During the 1997/98 El Niño-induced drought peatland fires in Indonesia may have released 13–40% of the mean annual global carbon emissions from fossil fuels. One major unknown in current peatland emission estimations is how much peat is combusted by fire. Using a light detection and ranging data set acquired in Central Kalimantan, Borneo, in 2007, one year after the severe peatland fires of 2006, we determined an average burn scar depth of 0.33 ± 0.18 m. Based on this result and the burned area determined from satellite imagery, we estimate that within the 2.79 million hectare study area 49.15 ± 26.81 megatons of carbon were released during the 2006 El Niño episode. This represents 10–33% of all carbon emissions from transport for the European Community in the year 2006. These emissions, originating from a comparatively small area (approximately 13% of the Indonesian peatland area), underline the importance of peat fires in the context of green house gas emissions and global warming. In the past decade severe peat fires occurred during El Niño-induced droughts in 1997, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2009. Currently, this important source of carbon emissions is not included in IPCC carbon accounting or in regional and global carbon emission models. Precise spatial measurements of peat combusted and potential avoided emissions in tropical peat swamp forests will also be required for future emission trading schemes in the framework of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in developing countries. PMID:19940252

Ballhorn, Uwe; Siegert, Florian; Mason, Mike; Limin, Suwido

2009-01-01

388

In vivo burn imaging using Mueller optical coherence tomography.  

PubMed

We report on the use of a high-speed, fiber-based Mueller-matrix optical coherence tomography system with continuous source-polarization modulation for in vivo burn depth evaluation and healing monitoring. A homemade hand-held probe with integrated optical scanning and beam delivering optics was coupled in the sample arm. In vivo burn imaging was demonstrated on porcine skin at different stages of the wound healing process, where porcine skin was used because of its similarity to the human skin. Thermally damaged region was clearly localized in the depth-resolved phase retardation image extracted from the measured Jones matrix. The burn areas in the OCT images agreed well with the histology. By using a decomposition algorithm developed by our group, we also mapped the local birefringence of the skin. The experimental results demonstrate the system's potential for in vivo burn-depth determination. PMID:18607436

Todorovi?, Milos; Jiao, Shuliang; Ai, Jun; Pereda-Cubián, David; Stoica, George; Wang, Lihong V

2008-07-01

389

Wood-burning stove and method for burning wood  

SciTech Connect

A wood-burning stove utilizes a volatilization chamber inserted within the combustion chamber of the stove. The volatilization chamber contains a charge of wood which is heated to drive off combustible gases and vapors. The combustible gases and vapors are thereafter burned in the combustion chamber of the stove by being passed through a layer of solid fuel W hich includes a substantial amount of charcoal residue from previous volatilized wood. The heat generated by burning the volatile material is used to produce additional volatiles as well as to heat the stove.

Van Der Linden, R.E.

1983-02-08

390

Burns treatment in ancient times.  

PubMed

Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques. PMID:23888738

Pe?anac, Marija; Janji?, Zlata; Komarcevi?, Aleksandar; Paji?, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Miskovi?, Sanja Skeledzija

2013-01-01

391

Burn Safety Awareness on Playgrounds: Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment  

MedlinePLUS

... burns from playground equipment. You may remember the metal slides of your youth and how they could ... plastic slide. I only have to worry about metal slides, right? No. Metal is not the only ...

392

A Burning Question: Does Post-Fire Rehabilitation Alter the Likelihood of Future Fires?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, aridlands have had infrequent fire due to patchy plant distributions, which limit fire spread. However, aridland fire regimes have changed because invasive annual grasses have created continuous fuel beds, which have led to increasingly frequent fires and a greater area burned each decade since the 1970s. Climate change is predicted to further increase the number and size of fires. Post-fire rehabilitation is enacted in order to reestablish plant communities and has the potential to further alter fire regimes. Rehabilitation treatments include tilling seeds using a tractor and drill (drill seeding), dropping seed aerially with helicopters (aerial seeding), or both. Few studies examine the impact of post-fire rehabilitation on the likelihood of future fires in these aridland ecosystems. We examined the effects of post-fire rehabilitation treatments on the number of years before the next fire. Using GIS layers detailing fire history and post-fire rehabilitation treatments in the southern Idaho Great Basin, we extracted information from randomly selected sites and analyzed them with generalized linear models. Preliminary analysis on 43 sites suggests the number of years before the next fire tended to be less in seeded than unseeded sites (P=0.055). Further investigation revealed that the number of years until the next fire differed among seed application methods. Sites that were drill seeded burned approximately 12 years later while sites with combined aerial and drill seeding burned again after 6.5 years (P=0.05). The total number of burns at a site was inversely related to the time before the next fire (P=0.001). After the first fire, sites averaged 17.4 years before the next fire occurred; this decreased with each subsequent fire to 7.1 years after the fifth fire. The number of times a site burned and the rehabilitation treatment interacted to affect the number of years between fires. In sites that burned once, there was on average 27.75 years before the second burn at unseeded sites, 18 years when only drill seeded, and 8.8 years when both aerially and drill seeded (P=0.038). Likewise, at sites that burned at least six times, the number of years before the next fire was significantly lower in the combination of aerial and drill seeding compared to unseeded sites (3.3 versus 6.9 years, respectively, P=0.047). The number of fires a site experienced altered the duration between fires, but the combination of drill and aerial seeding consistently experienced fire sooner than either technique used in isolation. These preliminary results suggest that post-fire rehabilitation may decrease the time between fires after the first two fires, but can decrease the time between after a threshold number of fires depending on the technique used. Drill seeding alone maintained a fire return interval of 9-10 years after 4, 5, or 6 fires which was the longest interval past that threshold, The results are shocking in a system that historically has fire return intervals of hundreds of years.

Bowman-Prideaux, C.; Newingham, B. A.

2013-12-01

393

Movements and survival of Bachman's Sparrows in response to prescribed summer burns in South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prescribed winter burning is a common practice in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) to manage for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis). The effect of these burns on non-target animals is not well studied. Bachman's sparrows (Aimophila aestivalis) were captured in predominantly longleaf pine stands to be burned and not to be burned at Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge (CSNWR) and the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina. Sparrows were marked with radio-transmitters and monitored daily. Before burning, daily movements did not differ among sites within or among study areas. Additionally, daily movements did not differ by sex or time within the breeding season. After prescribed burning, daily movements were longer for sparrows in burned stands than in unburned stands. All marked sparrows dispersed 1-3 days after a stand was burned and never returned. We found no evidence that dispersing sparrows successfully breed elsewhere. Bachman's sparrow survival rates and reproductive output after burning were lowered. The juxtaposition of seemingly suitable Bachman's sparrow habitat in relation to burned stands influenced both the duration and length of dispersal movements. Managers need to consider the proximity of available habitats when developing burning plans when managing for Bachman's sparrows.

Seaman, B.D.; Krementz, D.G.

2000-01-01

394

Response of bighorn sheep to clear-cut logging and prescribed burning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prescribed burning and timber harvesting have been used to restore and maintain Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (avis canadensis) ranges. Intensive study of a bighorn sheep herd in northeastern Utah indicated a need for range improvements. To evaluate the effectiveness of clear-cut logging and prescribed burning, we documented sheep responses to these treatments. Although bighorn sheep exhibited strong fidelity to pre-treatment areas (P>0.05), they significantly altered use patterns to include logged and burned areas (P<0.001). Treated habitats experienced 148% increases in bighorn sheep activity, whereas use in untreated areas declined by 45%. Bighorn sheep responded more favorably to logged units than to burned areas. We conclude that carefully planned clear-cut logging and range burning may be effective to enhance and expand bighorn sheep populations.

Smith, T.S.; Hardin, P.J.; Flinders, J.T.

1999-01-01

395

A century of Amazon burning driven by Atlantic climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very little is known about annual burning trends in the Amazon Basin prior to remote sensing of fires beginning in the late 1970's. Fires reduce Amazon forest biomass and species richness, release pollutant aerosols, and impact the carbon cycle, compelling further investigation of fire-climate dynamics. We measured organic compounds derived from vegetation burning in ice core samples from the Quelccaya Ice Cap in Peru at better than annual resolution to reconstruct wet and dry season burning throughout the Twentieth Century. Variations in the abundance of methyl hexadecanoate, which is produced by thermal alteration of vascular plant alkanoic acids, were used as a proxy for past fire activity. Concentrations of this compound in Quelccaya ice varied strongly on seasonal, interannual, and decadal time scales over the last 100 years, with high-amplitude dry season variability and muted, decadal-scale changes in wet season fire activity. Decade-long periods of repeatedly enhanced burning occurred during the 1930's and 1960's when dry season precipitation was perpetually reduced, as evidenced by low stages of the Rio Negro. These decadal trends suggest that changes in dry season precipitation drive fire activity in the western Amazon and highlight the potential of Amazon forests to undergo repeated strong burning. Fires occurred during years when sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the north tropical Atlantic were elevated and the north-south tropical Atlantic SST gradient was enhanced; this SST pattern likely displaced the intertropical convergence zone northward, driving subsidence and drought in the western and southern Amazon basin. Thus, our novel ice core record suggests that Amazon forest fire activity during the Twentieth Century was driven primarily by Atlantic climate processes, and future forest health will depend heavily on the evolution of tropical climate.

Makou, M.; Thompson, L. G.; Davis, M. E.; Eglinton, T. I.

2011-12-01

396

Hospital Bioterrorism Planning and Burn Surge  

PubMed Central

On the morning of June 9, 2009, an explosion occurred at a manufacturing plant in Garner, North Carolina. By the end of the day, 68 injured patients had been evaluated at the 3 Level I trauma centers and 3 community hospitals in the Raleigh/Durham metro area (3 people who were buried in the structural collapse died at the scene). Approximately 300 employees were present at the time of the explosion, when natural gas being vented during the repair of a hot water heater ignited. The concussion from the explosion led to structural failure in multiple locations and breached additional natural gas, electrical, and ammonia lines that ran overhead in the 1-story concrete industrial plant. Intent is the major difference between this type of accident and a terrorist using an incendiary device to terrorize a targeted population. But while this disaster lacked intent, the response, rescue, and outcomes were improved as a result of bioterrorism preparedness. This article discusses how bioterrorism hospital preparedness planning, with an all-hazards approach, became the basis for coordinated burn surge disaster preparedness. This real-world disaster challenged a variety of systems, hospitals, and healthcare providers to work efficiently and effectively to manage multiple survivors. Burn-injured patients served as a focus for this work. We describe the response, rescue, and resuscitation provided by first responders and first receivers as well as efforts made to develop burn care capabilities and surge capacity. PMID:24527874

Myers, Brent; Cairns, Charles B.; Rich, Preston B.; Hultman, C. Scott; Charles, Anthony G.; Jones, Samuel W.; Schmits, Grace L.; Skarote, Mary Beth; Holmes, James H.; Cairns, Bruce A.

2014-01-01

397

Several Flame Balls Burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Structure of Flameballs at Low Lewis Numbers (SOFBALL) experiments aboard the space shuttle in 1997 a series of sturningly successful burns. This sequence was taken during STS-94, July 12, 1997, MET:10/08:18 (approximate). It was thought these extremely dim flameballs (1/20 the power of a kitchen match) could last up to 200 seconds -- in fact, they can last for at least 500 seconds. This has ramifications in fuel-spray design in combustion engines, as well as fire safety in space. The SOFBALL principal investigator was Paul Ronney, University of Southern California, Los Angeles. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (925KB, 9-second MPEG spanning 10 minutes, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300186.html.

2003-01-01

398

Burning coal's waste  

SciTech Connect

In an old Pennsylvania coal valley, growing fresh produce and eliminating ancient waste piles both depend on a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant. The builders of a complex now nearing completion at Archbald, however, will soon begin to turn two of the waste piles, called culm banks, into economic assets. Culm will burn although it has a low, variable heat content. The project combines several recently developed technologies to use culm as fuel for a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant that will heat a hydroponic greenhouse. What makes the venture economically viable are the products that will be sold: 23 mw of electricity to the local utility and fresh produce to meet burgeoning demands in East Coast supermarkets. For instance, if the ''salad plant'' were completely devoted to growing lettuce, 3 million heads could be harvested in 11 hydroponic seasons a year. The owners, Archbald Power Corp., chose a 271 acre stie that had been mined for anthracite by both open pit and deep shaft methods.

Daly, J.M.; Duffy, T.J.

1988-07-01

399

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

This disclosure relates to a wood burning stove which includes an innermost combustion chamber within and generally spaced from an intermediate air-circulating chamber in turn generally within an outermost chamber, all of the chambers having generally spaced top, rear, bottom and pairs of side walls, all of the side walls having openings and ducts associated therewith through which air is introduced into the combustion chamber, all of the top walls having openings housing a duct through which products of combustion are exhausted from the combustion chamber, openings in the bottom walls of the intermediate and outermost chambers through which hot air is directed from the hot-air chamber for subsequent utilization, damper means associated with the top wall of the combustion chamber and the bottom wall of the intermediate chamber for respectively regulating the flow of gases through the openings or ducts associated therewith, and openings in the rear walls of the outermost and intermediate chambers through which air is blown by an associated blower for circulating within the hot-air chamber and being blown outwardly therefrom through the openings of the bottom walls and the ducts associated therewith as well as front openings in a front wall of the stove.

Burnette, C.S.

1983-01-25

400

The influence of burning on nitrogen dynamics of a Pan American balsamscale community  

E-print Network

by burning may place a demand on the nutrient pool that exceeds nutrient replacement rate in the soil. Christensen (1977) found. that late winter burns on wiregrass savanna in North Carolina added a flush of nutrients to the soil, but most of these were... (Jorgensen and Wells 1971). Crude protein and P content (Old 1969), in vitro digestible organic matter, and ash content (Kucera and Ehrenreich 1962) of regrowth following burning may exceed that found in plants on unburned areas. Christensen (1977) found...

Greene, Thomas Alexander

1983-01-01

401

Biomass Burning:Significant Source of Nitrate and Sulfate for the Andean Rain Forest in Ecuador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires are significant sources of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen compounds which, along with their photochemically generated reaction products, can be transported over very long distances, even traversing oceans. Chemical analyses of rain and fogwater samples collected on the wet eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes show frequent episodes of high sulfate and nitrate concentration, from which annual deposition rates of about14 kg/ha and 7 kg/ha ,respectively, are derived. These are comparable to those observed in polluted central Europe. Regular rain and fogwater sampling along an altitude profile between 1800 and 3185 m, has been carried out since 2002.The research area located at 30 58'S ,790 5' W is dominated by trade winds from easterly directions. The samples, generally accumulated over 1-week intervals, were analysed for pH, conductivity and major ions(K+,Na+,NH4+,Ca2+,Mg 2+,SO42-,NO3-,PO43-).For all components a strong seasonal variation is observed, while the altitudinal gradient is less pronounced. About 65 % of the weekly samples were significantly loaded with cations and anions, with pH often as low 3.5 to 4.0 and conductivity up to 50 uS/cm. Back trajectories (FLEXTRA) showed that respective air masses had passed over areas of intense biomass burning, sometimes influenced by volcanoes, ocean spray, or even episodic Sahara and/or Namib desert dust interference not discussed here. Enhanced SO4 2-and NO3- were identified, by combining satellite-based fire pixels with back trajectories, as predominantly resulting from biomass burning. For most cases, by using emission inventories, anthropogenic precursor sources other than forest fires play a minor role, thus leaving biomass burning as the main source of nitrate and sulphate in rain and fogwater. Some SO4 2- , about 10 % of the total input, could be identified to originate from active volcanoes, whose plumes were sometimes encountered by the respective back trajectories. While volcanic, oceanic and desert sources are natural, large scale biomass burning is an anthropogenic source which adds about 7 kg/ha of NO3- and 14 kg/ha of SO4 2- per year to the forest which has developed on poor acidic soil conditions. Controlled fertilizing experiments within an interdisciplinary research consortium are presently carried out to investigate the impact of this disturbance on the forest ecosystem and its biodiversity.

Fabian, P.; Rollenbeck, R.; Spichtinger, N.

2009-04-01

402

THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC RESPONSE TO SEVERE BURN INJURY  

PubMed Central

Objective To improve clinical outcome and to determine new treatment options, we studied the pathophysiologic response postburn in a large prospective, single center, clinical trial. Summary Background Data A severe burn injury leads to marked hypermetabolism and catabolism, which are associated with morbidity and mortality. The underlying pathophysiology and the correlations between humoral changes and organ function have not been well delineated. Methods Two hundred forty-two severely burned pediatric patients [>30% total body surface area (TBSA)], who received no anabolic drugs, were enrolled in this study. Demographics, clinical data, serum hormones, serum cytokine expression profile, organ function, hypermetabolism, muscle protein synthesis, incidence of wound infection sepsis, and body composition were obtained throughout acute hospital course. Results Average age was 8 ± 0.2 years, and average burn size was 56 ± 1% TBSA with 43 ± 1% third-degree TBSA. All patients were markedly hypermetabolic throughout acute hospital stay and had significant muscle protein loss as demonstrated by a negative muscle protein net balance (?0.05% ± 0.007 nmol/100 mL leg/min) and loss of lean body mass (LBM) (?4.1% ± 1.9%); P < 0.05. Patients lost 3% ± 1% of their bone mineral content (BMC) and 2 ± 1% of their bone mineral density (BMD). Serum proteome analysis demonstrated profound alterations immediately postburn, which remained abnormal throughout acute hospital stay; P < 0.05. Cardiac function was compromised immediately after burn and remained abnormal up to discharge; P < 0.05. Insulin resistance appeared during the first week postburn and persisted until discharge. Patients were hyperinflammatory with marked changes in IL-8, MCP-1, and IL-6, which were associated with 2.5 ± 0.2 infections and 17% sepsis. Conclusions In this large prospective clinical trial, we delineated the complexity of the postburn pathophysiologic response and conclude that the postburn response is profound, occurring in a timely manner, with derangements that are greater and more protracted than previously thought. PMID:18791359

Jeschke, Marc G; Chinkes, David L; Finnerty, Celeste C; Kulp, Gabriela; Suman, Oscar E; Norbury, William B; Branski, Ludwik K; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Mlcak, Ronald P; Herndon, David N

2014-01-01

403

Texas’ Senate Bill 5 Legislation for Reducing Pollution in Non-Attainment and Affected Areas: Annual Report to the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission  

E-print Network

This is the first annual report by the Energy Systems Laboratory, which covers the Laboratory's efforts to support Senate Bill 5. In this report the accomplishments and progress to date are presented, along with recommendations, issues encountered...

Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Turner, W. D.

2002-01-01

404

JAMA Patient Page: Burn Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... factors for burns include cooking with an open flame, open cooking facilities on the ground floor of ... also occur, especially at job sites with open flames, chemicals, or superheated materials. The October 28, 2009, ...

405

Extensive Burn Scars in Russia's Amur Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vast areas of southeastern Russia have been scorched by fires over the last few weeks. All across Siberia fires have been raging, and this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 15, 2002, shows extensive, dark burn scars along with actively burning fires (red dots) on the north side of the Amur River, which separates Russia (north) and China (south). The southern Amur region is largely devoted to farming and other agriculture, and these fires may have been set intentionally to prepare the land for the growing season. Fire is often used to clear land of unwanted vegetation, and to return the nutrients stored in vegetation back to the soil. However, fires that are too frequent or severe can devastate the soil, eventually making it unsuitable for farming or grazing. Fires can also escape control and spread into protected areas. In this image, fires are mostly concentrated in a lowland area within the drainage basin of the Zeya River, which drains from the frozen lake at the top of the image. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

406

In vivo terahertz imaging of rat skin burns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reflective, pulsed terahertz (THz) imaging system was used to acquire high-resolution (d10-90/ ?~1.925) images of deep, partial thickness burns in a live rat. The rat's abdomen was burned with a brass brand heated to ~220°C and pressed against the skin with contact pressure for ~10 sec. The burn injury was imaged beneath a Mylar window every 15 to 30 min for up to 7 h. Initial images display an increase in local water concentration of the burned skin as evidenced by a marked increase in THz reflectivity, and this likely correlates to the post-injury inflammatory response. After ~1 h the area of increased reflectivity consolidated to the region of skin that had direct contact with the brand. Additionally, a low reflecting ring of tissue could be observed surrounding the highly reflective burned tissue. We hypothesize that these regions of increased and decreased reflectivity correlate to the zones of coagulation and stasis that are the classic foundation of burn wound histopathology. While further investigations are necessary to confirm this hypothesis, if true, it likely represents the first in vivo THz images of these pathologic zones and may represent a significant step forward in clinical application of THz technology.

Tewari, Priyamvada; Kealey, Colin P.; Bennett, David B.; Bajwa, Neha; Barnett, Kelli S.; Singh, Rahul S.; Culjat, Martin O.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Grundfest, Warren S.; Taylor, Zachary D.

2012-04-01

407

In vivo terahertz imaging of rat skin burns.  

PubMed

A reflective, pulsed terahertz (THz) imaging system was used to acquire high-resolution (d(10-90)/?~1.925) images of deep, partial thickness burns in a live rat. The rat's abdomen was burned with a brass brand heated to ~220°C and pressed against the skin with contact pressure for ~10 sec. The burn injury was imaged beneath a Mylar window every 15 to 30 min for up to 7 h. Initial images display an increase in local water concentration of the burned skin as evidenced by a marked increase in THz reflectivity, and this likely correlates to the post-injury inflammatory response. After ~1 h the area of increased reflectivity consolidated to the region of skin that had direct contact with the brand. Additionally, a low reflecting ring of tissue could be observed surrounding the highly reflective burned tissue. We hypothesize that these regions of increased and decreased reflectivity correlate to the zones of coagulation and stasis that are the classic foundation of burn wound histopathology. While further investigations are necessary to confirm this hypothesis, if true, it likely represents the first in vivo THz images of these pathologic zones and may represent a significant step forward in clinical application of THz technology. PMID:22559669

Tewari, Priyamvada; Kealey, Colin P; Bennett, David B; Bajwa, Neha; Barnett, Kelli S; Singh, Rahul S; Culjat, Martin O; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Grundfest, Warren S; Taylor, Zachary D

2012-04-01

408

Postfire soil burn severity mapping with hyperspectral image unmixing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Burn severity is mapped after wildfires to evaluate immediate and long-term fire effects on the landscape. Remotely sensed hyperspectral imagery has the potential to provide important information about fine-scale ground cover components that are indicative of burn severity after large wildland fires. Airborne hyperspectral imagery and ground data were collected after the 2002 Hayman Fire in Colorado to assess the application of high resolution imagery for burn severity mapping and to compare it to standard burn severity mapping methods. Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF), a partial spectral unmixing algorithm, was used to identify the spectral abundance of ash, soil, and scorched and green vegetation in the burned area. The overall performance of the MTMF for predicting the ground cover components was satisfactory (r2 = 0.21 to 0.48) based on a comparison to fractional ash, soil, and vegetation cover measured on ground validation plots. The relationship between Landsat-derived differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) values and the ground data was also evaluated (r2 = 0.20 to 0.58) and found to be comparable to the MTMF. However, the quantitative information provided by the fine-scale hyperspectral imagery makes it possible to more accurately assess the effects of the fire on the soil surface by identifying discrete ground cover characteristics. These surface effects, especially soil and ash cover and the lack of any remaining vegetative cover, directly relate to potential postfire watershed response processes. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Robichaud, P.R.; Lewis, S.A.; Laes, D.Y.M.; Hudak, A.T.; Kokaly, R.F.; Zamudio, J.A.

2007-01-01

409

Siberian and North American Biomass Burning Contributions to the Processes that Influenced the 2008 Arctic Aircraft and Satellite Field Campaigns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current climate change scenarios predict increases in biomass burning in terms of increases in fire frequency, area burned, fire season length and fire season severity, particularly in boreal regions. Climate and weather control fire danger, which strongly influences the severity of fire events, and these in turn, feed back to the climate system through direct and indirect emissions, modifying cloud condensation nuclei and altering albedo (affecting the energy balance) through vegetative land cover change and deposition. Additionally, fire emissions adversely influence air quality and human health downwind of burning. The boreal zone is significant because this region stores the largest reservoir of terrestrial carbon, globally, and will experience climate change impacts earliest. Boreal biomass burning is an integral component to several of the primary goals of the ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites) and ARCPAC (Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate) 2008 field campaigns, which include its implication for atmospheric composition and climate, aerosol radiative forcing, and chemical processes with a focus on ozone and aerosols. Both the spring and summer phases of ARCTAS and ARCPAC offered substantial opportunities for sampling fresh and aged biomass burning emissions. However, the extent to which spring biomass burning influenced arctic haze was unexpected, which could inform our knowledge of the formation of arctic haze and the early deposition of black carbon on the icy arctic surface. There is already evidence of increased extreme fire seasons that correlate with warming across the circumboreal zone. In this presentation, we discuss seasonal and annual fire activity and anomalies that relate to the ARCTAS and ARCPAC spring (April 1 - 20) and summer (June 18 - July 13) periods across Siberia and North America, with particular emphasis on fire danger and fire behavior as they relate to smoke emissions. Fire severity and subsequent emission levels are directly related to fire danger conditions, which reflect and incorporate both antecedent and current weather. In this century, it is predicted that fire regime increases will be the catalyst for ecosystem change, which will force ecosystems to move more rapidly towards a new equilibrium with climate. However, the reasons for ecosystem change are often accompanied by social and political drivers of land cover change, which complicate the relationship between fire and weather. For instance, since the collapse of the former Soviet Union, financial support for fire fighting is minimal, communal agricultural lands have been abandoned and a number of species are no longer protected (e.g. Saiga in Kalmykia), and each of these factors strongly influences vegetation cover and fire regimes, leading to a complicated interaction of processes that control fire and its affect on the larger environment.

Soja, A. J.; Stocks, B. J.; Carr, R.; Pierce, R. B.; Natarajan, M.; Fromm, M.