Science.gov

Sample records for annual treatability studies

  1. Hanford Site Annual Treatability Studies Report, Calendar Year 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Grohs, Eugene L.

    2003-02-28

    This report provides information required to be reported annually by the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-071 (3)(r)(ii)(F) and (3)(s)(ix) on the treatability studies conducted on the Hanford Site in 2002. These studies were conducted as required by WAC 173-303-071, “Excluded Categories of Waste,” sections (3)(r) and (s). Unless otherwise noted, the waste samples were provided by and the treatability studies were performed for the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, P.O. Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency identification number for these studies is WA7890008967.

  2. Soil washing treatability study

    SciTech Connect

    Krstich, M.

    1995-12-01

    Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS.

  3. TREATABILITY STUDIES FOR WOOD PRESERVING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), Site Management Support Branch, conducted a comprehensive treatability project for wood preserving sites in 1995 and 1996. This is a compilation report on the treatability studi...

  4. Energetic component treatability study

    SciTech Connect

    Gildea, P.D.; Brandon, S.L.; Brown, B.G.

    1997-11-01

    The effectiveness of three environmentally sound processes for small energetic component disposal was examined experimentally in this study. The three destruction methods, batch reactor supercritical water oxidation, sodium hydroxide base hydrolysis and calcium carbonate cookoff were selected based on their potential for producing a clean solid residue and minimum release of toxic gases after component detonation. The explosive hazard was destroyed by all three processes. Batch supercritical water oxidation destroyed both the energetics and organics. Further development is desired to optimize process parameters. Sodium hydroxide base hydrolysis and calcium carbonate cookoff results indicated the potential for scrubbing gaseous detonation products. Further study and testing are needed to quantify the effectiveness of these later two processes for full-scale munition destruction. The preliminary experiments completed in this study have demonstrated the promise of these three processes as environmentally sound technologies for energetic component destruction. Continuation of these experimental programs is strongly recommended to optimize batch supercritical water oxidation processing, and to fully develop the sodium hydroxide base hydrolysis and calcium carbonate cookoff technologies.

  5. GUIDE FOR CONDUCTING TREATABILITY STUDIES UNDER CERCLA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of the removal process, remedial investigation/ feasibility study (RI/FS) process and the remedial design/remedial action (RD/RA) process under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

  6. LABORATORY SCALE STEAM INJECTION TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory scale steam injection treatability studies were first developed at The University of California-Berkeley. A comparable testing facility has been developed at USEPA's Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center. Experience has already shown that many volatile organic...

  7. Annual report of tank waste treatability

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, A.G.; Kirkbride, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report has been prepared as part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order* (Tri-Party Agreement) and constitutes completion of Tri-Party Agreement milestone M-04-00D for fiscal year 1993. This report provides a summary of treatment activities for newly generated waste, existing double-shell tank waste, and existing single-shell tank waste, as well as a summary of grout disposal feasibility, glass disposal feasibility, alternate methods for disposal, and safety issues which may impact the treatment and disposal of existing defense nuclear wastes. This report is an update of the 1992 report and is intended to provide traceability for the documentation by statusing the studies, activities, and issues which occurred in these areas listed above over the period of March 1, 1992, through February 28, 1993. Therefore, ongoing studies, activities, and issues which were documented in the previous (1992) report are addressed in this (1993) report.

  8. Annual report of tank waste treatability

    SciTech Connect

    Giese, K.A.

    1991-09-01

    This report has been prepared as part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) and constitutes completion of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-04-00 for fiscal year 1991. This report provides a summary of treatment activities for newly generated waste, existing double-shell tank waste, and existing single-shell tank waste, as well as a summary of grout disposal feasibility, glass disposal feasibility, alternate methods of disposal, and safety issues which may impact the treatment and disposal of existing defense nuclear wastes. This report is an update of the 1990 report and is intended to provide traceability for the documentation of the areas listed above by statusing the studies, activities, and issues which occurred in these areas over the period of March 1, 1990, through February 28, 1991. Therefore, ongoing studies, activities, and issues which were documented in the previous (1990) report are addressed in this subsequent (1991) report. 40 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Treatability Study of Pentaborane(9)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Joseph K.; Wright, Jeffery S.; Gaines, Donald F.

    2000-01-01

    Procedures for the safe destruction of liquid pentaborane(9), B5H9, by solvolysis were investigated. The objective of the study was to establish the optimum conditions for a pilot plant operation that would use water, or alcohol, or water-alcohol mixtures as the solvolysis reagent Small amounts of B5H9 sprayed from a syringe will not necessarily enflame, nor will a small pool on a spot plate. Therefore, a procedure was developed to reproducibly demonstrate the flammability of B5H9 In these tests every sample of neat B5H9 ignited and burned with a very sooty flame till the sample was consumed. The spontaneous self-ignition of B5H9 was quenched by the addition of small concentrations of the ethers THF (tetrahydrofuran) or DME (1,2-dimethoxy ethane). It was found that 10% (volume) of either provided total quenching with a large margin of safety. When these stabilized solutions were exposed to air, they decomposed and evaporated leaving a residue that was identified by NMR analysis as boric acid. Most of the laboratory solvolysis experiments used the 90% B5H9, 10% THF solution. This mixture was safer to handle and its solvolysis reactivity was virtually identical to that of 100% B5H9. Reaction rates were analyzed by measurement of hydrogen evolved during the solvolysis reactions. In terms of the minimum overall complete reaction time, the data indicate that 50150 alcohol/water is the optimum solvolysis reagent. This reaction produced a mixture of boric acid, B(OH)3, and triethoxyborane, B(OEt)3 [Et = C2H5], and mixed exchange derivatives thereof.

  10. Treatability Study of Pentaborane(9)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Joseph K.; Wright, Jeffery S.; Gaines, Donald F.

    2000-01-01

    Procedures for the safe destruction of liquid pentaborane(9), B5H9, by solvolysis were investigated. The objective of the study was to establish the optimum conditions for a pilot plant operation that would use water, or alcohol, or water-alcohol mixtures as the solvolysis reagent. Small amounts of B5H9 sprayed from a syringe will not necessarily enflame, nor will a small pool on a spot plate. Therefore, a procedure was developed to reproducibly demonstrate the flammability of B5H9. In these tests every sample of neat B5H9 ignited and burned with a very sooty flame till the sample was consumed. The spontaneous self-ignition of B5H9 was quenched by the addition of small concentrations of ethers THF (tetrahydrofuran) or DME (1,2-dimethoxy ethane). It was found that ten percent (volume) of either provided total quenching with a large margin of safety. When these stabilized solutions were exposed to air, they decomposed and evaporated leaving a residue that was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis as boric acid. Most of the laboratory solvolysis experiments used the 90 percent B5H9, 10 percent THF solution. This mixture was safer to handle and its solvolysis reactivity was virtually identical to that of 100 percent B5H9. Reaction rates were analyzed by measurement of hydrogen evolved during the solvolysis reactions. In terms of the minimum overall complete reaction time, the data indicate that 50/50 alcohol/water is the optimum solvolysis reagent. This reaction produced a mixture of boric acid, B(OH)3, and triethoxyborane, B(OEt)3[Et = C2H5], and mixed exchange derivatives thereof.

  11. In Situ Vitrification Treatability Study Work Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Charboneau, B.L.; Landon, J.L.

    1989-03-01

    The Buried Waste Program was established in October, 1987 to accelerate the studies needed to develop a recommended long-term management plan for the buried mixed waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The In Situ Vitrification Project is being conducted in a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Feasibility Study format to identify methods for the long-term management of the mixed waste buried. This In Situ Vitrification Treatability Study Work Plan gives a brief description of the site, work breakdown structure, and project organization: the in situ vitrification technology; the purpose of the tests and demonstrations; and the equipment and materials required for the tests and demonstration. 5 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. TREATABILITY STUDIES OF PESTICIDE MANUFACTURING WASTEWATERS: ETHYLENEBISDITHIOCARBAMATE FUNGICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of laboratory and pilot studies on the biological treatability of wastewaters from the manufacture of ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicide. At concentration levels representative of EBDC production units and total plant wastewaters discharged to pu...

  13. 100 Area groundwater biodenitrification bench-scale treatability study procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Peyton, B.M.; Martin, K.R.

    1993-05-01

    This document describes the methodologies and procedures for conducting the bench-scale biodenitrification treatability tests at Pacific Northwest Laboratory{sup a} (PNL). Biodenitrification is the biological conversion of nitrate and nitrite to gaseous nitrogen. The tests will use statistically designed batch studies to determine if biodenitrification can reduce residual nitrate concentrations to 45 mg/L, the current maximum contaminant level (MCL). These tests will be carried out in anaerobic flasks with a carbon source added to demonstrate nitrate removal. At the pilot scale, an incremental amount of additional carbon will be required to remove the small amount of oxygen present in the incoming groundwater. These tests will be conducted under the guidance of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-92-73) and the Treatability Study Program Plan (DOE/RL-92-48) using groundwater from 100-HR-3. In addition to the procedures, requirements for safety, quality assurance, reporting, and schedule are given. Appendices include analytical procedures, a Quality Assurance Project Plan, a Health and Safety Plan, and Applicable Material Data Safety Sheets. The procedures contained herein are designed specifically for the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan, and while the author believes that the methods described herein are scientifically valid, the procedures should not be construed or mistaken to be generally applicable to any other treatability study.

  14. GUIDE FOR CONDUCTING TREATABILITY STUDIES UNDER CERCLA: SOLVENT EXTRACTION QUICK REFERENCE FACT SHEET

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of remedy evaluation and selection under the Superfund Program. his fact sheet focuses on solvent extraction treatability studies, and is highly abridged version of the guide which bears the...

  15. GUIDE FOR CONDUCTING TREATABILITY STUDIES UNDER CERCLA: CHEMICAL DEHALOGENATION (QUICK REFERENCE FACT SHEET)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of remedy evaluation and selection under the Superfund program. his manual focuses on chemical dehalogenation treatability studies conducted in support of remedy selection that is conducted ...

  16. LABORATORY STUDIES OF PRIORITY POLLUTANT TREATABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated several methods currently available to reduce the level of pollutants in an industrial plant wastewater stream. Its purpose was to screen these treatment processes. As a result of this screening, further in-depth evaluations should be considered. The study...

  17. Guide for conducting treatability studies under CERCLA: Solvent extraction quick reference fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Rawe, J.

    1992-08-01

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of remedy evaluation and selection under the Superfund Program. This fact sheet focuses on solvent extraction treatability studies, and is a highly abridged version of the guide which bears the same title. This fact sheet presents an abbreviated guide for designing and implementing solvent extraction treatability studies. The fact sheet presents a description of and discusses the applicability and limitations of solvent extraction technologies and defines the prescreening and field measurement data needed to determine if treatability testing is required.

  18. Hydrated lime for metals immobilization and explosives transformation: Treatability study.

    PubMed

    Martin, W Andy; Larson, S L; Nestler, C C; Fabian, G; O'Connor, G; Felt, D R

    2012-05-15

    Fragmentation grenades contain Composition B (RDX and TNT) within a steel shell casing. There is the potential for off-site migration of high explosives and metals from hand grenade training ranges by transport in surface water and subsurface transport in leachate. This treatability study used bench-scale columns and mesocosm-scale laboratory lysimeters to investigate the potential of hydrated lime as a soil amendment for in situ remediation of explosives and metals stabilization in hand grenade range soils. Compared to the unamended soil there was a 26-92% reduction of RDX in the leachate and runoff water from the lime treated soils and a 66-83% reduction of zinc in the leachate and runoff water samples; where the hand grenade range metals of concern were zinc, iron, and manganese. The amended soil was maintained at the target pH of greater than 10.5 for optimum explosives decomposition. The treatability study indicated a high potential of success for scale-up to an in situ field study. PMID:22445717

  19. Process and equipment development for hot isostatic pressing treatability study

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, Ken; Wahlquist, Dennis; Malewitz, Tim

    2015-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA), LLC, has developed processes and equipment for a pilot-scale hot isostatic pressing (HIP) treatability study to stabilize and volume reduce radioactive calcine stored at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). In 2009, the U. S. Department of Energy signed a Record of Decision with the state of Idaho selecting HIP technology as the method to treat 5,800 yd^3 (4,400 m^3) of granular zirconia and alumina calcine produced between 1953 and 1992 as a waste byproduct of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Since the 1990s, a variety of radioactive and hazardous waste forms have been remotely treated using HIP within INL hot cells. To execute the remote process at INL, waste is loaded into a stainless-steel or aluminum can, which is evacuated, sealed, and placed into a HIP furnace. The HIP simultaneously heats and pressurizes the waste, reducing its volume and increasing its durability. Two 1 gal cans of calcine waste currently stored in a shielded cask were identified as candidate materials for a treatability study involving the HIP process. Equipment and materials for cask-handling and calcine transfer into INL hot cells, as well as remotely operated equipment for waste can opening, particle sizing, material blending, and HIP can loading have been designed and successfully tested. These results demonstrate BEA’s readiness for treatment of INL calcine.

  20. Miscellaneous chemical basin treatability study: an analysis of passive soil vapor extraction wells (PSVE)

    SciTech Connect

    Riha, B.; Rossabi, J.

    1997-12-01

    A passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) treatability study at the Miscellaneous Chemical Basin (MCB) of the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been progressing since September 1996. The results to date on the treatability study of the PSVE system indicate that the technology is performing well.

  1. Treatability study of pesticide-based industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kinnari; Chauhan, L I; Galgale, A D

    2012-10-01

    This paper finds out appropriate treatment methods for wastewater of an Organophosphorus viz, chloropyrifos pesticide manufacturing industry. The characterization of wastewater generated during trial production of chloropyrifos was carried out. Based on the characterization of wastewater, various treatability studies were conducted. The most desirable results were obtained with treatment scheme employing acidification, chlorination with NaOCl, suspended growth biological treatment, chemical precipitation for phosphorous removal and activated carbon treatment. Acidification of wastewater helps in by-product recovery as well as reduction in COD upto 36.26%. Chlorination followed by biological treatment was found to be effective to reduce the COD level by 62.06%. To comply with permissible limits prescribed by Effluent Channel Project Ltd.(ECPL)* and Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) for discharge of industrial effluent into channel, further treatment in the form of chemical precipitation (for phosphorous removal) and granular activated carbon is suggested. PMID:25151721

  2. Bench- and pilot-scale thermal desorption treatability studies on pesticide-contaminated soils from Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Swanstrom, C.P.; Besmer, M.

    1995-03-09

    Thermal desorption is being considered as a potential remediation technology for pesticide-contaminated soils at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) in Denver, Colorado. From 1988 through 1992, numerous laboratory- and bench-scale indirect-heated thermal desorption (IHTD) treatability studies have been performed on various soil medium groups from the arsenal. RMA has contracted Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a pilot-scale direct-fired thermal desorption (DFTD) treatability study on pesticide-contaminated RMA soil. The purpose of this treatability study is to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the DFTD technology on contaminated RMA soils and to provide data upon which future conceptual design assumptions and cost estimates for a full-scale system can be made. The equipment used in the DFTD treatability study is of large enough scale to provide good full-scale design parameters and operating conditions. The study will also provide valuable-emissions and materials-handling data. Specifically this program will determine if DFTD can achieve reductions in soil contamination below the RMA preliminary remediation goals (PRGs), define system operating conditions for achieving the PRGs, and determine the fate of arsenic and other hazardous metals at these operating conditions. This paper intends to compare existing data from a bench-scale IHTD treatability study using equipment operated in the batch mode to new data from a pilot-scale DFTD operated in a parallel-flow continuous mode. Delays due to materials-handling problems and permit issues have delayed the start of the pilot-scale DFTD testing. The first pilot-scale test is scheduled for the flat week in January 1995. The available data will be presented March 9, 1995, at the Seventh Annual Gulf Coast Environmental Conference in Houston, Texas.

  3. GUIDE FOR CONDUCTING TREATABILITY STUDIES UNDER CERCLA: THERMAL DESORPTION - INTERIM GUIDANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process and the remedial design remedial action (RD/RA) process under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liab...

  4. GUIDE FOR CONDUCTING TREATABILITY STUDIES UNDER CERCLA: AEROBIC BIODEGRADATION REMEDY SCREENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (KU FS) process and the remedial design/remedial action (RD/RA) process under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and L...

  5. Treatability study Number PDC-1-O-T. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-22

    Los Alamos National Laboratory provided treatability study samples from four waste streams, designated Stream {number_sign}1, Stream {number_sign}3, Stream {number_sign}6, and Stream {number_sign}7. Stream {number_sign}1 consisted of one 55-gallon drum of personal protective equipment (PPE), rags, and neutralizing agent (bicarbonate) generated during the cleanup of a sodium dichromate solution spill. Stream {number_sign}3 was one 55-gallon drum of paper, rags, lab utensils, tools, and tape from the decontamination of a glovebox. The sample of Stream {number_sign}6 was packaged in three 30-gallon drums and a 100 ft{sup 3} wooden box. It consisted of plastic sheeting, PPE, and paper generated from the cleanup of mock explosive (barium nitrate) from depleted uranium parts. Stream {number_sign}7 was scrap metal (copper, stainless and carbon steel joined with silver solder) from the disassembly of gas manifolds. The objective of the treatability study is to determine: (1) whether the Perma-Fix stabilization/solidification process can treat the waste sample to meet Land Disposal Restrictions and the Waste Acceptance Criteria for LANL Technical Area 54, Area G, and (2) optimum loading and resulting weight and volume of finished waste form. The stabilized waste was mixed into grout that had been poured into a lined drum. After each original container of waste was processed, the liner was closed and a new liner was placed in the same drum on top of the previous closed liner. This allowed an overall reduction in waste volume but kept waste segregated to minimize the amount of rework in case analytical results indicated any batch did not meet treatment standards. Samples of treated waste from each waste stream were analyzed by Perma-Fix Analytical Services to get a preliminary approximation of TCLP metals. Splits of these samples were sent to American Environmental Network`s mixed waste analytical lab in Cary, NC for confirmation analysis. Results were all below applicable

  6. Solidifications/stabilization treatability study of a mixed waste sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; Stine, E.F.

    1996-03-01

    The Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office signed a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement with the US Environmental Protection Agency Region IV regarding mixed wastes from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) subject to the land disposal restriction provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This agreement required treatability studies of solidification/stabilization (S/S) on mixed wastes from the ORR. This paper reports the results of the cementitious S/S studies conducted on a waste water treatment sludge generated from biodenitrification and heavy metals precipitation. For the cementitious waste forms, the additives tested were Portland cement, ground granulated blast furnace slag, Class F fly ash, and perlite. The properties measured on the treated waste were density, free-standing liquid, unconfined compressive strength, and TCLP performance. Spiking up to 10,000, 10,000, and 4,400 mg/kg of nickel, lead, and cadmium, respectively, was conducted to test waste composition variability and the stabilization limitations of the binding agents. The results indicated that nickel, lead and cadmium were stabilized fairly well in the high pH hydroxide-carbonate- ``bug bones`` sludge, but also clearly confirmed the established stabilization potential of cementitious S/S for these RCRA metals.

  7. LOGAN WASH FIELD TREATABILITY STUDIES OF WASTEWATERS FROM OIL SHALE RETORTING PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treatability studies were conducted on retort water and gas condensate wastewater from modified in-situ oil shale retorts to evaluate the effectiveness of selected treatment technologies for removing organic and inorganic contaminants. At retorts operated by Occidental Oil Shale,...

  8. SUMMARY PLAN FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER AND PRODUCT TESTING TREATABILITY STUDIES USING HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    ROBBINS RA

    2011-02-11

    This paper describes the sample selection, sample preparation, environmental, and regulatory considerations for shipment of Hanford radioactive waste samples for treatability studies of the FBSR process at the Savannah River National Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  9. LOSS OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN SOIL: PURE COMPOUND TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comprehensive screening data on the treatability of 32 organic chemicals in soil were developed. Of the evaluated chemicals, 22 were phenolic compounds. Aerobic batch laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted using two soils: an acidic clay soil with <1% organic matter and ...

  10. Materials testing for in situ stabilization treatability study of INEEL mixed wastes soils

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser, J.; Fuhrmann, M.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the contaminant-specific materials testing phase of the In Situ Stabilization Comprehensive Environment Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study (TS). The purpose of materials testing is to measure the effectiveness of grouting agents to stabilize Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Acid Pit soils and select a grout material for use in the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Treatability Study within the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Test results will assist the selecting a grout material for the follow-on demonstrations described in Test Plan for the Cold Test Demonstration and Acid Pit Stabilization Phases of the In Situ Stabilization Treatability Study at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex.

  11. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: BENGART AND MEMEL (BENCH-SCALE), GULFPORT (BENCH AND PILOT-SCALE), MONTANA POLE (BENCH-SCALE), AND WESTERN PROCESSING (BENCH-SCALE) TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents summary data on the results of various treatability studies (bench and pilot scale), conducted at three different sites where soils were contaminated with dioxins or PCBs. The synopsis is meant to show rough performance levels under a variety of differen...

  12. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: ABSTRACT ON-SITE INCINERATION TESTING OF SHIRCO INFRARED SYSTEMS PORTABLE DEMONSTRATION UNIT-CONTAMINATED SOILS TREATABILITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August of 1986, Shirco was contracted by Dekonta GmbH, a Vest German hazardous waste treatment company, to perform treatability studies at one of the largest dioxin-contaminated sites in the world. The Shirco Infrared process was selected by Dekonta after a two year stud...

  13. GUIDE FOR CONDUCTING TREATABILITY STUDIES UNDER CERCLA: SOLVENT EXTRACTION - INTERIM GUIDANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process and the remedial design/remedial action (RD/RA) process under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liabi...

  14. GUIDE TO CONDUCTING TREATABILITY STUDIES UNDER CERCLA: SOIL WASHING - INTERIM GUIDANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process and the remedial design/remedial action (RD/RA) process under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liab...

  15. In-Situ Chemical Reduction and Oxidation of VOCs in Groundwater: Groundwater Treatability Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Amy; Glasgow, Jason; McCaleh, Rececca C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's treatability studies for volatile organic compounds in groundwater. In-Situ groundwater treatment technologies include: 1) Chemical Reduction(Ferox); 2) Chemical Oxidation (Fenton Reagents, Permanganate, and Persulfate); and 3) Thermal (Dynamic Underground Stripping, Six-Phase Heating). This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  16. Treatability study for the stabilization of chromium contaminated waste

    SciTech Connect

    McGahan, J.F.; Martin, D.

    1994-12-31

    A process has been developed which immobilizes chromium in calcined uranyl nitrate mixed waste, resulting in a waste form disposable as radioactive, non hazardous waste. A prime contractor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory generates a radioactive waste contaminated with chromium. During handling, the waste becomes contaminated at a concentration sufficiently high to cause the waste to exceed the EPA`s Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) leachable limit for chromium. A treatability test program was instigated to define the optimum conditions for the chemical reduction pretreatment step necessary for the stabilization of the contaminated waste. Sodium dithionite was determined to be the reducing agent of choice. A dithionite demand experiment was run to determine optimum dithionite dose. This dose, plus 67 percent excess, was added to each sample. Four different stabilization systems, at three different dosage levels, were investigated. The best performing reagent system was chosen for scale-up and more stringent performance testing. In one of the tested reagent systems, Portland cement sodium silicate and dithionite, all of the samples exhibited TCLP extract concentrations for chromium well below the regulatory limit. Portland cement/blast furnace slag blend had one passing sample, and for cement/fly ash and cement alone none of the samples had passing values for leachable chromium. The samples scaled-up passed the performance criteria and the process which is currently undergoing implementation at INEL has successfully converted mixed waste into radioactive waste for disposal.

  17. Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy`s anticipated mixed waste streams. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    US DOE mixed low-level and mixed transuranic waste inventory was estimated at 181,000 cubic meters (about 2,000 waste streams). Treatability studies may be used as part of DOE`s mixed waste management program. Commercial treatability study suppliers have been identified that either have current capability in their own facilities or have access to licensed facilities. Numerous federal and state regulations, as well as DOE Order 5820.2A, impact the performance of treatability studies. Generators, transporters, and treatability study facilities are subject to regulation. From a mixed- waste standpoint, a key requirement is that the treatability study facility must have an NRC or state license that allows it to possess radioactive materials. From a RCRA perspective, the facility must support treatability study activities with the applicable plans, reports, and documentation. If PCBs are present in the waste, TSCA will also be an issue. CERCLA requirements may apply, and both DOE and NRC regulations will impact the transportation of DOE mixed waste to an off-site treatment facility. DOE waste managers will need to be cognizant of all applicable regulations as mixed-waste treatability study programs are initiated.

  18. Consideration of grain packing in granular iron treatability studies.

    PubMed

    Firdous, R; Devlin, J F

    2014-08-01

    Commercial granular iron (GI) is light steel that is used in Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRBs). Investigations into the reactivity of GI have focused on its chemical nature and relatively little direct work has been done to account for the effects of grain shape and packing. Both of these factors are expected to influence available grain surface area, which is known to correlate to reactivity. Commercial granular iron grains are platy and therefore pack in preferential orientations that could affect solution access to the surface. Three packing variations were investigated using Connelly Iron and trichloroethylene (TCE). Experimental kinetic data showed reaction rates 2-4 times higher when grains were packed with long axes preferentially parallel to flow (VP) compared to packings with long axes preferentially perpendicular to flow (HP) or randomly arranged (RP). The variations were found to be explainable by variations in reactive sorption capacities, i.e., sorption to sites where chemical transformations took place. The possibility that the different reactive sorption capacities were related to physical pore-scale differences was assessed by conducting an image analysis of the pore structure of sectioned columns. The analyses suggested that pore-scale factors - in particular the grain surface availability, reflected in the sorption capacity terms of the kinetic model used - could only account for a fraction of the observed reactivity differences between packing types. It is concluded that packing does affect observable reaction rates but that micro-scale features on the grain surfaces, rather than the pore scale characteristics, account for most of the apparent reactivity differences. This result suggests that treatability tests should consider the packing of columns carefully if they are to mimic field performance of PRBs to the greatest extent possible. PMID:25005796

  19. Metallurgical Laboratory Treatability Study: An Analysis of Passive Soil Vapor Extraction Wells - June 2000 Update

    SciTech Connect

    Riha, B.D.

    2001-01-29

    The passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) system at the MetLab of the Savannah River Site has been operating since May 1998. The results to date on the treatability study indicate the technology is performing well. Well concentrations are decreasing and contour maps of the vadose zone soil gas plume show a decrease in the extent of the plume. In the 2 years of operation approximately 270 pounds of chlorinated organic contaminants have been removed by natural barometric pumping of wells fitted with BaroBall valves (low pressure check valves). The PSVE system is performing well in a cost-effective manner. It is recommended that this system be allowed to continue operating to complete the remediation and to continue monitoring activities to verify and monitor the anticipated contaminant removal rates. The treatability study should be considered successfully completed and the remediation should be considered in full operation.

  20. Treatability studies for uranium and plutonium contaminated soils using physical separation methods. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1992-07-01

    The Nevada Field Office of the Department of Energy (DOE/NV) has stated in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) Site Specific Plan for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that DOE/NV is committed to achieving compliance with all applicable environmental laws, regulations, guidelines, and agreements covering operations at the NTS. The primary DOE/NV objective identified by the Site-Specific Plan is to comply with all laws and regulations aimed at protecting human health and the environment. These include Nevada statutes and regulations which may be applicable, including federally delegated authorities. This environmental assessment discusses limited bench-scale soil treatability testing of physical processes for decontamination of plutonium- and uranium-contaminated soil. The proposed location of these studies would be the Treatability Testing Facility (TTF), Building 3124 at Test Cell ``All in Area 25 of the NTS.

  1. Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs).

    PubMed

    Ren, Lijiao; Siegert, Michael; Ivanov, Ivan; Pisciotta, John M; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-05-01

    High-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) were used to perform treatability studies on many different refinery wastewater samples all having appreciably different characteristics, which resulted in large differences in current generation. A de-oiled refinery wastewater sample from one site (DOW1) produced the best results, with 2.1±0.2 A/m(2) (maximum current density), 79% chemical oxygen demand removal, and 82% headspace biological oxygen demand removal. These results were similar to those obtained using domestic wastewater. Two other de-oiled refinery wastewater samples also showed good performance, with a de-oiled oily sewer sample producing less current. A stabilization lagoon sample and a stripped sour wastewater sample failed to produce appreciable current. Electricity production, organics removal, and startup time were improved when the anode was first acclimated to domestic wastewater. These results show mini-MECs are an effective method for evaluating treatability of different wastewaters. PMID:23567698

  2. Treatability studies for polyethylene encapsulation of INEL low-level mixed wastes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lageraaen, P.R.; Patel, B.R.; Kalb, P.D.; Adams, J.W.

    1995-10-01

    Treatability studies for polyethylene encapsulation of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed wastes were conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The treatability work, which included thermal screening and/or processibility testing, was performed on priority candidate wastes identified by INEL to determine the applicability of polyethylene encapsulation for the solidification and stabilization of these mixed wastes. The candidate wastes selected for this preliminary study were Eutectic Salts, Ion Exchange Resins, Activated Carbons, Freon Contaminated Rags, TAN TURCO Decon 4502, ICPP Sodium Bearing Liquid Waste, and HTRE-3 Acid Spill Clean-up. Thermal screening was conducted for some of these wastes to determine the thermal stability of the wastes under expected pretreatment and processing conditions. Processibility testing to determine whether the wastes were amenable to extrusion processing included monitoring feed consistency, extruder output consistency, waste production homogeneity, and waste form performance. Processing parameters were not optimized within the scope of this study. However, based on the treatability results, polyethylene encapsulation does appear applicable as a primary or secondary treatment for most of these wastes.

  3. Operable Unit 7-13/14 in situ thermal desorption treatability study work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, P.; Nickelson, D.; Hyde, R.

    1999-05-01

    This Work Plan provides technical details for conducting a treatability study that will evaluate the application of in situ thermal desorption (ISTD) to landfill waste at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). ISTD is a form of thermally enhanced vapor vacuum extraction that heats contaminated soil and waste underground to raise its temperature and thereby vaporize and destroy most organics. An aboveground vapor vacuum collection and treatment system then destroys or absorbs the remaining organics and vents carbon dioxide and water to the atmosphere. The technology is a byproduct of an advanced oil-well thermal extraction program. The purpose of the ISTD treatability study is to fill performance-based data gaps relative to off-gas system performance, administrative feasibility, effects of the treatment on radioactive contaminants, worker safety during mobilization and demobilization, and effects of landfill type waste on the process (time to remediate, subsidence potential, underground fires, etc.). By performing this treatability study, uncertainties associated with ISTD as a selected remedy will be reduced, providing a better foundation of remedial recommendations and ultimate selection of remedial actions for the SDA.

  4. Treatability/feasibility study for district water quality improvement

    SciTech Connect

    1986-04-01

    The South Adams County Water and Sanitation District`s most productive shallow alluvial wells are contaminated with a number of volatile organic chemicals. In addition, previous and ongoing studies by various agencies have detected several nonvolatile organic contaminants clearly associated with Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) operations in the northern portion of the existing District area and throughout the western half of the area north and west of RMA. This area is ultimately planned as an addition to the District`s present service area. The District retained the services of James M. Montgomery, Consulting Engineers, Inc. (JMM) to evaluate treatment alternatives for removal of organics contaminants and softening. The objectives of the study are outlined in the District`s request for proposals dated October 11, 1985. In general, the objectives are: to establish, through an analysis of cost and availability, potential sources of supply for the current and projected District water demands; based on requirements of the Colorado Department of Health and the Environmental Protection Agency, develop treated water quality goals; and select the most feasible treatment for organic contaminant removal with consideration of cost, constructability and reliability in meeting treated water quality goals.

  5. Final waste forms project: Performance criteria for phase I treatability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliam, T.M.; Hutchins, D.A.; Chodak, P. III

    1994-06-01

    This document defines the product performance criteria to be used in Phase I of the Final Waste Forms Project. In Phase I, treatability studies will be performed to provide {open_quotes}proof-of-principle{close_quotes} data to establish the viability of stabilization/solidification (S/S) technologies. This information is required by March 1995. In Phase II, further treatability studies, some at the pilot scale, will be performed to provide sufficient data to allow treatment alternatives identified in Phase I to be more fully developed and evaluated, as well as to reduce performance uncertainties for those methods chosen to treat a specific waste. Three main factors influence the development and selection of an optimum waste form formulation and hence affect selection of performance criteria. These factors are regulatory, process-specific, and site-specific waste form standards or requirements. Clearly, the optimum waste form formulation will require consideration of performance criteria constraints from each of the three categories. Phase I will focus only on the regulatory criteria. These criteria may be considered the minimum criteria for an acceptable waste form. In other words, a S/S technology is considered viable only if it meet applicable regulatory criteria. The criteria to be utilized in the Phase I treatability studies were primarily taken from Environmental Protection Agency regulations addressed in 40 CFR 260 through 265 and 268; and Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations addressed in 10 CFR 61. Thus the majority of the identified criteria are independent of waste form matrix composition (i.e., applicable to cement, glass, organic binders etc.).

  6. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Treatability study work plan, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sresty, G.C.

    1994-07-07

    A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. The EM heating process for soil decontamination is based on volumetric heating technologies developed during the `70s for the recovery of fuels from shale and tar sands by IIT Research Institute (IITRI) under a co-operative program with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Additional modifications of the technology developed during the mid `80s are currently used for the production of heavy oil and waste treatment. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 to 95 C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern.

  7. Treatability studies for decontamination of Melton Valley Storage Tank supernate

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, W.D.; Fowler, V.L.; Perona, J.J.; McTaggart, D.R.

    1992-08-01

    Liquid low-level waste, primarily nitric acid contaminated with radionuclides and minor concentrations of organics and heavy metals, is neutralized with sodium hydroxide, concentrated by evaporation, and stored for processing and disposal. The evaporator concentrate separates into sludge and supernate phases upon cooling. The supernate is 4 to 5 mol/L sodium nitrate contaminated with soluble radionuclides, principally {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 14}C, while the sludge consists of precipitated carbonates and hydroxides of metals and transuranic elements. Methods for treatment and disposal of this waste are being developed. In studies to determine the feasibility of removing {sup 137}Cs from the supernates before solidification campaigns, batch sorption measurements were made from four simulated supernate solutions with four different samples of potassium hexacyanocobalt ferrate (KCCF). Cesium decontamination factors of 1 to 8 were obtained with different KCCF batches from a highly-salted supernate at pH 13. Decontamination factors as high as 50 were measured from supernates with lower salt content and pH, in fact, the pH had a greater effect than the solution composition on the decontamination factors. The decontamination factors were highest after 1 to 2 d of mixing and decreased with longer mixing times due to decomposition of the KCCF in the alkaline solution. The decontamination factors decreased with settling time and were lower for the same total contact time (mixing + settling) for the longer mixing times, indicating more rapid KCCF decomposition during mixing than during settling. There was no stratification of cesium in the tubes as the KCCF decomposed.

  8. Treatability studies of alternative wastewaters for Metal Finishing Effluent Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wittry, D.M.; Martin, H.L.

    1994-06-01

    The 300-M Area Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility (LETF) of the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an end-of-pipe industrial wastewater treatment facility that uses precipitation and filtration, which is the EPA Best Available Technology economically achievable for a Metal Finishing and Aluminum Form Industries. Upon the completion of stored waste treatment, the LETF will be shut down, because production of nuclear materials for reactors stopped at the end of the Cold War. The economic use of the LETF for the treatment of alternative wastewater streams is being evaluated through laboratory bench-scale treatability studies.

  9. Decomposition of PCBs in oils using gamma radiolysis: A treatability study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, B.J.; Arbon, R.E.

    1996-04-01

    This report presents the results of a treatability study of radiologically and PCB contaminated waste hydraulic oils at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The goal of the study was to demonstrate that PCBs could be selectively removed from the contaminated oils. The PCBs were selectively decomposed in an in-situ fashion via gamma-ray radiolysis. The gamma-ray source was spent nuclear fuel at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) canal at the Test Reactor Area (TRA), of the INEL. Exposure to gamma-rays does not induce radioactivity in the exposed solutions. The treatability study was the culmination of five years of research concerning PCB radiolysis conducted at INEL which investigated the mechanism and kinetics of the reaction in several solvents. The major findings of this research are summarized here. Based upon these findings three INEL waste streams were selected for testing of the process. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) treatment standard of 2 mg/kg was successfully achieved in all waste streams. The interference of contaminants other than PCBs is discussed.

  10. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoextraction Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone – Field Treatability Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2010-01-11

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) is present both in the aquifer near the river and in the vadose and riparian zones of the river’s shore at 100-NR-2. Phytoextraction of 90Sr is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua). Past studies have shown that willow roots share uptake mechanisms for Sr with Ca, a plant macronutrient as well as no discrimination between Sr and 90Sr. Willow 90Sr concentration ratios [CR’s; (pCi 90Sr/g dry wt. of new growth tissue)/(pCi 90Sr/g soil porewater)] were consistently greater than 65 with three-quarters of the assimilated label partitioned into the above ground shoot. Insect herbivore experiments also demonstrated no significant potential for bioaccumulation or food chain transfer from their natural activities. The objectives of this field study were three-fold: (1) to demonstrate that a viable, “managed” plot of coyote willows can be established on the shoreline of the Columbia River that would survive the same microenvironment to be encountered at the 100-NR-2 shoreline; (2) to show through engineered barriers that large and small animal herbivores can be prevented from feeding on these plants; and (3) to show that once established, the plants will provide sufficient biomass annually to support the phytoextraction technology. A field treatability demonstration plot was established on the Columbia River shoreline alongside the 100-K West water intake at the end of January 2007. The plot was delimited by a 3.05 m high chain-link fence and was approximately 10 x 25 m in size. A layer of fine mesh metal small animal screening was placed around the plot at the base of the fencing to a depth of 45 cm. A total of sixty plants were placed in six slightly staggered rows with 1-m spacing between plants. The actual plot size was 0.00461 hectare (ha). At the time of planting (March 12, 2007), the plot was located about 10 m from the

  11. TREATABILITY STUDIES USED TO TEST FOR EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS OF PLUTONIUM DECONTAMINATION CHEMICALS

    SciTech Connect

    EWALT, J.R.

    2005-06-06

    , and sequestering agents. As part of the treatability study, Fluor and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) personnel have evaluated the potential for self-heating and exothermic reactions in the residual decontamination materials. Exothermic reactions that release significant heat and off-gas have been discovered for both the cerium nitrate, as seen in a fire at Rocky Flats, and proprietary solutions developed for decontamination purposes. From the treatability studies, certain limiting conditions have been defined that will aid in assuring safe operations and waste packaging during the decommissioning process.

  12. Biodegradability oriented treatability studies on high strength segregated wastewater of a woolen textile dyeing plant.

    PubMed

    Baban, Ahmet; Yediler, Ayfer; Ciliz, NilgunKiran; Kettrup, Antonius

    2004-11-01

    Textile dyeing and finishing industry involves considerable amount of water usage as well as polluted and highly colored wastewater discharges. Biological treatability by means of mineralization, nitrification and denitrification of high strength woolen textile dye bathes, first- and second-rinses is presented. COD fractionation study was carried out and kinetic parameters were determined. Biodegradability of organic compounds in highly loaded composite wastewater after segregation and the effluent of applied biological treatment of high strength composite wastewater were measured by determining oxygen consumption rates. The results were used in terms of assessing an alternative method for inert COD fractionation. The study implied that about 80% soluble COD, 50% color and 75% toxicity reduction were possible by single sludge biological processes. Sixteen per cent of total COD was found to be initially inert. Inert fraction was increased to 22% by production of soluble and particulate microbial products through biological treatment. PMID:15488936

  13. Treatable Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Mahler, Michael E.; Cummings, Jeffrey L.; Benson, D. Frank

    1987-01-01

    Dementia is an acquired impairment of intellect produced by brain dysfunction. In the past, dementia was regarded as inevitably chronic, progressive and irreversible. More recently dementia has been viewed as a clinical syndrome that may be produced by both irreversible and reversible conditions. Recognition of the presence of a dementia syndrome should be followed by an evaluation for potentially treatable causes of the intellectual deterioration. Dementia treatment includes therapy for reversible or curable dementias and nonspecific interventions that may improve the condition of patients with progressive dementia syndromes. PMID:3617715

  14. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 1: Results of treatability study

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.; Naney, M.T.; Cline, S.R.; Bogle, M.A.; Tixier, J.S.

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993 to apply in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was later extended to include all of Pit 1 and was performed to support a possible Interim Record of Decision or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches beginning as early as FY 1997. This treatability study was carried out to establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability for the overlap of melt settings which will be necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of {sup 137}Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. In April 1996 an expulsion of an estimated 10% of the 196 Mg (216 tons) melt body occurred resulting in significant damage to ISV equipment and, ultimately, led to an indefinite suspension of further ISV operations at Pit 1. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and status of the project in fulfilling these objectives through September 1997.

  15. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T.

    1996-02-01

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent.

  16. Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study Equipment Testing at the Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, BL

    2001-02-27

    This report provides a summary of the cold tests performed on the equipment to be used in the Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study. The testing was performed from June 1996 to May 1997 at the Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility located at the 7600 complex at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Testing of specific equipment grouped into the following sections: (1) Modified Light-Duty Utility Arm Testing, (2) Remotely Operated Vehicle Testing, (3) Waste Dislodging and Conveyance System and Balance of Plant Equipment Testing, (4) Camera and Lighting System Testing, and (5) Characterization End-Effector Testing. Each section contains descriptions of a series of tests that summarize the test objectives, testing performed, and test results. General conclusions from the testing are also provided.

  17. SUMMARY PLAN FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER AND PRODUCT TESTING TREATABILITY STUDIES USING HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB

    2010-08-19

    This paper describes the sample selection, sample preparation, environmental, and regulatory considerations for shipment of Hanford radioactive waste samples for treatability studies of the FBSR process at the Savannah River National Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford tank farms contain approximately 57 million gallons of wastes, most of which originated during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel to produce plutonium for defense purposes. DOE intends to pre-treat the tank waste to separate the waste into a high level fraction, that will be vitrified and disposed of in a national repository as high-level waste (HLW), and a low-activity waste (LAW) fraction that will be immobilized for on-site disposal at Hanford. The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is the focal point for the treatment of Hanford tank waste. However, the WTP lacks the capacity to process all of the LAW within the regulatory required timeframe. Consequently, a supplemental LAW immobilization process will be required to immobilize the remainder of the LAW. One promising supplemental technology is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) to produce a sodium-alumino-silicate (NAS) waste form. The NAS waste form is primarily composed of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}), sodalite (Nas[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}Cl{sub 2}), and nosean (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}SO{sub 4}). Semivolatile anions such as pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) and volatiles such as iodine as iodide (I{sup -}) are expected to be entrapped within the mineral structures, thereby immobilizing them (Janzen 2008). Results from preliminary performance tests using surrogates, suggests that the release of semivolatile radionuclides {sup 99}Tc and volatile {sup 129}I from granular NAS waste form is limited by Nosean solubility. The predicted release of {sup 99}Tc from the NAS waste form at a 100 meters down gradient well from the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF

  18. Site sampling and treatability studies for demonstration of WasteChem's asphalt encapsulation technology under EPA's SITE program

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, J.; Tsadwa, S.; Wills, N.; Evans, M.

    1990-10-01

    This paper presents a sampling approach that was used to determine whether there were adequate quantities and concentrations of wastes at the Woodland Township Route 532 Site for demonstration of the asphalt encapsulation technology. This paper also presents the result of a bench-scale treatability study on wastes from this site. The preliminary sampling and analysis confirmed most of the types of organic and inorganic contaminants found at the Woodland Township Route 532 site during the remedial investigation (RI). However, the contamination levels varied over relatively short distances across the site from some contaminants. The bench-scale treatability study indicated that, when compared with concentrations in the untreated waste, WasteChem's asphalt encapsulation technology reduced semivolatile organic compound concentrations in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure extracts of treated wastes. The study also indicated that metals concentrations in the TCLP extracts were lower in the treated wastes than the untreated wastes in some samples and higher in others.

  19. Project management plan for the gunite and associated tanks treatability studies project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Treatability Studies Project satisfies the requirements of the program management plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program as established in the Program Management Plan for the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory Site Environmental Restoration Program. This plan is a subtier of several other ER documents designed to satisfy the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4700.1 requirement for major systems acquisitions. This project management plan identifies the major activities of the GAAT Treatability Studies Project; establishes performance criteria; discusses the roles and responsibilities of the organizations that will perform the work; and summarizes the work breakdown structure, schedule, milestones, and cost estimate for the project.

  20. Treatability study of absorbent polymer waste form for mixed waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, S. D.; Lehto, M. A.; Stewart, N. A.; Croft, A. D.; Kern, P. W.

    2000-02-10

    A treatability study was performed to develop and characterize an absorbent polymer waste form for application to low level (LLW) and mixed low level (MLLW) aqueous wastes at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). In this study absorbent polymers proved effective at immobilizing aqueous liquid wastes in order to meet Land Disposal Restrictions for subsurface waste disposal. Treatment of aqueous waste with absorbent polymers provides an alternative to liquid waste solidification via high-shear mixing with clays and cements. Significant advantages of absorbent polymer use over clays and cements include ease of operations and waste volume minimization. Absorbent polymers do not require high-shear mixing as do clays and cements. Granulated absorbent polymer is poured into aqueous solutions and forms a gel which passes the paint filter test as a non-liquid. Pouring versus mixing of a solidification agent not only eliminates the need for a mixing station, but also lessens exposure to personnel and the potential for spread of contamination from treatment of radioactive wastes. Waste minimization is achieved as significantly less mass addition and volume increase is required of and results from absorbent polymer use than that of clays and cements. Operational ease and waste minimization translate into overall cost savings for LLW and MLLW treatment.

  1. Treatability study for the bench-scale solidification of nonincinerable LDR low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gering, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    The focus of this report is the solidification of nonincinerable, land disposal restricted (LDR) low-level mixed waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Benchscale solidification was performed on samples of this mixed waste, which was done under a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act treatability study. Waste forms included liquids, sludges, and solids, and treatment techniques included the use of conventional Portland cement and sulphur polymer cement (SPC). A total of 113 monoliths were made under the experimental design matrix for this study; 8 of these were ``blank`` monoliths (contained no waste). Thus, 105 monoliths were used to solidify 21.6 kg of mixed waste; 92 were made with Portland cement systems, and 13 were made with SPC. Recipes for all monoliths are given, and suggested recipes (as based on the minimized leaching of toxic components) are summarized. In most cases, the results presented herein indicate that solidification was successful in immobilizing toxic metals, thereby transforming low-level mixed waste into low-level nonhazardous waste. The ultimate goal of this project is to use appropriate solidification techniques, as described in the literature, to transform low-level mixed waste to low-level nonhazardous waste by satisfying pertinent disposal requirements for this waste. Disposal requirements consider the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure tests, a free liquids test, and radiological analyses. This work is meaningful in that it will provide a basis for the disposal of waste that is currently categorized as LDR low-level mixed waste.

  2. Treatability study for the bench-scale solidification of nonincinerable LDR low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gering, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The focus of this report is the solidification of nonincinerable, land disposal restricted (LDR) low-level mixed waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Benchscale solidification was performed on samples of this mixed waste, which was done under a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act treatability study. Waste forms included liquids, sludges, and solids, and treatment techniques included the use of conventional Portland cement and sulphur polymer cement (SPC). A total of 113 monoliths were made under the experimental design matrix for this study; 8 of these were blank'' monoliths (contained no waste). Thus, 105 monoliths were used to solidify 21.6 kg of mixed waste; 92 were made with Portland cement systems, and 13 were made with SPC. Recipes for all monoliths are given, and suggested recipes (as based on the minimized leaching of toxic components) are summarized. In most cases, the results presented herein indicate that solidification was successful in immobilizing toxic metals, thereby transforming low-level mixed waste into low-level nonhazardous waste. The ultimate goal of this project is to use appropriate solidification techniques, as described in the literature, to transform low-level mixed waste to low-level nonhazardous waste by satisfying pertinent disposal requirements for this waste. Disposal requirements consider the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure tests, a free liquids test, and radiological analyses. This work is meaningful in that it will provide a basis for the disposal of waste that is currently categorized as LDR low-level mixed waste.

  3. Treatability studies of actual listed waste sludges from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Peeler, D.K.; Gilliam, T.M.; Bleier, A.; Spence, R.D.

    1996-05-06

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) are investigating vitrification for various low-level and mixed wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Treatability studies have included surrogate waste formulations at the laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scales and actual waste testing at the laboratory- and pilot-scales. The initial waste to be processing through SRTC`s Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is the K-1407-B and K-1407-C (B/C) Pond sludge waste which is a RCRA F-listed waste. The B/C ponds at the ORR K-25 site were used as holding and settling ponds for various waste water treatment streams. Laboratory-, pilot-, and field- scale ``proof-of-principle`` demonstrations are providing needed operating parameters for the planned field-scale demonstration with actual B/C Pond sludge waste at ORR. This report discusses the applied systems approach to optimize glass compositions for this particular waste stream through laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scale studies with surrogate and actual B/C waste. These glass compositions will maximize glass durability and waste loading while optimizing melt properties which affect melter operation, such as melt viscosity and melter refractory corrosion. Maximum waste loadings minimize storage volume of the final waste form translating into considerable cost savings.

  4. Functions and requirements for a waste dislodging and conveyance system for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, J.D.; Mullen, O.D.

    1995-09-01

    Functions and requirements for the Waste Dislodging and Conveyance System to be deployed in Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) and tested and evaluated as a candidate tank waste retrieval technology by the GAAT Treatability Study (GAAT TS).

  5. Treatability study of Tank E-3-1 waste: mixed waste stream SR-W049

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    1997-08-21

    Treatability studies were conducted for tank E-3-1 waste which was previously characterized in WSRC-RP-87-0078. The waste was determined to be mixed waste because it displayed the characteristic of metal toxicity for Hg and Cr and was also contaminated with low levels of radionuclides. Two types of treatments for qualifying this waste suitable for land disposal were evaluated: ion exchange and stabilization with hydraulic materials (portland cement, slag and magnesium phosphate cement). These treatments were selected for testing because: (1) Both treatments can be carried out as in-drum processes., (2) Cement stabilization is the RCRA/LDR best developed available technology (BDAT) for Hg (less than 280 mg/L) and for Cr., and (3) Ion exchange via Mag-Sep is a promising alternative technology for in drum treatment of liquid wastes displaying metal toxicity. Cement stabilization of the E-3-1 material ( supernate and settled solids) resulted in waste forms which passed the TCLP test for both Hg and Cr. However, the ion exchange resins tested were ineffective in removing the Hg from this waste stream. Consequently, cement stabilization is recommended for a treatment of the five drums of the actual waste.

  6. Hydraulic testing plan for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatability technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. The ultimate goal of this effort is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium, technetium, nitrate, and several metals from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. This project directly supports the BCV Feasibility Study. Part of the Treatability Study, Phase II Hydraulic Performance Testing, will produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design a long-term treatment system. This effort consists of the installation and testing of two groundwater collection systems: a trench in the vicinity of GW-835 and an angled pumping well adjacent to NT-1. Pumping tests and evaluations of gradients under ambient conditions will provide data for full-scale design of treatment systems. In addition to hydraulic performance, in situ treatment chemistry data will be obtained from monitoring wells installed in the reactive media section of the trench. The in situ treatment work is not part of this test plan. This Hydraulic Testing Plan describes the location and installation of the trench and NT-1 wells, the locations and purpose of the monitoring wells, and the procedures for the pumping tests of the trench and NT-1 wells.

  7. Molasses enhanced phyto and bioremediation treatability study of explosives contaminated Hawaiian soils.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Krishna M; Babcock, Roger W; Turnbull, Steve J; Schenck, Susan

    2012-12-01

    A 15-week treatability study was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the potential effects of molasses on the bioremediation and phytoremediation potential of Guinea Grass (Panicum maximum) for treating energetic contaminated soil from the open burn/open detonation area of the Makua Military Reservation, Oahu, HI (USA). The energetics in the soil were royal demolition explosive (RDX) and high-melting explosive (HMX). Among the 6 treatments employed in this study, enhanced removal of RDX was observed from treatments that received molasses and went to completion. The RDX degradation rates in treatments with molasses diluted 1:20 and 1:40 were comparable suggesting that the lower dose worked as well as the higher dose. Treatments without molasses degraded RDX slowly and residuals remained after 15 weeks. The bacterial densities in molasses-treated units were much greater than those without molasses. Phytoremediation alone seems to have little effect on RDX disappearance. For HMX, neither bioremediation nor phytoremediation was found to be useful in reducing the concentration within the experimental period. The concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous in the soil did not change significantly during the experiment, however, a slight increase in soil pH was observed in all treatments. The study showed that irrigating with diluted molasses is effective at enhancing RDX degradation mainly in the root zone and just below it. The long term sustainability of active training ranges can be enhanced by bioremediation using molasses treatments to prevent RDX deposited by on-going operations from migrating through the soil to groundwater and off-site. PMID:23164624

  8. Mortality from treatable illnesses in marginally housed adults: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andrea A; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel; Leonova, Olga; Langheimer, Verena; Lang, Donna J; Barr, Alasdair M; Procyshyn, Ric M; Smith, Geoffrey N; Schultz, Krista; Buchanan, Tari; Krausz, Michael; Montaner, Julio S; MacEwan, G William; Rauscher, Alexander; Panenka, William J; Thornton, Allen E; Honer, William G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Socially disadvantaged people experience greater risk for illnesses that may contribute to premature death. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of treatable illnesses on mortality among adults living in precarious housing. Design A prospective cohort based in a community sample. Setting A socially disadvantaged neighbourhood in Vancouver, Canada. Participants Adults (N=371) living in single room occupancy hotels or recruited from the Downtown Community Court and followed for median 3.8 years. Main outcome measures Participants were assessed for physical and mental illnesses for which treatment is currently available. We compared cohort mortality rates with 2009 Canadian rates. Left-truncated Cox proportional hazards modelling with age as the time scale was used to assess risk factors for earlier mortality. Results During 1269 person-years of observation, 31/371 (8%) of participants died. Compared with age-matched and sex-matched Canadians, the standardised mortality ratio was 8.29 (95% CI 5.83 to 11.79). Compared with those that had cleared the virus, active hepatitis C infection was a significant predictor for hepatic fibrosis adjusting for alcohol dependence and age (OR=2.96, CI 1.37 to 7.08). Among participants <55 years of age, psychosis (HR=8.12, CI 1.55 to 42.47) and hepatic fibrosis (HR=13.01, CI 3.56 to 47.57) were associated with earlier mortality. Treatment rates for these illnesses were low (psychosis: 32%, hepatitis C virus: 0%) compared with other common disorders (HIV: 57%, opioid dependence: 61%) in this population. Conclusions Hepatic fibrosis and psychosis are associated with increased mortality in people living in marginal conditions. Timely diagnosis and intervention could reduce the high mortality in marginalised inner city populations. PMID:26297373

  9. Savannah River Site chemical, metal, and pesticide (CMP) waste vitrification treatability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cicero, C.A.

    1997-01-13

    Numerous Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as well as Department of Defense (DOD) and commercial facilities, have used earthen pits for disposal of chemicals, organic contaminants, and other waste materials. Although this was an acceptable means of disposal in the past, direct disposal into earthen pits without liners or barriers is no longer a standard practice. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), approximately three million pounds of such material was removed from seven chemical, metal, and pesticide disposal pits. This material is known as the Chemical, Metal, and Pesticide (CMP) Pit waste and carries several different listed waste codes depending on the contaminants in the respective storage container. The waste is not classified as a mixed waste because it is believed to be non-radioactive; however, in order to treat the material in a non-radioactive facility, the waste would first have to be screened for radioactivity. The Defense Waste Processing Technology (DWPT) Section of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was requested by the DOE-Savannah River (SR) office to determine the viability of vitrification of the CMP Pit wastes. Radioactive vitrification facilities exist which would be able to process this waste, so the material would not have to be analyzed for radioactive content. Bench-scale treatability studies were performed by the DWPT to determine whether a homogeneous and durable glass could be produced from the CMP Pit wastes. Homogeneous and durable glasses were produced from the six pits sampled. The optimum composition was determined to be 68.5 wt% CMP waste, 7.2 wt% Na{sub 2}O, 9 wt% CaO, 7.2 wt% Li{sub 2}O and 8.1 wt% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This glass melted at 1,150 C and represented a two fold volume reduction.

  10. 300-FF-1 operable unit remedial investigation phase II report: Physical separation of soils treatability study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This report describes the approach and results of physical separations treatability tests conducted at the Hanford Site in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. Physical separation of soils was identified as a remediation alternative due to the potential to significantly reduce the amount of contaminated soils prior to disposal. Tests were conducted using a system developed at Hanford consisting of modified EPA equipment integrated with screens, hoppers, conveyors, tanks, and pumps from the Hanford Site. The treatability tests discussed in this report consisted of four parts, in which an estimated 84 tons of soil was processed: (1) a pre-test run to set up the system and adjust system parameters for soils to be processed; (2) a baseline run to establish the performance of the system - Test No. 1; (3) a final run in which the system was modified as a result of findings from the baseline run - Test No. 2; and (4) water treatment.

  11. Sampling and analysis plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. This project directly supports Alternative 5 of the base action in the BCV Feasibility Study, and indirectly supports other alternatives through proof of concept. In that role, the ultimate goal is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium and nitrate from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. A secondary goal is the concurrent removal of technetium and several metals that impact ecological risk. This project is intended to produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design the treatment system to reach those goals. This project will also generate information that can be applied at other facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation. This report is the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for the field work component of Phase II of the BCV Treatability Study. Field work for this phase of the BCV Treatability Study consists of media testing. In-field continuous flow tests will be conducted over an extended time period (5 weeks) to generate data on long-term treatment effects on potential treatment media including sorbents and zero valent iron, over 28 weeks for constructed wetlands treatment, and over 24 weeks for algal mats treatment. The SAP addresses environmental sampling at the S-3 Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be taken from groundwater, effluent from test columns, effluent from an algal mat reactor, and effluent from a pilot-scale wetlands. This plan will be implemented as part of the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Best Management Practices Plan and in conjunction with the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Health and Safety Plan and the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Waste Management Plan.

  12. THE USE OF A TREATABILITY STUDY TO INVESTIGATE THE POTENTIAL FOR SELF HEATING & EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS IN DECONTAMINATION MATERIALS AT PFP

    SciTech Connect

    HOPKINS, A.M.

    2005-02-23

    Cerium Nitrate has been proposed for use in the decontamination of plutonium contaminated equipment at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located on the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington. A Treatability Study was conducted to determine the validity of this decontamination technology in terms of meeting its performance goals and to understand the risks associated with the use of Cerium Nitrate under the conditions found at the PFP. Fluor Hanford is beginning the decommissioning of the PFP at the Hanford site. Aggressive chemicals are commonly used to remove transuranic contaminants from process equipment to allow disposal as low level waste. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes in PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial solutions that include acids, degreasers, and sequestering agents. Fluor's decontamination procedure involves application of the chemicals, followed by a wipe-down of the contaminated surfaces with rags. This process effectively transfers the decontamination liquids containing the transuranic materials to the rags, which can then be readily packaged for disposal as TRU waste. As part of a treatability study, Fluor Hanford and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have evaluated the potential for self-heating and exothermic reactions in the residual decontamination materials and the waste packages. Laboratory analyses and thermal-hydraulic modeling reveal a significant self-heating risk for cerium nitrate solutions when used with cotton rags. Exothermic reactions that release significant heat and off-gas have been discovered for cerium nitrate at higher temperatures. From these studies, limiting conditions have been defined to assure safe operations and waste packaging.

  13. A laboratory treatability study on RDX-contaminated soil from the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant, Burlington, Iowa.

    SciTech Connect

    Boopathy, R.; Manning, J. F.; Environmental Research

    2000-03-01

    Soil in certain areas of the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant in Burlington, Iowa, was contaminated with hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). A laboratory treatability study was conducted to examine the ability of native soil bacteria present in the contaminated site to degrade RDX. The results indicated that RDX can be removed effectively from the soil by native soil bacteria through a co-metabolic process. Molasses, identified as an effective cosubstrate, is inexpensive, and this factor makes the treatment system cost effective. The successful operation of aerobic-anoxic soil-slurry reactors in batch mode with RDX-contaminated soil showed that the technology can be scaled up for field demonstration. The RDX concentration in the contaminated soil was decreased by 98% after 4 months of reactor operation. The advantage of the slurry reactor is the simplicity of its operation. The method needs only mixing and the addition of molasses as cosubstrate.

  14. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska installation restoration program, remedial investigation/feasibility study, Galena Airport, Alaska. Treatability study report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-27

    The USAF contracted Radian Corporation to perform treatability studies to evaluate soil vacuum extraction (SVE) and biodegradation technologies for remediating soil contaminated with motor and jet fuel at the Petroleum, Oils, and Lubricants (POL) Tank Farm, Galena Airport, Alaska. This technical report describes the experimental methods and interprets the analytical and operational results from the bench-scale biotreatment tests and pilot-scale SVE tests conducted between July 1992 and February 1994.

  15. TREATABILITY DATABASE DESCRIPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) presents referenced information on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It allows drinking water utilities, first responders to spills or emergencies, treatment process designers, research organizations, academics, regulato...

  16. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Hanford 118-B-1 Burial Ground Treatability Study has been required by milestone change request {number_sign}M-15-93-04, dated September 30, 1993. The change request requires that a treatability test be conducted at the 100-B Area to obtain additional engineering information for remedial design of burial grounds receiving waste from 100 Area removal actions. This treatability study has two purposes: (1) to support development of the Proposed Plan (PP) and Record of Decision (ROD), which will identify the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and (2) to provide specific engineering information for receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test also will provide critical performance and cost information necessary for remedy evaluation in the detailed analysis of alternatives during preparation of the focused feasibility study (FFS). This treatability testing supports the following 100 Area alternatives: (1) excavation and disposal, and (2) excavation, sorting, (treatment), and disposal.

  17. 100 area excavation treatability test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This test plan documents the requirements for a treatability study on field radionuclide analysis and dust control techniques. These systems will be used during remedial actions involving excavation. The data from this treatability study will be used to support the feasibility study (FS) process. Development and screening of remedial alternatives for the 100 Area, using existing data, have been completed and are documented in the 100 Area Feasibility Study, Phases 1 and 2 (DOE-RL 1992a). Based on the results of the FS, the Treatability Study Program Plan (DOE-RL 1992b) identifies and prioritizes treatability studies for the 100 Area. The data from the treatability study program support future focused FS, interim remedial measures (IRM) selection, operable unit final remedy selection, remedial design, and remedial actions. Excavation is one of the high-priority, near-term, treatability study needs identified in the program plan (DOE-RL 1992b). Excavation of contaminated soils and buried solid wastes is included in several of the alternatives identified in the 100 Area FS. Although a common activity, excavation has only been used occasionally at the Hanford Site for waste removal applications.

  18. Treatability Study Operational Testing Program and Implementation Plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    To support future decision making of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Operable Unit (OU) remedy selection, the Department of Energy (DOE) is performing a Treatability Study (TS), consistent with the EPA guidance for Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) treatability studies. The study will inform stakeholders about various waste removal technologies and the cost of potential remediation approaches, particularly the cost associated with sluicing and the reduction in risk to human health and the environment from tank content removal. As part of the GAAT OU remedy, a series of studies and technology tests will be preformed. These may address one or more of the following areas, characterization, removal, treatment, and transfer of wastes stored in the GAAT OU.

  19. Feasibility/treatability studies for removal of heavy metals from training range soils at the Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    A feasibility/treatability study was performed to investigate the leaching potential of heavy metals (particularly lead) from soils at the Grafenw6hr Training Area (GTA) in Germany. The study included an evaluation of the effectiveness of chelant extraction to remediate the heavy-metal-contarninated soils. Batch shaker tests indicated that ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (0.01M) was more effective than citric acid (0.01M) at removing cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. EDTA and citric acid were equally effective in mobilizing chromium and barium from the soil. The batch shaker technique with chelant extraction offers promise as a remediation technique for heavy-metal-contaninated soil at the GTA. Columnar flooding tests conducted as part of the study revealed that deionized water was the least effective leaching solution for mobilization of the heavy metals; the maximum solubilization obtained was 3.72% for cadmium. EDTA (0.05M) achieved the greatest removal of lead (average removal of 17.6%). The difficulty of extraction using deionized water indicates that all of the heavy metals are very tightly bound to the soil; therefore, they are very stable in the GTA soils and do not pose a serious threat to the groundwater system. Columnar flooding probably does not represent a viable remediation technique for in-situ cleanup of heavy-metal-contaminated soils at the GTA.

  20. Phase 1 report on the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    Bear Creek Valley (BCV) is located within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes associated with past operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The BCV Remedial Investigation determined that disposal of wastes at the S-3 Site, Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG) has caused contamination of both deep and shallow groundwater. The primary contaminants include uranium, nitrate, and VOCs, although other metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and cadmium persist. The BCV feasibility study will describe several remedial options for this area, including both in situ and ex situ treatment of groundwater. This Treatability Study Phase 1 Report describes the results of preliminary screening of treatment technologies that may be applied within BCV. Four activities were undertaken in Phase 1: field characterization, laboratory screening of potential sorbents, laboratory testing of zero valent iron products, and field screening of three biological treatment systems. Each of these activities is described fully in technical memos attached in Appendices A through G.

  1. Waste management plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This Waste Management Plan (WMP) for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study addresses waste management requirements for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The study is intended to produce treatment performance data required to design a treatment system for contaminated groundwater. The treatability study will consist of an evaluation of various treatment media including continuous column tests, with up to six columns being employed to evaluate the performance of different media in the treatment of groundwater; an evaluation of the dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of a wetland system; and the long-term dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of algal mats. Additionally, the treatability study involves installation of a trench and incline well to evaluate and assess hydraulic impacts of pumping groundwater. The Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) covers the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. The Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety concerns and requirements for the proposed sampling activities. This WMP identifies the types and estimates the volumes of various wastes that may be generated during the proposed treatability studies. The approach to managing waste outlined in this WMP emphasizes the following points: (1) management of the waste generated in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment; (2) minimization of waste generation, thereby reducing unnecessary costs and usage of limited permitted storage and disposal capacities; and (3) compliance with federal, state, and site requirements. Prior sampling at the site has detected organic, radioactive, and metals contamination in groundwater and surface water. Proposed field operations are not expected to result in worker exposures greater than applicable exposure or action limits.

  2. Metallurgical Laboratory (MetLab) Treatability Study: An Analysis of Passive Soil Vapor Extraction Wells (PSVE) FY1999 Update

    SciTech Connect

    Riha, B.D.

    1999-10-20

    The results to date on the treatability study of the PSVE system at the MetLab of the Savannah River Site (SRS) indicate the technology is performing well. Well concentrations are decreasing and contour maps of the vadose zone soil gas plume show a decrease in the extent of the plume. In the 18 months of operation approximately 200 pounds of chlorinated organic contaminants have been removed by natural barometric pumping of wells fitted with BaroBall valves (low pressure check valves). The mass removal estimates are approximate since the flow rates are estimated, the concentration data is based on exponential fits of a limited data set, and the concentration data is normalized to the average CO2.The concentration values presented in this report should be taken as the general trend or order of magnitude of concentration until longer-term data is collected. These trends are of exponentially decreasing concentration showing the same characteristics as the concentration trends at the SRS Miscellaneous Chemical Basin after three years of PSVE (Riha et. al., 1999).

  3. Safety analysis report for the North Tank Farm, Tank W-11, and the Gunite and Associated Tanks -- Treatability Study, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Platfoot, J.H.

    1997-02-01

    The North Tank Farm (NTF) tanks consist of eight underground storage tanks which have been removed from service because of age and changes in liquid waste system needs and requirements. Tank W-11, which was constructed in 1943, has been removed from service, and contains several hundred gallons of liquid low-level waste (LLLW). The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Treatability Study involves the demonstration of sludge removal techniques and equipment for use in other waste storage tanks throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The hazards associated with the NTF, Tank W-11, and the Treatability Study are identified in hazard identification table in Appendixes A, B, and C. The hazards identified for the NTF, Tank W-11, and the Treatability Study were analyzed in the preliminary hazards analyses (PHA) included as Appendices D and E. The PHA identifies potential accident scenarios and qualitatively estimates the consequences. Because of the limited quantities of materials present in the tanks and the types of energy sources that may result in release of the materials, none of the accidents identified are anticipated to result in significant adverse health effects to on-site or off-site personnel.

  4. EVALUATION OF CONTAMINANT LEACHABILITY FACTORS BY COMPARISON OF TREATABILITY STUDY DATA FOR MULTIPLE SOLIDIFIED/STABILIZED MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solidification/stabilization (S/S) technology is widely used in the treatment of hazardous waste and contaminated soil in the US. In a project sponsored by the US Navy and the USEPA, treatability test data were compiled into a data base listing contaminant concentration and matri...

  5. ALTERNATIVE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES FOR REMEDIATION OF CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED MATERIALS: BENCH-SCALE TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to determine the most effective of two bioremediation application strategies to ameliorate creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils present at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Florida: olid-ph...

  6. The Reclamation Program of the treatability studies for soil media project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-20

    The US Department of Energy is sponsoring a research and demonstration program on the Nevada Test Site to develop and test an optimized cleanup system for large-area, surface plutonium contamination. The project addresses three principle areas: vegetation and soil removal, volume reduction of the displaced soil, and site restoration consisting of soil stabilization and revegetation. Soil stabilization and revegetation are critical in order to prevent erosion and reestablish wildlife habitat. A series of field and laboratory studies have been initiated to develop technologies to stabilize and restore sites disturbed by TSSM activities. Soil stabilization studies will test suitable techniques and materials to control wind and water erosion. Revegetation studies will focus on determining suitable plant species, proper techniques for establishing plants by direct seeding, procedures for transplanting native shrubs, soil fertility and irrigation requirements, and effects of herbivory on plant establishment. Additional studies will determine the extent of plutonium contamination on native vegetation, and the potential for removing plutonium from vegetation. Laboratory and greenhouse studies will determine effects of plutonium decontamination processes on soil microbial populations, and the effects of gravel mulches and soil texture on plant establishment. Following completion of these studies, the most promising technologies will be demonstrated on a larger scale at actual contaminated sites on the NTS.

  7. Bioremediation treatability studies for soils containing herbicides, chemicals, and petroleum products. (Includes technical summary). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nies, L.; Mesarch, M.

    1996-09-16

    Leaking underground storage tanks (LUST`s) are widespread throughout the United States. Soil contamination by hazardous pollutants may exist at some Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) facilities. Potential pollutants are petroleum products, herbicides and solvents. The primary hazard posed by LUST`s is the possible contamination of ground water, which comprises most of our drinking water supply. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether bioremediation is a feasible treatment option for contaminated INDOT soils.

  8. Monitored Natural Attenuation of ino9rganic Contaminants Treatability Study Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Crapse, K

    2004-05-19

    The identification and quantification of key natural attenuation processes for inorganic contaminants at D-Area is detailed herein. Two overarching goals of this evaluation of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a remediation strategy were (1) to better define the availability of inorganic contaminants as potential sources for transport to groundwater and uptake by environmental receptors and (2) to understand the site-specific mechanisms controlling attenuation of these inorganic contaminants through tandem geochemical and biological characterization. Data collected in this study provides input for more appropriate site groundwater transport models. Significant natural attenuation is occurring at D-Area as evidenced by relatively low aqueous concentrations of constituents of concern (COCs) (Be, Ni, U, and As) at all locations characterized and the decrease in groundwater concentrations with increasing distance from the source. The observed magnitude of decrease in groundwater concentrations of COCs with distance from the D-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basin (DCPRB) could not be accounted for by the modeled physical attenuation processes of dilution/dispersion. This additional attenuation, i.e., the observed difference between the groundwater concentrations of COCs and the modeled physical attenuation, is due to biogeochemical processes occurring at the D-Area. In tandem geochemical and microbiological characterization studies designed to evaluate the mechanisms contributing to natural attenuation, pH was the single parameter found to be most predictive of contaminant attenuation. The increasing pH with distance from the source is likely responsible for increased sorption of COCs to soil surfaces within the aquifer at D-Area. Importantly, because the sediments appear to have a high buffering capacity, the acid emanating from the DCPRB has been neutralized by the soil, and these conditions have led to large Kd values at the site. Two major types of soils are present at

  9. Sampling and analysis plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. This project directly supports Alternative 5 of the base action in the BCV Feasibility Study and indirectly supports other alternatives through proof of concept. In that role, the ultimate goal is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium and nitrate from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. A secondary goal is the concurrent removal of technetium and several metals that affect ecological risk. This project is intended to produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design the treatment system to reach those goals. This project will also generate information that can be applied at other facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation. This report is the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for the field work component of Phase II of the BCV Treatability Study. Field work for this phase of the BCV Treatability Study consists of environmental and media testing. The SAP addresses environmental sampling at the S-3 Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be taken from groundwater, surface water, seeps, effluent from test columns, effluent from an algal mat reactor, and effluent from a pilot-scale wetland. Groundwater, surface water, and seeps will be monitored continuously for field parameters and sampled for analytical parameters during pump tests conducted periodically during the investigation. In-field continuous flow tests will be conducted over an extended time period (5 weeks) to generate data on long-term treatment effects on potential treatment effects on potential treatment media including sorbents and zero valent iron, over 28 weeks for constructed wetlands treatment, and over 24 weeks for algal mats treatment.

  10. A bench-scale treatability study for in situ bioremediation of pentachlorophenol and oil in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.J.; Doxtader, K.G.; Johnson, J.A.; Reardon, K.F.; Tessari, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which indigenous microorganisms could be induced to degrade a mixture of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and diesel oil in the subsurface at a wood treatment site. A second, and related objective, was to determine the overall rate of degradation for (1) PCP, and (2) the petroleum hydrocarbons, and which factors could be controlled to enhance these processes. Contaminated soil samples were incubated under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions for periods varying from 0 to 180 days. The effect of nutrient (N, P, S, K, Mg) supplementation on the rate and extent of degradation in both aerobic and anaerobic microcosms were studied. At eleven selected time intervals the chemical concentrations remaining in a set of microcosms (duplicate samples plus a sterile control) were determined by extracting and analyzing the soils. Enumeration of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi by plate counting were performed to obtain specific growth rate data. Aerobic microbial activity, as measured by CO{sub 2} evolution, was also determined. Kinetic models and constants were determined to predict cleanup times under the given experimental conditions. Power (zero and first order) and hyperbolic (Michaelis-Menten and Monod) kinetic models were evaluated.

  11. Confectionery industry: a case study on treatability-based effluent characterization and treatment system performance.

    PubMed

    Ozgun, H; Karagul, N; Dereli, R K; Ersahin, M E; Coskuner, T; Ciftci, D I; Ozturk, I; Altinbas, M

    2012-01-01

    Source-based wastewater characterization and stream segregation provide effective management of industrial wastewaters. The characterization of wastewater sources from a confectionery factory was presented and performance of the wastewater treatment plant was evaluated in this study. All of the wastewater sources in the factory, except the vacuum water line, can be characterized by high concentrations of soluble pollutants and low pH. High organic content of the wastewater generated from the confectionery industry promoted the application of anaerobic technology as a pre-treatment before the conventional aerobic treatment. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and biogas production for expanded granular sludge bed reactor were 88% and 1,730 Nm(3)/day, respectively. The effluent from the investigated facility can be used for irrigation provided that conductivity values are within acceptable limits. PMID:22678195

  12. Report on the treatability study for inerting small quantities of radioactive explosives and explosive components

    SciTech Connect

    Loyola, V.M.; Reber, S.D.

    1996-02-01

    As a result of Sandia`s radiation hardening testing on a variety of its explosive components, radioactive waste streams were generated and have to be disposed of as radioactive waste. Due to the combined hazards of explosives and radioactivity, Sandia`s Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management organization did not have a mechanism for disposal of these waste streams. This report documents the study done to provide a method for the removal of the explosive hazard from those waste streams. The report includes the design of the equipment used, procedures followed, results from waste stream analog tests and the results from the actual explosive inerting tests on radioactive samples. As a result of the inerting treatment, the waste streams were rendered non-explosive and, thus, manageable through normal radioactive waste disposal channels.

  13. Treatability studies and large-scale treatment of aqueous mixed waste containing heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Haefner, D.R.

    1995-12-01

    Wastes have accumulated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory through routine laboratory practices, experimental engineering operations, and decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear reactor facilities. A storage tank at the Test Area North held approximately 129,000 L of acidic wastewater and contained prohibited levels of lead and mercury. Radioactive constituents were also present; the most predominant being radiocesium Cs-137 and radiocobalt Co-60. Bench-scale studio were undertaken to evaluate ion exchange as a means of removing the contaminants. A set of breakthrough curves was obtained and identified capacity constraints, selectivities, and operating requirements of candidate resins. Treatment studies indicated that Purolite S-920 resin could effectively remove mercury, while Rohm and Haas` Amberlite 200-CH was used for lead and radionuclide removal. Based on these laboratory tests a full-scale facility, using multiple ion exchange columns, was designed and operated in the spring of 1994. The liquid effluents were discharged to an onsite evaporation pond and met RCRA disposal limits for hazardous metals and self-imposed radionuclide limits. All secondary wastes and residues were sampled and subjected to the to)dc characteristic leaching procedure. The resulting leachate concentrations were below RCRA discharge limits and, therefore, these will be disposed of at the onsite low-level disposal facility. After concluding the tank wastewater operations, enough reserve resin capacity was available to treat three additional mixed wastes residing onsite. These totaled about 1,900 L (500 gal) and contained prohibited levels of chromium, cadmium, and barium. Laboratory studies demonstrated that these heavy metals could also be removed by the existing resins. Treatment was performed at the full-scale facility with the effluents discharged to the evaporation pond.

  14. Process wastewater treatability study for Westinghouse fluidized-bed coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Winton, S.L.; Buvinger, B.J.; Evans, J.M.; French, W.E.; Page, G.C.; Rhodes, W.J.

    1983-11-01

    In the development of a synthetic fuels facility, water usage and wastewater treatment are major areas of concern. Coal gasification processes generally produce relatively large volumes of gas condensates. These wastewaters are typically composed of a variety of suspended and dissolved organic and inorganic solids and dissolved gaseous contaminants. Fluidized-bed coal gasification (FBG) processes are no exception to this rule. The Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), the Gas Research Institute (GRI), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA/IERLRTP) recognized the need for a FBG treatment program to provide process design data for FBG wastewaters during the environmental, health, and safety characterization of the Westinghouse Process Development Unit (PDU). In response to this need, METC developed conceptual designs and a program plan to obtain process design and performance data for treating wastewater from commercial-scale Westinghouse-based synfuels plants. As a result of this plan, METC, GRI, and EPA entered into a joint program to develop performance data, design parameters, conceptual designs, and cost estimates for treating wastewaters from a FBG plant. Wastewater from the Westinghouse PDU consists of process quench and gas cooling condensates which are similar to those produced by other FBG processes such as U-Gas, and entrained-bed gasification processes such as Texaco. Therefore, wastewater from this facility was selected as the basis for this study. This paper outlines the current program for developing process design and cost data for the treatment of these wastewaters.

  15. Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification Treatability Study of Mercury Contaminated Soil from the Y-12 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb P.; Milian, L.; Yim, S. P.

    2012-11-30

    As a result of past operations, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Plant) has extensive mercury-contamination in building structures, soils, storm sewer sediments, and stream sediments, which are a source of pollution to the local ecosystem. Because of mercury’s toxicity and potential impacts on human health and the environment, DOE continues to investigate and implement projects to support the remediation of the Y-12 site.URS and #9122;CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) under its prime contract with DOE has cleanup responsibilities on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation and is investigating potential mercury-contaminated soil treatment technologies through an agreement with Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) Y-12, the Y-12 operating contractor to DOE. As part of its investigations, UCOR has subcontracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to conduct laboratory-scale studies evaluating the applicability of the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process using surrogate and actual mixed waste Y-12 soils containing mercury (Hg) at 135, 2,000, and 10,000 ppm.SPSS uses a thermoplastic sulfur binder to convert Hg to stable mercury sulfide (HgS) and solidifies the chemically stable product in a monolithic solid final waste form to reduce dispersion and permeability. Formulations containing 40 – 60 dry wt% Y-12 soil were fabricated and samples were prepared in triplicate for Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing by an independent laboratory. Those containing 50 and 60 wt% soil easily met the study criteria for maximum allowable Hg concentrations (47 and 1 ppb, respectively compared with the TCLP limit of 200 ppb Hg). The lowest waste loading of 40 wt% yielded TCLP Hg concentrations slightly higher (240 ppb) than the allowable limit. Since the Y-12 soil tended to form clumps, the improved leaching at higher waste loadings was probably due to reduction in particle size

  16. Decomposition of PCBs in Oils Using Gamma Radiolysis A Treatability Study - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    B. J. Mincher; R. E. Arbon

    1996-08-01

    Several legacy hydraulic oil waste streams contaminated with Aroclor 1260 and small amounts of Cesium-137 have been in storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) due to the lack of appropriate treatment facilities. The goal of this study was to demonstrate that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) could be selectively decomposed in the oils. Removal of the PCB component to less than the 2 mg/L treatment standard should result in a waste oil that is not regulated by the Toxic Substances Control Act. Irradiation of the oils with high gamma-ray doses produces free electrons in the solution that react with PCBs. The reaction results in dechlorination of the PCBs to produce biphenyl. The gamma-ray source was spent reactor fuel stored in the Advanced Test Reactor canal at the INEL. A dry tube extends into the canal which allowed for positioning of samples in the proximity of the fuel. The gamma-ray dose rates at the samples varied from 10 to 30 kGy/h. This was measured using commercially available FWT-60 dosimeters. Irradiation of samples in a series of progressively increasing absorbed doses allowed the generation of rate constants used to predict absorbed doses necessary to meet the 2 mg/kg treatment standard. Three separate irradiation experiments were performed. The first irradiation used a maximum absorbed dose of 183 kGy. This experiment demonstrated that the PCB concentration decreased and allowed calculation of preliminary rate constants. The second irradiation used a maximum absorbed dose of 760 kGy. From this experiment, accurate rate constants were calculated, and the necessary absorbed dose to achieve the treatment standard was calculated. In the third irradiation of 2,242 kGy, all three waste streams were adequately decontaminated.

  17. Installation restoration program, construction report for interim remedial action and treatability study for Indian Mountain Long Range Radar Station, Alaska. Final report, 1 August-8 December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-13

    During the summer of 1995, two construction tasks were conducted at Indian Mountain Long Range Radar Station (LRRS). This work was completed under the U.S. Air Force (Air Force) Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The construction tasks included excavation of a water diversion ditch as an interim remedial action (IRA). Also, a biotreatment cell was constructed to conduct a treatability study of contaminated soils excavated during 1994 sampling activities. This report describes the completion of these two construction tasks, analytical results from associate soil and water sampling, and conclusions based on observations and sampling results.

  18. STEAM INJECTION TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The approach used is to inject steam into 1- dimensional columns that have been packed with contaminated soil from the site. Temperatures in the system are monitored aliquots of the effluent collected for analysis. A sample of the initial soil, the final steamed soil, the effluen...

  19. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: COMPOSITING OF EXPLOSIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This treatability study was conducted by Atlantic Research Corporation for the U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Material Agency. The objective of this bench-scale study was to determine the extent to which TNT and RDX concentrations were reduced by composting for a six week peri...

  20. Laboratory treatability studies preparatory to field testing a resting-cell in situ microbial filter bioremediation strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.T.; Hanna, M.L.

    1995-04-01

    Prior to a down-hole-column treatability test of a Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b attached-resting-cell in situ biofilter strategy, a set of three sequential laboratory experiments were carried out to define several key operational parameters and to evaluate the likely degree of success at a NASA Kennedy Space Center site. They involved the cell attachment to site-specific sediments, the intrinsic resting-cell biotransformation capacities for the contaminants of interest plus their time-dependent extents of biodegradative removal at the concentrations of concern, and a scaled in situ mini-flow-through-column system that closely mimics the subsurface conditions during a field-treatability or pilot test of an emplaced resting-cell filter. These experiments established the conditions required for the complete metabolic removal of a vinyl chloride (VC), cis-dichlororthylene (cis-DCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) mixture. However, the gas chromatographic (GC) procedures that we utilized and the mini-flow-through column data demonstrated that, at most, only about 50--70% of the site-water VC, cis-DCE, and TCE would be biodegraded. This occurred because of a limiting level of dissolved oxygen, which was exacerbated by the simultaneous presence of several additional previously unrecognized groundwater components, especially methane, that are also competing substrates for the whole-cell soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) enzyme complex. Irrespective, collectively the simplicity of the methods that we have developed and the results obtainable with them appear to provide relevant laboratory-based test-criteria before taking our microbial filter strategy to an in situ field treatability or pilot demonstration stage at other sites in the future.

  1. Best management practices plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is currently under a Federal Agreement to define soil and groundwater contamination and develop remedies to protect human health and the environment. The western end of the site is known to have a former nitric acid disposal pit that has been remediated and capped. Remedial investigation data indicate this pit was a source of nitrate, uranium, technetium, and other metals contamination in groundwater. The downgradient receptor of this contamination includes Bear Creek and its tributaries. A feasibility study is under way to develop a remedy to prevent further contaminant migration to this receptor. To support the feasibility study, the treatability study is being completed to examine groundwater treatment at the S-3 site. This document serves as the top-level command medium for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study and, as such, will be the primary resource for management and implementation of field activities. Many of the details and standard operating procedures referred to herein can be found in other Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), documents. Several supporting documents specific to this project are also cited. These include the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), the Health and Safety Plan (HASP), and the Waste Management Plan (WMP).

  2. Data management implementation plan for the Bear Creek Valley treatability study phase 2 hydraulic performance testing, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The overall objective of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study is to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. The ultimate goal of this effort is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium, technetium, nitrate, and several metals from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. This project, the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Phase 2 hydraulic performance testing, directly supports the Bear Creek Valley Feasibility Study. Specific project objectives include (1) installing monitoring and extraction wells, (2) installing a groundwater extraction trench, (3) performing pumping tests of the extraction wells and trench, (4) determining hydraulic gradients, and (5) collecting water quality parameters. The primary purpose of environmental data management is to provide a system for generating and maintaining technically defensible data. To meet current regulatory requirements for the Environmental Restoration Program, complete documentation of the information flow must be established. To do so, each step in the data management process (collection, management, storage, and analysis) must be adequately planned and documented. This document will serve to identify data management procedures, expected data types and flow, and roles and responsibilities for all data management activities associated with this project.

  3. TREATABILITY STUDY FOR EDIBLE OIL DEPLOYMENT FOR ENHANCED CVOC ATTENUATION FOR T-AREA, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Riha, B.; Looney, B.; Noonkester, J.; Hyde, W.; Walker, R.

    2012-05-15

    Groundwater beneath T-Area, a former laboratory and semiworks operation at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), is contaminated by chlorinated solvents (cVOCs). Since the contamination was detected in the 1980s, the cVOCs at T-Area have been treated by a combination of soil vapor extraction and groundwater pump and treat. The site received approval to temporarily discontinue the active groundwater treatment and implement a treatability study of enhanced attenuation - an engineering and regulatory strategy that has recently been developed by DOE and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC 2007). Enhanced attenuation uses active engineering solutions to alter the target site in such a way that the contaminant plume will passively stabilize and shrink and to document that the action will be effective, timely, and sustainable. The paradigm recognizes that attenuation remedies are fundamentally based on a mass balance. Thus, long-term plume dynamics can be altered either by reducing the contaminant loading from the source or by increasing the rate of natural attenuation processes within all, or part of, the plume volume. The combination of technologies that emerged for T-Area included: (1) neat (pure) vegetable oil deployment in the deep vadose zone in the former source area, (2) emulsified vegetable oil deployment within the footprint of the groundwater plume, and (3) identification of attenuation mechanisms and rates for the distal portion of the plume. In the first part, neat oil spreads laterally forming a thin layer on the water table to intercept and reduce future cVOC loading (via partitioning) and reduce oxygen inputs (via biostimulation). In the second and third parts, emulsified oil forms active bioremediation reactor zones within the plume footprint to degrade existing groundwater contamination (via reductive dechlorination and/or cometabolism) and stimulates long-term attenuation capacity in the distal plume (via

  4. TREATABILITY MANUAL. VOLUME V: SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Treatability Manual presents in five volumes an extensive survey of the effectiveness of various water pollution treatment processes when applied to particular industrial effluents. This volume summarizes volumes one through four and outlines their potential utility to Nation...

  5. Treatability Study of In Situ Technologies for Remediation of Hexavalent Chromium in Groundwater at the Puchack Well Field Superfund Site, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Truex, Michael J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Girvin, Donald C.; Phillips, Jerry L.; Devary, Brooks J.; Fischer, Ashley E.; Li, Shu-Mei W.

    2006-11-13

    This treatability study was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), at the request of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 2, to evaluate the feasibility of using in situ treatment technologies for chromate reduction and immobilization at the Puchack Well Field Superfund Site in Pennsauken Township, New Jersey. In addition to in situ reductive treatments, which included the evaluation of both abiotic and biotic reduction of Puchack aquifer sediments, natural attenuation mechanisms were evaluated (i.e., chromate adsorption and reduction). Chromate exhibited typical anionic adsorption behavior, with greater adsorption at lower pH, at lower chromate concentration, and at lower concentrations of other competing anions. In particular, sulfate (at 50 mg/L) suppressed chromate adsorption by up to 50%. Chromate adsorption was not influenced by inorganic colloids.

  6. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Frain, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    This treatability study has two purposes: to support development of the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and to provide specific engineering information for the design of burial grounds receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test will also provide performance and cost information necessary for detailed analysis of alternatives for burial ground remediation. Further details on the test requirements, milestones and data quality objectives are described in detail in the 118-B-1 Excavation Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-94-43). These working procedures are intended for use by field personnel to implement the requirements of the milestone. A copy of the detailed Test Plan will be kept on file at the on-site field support trailer, and will be available for review by field personnel.

  7. In-Situ Grouting Treatability Study for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Subsurface Disposal Area-Transuranic Pits and Trenches

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G. G.; Jessmore, J. J.; Sehn, A. L.; Miller, C. M.

    2002-02-27

    At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) treatability study is being performed to examine the technology of in situ grouting for final in situ disposal of buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste. At the INEEL, there is over 56,000 cubic meters of waste commingled with a similar amount of soil in a shallow (3-5 m) land burial referred to as Waste Area Group 7-13/14. Since this buried waste has been declared on the National Priorities List under CERCLA, it is being managed as a superfund site. Under CERCLA, options for this waste include capping and continued monitoring, retrieval and ex situ management of the retrieved waste, in situ stabilization by vitrification or grouting, in situ thermal dissorption, or some combination of these options. In situ grouting involves injecting grout at high pressures (400 bars) directly into the waste to create a solid monolith. The in situ grouting process is expected to both stabilize the waste against subsidence and provide containment against migration of waste to the Snake River Plain Aquifer lying 150-200 m below the waste. The treatability study involves bench testing, implementability testing, and field testing. The bench testing was designed to pick three grouts from six candidate grouts for the implementability field testing in full scale which were designed to down-select from those three grouts to one grout for use in a full-scale field demonstration of the technology in a simulated test pit. During the bench testing, grouts were evaluated for durability using American Nuclear Society 16.1 Leach Protocol as well as evaluating the effect on physical parameters such as hydraulic conductivity and compressive strength due to the presence of interferences such as soil, organic sludge, and nitrate salts. During full-scale implementability testing, three grouts were evaluated for groutability and monolith formation

  8. Drinking Water Treatability Database (Database)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, rec...

  9. Treatability study for Hill AFB`s Operable Unit-1: Enhanced microaerobic dechlorination using various electron donors. MasMajor report

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, P.G.

    1999-05-13

    A treatability study of the microaerobic biodegradation of cis-dichloroethene (c-DCE) was completed using a series of eight continuously operated columns filled with contaminated soils from Hill Air Force Base`s Operable Unit 1. Columns were supplied groundwater from the site, vitamins and yeast, and an electron donor solution containing one of the following donors: n-butyric acid, benzoic acid, lactic acid, propionic acid, n-propanol, or toluene. Concentrations of c-DCE varied over six months and ranged from 2736 micrograms/L to 30 micrograms/L. Though attempted as an anaerobic study, the ability to continuously eliminate oxygen from an active system proved difficult and columns operated as microaerobic systems. In all columns the degradation of c-DCE was observed, however, the removal efficiencies determined by comparing the influent and effluent concentrations were highly inconsistent throughout the experiment. By comparing the background columns to the columns supplied electron donors, it does not appear the addition of vitamins or electron donors enhance the indigenous microorganism`s ability to remove c-DCE. While c-DCE removal within the background column averaged 17%, the vitamin amended control column averaged only 7% c-DCE removal within the column and the electron donor supplied columns averaged between 7% removal and 5% apparent production. Of the electron donors supporting c-DCE removal, benzoic acid demonstrated 7% removal followed closely by propionic acid and n-propanol, both showing 5% c-DCE removal.

  10. Field characterization report on Phase 1 of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    A treatability study is being performed to investigate the practicability of using passive, in situ treatment systems to remove contaminants from the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA). This draft document is a report of the site characterization results and is part of Phase 1 of this study. Field activities performed are outlined in Bear Creek Valley Passive Surface Water Treatment Technology Demonstrations, Phase 1, Site Characterization. The focus of the characterization was to obtain sufficient site-specific data on hydrogeology of NT-1, NT-2, and upper Bear Creek (above its confluence with NT-1) to support selection of groundwater capture and treatment systems in Phases 2 and 3. Groundwater samples from the S-3 Site and NT-1 area were also collected for the principal investigators to test during Phase 1 laboratory work. Three contaminant migration pathways were delineated in the S-3 Area. Each is described and briefly characterized by field observations and analysis of surface and groundwater collected within each pathway.

  11. Treatability study in support of monitored natural attenuation at Site S-1, Zone 5, Kelly Air Force Base, Texas. Final report January--December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Herrington, T.; Downey, D.

    1999-02-28

    This report presents the results of a treatability study (TS) to evaluate the potential effectiveness of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a remedial option for groundwater contaminated with chlorinated benzene compounds at Site S-1, located at Kelly Air Force Base (AFB), Texas. Although other contaminants were found at Site S-1 at relatively low concentrations, this TS will focus on the chlorinated benzene compounds present in the groundwater plume. Hydrogeologic and groundwater chemical data collected for this report can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of various engineered remedial options; however, the results of this TS will be used in support of MNA with long term monitoring (LTM) for restoration of groundwater contaminated with chlorinated benzene compounds. The work performed as part of the TS is not intended to fulfill the requirements of a contamination assessment report, a remedial action plan (RAP), or any other document specified in federal or state regulations; rather, it is provided for the use by the Base, its prime environmental contractors, and regulators to present information on the viability of the MNA alternative for chlorobenzene residuals at Site S-1.

  12. Polyethylene encapsulation of simulated blowdown waste for SEG treatability study. Letter report on Phase I screening: Waste treatment and specimen preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb, P.D.

    1993-08-17

    The Environmental and Waste Technology Center is a participating subcontractor in the Scientific Ecology Group (SEG) Treatability Study for Westinghouse Savannah River Co.`s Blowdown Waste. This waste will be generated at the Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) and will consist of the neutralized aqueous scrubber solution from the incinerator. Since the facility is designed to burn low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes, the blowdown waste will likely be a mixed waste. Polyethylene encapsulation is an improved treatment method that has been developed at BNL over the last 10 years. Polyethylene is an inert, thermoplastic polymer with a melt temperature of 120 C. The BNL process is a modification of standard plastics extrusion technology that has been utilized successfully by the plastics industry for over 50 years. Polyethylene binder and dry waste material are fed through separate calibrated feeders to the extruder, where the materials are thoroughly mixed, heated to a molten condition, and then extruded into a suitable mold. A monolithic solid waste form results on cooling. The objective of the Phase 1 screening effort was to prepare test specimens of CIF surrogate waste encapsulated in polyethylene for leach testing using EPA`s Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). BNL received aqueous CIF surrogate from SEG, pretreated the stimulant for processing, and fabricated TCLP test specimens for analysis at an independent laboratory. Laboratory and processing procedures are described in this letter report.

  13. Functions and requirements for a waste dislodging and conveyance system for the gunite and associated tanks treatability study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, J.D.; Mullen, O.D.

    1997-02-01

    Since the mid 1940s, the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted research and development activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of urgent national interests in the fields of nuclear weaponry and nuclear energy. Some of these activities resulted in radiologically hazardous waste being temporarily deposited at ORNL, Waste Area Grouping 1. At this location, waste is stored in several underground storage tanks, awaiting ultimate final disposal. There are tanks of two basic categories. One category is referred to as the gunite tanks, the other category is associated tanks. The ORNL Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study (GAAT TS) project was initiated in FY 1994 to support a record of decision in selecting from seven different options of technologies for retrieval and remediation of these tanks. As part of this decision process, new waste retrieval technologies will be evaluated at the 25-foot diameter gunite tanks in the North tank farm. Work is currently being conducted at Hanford and the University of Missouri-Rolla to evaluate and develop some technologies having high probability of being most practical and effective for the dislodging and conveying of waste from underground storage tanks. The findings of these efforts indicate that a system comprised of a dislodging end effector employing jets of high-pressure fluids, coupled to a water-jet conveyance system, all carried above the waste by a mechanical arm or other mechanism, is a viable retrieval technology for the GAAT TS tasks.

  14. Health and safety plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety (H&S) concerns and requirements for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be collected from effluent following treatment tests of extraction columns, algal mats, and mature wetlands supplied by surface water locations and existing groundwater monitoring well locations. The project Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. It is the responsibility of the project managers, field manager, and site health and safety officer (SHSO) to determine that the requirements of this HASP are sufficiently protective. If it is determined that the requirements of this HASP are not sufficiently protective, a field change order(s) (FCO) will be prepared. FCOs will include a completed job hazard analysis or similar worksheet to ensure complete hazard assessment. FCOs must be approved by the Environmental Management and Enrichment Facilities (EMEF) project manager, EMEF H&S manager, subcontractor project or field manager, and subcontractor H&S representative. As a minimum, FCOs will be prepared if additional tasks will be performed or if contaminant exposure is anticipated.

  15. Quality Assurance Project Plan for the treatability study of in situ vitrification of Seepage Pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) establishes the quality assurance procedures and requirements to be implemented for the control of quality-related activities for Phase 3 of the Treatability Study (TS) of In Situ Vitrification (ISV) of Seepage Pit 1, ORNL Waste Area Grouping 7. This QAPjP supplements the Quality Assurance Plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program by providing information specific to the ISV-TS. Phase 3 of the TS involves the actual ISV melt operations and posttest monitoring of Pit 1 and vicinity. Previously, Phase 1 activities were completed, which involved determining the boundaries of Pit 1, using driven rods and pipes and mapping the distribution of radioactivity using logging tools within the pipes. Phase 2 involved sampling the contents, both liquid and solids, in and around seepage Pit 1 to determine their chemical and radionuclide composition and the spatial distribution of these attributes. A separate QAPjP was developed for each phase of the project. A readiness review of the Phase 3 activities presented QAPjP will be conducted prior to initiating field activities, and an Operational Acceptance, Test (OAT) will also be conducted with no contamination involved. After, the OAT is complete, the ISV process will be restarted, and the melt will be allowed to increase with depth and incorporate the radionuclide contamination at the bottom of Pit 1. Upon completion of melt 1, the equipment will be shut down and mobilized to an adjacent location at which melt 2 will commence.

  16. Best management practices plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant site is currently under a Federal Facilities Agreement to define soil and groundwater contamination and develop remedies to protect human health and the environment. The western end of the site is known to have a former nitric acid disposal pit that has been remediated and capped. Remedial investigation data indicate this pit was a source of nitrate, uranium, technetium, and other metals contamination in groundwater. The downgradient receptor of this contamination includes Bear Creek and its tributaries. A feasibility study is underway to develop a remedy to prevent further contaminant migration to this receptor. To support the feasibility study, a treatability study is being completed to examine groundwater treatment at the S-3 site. This document serves as the top level command medium for Phase II and as such will be the primary resource for management and implementation of field activities. Many of the details and standard operating procedures referred within this document can be found in other Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems) documents. Several supporting documents specific to this project are also cited. These include the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), the Health and Safety Plan (HASP), and the Waste Management Plan (WMP). Section 1 describes the results of Phase I efforts. Section 2 describes the objectives of Phase II. Section 3 provides details of field testing. Section 4 addresses the HASP. Section 5 describes the SAP. Section 6 introduces the WMP. Environmental compliance issues are discussed in Section 7, and sediment and erosion control is addressed in Section 8. Information about the project team is provided in Section 9.

  17. Treatability study operational testing program and implementation plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This Treatability Study (TS) Operational Testing Program and Implementation Plan identifies operational testing to be performed to: (1) Demonstrate the technical feasibility of methods proposed for the removal of radiochemical sludge heels from the underground storage tanks located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), known as the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Operable Unit (OU). (The bulk of the radiochemical waste, which was previously stored in the tanks, was removed during the 1980s, and only a sludge heel remains.) (2) Reduce the uncertainty in meeting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements for the GAAT OU. (3) Minimize the overall costs to accomplish the first two objectives. An initial Feasibility Study (FS) effort identified uncertainties in the evaluation of various alternatives for addressing the remediation of the GAAT OU. To support future decision making, the US. Department of Energy is performing a TS to identify cost-effective remediation approaches for the GAAT OU by providing information to reduce cost and technical uncertainty and better define acceptable remediation strategies. The testing activities will be initially conducted in a nonradioactive environment at the Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility (TTCTF) at ORNL. This will permit the design and initial performance testing and training activities to be completed while minimizing the risk, employee exposure, and costs associated with the testing effort. The component design and functional testing and initial system performance testing will be completed in the TTCTF. After the component and initial system performance testing have been completed, the operations testing will continue in the North Tank Farm (NTF). This testing has an associated higher cost and risk, but is necessary to provide results for actual waste heel removal.

  18. Cyanide analyses for risk and treatability assessments

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, I.D.; Elseroad, H.J.; Pergrin, D.E.; Logan, C.M.

    1994-12-31

    Cyanide, an EPA priority pollutant and target analyte, is typically measured as total. However, cyanide complexation, information which is not acquired through total cyanide analysis, is often a driver of cyanide toxicity and treatability. A case study of a former manufacture gas plant (MGP) is used to demonstrate the usability of various cyanide analytical methods for risk and treatability assessments. Several analytical methods, including cyanide amenable to chlorination and weak acid dissociable cyanide help test the degree of cyanide complexation. Generally, free or uncomplexed cyanide is more biologically available, toxic, and reactive than complexed cyanide. Extensive site testing has shown that free and weakly dissociable cyanide composes only a small fraction of total cyanide as would be expected from the literature, and that risk assessment will be more realistic considering cyanide form. Likewise, aqueous treatment for cyanide can be properly tested if cyanide form is accounted for. Weak acid dissociable cyanide analyses proved to be the most reliable (and potentially acceptable) cyanide method, as well as represent the most toxic and reactive cyanide forms.

  19. Treatability study report for remediation of chemical warfare agent contaminated soils using peroxysulfate ex-situ treatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, J.R.; Grinstead, J.H.; Farley, J.A.; Enlow, P.D.; Kelly, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    This laboratory scale study examines the feasibility of using peroxysulfate based oxidants to remediate soils contaminated with GB, Hi, and VX. The project was conducted with chemical warfare agent simulants. The study concludes that peroxysulfates, and particularly peroxydisulfate, can degrade chemical warfare agent simulants in soil and recommends continuing research.

  20. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions. PMID:26351122

  1. Study of the treatability of wastewater from a coal-gasification plant. Final report, July 15, 1978-July 14, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Iglar, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    This study focused on the coal gasification facility serving the Holston Army Ammunition Plant in Kingsport, Tennessee. Objectives were to characterize the wastewater produced by the gasification facility, and to evaluate technology for treating the waste in preparation for dischage to the environment. Most wastewater was recycled for scrubbing and cooling the product gas, with the excess requiring disposal found to be an average of only 1170 gallons per day (53 gallons per ton of coal, as received, and 366 gallons per million cubic feet of product gas). Analysis indicated that the waste was warm, high in alkaline material, especially ammonia, high in organic material, especially phenols, and also contaminated with other substances. Sulfides and thiocyanates were especially high in concentration. It was found that pretreatment could be accomplished by stripping (air injection) at high pH, removal of grease and oil (by pH suppression and light aeration) and neutralizatin. Equations were developed to describe the first two steps. Biological treatment through activated sludge was found to be successful, but effected only a moderate degree of treatment, and was troubled with frequent process upset. Attempts to improve treatment efficiency and stability are described. The data indicated the need to study aerated waste stabilization ponds as an alternative to activated sludge. Biological reaction kinetics were studied for activated sludge. Evaluation of the application of granular activated carbon suggested that this could be an effective practical tertiary treatment.

  2. TREATABILITY POTENTIAL FOR EPA LISTED HAZARDOUS WASTES IN SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study developed comprehensive screening data on the treatability in soil of: (a) specific listed hazardous organic chemicals, and (b) waste sludge from explosives production (K044) and related chemicals. Laboratory experiments were conducted using two soil types, an acidic s...

  3. TREATABILITY MANUAL. VOLUME IV: COST ESTIMATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the treatability program are: To provide readily accessible data and information on treatability of industrial and municipal waste streams for use by NPDES permit writers, enforcement personnel, and by industrial or municipal permit holders; To provide a basis fo...

  4. Treatability study on the use of by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan for the stabilization of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb, P.D.; Milian, L.W.; Yim, S.P.; Dyer, R.S.; Michaud, W.R.

    1997-12-01

    The Republic of Kazakhstan generates significant quantities of excess elemental sulfur from the production and refining of petroleum reserves. In addition, the country also produces hazardous, and radioactive wastes which require treatment/stabilization. In an effort to find secondary uses for the elemental sulfur, and simultaneously produce a material which could be used to encapsulate, and reduce the dispersion of harmful contaminants into the environment, BNL evaluated the use of the sulfur polymer cement (SPC) produced from by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan. This thermoplastic binder material forms a durable waste form with low leaching properties and is compatible with a wide range of waste types. Several hundred kilograms of Kazakhstan sulfur were shipped to the US and converted to SPC (by reaction with 5 wt% organic modifiers) for use in this study. A phosphogypsum sand waste generated in Kazakhstan during the purification of phosphate fertilizer was selected for treatment. Waste loadings of 40 wt% were easily achieved. Waste form performance testing included compressive strength, water immersion, and Accelerated Leach Testing.

  5. Alternative biological-treatment processes for remediation of creosote- and PCP-contaminated materials: Bench-scale treatability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.G.; Lantz, S.E.; Blattman, B.O.; Middaugh, D.P.; Chapman, P.J.

    1991-03-01

    Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to determine the most effective of two bioremediation application strategies to ameliorate creosote- and pentachlorophenol (PCP)-contaminated soils present at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Florida: solid-phase bioremediation or slurry-phase bioremediation. When indigenous microorganisms were employed as biocatalysts, solid-phase bioremediation was slow and ineffective (8-12 weeks required to biodegrade >50% of resident organics). Biodegradation was limited to lower-molecular-weight constituents rather than the more hazardous, higher-molecular-weight (HMW) compounds; PCP and HMW polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) containing 4 or more fused rings resisted biological attach. Moreover, supplementation with aqueous solution of inorganic nutrients had little effect on the overall effectiveness of the treatment strategy. Alternatively, slurry-phase bioremediation was much more effective: >50% of targeted organics were biodegraded in 14 days. Again, however, more persistent contaminants, such as PCP and HMW PAHs, were not extensively degraded when subjected to the action of indigenous microorganisms.

  6. Treatability study on the use of by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan for the stabilization of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, Sung Paal; Kalb, P.D.; Milian, L.W.

    1997-08-01

    The Republic of Kazakhstan generates significant quantities of excess sulfur from the production and refining of petroleum reserves. In addition, the country also produces hazardous, and radioactive wastes which require treatment/stabilization. In an effort to find secondary uses for the elemental sulfur, and simultaneously produce a material which could be used to encapsulate, and reduce the dispersion of harmful contaminants into the environment, BNL evaluated the use of the sulfur polymer cement (SPC) produced from by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan. This thermoplastic binder material forms a durable waste form with low leaching properties and is compatible with a wide range of waste types. Several hundred kilograms of Kazakhstan sulfur were shipped to the U.S. and converted to SPC (by reaction with 5 wt% organic modifiers) for use in this study. A phosphogypsum sand waste generated in Kazakhstan during the purification of phosphate fertilizer was selected for treatment. Waste loading of 40 wt% were easily achieved. Waste form performance testing included compressive strength, water immersion, and Accelerated Leach Testing. 14 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level.

  8. [How Treatable is Vascular Dementia?].

    PubMed

    Mori, Etsuro

    2016-04-01

    Vascular dementia is an umbrella term, encompassing the pathological changes in the brain due to cerebrovascular disease that result in dementia. Vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia, after Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, I outline the concept of vascular dementia, the key aspects of the disease that are yet to be clarified, and the current status of clinical trials. Assessing these factors, I discuss how treatable vascular dementia presently is. Use of the term'vascular dementia'is riddled with uncertainties regarding disease classification, and non-standardized diagnostic criteria. There are difficulties in determining the exact relationship between cerebrovascular pathology and cognitive impairment. The comorbid effects of Alzheimer's pathology in some individuals also present an obstacle to reliable clinical diagnosis, and hinder research into effective management approaches. Vascular dementia is preventable and treatable, as there are established primary and secondary prevention measures for the causative cerebrovascular diseases, such as vascular risk factor intervention, antiplatelet therapy, and anticoagulation, amongst others. However, unlike Alzheimer's disease, there are no established symptomatic treatments for vascular dementia. Clinical trials of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine indicate that they produce small cognitive benefits in patients with vascular dementia, though the exact clinical significance of these is uncertain. Data are insufficient to support the widespread use of these drugs in vascular dementia. Rehabilitation and physical and cognitive exercise may be beneficial, but evidence of cognitive benefit and relief of neuropsychiatric symptoms due to exercise is lacking. PMID:27056862

  9. TOXICITY TREATABILITY OF IRON AND STEEL PLANT WASTEWATERS: A RESOURCE DOCUMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an assessment of the toxicity treatability of wastewaters from eight steelmaking subcategories, all considered assessable under the somewhat low production levels of the study period. Tests were conducted using prescribed procedures for conventional wa...

  10. DEEP VADOSE ZONE TREATABILITY TEST PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    GB CHRONISTER; MJ TRUEX

    2009-07-02

    {sm_bullet} Treatability test plan published in 2008 {sm_bullet} Outlines technology treatability activities for evaluating application of in situ technologies and surface barriers to deep vadose zone contamination (technetium and uranium) {sm_bullet} Key elements - Desiccation testing - Testing of gas-delivered reactants for in situ treatment of uranium - Evaluating surface barrier application to deep vadose zone - Evaluating in situ grouting and soil flushing

  11. Treatability of manganese by sodium silicate and chlorine

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, F.B.; Ronk, S.K. )

    1987-11-01

    Manganese sequestering by nearly simultaneous additions of sodium silicate and sodium hypochlorite was studied in laboratory-prepared waters. Under conditions of near-neutral pH and 150-250 mg/liter of alkalinity as CaCO{sub 3}, 1-2 mg manganese/liter could be sequestered for up to one day. Less effective manganese treatability was found at pH 8 than at pH 7. Additionally, at pH 7 the best results were obtained when neither silicate nor hypochlorite was added because of the slow manganese oxidation rate by oxygen alone. Aging of diluted stock silicate solutions prior to dosing also resulted in poor treatment; the presence of background silica increased the treatment effectiveness only slightly. Overall, manganese was less treatable by this method than iron under the same treatment conditions.

  12. Evaporative oxidation treatability test report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facilities Compliance Act that requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs). In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity where available off-site commercial treatment facilities do not exist or cannot be used, the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) organized a Treatment Selection Team to match mixed wastes with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of its mixed wastes. DOE-AL manages operations at nine sites with mixed-waste inventories. The Treatment Selection Team determined a need to develop mobile treatment capacity to treat wastes at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed waste not only must address the hazardous component (i.e., meet LDRs) but also must contain the radioactive component in a form that allows final disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. On the basis of recommendations of the Treatment Selection Team, DOE-AL assigned projects to the sites to bring mixed-waste treatment capacity on-line. The three technologies assigned to the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) are evaporative oxidation, thermal desorption, and treated wastewater evaporation. Rust Geotech, the DOE-GJPO prime contractor, was assigned to design and fabricate mobile treatment units (MTUs) for these three technologies and to deliver the MTUs to selected DOE-AL sites. To conduct treatability tests at the GJPO, Rust leased a pilot-scale evaporative oxidation unit from the Clemson Technical Center (CTC), Anderson, South Carolina. The purpose of this report is to document the findings and results of tests performed using this equipment.

  13. Treatability study on the Bear Creek Valley characterization area at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Phase II work plan for S-3 site contaminated groundwater interception--in-field media evaluation and groundwater capture methods

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    A treatability study is being conducted to support implementation:of early actions at the S-3 Site in the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA). The objectives of the early actions Will be (1) to reduce concentrations of uranium and nitrate in Bear Creek and (2) to reduce contaminants of concern in North Tributary (NT)-1 and NT-2. The BCV CA is located within the US DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Hazardous and radioactive materials from the Y-12 Plant operations were, disposed of at various sites within BCV. Groundwater and surface water in the BCV CA have been contaminated. The remedial investigation (RI) for the BCV CA identified that the greatest mass flux of contaminants from the various sources migrates via groundwater at the source and discharges to surface water in Bear Creek and its tributaries. In the RI, the combined discharge from the S-3 Site and the Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY) was identified as accounting for 75% of the cancer risk and more than 80% of the chemical toxicity to Potential downgradient human receptors. In addition, the S-3 Site has caused degradation of surface water quality in upper Bear Creek and two of its tributaries. The BCV CA treatability study focuses on capture and treatment of shallow groundwater before it discharges to tributary waters. The objectives Of treatment of this groundwater are (1) to reduce the concentrations of uranium and nitrate in NT-1 and Bear Creek such that the concentrations of these chemicals in surface water and groundwater are reduced to acceptable levels, (2) to reduce the concentrations of nitrate and metals, and reduce the overall concentration of total dissolved solids; and (3) to hydraulically contain the plume of contaminated, groundwater that is moving in bedrock in the Nolichucky Shale such that the rate of contaminant discharge will be reduced in the long term. The objective of Phase II is to produce conceptual designs for treatment system configurations.

  14. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: SOIL STABILIZATION PILOT STUDY, UNITED CHROME NPL SITE PILOT STUDY AND HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAM, UNITED CHROME NPL SITE PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a project plan for a pilot study at the United Chrome NPL site, Corvallis, Oregon and includes the health and safety and quality assurance/quality control plans. The plan reports results of a bench-scale study of the treatment process as iieasured by the ...

  15. TREATABILITY DATABASE FOR DRINKING WATER CHEMICALS (CCL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Treatability Data Base will assemble referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It will be an interactive data base, housed in an EPA, web-accessible site. It may be used for many purposes, including: identifying an effective treatment process or a se...

  16. THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Slides)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

  17. THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Conference Paper)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

  18. The treatable intellectual disability APP www.treatable-id.org: A digital tool to enhance diagnosis & care for rare diseases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID) is a devastating and frequent condition, affecting 2-3% of the population worldwide. Early recognition of treatable underlying conditions drastically improves health outcomes and decreases burdens to patients, families and society. Our systematic literature review identified 81 such inborn errors of metabolism, which present with ID as a prominent feature and are amenable to causal therapy. The WebAPP translates this knowledge of rare diseases into a diagnostic tool and information portal. Methods & results Freely available as a WebAPP via http://www.treatable-id.org and end 2012 via the APP store, this diagnostic tool is designed for all specialists evaluating children with global delay / ID and laboratory scientists. Information on the 81 diseases is presented in different ways with search functions: 15 biochemical categories, neurologic and non-neurologic signs & symptoms, diagnostic investigations (metabolic screening tests in blood and urine identify 65% of all IEM), therapies & effects on primary (IQ/developmental quotient) and secondary outcomes, and available evidence For each rare condition a ‘disease page’ serves as an information portal with online access to specific genetics, biochemistry, phenotype, diagnostic tests and therapeutic options. As new knowledge and evidence is gained from expert input and PubMed searches this tool will be continually updated. The WebAPP is an integral part of a protocol prioritizing treatability in the work-up of every child with global delay / ID. A 3-year funded study will enable an evaluation of its effectiveness. Conclusions For rare diseases, a field for which financial and scientific resources are particularly scarce, knowledge translation challenges are abundant. With this WebAPP technology is capitalized to raise awareness for rare treatable diseases and their common presenting clinical feature of ID, with the potential to improve health outcomes. This innovative digital

  19. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FINAL REPORT: DEVELOPMENT OF OPTIMUM TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER LAGOONS PHASE II - SOLVENT EXTRACTION LABORATORY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Army surveyed innovative treatment techniques for restoration of hazardous waste lagoons and selected solvent extraction as cost-effective restoration for further study. This treatability study focuses on treatment of organic (explosive) contaminated lagoon sediments w...

  20. [Treatable Dementia due to Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency].

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Toshihiro

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin deficiency is one of the major causes of treatable dementia. Specifically, patients suffering from dementia frequentry display low serum levels of vitamin B(12). There is a close metabolic interaction between folate and vitamin B(12). Folate deficiency causes various neuropsychiatric symptoms, which resemble those observed in vitamin B(12) deficiency. This review summarizes, the basic pathophysiology of vitamin B(12) and folate deficiency, its clinical diagnosis, associated neuropsychiatric symptoms such as subacute combined degeneration and dementia, and epidemiological studies of cognitive decline and brain atrophy. PMID:27056859

  1. Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study, wall coring and scraping in Tanks W-3 and W-4 (North Tank Farm), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This plan documents the procedures for collecting and analyzing wall core and wall scraping samples from Tanks W-3 and W-4 in the North Tank Farm. This is in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Treatability Study of the Gunite and Associated Tanks at ORNL. The sampling and analysis will be in concert with sludge retrieval and sluicing of the tanks. Wall scraping and wall core samples will be collected from each quadrant in each tank by using a scraping sampler and a coring drill deployed by the Houdini robot vehicle. Each sample will be labeled, transported to the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory and analyzed for physical/radiological characteristics, including total activity, gross alpha, gross beta, radioactive Sr + Cs, and other alpha and gamma emitting radionuclides. The Data Quality Objectives process, based on US EPA guidance (EPA QA/G-4, Sept. 1994), was applied to identify the objectives of this sampling and analysis. Results of the analysis will be used to validate predictions of a Sr concrete diffusion model, estimate the amount of radioactivity remaining in the tank shells, provide information to correlate with measurements taken by the Gunite Tank Isotope Mapping Probe and the Characterization End Effector, and estimate the performance of the wall cleaning system.

  2. 1999 ANNUAL REPORT NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This annual report present the proceedings of the second annual NATO/CCMS pilot study meeting in Belfast, UK in March 1999. Guest speakers focused on efforts in the research arena of clean products, clean processes, and pollution prevention tools.

  3. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: INPUT/OUTPUT DATA FOR SEVERAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This treatability study is a pilot-scale evaluation of a thin-film evaporator (TFE) for volatile organics (VO) removal from oily sludges such as refinery sludges. TFEs were studied to evaluate their use to remove and recover VO from these sludges prior to land treatment. This w...

  4. Space Studies Board Annual Report, 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The 2006 Annual Report of the Space Studies Board provides an opportunity to comment not only on the SSB's activities for the past year but also on the environment that has shaped those activities. As has been true for the past several years, and may well be for years to come, we live in an environment that is continually changing. NASA has continued to pursue the Vision for Space Exploration laid down by President George W. Bush in 2004, but it has obtained only limited resources to do so, requiring continuing adjustments in other NASA programs and reconsideration of our plans for the future. In this environment, the activities of the Space Studies Board are of particular importance. We can, through the National Research Council reports that we charter, provide advice on the issues most important to the execution and planning of the space program. Through our Congressional testimony and public statements, we call attention to the concerns and dilemmas that confront NASA and the science community that it supports. The Space Studies Board itself is also in transition. The year 2006 marked the arrival of a new Director, Marcia Smith, who is the permanent replacement for the long-serving and much admired Joe Alexander. As is evident in this Annual Report, Marcia has had to experience a year that has been among the busiest for the Space Studies Board. And that level of activity appears only to be increasing, as we attempt to help navigate the space program through the technical challenges and political turbulence that are expected in the years ahead.

  5. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: TRIAL BURN TEST REPORT, PART 1 - DATA SUMMARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This treatability study summary reports on the results of a trial burn of pesticide-contaminated soil from the Aberdeen, NC Superfund site. The trial burn using the Vesta mobile rotary kiln incinerator was designed to demonstrate that this system can destroy the pestici...

  6. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: EXTRACTIVE METHODS FOR SOIL DECONTAMINATION, A GENERAL SURVEY AND REVIEW OPERATIONAL TREATMENT INSTALLATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The treatability study report provides a general overview of soil decontamination by extraction and reports on the field application of three specific different soil washing/solvent extraction systems. Each system is similar in design and removed contaminants from soil includ...

  7. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: CERCLA BDAT SARM PREPARATION AND RESULTS OF PHYSICAL SOILS WASHING EXPERIMENTS (FINAL REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study reports on the results of work preparing 30,000 Ibs of SARM or synthetic analytical reference matrix, a surrogate Superfund soil containing a vide range of contaminants. It also reports the results ©f bench scale treatability experiments designed to simulate the EP...

  8. IN-SITU DUOX™ CHEMICAL OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY TO TREAT CHLORINATED ORGANICS AT THE ROOSEVELT MILLS SITE, VERNON, CT: SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND TREATABILITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was performed investigating the feasibility of applying the DUOX™ chemical oxidation technology to chlorinated solvent contaminated media at the Roosevelt Mills site in Vernon, Connecticut. The Roosevelt Mills site is a former woolen mill that included dry cleaning operat...

  9. Space Studies Board Annual Report 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    During 1995, the Space Studies Board and its committees and task groups gathered for a total of 40 meetings. Highlights of these meetings are presented. Formal study reports and short reports developed and approved during the meetings and issued during 1995 are represented in this annual report either by their executive summaries (for full-length reports), or by reproduction in full (for short reports). Nine full-length reports were distributed or delivered, including a congressionally mandated report by the Committee on the Future of Space Science and a comprehensive survey of Earth observation programs by the Committee on Earth Studies. Major research guidance reports were completed and published by the Committee on Microgravity Research and by the federated Committee on Solar and Space Physics/Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research. Several significant assessment reports were also published, including an assessment of small missions by the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration, a scientific evaluation of Gravity Probe B by the Task Group on Gravity Probe B, and an analysis of technologies for a 4-meter active optics telescope by the Task Group on BMDO New Technology Orbital Observatory. In addition, the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics Panel on Ground-based Optical and Infrared Astronomy released its report, and the Task Group on Priorities in Space Research issued its second and final report. Five short reports were also prepared and released during 1995. They addressed such diverse topics as reflight of shuttle-borne synthetic aperture radars, the role of NASA centers and center scientists in scientific research, guidelines for establishment of NASA research institutes, and clarification of findings of the microgravity research opportunities report and of the Future of Space Science Committee's management study.

  10. In situ technology evaluation and functional and operational guidelines for treatability studies at the radioactive waste management complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.; Donehey, A.J.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.; Rubert, A.L.; Walker, S.

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide EG G Idaho's Waste Technology Development Department with a basis for selection of in situ technologies for demonstration at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and to provide information for Feasibility Studies to be performed according to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The demonstrations will aid in meeting Environmental Restoration/Waste Management (ER/WM) schedules for remediation of waste at Waste Area Group (WAG) 7. This report is organized in six sections. Section 1, summarizes background information on the sites to be remediated at WAG-7, specifically, the acid pit, soil vaults, and low-level pits and trenches. Section 2 discusses the identification and screening of in situ buried waste remediation technologies for these sites. Section 3 outlines the design requirements. Section 4 discusses the schedule (in accordance with Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) scoping). Section 5 includes recommendations for the acid pit, soil vaults, and low-level pits and trenches. A listing of references used to compile the report is given in Section 6. Detailed technology information is included in the Appendix section of this report.

  11. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Food Chain Transfer Studies for Phytoremediation Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.

    2009-04-01

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking water standards for groundwater (8 picocuries/L) by as much as a factor of 1000 at several locations within the Hanford 100-N Area and along the 100-N Area Columbia River shoreline). Phytoextraction, a managed remediation technology in which plants or integrated plant/rhizosphere systems are employed to phytoextract and/or sequester 90Sr, is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River as part of a treatment train that includes an apatite barrier to immobilize groundwater transport of 90Sr. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua) to extract 90Sr from the vadose zone soil and aquifer sediments (phytoextraction) and filter 90Sr (rhizofiltration) from the shallow groundwater along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. The stem and foliage of coyote willows accumulating 90Sr may present not only a mechanism to remove the contaminant but also can be viewed as a source of nutrition for natural herbivores, therefore becoming a potential pathway for the isotope to enter the riparian food chain. Engineered barriers such as large and small animal fencing constructed around the field plot will control the intrusion of deer, rodents, birds, and humans. These efforts, however, will have limited effect on mobile phytophagous insects. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the potential for food chain transfer by insects prior to placement of the remediation technology at 100-N. Insect types include direct consumers of the sap or liquid content of the plants vascular system (xylem and phloem) by aphids as well as those that would directly consume the plant foliage such as the larvae (caterpillars) of Lepidoptera species. Heavy infestations of aphids feeding on the stems and leaves of willows growing in 90Sr-contaminated soil can accumulate a small amount (~0.15 ± 0.06%) of the total label removed from the soil by

  12. INVENTORY OF TREATABILITY STUDY VENDORS - VOLUME 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) amendments mandate the use of permanent solutions to the maximum extent practicable when remediating Superfund sites. Fundamental to achieving this goal is the use of treatment technologies that red...

  13. INVENTORY OF TREATABILITY STUDY VENDORS - VOLUME 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) amendments mandate the use of permanent solutions to the maximum extent practicable when remediating Superfund sites. Fundamental to achieving this goal is the use of treatment technologies that r...

  14. TREATABILITY STUDIES OF PESTICIDE MANUFACTURING WASTEWATERS: GLYPHOSATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of subjecting various combinations of glyphosate production wastestreams to biological treatment following lime-pretreatment to reduce high levels of glyphosate. Bench-scale biological treatment demonstrated that glyphosate did not appear to interfere wit...

  15. SOIL WASHING TREATABILITY TESTS FOR PESTICIDE- CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1987 Sand Creek Operable Unit 5 record of decision (ROD) identified soil washing as the selected technology to remediate soils contaminated with high levels of organochlorine pesticides, herbicides, and metals. Initial treatability tests conducted to assess the applicability...

  16. EPA's Drinking Water Treatability Database and Treatment Cost Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA Drinking Water Treatability Database and Drinking Water Treatment Cost Models are valuable tools for determining the effectiveness and cost of treatment for contaminants of emerging concern. The models will be introduced, explained, and demonstrated.

  17. Treatability Test Plan for an In Situ Biostimulation Reducing Barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.; Brockman, Fred J.; Oostrom, Mart; Hubbard, Susan; Borden, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2007-07-21

    This treatability test plan supports a new, integrated strategy to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the Hanford 100 Areas. This plan includes performing a field-scale treatability test for bioreduction of chromate, nitrate, and dissolved oxygen. In addition to remediating a portion of the plume and demonstrating reduction of electron acceptors in the plume, the data from this test will be valuable for designing a full-scale bioremediation system to apply at this and other chromium plumes at Hanford.

  18. Experimental Plan: Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection 300 Area Uranium Plume Treatability Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2006-09-20

    This Test Plan describes a laboratory-testing program to be performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the 300-FF-5 Feasibility Study (FS). The objective of the proposed treatability test is to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium contaminated groundwater in situ. This study will be used to: (1) Develop implementation cost estimates; (2) Identify implementation challenges; and (3) Investigate the technology's ability to meet remedial objectives These activities will be conducted in parallel with a limited field investigation, which is currently underway to more accurately define the vertical extent of uranium in the vadose zone, and in the capillary fringe zone laterally throughout the plume. The treatability test will establish the viability of the method and, along with characterization data from the limited field investigation, will provide the means for determining how best to implement the technology in the field. By conducting the treatability work in parallel with the ongoing Limited Field Investigation, the resulting Feasibility Study (FS) will provide proven, site-specific information for evaluating polyphosphate addition and selecting a suitable remediation strategy for the uranium plume within the FS time frame at an overall cost savings.

  19. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: SUMMARY REPORT ON THE FIELD INVESTIGATION OF THE SAPP BATTERY SITE JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This treatability study presents the results of field investigations at the Sapp Battery site in Florida, an abandoned battery recycling operation. The site is estimated to contain 14,300 cubic yards of soils with lead levels in excess of 1,000 ppm. The soils in the immediate v...

  20. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION OF A THERMAL DESORPTION/UV PHOTOLYSIS PROCESS FOR DECONTAMINATING SOILS CONTAINING HERBICIDE ORANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This treatability study report presents the results of laboratory and field tests on the effectiveness of a new decontamination process for soils containing 2,4-D/2,4,5-T and traces of dioxin. The process employs three operations, thermal desorption, condensation and absorp...

  1. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: BDAT INCINERATION OF CERCLA SARMS AT THE JOHN ZINK COMPANY TEST FACILITY (FINAL PROJECT REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of a treatability study of rotary kiln incineration of a synthetic "Superfund soil" bearing a wide range of chemical contaminants typically occurring at Superfund sites. This surrogate soil is referred to as a synthetic analytical reference ...

  2. Waste treatability guidance program. User`s guide. Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, C.

    1995-12-21

    DOE sites across the country generate and manage radioactive, hazardous, mixed, and sanitary wastes. It is necessary for each site to find the technologies and associated capacities required to manage its waste. One role of DOE HQ Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management is to facilitate the integration of the site- specific plans into coherent national plans. DOE has developed a standard methodology for defining and categorizing waste streams into treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. This Waste Treatability Guidance Program automates the Guidance Document for the categorization of waste information into treatability groups; this application provides a consistent implementation of the methodology across the National TRU Program. This User`s Guide provides instructions on how to use the program, including installations instructions and program operation. This document satisfies the requirements of the Software Quality Assurance Plan.

  3. Knowing hypertension and diabetes: Conditions of treatability in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2016-05-01

    In Uganda, hypertension and diabetes have only recently been included in the health policy agenda. As they become treatable disorders, they take on more distinct contours in people's minds. This article relates knowledge about these two conditions to health institutions and technology for diagnosing and treating them. The response to the AIDS epidemic in Uganda provides an important context for, and contrast with, the emergence of hypertension and diabetes as social phenomena. Ethnographic fieldwork shows the interplay between experience of these conditions and the political economy of treatability. PMID:26233676

  4. Treatability Test Plan for an In Situ Biostimulation Reducing Barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.; Brockman, Fred J.; Oostrom, Mart; Hubbard, Susan; Borden, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2007-10-26

    This treatability test plan supports a new, integrated strategy to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the 100 Areas at the Hanford Site. This plan includes performing a field-scale treatability test for bioreduction of chromate, nitrate, and dissolved oxygen. In addition to remediating a portion of the plume and demonstrating reduction of electron acceptors in the plume, the data from this test will be valuable for designing a full-scale bioremediation system to apply at this and other chromium plumes at the Hanford Site.

  5. Treatability of chromite ore processing waste by leaching.

    PubMed

    Unlü, K; Haskök, S

    2001-06-01

    Developing treatment and disposal strategies and health-based clean-up standards for chromium containing wastes continues to be an important environmental regulatory issue because of the opposing solubility and toxicity characteristics of chromium species under diverse environmental conditions. In this study, leaching characteristics of total Cr and Cr(VI) were investigated using laboratory column studies. The data obtained from the experimental studies were analysed to assess the treatability of chromite ore processing waste (COPW) by leaching and to identify the leaching strategies that enhance mass removal rates of chromium species. COPW used for laboratory soil column studies was obtained from an industrial plant producing sodium chromate in Mersin, Turkey. Laboratory investigations involved chemical characterisation of waste material and column studies. For waste characterisation, U.S. EPA toxicity characterisation leaching procedure (TCLP) was performed on COPW to determine the concentrations of metal species in the TCLP extract. For column studies, various laboratory columns containing plain COPW material, 1:1 COPW/reducing agent (elemental iron or manure) mixture and different type soils (sand, loam and clay) overlain by COPW were subjected to leaching tests using acidic, neutral and alkaline influent water to determine Cr mass leaching efficiencies. Based on the TCLP analyses, COPW is classified as hazardous waste. As a result of comparing the leaching efficiency data from twelve leaching columns, the maximum removal of total Cr was achieved by leaching COPW/manure mixture using acidic (pH 4.78) influent water. The highest Cr(VI) leaching efficiency was achieved in the columns of plain COPW and COPW/manure mixture using highly alkaline (pH 12.0) influent water. The least effective leaching efficiency for both total Cr and Cr (VI) was obtained by leaching plain COPW with neutral (pH 7.0) influent water. Land-disposal of the treated COPW material by mixing

  6. Ocean Studies Board annual report, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The Ocean Studies Board (OSB), created in July, 1985, serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on matters of ocean science and policy. The goals of the Ocean Studies Board are: to promote the advancement of scientific understanding of the ocean by overseeing the health of ocean sciences and stimulating their progress; to encourage the wise use of the ocean and its resources through the application of scientific knowledge; to lead in the formulation of national and international marine policy and to clarify scientific issues that affect this policy; and to promote international cooperation in oceanographic research and to improve scientific and technical assistance to developing countries. The Ocean Studies Board is a multi-disciplinary body with representation from the fields of marine biology and biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, marine geology and geophysics, engineering, and marine policy. This report reviews existing projects and discusses the progress of ocean research programs.

  7. Wild Steelhead Studies, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Holubetz, Terry B.

    1995-11-01

    Significant progress was attained in implementing the complex and challenging studies of wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss production in Idaho. Study sites were selected and techniques were developed to collect the needed data in remote wilderness locations. Cursory examination of existing data provides indication that most wild steelhead stocks are under escaped, especially the Group B stocks. Abundance of wild steelhead is generally declining in recent years. The portable weir concept and electronic fish counting developed through this project have been well received by land owners and reviewing governmental agencies with less impact to the land, stream, and fishery resources than conventional permanent weirs.

  8. Missouri Annual Blind/Visually Impaired Literacy Study, December 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (DESE) Division of Special Education (DSE), per Section 162.1136 RSMo, conducts an annual study of the educational status of eligible blind/visually impaired students and reports the findings to the Missouri Legislature on December 1st each year. The information contained in this report…

  9. Missouri Annual Blind/Visually Impaired Literacy Study, December 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (DESE) Division of Special Education (DSE), per Missouri Revised Statute 162.1136, conducts an annual study of the educational status of eligible blind/visually impaired students and reports the findings to the Missouri Legislature on December 1st each year. The information contained in…

  10. Missouri Annual Blind/Visually Impaired Literacy Study, December 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, per Section 162.1136 RSMo, conducts an annual study of the educational status of eligible blind/visually impaired students and reports the findings to the Missouri Legislature on December 1st each year. The information contained in this report pertains to the twelve data elements…

  11. Missouri Annual Blind/Visually Impaired Literacy Study, December 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, per Section 162.1136 RSMo, conducts an annual study of the educational status of eligible blind/visually impaired students and reports the findings to the Missouri Legislature on December 1st each year. The information contained in this report pertains to the twelve data elements…

  12. Missouri Annual Blind/Visually Impaired Literacy Study, December 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, per Section 162.1136 RSMo, conducts an annual study of the educational status of eligible blind/visually impaired students and reports the findings to the Missouri Legislature on December 1st each year. The information contained in this report pertains to the twelve data elements…

  13. 36th Annual Maintenance & Operations Cost Study: Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2007-01-01

    Colleges are focusing increased effort--and money--to improve the physical condition of existing facilities and address a huge backlog of deferred maintenance. According to "American School & University's" 36th annual Maintenance and Operations (M&O) Cost Study, the median college spends 16.4% of total college budget on M&O, up from 11% the year…

  14. 38th Annual Maintenance & Operations Cost Study for Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2009-01-01

    The nation's colleges are feeling the pinch of the economic downturn, and maintenance and operations (M&O) budgets especially are under pressure. This article presents data from the 38th annual Maintenance & Operations Cost Study for colleges that can help one in benchmarking expenditures at one's institution. Data provided only targets two-year…

  15. 36th Annual Maintenance & Operations Cost Study: Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2007-01-01

    Spending by school districts on maintenance and operations increased in 2006-2007, reversing years of historic low expenditures. According to "American School & University's" 36th annual Maintenance and Operations (M&O) Cost Study, the median school district spends 9.19% of total district expenditures (TDE) on M&O, up from 7.58% the year before.…

  16. 38th Annual Maintenance & Operations Cost Study for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Despite the worst economic environment in generations, spending by K-12 institutions on maintenance and operations (M&O) held its own--defying historical trends that have shown M&O spending among the most affected in times of budget tightening. This article presents data from the 38th annual Maintenance & Operations Cost Study for schools that can…

  17. ECEAP 1991 Longitudinal Study and Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Office of Community Development, Olympia.

    Washington State's Early Childhood Education and Assistance Program (ECEAP) provides a comprehensive, family-focused preschool program designed to help low-income children succeed in the public school system and help families support and participate in their children's success. Findings from an ongoing longitudinal study of the ECEAP program…

  18. Ocean Studies Board annual report 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    Activities of the Ocean Studies Board fall into three broad categories: promoting the health of ocean sciences in the United States, encouraging the protection and wise use of the ocean and its resources, and applying ocean science to improve national security.

  19. Ocean Studies Board annual report 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Activities of the Ocean Studies Board fall into three broad categories: promoting the health of ocean sciences in the United States, encouraging the protection and wise use of the ocean and its resources, and applying ocean science to improve national security.

  20. FABRIC FILTER SYSTEM STUDY: FIRST ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes first-year activities of a comprehensive EPA-funded study of a commercial fabric filter unit on a 350-MW low-sulfur-coal-fired unit at Southwestern Public Service Company's Harrington Station at Amarillo, Texas. Two years will be required to complete collecti...

  1. Environmental studies group. Annual report for 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, D. C.; Hurley, J. D.

    1980-08-21

    Group projects included radioecological studies of aquatic and terrestrial systems, land management activities, foodstuff monitoring, dust transport studies including fugitive dust measurements and modeling, and several support programs involving evaluation of the plant's ambient air samplers and airborne tritium monitoring techniques. Some salient results from the several project reports include determination of an appropriate model for mechanically generated fugitive dust dispersion, a radionuclide inventory of Smart Ditch Pond (Pond D-1), a coefficient of community determination for two terrestrial sample plots on the plant site buffer zone, a natality and mortality rate determination for fawns in the plant deer herd (including one positive coyote-kill determination), inlet loss and filter paper collection efficiencies for the plant ambient air samplers, and differential tritium sampling measurements of the vapor in Building 771 stack effluent.

  2. Space Studies Board Annual Report 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    The Space Studies Board (SSB) was established in 1958 to serve as the focus of the interests and responsibilities in space research for the National Academies. The SSB provides an independent, authoritative forum for information and advice on all aspects of space science and applications, and it serves as the focal point within the National Academies for activities on space research. It oversees advisory studies and program assessments, facilitates international research coordination, and promotes communications on space science and science policy between the research community, the federal government, and the interested public. The SSB also serves as the U.S. National Committee for the International Council for Science Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). The present volume reviews the organization, activities, and reports of the SSB for the year 2012.

  3. Infectivity model verification studies, annual report - 1981

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    The infectivity model has been used as one of the leading indicators of the potential health effects that may be associated with energy-related pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NOs), ozone, and diesel exhaust. The original studies with the infectivity model and chronic exposure to NO2 reported by Ehrlich and Henry (1968) have not been replicated. This report details the work that has been performed in Texas Tech's laboratory thus far in initiating a chronic NO2 exposure study to replicate the original work by Ehrlich and Henry, and reviews the preliminary results. At the end of the first contract year, a functioning inhalation facility with a capability to expose animals continuously to low levels of NO2 is in place. One group of animals has been exposed to NO2 for eight months and challenged with Klebsiella pneumonia by inhalation. The results are similar to, but do not replicate entirely, those reported by Ehrlich and Henry. Two additional exposures have been initiated, and the animals will be challenged with the infectious agent in a bacterial infectivity chamber similar to that used by EPA.

  4. Space Studies Board Annual Report, 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The year 2009 was one of transition for the nation, for NASA, and for the Space Studies Board (SSB). The nation pulled back from 2008's economic precipice, but did not return to the path of economic growth that it had been on. The United States inaugurated a new president who set out to build his administration. By mid-year President Obama had announced the appointment of Charlie Bolden as NASA administrator, and Lori Garver as deputy administrator. The president and Charlie Bolden jointly appointed an independent commission, the now well-known Augustine Commission, to provide guidance on the future of NASA's human spaceflight program. Many had known for quite a while that NASA's human spaceflight program faced a profound change at the time of the retirement of the space shuttle. This year was also a year of transition for the SSB. In 2009, Marcia Smith stepped down as staff director for both SSB and ASEB, and Dick Rowberg had a very good turn at the plate as a pinch-hitter. We are deeply indebted to both of them. We are pleased that, after a successful run as study director for Astro2010, Michael Moloney is now director of SSB and ASEB. The profound work begun in 2009 on the decadal surveys will only see the light of day later as they are released and the scientific work begins. The SSB will have much to report for 2010.

  5. Ocean Studies Board. Annual report 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Ocean Studies Board (OSB), created in July 1985, serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on matters of ocean science and policy. It is a unit of the Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources of the National REsearch Council (NRC). The OSB is a multi-disciplinary body with representation from the fields of marine biology and biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, marine geology and geophysics, engineering and marine policy. The OSB provides leadership, builds consensus, and gives timely, proactive advice to the nation on ocean science and policy issues. OSB activities fall into three broad categories: promoting the health of ocean sciences in the United States, encouraging the protection and wise use of the ocean and its resources, and applying ocean science to improve national security. A brief description of 1992 activities along with activities planned in 1993 is presented.

  6. Ocean Studies Board. Annual report 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Ocean Studies Board (OSB), created in July 1985, serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on matters of ocean science and policy. It is a unit of the Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources of the National REsearch Council (NRC). The OSB is a multi-disciplinary body with representation from the fields of marine biology and biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, marine geology and geophysics, engineering and marine policy. The OSB provides leadership, builds consensus, and gives timely, proactive advice to the nation on ocean science and policy issues. OSB activities fall into three broad categories: promoting the health of ocean sciences in the United States, encouraging the protection and wise use of the ocean and its resources, and applying ocean science to improve national security. A brief description of 1993 activities along with activities planned in 1994 is presented.

  7. Willamette Oxygen Supplementation Studies : Annual Report 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.D.; Ewing, S.K.; Sheahan, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Hydropower development and operations in the Columbia River basin have caused the loss of 5 million to 11 million salmonids. An interim goal of the Northwest Power Planning Council is to reestablish these historical numbers by doubling the present runs from 2.5 million adult fish to 5.0 million adult fish. This increase in production will be accomplished through comprehensive management of both wild and hatchery fish, but artificial propagation will play a major role in the augmentation process. The current husbandry techniques in existing hatcheries require improvements that may include changes in rearing densities, addition of oxygen, removal of excess nitrogen, and improvement in raceway design. Emphasis will be placed on the ability to increase the number of fish released from hatcheries that survive to return as adults. Rearing density is one of the most important elements in fish culture. Fish culturists have attempted to rear fish in hatchery ponds at densities that most efficiently use the rearing space available. Such efficiency studies require a knowledge of cost of rearing and the return of adults to the fisheries and to the hatchery.

  8. Idaho Supplementation Studies : 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Leitzinger, Eric J.; Plaster, Kurtis; Hassemer, Peter

    1996-12-01

    Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) will help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in Idaho as part of a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Columbia River. The objectives are to: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; and (3) determine which supplementation strategies provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity. Field work began in 1991 with the collection of baseline data from treatment and some control streams. Full implementation began in 1992 with baseline data collection on treatment and control streams and releases of supplementation fish into several treatment streams. Field methods included snorkeling to estimate chinook salmon parr populations, PIT tagging summer parr to estimate parr-to-smolt survival, multiple redd counts to estimate spawning escapement and collect carcass information. Screw traps were used to trap and PIT tag outmigrating chinook salmon during the spring and fall outmigration. Weirs were used to trap and enumerate returning adult salmon in select drainages.

  9. Idaho Supplementation Studies : 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeth, Doug; Plaster, Kurtis; Apperson, Kimberly A.

    1996-11-01

    This work was the result of a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Columbia River. Adult and jack chinook salmon escapement were indexed by redd counts and weir returns. Escapement in 1994 was low and in some cases approached the lowest on record. Although stream flow conditions and parr abundance were conducive to precise parr population estimates, some streams continued to exhibit wide confidence intervals. Different methods used to calculate the estimates yielded inconsistent results with regard to increasing or decreasing the population estimate and improving the precision of the estimates. No single method appeared definitively better for all streams. Emigrant traps captured 78,138 chinook salmon fry, parr, and smolts in 1994. Application of a weekly trap efficiency adjusted for stream flow produced emigration estimates that were up to 30% larger than when a seasonal trap efficiency was used. Detection rates for smolts tagged in some streams were similar to detection rates for parr tagged during the fall of the previous year. This was unexpected because overwinter mortality usually results in a lower detection rate for fall-tagged fish. Low escapement in 1994 severely hampered Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) broodstock development. The inability to develop local broodstocks for supplementation is the most important factor threatening the implementation of the ISS.

  10. Space Studies Board Annual Report, 2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) was chartered by Congress, under the leadership of President Abraham Lincoln, to provide scientific and technical advice to the government of the United States. Over the years, the advisory program of the institution has expanded, leading to the establishment of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and the Institute of Medicine, and of the National Research Council (NRC), the operational arm of the National Academies. The original charter of the Space Science Board was established in June 1958, three months before NASA opened its doors. The Space Science Board and its successor, the Space Studies Board (SSB), have provided expert external and independent scientific and programmatic advice to NASA on a continuous basis from NASA's inception until the present. The Board has also provided such advice to other agencies, including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the Department of Defense, and responds to requests from Congress. Early in 2005, the leadership of NASA changed, and with it new emphases emerged. Some of the early interpretations of the 2004 Vision for Space Exploration, in which only certain aspects of space science were encouraged, disappeared and a broader mandate for science emerged. But what also emerged was fiscal reality, which precluded many of the exciting activities that were planned for NASA's science programs. In this environment of change, there has been a continuing need to evaluate NASA's plans against the strategies for science that have been laid down in the various NRC decadal surveys, and to assist NASA in determining how best to proceed given the reduced level of resources it will have. Coupled with this has been a continuing need to provide Congress with the assessments of NASA's plans that it requests.

  11. Space Studies Board Annual Report, 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The year 2008 was an historic one for both our country and the Space Studies Board (SSB). The United States elected a new president. His first task has been to cope with an economic crisis of historic proportions. In the same year, the United States celebrated the 50th anniversary of its first spaceflight, and the SSB celebrated its 50th anniversary. As we in the space community looked back, we also looked forward. The year 2008 was truly a year of transition, for the country and for the space enterprise. Under Lennard Fisk's continued leadership, the SSB completed its year-long seminar series, Forging the Future of Space Science, which highlighted the accomplishments of space science over the past 50 years and looked ahead to the next 50 years of discoveries that await us. During the first half of the year, events were held in Tallahasse, Florida; Austin, Texas; Paris, France (in conjunction with the Committee on Space Research, which is headquartered here); Boulder, Colorado; and Fairmont, West Virginia. The series culminated in a celebration at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C., on June 26, .50 years to the day after the SSB was created. At that event, the Board presented its first James A. Van Allen Lectureship to Frank McDonald. The recent economic crisis has made it obvious that the U.S. economy does not stand alone. The global economy is becoming more and more integrated. The space enterprise cannot avoid this trend. In November, the SSB conducted a workshop in conjunction with the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board entitled 'Future International Space Cooperation and Competition in a Globalizing World'. Its goals were to assess the current state of international cooperation and competition in space and to discuss ways in which new and emerging space powers might be better integrated into the global space community.

  12. Nursing portfolio study: the use in annual performance reviews.

    PubMed

    Capan, Michelle L; Ambrose, Heather L; Burkett, Marnie; Evangelista, Tonya R; Flook, Donna M; Straka, Kristen L

    2013-01-01

    Professional portfolios allow staff to document their participation in areas of education, certification, shared governance councils, national nursing organizations, and community outreach. In this study, nurses tracked their professional development in a virtual electronic portfolio. A preperception/postperception questionnaire for both staff and unit directors revealed that nursing portfolios proved to be a valuable tool during annual performance reviews to acknowledge accomplishments and encourage continued professional growth of individual direct-care staff nurses. PMID:23877288

  13. Hanford Apatite Treatability Test Report Errata: Apatite Mass Loading Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.

    2014-05-19

    The objective of this errata report is to document an error in the apatite loading (i.e., treatment capacity) estimate reported in previous apatite treatability test reports and provide additional calculation details for estimating apatite loading and barrier longevity. The apatite treatability test final report (PNNL-19572; Vermeul et al. 2010) documents the results of the first field-scale evaluation of the injectable apatite PRB technology. The apatite loading value in units of milligram-apatite per gram-sediment is incorrect in this and some other previous reports. The apatite loading in units of milligram phosphate per gram-sediment, however, is correct, and this is the unit used for comparison to field core sample measurements.

  14. Psychiatric manifestations of treatable hereditary metabolic disorders in adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Detecting psychiatric disorders of secondary origin is a crucial concern for the psychiatrist. But how can this reliably be done among a large number of conditions, most of which have a very low prevalence? Metabolic screening undertaken in a population of subjects with psychosis demonstrated the presence of treatable metabolic disorders in a significant number of cases. The nature of the symptoms that should alert the clinician is also a fundamental issue and is not limited to psychosis. Hereditary metabolic disorders (HMD) are a rare but important cause of psychiatric disorders in adolescents and adults, the signs of which may remain isolated for years before other more specific organic signs appear. HMDs that present purely with psychiatric symptoms are very difficult to diagnose due to low awareness of these rare diseases among psychiatrists. However, it is important to identify HMDs in order to refer patients to specialist centres for appropriate management, disease-specific treatment and possible prevention of irreversible physical and neurological complications. Genetic counselling can also be provided. This review focuses on three HMD categories: acute, treatable HMDs (urea cycle abnormalities, remethylation disorders, acute intermittent porphyria); chronic, treatable HMDs (Wilson’s disease, Niemann-Pick disease type C, homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis); and chronic HMDs that are difficult to treat (lysosomal storage diseases, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, creatine deficiency syndrome). We also propose an algorithm for the diagnosis of HMDs in patients with psychiatric symptoms. PMID:25478001

  15. Treatability of TCE-contaminated clay soils at the Rinsewater Impoundment, Michoud Assembly Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lucero, A.J.; Gilbert, V.P.; Hewitt, J.D.; Koran, L.J. Jr.; Jennings, H.L.; Donaldson, T.L.; West, O.R.; Cline, S.R.; Marshall, D.S.

    1995-02-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has conducted treatability studies on clay soils taken from the Rinsewater Impoundment at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Michoud Assembly Facility. The soils are contaminated with up to 3000 mg/kg of trichloroethylene and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, less than 10 mg/kg of trans-1,2-DCE, and less than 10 mg/kg of vinyl chloride. The goal of the study described in this report was to identify and test in situ technologies and/or develop a modified treatment regime to remove or destroy volatile organic compounds from the contaminated clay soils. Much of the work was based upon previous experience with mixed-region vapor stepping and mixed-region peroxidation. Laboratory treatments were performed on intact soil cores that were taken from contaminated areas at the Rinsewater Impoundment at MAF. Treatability studies were conducted on soil that was close to in situ conditions in terms of soil structure and contaminant concentrations.

  16. Interim Report: Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection - 300 Area Uranium Plume Treatability Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Pierce, Eric M.; Richards, Emily L.; Butler, Bart C.; Parker, Kent E.; Glovack, Julia N.; Burton, Sarah D.; Baum, Steven R.; Clayton, Eric T.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.

    2007-07-31

    This report presents results from bench-scale treatability studies conducted under site-specific conditions to optimize the polyphosphate amendment for implementation of a field-scale technology demonstration to treat aqueous uranium within the 300 Area aquifer of the Hanford site. The general treatability testing approach consists of conducting studies with site sediment and under site conditions, in order to develop an effective chemical formulation for the polyphosphate amendments and evaluate the transport properties of these amendments under site conditions. Phosphorus-31 (31P) NMR was utilized to determine the effects of Hanford groundwater and sediment on the degradation of inorganic phosphates. Static batch tests were conducted to optimize the composition of the polyphosphate formulation for the precipitation of apatite and autunite, as well as to quantify the kinetics, loading and stability of apatite as a long-term sorbent for uranium. Dynamic column tests were used to further optimize the polyphosphate formulation for emplacement within the subsurface and the formation of autunite and apatite. In addition, dynamic testing quantified the stability of autunite and apatite under relevant site conditions. Results of this investigation provide valuable information for designing a full-scale remediation of uranium in the 300 aquifer.

  17. Aerobic treatability of waste effluent from the leather finishing industry. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Vinger, J.A.

    1993-12-01

    The Seton Company supplies finished leather products exclusively for the automotive industry. In the process of finishing leather, two types of wastewaters are generated. The majority of the wastewater is composed of water-based paint residuals while the remainder is composed of solvent-based coating residuals. Aerobic treatability studies were conducted using water-based and solvent-based waste recirculatory waters from the Seton Company's Saxton, Pennsylvania processing plant. The specific objective was to determine the potential for using aerobic biological processes to biodegrade the industry's wastes and determine the potential for joint treatment at the local publicly owned treatment works (POTW). This study was accomplished in two phases. Phase I was conducted during the Spring Semester 1993 and consisted of aerobic respirometer tests of the raw wastes and mass balance analysis. The results of Phase I were published in a report to the Seton Company as Environmental Resources Research Institute project number 92C.II40R-1. Phase II was conducted during the Summer Semester 1993 and consisted of bench-scale reactor tests and additional aerobic respirometer tests. The aerobic respirometer batch tests and bench-scale reactor tests were used to assess the treatability of solvent-based and water-based wastewaters and determine the degree of biodegradability of the wastewaters. Mass balance calculations were made using measured characteristics.

  18. Characterization and photocatalytic treatability of red water from Brazilian TNT industry.

    PubMed

    Ludwichk, Raquel; Helferich, Oliver Karil; Kist, Cristiane Patrícia; Lopes, Aline Chitto; Cavasotto, Thiago; Silva, Davi Costa; Barreto-Rodrigues, Marcio

    2015-08-15

    The current study aims to characterize and evaluate the photocatalytic treatability of the "red water" effluent from a Brazilian TNT production industry. Analyses were performed using physical, chemical, spectroscopic and chromatographic assays, which demonstrated that the effluent presented a significant pollution potential, mainly due to COD, BOD, solids and to the high concentration of nitroaromatic compounds such as 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 1-methyl-2,4-dinitrobenzene, 2-methyl-1,3-dinitrobenzene, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene-3,5-dinitro-p-toluidine and 2-methyl-3,5-dinitro-benzoamine. By a modified sol-gel and a dip-coating technique, it was possible to obtain a TiO2 film on borosilicate glass substrate which functional composition and microstructure were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The evaluation of the photocatalytic treatability using borosilicate-glass-TiO2 demonstrated high degradation efficiency. In this context, a reduction of 32 and 100% for COD and nitroaromatic compounds, respectively, was observed. Although the proposed photocatalytic process has found difficulties in reducing the content of organic matter and effluent color in the red water, its potential for degrading refractory chemical compounds such as the nitroaromatic ones enables it to be used as tertiary treatment. PMID:25827271

  19. TREATABILITY TEST REPORT FOR THE REMOVAL OF CHROMIUM FROM GROUNDWATER AT 100-D AREA USING ELECTROCOAGULATION

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN SW

    2009-09-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to accelerate cleanup of contaminated groundwater along the Columbia River. The current treatment approach was driven by a series of Interim Action Records of Decision (IAROD) issued in the mid-1990s. Part of the approach for acceleration involves increasing the rate of groundwater extraction for the chromium plume north of the 100-D Reactor and injecting the treated water in strategic locations to hydraulically direct contaminated groundwater toward the extraction wells. The current treatment system uses ion exchange for Cr(VI) removal, with off-site regeneration of the ion exchange resins. Higher flow rates will increase the cost and frequency of ion exchange resin regeneration; therefore, alternative technologies are being considered for treatment at high flow rates. One of these technologies, electrocoagulation (EC), was evaluated through a pilot-scale treatability test. The primary purpose of the treatability study was to determine the effectiveness of Cr(VI) removal and the robustness/implementability of an EC system. Secondary purposes of the study were to gather information about derivative wastes and to obtain data applicable to scaling the process from the treatability scale to full-scale. The treatability study work plan identified a performance objective and four operational objectives. The performance objective for the treatability study was to determine the efficiency (effectiveness) of hexavalent chromium removal from the groundwater, with a desired concentration of {le} 20 micrograms per liter ({micro}g/L) Cr(VI) in the effluent prior to re-injection. Influent and effluent total chromium and hexavalent chromium data were collected using a field test kit for multiple samples per week, and from off-site laboratory analysis of samples collected approximately monthly. These data met all data quality requirements. Two of three effluent chromium samples analyzed in the off-site (that is, fixed) laboratory

  20. CHARACTERISTICS AND TREATABILITY OF URBAN RUNOFF RESIDUALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was undertaken to determine the character of urban stormwater runoff (UR) residuals as well as handling and disposal techniques. Samples of UR residuals for this study were obtained from a field-assembled sedimentation basin in Racine, WI, swirl and helical bend solids...

  1. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FULL SCALE ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR FIELD TRIAL: PHASE I, VERIFICATION TRIAL BURN ON DIOXIN/HERBICIDE ORANGE CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This treatability study reports on the results of one of a series of field trials using various remedial action technologies that may be capable of restoring Herbicide Orange (HO)XDioxin contaminated sites. A full-scale field trial using a rotary kiln incinerator capable of pro...

  2. Hanford 100-D Area Biostimulation Treatability Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Elmore, Rebecca P.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Sklarew, Deborah S.; Johnson, Christian D.; Oostrom, Martinus; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Brockman, Fred J.; Bilskis, Christina L.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Peterson, John E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Gasperikova, E.; Ajo-Franklin, J.

    2009-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a treatability test designed to demonstrate that in situ biostimulation can be applied to help meet cleanup goals in the Hanford Site 100-D Area. In situ biostimulation has been extensively researched and applied for aquifer remediation over the last 20 years for various contaminants. In situ biostimulation, in the context of this project, is the process of amending an aquifer with a substrate that induces growth and/or activity of indigenous bacteria for the purpose of inducing a desired reaction. For application at the 100-D Area, the purpose of biostimulation is to induce reduction of chromate, nitrate, and oxygen to remove these compounds from the groundwater. The in situ biostimulation technology is intended to provide supplemental treatment upgradient of the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) barrier previously installed in the Hanford 100-D Area and thereby increase the longevity of the ISRM barrier. Substrates for the treatability test were selected to provide information about two general approaches for establishing and maintaining an in situ permeable reactive barrier based on biological reactions, i.e., a biobarrier. These approaches included 1) use of a soluble (miscible) substrate that is relatively easy to distribute over a large areal extent, is inexpensive, and is expected to have moderate longevity; and 2) use of an immiscible substrate that can be distributed over a reasonable areal extent at a moderate cost and is expected to have increased longevity.

  3. Treatability Test Plan for 300 Area Uranium Stabilization through Polyphosphate Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Williams, Bruce A.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2007-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has initiated a study into possible options for stabilizing uranium at the 300 Area using polyphosphate injection. As part of this effort, PNNL will perform bench- and field-scale treatability testing designed to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to reduced uranium concentrations in the groundwater to meet drinking water standards (30 ug/L) in situ. This technology works by forming phosphate minerals (autunite and apatite) in the aquifer that directly sequester the existing aqueous uranium in autunite minerals and precipitates apatite minerals for sorption and long term treatment of uranium migrating into the treatment zone, thus reducing current and future aqueous uranium concentrations. Polyphosphate injection was selected for testing based on technology screening as part of the 300-FF-5 Phase III Feasibility Study for treatment of uranium in the 300-Area.

  4. Differential fluorescence EEMs can be used to assess treatability of DOM during drinking water production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavonen, Elin; Kothawala, Dolly; Tranvik, Lars; Köhler, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    of this fraction prior to disinfection should optimize the process. Furthermore, the main process at all studied WTPs is flocculation and their experienced treatability could easily be explained through the percentage of FDOM with emission above 450 nm (p<0.0001).

  5. Treatability test plan for the 200-BP-1 prototype surface barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Hanford Site, in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November of 1989, included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priority List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The 200 Area is divided into operable units based on waste disposal information, location, facility, type, and other characteristics. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is one specific site located within the 200 East Area. Inclusion on the NPL initiated the remedial investigation (RI) process for characterizing the nature and extent of contamination and assessing risks to human health and the environment at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. In March of 1990, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan for the 200-BP-1 operable unit was issued (DOE-RL 1990a). The work plan outlined the first phase of site characterization activities, which were completed in March of 1993 with the issuance of Phase I Remedial Investigation Report for the 200-BP-1 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1993, Draft A). Remedial action objectives outlined in the RI report suggest that a likely remedial action at the 200-BP-1 operable unit could involve the use of a surface barrier. To further evaluate this technology, additional performance and constructability data are needed to implement this remedial action. This test plan describes the general methodology for conducting a prototype barrier treatability study. The objectives of this treatability study are to determine overall performance and constructability data on an actual waste site in conjunction with the Hanford Site Barrier Development Program.

  6. Normal-pressure hydrocephalus and the saga of the treatable dementias

    SciTech Connect

    Friedland, R.P. )

    1989-11-10

    A case study of a 74-year-old woman is presented which illustrates the difficulty of understanding dementing illnesses. A diagnosis of normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) was made because of the development of abnormal gait, with urinary incontinence and severe, diffuse, white matter lesions on the MRI scan. Computed tomographic, MRI scans and positron emission tomographic images of glucose use are presented. The treatable dementias are a large, multifaceted group of illnesses, of which NPH is one. The author proposes a new term for this disorder commonly known as NPH because the problem with the term normal-pressure hydrocephalus is that the cerebrospinal fluid pressure is not always normal in the disease.

  7. 21 CFR 601.70 - Annual progress reports of postmarketing studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Annual progress reports of postmarketing studies. 601.70 Section 601.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Postmarketing Studies § 601.70 Annual progress reports of postmarketing studies. (a) General requirements....

  8. Ferrocyanide safety project ferrocyanide aging studies FY 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Lilga, M.A.; Alderson, E.V.; Hallen, R.T.

    1995-09-01

    This annual report gives the results of the work conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in FY 1995 on Task 3 of the Ferrocyanide Safety Project, Ferrocyanide Aging Studies. Aging refers to the dissolution and hydrolysis of simulated Hanford ferrocyanide waste in alkaline aqueous solutions by radiolytic and chemical means. The ferrocyanide simulant primarily used in these studies was dried In-Farm-1B, Rev. 7, prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company to simulate the waste generated when the In-Farm flowsheet was used to remove radiocesium from waste supernates in single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. In the In-Farm flowsheet, nickel ion and ferrocyanide anion were added to waste supernates to precipitate sodium nickel ferrocyanide, Na{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}, and co-precipitate radiocesium. Once the radiocesium was removed, supernates were pumped from the tanks, and new wastes from cladding removal processes or from evaporators were added. These new wastes were typically highly caustic, having hydroxide ion concentrations of over 1 M and as high as 4 M. The Aging Studies task is investigating reactions this caustic waste may have had with the precipitated ferrocyanide waste in a radiation field. In previous Aging Studies research, Na{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} in simulants was shown to dissolve in basic solutions, forming insoluble Ni(OH){sub 2} and soluble Na{sub 4}Fe(CN){sub 6}. The influence on solubility of base strength, sodium ion concentration, anions, and temperature was previously investigated. The results may indicate that even ferrocyanide sludge that did not come into direct contact with highly basic wastes may also have aged significantly.

  9. EPA’s Drinking Water Treatability Database: A Tool for All Drinking Water Professionals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) is being developed by the USEPA Office of Research and Development to allow drinking water professionals and others to access referenced information gathered from thousands of literature sources and assembled on one site. Currently, ...

  10. NATO CCMS PILOT STUDY ON CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES -(PHASE I) - 2002 ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The annual report summarizes the activities of the NATO CCMS Pilot Study on clean products and processes for 2002, including the proceedings of the 2002 annual meeting held in Vilnius, Lithuania. The report presents a wealth of information on cleaner production activities in ove...

  11. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY - CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES (PHASE I) 2000 ANNUAL REPORT, NUMBER 242

    EPA Science Inventory

    This annual report presents the proceedings of the Third Annual NATO/CCMS pilot study meeting in Copenhagen, Denmark. Guest speakers focused on efforts in the area of research of clean products and processes, life cycle analysis, computer tools and pollution prevention.

  12. Treatable high homocysteine alone or in concert with five other thrombophilias in 1014 patients with thrombotic events.

    PubMed

    Glueck, Charles J; Smith, Domonique; Gandhi, Niral; Hemachandra, Kailash; Shah, Parth; Wang, Ping

    2015-10-01

    In 1014 patients with thrombotic events, we determined how often treatable high serum homocysteine alone, or in concert with five other thrombophilias, was associated with thrombotic events. We studied 1014 outpatients sequentially referred for evaluation of thrombotic events, all having six measures of thrombophilia--three PCR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T-A1298C, factor V Leiden G506A, prothrombin G20210A), and three serologic (factors VIII, XI, homocysteine). Of the 1014 patients, 198 (20%) had atherothrombosis, 199 (20%) ocular vascular thrombosis, 211 (21%) osteonecrosis, 180 (18%) pseudotumor cerebri, and 123 (12%) recurrent miscarriage. In 434 of 1014 (43%) patients, all six thrombophilic measures were normal. High homocysteine, present in 126 of 1014 patients (12.4%), was the sole thrombophilia in 50 (5%), accompanied only by methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase homozygosity-compound heterozygosity in 22 (2.2%), and accompanied by other thrombophilias in 54 (5%). Patients were more likely than 110 healthy controls to have high homocysteine (12 vs. 5%; P = 0.02) and high factor VIII (21 vs. 7%; P = 0.0003). On treatment for a median of 18 months with L-methyl folate (5 mg), vitamin B6 (100 mg), and vitamin B12 (2 mg/day), in 74 homocysteinemic patients, median homocysteine fell from 15.6 to 10.0 μmol/l (P < 0.0001), and in 56 (76%), homocysteine fell to normal on treatment. When homocysteinemia was the sole thrombophilia, normalization of homocysteine was accompanied by freedom from new thrombotic events in 38 of 41 patients (93%). In evaluation of 1014 patients with thrombotic events, 126 (12%) had treatable high serum homocysteine, and in 50 (5%), high homocysteine was the sole treatable thrombophilia. PMID:25699608

  13. Project Work Plan 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoremediation Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2006-04-30

    The 100-N Area Innovative Treatment and Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) identified phyto¬remediation as a potential technology both for the removal of 90Sr from the soil of the riparian zone and as a filter for groundwater along the Columbia River. Recent greenhouse and growth chamber studies have demonstrated the viability of phytoextraction to remove 90Sr from this area’s soil/water; in conjunction with monitored natural attenuation and an apatite barrier the process would make an effective treatment for remediation of the 100-N Area 90Sr plume. All activities associated with the 100-NR-1 and 100-NR-2 Operable Units of the Hanford 100-N Area have had, and continue to have, significant regulatory and stakeholder participation. Beginning in 1998 with the ITRD process, presentations to the ITRD TAG were heavily attended by EPA, Washington State Department of Ecology, and stakeholders. In addition, three workshops have been held to receive regulatory and stakeholder feedback on monitored natural attenuation, the apatite barrier, and phytoremediation; these were held in Richland in August 2003, December 2004, and August 2005. The apatite injection treatability test plan (DOE 2005) describes phytoremediation as a technology to be evaluated during the March 2008 evaluation milestone as described in the Tri-Party Agreement change request (M-16-06-01 Change Control Form). If, during this evaluation milestone, phytoremediation is favorably evaluated it would be incorporated into the treatability test plan. The phytoremediation treatability test described in this proposal is strongly supported by the Washington State Department of Ecology.

  14. Absence of Resources. 32nd Annual M & O Cost Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2003-01-01

    An annual survey of school maintenance and operations (M & O) funding concludes, among other detailed findings, that budgets continue to shrink in the face of a weak economy--the sixth year of dropping budgets and the smallest level since the survey began. (EV)

  15. That Sinking Feeling. 31st Annual M & O Cost Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2002-01-01

    An annual survey of chief business officers in U.S. public school districts revealed that spending on maintenance and operations (M & O) as a percentage of net current expenditures dropped to a 30-year low of 7.8 percent. Other survey findings are presented in several data tables. (EV)

  16. A Modest Pullback. 8th Annual College M & O Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2002-01-01

    An annual survey of physical plant directors at 2-year colleges and 4-year institutions with no significant graduate programs revealed that spending on maintenance and operations (M & O) as a percentage of total budget dropped to 10 percent from 10.5 percent a year ago. Other survey findings are presented in several data tables. (EV)

  17. Yakima River Species Interactions Studies Annual Report FY 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.

    1993-08-01

    The Yakima Species Interactions Study (YSIS) was begun in September of 1989 to investigate species interactions among fish in response to proposed supplementation of salmon and steelhead in the Yakima Basin. Supplementation is defined as ''the use of artificial propagation in the attempt to maintain or increase natural production while maintaining the long term fitness of the target population, and keeping the ecological and genetic impacts on non-target populations within specified biological limits'' (BPA summary report series, 1992). Target populations are the populations of fish that will be supplemented and non-target populations are all other populations of fish. One of the goals of the proposed Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP) is to test the strategy of supplementation in the Yakima Basin. In a review of published literature and unpublished projects about supplementation, Miller et al. (1990) concluded ''Adverse impacts to wild stocks have been shown or postulated for about every type of hatchery fish introduction where the intent was to rebuild runs''. In Steward and Bjornn's (1990) review of the published literature, they stated that ''Genetic and ecological effects, and changes in productivity of the native stocks that can result from supplementation remain largely unmeasured''. Uncertainties about the effects supplementation in the upper Yakima basin may have on wild fish was the impetus for the initiation of the present studies. The YSIS has three main goals which are to: evaluate risks of ecological interactions to target and non-target populations (resolve critical uncertainties), contribute to the development of an interactions monitoring plan, and provide information that may be used to increase the probability that natural production of anadromous salmonids may be successfully increased. Information obtained will be used as the YFP planning process proceeds (adaptive management). A monitoring plan is being developed which will incorporate data

  18. [Treatable neurometabolic diseases. Association with schizophrenia spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Bonnot, Olivier; Herrera, Paula; Kuster, Alice

    2015-09-01

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are presented on 1% of subjects over general population. Organic pathologies prevalence in schizophrenia spectrum patients is not well determined, and it is probably underestimated. In the present update review, we are going to highlight seven treatable neurometabolic diseases (NMD) associated to sub-clinic neurological symptoms. It is not infrequent to witness the absence of any clinical neurological signs going along with the NMD. Psychiatric symptoms may be the only clinical alarm that can guide physicians to an acute diagnosis. This is why it is a challenging pathology, defying our clinical accuracy as psychiatrist or any other practitioners confronted to this population. Hereby we are going to expose a literature review and comprehensive tables in order to present in a glance the essential clinical features of disorders of homocysteine metabolism, urea cycle disorders, Niemann-Pick disease type C, acute porphyria, cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis. These conditions are sensible to major improvement strongly correlated to the accuracy of diagnosis. Literature analysis led us to propose a comprehensive list of atypical psychiatric symptoms including highly predominant visual hallucinations, compared to auditory ones, as well as confusion, catatonia or progressive cognitive decline. We highlight the importance of considering antipsychotic treatment resistance as a crucial sign leading to suspect an organic factor beneath the psychiatric features. PMID:26248708

  19. [Episacral lipoma: a treatable cause of low back pain].

    PubMed

    Erdem, Hatice Rana; Nacır, Barış; Özeri, Zuhal; Karagöz, Aynur

    2013-01-01

    Episacral lipoma is a small, tender subcutaneous nodule primarily occurring over the posterior iliac crest. Episacral lipoma is a significant and treatable cause of acute and chronic low back pain. Episacral lipoma occurs as a result of tears in the thoracodorsal fascia and subsequent herniation of a portion of the underlying dorsal fat pad through the tear. This clinical entity is common, and recognition is simple. The presence of a painful nodule with disappearance of pain after injection with anaesthetic, is diagnostic. Medication and physical therapy may not be effective. Local injection of the nodule with a solution of anaesthetic and steroid is effective in treating the episacral lipoma. Here we describe 2 patients with painful nodules over the posterior iliac crest. One patient complained of severe lower back pain radiating to the left lower extremity and this patient subsequently underwent disc operation. The other patient had been treated for greater trochanteric pain syndrome. In both patients, symptoms appeared to be relieved by local injection of anaesthetic and steroid. Episacral lipoma should be considered during diagnostic workup and in differential diagnosis of acute and chronic low back pain. PMID:23720083

  20. Firm contracts for treatability tests on contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    Geosafe Corporation, a Pacific Northwest-headquartered hazardous waste remediation company, announced that is has successfully completed treatability testing of contaminated soils under contract with Woodward Clyde Consultants of Denver, Colorado, the prime contractor for a major hazardous waste site in the Western United States. The tests are being conducted at the University of Washington with Geosafe's specially-designed test equipment. The recently concluded testing confirms the ability of Geosafe's patented in situ vitrification (ISV) technology to treat soils containing a variety of organic and inorganic contaminants. ISV, for which Geosafe has worldwide rights, is the only technology available today that will fully comply with the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. The ability of ISV to treat mixtures of organic, inorganic and radioactive wastes in situ, in a single process, offers distinct advantages over excavation, transportation and incineration. During the ISV process, organic contaminants are pyrolized and the inorganics present are chemically incorporated into the molten soil which, when cooled, resembles naturally-occurring obsidian.

  1. BIOREMEDIATION TREATABILITY STUDIES OF CONTAMINATED SOILS AT WOOD PRESERVING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioremediationis used frequently at sites contaminated with organic hazardous chemical where releases from processing vessels and the mismanagement of reagents and generated waste have contributed to significant impairment of the environment. At wood treater sites, process reagen...

  2. Selecting activated carbon for water and wastewater treatability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Chang, Q.G.; Liu, W.D.; Li, B.J.; Jiang, W.X.; Fu, L.J.; Ying, W.C.

    2007-10-15

    A series of follow-up investigations were performed to produce data for improving the four-indicator carbon selection method that we developed to identify high-potential activated carbons effective for removing specific organic water pollutants. The carbon's pore structure and surface chemistry are dependent on the raw material and the activation process. Coconut carbons have relatively more small pores than large pores; coal and apricot nutshell/walnut shell fruit carbons have the desirable pore structures for removing adsorbates of all sizes. Chemical activation, excessive activation, and/or thermal reactivation enlarge small pores, resulting in reduced phenol number and higher tannic acid number. Activated carbon's phenol, iodine, methylene blue, and tannic acid numbers are convenient indicators of its surface area and pore volume of pore diameters < 10, 10-15, 15-28, and > 28 angstrom, respectively. The phenol number of a carbon is also a good indicator of its surface acidity of oxygen-containing organic functional groups that affect the adsorptive capacity for aromatic and other small polar organics. The tannic acid number is an indicator of carbon's capacity for large, high-molecular-weight natural organic precursors of disinfection by-products in water treatment. The experimental results for removing nitrobenzene, methyl-tert-butyl ether, 4,4-bisphenol, humic acid, and the organic constituents of a biologically treated coking-plant effluent have demonstrated the effectiveness of this capacity-indicator-based method of carbon selection.

  3. TREATABILITY STUDY BULLETIN: ENZYME-ACTIVATED CELLULOSE TECHNOLOGY - THORNECO, INC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Enzyme-Activated Cellulose Technology developed by Thorneco, Inc. uses cellulose placed into one or more cylindrical towers to remove metals and organic compounds from an aqueous solution. The cellulose is coated with a proprietary enzyme. Operating parameters that can affe...

  4. Frequency of dementia syndromes with a potentially treatable cause in geriatric in-patients: analysis of a 1-year interval.

    PubMed

    Djukic, Marija; Wedekind, Dirk; Franz, Almuth; Gremke, Melanie; Nau, Roland

    2015-08-01

    In addition to neurodegenerative and vascular causes of dementia, in the differential diagnosis potentially reversible conditions of dementia also must be assessed. Routine laboratory parameters and neuroimaging, which are recommended for the differential diagnosis of suspected dementia by the German S3 Guideline "Dementia", were retrospectively studied in 166 geriatric patients with suspected dementia. Delirium was diagnosed in six patients (3.6%). These six patients were excluded from the study. Of the 160 remaining patients, there were 99 (59.6%) with an already known dementia. In this subgroup of patients, we found a potentially treatable cause of dementia in 18.2%. In the remaining 61 patients (36.8%), the newly diagnosed dementia syndrome was established according to ICD-10 criteria. Potentially reversible causes of the dementia syndrome were found in 19 of these patients (31.1%). The most common cause was depressive pseudodementia in eight patients followed by vitamin B12 deficiency in six patients. A significant amount of our patients showed laboratory or imaging changes suggestive of potentially reversible causes of the dementia syndrome upon admission. The results of our study indicate the importance of careful differential diagnosis of dementia based on the recommendations of guidelines. Although therapy of these potential causes is not always accompanied by a full recovery, the identification and therapy of treatable causes of cognitive deficits are possible even for general practitioners, who often are the primary contact persons of affected individuals. PMID:25716929

  5. Evaluation of fall chinook salmon spawning adjacent to the In-Situ Redox Manipulation treatability test site, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, R.P.; Geist, D.R.

    1998-10-02

    The In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) experiment is being evaluated as a potential method to remove contaminants from groundwater adjacent to the Columbia River near the 100-D Area. The ISRM experiment involves using sodium dithionate (Na{sub 2}O{sub 6}S{sub 2}) to precipitate chromate from the groundwater. The treatment will likely create anoxic conditions in the groundwater down-gradient of the ISRM treatability test site; however, the spatial extent of this anoxic plume is not exactly known. Surveys were conducted in November 1997, following the peak spawning of fall chinook salmon. Aerial surveys documented 210 redds (spawning nests) near the downstream island in locations consistent with previous surveys. Neither aerial nor underwater surveys documented fall chinook spawning in the vicinity of the ISRM treatability test site. Based on measurements of depth, velocity, and substrate, less than 1% of the study area contained suitable fall chinook salmon spawning habitat, indicating low potential for fall chinook salmon to spawn in the vicinity of the ISRM experiment.

  6. Yakima River Species Interactions Studies, Annual Report 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.

    1996-09-01

    Species interactions research was initiated in 1989 to investigate ecological interactions among fish in response to proposed supplementation of salmon and steelhead in the upper Yakima River basin. This is the fifth of a series of annual reports that address species interactions research and pre-facility monitoring of fishes in the upper Yakima River basin. Data have been collected prior to supplementation to characterize the rainbow trout and other fish populations such as steelhead and spring chinook salmon, predict the potential interactions that may occur as a result of supplementation, and develop methods to monitor interactions. Major topics of this report are associated with the life history of rainbow trout, interactions experimentation, and methods for sampling. This report is organized into two chapters followed by seven ''updates'' with a general introduction preceding the first chapter and a general discussion following the last update. An appendix follows the general discussion. This annual report summarizes data collected primarily by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) between January 1 and December 31, 1994 in the upper Yakima basin above Roza Dam, however these data were compared to data from previous years to identify preliminary trends and patterns. Major preliminary findings from each of the chapters included in this report are described.

  7. Yakima River Species Interactions Studies, Annual Report 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.

    1994-12-01

    Species interactions research was initiated in 1989 to investigate ecological interactions among fish in response to proposed supplementation of salmon and steelhead in the upper Yakima River basin. Data have been collected prior to supplementation to characterize the rainbow trout population, predict the potential interactions that may occur as a result of supplementation, and develop methods to monitor interactions. Major topics of this report are associated with the life history of rainbow trout, interactions experimentation, and methods for sampling. This report is organized into nine chapters with a general introduction preceding the first chapter and a general discussion following the last chapter. This annual report summarizes data collected primarily by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) between January 1 and December 31, 1993 in the upper Yakima basin above Roza Dam, however these data were compared to data from previous years to identify preliminary trends and patterns. Major preliminary findings from each of the chapters included in this report are described.

  8. Validation of an algorithm to determine the primary care treatability of emergency department visits

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Molly Moore; Bellolio, M Fernanda; Wolfson, Julian; Abraham, Jean M; Dowd, Bryan E; Kane, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We propose a new claims-computable measure of the primary care treatability of emergency department (ED) visits and validate it using a nationally representative sample of Medicare data. Study design and setting This is a validation study using 2011–2012 Medicare claims data for a nationally representative 5% sample of fee-for-service beneficiaries to compare the new measure's performance to the Ballard variant of the Billings algorithm in predicting hospitalisation and death following an ED visit. Outcomes Hospitalisation within 1 day or 1 week of an ED visit; death within 1 week or 1 month of an ED visit. Results The Minnesota algorithm is a strong predictor of hospitalisations and deaths, with performance similar to or better than the most commonly used existing algorithm to assess the severity of ED visits. The Billings/Ballard algorithm is a better predictor of death within 1 week of an ED visit; this finding is entirely driven by a small number of ED visits where patients appear to have been dead on arrival. Conclusions The procedure-based approach of the Minnesota algorithm allows researchers to use the clinical judgement of the ED physician, who saw the patient to determine the likely severity of each visit. The Minnesota algorithm may thus provide a useful tool for investigating ED use in Medicare beneficiaries. PMID:27566637

  9. Potentially Treatable Disorder Diagnosed Post Mortem by Exome Analysis in a Boy with Respiratory Distress

    PubMed Central

    Imperatore, Valentina; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Fallerini, Chiara; Bianciardi, Laura; Ariani, Francesca; Furini, Simone; Renieri, Alessandra; Mari, Francesca; Frullanti, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    We highlight the importance of exome sequencing in solving a clinical case of a child who died at 14 months after a series of respiratory crises. He was the half-brother of a girl diagnosed at 7 years with the early-onset seizure variant of Rett syndrome due to CDKL5 mutation. We performed a test for CDKL5 in the boy, which came back negative. Driven by the mother’s compelling need for a diagnosis, we moved forward performing whole exome sequencing analysis. Surprisingly, two missense mutations in compound heterozygosity were identified in the RAPSN gene encoding a receptor-associated protein with a key role in clustering and anchoring nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at synaptic sites. This gene is responsible for a congenital form of myasthenic syndrome, a disease potentially treatable with cholinesterase inhibitors. Therefore, an earlier diagnosis in this boy would have led to a better clinical management and prognosis. Our study supports the key role of exome sequencing in achieving a definite diagnosis in severe perinatal diseases, an essential step especially when a specific therapy is available. PMID:26927095

  10. Potentially Treatable Disorder Diagnosed Post Mortem by Exome Analysis in a Boy with Respiratory Distress.

    PubMed

    Imperatore, Valentina; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Fallerini, Chiara; Bianciardi, Laura; Ariani, Francesca; Furini, Simone; Renieri, Alessandra; Mari, Francesca; Frullanti, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    We highlight the importance of exome sequencing in solving a clinical case of a child who died at 14 months after a series of respiratory crises. He was the half-brother of a girl diagnosed at 7 years with the early-onset seizure variant of Rett syndrome due to CDKL5 mutation. We performed a test for CDKL5 in the boy, which came back negative. Driven by the mother's compelling need for a diagnosis, we moved forward performing whole exome sequencing analysis. Surprisingly, two missense mutations in compound heterozygosity were identified in the RAPSN gene encoding a receptor-associated protein with a key role in clustering and anchoring nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at synaptic sites. This gene is responsible for a congenital form of myasthenic syndrome, a disease potentially treatable with cholinesterase inhibitors. Therefore, an earlier diagnosis in this boy would have led to a better clinical management and prognosis. Our study supports the key role of exome sequencing in achieving a definite diagnosis in severe perinatal diseases, an essential step especially when a specific therapy is available. PMID:26927095

  11. Yakima River Species Interactions Studies, Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.

    2001-06-01

    Species interactions research and monitoring was initiated in 1989 to investigate ecological interactions among fish in response to proposed supplementation of salmon and steelhead in the upper Yakima River basin. This is the eighth of a series of progress reports that address species interactions research and pre-supplementation monitoring of fishes in the Yakima River basin. Data have been collected prior to supplementation to characterize the ecology and demographics of non-target taxa (NTT) and target taxon, and develop methods to monitor interactions and supplementation success. Major topics of this report are associated with implementing NTT monitoring prescriptions for detecting potential impacts of hatchery supplementation, hatchery fish interactions, and monitoring fish predation indices. This report is organized into four chapters, with a general introduction preceding the first chapter. This annual report summarizes data collected primarily by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 1999 in the Yakima basin, however these data were compared to data from previous years to identify preliminary trends and patterns.

  12. Yakima River Species Interactions Studies, Annual Report 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.

    1999-12-01

    Species interactions research and monitoring was initiated in 1989 to investigate ecological interactions among fish in response to proposed supplementation of salmon and steelhead in the upper Yakima River basin. This is the seventh of a series of progress reports that address species interactions research and pre-supplementation monitoring of fishes in the Yakima River basin. Data have been collected prior to supplementation to characterize the ecology and demographics of non-target taxa (NTT) and target taxon, and develop methods to monitor interactions and supplementation success. Major topics of this report are associated with monitoring potential impacts to support adaptive management of NTT and baseline monitoring of fish predation indices on spring chinook salmon smolts. This report is organized into three chapters, with a general introduction preceding the first chapter. This annual report summarizes data collected primarily by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 1998 in the Yakima basin, however these data were compared to data from previous years to identify preliminary trends and patterns.

  13. Yakima River Species Interactions Studies, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.

    2002-05-01

    Species interactions research and monitoring was initiated in 1989 to investigate ecological interactions among fish in response to proposed supplementation of salmon and steelhead in the upper Yakima River basin. This is the tenth of a series of progress reports that address species interactions research and supplementation monitoring of fishes in the Yakima River basin. Data have been collected before and during supplementation to characterize the ecology and demographics of non-target taxa (NTT) and target taxon, and to monitor interactions and supplementation success. Major topics of this report are associated with implementing NTT monitoring prescriptions for detecting potential impacts of hatchery supplementation, and monitoring fish predation indices. This report is organized into two chapters, with a general introduction preceding the first chapter. This annual report summarizes data collected primarily by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 in the Yakima basin, however these data were compared to data from previous years to identify preliminary trends and patterns.

  14. Yakima River Species Interactions Studies, Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.

    2001-12-01

    Species interactions research and monitoring was initiated in 1989 to investigate ecological interactions among fish in response to proposed supplementation of salmon and steelhead in the upper Yakima River basin. This is the ninth of a series of progress reports that address species interactions research and supplementation monitoring of fishes in the Yakima River basin. Data have been collected prior to supplementation to characterize the ecology and demographics of non-target taxa (NTT) and target taxon, and develop methods to monitor interactions and supplementation success. Major topics of this report are associated with the chronology of ecological interactions that occur throughout a supplementation program, implementing NTT monitoring prescriptions for detecting potential impacts of hatchery supplementation, hatchery fish interactions, and monitoring fish predation indices. This report is organized into four chapters, with a general introduction preceding the first chapter. This annual report summarizes data collected primarily by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000 in the Yakima basin, however these data were compared to data from previous years to identify preliminary trends and patterns. Summaries of each of the chapters included in this report are described.

  15. 21 CFR 601.28 - Annual reports of postmarketing pediatric studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Annual reports of postmarketing pediatric studies... pediatric studies. Sponsors of licensed biological products shall submit the following information each year... labeling supplements for pediatric use have been submitted and whether new studies in the...

  16. 21 CFR 601.28 - Annual reports of postmarketing pediatric studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual reports of postmarketing pediatric studies... pediatric studies. Sponsors of licensed biological products shall submit the following information each year... labeling supplements for pediatric use have been submitted and whether new studies in the...

  17. 21 CFR 601.28 - Annual reports of postmarketing pediatric studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Annual reports of postmarketing pediatric studies... pediatric studies. Sponsors of licensed biological products shall submit the following information each year... labeling supplements for pediatric use have been submitted and whether new studies in the...

  18. 21 CFR 601.28 - Annual reports of postmarketing pediatric studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Annual reports of postmarketing pediatric studies... pediatric studies. Sponsors of licensed biological products shall submit the following information each year... labeling supplements for pediatric use have been submitted and whether new studies in the...

  19. BIOLOGICAL TREATABILITY OF KRW ENERGY SYSTEMS GASIFIER PDU (PROCESS DEVELOPMENT UNIT) WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of bench-scale biological treatability tests with wastewaters produced from the KRW Energy Systems gasifier process development unit (KRW-PDU). Goals of the tests were to assess the biotreatability of these aqueous wastes and to develop data for correlati...

  20. Innovative Approach for Development of Drinking Water Research Data in the EPA Treatability Database

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, funding for development of the TDB has been limited due to Federal budget constraints. As a result, EPA adopted an innovative approach to continue the development of new contaminants and maintenance of treatability information on over 60 existing drinking water ...

  1. Innovative Approach for Development of Drinking Water Research Data in the EPA Treatability Database - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, funding for development of the TDB has been limited due to Federal budget constraints. As a result, EPA adopted an innovative approach to continue the development of new contaminants and maintenance of treatability information on over 60 existing drinking water ...

  2. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES (PHASE II) 2003 ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 6th annual meeting of the NATO CCMS Pilot Study, Clean Products and Processes, was held in Cetraro, Italy, from May 11 to 15, 2003. This was also the first meeting of its Phase II study. 24 country representatives attended this meeting. This meeting was very ably run by th...

  3. Coming Up Short: 35th Annual M&O Cost Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2006-01-01

    As the nation's school buildings age and deteriorate, spending on maintenance and operations (M&O) remains paltry, especially when compared with historical figures. This article presents the findings of "American School & University's" 35th annual Maintenance and Operations Cost Study. According to the M&O Cost Study, the median school district…

  4. Studying Student Culture via the Internet. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinser, Kevin; Mueller, John A.; Brownell, Jayne E.

    This paper describes the attempt to use the Internet to study a particular student culture. The goal is to highlight the ethical and procedural issues encountered in the Internet study of an online student culture. The primary purpose of the study was to examine how closeted gay students experience their identity on campus and in an online…

  5. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-UP-1 groundwater Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Wittreich, C.D.

    1994-05-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the US Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology, as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-UP-1 Operable Unit interim remedial measure (IRM) proposed plan be developed for use in preparing an interim action record of decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of the testing described in this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-UP-1 Operable Unit activities (e.g., limited field investigation, development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the interim action ROD will specify the interim action for groundwater contamination at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. The approach discussed in this treatability test plan is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for the contaminant plume associated with the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are uranium and technetium-99; the secondary contaminant of concern is nitrate. The pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this test plan has as its primary purpose to assess the performance of aboveground treatment systems with respect to the ability to remove the primary contaminants in groundwater withdrawn from the contaminant plume.

  6. The Palm Beach County Family Study Second Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Julie; Lyons, Sandra; Gouvea, Marcia; Haywood, Thomas; Winje, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    The Children's Services Council (CSC) of Palm Beach County commissioned Chapin Hall Center for Children to conduct a longitudinal study to examine the effects of this service system on children and families. The goal of the longitudinal study is to describe the characteristics and needs of families the service system is intended to serve, how they…

  7. Advanced Fusion Power Plant Studies. Annual Report for 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, V.S.; Chu, M.S.; Greenfield, C.M.; Kinsey, J.E.; et al.

    2000-01-01

    Significant progress in physics understanding of the reversed shear advanced tokamak regime has been made since the last ARIES-RS study was completed in 1996. The 1999 study aimed at updating the physics design of ARIES-RS, which has been renamed ARIES-AT, using the improved understanding achieved in the last few years. The new study focused on: Improvement of beta-limit stability calculations to include important non-ideal effects such as resistive wall modes and neo-classical tearing modes; Use of physics based transport model for internal transport barrier (ITB) formation and sustainment; Comparison of current drive and rotational flow drive using fast wave, electron cyclotron wave and neutral particle beam; Improvement in heat and particle control; Integrated modeling of the optimized scenario with self-consistent current and transport profiles to study the robustness of the bootstrap alignment, ITB sustainment, and stable path to high beta and high bootstrap fraction operation.

  8. Study on the annual variation of satellite magnetic anomaly in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Chen, B.; Yuan, J.

    2015-12-01

    The CHAMP satellite mission is providing reliable measurements from which the global lithospheric magnetic field. Using 7 years (2003~2009) of CHAMP satellite scalar magnetic field data, we derive the annual variation of satellite magnetic anomaly in China. For the satellite data selection, a wide range of geomagnetic index and other data selection filters have been used to best isolate suitably quiet magnetospheric and ionospheric conditions. By further separating the magnetic anomalies from the core and external field components in the satellite data, the result has low noise levels. We study on the annual variation of magnetic anomaly between 2003 and 2007 in China, the maps of annual variation can truly reflect the changing of the distribution of magnetic anomalies in China.

  9. Lower Flathead River Fisheries Study, 1983 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    DosSantos, Joseph M.; Darling, James E.; Cross, Paul D.

    1986-07-01

    In January of 1983 a two-phase study of the lower Flathead River was initiated by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes with funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration. The study fulfills program measure 804 (a) (3) of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. During 1983 Phase I of the study was completed resulting in a detailed study plan for the next four years and the methods to be employed during the study. Preliminary observations suggest the present operation of Kerr hydroelectric facility and land use practices within the drainage have combined to significantly reduce spawning success of salmonids and northern pike, and thus recruitment to the fisheries of the main river and tributaries. Main river spawning marshes were observed to be drained frequently during the northern pike spawning season which would result in desiccation of eggs and loss of attached fry. Water level fluctuations also caused trapping of juvenile fish and may be an important source of juvenile mortality.

  10. CoQ10 deficiencies and MNGIE: Two Treatable Mitochondrial Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Michio; Garone, Caterine; Quinzii, Catarina M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although causative mutations have been identified for numerous mitochondrial disorders, few disease-modifying treatments are available. Two examples of treatable mitochondrial disorders are coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 or ubiquinone) deficiency and mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE). Scope of Review Here, we describe clinical and molecular features of CoQ10 deficiencies and MNGIE and explain how understanding their pathomechanisms have led to rationale therapies. Primary CoQ10 deficiencies, due to mutations in genes required for ubiquinone biosynthesis, and secondary deficiencies, caused by genetic defects not directly related to CoQ10 biosynthesis, often improve with CoQ10 supplementation. In vitro and in vivo studies of CoQ10 deficiencies have revealed biochemical alterations that may account for phenotypic differences among patients and variable responses to therapy. In contrast to the heterogeneous CoQ10 deficiencies, MNGIE is a single autosomal recessive disease due to mutations in the TYMP gene encoding thymidine phosphorylase (TP). In MNGIE, loss of TP activity causes toxic accumulations of the nucleosides thymidine and deoxyuridine that are incorporated by the mitochondrial pyrimidine salvage pathway and cause deoxynucleoside triphosphate pool imbalances, which, in turn cause mtDNA instability. Allogeneic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation to restore TP activity and eliminate toxic metabolites is a promising therapy for MNGIE. Conclusions CoQ10 deficiencies and MNGIE demonstrate the feasibility of treating specific mitochondrial disorders through replacement of deficient metabolites or via elimination of excessive toxic molecules. General Significance Studies of CoQ10 deficiencies and MNGIE illustrate how understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of mitochondrial diseases can lead to meaningful therapies. PMID:22274133