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Sample records for annular dark-field images

  1. Experimental quantification of annular dark-field images in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lebeau, James M; Stemmer, Susanne

    2008-11-01

    This paper reports on a method to obtain atomic resolution Z-contrast (high-angle annular dark-field) images with intensities normalized to the incident beam. The procedure bypasses the built-in signal processing hardware of the microscope to obtain the large dynamic range necessary for consecutive measurements of the incident beam and the intensities in the Z-contrast image. The method is also used to characterize the response of the annular dark-field detector output, including conditions that avoid saturation and result in a linear relationship between the electron flux reaching the detector and its output. We also characterize the uniformity of the detector response across its entire area and determine its size and shape, which are needed as input for image simulations. We present normalized intensity images of a SrTiO(3) single crystal as a function of thickness. Averaged, normalized atom column intensities and the background intensity are extracted from these images. The results from the approach developed here can be used for direct, quantitative comparisons with image simulations without any need for scaling. PMID:18707809

  2. 3D strain measurement in electronic devices using through-focal annular dark-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suhyun; Jung, Younheum; Lee, Sungho; Jung Kim, Joong; Byun, Gwangseon; Lee, Sunyoung; Lee, Haebum

    2014-11-01

    Spherical aberration correction in high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) allows us to form an electron probe with reduced depth of field. Using through-focal HAADF imaging, we experimentally demonstrated 3D strain measurement in a strained-channel transistor. The strain field distribution in the channel region was obtained by scanning an electron beam over a plan-view specimen. Furthermore, the decrease in the strain fields toward the silicon substrate was revealed at different focal planes with a 5-nm focal step. These results demonstrate that it is possible to reconstruct the 3D strain field in electronic devices. PMID:24859824

  3. Atomic-resolution incoherent high-angle annular dark field STEM images of Si(011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, K.; Yamazaki, T.; Kikuchi, Y.; Kotaka, Y.; Kawasaki, M.; Hashimoto, I.; Shiojiri, M.

    2001-02-01

    Characteristic atomic-resolution incoherent high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) images of [011]-orientated Si have been experimentally obtained by a through-focal series. Artificial bright spots appear at positions where no atomic columns exist along the electron beam, in some experimental images. Image simulation, based on the Bloch wave description by the Bethe method, reproduces the through-focal experimental images. It is shown that atomic-resolution HAADF STEM images, which are greatly influenced by the Bloch wave field depending on the incident electron beam probe, cannot always be interpreted intuitively as the projected atomic images. It is also found that the atomic-resolution HAADF STEM images can be simply explained using the relations to the probe functions without the need for complex dynamical simulations.

  4. Influence of spatial and temporal coherences on atomic resolution high angle annular dark field imaging.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Andreas; Belz, Jürgen; Knaub, Nikolai; Jandieri, Kakhaber; Volz, Kerstin

    2016-10-01

    Aberration-corrected (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM) has become a widely used technique when information on the chemical composition is sought on an atomic scale. To extract the desired information, complementary simulations of the scattering process are inevitable. Often the partial spatial and temporal coherences are neglected in the simulations, although they can have a huge influence on the high resolution images. With the example of binary gallium phosphide (GaP) we elucidate the influence of the source size and shape as well as the chromatic aberration on the high angle annular dark field (HAADF) intensity. We achieve a very good quantitative agreement between the frozen phonon simulation and experiment for different sample thicknesses when a Lorentzian source distribution is assumed and the effect of the chromatic aberration is considered. Additionally the influence of amorphous layers introduced by the preparation of the TEM samples is discussed. Taking into account these parameters, the intensity in the whole unit cell of GaP, i.e. at the positions of the different atomic columns and in the region between them, is described correctly. With the knowledge of the decisive parameters, the determination of the chemical composition of more complex, multinary materials becomes feasible. PMID:27391526

  5. Direct imaging of light elements by annular dark-field aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lotnyk, Andriy Poppitz, David; Gerlach, Jürgen W.; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2014-02-17

    In this report, we show that an annular dark-field detector in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope allows the direct observation of light element columns in crystalline lattices. At specific imaging conditions, an enhancement of the intensities of light element columns in the presence of heavy element columns is observed. Experimental results are presented for imaging the nitrogen and carbon atomic columns at the GaN-SiC interface and within the GaN and SiC compounds. The crystal polarity of GaN at the interface is identified. The obtained findings are discussed and are well supported by image simulations.

  6. Quantitative annular dark-field imaging of single-layer graphene—II: atomic-resolution image contrast

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Shunsuke; Koshiya, Shogo; Nagai, Takuro; Kikkawa, Jun; Ishizuka, Kazuo; Kimoto, Koji

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated how accurately atomic-resolution annular dark-field (ADF) images match between experiments and simulations to conduct more reliable crystal structure analyses. Quantitative ADF imaging, in which the ADF intensity at each pixel represents the fraction of the incident probe current, allows us to perform direct comparisons with simulations without the use of fitting parameters. Although the conventional comparison suffers from experimental uncertainties such as an amorphous surface layer and specimen thickness, in this study we eliminated such uncertainties by using a single-layer graphene as a specimen. Furthermore, to reduce image distortion and shot noises in experimental images, multiple acquisitions with drift correction were performed, and the atomic ADF contrast was quantitatively acquired. To reproduce the experimental ADF contrast, we used three distribution functions as the effective source distribution in simulations. The optimum distribution function and its full-width at half-maximum were evaluated by measuring the residuals between the experimental and simulated images. It was found that the experimental images could be explained well by a linear combination of a Gaussian function and a Lorentzian function with a longer tail than the Gaussian function. PMID:26347577

  7. Variable-angle high-angle annular dark-field imaging: application to three-dimensional dopant atom profiling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jack Y.; Hwang, Jinwoo; Isaac, Brandon J.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Variable-angle high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) imaging in scanning transmission electron microscopy is developed for precise and accurate determination of three-dimensional (3D) dopant atom configurations. Gd-doped SrTiO3 films containing Sr columns containing zero, one, or two Gd dopant atoms are imaged in HAADF mode using two different collection angles. Variable-angle HAADF significantly increases both the precision and accuracy of 3D dopant profiling. Using image simulations, it is shown that the combined information from the two detectors reduces the uncertainty in the dopant depth position measurement and can uniquely identify certain atomic configurations that are indistinguishable with a single detector setting. Additional advances and applications are discussed. PMID:26206489

  8. Oxidation-state sensitive imaging of cerium dioxide by atomic-resolution low-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Johnston-Peck, Aaron C; Winterstein, Jonathan P; Roberts, Alan D; DuChene, Joseph S; Qian, Kun; Sweeny, Brendan C; Wei, Wei David; Sharma, Renu; Stach, Eric A; Herzing, Andrew A

    2016-03-01

    Low-angle annular dark field (LAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging is presented as a method that is sensitive to the oxidation state of cerium ions in CeO2 nanoparticles. This relationship was validated through electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), in situ measurements, as well as multislice image simulations. Static displacements caused by the increased ionic radius of Ce(3+) influence the electron channeling process and increase electron scattering to low angles while reducing scatter to high angles. This process manifests itself by reducing the high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) signal intensity while increasing the LAADF signal intensity in close proximity to Ce(3+) ions. This technique can supplement STEM-EELS and in so doing, relax the experimental challenges associated with acquiring oxidation state information at high spatial resolutions. PMID:26744830

  9. Imaging of high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and observations of GaN-based violet laser diodes.

    PubMed

    Shiojiri, M; Saijo, H

    2006-09-01

    The first part of this paper is devoted to physics, to explain high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) imaging and to interpret why HAADF-STEM imaging is incoherent, instructing a strict definition of interference and coherence of electron waves. Next, we present our recent investigations of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells and AlGaN/GaN strained-layer superlattice claddings in GaN-based violet laser diodes, which have been performed by HAADF-STEM and high-resolution field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy. PMID:17059523

  10. A high efficiency annular dark field detector for STEM.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, E J; Thomas, M G

    1996-01-01

    A new high efficiency annular dark field (ADF) detector for an HB501 STEM (Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope) has been constructed and tested. This detector uses a single crystal YAP scintillator and a solid quartz light pipe extending from the scintillator (inside the vacuum) to the photomultiplier tube (outside the vacuum). A factor of approximately 100 improvement in signal relative to the original detector has been obtained. This has substantially improved the signal to noise ratio in the recorded high resolution ADF-STEM images. PMID:22666919

  11. Annular dark field transmission electron microscopy for protein structure determination.

    PubMed

    Koeck, Philip J B

    2016-02-01

    Recently annular dark field (ADF) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been advocated as a means of recording images of biological specimens with better signal to noise ratio (SNR) than regular bright field images. I investigate whether and how such images could be used to determine the three-dimensional structure of proteins given that an ADF aperture with a suitable pass-band can be manufactured and used in practice. I develop an approximate theory of ADF-TEM image formation for weak amplitude and phase objects and test this theory using computer simulations. I also test whether these simulated images can be used to calculate a three-dimensional model of the protein using standard software and discuss problems and possible ways to overcome these. PMID:26656466

  12. Dark-field third-harmonic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doronina-Amitonova, L. V.; Lanin, A. A.; Fedotov, I. V.; Ivashkina, O. I.; Zots, M. A.; Fedotov, A. B.; Anokhin, K. V.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2013-08-01

    Coherent cancellation of third-harmonic generation (THG) in a tightly focused laser beam is shown to enable a label-free imaging of individual neurons in representative brain tissues. The intrinsic coherence of third-harmonic buildup and cancellation combined with the nonlinear nature of the process enhances the locality of the dark signal in THG, translating into a remarkable sharpness of dark-field THG images. Unique advantages of this technique for high-contrast subcellular-resolution neuroimaging are demonstrated by comparing THG images of hippocampus and somatosensory cortex in a mouse brain with images visualizing fluorescent protein biomarkers.

  13. Unscrambling Mixed Elements using High Angle Annular Dark Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    van den Bos, Karel H W; De Backer, Annick; Martinez, Gerardo T; Winckelmans, Naomi; Bals, Sara; Nellist, Peter D; Van Aert, Sandra

    2016-06-17

    The development of new nanocrystals with outstanding physicochemical properties requires a full three-dimensional (3D) characterization at the atomic scale. For homogeneous nanocrystals, counting the number of atoms in each atomic column from high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy images has been shown to be a successful technique to get access to this 3D information. However, technologically important nanostructures often consist of more than one chemical element. In order to extend atom counting to heterogeneous materials, a new atomic lensing model is presented. This model takes dynamical electron diffraction into account and opens up new possibilities for unraveling the 3D composition at the atomic scale. Here, the method is applied to determine the 3D structure of Au@Ag core-shell nanorods, but it is applicable to a wide range of heterogeneous complex nanostructures. PMID:27367396

  14. Unscrambling Mixed Elements using High Angle Annular Dark Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bos, Karel H. W.; De Backer, Annick; Martinez, Gerardo T.; Winckelmans, Naomi; Bals, Sara; Nellist, Peter D.; Van Aert, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    The development of new nanocrystals with outstanding physicochemical properties requires a full three-dimensional (3D) characterization at the atomic scale. For homogeneous nanocrystals, counting the number of atoms in each atomic column from high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy images has been shown to be a successful technique to get access to this 3D information. However, technologically important nanostructures often consist of more than one chemical element. In order to extend atom counting to heterogeneous materials, a new atomic lensing model is presented. This model takes dynamical electron diffraction into account and opens up new possibilities for unraveling the 3D composition at the atomic scale. Here, the method is applied to determine the 3D structure of Au@Ag core-shell nanorods, but it is applicable to a wide range of heterogeneous complex nanostructures.

  15. Atom-by-atom structural and chemical analysis by annular dark-field electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Krivanek, Ondrej L; Chisholm, Matthew F; Nicolosi, Valeria; Pennycook, Timothy J; Corbin, George J; Dellby, Niklas; Murfitt, Matthew F; Own, Christopher S; Szilagyi, Zoltan S; Oxley, Mark P; Pantelides, Sokrates T; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2010-03-25

    Direct imaging and chemical identification of all the atoms in a material with unknown three-dimensional structure would constitute a very powerful general analysis tool. Transmission electron microscopy should in principle be able to fulfil this role, as many scientists including Feynman realized early on. It images matter with electrons that scatter strongly from individual atoms and whose wavelengths are about 50 times smaller than an atom. Recently the technique has advanced greatly owing to the introduction of aberration-corrected optics. However, neither electron microscopy nor any other experimental technique has yet been able to resolve and identify all the atoms in a non-periodic material consisting of several atomic species. Here we show that annular dark-field imaging in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope optimized for low voltage operation can resolve and identify the chemical type of every atom in monolayer hexagonal boron nitride that contains substitutional defects. Three types of atomic substitutions were found and identified: carbon substituting for boron, carbon substituting for nitrogen, and oxygen substituting for nitrogen. The substitutions caused in-plane distortions in the boron nitride monolayer of about 0.1 A magnitude, which were directly resolved, and verified by density functional theory calculations. The results demonstrate that atom-by-atom structural and chemical analysis of all radiation-damage-resistant atoms present in, and on top of, ultra-thin sheets has now become possible. PMID:20336141

  16. Quantitative high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy for materials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Rumyana V.

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has been widely used for characterization of materials; to identify micro- and nano-structures within a sample and to analyze crystal and defect structures. High-angle annular dark field (HAADF) STEM imaging using atomic number (Z) contrast has proven capable of resolving atomic structures with better than 2 A lateral resolution. In this work, the HAADF STEM imaging mode is used in combination with multislice simulations. This combination is applied to the investigation of the temperature dependence of the intensity collected by the HAADF detector in silicon, and to convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) to measure the degree of chemical order in intermetallic nanoparticles. The experimental and simulation results on the high-angle scattering of 300 keV electrons in crystalline silicon provide a new contribution to the understanding of the temperature dependence of the HAADF intensity. In the case of 300 keV, the average high-angle scattered intensity slightly decreases as the temperature increases from 100 K to 300 K, and this is different from the temperature dependence at 100 keV and 200 keV where HAADF intensity increases with temperature, as had been previously reported by other workers. The L10 class of hard magnetic materials has attracted continuous attention as a candidate for high-density magnetic recording media, as this phase is known to have large magnetocrystalline anisotropy, with magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant, Ku, strongly dependent on the long-range chemical order parameter, S. A new method is developed to assess the degree of chemical order in small FePt L1 0 nanoparticles by implementing a CBED diffraction technique. Unexpectedly, the degree of order of individual particles is highly variable and not a simple function of particle size or sample composition. The particle-to-particle variability observed is an important new aspect to the understanding of phase transformations in

  17. Note: Raman microspectroscopy integrated with fluorescence and dark field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haibo; Wang, Hailong; Huang, Dianshuai; Liang, Lijia; Gu, Yuejiao; Liang, Chongyang; Xu, Shuping; Xu, Weiqing

    2014-05-01

    A Raman detection platform integrated with both fluorescence and dark field microscopes was built for in situ Raman detection with the assistance of fluorescence and dark field imaging to locate the target micro regions. Cells and organelles can be easily found via fluorescence imaging with labeling techniques. Besides, nano-sized particles could be observed and located by dark field microscopes. Therefore, comparing with the commercial Raman spectrometers, much more researches based on Raman spectroscopy could be carried out on this integrated Raman platform, especially in the fields of analyzing biological tissues and subwavelength samples.

  18. Dark-field Z-scan imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongzhen; Cassagne, Christophe; Leblond, Hervé; Boudebs, Georges

    2016-05-01

    We report on Dark-Field Z-scan (DFZ-scan) as a new imaging technique combining Z-scan method with Dark-field microscopy in order to measure optical refraction nonlinearity. Numerical and experimental results are provided to validate this concept. The image of the induced phase shift is spatially resolved without introducing a complex interferometric setup. Moreover, the experimental results show almost 3 times increase of the sensitivity when compared to the conventional Z-scan method. New perspective of microscope laser scanning is introduced.

  19. Quantitative annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy for nanoparticle atom-counting: What are the limits?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Backer, A.; De Wael, A.; Gonnissen, J.; Martinez, G. T.; Béché, A.; MacArthur, K. E.; Jones, L.; Nellist, P. D.; Van Aert, S.

    2015-10-01

    Quantitative atomic resolution annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF STEM) has become a powerful technique for nanoparticle atom-counting. However, a lot of nanoparticles provide a severe characterisation challenge because of their limited size and beam sensitivity. Therefore, quantitative ADF STEM may greatly benefit from statistical detection theory in order to optimise the instrumental microscope settings such that the incoming electron dose can be kept as low as possible whilst still retaining single-atom precision. The principles of detection theory are used to quantify the probability of error for atom-counting. This enables us to decide between different image performance measures and to optimise the experimental detector settings for atom-counting in ADF STEM in an objective manner. To demonstrate this, ADF STEM imaging of an industrial catalyst has been conducted using the near-optimal detector settings. For this experiment, we discussed the limits for atomcounting diagnosed by combining a thorough statistical method and detailed image simulations.

  20. Atomic scale dynamics of a solid state chemical reaction directly determined by annular dark-field electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pennycook, Timothy J.; Jones, Lewys; Pettersson, Henrik; Coelho, João; Canavan, Megan; Mendoza-Sanchez, Beatriz; Nicolosi, Valeria; Nellist, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic processes, such as solid-state chemical reactions and phase changes, are ubiquitous in materials science, and developing a capability to observe the mechanisms of such processes on the atomic scale can offer new insights across a wide range of materials systems. Aberration correction in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has enabled atomic resolution imaging at significantly reduced beam energies and electron doses. It has also made possible the quantitative determination of the composition and occupancy of atomic columns using the atomic number (Z)-contrast annular dark-field (ADF) imaging available in STEM. Here we combine these benefits to record the motions and quantitative changes in the occupancy of individual atomic columns during a solid-state chemical reaction in manganese oxides. These oxides are of great interest for energy-storage applications such as for electrode materials in pseudocapacitors. We employ rapid scanning in STEM to both drive and directly observe the atomic scale dynamics behind the transformation of Mn3O4 into MnO. The results demonstrate we now have the experimental capability to understand the complex atomic mechanisms involved in phase changes and solid state chemical reactions. PMID:25532123

  1. Directional x-ray dark-field imaging of strongly ordered systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Torben Haugaard; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Bech, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz; Zanette, Irene; Weitkamp, Timm; David, Christian; Rutishauser, Simon; Deyhle, Hans; Reznikova, Elena; Mohr, Juergen

    2010-12-01

    Recently a novel grating based x-ray imaging approach called directional x-ray dark-field imaging was introduced. Directional x-ray dark-field imaging yields information about the local texture of structures smaller than the pixel size of the imaging system. In this work we extend the theoretical description and data processing schemes for directional dark-field imaging to strongly scattering systems, which could not be described previously. We develop a simple scattering model to account for these recent observations and subsequently demonstrate the model using experimental data. The experimental data includes directional dark-field images of polypropylene fibers and a human tooth slice.

  2. Dark-field microscopy in imaging of plasmon resonant nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengmeng; Chao, Jie; Deng, Suhui; Wang, Kun; Li, Kun; Fan, Chunhai

    2014-12-01

    Dark-field microscopy (DFM) and spectroscopy base on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) have been widely applied in biological sensing and single-molecule imaging. Using plasmonic nanoparticles with controlled geometrical, optical, and surface chemical properties as the probes, the scattering light depending on the surrounding environment can be detected by DF microscope. Signal-to-noise radio and time resolution of the conventional DFM is not sufficient to identify single molecular dynamics. To break these limitations, significant improvements have been made in recent years. This critical review is focused on the developments of the DFM and the utilization of DFM as a powerful technology in the application of LSPR detection. PMID:25009105

  3. Atomic scale high-angle annular dark field STEM analysis of the N configuration in dilute nitrides of GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, M.; Ramasse, Q. M.; Morgan, D. G.; Gonzalez, D.; Pizarro, J.; Yanez, A.; Galindo, P.; Garcia, R.; Du, Mao-Hua; Zhang, S. B.; Hopkinson, M.; Browning, N. D.

    2009-01-01

    While high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) has been successfully used for the analysis of heavy atoms in a lighter matrix, the detection of light atoms in a heavy matrix remains challenging. In this paper, we show that the combination of first-principles total-energy calculations with aberration-corrected HAADF-STEM experimental and simulated images can be used to overcome this problem. The application of this methodology to the analysis of dilute nitrides of GaAs points to the existence of a major proportion of (2N{sub As})nn in the alloy, which is a relatively stable configuration in GaAsN as revealed by our energetic calculations. Our study has allowed us to shed light in the effect of the local distortion of the lattice due to different configuration of atoms in HAADF-STEM imaging.

  4. Structured dark-field imaging for single nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Gao, Kun; Wang, Zhi-Li; Yun, Wen-Bing; Wu, Zi-Yu

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we extensively describe and demonstrate the structured dark-field imaging (SDFI). SDFI is a newly proposed x-ray microscopy designed for revealing the fine features below Rayleigh resolution, in which different orders of scattered x-ray photons are collected by changing the numerical aperture of the condenser. Here, the samples of single particles are discussed to extend the scope of the SDFI technique reported in a previous work (Chen J, Gao K, Ge X, et al. 2013 Opt. Lett. 38 2068). In addition, the details of the newly invented algorithm are explained, which is able to calculate the intensity of any pixel on the image plane rapidly and reliably. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB825800), the Science Fund for Creative Research Groups, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11321503), the Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. KJCX2-YW-N42), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11475170, 11205157, and 11305173).

  5. Cutaneous microcirculation in preterm neonates: comparison between sidestream dark field (SDF) and incident dark field (IDF) imaging.

    PubMed

    van Elteren, H A; Ince, C; Tibboel, D; Reiss, I K M; de Jonge, R C J

    2015-10-01

    Incident dark field imaging (IDF) is a new generation handheld microscope for bedside visualization and quantification of microcirculatory alterations. IDF is the technical successor of sidestream dark field imaging (SDF), currently the most used device for microcirculatory measurements. In (pre)term neonates the reduced thickness of the skin allows non-invasive transcutaneous measurements. The goal of this study was to compare the existing device (SDF) and its technical successor (IDF) in preterm neonates. We hypothesized that IDF imaging produces higher quality images resulting in a higher vessel density. After written informed consent was given by the parents, skin microcirculation was consecutively measured on the inner upper arm with de SDF and IDF device. Images were exported and analyzed offline using existing software (AVA 3.0). Vessel density and perfusion were calculated using the total vessel density (TVD) proportion of perfused vessels (PPV) and perfused vessel density. The microcirculation images quality score was used to evaluate the quality of the video images. In a heterogeneous group of twenty preterm neonates (median GA 27.6 weeks, range 24-33.4) IDF imaging visualized 19.9% more vessels resulting in a significantly higher vessel density (TVD 16.9 vs. 14.1/mm, p value < 0.001). The perfusion of vessels could be determined more accurately in the IDF images, resulting in a significant lower PPV (88.7 vs. 93.9%, p value 0.002). The IDF video images scored optimal in a higher percentage compared to the SDF video images. IDF imaging of the cutaneous microcirculation in preterm neonates resulted in a higher vessel density and lower perfusion compared to the existing SDF device. PMID:26021740

  6. Complex dark-field contrast in grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi; Tang, Xiangyang

    2015-03-01

    Without assuming that the sub-pixel microstructures of an object to be imaged distribute in space randomly, we investigate the influence of the object's microstructures on grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging. Our theoretical analysis and 3D computer simulation study based on the paraxial Fresnel-Kirchhoff theory show that the existing dark-field contrast can be generalized into a complex dark-field contrast in a way such that its imaginary part quantifies the effect of the object's sub-pixel microstructures on the phase of intensity oscillations. A method based on the phase-attenuation duality that holds for soft tissues to be imaged at high x-ray energies is proposed to retrieve the imaginary part of the complex dark-field contrast for imaging. In comparison to the existing dark-field contrast, the imaginary part of complex dark-field contrast exhibits significantly stronger selectivity on the shape of the object's sub-pixel microstructures. Thus the x-ray imaging corresponding to the imaginary part of complex dark-field contrast can provide additional and complementary information to that corresponding to the attenuation contrast, phase contrast and the existing dark-field contrast.

  7. Dark-field imaging of thin specimens with a forescatter electron detector at low accelerating voltage.

    PubMed

    Brodusch, Nicolas; Demers, Hendrix; Gauvin, Raynald

    2013-12-01

    A forescatter electron detector (FSED) was used to acquire dark-field micrographs (DF-FSED) on thin specimens with a scanning electron microscope. The collection angles were adjusted with the detector distance from the beam axis, which is similar to the camera length of the scanning transmission electron microscope annular DF detectors. The DF-FSED imaging resolution was calculated with SMART-J on an aluminum alloy and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) decorated with platinum nanoparticles. The resolution was three to six times worse than with bright-field imaging. Measurements of nanometer-size objects showed a similar feature size in DF-FSED imaging despite a signal-to-noise ratio 12 times smaller. Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict the variation of the contrast of a CNT/Fe/Pt system as a function of the collection angles. It was constant for very high collection angles (>450 mrad) and confirmed experimentally. The reverse contrast between carbon black particles and the smallest titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles was predicted by Monte Carlo simulations and observed in the DF-FSED micrograph of a battery electrode coating. However, segmentation of the micrograph was not able to isolate the TiO2 nanoparticle phase because of the close contrast of small TiO2 nanoparticles compared to the C black particles. PMID:23981287

  8. Quantification of the sensitivity range in neutron dark-field imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Betz, B.; Harti, R. P.; Hovind, J.; Kaestner, A.; Lehmann, E.; Grünzweig, C.; Strobl, M.; Van Swygenhoven, H.

    2015-12-15

    In neutron grating interferometry, the dark-field image visualizes the scattering properties of samples in the small-angle and ultra-small-angle scattering range. These angles correspond to correlation lengths from several hundred nanometers up to several tens of micrometers. In this article, we present an experimental study that demonstrates the potential of quantitative neutron dark-field imaging. The dark-field signal for scattering from different particle sizes and concentrations of mono-dispersive polystyrene particles in aqueous solution is compared to theoretical predictions and the good agreement between measurements and calculations underlines the quantitative nature of the measured values and reliability of the technique with neutrons.

  9. Quantification of the sensitivity range in neutron dark-field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, B.; Harti, R. P.; Strobl, M.; Hovind, J.; Kaestner, A.; Lehmann, E.; Van Swygenhoven, H.; Grünzweig, C.

    2015-12-01

    In neutron grating interferometry, the dark-field image visualizes the scattering properties of samples in the small-angle and ultra-small-angle scattering range. These angles correspond to correlation lengths from several hundred nanometers up to several tens of micrometers. In this article, we present an experimental study that demonstrates the potential of quantitative neutron dark-field imaging. The dark-field signal for scattering from different particle sizes and concentrations of mono-dispersive polystyrene particles in aqueous solution is compared to theoretical predictions and the good agreement between measurements and calculations underlines the quantitative nature of the measured values and reliability of the technique with neutrons.

  10. Phosphorus detection in vitrified bacteria by cryo-STEM annular dark-field analysis.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Sharon Grayer; Rez, Peter; Elbaum, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial cells often contain dense granules. Among these, polyphosphate bodies (PPBs) store inorganic phosphate for a variety of essential functions. Identification of PPBs has until now been accomplished by analytical methods that required drying or chemically fixing the cells. These methods entail large electron doses that are incompatible with low-dose imaging of cryogenic specimens. We show here that Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) of fully hydrated, intact, vitrified bacteria provides a simple means for mapping of phosphorus-containing dense granules based on quantitative sensitivity of the electron scattering to atomic number. A coarse resolution of the scattering angles distinguishes phosphorus from the abundant lighter atoms: carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. The theoretical basis is similar to Z contrast of materials science. EDX provides a positive identification of phosphorus, but importantly, the method need not involve a more severe electron dose than that required for imaging. The approach should prove useful in general for mapping of heavy elements in cryopreserved specimens when the element identity is known from the biological context. PMID:26223193

  11. Annular pancreas (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Annular pancreas is an abnormal ring or collar of pancreatic tissue that encircles the duodenum (the part of the ... intestine that connects to stomach). This portion of pancreas can constrict the duodenum and block or impair ...

  12. Enzyme catalysis enhanced dark-field imaging as a novel immunohistochemical method.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lin; Tian, Yanyan; Yin, Rong; Lou, Doudou; Zhang, Xizhi; Wang, Meng; Ma, Ming; Luo, Shouhua; Li, Suyi; Gu, Ning; Zhang, Yu

    2016-04-28

    Conventional immunohistochemistry is limited to subjective judgment based on human experience and thus it is clinically required to develop a quantitative immunohistochemical detection. 3,3'-Diaminobenzidin (DAB) aggregates, a type of staining product formed by conventional immunohistochemistry, were found to have a special optical property of dark-field imaging for the first time, and the mechanism was explored. On this basis, a novel immunohistochemical method based on dark-field imaging for detecting HER2 overexpressed in breast cancer was established, and the quantitative analysis standard and relevant software for measuring the scattering intensity was developed. In order to achieve a more sensitive detection, the HRP (horseradish peroxidase)-labeled secondary antibodies conjugated gold nanoparticles were constructed as nanoprobes to load more HRP enzymes, resulting in an enhanced DAB deposition as a dark-field label. Simultaneously, gold nanoparticles also act as a synergistically enhanced agent due to their mimicry of enzyme catalysis and dark-field scattering properties. PMID:26786242

  13. Quantification of the sensitivity range in neutron dark-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Betz, B; Harti, R P; Strobl, M; Hovind, J; Kaestner, A; Lehmann, E; Van Swygenhoven, H; Grünzweig, C

    2015-12-01

    In neutron grating interferometry, the dark-field image visualizes the scattering properties of samples in the small-angle and ultra-small-angle scattering range. These angles correspond to correlation lengths from several hundred nanometers up to several tens of micrometers. In this article, we present an experimental study that demonstrates the potential of quantitative neutron dark-field imaging. The dark-field signal for scattering from different particle sizes and concentrations of mono-dispersive polystyrene particles in aqueous solution is compared to theoretical predictions and the good agreement between measurements and calculations underlines the quantitative nature of the measured values and reliability of the technique with neutrons. PMID:26724039

  14. Boron concentration profiling by high angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy in homoepitaxial δ-doped diamond layers

    SciTech Connect

    Araújo, D.; Alegre, M. P.; Piñero, J. C.; Fiori, A.; Bustarret, E.; Jomard, F.

    2013-07-22

    To develop further diamond related devices, the concentration and spatial location of dopants should be controlled down to the nanometer scale. Scanning transmission electron microscopy using the high angle annular dark field mode is shown to be sensitive to boron doping in diamond epilayers. An analytical procedure is described, whereby local boron concentrations above 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} were quantitatively derived down to nanometer resolution from the signal dependence on thickness and boron content. Experimental boron local doping profiles measured on diamond p{sup −}/p{sup ++}/p{sup −} multilayers are compared to macroscopic profiles obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry, avoiding reported artefacts.

  15. Enzyme catalysis enhanced dark-field imaging as a novel immunohistochemical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lin; Tian, Yanyan; Yin, Rong; Lou, Doudou; Zhang, Xizhi; Wang, Meng; Ma, Ming; Luo, Shouhua; Li, Suyi; Gu, Ning; Zhang, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Conventional immunohistochemistry is limited to subjective judgment based on human experience and thus it is clinically required to develop a quantitative immunohistochemical detection. 3,3'-Diaminobenzidin (DAB) aggregates, a type of staining product formed by conventional immunohistochemistry, were found to have a special optical property of dark-field imaging for the first time, and the mechanism was explored. On this basis, a novel immunohistochemical method based on dark-field imaging for detecting HER2 overexpressed in breast cancer was established, and the quantitative analysis standard and relevant software for measuring the scattering intensity was developed. In order to achieve a more sensitive detection, the HRP (horseradish peroxidase)-labeled secondary antibodies conjugated gold nanoparticles were constructed as nanoprobes to load more HRP enzymes, resulting in an enhanced DAB deposition as a dark-field label. Simultaneously, gold nanoparticles also act as a synergistically enhanced agent due to their mimicry of enzyme catalysis and dark-field scattering properties.Conventional immunohistochemistry is limited to subjective judgment based on human experience and thus it is clinically required to develop a quantitative immunohistochemical detection. 3,3'-Diaminobenzidin (DAB) aggregates, a type of staining product formed by conventional immunohistochemistry, were found to have a special optical property of dark-field imaging for the first time, and the mechanism was explored. On this basis, a novel immunohistochemical method based on dark-field imaging for detecting HER2 overexpressed in breast cancer was established, and the quantitative analysis standard and relevant software for measuring the scattering intensity was developed. In order to achieve a more sensitive detection, the HRP (horseradish peroxidase)-labeled secondary antibodies conjugated gold nanoparticles were constructed as nanoprobes to load more HRP enzymes, resulting in an enhanced DAB

  16. Dark-field hyperspectral X-ray imaging

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Christopher K.; Jacques, Simon D. M.; Connolley, Thomas; Wilson, Matthew D.; Veale, Matthew C.; Seller, Paul; Cernik, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    In recent times, there has been a drive to develop non-destructive X-ray imaging techniques that provide chemical or physical insight. To date, these methods have generally been limited; either requiring raster scanning of pencil beams, using narrow bandwidth radiation and/or limited to small samples. We have developed a novel full-field radiographic imaging technique that enables the entire physio-chemical state of an object to be imaged in a single snapshot. The method is sensitive to emitted and scattered radiation, using a spectral imaging detector and polychromatic hard X-radiation, making it particularly useful for studying large dense samples for materials science and engineering applications. The method and its extension to three-dimensional imaging is validated with a series of test objects and demonstrated to directly image the crystallographic preferred orientation and formed precipitates across an aluminium alloy friction stir weld section. PMID:24808753

  17. Dark-field hyperspectral X-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Egan, Christopher K; Jacques, Simon D M; Connolley, Thomas; Wilson, Matthew D; Veale, Matthew C; Seller, Paul; Cernik, Robert J

    2014-05-01

    In recent times, there has been a drive to develop non-destructive X-ray imaging techniques that provide chemical or physical insight. To date, these methods have generally been limited; either requiring raster scanning of pencil beams, using narrow bandwidth radiation and/or limited to small samples. We have developed a novel full-field radiographic imaging technique that enables the entire physio-chemical state of an object to be imaged in a single snapshot. The method is sensitive to emitted and scattered radiation, using a spectral imaging detector and polychromatic hard X-radiation, making it particularly useful for studying large dense samples for materials science and engineering applications. The method and its extension to three-dimensional imaging is validated with a series of test objects and demonstrated to directly image the crystallographic preferred orientation and formed precipitates across an aluminium alloy friction stir weld section. PMID:24808753

  18. Dark-field X-ray imaging of unsaturated water transport in porous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, F. E-mail: michele.griffa@empa.ch; Di Bella, C.; Lura, P.; Prade, F.; Herzen, J.; Sarapata, A.; Pfeiffer, F.; Griffa, M. E-mail: michele.griffa@empa.ch; Jerjen, I.

    2014-10-13

    We introduce in this Letter an approach to X-ray imaging of unsaturated water transport in porous materials based upon the intrinsic X-ray scattering produced by the material microstructural heterogeneity at a length scale below the imaging system spatial resolution. The basic principle for image contrast creation consists in a reduction of such scattering by permeation of the porosity by water. The implementation of the approach is based upon X-ray dark-field imaging via Talbot-Lau interferometry. The proof-of-concept is provided by performing laboratory-scale dark-field X-ray radiography of mortar samples during a water capillary uptake experiment. The results suggest that the proposed approach to visualizing unsaturated water transport in porous materials is complementary to neutron and magnetic resonance imaging and alternative to standard X-ray imaging, the latter requiring the use of contrast agents because based upon X-ray attenuation only.

  19. On Detailed Contrast of Biomedical Object in X-ray Dark-Field Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Shimao, Daisuke; Mori, Koichi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Kunisada, Toshiyuki; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Ando, Masami

    2007-01-19

    Over the past 10 years, refraction-based X-ray imaging has been studied together with a perspective view to clinical application. X-ray Dark-Field Imaging that utilizes a Laue geometry analyzer has recently been proposed and has the proven ability to depict articular cartilage in an intact human finger. In the current study, we researched detailed image contrast using X-ray Dark-Field Imaging by observing the edge contrast of an acrylic rod as a simple case, and found differences in image contrast between the right and left edges of the rod. This effect could cause undesirable contrast in the thin articular cartilage on the head of the phalanx. To avoid overlapping with this contrast at the articular cartilage, which would lead to a wrong diagnosis, we suggest that a joint surface on which articular cartilage is located should be aligned in the same sense as the scattering vector of the Laue case analyzer crystal. Defects of articular cartilage were successfully detected under this condition. When utilized under appropriate imaging conditions, X-ray Dark-Field Imaging will be a powerful tool for the diagnosis of arthropathy, as minute changes in articular cartilage may be early-stage features of this disease.

  20. Tissue Visualization Using X-Ray Dark-Field Imaging towards Pathological Goal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Masami; Chikaura, Yoshinori; Endo, Tokiko; Gupta, Rajiv; Huo, Qingkai; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Ichihara, Shu; Mori, Kensaku; Nakao, Yuki; Ohura, Norihiko; Sunaguchi, Naoki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Yoshifumi; Wu, Yanlin; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Xiaowei, Zhang

    2013-03-01

    In XDFI (x-ray dark-field imaging) LAA (Laue-case angle analyzer) simultaneously provides two x-ray images; one corresponds to a FD forward diffracted beam and a separate D diffracted beam. When this is applied to biomedical specimens x-ray images are very high contrast and very high spatial resolution. We constructed XDFI system at the vertical wiggler beamline BL-14C in KEK Photon Factory and performed imaging experiment of breast tissues and an excised human femoral artery. In this paper, we discuss a tissue visualization and pathological goal using 2D, 3D-CT and 2.5D image (tomosynthesis) with XDFI.

  1. Intergrowth structure of α-phase in β-type TmAlB{sub 4} compound studied by high-angle annular detector dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yubuta, Kunio; Mori, Takao; Leithe-Jasper, Andreas; Borrmann, Horst; Grin, Yuri; Okada, Shigeru; Shishido, Toetsu

    2014-11-15

    Nanostructure of a ThMoB{sub 4}-type (β-type) TmAlB{sub 4} compound, in which YCrB{sub 4}-type (α-type) domains are locally intergrown, is studied by high-angle annular detector dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). Z-contrast images by HAADF-STEM directly represent the arrangements of Tm atoms located at centers of heptagonal atomic columns of B atoms as bright dots, and give us detailed information of intergrowth of type domains in the matrix of the β-type phase, which coherently occurs. Structural and bonding analyses for β-TmAlB{sub 4} point out the closeness in atomic interactions and energy of the α- and β-type structures which support the easy formation of such nanostructure intergrowths. From combination between HAADF-STEM and electronic structure calculation, a detailed local crystal structure with intrinsic building defects is effectively revealed. - Graphical abstract: Nanostructure of a ThMoB{sub 4}-type (β-type) TmAlB{sub 4} compound, in which YCrB{sub 4}-type (α-type) domains are locally intergrown, is studied by high-angle annular detector dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). Z-contrast images by HAADF-STEM directly represent arrangements of Tm atoms located at centers of heptagonal atomic columns of B atoms as bright dots, and give us detailed information of the characteristic intergrowth structure of type domains in the matrix of the β-type phase. - Highlights: • HAADF-STEM images directly represent arrangements of Tm atoms as bright dots. • The α-type planar domains coherently intergrown in the β-type matrix. • Bright strips appear at overlapped regions of Tm hexagons along interfaces between α- and β-type domains.

  2. Sub-pixel porosity revealed by x-ray scatter dark field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revol, V.; Jerjen, I.; Kottler, C.; Schütz, P.; Kaufmann, R.; Lüthi, T.; Sennhauser, U.; Straumann, U.; Urban, C.

    2011-08-01

    X-ray scatter dark field imaging based on the Talbot-Lau interferometer allows for the measurement of ultra-small angle x-ray scattering. The latter is related to the variations in the electron density in the sample at the sub- and micron-scale. Therefore, information on features of the object below the detector resolution can be revealed. In this article, it is demonstrated that scatter dark field imaging is particularly adapted to the study of a material's porosity. An interferometer, optimized for x-ray energies around 50 keV, enables the investigation of aluminum welding with conventional laboratory x-ray tubes. The results show an unprecedented contrast between the pool and the aluminum workpiece. Our conclusions are confirmed due to micro-tomographic three-dimensional reconstructions of the same object with a microscopic resolution.

  3. Dark-field imaging as a noninvasive method for characterization of whispering gallery modes in microdisk cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, D. A.; Samusev, K. B.; Shishkin, I. I.; Samusev, A. K.; Belov, P. A.; Bogdanov, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    Whispering gallery mode microdisk cavities fabricated by direct laser writing are studied using dark-field imaging and spectroscopy in the visible spectral range. {Dark-field imaging allows us to directly visualize the spatial intensity distribution of whispering gallery modes. We extract their azimuthal and radial mode indices from dark-field images, and find the axial mode number from the dispersion relation. The scattering spectrum obtained in the confocal arrangement provides information on the density of optical states in the resonator. The proposed technique is a simple non-invasive way to characterize the optical properties of microdisk cavities.

  4. Dark-field imaging as a noninvasive method for characterization of whispering gallery modes in microdisk cavities.

    PubMed

    Baranov, D A; Samusev, K B; Shishkin, I I; Samusev, A K; Belov, P A; Bogdanov, A A

    2016-02-15

    Whispering gallery mode microdisk cavities fabricated by direct laser writing are studied using dark-field imaging and spectroscopy in the visible spectral range. Dark-field imaging allows us to directly visualize the spatial intensity distribution of whispering gallery modes. We extract their azimuthal and radial mode indices from dark-field images, and find the axial mode number from the dispersion relation. The scattering spectrum obtained in the confocal arrangement provides information on the density of optical states in the resonator. The proposed technique is a simple noninvasive way to characterize the optical properties of microdisk cavities. PMID:26872179

  5. Quantitative Neutron Dark-field Imaging through Spin-Echo Interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Strobl, Markus; Sales, Morten; Plomp, Jeroen; Bouwman, Wim G.; Tremsin, Anton S.; Kaestner, Anders; Pappas, Catherine; Habicht, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Neutron dark-field imaging constitutes a seminal progress in the field of neutron imaging as it combines real space resolution capability with information provided by one of the most significant neutron scattering techniques, namely small angle scattering. The success of structural characterizations bridging the gap between macroscopic and microscopic features has been enabled by the introduction of grating interferometers so far. The induced interference pattern, a spatial beam modulation, allows for mapping of small-angle scattering signals and hence addressing microstructures beyond direct spatial resolution of the imaging system with high efficiency. However, to date the quantification in the small angle scattering regime is severely limited by the monochromatic approach. To overcome such drawback we here introduce an alternative and more flexible method of interferometric beam modulation utilizing a spin-echo technique. This novel method facilitates straightforward quantitative dark-field neutron imaging, i.e. the required quantitative microstructural characterization combined with real space image resolution. For the first time quantitative microstructural reciprocal space information from small angle neutron scattering becomes available together with macroscopic image information creating the potential to quantify several orders of magnitude in structure sizes simultaneously. PMID:26560644

  6. Quantitative Neutron Dark-field Imaging through Spin-Echo Interferometry.

    PubMed

    Strobl, Markus; Sales, Morten; Plomp, Jeroen; Bouwman, Wim G; Tremsin, Anton S; Kaestner, Anders; Pappas, Catherine; Habicht, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Neutron dark-field imaging constitutes a seminal progress in the field of neutron imaging as it combines real space resolution capability with information provided by one of the most significant neutron scattering techniques, namely small angle scattering. The success of structural characterizations bridging the gap between macroscopic and microscopic features has been enabled by the introduction of grating interferometers so far. The induced interference pattern, a spatial beam modulation, allows for mapping of small-angle scattering signals and hence addressing microstructures beyond direct spatial resolution of the imaging system with high efficiency. However, to date the quantification in the small angle scattering regime is severely limited by the monochromatic approach. To overcome such drawback we here introduce an alternative and more flexible method of interferometric beam modulation utilizing a spin-echo technique. This novel method facilitates straightforward quantitative dark-field neutron imaging, i.e. the required quantitative microstructural characterization combined with real space image resolution. For the first time quantitative microstructural reciprocal space information from small angle neutron scattering becomes available together with macroscopic image information creating the potential to quantify several orders of magnitude in structure sizes simultaneously. PMID:26560644

  7. High energy X-ray phase and dark-field imaging using a random absorption mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Cai, Biao; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-07-01

    High energy X-ray imaging has unique advantage over conventional X-ray imaging, since it enables higher penetration into materials with significantly reduced radiation damage. However, the absorption contrast in high energy region is considerably low due to the reduced X-ray absorption cross section for most materials. Even though the X-ray phase and dark-field imaging techniques can provide substantially increased contrast and complementary information, fabricating dedicated optics for high energies still remain a challenge. To address this issue, we present an alternative X-ray imaging approach to produce transmission, phase and scattering signals at high X-ray energies by using a random absorption mask. Importantly, in addition to the synchrotron radiation source, this approach has been demonstrated for practical imaging application with a laboratory-based microfocus X-ray source. This new imaging method could be potentially useful for studying thick samples or heavy materials for advanced research in materials science.

  8. Dark-field hyperlens for high-contrast sub-wavelength imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repän, Taavi; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Willatzen, Morten

    2016-04-01

    By now superresolution imaging using hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) structures - hyperlenses - has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. The hyperlens operation relies on the fact that HMM allows propagation of waves with very large transverse wavevectors, which would be evanescent in common isotropic media (thus giving rise to the diffraction limit). However, nearly all hyperlenses proposed so far have been suitable only for very strong scatterers - such as holes in a metal film. When weaker scatterers, dielectric objects for example, are imaged then incident light forms a very strong background, and weak scatterers are not visible due to a poor contrast. We propose a so-called dark-field hyperlens, which would be suitable for imaging of weakly scattering objects. By designing parameters of the HMM, we managed to obtain its response in such way that the hyperlens structure exhibits a cut-off for waves with small transverse wavevectors (low-k waves). This allows the structure to filter out the background illumination, which is contained in low-k waves. We numerically demonstrate that our device achieves superresolution imaging while providing the strong contrast for weak dielectric scatterers. These findings hold a great promise for dark-field superresolution, which could be important in real-time dynamic nanoscopy of label-free biological objects for example.

  9. Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source

    PubMed Central

    Schleede, Simone; Meinel, Felix G.; Bech, Martin; Herzen, Julia; Achterhold, Klaus; Potdevin, Guillaume; Malecki, Andreas; Adam-Neumair, Silvia; Thieme, Sven F.; Bamberg, Fabian; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Bohla, Alexander; Yildirim, Ali Ö.; Loewen, Roderick; Gifford, Martin; Ruth, Ronald; Eickelberg, Oliver; Reiser, Maximilian; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2012-01-01

    In early stages of various pulmonary diseases, such as emphysema and fibrosis, the change in X-ray attenuation is not detectable with absorption-based radiography. To monitor the morphological changes that the alveoli network undergoes in the progression of these diseases, we propose using the dark-field signal, which is related to small-angle scattering in the sample. Combined with the absorption-based image, the dark-field signal enables better discrimination between healthy and emphysematous lung tissue in a mouse model. All measurements have been performed at 36 keV using a monochromatic laser-driven miniature synchrotron X-ray source (Compact Light Source). In this paper we present grating-based dark-field images of emphysematous vs. healthy lung tissue, where the strong dependence of the dark-field signal on mean alveolar size leads to improved diagnosis of emphysema in lung radiographs. PMID:23074250

  10. Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source.

    PubMed

    Schleede, Simone; Meinel, Felix G; Bech, Martin; Herzen, Julia; Achterhold, Klaus; Potdevin, Guillaume; Malecki, Andreas; Adam-Neumair, Silvia; Thieme, Sven F; Bamberg, Fabian; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Bohla, Alexander; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Loewen, Roderick; Gifford, Martin; Ruth, Ronald; Eickelberg, Oliver; Reiser, Maximilian; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2012-10-30

    In early stages of various pulmonary diseases, such as emphysema and fibrosis, the change in X-ray attenuation is not detectable with absorption-based radiography. To monitor the morphological changes that the alveoli network undergoes in the progression of these diseases, we propose using the dark-field signal, which is related to small-angle scattering in the sample. Combined with the absorption-based image, the dark-field signal enables better discrimination between healthy and emphysematous lung tissue in a mouse model. All measurements have been performed at 36 keV using a monochromatic laser-driven miniature synchrotron X-ray source (Compact Light Source). In this paper we present grating-based dark-field images of emphysematous vs. healthy lung tissue, where the strong dependence of the dark-field signal on mean alveolar size leads to improved diagnosis of emphysema in lung radiographs. PMID:23074250

  11. Dark-field spectral imaging microscope for localized surface plasmon resonance-based biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Sang-Youp; Park, Jin-Ho; Kim, Min-Gon

    2015-07-01

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of metal nanoparticles makes red-shift of extinction wavelength with an increase in the refractive index at the surface of the metal nanoparticles. Since biomolecules bound to the metal nanoparticle's surface induce refractive index change, biosensing based on LSPR effect can be possible by monitoring scattering or absorption spectrum changes. Generally, however, conventional method detects ensemble averaged LSPR signal of a huge number of metal nanoparticles. Here, we have constructed a dark-field spectral imaging microscope in order to monitor the scattering spectra of individual metal nanoparticles, simultaneously. Gold nanorod (GNR) and aptamer are employed to detect ochratoxin A (OTA) related to a carcinogenic illness. An aptamer-target binding mechanism promotes wavelength shift of extinction spectra due to refractive index change within sensing volume of GNR by structural change of aptamer. A number of GNRs can be identified in a dark-field LSPR image, simultaneously. A typical spectrum of a GNR exhibits red-shift after target binding of molecules and OTA detection is extended to the very low concentration of 1 pM level.

  12. General solution for quantitative dark-field contrast imaging with grating interferometers

    PubMed Central

    Strobl, M.

    2014-01-01

    Grating interferometer based imaging with X-rays and neutrons has proven to hold huge potential for applications in key research fields conveying biology and medicine as well as engineering and magnetism, respectively. The thereby amenable dark-field imaging modality implied the promise to access structural information beyond reach of direct spatial resolution. However, only here a yet missing approach is reported that finally allows exploiting this outstanding potential for non-destructive materials characterizations. It enables to obtain quantitative structural small angle scattering information combined with up to 3-dimensional spatial image resolution even at lab based x-ray or at neutron sources. The implied two orders of magnitude efficiency gain as compared to currently available techniques in this regime paves the way for unprecedented structural investigations of complex sample systems of interest for material science in a vast range of fields. PMID:25430623

  13. Three-dimensional shapes and distribution of FePd nanoparticles observed by electron tomography using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kazuhisa; Aoyagi, Kenta; Konno, Toyohiko J.

    2010-01-01

    We have studied three-dimensional shapes and distribution of FePd nanoparticles, prepared by electron beam deposition and postdeposition annealing, by means of single-axis tilt tomography using atomic number contrasts obtained by high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy. Particle size, shape, and locations were reconstructed by weighted backprojection (WBP), as well as by simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT). We have also estimated the particle size by simple extrapolation of tilt-series original data sets, which proved to be quite powerful. The results of the two algorithms for reconstruction have been compared quantitatively with those obtained by the extrapolation method and those independently reported by electron holography. It was found that the reconstructed intensity map by WBP contains a small amount of dotlike artifacts, which do not exist in the results by SIRT, and that the particle surface obtained by WBP is rougher than that by SIRT. We demonstrate, on the other hand, that WBP yields a better estimation of the particle size in the z direction than SIRT does, most likely due to the presence of a "missing wedge" in the original data set.

  14. Refractive-index based tomosynthesis using dark-field imaging optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunaguchi, N.; Yuasa, T.; Ichihara, S.; Huo, Q.; Sakai, M.; Wu, Y.; Shimao, D.; Ando, M.

    2013-03-01

    Tomosynthesis (TS) is a pseudo-3-dimensional image reconstruction method to recover depth-resolved information using restricted number of projections. In this research, refraction index based TS imaging using dark-field imaging (DFI) optics is proposed and biomedical soft tissues were imaged in low dose exposure. By a single exposure of an object, two projected images are obtained from a Laue-case analyzer of DFI. Calculating the both images refraction component is deduced, while two exposures are needed in DEI (diffraction enhanced imaging). Thus the measurement time and the radiation dose in DFI are half of DEI. In addition, the proposed reconstruction algorithm, derived from the quantitative relationship in measurement process, allows high contrast tomographic imaging in spite of one order smaller number of projections for CT (computed tomography). To demonstrate the proposed imaging protocol efficacy, an ex-vivo excised tissue of human lung were imaged using a system constructed at the vertical wiggler beamline at PF-BL14C at KEK. TS image is successfully delineated high quality soft tissue structures comparable to CT.

  15. High-contrast multilayer imaging of biological organisms through dark-field digital refocusing.

    PubMed

    Faridian, Ahmad; Pedrini, Giancarlo; Osten, Wolfgang

    2013-08-01

    We have developed an imaging system to extract high contrast images from different layers of biological organisms. Utilizing a digital holographic approach, the system works without scanning through layers of the specimen. In dark-field illumination, scattered light has the main contribution in image formation, but in the case of coherent illumination, this creates a strong speckle noise that reduces the image quality. To remove this restriction, the specimen has been illuminated with various speckle-fields and a hologram has been recorded for each speckle-field. Each hologram has been analyzed separately and the corresponding intensity image has been reconstructed. The final image has been derived by averaging over the reconstructed images. A correlation approach has been utilized to determine the number of speckle-fields required to achieve a desired contrast and image quality. The reconstructed intensity images in different object layers are shown for different sea urchin larvae. Two multimedia files are attached to illustrate the process of digital focusing. PMID:23942634

  16. High-contrast multilayer imaging of biological organisms through dark-field digital refocusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faridian, Ahmad; Pedrini, Giancarlo; Osten, Wolfgang

    2013-08-01

    We have developed an imaging system to extract high contrast images from different layers of biological organisms. Utilizing a digital holographic approach, the system works without scanning through layers of the specimen. In dark-field illumination, scattered light has the main contribution in image formation, but in the case of coherent illumination, this creates a strong speckle noise that reduces the image quality. To remove this restriction, the specimen has been illuminated with various speckle-fields and a hologram has been recorded for each speckle-field. Each hologram has been analyzed separately and the corresponding intensity image has been reconstructed. The final image has been derived by averaging over the reconstructed images. A correlation approach has been utilized to determine the number of speckle-fields required to achieve a desired contrast and image quality. The reconstructed intensity images in different object layers are shown for different sea urchin larvae. Two multimedia files are attached to illustrate the process of digital focusing.

  17. Quantification of the neutron dark-field imaging signal in grating interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünzweig, C.; Kopecek, J.; Betz, B.; Kaestner, A.; Jefimovs, K.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Gasser, U.; Bunk, O.; David, C.; Lehmann, E.; Donath, T.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2013-09-01

    Here we report on a mathematical description for the neutron dark-field image (DFI) contrast based on the influence of the thickness-dependent beam broadening caused by scattering interactions and multiple refraction in the sample. We conduct radiography experiments to verify that the DFI signal exponentially decays as a function of thickness for both magnetic and nonmagnetic materials. Here we introduce a material-dependent parameter, the so-called linear diffusion coefficient Ω. This allows us to perform a quantitative DFI-computed tomography. Additionally, we conduct correlative small-angle neutron-scattering experiments and validate the mathematical assumption that the angular broadening of the direct beam is proportional to the square root of the number of discrete layers.

  18. Four-wave dark-field electron holography for imaging strain fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denneulin, T.; Hÿtch, M.

    2016-06-01

    Strain characterization by transmission electron microscopy is an active area of research especially for microelectronics applications. Two-wave dark-field electron holography (DFEH) was previously introduced as a reliable strain mapping technique. Here, DFEH with four electron waves was investigated in order to image equi-displacement lines as amplitude modulations of the holographic fringes. Two perpendicular electrostatic biprisms are used to interfere three reference waves diffracted by a substrate and one object wave diffracted by an epitaxially strained region. This technique provides a different way to represent the displacement field. It might be helpful to obtain information about the strain state during in situ experiments. A dummy p-MOSFET device with embedded SiGe source and drain is used for experimental demonstration.

  19. High energy X-ray phase and dark-field imaging using a random absorption mask

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Cai, Biao; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-01-01

    High energy X-ray imaging has unique advantage over conventional X-ray imaging, since it enables higher penetration into materials with significantly reduced radiation damage. However, the absorption contrast in high energy region is considerably low due to the reduced X-ray absorption cross section for most materials. Even though the X-ray phase and dark-field imaging techniques can provide substantially increased contrast and complementary information, fabricating dedicated optics for high energies still remain a challenge. To address this issue, we present an alternative X-ray imaging approach to produce transmission, phase and scattering signals at high X-ray energies by using a random absorption mask. Importantly, in addition to the synchrotron radiation source, this approach has been demonstrated for practical imaging application with a laboratory-based microfocus X-ray source. This new imaging method could be potentially useful for studying thick samples or heavy materials for advanced research in materials science. PMID:27466217

  20. High energy X-ray phase and dark-field imaging using a random absorption mask.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Cai, Biao; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-01-01

    High energy X-ray imaging has unique advantage over conventional X-ray imaging, since it enables higher penetration into materials with significantly reduced radiation damage. However, the absorption contrast in high energy region is considerably low due to the reduced X-ray absorption cross section for most materials. Even though the X-ray phase and dark-field imaging techniques can provide substantially increased contrast and complementary information, fabricating dedicated optics for high energies still remain a challenge. To address this issue, we present an alternative X-ray imaging approach to produce transmission, phase and scattering signals at high X-ray energies by using a random absorption mask. Importantly, in addition to the synchrotron radiation source, this approach has been demonstrated for practical imaging application with a laboratory-based microfocus X-ray source. This new imaging method could be potentially useful for studying thick samples or heavy materials for advanced research in materials science. PMID:27466217

  1. Refraction-based X-ray Computed Tomography for Biomedical Purpose Using Dark Field Imaging Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunaguchi, Naoki; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Huo, Qingkai; Ichihara, Shu; Ando, Masami

    We have proposed a tomographic x-ray imaging system using DFI (dark field imaging) optics along with a data-processing method to extract information on refraction from the measured intensities, and a reconstruction algorithm to reconstruct a refractive-index field from the projections generated from the extracted refraction information. The DFI imaging system consists of a tandem optical system of Bragg- and Laue-case crystals, a positioning device system for a sample, and two CCD (charge coupled device) cameras. Then, we developed a software code to simulate the data-acquisition, data-processing, and reconstruction methods to investigate the feasibility of the proposed methods. Finally, in order to demonstrate its efficacy, we imaged a sample with DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ) excised from a breast cancer patient using a system constructed at the vertical wiggler beamline BL-14C in KEK-PF. Its CT images depicted a variety of fine histological structures, such as milk ducts, duct walls, secretions, adipose and fibrous tissue. They correlate well with histological sections.

  2. Dark-field microscopic image stitching method for surface defects evaluation of large fine optics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Wang, Shitong; Cao, Pin; Li, Lu; Cheng, Zhongtao; Gao, Xin; Yang, Yongying

    2013-03-11

    One of the challenges in surface defects evaluation of large fine optics is to detect defects of microns on surfaces of tens or hundreds of millimeters. Sub-aperture scanning and stitching is considered to be a practical and efficient method. But since there are usually few defects on the large aperture fine optics, resulting in no defects or only one run-through line feature in many sub-aperture images, traditional stitching methods encounter with mismatch problem. In this paper, a feature-based multi-cycle image stitching algorithm is proposed to solve the problem. The overlapping areas of sub-apertures are categorized based on the features they contain. Different types of overlapping areas are then stitched in different cycles with different methods. The stitching trace is changed to follow the one that determined by the features. The whole stitching procedure is a region-growing like process. Sub-aperture blocks grow bigger after each cycle and finally the full aperture image is obtained. Comparison experiment shows that the proposed method is very suitable to stitch sub-apertures that very few feature information exists in the overlapping areas and can stitch the dark-field microscopic sub-aperture images very well. PMID:23482166

  3. Optical Clearing Delivers Ultrasensitive Hyperspectral Dark-Field Imaging for Single-Cell Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yi; Wang, Xiaolei; Ren, Wen; Liu, Jing; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2016-03-22

    A single-cell optical clearing methodology is developed and demonstrated in hyperspectral dark-field microscopy (HSDFM) and imaging of plasmonic nanoprobes. Our strategy relies on a combination of delipidation and refractive index (RI) matching with highly biocompatible and affordable agents. Before applying the RI-matching solution, the delipidation step by using a mild solvent effectively eliminates those high-density, lipid-enriched granular structures which emit strong scattering. Upon treatment, the background scattering from cellular organelles could be repressed to a negligible level while the scattering signals from plasmonic nanomaterials increase, leading to a significant improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). With this method established, the versatility and applicability of HSDFM are greatly enhanced. In our demonstration, quantitative mapping of the dimerization-activated receptor kinase HER2 is achieved in a single cancer cell by a nonfluorescent approach. High-resolution imaging for oncogenic mRNAs, namely ER, PR, and HER2, is performed with single labeling. More importantly, in situ multiplex detection of mRNA and protein is made possible by HSDFM since it overcomes the difficulties of complex staining and signal imbalance suffered by the conventional optical imaging. Last, we show that with optical clearing, characterization of intracellularly grown gold particulates is accomplished at an unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. Taken together, the uniqueness of optical clearing and HSDFM is expected to open ample avenues for single-cell studies and biomedical engineering. PMID:26895095

  4. Defects evaluation system for spherical optical surfaces based on microscopic scattering dark-field imaging method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yihui; Yang, Yongying; Li, Chen; Wu, Fan; Chai, Huiting; Yan, Kai; Zhou, Lin; Li, Yang; Liu, Dong; Bai, Jian; Shen, Yibing

    2016-08-10

    In the field of automatic optical inspection, it is imperative to measure the defects on spherical optical surfaces. So a novel spherical surface defect evaluation system is established in this paper to evaluate defects on optical spheres. In order to ensure the microscopic scattering dark-field imaging of optical spheres with different surface shape and radius of curvature, illumination with variable aperture angle is employed. In addition, the scanning path of subapertures along the parallels and meridians is planned to detect the large optical spheres. Since analysis shows that the spherical defect information could be lost in the optical imaging, the three-dimensional correction based on a pin-hole model is proposed to recover the actual spherical defects from the captured two-dimensional images. Given the difficulty of subaperture stitching and defect feature extraction in three-dimensional (3D) space after the correction, the 3D subapertures are transformed into a plane to be spliced through geometric projection. Then, methods of the surface integral and calibration are applied to quantitatively evaluate the spherical defects. Furthermore, the 3D panorama of defect distribution on the spherical optical components can be displayed through the inverse projective reconstruction. Finally, the evaluation results are compared with the OLYMPUS microscope, testifying to the micrometer resolution, and the detection error is less than 5%. PMID:27534456

  5. Single-Cell Quantification of Cytosine Modifications by Hyperspectral Dark-Field Imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolei; Cui, Yi; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2015-12-22

    Epigenetic modifications on DNA, especially on cytosine, play a critical role in regulating gene expression and genome stability. It is known that the levels of different cytosine derivatives are highly dynamic and are regulated by a variety of factors that act on the chromatin. Here we report an optical methodology based on hyperspectral dark-field imaging (HSDFI) using plasmonic nanoprobes to quantify the recently identified cytosine modifications on DNA in single cells. Gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with specific antibodies were used as contrast-generating agents due to their strong local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties. With this powerful platform we have revealed the spatial distribution and quantity of 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) at the different stages in cell cycle and demonstrated that 5caC was a stably inherited epigenetic mark. We have also shown that the regional density of 5caC on a single chromosome can be mapped due to the spectral sensitivity of the nanoprobes in relation to the interparticle distance. Notably, HSDFI enables an efficient removal of the scattering noises from nonspecifically aggregated nanoprobes, to improve accuracy in the quantification of different cytosine modifications in single cells. Further, by separating the LSPR fingerprints of AuNPs and AgNPs, multiplex detection of two cytosine modifications was also performed. Our results demonstrate HSDFI as a versatile platform for spatial and spectroscopic characterization of plasmonic nanoprobe-labeled nuclear targets at the single-cell level for quantitative epigenetic screening. PMID:26505210

  6. Single-Cell Quantification of Cytosine Modifications by Hyperspectral Dark-Field Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolei; Cui, Yi; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications on DNA, especially on cytosine, play a critical role in regulating gene expression and genome stability. It is known that the levels of different cytosine derivatives are highly dynamic and are regulated by a variety of factors that act on the chromatin. Here we report an optical methodology based on hyperspectral dark-field imaging (HSDFI) using plasmonic nanoprobes to quantify the recently identified cytosine modifications on DNA in single cells. Gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with specific antibodies were used as contrast-generating agents due to their strong Local Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) properties. With this powerful platform we have revealed the spatial distribution and quantity of 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) at the different stages in cell cycle, and demonstrated that 5caC was a stably inherited epigenetic mark. We have also shown that the regional density of 5caC on a single chromosome can be mapped due to the spectral sensitivity of the nanoprobes in relation to the inter-particle distance. Notably, HSDFI enables an efficient removal of the scattering noises from non-specifically aggregated nanoprobes, to improve accuracy in the quantification of different cytosine modifications in single cells. Further, by separating the LSPR fingerprints of AuNPs and AgNPs, multiplex detection of two cytosine modifications was also performed. Our results demonstrate HSDFI as a versatile platform for spatial and spectroscopic characterization of plasmonic nanoprobe-labeled nuclear targets at the single-cell level for quantitative epigenetic screening. PMID:26505210

  7. Ex Vivo Perfusion-Simulation Measurements of Microbubbles as a Scattering Contrast Agent for Grating-Based X-Ray Dark-Field Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Velroyen, Astrid; Bech, Martin; Tapfer, Arne; Yaroshenko, Andre; Müller, Mark; Paprottka, Philipp; Ingrisch, Michael; Cyran, Clemens C.; Auweter, Sigrid D.; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of dedicated contrast agents for x-ray dark-field imaging, which exploits small-angle scattering at microstructures for contrast generation, is of strong interest in analogy to the common clinical use of high-atomic number contrast media in conventional attenuation-based imaging, since dark-field imaging has proven to provide complementary information. Therefore, agents consisting of gas bubbles, as used in ultrasound imaging for example, are of particular interest. In this work, we investigate an experimental contrast agent based on microbubbles consisting of a polyvinyl-alcohol shell with an iron oxide coating, which was originally developed for multimodal imaging and drug delivery. Its performance as a possible contrast medium for small-animal angiography was examined using a mouse carcass to realistically consider attenuating and scattering background signal. Subtraction images of dark field, phase contrast and attenuation were acquired for a concentration series of 100%, 10% and 1.3% to mimic different stages of dilution in the contrast agent in the blood vessel system. The images were compared to the gold-standard iodine-based contrast agent Solutrast, showing a good contrast improvement by microbubbles in dark-field imaging. This study proves the feasibility of microbubble-based dark-field contrast-enhancement in presence of scattering and attenuating mouse body structures like bone and fur. Therefore, it suggests a strong potential of the use of polymer-based microbubbles for small-animal dark-field angiography. PMID:26134130

  8. Ex Vivo Perfusion-Simulation Measurements of Microbubbles as a Scattering Contrast Agent for Grating-Based X-Ray Dark-Field Imaging.

    PubMed

    Velroyen, Astrid; Bech, Martin; Tapfer, Arne; Yaroshenko, Andre; Müller, Mark; Paprottka, Philipp; Ingrisch, Michael; Cyran, Clemens C; Auweter, Sigrid D; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Reiser, Maximilian F; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of dedicated contrast agents for x-ray dark-field imaging, which exploits small-angle scattering at microstructures for contrast generation, is of strong interest in analogy to the common clinical use of high-atomic number contrast media in conventional attenuation-based imaging, since dark-field imaging has proven to provide complementary information. Therefore, agents consisting of gas bubbles, as used in ultrasound imaging for example, are of particular interest. In this work, we investigate an experimental contrast agent based on microbubbles consisting of a polyvinyl-alcohol shell with an iron oxide coating, which was originally developed for multimodal imaging and drug delivery. Its performance as a possible contrast medium for small-animal angiography was examined using a mouse carcass to realistically consider attenuating and scattering background signal. Subtraction images of dark field, phase contrast and attenuation were acquired for a concentration series of 100%, 10% and 1.3% to mimic different stages of dilution in the contrast agent in the blood vessel system. The images were compared to the gold-standard iodine-based contrast agent Solutrast, showing a good contrast improvement by microbubbles in dark-field imaging. This study proves the feasibility of microbubble-based dark-field contrast-enhancement in presence of scattering and attenuating mouse body structures like bone and fur. Therefore, it suggests a strong potential of the use of polymer-based microbubbles for small-animal dark-field angiography. PMID:26134130

  9. Real-time scattered light dark-field microscopic imaging of the dynamic degradation process of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Gang; Gao, Peng Fei; Liu, Hui; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Single nanoparticle analysis (SNA) technique with the aid of a dark-field microscopic imaging (iDFM) technique has attracted wide attention owing to its high sensitivity. Considering that the degradation of pesticides can bring about serious problems in food and the environment, and that the real-time monitoring of the dynamic degradation process of pesticides can help understand and define their degradation mechanisms, herein we real-time monitored the decomposition dynamics of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (NaDDC) under neutral and alkaline conditions by imaging single silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under a dark-field microscope (DFM); the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattering signals were measured at a single nanoparticle level. As a result, the chemical mechanism of the degradation of NaDDC under neutral and alkaline conditions was proposed, and the inhibition effects of metal ions including Zn(ii) and Cu(ii) were investigated in order to understand the decomposition process in different environments. It was found that Cu(ii) forms the most stable complex with NaDDC with a stoichiometric ratio of 1 : 2, which greatly reduces the toxicity.Single nanoparticle analysis (SNA) technique with the aid of a dark-field microscopic imaging (iDFM) technique has attracted wide attention owing to its high sensitivity. Considering that the degradation of pesticides can bring about serious problems in food and the environment, and that the real-time monitoring of the dynamic degradation process of pesticides can help understand and define their degradation mechanisms, herein we real-time monitored the decomposition dynamics of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (NaDDC) under neutral and alkaline conditions by imaging single silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under a dark-field microscope (DFM); the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattering signals were measured at a single nanoparticle level. As a result, the chemical mechanism of the degradation of Na

  10. Dark-field light scattering imaging of living cancer cell component from birth through division using bioconjugated gold nanoprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Wei; Huang, Xiaohua; Kang, Bin; El-Sayed, Mostafa A.

    2010-07-01

    Novel methods and technologies that could extend and complement the capabilities of the prevailing fluorescence microscope in following the cell cycle under different perturbations are highly desirable in the area of biological and biomedical imaging. We report a newly designed instrument for long-term light scattering live cell imaging based on integrating a homebuilt environmental cell incubation minichamber and an angled dark-field illumination system into a conventional inverted light microscope. Peptide-conjugated gold nanoparticles that are selectively delivered to either the cytoplasmic or nuclear region of the cell are used as light scattering contrast agents. The new system enables us to carry out continuous and intermittence-free dark-field live cell imaging over several tens of hours. A variety of applications of this imaging system are demonstrated, such as monitoring the nuclear uptake of peptide-conjugated gold nanoparticles, tracking the full cycle of cancer cells from birth to division, following the chromosome dynamics during cell mitosis, and observing the intracellular distribution of gold nanoparticles after cell division. We also discuss the overall effect of nuclear targeting gold nanoparticles on the cell viability of parent and daughter cells.

  11. 2D grating simulation for X-ray phase-contrast and dark-field imaging with a Talbot interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanette, Irene; David, Christian; Rutishauser, Simon; Weitkamp, Timm

    2010-04-01

    Talbot interferometry is a recently developed and an extremely powerful X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique. Besides giving access to ultra-high sensitivity differential phase contrast images, it also provides the dark field image, which is a map of the scattering power of the sample. In this paper we investigate the potentialities of an improved version of the interferometer, in which two dimensional gratings are used instead of standard line grids. This approach allows to overcome the difficulties that might be encountered in the images produced by a one dimensional interferometer. Among these limitations there are the phase wrapping and quantitative phase retrieval problems and the directionality of the differential phase and dark-field signals. The feasibility of the 2D Talbot interferometer has been studied with a numerical simulation on the performances of its optical components under different circumstances. The gratings can be obtained either by an ad hoc fabrication of the 2D structures or by a superposition of two perpendicular linear grids. Through this simulation it has been possible to find the best parameters for a practical implementation of the 2D Talbot interferometer.

  12. Sharp gold based hybrid nanoprobes for cell imaging through dark-field microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerouge, Frederic; Navarro, Julien R. G.; Foscan, Monica; Chaput, Frederic; Baldeck, Patrice; Parola, Stéphane

    2015-08-01

    Numerous works are based on the design, the elaboration and the study of the optical properties of gold nanoprobes for potential applications in biotechnologies (bioimaging, biosensing). Among all the possible shapes, it appears that sharp gold nanostructures exhibit interesting features due to the strong filed generated at their tips ends, making them very sensitive to the surrounding medium. Here we describe a complete study of PEGylated gold nanoparticles : nanostars and bipyramids as potential agents for bioimaging. The nanoprobes are first prepared in high yield before functionalization with a biocompatible polymer. Then, the PEGylated gold nanoparticles are incubated with melanoma B16-F10 cells and observed using Dark-field microscopy. Results show that the biocompatible gold nanoparticles are easily internalized and most of them localized within the cells.

  13. Simulations of x-ray speckle-based dark-field and phase-contrast imaging with a polychromatic beam

    SciTech Connect

    Zdora, Marie-Christine; Thibault, Pierre; Pfeiffer, Franz; Zanette, Irene

    2015-09-21

    Following the first experimental demonstration of x-ray speckle-based multimodal imaging using a polychromatic beam [I. Zanette et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(25), 253903 (2014)], we present a simulation study on the effects of a polychromatic x-ray spectrum on the performance of this technique. We observe that the contrast of the near-field speckles is only mildly influenced by the bandwidth of the energy spectrum. Moreover, using a homogeneous object with simple geometry, we characterize the beam hardening artifacts in the reconstructed transmission and refraction angle images, and we describe how the beam hardening also affects the dark-field signal provided by speckle tracking. This study is particularly important for further implementations and developments of coherent speckle-based techniques at laboratory x-ray sources.

  14. Sidestream dark field imaging: the evolution of real-time visualization of cutaneous microcirculation and its potential application in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Treu, Curt M; Lupi, Omar; Bottino, Daniel A; Bouskela, Eliete

    2011-03-01

    Technological advances during the last years have enhanced the image quality of the microcirculation. Intravital microscopy (IM) has been considered the "gold standard" for many years, but it can be used mostly in anesthetized animals which is a disadvantage. The nailfold videocapillaroscopy, a non-invasive examination that includes a microscope with an epiillumination system, came afterward, but its major disadvantage is the restricted area available for investigation namely the nailfold capillary bed. The orthogonal polarization spectral (OPS) imaging technique, where reflected light allows the visualization of the microcirculation, was the next non-invasive exam, but it still presents some drawbacks such as suboptimal capillary visualization and image blurring due to red blood cell movements. Excessive probe pressure modifies red blood cell velocity. There is suboptimal imaging of capillaries due to motion-induced image blurring by movements of OPS device, tissue and/or flowing red blood cells. Sidestream dark field (SDF) imaging is the newest tool for microcirculatory research. Illumination is provided by concentrically placed light-emitting diodes to avoid image blurring and to enhance image contrast. It represents a simple and non-invasive imaging technique, with low cost, good portability and high sensitivity that provides fine, well-defined images. In addition, the microcirculation can be studied through laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) or reflectance-mode confocal-laser-scanning microscopy (RCLM). However, LDF cannot show microcirculatory vessels and high cost of RCLM can be an inconvenience. New applications of SDF technique could include skin microcirculatory evaluation and allow dermatological studies on psoriasis, skin tumors and leprosy. PMID:20972572

  15. Actinic detection of multilayer defects on EUV mask blanks using LPP light source and dark-field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tezuka, Yoshihiro; Ito, Masaaki; Terasawa, Tsuneo; Tomie, Toshihisa

    2004-05-01

    The development of defect-free mask blanks including inspection is one of the big challenges for the implementation of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), especially when the introduction of EUVL is rescheduled to a later technology node. Among others, inspection of multilayer coated mask blanks with no oversight of critical defects and with minimal detection of false defects is a challenging issue for providing mask blanks free of defects or with thorough characterization of any existing defects. MIRAI Project has been developing a novel actinic (at-wavelength) inspection tool for detecting critical multilayer defects using a dark-field imaging and a laser-produced plasma (LPP) light source, expecting better sensitivity and better correlation with printability. The first experimental set up is completed for proof-of-concept (POC) demonstration using 20x Schwarzschild imaging optics and a backsideilluminated CCD. An in-house LPP light source is integrated to optimally illuminate the area of interest by EUV with a wavelength of 13.5nm. For its illuminator, a multilayer-coated elliptical mirror is used to illuminate a mask blank with the EUV that is collected within a wide solid angle from the light source. The first EUV dark-field image is obtained from a mask blank with programmed multilayer defects which are manufactured by locating well-defined patterns before depositing Mo/Si multilayer on EUV mask substrate. All the fabricated multilayer defects down to 70nm in width and 3.5nm in height are detected as clear signals that are distinguishable from the background intensity arising from the scattering by the surface roughness of the multilayer-coated mask blank. We have also detected a phase defect as low as 2nm in height. False defect count was not only zero within the area of view but also statistically confirmed to be less than one within the whole area of a mask blank assuming the extrapolation of observed fluctuation of background intensity is applicable

  16. In situ assessment of the renal microcirculation in mechanically ventilated rats using sidestream dark-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Astapenko, D; Jor, O; Lehmann, C; Cerny, V

    2015-02-01

    For microcirculation research there is a need for baseline data and feasibility protocols describing microcirculation of various organs. The aim of our study was to examine the reliability and reproducibility of sidestream dark-field (SDF) imaging within the renal cortical microcirculation in rats. Renal microcirculation was observed using SDF probe placed on the exposed renal surface via the upper midline laparotomy. Video sequences recorded intermittently in short apneic pauses were analyzed off-line by using AVA 3.0 software (MicroVision Medical, Amsterdam, the Netherlands). Results are expressed as mean (SD) or median (25-75% percentiles). We obtained 60 clear sequences from all recorded analyzable videos from all the animals. The total small vessel and all vessel density (in mm.mm(-2) ) were (28.79 ± 0.40) and (28.95 ± 0.40), respectively. The perfused small and all vessel density were (28.79 ± 0.40) and (28.95 ± 0.40), respectively. The DeBacker Score was (19.14 ± 0.43), the proportion of perfused vessels was 100% (100-100%) and the microvascular flow index was 3.49 (3-3.75). We conclude SDF imaging provides a reliable method to examine the renal microvascular bed in vivo and thus can be used for the study of the renal cortical vascular network in various experimental diseases models and clinical settings. PMID:25545609

  17. In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, M.; Tapfer, A.; Velroyen, A.; Yaroshenko, A.; Pauwels, B.; Hostens, J.; Bruyndonckx, P.; Sasov, A.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2013-11-01

    Novel radiography approaches based on the wave nature of x-rays when propagating through matter have a great potential for improved future x-ray diagnostics in the clinics. Here, we present a significant milestone in this imaging method: in-vivo multi-contrast x-ray imaging of a mouse using a compact scanner. Of particular interest is the enhanced contrast in regions related to the respiratory system, indicating a possible application in diagnosis of lung diseases (e.g. emphysema).

  18. In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bech, M.; Tapfer, A.; Velroyen, A.; Yaroshenko, A.; Pauwels, B.; Hostens, J.; Bruyndonckx, P.; Sasov, A.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2013-01-01

    Novel radiography approaches based on the wave nature of x-rays when propagating through matter have a great potential for improved future x-ray diagnostics in the clinics. Here, we present a significant milestone in this imaging method: in-vivo multi-contrast x-ray imaging of a mouse using a compact scanner. Of particular interest is the enhanced contrast in regions related to the respiratory system, indicating a possible application in diagnosis of lung diseases (e.g. emphysema). PMID:24220606

  19. A laboratory 8 keV transmission full-field x-ray microscope with a polycapillary as condenser for bright and dark field imaging.

    PubMed

    Baumbach, S; Kanngießer, B; Malzer, W; Stiel, H; Wilhein, T

    2015-08-01

    This article introduces a laboratory setup of a transmission full-field x-ray microscope at 8 keV photon energy. The microscope operates in bright and dark field imaging mode with a maximum field of view of 50 μm. Since the illumination geometry determines whether the sample is illuminated homogeneously and moreover, if different imaging methods can be applied, the condenser optic is one of the most significant parts. With a new type of x-ray condenser, a polycapillary optic, we realized bright field imaging and for the first time dark field imaging at 8 keV photon energy in a laboratory setup. A detector limited spatial resolution of 210 nm is measured on x-ray images of Siemens star test patterns. PMID:26329204

  20. A laboratory 8 keV transmission full-field x-ray microscope with a polycapillary as condenser for bright and dark field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumbach, S.; Kanngießer, B.; Malzer, W.; Stiel, H.; Wilhein, T.

    2015-08-01

    This article introduces a laboratory setup of a transmission full-field x-ray microscope at 8 keV photon energy. The microscope operates in bright and dark field imaging mode with a maximum field of view of 50 μm. Since the illumination geometry determines whether the sample is illuminated homogeneously and moreover, if different imaging methods can be applied, the condenser optic is one of the most significant parts. With a new type of x-ray condenser, a polycapillary optic, we realized bright field imaging and for the first time dark field imaging at 8 keV photon energy in a laboratory setup. A detector limited spatial resolution of 210 nm is measured on x-ray images of Siemens star test patterns.

  1. A laboratory 8 keV transmission full-field x-ray microscope with a polycapillary as condenser for bright and dark field imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Baumbach, S. Wilhein, T.; Kanngießer, B.; Malzer, W.; Stiel, H.

    2015-08-15

    This article introduces a laboratory setup of a transmission full-field x-ray microscope at 8 keV photon energy. The microscope operates in bright and dark field imaging mode with a maximum field of view of 50 μm. Since the illumination geometry determines whether the sample is illuminated homogeneously and moreover, if different imaging methods can be applied, the condenser optic is one of the most significant parts. With a new type of x-ray condenser, a polycapillary optic, we realized bright field imaging and for the first time dark field imaging at 8 keV photon energy in a laboratory setup. A detector limited spatial resolution of 210 nm is measured on x-ray images of Siemens star test patterns.

  2. Dark-Field Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy via Direct Detection of Transmitted Helium Ions with a Multichannel Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woehl, Taylor; White, Ryan; Keller, Robert

    A multichannel plate was used as an ion sensitive transmission detector in a commercial helium ion microscope for annular dark-field imaging of nanomaterials, i.e. scanning transmission ion microscopy. In contrast to previous transmission helium ion microscopy approaches that used secondary electron conversion holders, our new approach directly detects transmitted helium ions on an annular detector. Monte Carlo simulations are used to predict detector collection angles at which annular dark-field images with atomic number contrast are obtained. We demonstrate atomic number contrast imaging via scanning transmission ion imaging of silica-coated gold nanoparticles and magnetite nanoparticles. While the resolution of this transmission technique is limited by beam broadening in the substrate, we image magnetite nanoparticles with high contrast on a relatively thick silicon nitride substrate. We expect this new approach to annular dark-field scanning transmission ion microscopy will open avenues for more quantitative ion imaging techniques, such as direct mass-thickness determination, and advance fundamental understanding of underlying ion scattering mechanisms leading to image formation.

  3. Imaging performance of annular apertures. II - Line spread functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschunko, H. F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Line images formed by aberration-free optical systems with annular apertures are investigated in the whole range of central obstruction ratios. Annular apertures form lines images with central and side line groups. The number of lines in each line group is given by the ratio of the outer diameter of the annular aperture divided by the width of the annulus. The theoretical energy fraction of 0.889 in the central line of the image formed by an unobstructed aperture increases for centrally obstructed apertures to 0.932 for the central line group. Energy fractions for the central and side line groups are practically constant for all obstruction ratios and for each line group. The illumination of rectangular secondary apertures of various length/width ratios by apertures of various obstruction ratios is discussed.

  4. The role of side stream dark field microvasculature imaging in a rare case of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal endocarditis complicated by heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Bechar, Janak; Polesello, Luigi; Lombrano, Maria; Martinelli, Giampaolo; Luckraz, Heyman

    2016-01-01

    Sidestream dark field (SDF) imaging allows direct visualization of microvascular architecture and function. We examine the role of an SDF imaging device in visualizing the sub-lingual microvasculature as a surrogate for splanchnic microperfusion. We demonstrate good correlation between current monitoring techniques and the SDF imaging device in a rare case of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) sepsis along with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). To the best of our knowledge, VRE endocarditis with concurrent HIT has not been described in literature. The role of SDF imaging may predict the earlier need for escalation of care, improving morbidity and mortality. PMID:26750702

  5. Simulation framework for coherent and incoherent X-ray imaging and its application in Talbot-Lau dark-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Ritter, André; Bartl, Peter; Bayer, Florian; Gödel, Karl C; Haas, Wilhelm; Michel, Thilo; Pelzer, Georg; Rieger, Jens; Weber, Thomas; Zang, Andrea; Anton, Gisela

    2014-09-22

    A simulation framework for coherent X-ray imaging, based on scalar diffraction theory, is presented. It contains a core C++ library and an additional Python interface. A workflow is presented to include contributions of inelastic scattering obtained with Monte-Carlo methods. X-ray Talbot-Lau interferometry is the primary focus of the framework. Simulations are in agreement with measurements obtained with such an interferometer. Especially, the dark-field signal of densely packed PMMA microspheres is predicted. A realistic modeling of the microsphere distribution, which is necessary for correct results, is presented. The framework can be used for both setup design and optimization but also to test and improve reconstruction methods. PMID:25321796

  6. Linearization of an annular image by using a diffractive optic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthys, Donald R.

    1996-01-01

    The goal for this project is to develop the algorithms for fracturing the zones defined by the mapping transformation, and to actually produce the binary optic in an appropriate setup. In 1984 a side-viewing panoramic viewing system was patented, consisting of a single piece of glass with spherical surfaces which produces a 360 degree view of the region surrounding the lens which extends about 25 degrees in front of and 20 degrees behind the lens. The system not only produces images of good quality, it is also afocal, i.e., images stay in focus for objects located right next to the lens as well as those located far from the lens. The lens produced a panoramic view in an annular shaped image, and so the lens was called a PAL (panoramic annular lens). When applying traditional measurements to PAL images, it is found advantageous to linearize the annular image. This can easily be done with a computer and such a linearized image can be produced within about 40 seconds on current microcomputers. However, this process requires a frame-grabber and a computer, and is not real-time. Therefore, it was decided to try to perform this linearization optically by using a diffractive optic.

  7. Strain measurement at the nanoscale: Comparison between convergent beam electron diffraction, nano-beam electron diffraction, high resolution imaging and dark field electron holography.

    PubMed

    Béché, A; Rouvière, J L; Barnes, J P; Cooper, D

    2013-08-01

    Convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED), nano-beam electron diffraction (NBED or NBD), high resolution imaging (HRTEM and HRSTEM) and dark field electron holography (DFEH or HoloDark) are five TEM based techniques able to quantitatively measure strain at the nanometer scale. In order to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of each technique, two samples composed of epitaxial silicon-germanium layers embedded in a silicon matrix have been investigated. The five techniques are then compared in terms of strain precision and accuracy, spatial resolution, field of view, mapping abilities and ease of performance and analysis. PMID:23673283

  8. Photoacoustic Imaging of Animals with an Annular Transducer Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Di-Wu; Zhou, Zhi-Bin; Zeng, Lv-Ming; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Xing-Hui

    2014-07-01

    A photoacoustic system with an annular transducer array is presented for rapid, high-resolution photoacoustic tomography of animals. An eight-channel data acquisition system is applied to capture the photoacoustic signals by using multiplexing and the total time of data acquisition and transferring is within 3 s. A limited-view filtered back projection algorithm is used to reconstruct the photoacoustic images. Experiments are performed on a mouse head and a rabbit head and clear photoacoustic images are obtained. The experimental results demonstrate that this imaging system holds the potential for imaging the human brain.

  9. Dark-Field Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy via Detection of Forward-Scattered Helium Ions with a Microchannel Plate.

    PubMed

    Woehl, Taylor J; White, Ryan M; Keller, Robert R

    2016-06-01

    A microchannel plate was used as an ion sensitive detector in a commercial helium ion microscope (HIM) for dark-field transmission imaging of nanomaterials, i.e. scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM). In contrast to previous transmission HIM approaches that used secondary electron conversion holders, our new approach detects forward-scattered helium ions on a dedicated annular shaped ion sensitive detector. Minimum collection angles between 125 mrad and 325 mrad were obtained by varying the distance of the sample from the microchannel plate detector during imaging. Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict detector angular ranges at which dark-field images with atomic number contrast could be obtained. We demonstrate atomic number contrast imaging via scanning transmission ion imaging of silica-coated gold nanoparticles and magnetite nanoparticles. Although the resolution of STIM is known to be degraded by beam broadening in the substrate, we imaged magnetite nanoparticles with high contrast on a relatively thick silicon nitride substrate. We expect this new approach to annular dark-field STIM will open avenues for more quantitative ion imaging techniques and advance fundamental understanding of underlying ion scattering mechanisms leading to image formation. PMID:27153003

  10. Dark-field imaging based on post-processed electron backscatter diffraction patterns of bulk crystalline materials in a scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Brodusch, Nicolas; Demers, Hendrix; Gauvin, Raynald

    2015-01-01

    Dark-field (DF) images were acquired in the scanning electron microscope with an offline procedure based on electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) patterns (EBSPs). These EBSD-DF images were generated by selecting a particular reflection on the electron backscatter diffraction pattern and by reporting the intensity of one or several pixels around this point at each pixel of the EBSD-DF image. Unlike previous studies, the diffraction information of the sample is the basis of the final image contrast with a pixel scale resolution at the EBSP providing DF imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The offline facility of this technique permits the selection of any diffraction condition available in the diffraction pattern and displaying the corresponding image. The high number of diffraction-based images available allows a better monitoring of deformation structures compared to electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) which is generally limited to a few images of the same area. This technique was applied to steel and iron specimens and showed its high capability in describing more rigorously the deformation structures around micro-hardness indents. Due to the offline relation between the reference EBSP and the EBSD-DF images, this new technique will undoubtedly greatly improve our knowledge of deformation mechanism and help to improve our understanding of the ECCI contrast mechanisms. PMID:25461589

  11. Guided Wave Annular Array Sensor Design for Improved Tomographic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koduru, Jaya Prakash; Rose, Joseph L.

    2009-03-01

    Guided wave tomography for structural health monitoring is fast emerging as a reliable tool for the detection and monitoring of hotspots in a structure, for any defects arising from corrosion, crack growth etc. To date guided wave tomography has been successfully tested on aircraft wings, pipes, pipe elbows, and weld joints. Structures practically deployed are subjected to harsh environments like exposure to rain, changes in temperature and humidity. A reliable tomography system should take into account these environmental factors to avoid false alarms. The lack of mode control with piezoceramic disk sensors makes it very sensitive to traces of water leading to false alarms. In this study we explore the design of annular array sensors to provide mode control for improved structural tomography, in particular, addressing the false alarm potential of water loading. Clearly defined actuation lines in the phase velocity dispersion curve space are calculated. A dominant in-plane displacement point is found to provide a solution to the water loading problem. The improvement in the tomographic images with the annular array sensors in the presence of water traces is clearly illustrated with a series of experiments. An annular array design philosophy for other problems in NDE/SHM is also discussed.

  12. Optical Dark-Field and Electron Energy Loss Imaging and Spectroscopy of Symmetry-Forbidden Modes in Loaded Nanogap Antennas.

    PubMed

    Brintlinger, Todd; Herzing, Andrew A; Long, James P; Vurgaftman, Igor; Stroud, Rhonda; Simpkins, B S

    2015-06-23

    We have produced large numbers of hybrid metal-semiconductor nanogap antennas using a scalable electrochemical approach and systematically characterized the spectral and spatial character of their plasmonic modes with optical dark-field scattering, electron energy loss spectroscopy with principal component analysis, and full wave simulations. The coordination of these techniques reveal that these nanostructures support degenerate transverse modes which split due to substrate interactions, a longitudinal mode which scales with antenna length, and a symmetry-forbidden gap-localized transverse mode. This gap-localized transverse mode arises from mode splitting of transverse resonances supported on both antenna arms and is confined to the gap load enabling (i) delivery of substantial energy to the gap material and (ii) the possibility of tuning the antenna resonance via active modulation of the gap material's optical properties. The resonant position of this symmetry-forbidden mode is sensitive to gap size, dielectric strength of the gap material, and is highly suppressed in air-gapped structures which may explain its absence from the literature to date. Understanding the complex modal structure supported on hybrid nanosystems is necessary to enable the multifunctional components many seek. PMID:25961937

  13. Precision improvement in dark-field microscopy imaging by using gold nanoparticles as an internal reference: a combined theoretical and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Liu, Yue; Gao, Peng Fei; Zou, Hong Yan; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-04-28

    Low accuracy is a big obstacle in the dark-field microscopy imaging (iDFM) technique in practical applications. In order to reduce the deviations and fluctuations in the observed or snapped scattered light in the iDFM technique caused by unavoidable measurement errors, bare gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were introduced as an internal reference (IR). The feasibility of using AuNPs as the IR in iDFM in theory was verified. The function of the IR in improving the precision of the acquired data through post data analysis was identified by three kinds of experiments: monitoring the oxidation process of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at room temperature, quantifying the level of glucose with AgNPs used as probes and quantifying the change in the light intensity of AuNPs after the plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) between AuNPs and tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA). PMID:27065307

  14. Precision improvement in dark-field microscopy imaging by using gold nanoparticles as an internal reference: a combined theoretical and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jun; Liu, Yue; Gao, Peng Fei; Zou, Hong Yan; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-04-01

    Low accuracy is a big obstacle in the dark-field microscopy imaging (iDFM) technique in practical applications. In order to reduce the deviations and fluctuations in the observed or snapped scattered light in the iDFM technique caused by unavoidable measurement errors, bare gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were introduced as an internal reference (IR). The feasibility of using AuNPs as the IR in iDFM in theory was verified. The function of the IR in improving the precision of the acquired data through post data analysis was identified by three kinds of experiments: monitoring the oxidation process of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at room temperature, quantifying the level of glucose with AgNPs used as probes and quantifying the change in the light intensity of AuNPs after the plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) between AuNPs and tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA).Low accuracy is a big obstacle in the dark-field microscopy imaging (iDFM) technique in practical applications. In order to reduce the deviations and fluctuations in the observed or snapped scattered light in the iDFM technique caused by unavoidable measurement errors, bare gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were introduced as an internal reference (IR). The feasibility of using AuNPs as the IR in iDFM in theory was verified. The function of the IR in improving the precision of the acquired data through post data analysis was identified by three kinds of experiments: monitoring the oxidation process of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at room temperature, quantifying the level of glucose with AgNPs used as probes and quantifying the change in the light intensity of AuNPs after the plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) between AuNPs and tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08837b

  15. Efficient decoding of 2D structured illumination with linear phase stepping in X-ray phase contrast and dark-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Katherine J; Bennett, Eric E; Gomella, Andrew A; Wen, Han

    2014-01-01

    The ability to map the phase distribution and lateral coherence of an x-ray wavefront offers the potential for imaging the human body through phase contrast, without the need to deposit significant radiation energy. The classic means to achieve this goal is structured illumination, in which a periodic intensity modulation is introduced into the image, and changes in the phase distribution of the wavefront are detected as distortions of the modulation pattern. Two-dimensional periodic patterns are needed to fully characterize a transverse wavefront. Traditionally, the information in a 2D pattern is retrieved at high resolution by acquiring multiple images while shifting the pattern over a 2D matrix of positions. Here we describe a method to decode 2D periodic patterns with single-axis phase stepping, without either a loss of information or increasing the number of sampling steps. The method is created to reduce the instrumentation complexity of high-resolution 2D wavefront sensing in general. It is demonstrated with motionless electromagnetic phase stepping and a flexible processing algorithm in x-ray dark-field and phase contrast imaging. PMID:24489853

  16. Efficient Decoding of 2D Structured Illumination with Linear Phase Stepping in X-Ray Phase Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Harmon, Katherine J.; Bennett, Eric E.; Gomella, Andrew A.; Wen, Han

    2014-01-01

    The ability to map the phase distribution and lateral coherence of an x-ray wavefront offers the potential for imaging the human body through phase contrast, without the need to deposit significant radiation energy. The classic means to achieve this goal is structured illumination, in which a periodic intensity modulation is introduced into the image, and changes in the phase distribution of the wavefront are detected as distortions of the modulation pattern. Two-dimensional periodic patterns are needed to fully characterize a transverse wavefront. Traditionally, the information in a 2D pattern is retrieved at high resolution by acquiring multiple images while shifting the pattern over a 2D matrix of positions. Here we describe a method to decode 2D periodic patterns with single-axis phase stepping, without either a loss of information or increasing the number of sampling steps. The method is created to reduce the instrumentation complexity of high-resolution 2D wavefront sensing in general. It is demonstrated with motionless electromagnetic phase stepping and a flexible processing algorithm in x-ray dark-field and phase contrast imaging. PMID:24489853

  17. Nanoprecipitation of Fluorescent Conjugated Polymer onto the Surface of Plasmonic Nanoparticle for Fluorescence/Dark-Field Dual-Modality Single Particle Imaging.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenjuan; Wu, Ming; Li, Shuang; Xu, Yueling; Ye, Zhongju; Wei, Lin; Chen, Bo; Xu, Qing-Hua; Xiao, Lehui

    2016-07-01

    In this work, a hybridized nanoparticle with fluorescence/dark-field dual-modality imaging capability was prepared by nanoprecipitation of fluorescent conjugated polymer onto the surface of silica-coated rod-shape plasmonic nanoparticle. According to the spectroscopic and microscopic characterizations, the fluorescence intensity of conjugated polymer poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-co-(1,4-benzo(2,1',3)-thiadiazole)] (PFBT) could be enhanced around 2-fold after assembling onto the silica-decorated metal nanorod surface compared with the fluorescence intensity of regular PFBT polymer dots without the metal core. The in situ nanorod etching experiment further confirmed this result at the single particle level. In addition to the fluorescence enhancement effect, improved fluorescence stability was obtained from the single particle fluorescence intensity characterizations. As a consequence, this self-assembled functional nanoparticle could be extensively applied to biological imaging such as cellular labeling and single particle tracking owing to the novel and unique optical features, for example, the superior optical stability and specific identification capability from the scattering and fluorescence domain, respectively. Furthermore, the amendable peripheral polymer surface of this nanostructure will promote its applications in biological sensing and imaging-guided functional molecule delivery in the future. PMID:27292151

  18. Ptychographic electron microscopy using high-angle dark-field scattering for sub-nanometre resolution imaging

    PubMed Central

    Humphry, M.J.; Kraus, B.; Hurst, A.C.; Maiden, A.M.; Rodenburg, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Diffractive imaging, in which image-forming optics are replaced by an inverse computation using scattered intensity data, could, in principle, realize wavelength-scale resolution in a transmission electron microscope. However, to date all implementations of this approach have suffered from various experimental restrictions. Here we demonstrate a form of diffractive imaging that unshackles the image formation process from the constraints of electron optics, improving resolution over that of the lens used by a factor of five and showing for the first time that it is possible to recover the complex exit wave (in modulus and phase) at atomic resolution, over an unlimited field of view, using low-energy (30 keV) electrons. Our method, called electron ptychography, has no fundamental experimental boundaries: further development of this proof-of-principle could revolutionize sub-atomic scale transmission imaging. PMID:22395621

  19. Dark-field differential dynamic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bayles, Alexandra V; Squires, Todd M; Helgeson, Matthew E

    2016-02-28

    Differential dynamic microscopy (DDM) is an emerging technique to measure the ensemble dynamics of colloidal and complex fluid motion using optical microscopy in systems that would otherwise be difficult to measure using other methods. To date, DDM has successfully been applied to linear space invariant imaging modes including bright-field, fluorescence, confocal, polarised, and phase-contrast microscopy to study diverse dynamic phenomena. In this work, we show for the first time how DDM analysis can be extended to dark-field imaging, i.e. a linear space variant (LSV) imaging mode. Specifically, we present a particle-based framework for describing dynamic image correlations in DDM, and use it to derive a correction to the image structure function obtained by DDM that accounts for scatterers with non-homogeneous intensity distributions as they move within the imaging plane. To validate the analysis, we study the Brownian motion of gold nanoparticles, whose plasmonic structure allows for nanometer-scale particles to be imaged under dark-field illumination, in Newtonian liquids. We find that diffusion coefficients of the nanoparticles can be reliably measured by dark-field DDM, even under optically dense concentrations where analysis via multiple-particle tracking microrheology fails. These results demonstrate the potential for DDM analysis to be applied to linear space variant forms of microscopy, providing access to experimental systems unavailable to other imaging modes. PMID:26822331

  20. Clinical step onward with X-ray dark-field imaging and perspective view of medical applications of synchrotron radiation in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, M.; Hashimoto, E.; Hashizume, H.; Hyodo, K.; Inoue, H.; Kunisada, T.; Maksimenko, A.; Mori, K.; Rubenstein, E.; Roberson, J.; Shimao, D.; Sugiyama, H.; Takeda, K.; Toyofuku, F.; Ueno, E.; Umetani, K.; Wada, H.; Pattanasiriwisawa, W.

    2005-08-01

    This paper reports, the application of synchrotron radiation to basic medicine at SPring-8 involving instrumentation and medical application of imaging and scattering. Emphasis should be laid on X-ray dark-field imaging (DFI) whose goal is clinical diagnosis of organs that have been invisible by ordinary techniques. Development of this technique is under way both at SPring-8 and KEK. The X-ray optics of DFI comprises a Bragg asymmetric monochro-collimator and a Laue case analyzer with a diffraction index of 4 4 0 using the X-ray energy of 35 keV ( λ=0.0354 nm) in a parallel position. This analyzer that can provide with 80 mm×80 mm view size has 2.15 mm thickness. At present the spatial resolution is around 5-10 μm. Visibility of some organs such as soft bone tissue at excised human femoral head and breast cancer tissue is under test. This preliminary test shows that the DFI seems feasible in clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, a perspective view of application of synchrotron radiation to clinical medicine in Japan will be given.

  1. Three dimensional design of silver nanoparticle assemblies embedded in dielectrics for Raman spectroscopy enhancement and dark-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Carles, Robert; Farcau, Cosmin; Bonafos, Caroline; Benassayag, Gérard; Bayle, Maxime; Benzo, Patrizio; Groenen, Jesse; Zwick, Antoine

    2011-11-22

    A strategy to design and fabricate hybrid metallic-dielectric substrates for optical spectroscopy and imaging is proposed. Different architectures consisting of three-dimensional patterns of metallic nanoparticles embedded in dielectric layers are conceived to simultaneously exploit the optical interference phenomenon in stratified media and localized surface plasmon resonances on metal nanoparticles. These structures are based on a simultaneous control of opto-electronic properties at three scales (3S) (~2/20/200 nm) and along three directions (3D). By ultralow energy ion implantation through a microfabricated stencil we precisely control the size, density, and location of silver nanoparticles embedded in silica/silicon thin films. Elastic (Rayleigh) and inelastic (Raman) scattering imaging assisted by simulations were used to analyze the optical response of these "3S-3D" patterned layers. The reflectance contrast is strongly enhanced when resonance conditions between the stationary electromagnetic field in the dielectric matrix and the localized plasmon resonance in the silver nanoparticles are realized. The potential of these 3S-3D metal-dielectric structures as surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates is demonstrated. These novel kinds of plasmonic-photonic architectures are reproducible and stable; they preserve flat and chemically uniform surfaces, offering opportunities for the development of efficient and reusable substrates for optical spectroscopy and imaging enhancement. PMID:21988138

  2. Method of improving image sharpness for annular-illumination scanning electron microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enyama, Momoyo; Hamada, Koichi; Fukuda, Muneyuki; Kazumi, Hideyuki

    2016-06-01

    Annular illumination is effective in enhancing the depth of focus for scanning electron microscopes (SEMs). However, owing to high side lobes of the point-spread function (PSF), annular illumination results in poor image sharpness. The conventional deconvolution method, which converts the PSF to a delta function, can improve image sharpness, but results in artifacts due to noise amplification. In this paper, we propose an image processing method that can reduce the deterioration of image sharpness. With this method, the PSF under annular illumination is converted to that under standard illumination. Through simulations, we verified that the image sharpness of SEM images under annular illumination with the proposed method can be improved without noise amplification.

  3. Comparison of intracellular water content measurements by dark-field imaging and EELS in medium voltage TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terryn, C.; Michel, J.; Kilian, L.; Bonhomme, P.; Balossier, G.

    2000-09-01

    Knowledge of the water content at the subcellular level is important to evaluate the intracellular concentration of either diffusible or non-diffusible elements in the physiological state measured by the electron microprobe methods. Water content variations in subcellular compartments are directly related to secretion phenomena and to transmembrane exchange processes, which could be attributed to pathophysiological states. In this paper we will describe in details and compare two local water measurement methods using analytical electron microscopy. The first one is based on darkfield imaging. It is applied on freeze-dried biological cryosections; it allows indirect measurement of the water content at the subcellular level from recorded maps of darkfield intensity. The second method uses electron energy loss spectroscopy. It is applied to hydrated biological cryosections. It is based on the differences that appear in the electron energy loss spectra of macromolecular assemblies and vitrified ice in the 0-30 eV range. By a multiple least squares (MLS) fit between an experimental energy loss spectrum and reference spectra of both frozen-hydrated ice and macromolecular assemblies we can deduce directly the local water concentration in biological cryosections at the subcellular level. These two methods are applied to two test specimens: human erythrocytes in plasma, and baker's yeast (Saccharomyses Cerevisiae) cryosections. We compare the water content measurements obtained by these two methods and discuss their advantages and drawbacks.

  4. Dark Field Microscopy for Analytical Laboratory Courses

    SciTech Connect

    Augspurger, Ashley E; Stender, Anthony S; Marchuk, Kyle; Greenbowe, Thomas J; Fang, Ning

    2014-06-10

    An innovative and inexpensive optical microscopy experiment for a quantitative analysis or an instrumental analysis chemistry course is described. The students have hands-on experience with a dark field microscope and investigate the wavelength dependence of localized surface plasmon resonance in gold and silver nanoparticles. Students also observe and measure individual crystal growth during a replacement reaction between copper and silver nitrate. The experiment allows for quantitative, qualitative, and image data analyses for undergraduate students.

  5. Panoramic Imaging and Holographic Interferometry Using a Panoramic Annular Lens.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puliparambil, Joseph Thomas

    1992-01-01

    Ideally, a device for making measurements of the inner surface of a cavity should be rugged, compact, and capable of obtaining an unobstructed, complete, and comprehensive image of the cavity space in every direction. The first attempt to patent a system for panoramic imaging was made by Mangin in 1878 and since that time several other devices have been patented. Most of these devices depend on a scanning system or on a complex set of lenses and mirrors and as such they are not very practical for use. However, in 1984 Dr. Pal Greguss invented a simple lens known as a Panoramic Annular Lens (PAL) capable of giving a full 360 degree surround image of the area around the lens. This lens can be utilized along with digital cameras and computer programs to inspect and measure the interior walls of cavities. If a cavity can be regarded as a cylindrical rather than a spherical volume, the image information can be transformed, using stretching methods, onto a flat surface creating a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional cylindrical surface. This phenomenon called Flat Cylindrical Perspective (FCP) forms the basis for the image produced by a PAL. To apply standard methods of analysis on an image and also for visual interpretation, image processing algorithms were developed to linearize a PAL image. These programs can be used for endoscopy which is a technique for imaging the inner part of a volume or cavity. Such techniques have applications in the fields of medicine, civil engineering and aerospace; indeed, anywhere tubes and pipes are involved. Holographic interferometry has become an important diagnostic tool in non-destructive testing, but due to lack of panoramic imaging systems this work could not be effectively used for the analysis of cavities. Now, the PAL can be used for panoramic holographic interferometry which can be used to measure submicron deformations of cavity walls caused by small perturbations in temperature, pressured and mechanical loads

  6. Optical dark field and electron energy loss imaging and spectroscopy of symmetry-forbidden modes in loaded nanogap antennas (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brintlinger, Todd; Herzing, Andrew; Long, James P.; Vurgaftman, Igor; Stroud, Rhonda; Simpkins, Blake S.

    2015-09-01

    Theoretical work has identified a new type of hybrid nanoresonator akin to a loaded-gap antenna, wherein the gap between two collinearly aligned metal nanorods is filled with active dielectric material. The gap optical load has a profound impact on resonances supported by such a "nanogap" antenna, and thus provides opportunity for (i) active modulation of the antenna resonance and (ii) delivery of substantial energy to the gap material. To this end, we have (i) used a bottom-up technique to fabricate nanogap antennas (Au/CdS/Au); (ii) characterized the optical modes of individual antennas with polarization- and wavevector-controlled dark-field microscopy; (iii) mapped the spatial profiles of the dominant modes with electron energy loss spectroscopy and imaging; and (iv) utilized full-wave finite-difference time-domain simulations to reveal the nanoscopic origin of the radiating modes supported on such nanogap antennas. In addition to conventional transverse and longitudinal resonances, these loaded nanogap antennas support a unique symmetry-forbidden gap-localized transverse mode arising from the splitting of degenerate transverse modes located on the two gap faces. This previously unobserved mode is strong (E2 enhanced ~20), tightly localized in the nanoscopic (~30 nm separation) gap region, and is shown to red-shift with decreased gap size and increased gap dielectric constant. In fact, the mode is highly suppressed in air-gapped structures which may explain its absence from the literature to date. Understanding the complex modal structure supported on hybrid nanosystems is necessary to enable the multi-functional components many seek.

  7. High-frequency ultrasound annular array imaging. Part II: digital beamformer design and imaging.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chang-Hong; Snook, Kevin A; Cao, Pei-Jie; Shung, K Kirk

    2006-02-01

    This is the second part of a two-paper series reporting a recent effort in the development of a high-frequency annular array ultrasound imaging system. In this paper an imaging system composed of a six-element, 43 MHz annular array transducer, a six-channel analog front-end, a field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based beamformer, and a digital signal processor (DSP) microprocessor-based scan converter will be described. A computer is used as the interface for image display. The beamformer that applies delays to the echoes for each channel is implemented with the strategy of combining the coarse and fine delays. The coarse delays that are integer multiples of the clock periods are achieved by using a first-in-first-out (FIFO) structure, and the fine delays are obtained with a fractional delay (FD) filter. Using this principle, dynamic receiving focusing is achieved. The image from a wire phantom obtained with the imaging system was compared to that from a prototype ultrasonic backscatter microscope with a 45 MHz single-element transducer. The improved lateral resolution and depth of field from the wire phantom image were observed. Images from an excised rabbit eye sample also were obtained, and fine anatomical structures were discerned. PMID:16529105

  8. On the visibility of very thin specimens in annular bright field scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, P. J.; Klie, R. F.

    2013-07-15

    Annular bright field (ABF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is emerging as an important observation mode for its ability to simultaneously image both heavy and light elements. However, recent results have demonstrated that in the limit of a very thin specimen (a few atomic layers), the ABF and high angle annular dark field (HAADF) signals cease to be intuitively related: a phenomenon which is generally irrelevant when imaging 'normal' specimens. ABF/HAADF STEM observations and multislice image simulations of two catalyst samples of differing atomic weights are presented; it is shown that the nature of the ABF signal is specimen dependent.

  9. Dark-field optical coherence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pache, C.; Villiger, M. L.; Lasser, T.

    2010-02-01

    Many solutions have been proposed to produce phase quantitative images of biological cell samples. Among these, Spectral Domain Phase Microscopy combines the fast imaging speed and high sensitivity of Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM) in the Fourier domain with the high phase stability of common-path interferometry. We report on a new illumination scheme for OCM that enhances the sensitivity for backscattered light and detects the weak sample signal, otherwise buried by the signal from specular reflection. With the use of a Bessel-like beam, a dark-field configuration was realized. Sensitivity measurements for three different illumination configurations were performed to compare our method to standard OCM and extended focus OCM. Using a well-defined scattering and reflecting object, we demonstrated an attenuation of -40 dB of the DC-component and a relative gain of 30 dB for scattered light, compared to standard OCM. In a second step, we applied this technique, referred to as dark-field Optical Coherence Microscopy (dfOCM), to living cells. Chinese hamster ovarian cells were applied in a drop of medium on a coverslide. The cells of ~15 μm in diameter and even internal cell structures were visualized in the acquired tomograms.

  10. Development of Parallel Image Detection System Using Annular Pupils for Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Matsutani, Takaomi; Taya, Masaki; Ikuta, Takashi; Tanaka, Takeo; Kimura, Yoshihide; Takai, Yoshizo; Kawasaki, Tadahiro; Ichihashi, Mikio

    2010-10-13

    A parallel image detection system using an annular pupil for electron optics were developed to realize an increase in the depth of focus, aberration-free imaging and separation of amplitude and phase images under scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Apertures for annular pupils able to suppress high-energy electron scattering were developed using a focused ion beam (FIB) technique. The annular apertures were designed with outer diameter of oe 40 {mu}m and inner diameter of oe32 {mu}m. A taper angle varying from 20 deg. to 1 deg. was applied to the slits of the annular apertures to suppress the influence of high-energy electron scattering. Each azimuth angle image on scintillator was detected by a multi-anode photomultiplier tube assembly through 40 optical fibers bundled in a ring shape. To focus the image appearing on the scintillator on optical fibers, an optical lens relay system attached with CCD camera was developed. The system enables the taking of 40 images simultaneously from different scattered directions.

  11. Dark field electron holography for strain measurement.

    PubMed

    Béché, A; Rouvière, J L; Barnes, J P; Cooper, D

    2011-02-01

    Dark field electron holography is a new TEM-based technique for measuring strain with nanometer scale resolution. Here we present the procedure to align a transmission electron microscope and obtain dark field holograms as well as the theoretical background necessary to reconstruct strain maps from holograms. A series of experimental parameters such as biprism voltage, sample thickness, exposure time, tilt angle and choice of diffracted beam are then investigated on a silicon-germanium layer epitaxially embedded in a silicon matrix in order to obtain optimal dark field holograms over a large field of view with good spatial resolution and strain sensitivity. PMID:21333860

  12. Dual Frequency Band Annular Probe for Volumetric Pulse-echo Optoacoustic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkhoran, Mohammad Azizian; Varray, François; Vray, Didier

    Optoacoustic (OA) pulse echo (PE) imaging is a hybridized modality that is capable of providing physiological information on the basis of anatomical structure. In this work, we propose a dual frequency band annular probe for backward mode volumetric PE/OA imaging. The performance of this design is evaluated based on the spatio-temporal impulse response, three dimensional steerability of the transducer and point spread function. Optimum settings for number of elements in each ring and maximum steering are suggested. The transducer design and synthetic array beamforming simulation are presented. The resolution performance and reconstruction capabilities are shown with the in-silico measurements.

  13. Potential use of microbubbles (MBs) as contrast material in x-ray dark field (DF) imaging: How does the DF signal change with the characteristic parameters of the MBs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ran; Qin, Bin; Ge, Yongshuai; Whiting, Bruce; Li, Ke; Villanueva, Flordeliza; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2016-03-01

    One of the most exciting aspects of the grating based x-ray differential phase contrast (DPC) acquisition method is the concurrent generation of the so-called dark field (DF) signal, along with the classical absorption signal and the novel DPC signal. The DF signal is associated with local distribution of small angle scatterers in an image object, while the absorption signal and DPC signal are often used to characterize the relatively uniform structure of the image object. Besides the endogenous image contrast, exogenous contrast media are often used in x-ray imaging to locally enhance the image signal. This paper proposes a potential contrast medium for DF signal enhancement: microbubbles (MBs). MBs have already been developed for clinical use in ultrasound imaging, and recent experimental studies have shown that MBs may also enhance the DF signal, although it remained unclear how the physical characteristics of the MBs quantitatively impact the DF signal. In this paper, a systematic study was performed to investigate the quantitative relationships between the DF signal and the following properties of MBs: size, concentration, shell thickness, size uniformity, and whether gold nanoparticles were attached. The experimental results demonstrated that, an increased MB size (about 4 microns) may generate a stronger DF signal for our DPC imaging system; additionally, a moderately increased shell thickness and the use of gold nanoparticles on the shell surface also resulted in further enhancement of the DF signal. These findings may provide critical information needed for using MBs as the contrast agent of x-ray DF imaging.

  14. Turbulence effects on short-exposure imaging through circular and annular apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofsted, David H.

    Short exposure imaging through optical turbulence is an important problem in terms of characterization of turbulence effects for system engineering purposes. The standard theory of short-exposure imaging through turbulence was developed by D.L. Fried in 1966. Fried developed a theory describing the mean short-exposure modulation transfer function (MTF) due to turbulence. But inconsistencies between Fried's results and experiments have been noted for many years. This dissertation corrects Fried's theory and expands the standard model to include annular (reflector telescope) aperture systems and the means to handle path varying turbulence. The standard theory is updated by retaining a tilt-phase correlation term. Inclusion of this term modifies the computed mid- and high-angular frequency responses of the turbulent MTF. At high frequencies the new theory predicts decay of response instead of the recovery to diffraction limited behavior. At mid-range frequencies, the new model predicts additional spectral energy. To model the new theory a database of 38,007 computed results was analyzed and a model based on three dimensionless parameters has been developed. One of these parameters characterizes turbulence strength; a second characterizes diffraction influences; the third is a dimensionless angular frequency. The new analytic model eliminates the near-field/far-field dichotomy of Fried's standard theory. The resulting model exhibits a 0.000175 RMS accuracy of the combined short-exposure MTF. Extension of the model to the annular aperture case involves an angle-ofarrival analysis for variable central obscuration size, extension of the tilt-phase computation to the annular case, and use of a stochastic least squares analysis technique to adapt the circular aperture model to evolution of the solution in the annular dimension, where the circular aperture case is equivalent to the limiting behavior as the central obscuration goes to zero. Results are obtained up to an

  15. Reconstruction of scalar and vectorial components in X-ray dark-field tomography.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Florian L; Hu, Shiyang; Maier, Andreas; Weber, Thomas; Anton, Gisela; Michel, Thilo; Riess, Christian P

    2014-09-01

    Grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging is a novel technique for obtaining image contrast for object structures at size scales below setup resolution. Such an approach appears particularly beneficial for medical imaging and nondestructive testing. It has already been shown that the dark-field signal depends on the direction of observation. However, up to now, algorithms for fully recovering the orientation dependence in a tomographic volume are still unexplored. In this publication, we propose a reconstruction method for grating-based X-ray dark-field tomography, which models the orientation-dependent signal as an additional observable from a standard tomographic scan. In detail, we extend the tomographic volume to a tensorial set of voxel data, containing the local orientation and contributions to dark-field scattering. In our experiments, we present the first results of several test specimens exhibiting a heterogeneous composition in microstructure, which demonstrates the diagnostic potential of the method. PMID:25136091

  16. Reconstruction of scalar and vectorial components in X-ray dark-field tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Florian L.; Hu, Shiyang; Maier, Andreas; Weber, Thomas; Anton, Gisela; Michel, Thilo; Riess, Christian P.

    2014-01-01

    Grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging is a novel technique for obtaining image contrast for object structures at size scales below setup resolution. Such an approach appears particularly beneficial for medical imaging and nondestructive testing. It has already been shown that the dark-field signal depends on the direction of observation. However, up to now, algorithms for fully recovering the orientation dependence in a tomographic volume are still unexplored. In this publication, we propose a reconstruction method for grating-based X-ray dark-field tomography, which models the orientation-dependent signal as an additional observable from a standard tomographic scan. In detail, we extend the tomographic volume to a tensorial set of voxel data, containing the local orientation and contributions to dark-field scattering. In our experiments, we present the first results of several test specimens exhibiting a heterogeneous composition in microstructure, which demonstrates the diagnostic potential of the method. PMID:25136091

  17. Observing the setting and hardening of cementitious materials by X-ray dark-field radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Prade, F.; Chabior, M.; Malm, F.; Grosse, C.U.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2015-08-15

    Novel X-ray imaging methods expand conventional attenuation-based X-ray radiography by the phase- and the dark-field contrasts. While weakly absorbing structures in the specimen can be better visualized in phase contrast, the dark-field contrast provides information about morphological sub-pixel microstructures. Here we report an application of dark-field X-ray radiography for imaging the time-resolved setting process in fresh cement. Our results demonstrate that the microstructural changes within the cement result in a decreasing dark-field signal. We quantify this imaging signal with a time-dependent dark-field scatter coefficient and show its good correlation with the compressional wave velocity. We further present images based on a pixel-wise analysis of the scattering signal and a corresponding logistic fit. These images emphasize the benefit of dark-field imaging of cementitious materials as it provides two dimensional spatial information on the processes within the sample while other established testing techniques only provide information on the bulk average.

  18. Dark Field Microscopy for Analytical Laboratory Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augspurger, Ashley E.; Stender, Anthony S.; Marchuk, Kyle; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Fang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    An innovative and inexpensive optical microscopy experiment for a quantitative analysis or an instrumental analysis chemistry course is described. The students have hands-on experience with a dark field microscope and investigate the wavelength dependence of localized surface plasmon resonance in gold and silver nanoparticles. Students also…

  19. A diffuse reflectance spectral imaging system for tumor margin assessment using custom annular photodiode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Sulochana; Lo, Justin Y.; Palmer, Gregory M.; Brooke, Martin A.; Nichols, Brandon S.; Yu, Bing; Ramanujam, Nirmala; Jokerst, Nan M.

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is a well-established method to quantitatively distinguish between benign and cancerous tissue for tumor margin assessment. Current multipixel DRS margin assessment tools are bulky fiber-based probes that have limited scalability. Reported herein is a new approach to multipixel DRS probe design, which utilizes direct detection of the DRS signal by using optimized custom photodetectors in direct contact with the tissue. This first fiberless DRS imaging system for tumor margin assessment consists of a 4 × 4 array of annular silicon photodetectors and a constrained free-space light delivery tube optimized to deliver light across a 256 mm2 imaging area. This system has 4.5 mm spatial resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio measured for normal and malignant breast tissue-mimicking phantoms was 35 dB to 45 dB for λ = 470 nm to 600 nm. PMID:23243571

  20. Characterization of the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) Neutron Radiography System Imaging Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Krista; Chantel Nowlen, K.; DePriest, K. Russell

    2016-02-01

    The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is an epithermal pool-type research reactor licensed up to a thermal power of 2.4 MW. The ACRR facility has a neutron radiography facility that is used for imaging a wide range of items including reactor fuel and neutron generators. The ACRR neutron radiography system has four apertures (65:1, 125:1, 250:1, and 500:1) available to experimenters. The neutron flux and spectrum as well as the gamma dose rate were characterized at the imaging plane for the ACRR's neutron radiography system for the 65:1, 125:1 and 250:1 apertures.

  1. Dark-field circular depolarization optical coherence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Kalpesh; Zhang, Pengfei; Yeo, Eugenia Li Ling; Kah, James Chen Yong; Chen, Nanguang

    2013-01-01

    Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is a widely used structural imaging modality. To extend its application in molecular imaging, gold nanorods are widely used as contrast agents for OCM. However, they very often offer limited sensitivity as a result of poor signal to background ratio. Here we experimentally demonstrate that a novel OCM implementation based on dark-field circular depolarization detection can efficiently detect circularly depolarized signal from gold nanorods and at the same time efficiently suppress the background signals. This results into a significant improvement in signal to background ratio. PMID:24049689

  2. High-frequency ultrasound annular-array imaging. Part I: array design and fabrication.

    PubMed

    Snook, Kevin A; Hu, Chang-Hong; Shrout, Thomas R; Shung, K Kirk

    2006-02-01

    This is Part I of a series of two papers describing the development of a digital high-frequency, annular-array, ultrasonic imaging system. In this paper, the design and fabrication of a high-frequency annular array as well as its performance will be reported. A six-element, 50 MHz array, which incorporated an acoustic lens to provide an initial focal point, was designed and fabricated. A submicron size grain lead titanate piezoelectric ceramic was used to both reduce lateral coupling and keep the electrical impedance matched close to the 50 ohm receive electronics. The array elements were isolated using laser micromachining to fully separate the annuli, and electrical interconnection was achieved by directly soldering thin wires to the elements. The resulting array attained an average impulse response that exhibited a 43 MHz center frequency, 30% relative bandwidth, and an average insertion loss of 31 dB at 45 MHz. Maximum next-element crosstalk was -27 dB in water. PMID:16529104

  3. Synthetic-Focusing Strategies for Real-Time Annular-Array Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ketterling, Jeffrey A.; Filoux, Erwan

    2012-01-01

    Annular arrays provide a means to achieve enhanced image quality with a limited number of elements. Synthetic-focusing (SF) strategies that rely on beamforming data from individual transmit-to-receive (TR) element pairs provide a means to improve image quality without specialized TR delay electronics. Here, SF strategies are examined in the context of high-frequency ultrasound (>15 MHz) annular arrays composed of five elements, operating at 18 and 38 MHz. Acoustic field simulations are compared with experimental data acquired from wire and anechoic-sphere phantoms, and the values of lateral beamwidth, SNR, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and depth of field (DOF) are compared as a function of depth. In each case, data were acquired for all TR combinations (25 in total) and processed with SF using all 25 TR pairs and SF with the outer receive channels removed one by one. The results show that removing the outer receive channels led to an overall degradation of lateral resolution, an overall decrease in SNR, and did not reduce the DOF, although the DOF profile decreased in amplitude. The CNR was >1 and remained fairly constant as a function of depth, with a slight decrease in CNR for the case with just the central element receiving. The relative changes between the calculated and measured quantities were nearly identical for the 18- and 38-MHz arrays. B-mode images of the anechoic phantom and an in vivo mouse embryo using full SF with 25 TR pairs or reduced TR-pair approaches showed minimal qualitative difference. PMID:22899130

  4. High-frequency annular array with coaxial illumination for dual-modality ultrasonic and photoacoustic imaging.

    PubMed

    Filoux, Erwan; Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Chitnis, Parag V; Aristizábal, Orlando; Ketterling, Jeffrey A

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a combined ultrasound and photoacoustic (PA) imaging (PAI) system used to obtain high-quality, co-registered images of mouse-embryo anatomy and vasculature. High-frequency ultrasound (HFU, >20 MHz) is utilized to obtain high-resolution anatomical images of small animals while PAI provides high-contrast images of the vascular network. The imaging system is based on a 40 MHz, 5-element, 6 mm aperture annular-array transducer with a 800 μm diameter hole through its central element. The transducer was integrated in a cage-plate assembly allowing for a collimated laser beam to pass through the hole so that the optical and acoustic beams were collinear. The assembly was mounted on a two-axis, motorized stage to enable the simultaneous acquisition of co-registered HFU and PA volumetric data. Data were collected from all five elements in receive and a synthetic-focusing algorithm was applied in post-processing to beamform the data and increase the spatial resolution and depth-of-field (DOF) of the HFU and PA images. Phantom measurements showed that the system could achieve high-resolution images (down to 90 μm for HFU and 150 μm for PAI) and a large DOF of >8 mm. Volume renderings of a mouse embryo showed that the scanner allowed for visualizing morphologically precise anatomy of the entire embryo along with corresponding co-registered vasculature. Major head vessels, such as the superior sagittal sinus or rostral vein, were clearly identified as well as limb bud vasculature. PMID:23742556

  5. High-frequency annular array with coaxial illumination for dual-modality ultrasonic and photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filoux, Erwan; Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Chitnis, Parag V.; Aristizábal, Orlando; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a combined ultrasound and photoacoustic (PA) imaging (PAI) system used to obtain high-quality, co-registered images of mouse-embryo anatomy and vasculature. High-frequency ultrasound (HFU, >20 MHz) is utilized to obtain high-resolution anatomical images of small animals while PAI provides high-contrast images of the vascular network. The imaging system is based on a 40 MHz, 5-element, 6 mm aperture annular-array transducer with a 800 μm diameter hole through its central element. The transducer was integrated in a cage-plate assembly allowing for a collimated laser beam to pass through the hole so that the optical and acoustic beams were collinear. The assembly was mounted on a two-axis, motorized stage to enable the simultaneous acquisition of co-registered HFU and PA volumetric data. Data were collected from all five elements in receive and a synthetic-focusing algorithm was applied in post-processing to beamform the data and increase the spatial resolution and depth-of-field (DOF) of the HFU and PA images. Phantom measurements showed that the system could achieve high-resolution images (down to 90 μm for HFU and 150 μm for PAI) and a large DOF of >8 mm. Volume renderings of a mouse embryo showed that the scanner allowed for visualizing morphologically precise anatomy of the entire embryo along with corresponding co-registered vasculature. Major head vessels, such as the superior sagittal sinus or rostral vein, were clearly identified as well as limb bud vasculature.

  6. Annular pancreas

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001142.htm Annular pancreas To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An annular pancreas is a ring of pancreatic tissue that encircles ...

  7. Small-animal dark-field radiography for pulmonary emphysema evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroshenko, Andre; Meinel, Felix G.; Hellbach, Katharina; Bech, Martin; Velroyen, Astrid; Müller, Mark; Bamberg, Fabian; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Yildirim, Ali Ã.-.; Eickelberg, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2014-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and emphysema is one of its main components. The disorder is characterized by irreversible destruction of the alveolar walls and enlargement of distal airspaces. Despite the severe changes in the lung tissue morphology, conventional chest radiographs have only a limited sensitivity for the detection of mild to moderate emphysema. X-ray dark-field is an imaging modality that can significantly increase the visibility of lung tissue on radiographic images. The dark-field signal is generated by coherent, small-angle scattering of x-rays on the air-tissue interfaces in the lung. Therefore, morphological changes in the lung can be clearly visualized on dark-field images. This is demonstrated by a preclinical study with a small-animal emphysema model. To generate a murine model of pulmonary emphysema, a female C57BL/6N mouse was treated with a single orotracheal application of porcine pancreatic elastase (80 U/kg body weight) dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Control mouse received PBS. The mice were imaged using a small-animal dark-field scanner. While conventional x-ray transmission radiography images revealed only subtle indirect signs of the pulmonary disorder, the difference between healthy and emphysematous lungs could be clearly directly visualized on the dark-field images. The dose applied to the animals is compatible with longitudinal studies. The imaging results correlate well with histology. The results of this study reveal the high potential of dark-field radiography for clinical lung imaging.

  8. Analysis of the imaging performance of panoramic annular lens with conic conformal dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiao; Bai, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Panoramic annular lens (PAL) is a kind of the specific wide angle lenses which is widely applied in panoramic imaging especially in aerospace field. As we known, to improve the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft, conformal dome, which notably reduces the drag of an aircraft, is also functioning as an optical window for the inbuilt optical system. However, there is still no report of the specific analysis of the imaging performance of PAL with conformal dome, which is imperative in its aerospace-related applications. In this paper, we propose an analysis of the imaging performance of a certain PAL with various conic conformal domes. Working in visible wavelength, the PAL in our work observes 360° surroundings with a large field of view (FOV) ranging from 30° ~105° . Meanwhile, various thicknesses, half-vertex angles, materials of the conic dome and the central distances between the dome and PAL are considered. The imaging performances, mainly indicated by modulation transfer function (MTF) as well as RMS radius of the spot diagram, are systematically compared. It is proved that, on the contrary to the general cases, the dome partly contributes to the imaging performance of the inbuilt PAL. In particular, with a conic conformal dome in material of K9 glass with a half-vertex angle of 25° and a thickness of 6mm, the maximum MTF at 100lp/mm could be improved by 6.68% with nearly no degeneration of the minimum MTF, and the RMS radius could be improved by 14.76% to 19.46% in different FOV. It is worth to note that the PAL is adaptive to panoramic aerospace applications with conic or quasi-conic conformal dome and the co-design of both PAL and the dome is very important.

  9. Quantitative X-ray dark-field and phase tomography using single directional speckle scanning technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-03-01

    X-ray dark-field contrast tomography can provide important supplementary information inside a sample to the conventional absorption tomography. Recently, the X-ray speckle based technique has been proposed to provide qualitative two-dimensional dark-field imaging with a simple experimental arrangement. In this letter, we deduce a relationship between the second moment of scattering angle distribution and cross-correlation degradation of speckle and establish a quantitative basis of X-ray dark-field tomography using single directional speckle scanning technique. In addition, the phase contrast images can be simultaneously retrieved permitting tomographic reconstruction, which yields enhanced contrast in weakly absorbing materials. Such complementary tomography technique can allow systematic investigation of complex samples containing both soft and hard materials.

  10. On a dark-field signal generated by micrometer-sized calcifications in phase-contrast mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Thilo; Rieger, Jens; Anton, Gisela; Bayer, Florian; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Durst, Jürgen; Fasching, Peter A.; Haas, Wilhelm; Hartmann, Arndt; Pelzer, Georg; Radicke, Marcus; Rauh, Claudia; Ritter, André; Sievers, Peter; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Uder, Michael; Wachter, David L.; Weber, Thomas; Wenkel, Evelyn; Zang, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    We show that a distribution of micrometer-sized calcifications in the human breast which are not visible in clinical x-ray mammography at diagnostic dose levels can produce a significant dark-field signal in a grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging setup with a tungsten anode x-ray tube operated at 40 kVp. A breast specimen with invasive ductal carcinoma was investigated immediately after surgery by Talbot-Lau x-ray interferometry with a design energy of 25 keV. The sample contained two tumors which were visible in ultrasound and contrast-agent enhanced MRI but invisible in clinical x-ray mammography, in specimen radiography and in the attenuation images obtained with the Talbot-Lau interferometer. One of the tumors produced significant dark-field contrast with an exposure of 0.85 mGy air-kerma. Staining of histological slices revealed sparsely distributed grains of calcium phosphate with sizes varying between 1 and 40 μm in the region of this tumor. By combining the histological investigations with an x-ray wave-field simulation we demonstrate that a corresponding distribution of grains of calcium phosphate in the form of hydroxylapatite has the ability to produce a dark-field signal which would—to a substantial degree—explain the measured dark-field image. Thus we have found the appearance of new information (compared to attenuation and differential phase images) in the dark-field image. The second tumor in the same sample did not contain a significant fraction of these very fine calcification grains and was invisible in the dark-field image. We conclude that some tumors which are invisible in x-ray absorption mammography might be detected in the x-ray dark-field image at tolerable dose levels.

  11. Robust atomic resolution imaging of light elements using scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, S. D.; Shibata, N.; Sawada, H.; Okunishi, E.; Kondo, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Ikuhara, Y.

    2009-11-09

    We show that an annular detector placed within the bright field cone in scanning transmission electron microscopy allows direct imaging of light elements in crystals. In contrast to common high angle annular dark field imaging, both light and heavy atom columns are visible simultaneously. In contrast to common bright field imaging, the images are directly and robustly interpretable over a large range of thicknesses. We demonstrate this through systematic simulations and present a simple physical model to obtain some insight into the scattering dynamics.

  12. Non-invasive Differentiation of Kidney Stone Types using X-ray Dark-Field Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Kai; Braig, Eva; Willer, Konstantin; Willner, Marian; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Chabior, Michael; Herzen, Julia; Eiber, Matthias; Haller, Bernhard; Straub, Michael; Schneider, Heike; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Noël, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of renal calculi is highly dependent on the chemical composition of the stone in question, which is difficult to determine using standard imaging techniques. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of scatter-sensitive X-ray dark-field radiography to differentiate between the most common types of kidney stones in clinical practice. Here, we examine the absorption-to-scattering ratio of 118 extracted kidney stones with a laboratory Talbot-Lau Interferometer. Depending on their chemical composition, microscopic growth structure and morphology the various types of kidney stones show strongly varying, partially opposite contrasts in absorption and dark-field imaging. By assessing the microscopic calculi morphology with high resolution micro-computed tomography measurements, we illustrate the dependence of dark-field signal strength on the respective stone type. Finally, we utilize X-ray dark-field radiography as a non-invasive, highly sensitive (100%) and specific (97%) tool for the differentiation of calcium oxalate, uric acid and mixed types of stones, while additionally improving the detectability of radio-lucent calculi. We prove clinical feasibility of the here proposed method by accurately classifying renal stones, embedded within a fresh pig kidney, using dose-compatible measurements and a quick and simple visual inspection. PMID:25873414

  13. Non-invasive differentiation of kidney stone types using X-ray dark-field radiography.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Kai; Braig, Eva; Willer, Konstantin; Willner, Marian; Fingerle, Alexander A; Chabior, Michael; Herzen, Julia; Eiber, Matthias; Haller, Bernhard; Straub, Michael; Schneider, Heike; Rummeny, Ernst J; Noël, Peter B; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of renal calculi is highly dependent on the chemical composition of the stone in question, which is difficult to determine using standard imaging techniques. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of scatter-sensitive X-ray dark-field radiography to differentiate between the most common types of kidney stones in clinical practice. Here, we examine the absorption-to-scattering ratio of 118 extracted kidney stones with a laboratory Talbot-Lau Interferometer. Depending on their chemical composition, microscopic growth structure and morphology the various types of kidney stones show strongly varying, partially opposite contrasts in absorption and dark-field imaging. By assessing the microscopic calculi morphology with high resolution micro-computed tomography measurements, we illustrate the dependence of dark-field signal strength on the respective stone type. Finally, we utilize X-ray dark-field radiography as a non-invasive, highly sensitive (100%) and specific (97%) tool for the differentiation of calcium oxalate, uric acid and mixed types of stones, while additionally improving the detectability of radio-lucent calculi. We prove clinical feasibility of the here proposed method by accurately classifying renal stones, embedded within a fresh pig kidney, using dose-compatible measurements and a quick and simple visual inspection. PMID:25873414

  14. Imaging performance of annular apertures. IV - Apodization and point spread functions. V - Total and partial energy integral functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschunko, H. F. A.

    1983-01-01

    Reference is made to a study by Tschunko (1979) in which it was discussed how apodization modifies the modulation transfer function for various central obstruction ratios. It is shown here how apodization, together with the central obstruction ratio, modifies the point spread function, which is the basic element for the comparison of imaging performance and for the derivation of energy integrals and other functions. At high apodization levels and lower central obstruction (less than 0.1), new extended radial zones are formed in the outer part of the central ring groups. These transmutation of the image functions are of more than theoretical interest, especially if the irradiance levels in the outer ring zones are to be compared to the background irradiance levels. Attention is then given to the energy distribution in point images generated by annular apertures apodized by various transmission functions. The total energy functions are derived; partial energy integrals are determined; and background irradiance functions are discussed.

  15. Coherence-Weighted Synthetic Focusing Applied to Photoacoustic Imaging Using a High-Frequency Annular-Array Transducer

    PubMed Central

    Chitnis, Parag V.; Aristizábal, Orlando; Filoux, Erwan; Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Mamou, Jonathan; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive synthetic-focusing scheme that, when applied to photoacoustic (PA) data acquired using an annular array, improves focusing across a greater imaging depth and enhances spatial resolution. The imaging system was based on a 40-MHz, 5-element, annular-array transducer with a focal length of 12 mm and an 800-μm diameter hole through its central element to facilitate coaxial delivery of 532-nm laser. The transducer was raster-scanned to facilitate 3D acquisition of co-registered ultrasound and PA image data. Three synthetic-focusing schemes were compared for obtaining PA A-lines for each scan location: delay-and-sum (DAS), DAS weighted with a coherence factor (DAS + CF), and DAS weighted with a sign-coherence factor (DAS + SCF). Bench-top experiments that used an 80-μm hair were performed to assess the enhancement provided by the two coherence-based schemes. Both coherence-based schemes increased the signal-to-noise ratio by approximately 10 dB. When processed using the DAS-only scheme, the lateral dimension of the hair in a PA image with 20 dB dynamic range was between 300 μm and 1 mm for imaging depth ranging from 8 to 20 mm. In comparison, the DAS + CF scheme resulted in a lateral dimension of 200 to 450 μm over the same range. The DAS + SCF synthetic focusing further improved the smallest-resolvable dimension, which was between 150 and 400 μm over the same range of imaging depth. When used on PA data obtained from a 12-day-old mouse embryo, the DAS + SCF processing improved visualization of neurovasculature. PMID:25925675

  16. Coherence-Weighted Synthetic Focusing Applied to Photoacoustic Imaging Using a High-Frequency Annular-Array Transducer.

    PubMed

    Chitnis, Parag V; Aristizábal, Orlando; Filoux, Erwan; Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Mamou, Jonathan; Ketterling, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive synthetic-focusing scheme that, when applied to photoacoustic (PA) data acquired using an annular array, improves focusing across a greater imaging depth and enhances spatial resolution. The imaging system was based on a 40-MHz, 5-element, annular-array transducer with a focal length of 12 mm and an 800-µm diameter hole through its central element to facilitate coaxial delivery of 532-nm laser. The transducer was raster-scanned to facilitate 3D acquisition of co-registered ultrasound and PA image data. Three synthetic-focusing schemes were compared for obtaining PA A-lines for each scan location: delay-and-sum (DAS), DAS weighted with a coherence factor (DAS + CF), and DAS weighted with a sign-coherence factor (DAS + SCF). Bench-top experiments that used an 80-µm hair were performed to assess the enhancement provided by the two coherence-based schemes. Both coherence-based schemes increased the signal-to-noise ratio by approximately 10 dB. When processed using the DAS-only scheme, the lateral dimension of the hair in a PA image with 20 dB dynamic range was between 300 µm and 1 mm for imaging depth ranging from 8 to 20 mm. In comparison, the DAS + CF scheme resulted in a lateral dimension of 200 to 450 µm over the same range. The DAS + SCF synthetic focusing further improved the smallest-resolvable dimension, which was between 150 and 400 µm over the same range of imaging depth. When used on PA data obtained from a 12-day-old mouse embryo, the DAS + SCF processing improved visualization of neurovasculature. PMID:25925675

  17. Visualization of neonatal lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation using x-ray dark-field radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroshenko, Andre; Pritzke, Tina; Koschlig, Markus; Kamgari, Nona; Willer, Konstantin; Gromann, Lukas; Auweter, Sigrid; Hellbach, Katharina; Reiser, Maximilian; Eickelberg, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Franz; Hilgendorff, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) and supplementation of oxygen-enriched gas, often needed in postnatal resuscitation procedures, are known to be main risk factors for impaired pulmonary development in the preterm and term neonates. Unfortunately, current imaging modalities lack in sensitivity for the detection of early stage lung injury. The present study reports a new imaging approach for diagnosis and staging of early lung injury induced by MV and hyperoxia in neonatal mice. The imaging method is based on the Talbot-Lau x-ray grating interferometry that makes it possible to quantify the x-ray small-angle scattering on the air-tissue interfaces. This so-called dark-field signal revealed increasing loss of x-ray small-angle scattering when comparing images of neonatal mice undergoing hyperoxia and MV-O2 with animals kept at room air. The changes in the dark field correlated well with histologic findings and provided superior differentiation than conventional x-ray imaging and lung function testing. The results suggest that x-ray dark-field radiography is a sensitive tool for assessing structural changes in the developing lung. In the future, with further technical developments x-ray dark-field imaging could be an important tool for earlier diagnosis and sensitive monitoring of lung injury in neonates requiring postnatal oxygen or ventilator therapy.

  18. Visualization of neonatal lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation using x-ray dark-field radiography

    PubMed Central

    Yaroshenko, Andre; Pritzke, Tina; Koschlig, Markus; Kamgari, Nona; Willer, Konstantin; Gromann, Lukas; Auweter, Sigrid; Hellbach, Katharina; Reiser, Maximilian; Eickelberg, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Franz; Hilgendorff, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) and supplementation of oxygen-enriched gas, often needed in postnatal resuscitation procedures, are known to be main risk factors for impaired pulmonary development in the preterm and term neonates. Unfortunately, current imaging modalities lack in sensitivity for the detection of early stage lung injury. The present study reports a new imaging approach for diagnosis and staging of early lung injury induced by MV and hyperoxia in neonatal mice. The imaging method is based on the Talbot-Lau x-ray grating interferometry that makes it possible to quantify the x-ray small-angle scattering on the air-tissue interfaces. This so-called dark-field signal revealed increasing loss of x-ray small-angle scattering when comparing images of neonatal mice undergoing hyperoxia and MV-O2 with animals kept at room air. The changes in the dark field correlated well with histologic findings and provided superior differentiation than conventional x-ray imaging and lung function testing. The results suggest that x-ray dark-field radiography is a sensitive tool for assessing structural changes in the developing lung. In the future, with further technical developments x-ray dark-field imaging could be an important tool for earlier diagnosis and sensitive monitoring of lung injury in neonates requiring postnatal oxygen or ventilator therapy. PMID:27072871

  19. Granuloma annulare.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Diptesh; Hess, Brian; Bachegowda, Lohith

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of a 77-year-old, diabetic male with a 20-year history of a migratory erythematous, asymptomatic, generalized, nonscaly, and nonitchy rash that started over the dorsum of his left hand. On examination, there were multiple annular erythematous plaques, distributed symmetrically and diffusely over his torso and arms, with central clearing and no scales. A punch biopsy of the skin helped us to arrive at the diagnosis of a generalized granuloma annulare (GA). GA is a benign, self-limiting skin condition of unknown etiology that is often asymptomatic. The cause of this condition is unknown, but it has been associated with diabetes mellitus, infections such as HIV, and malignancies such as lymphoma. These lesions typically start as a ring of flesh-colored papules that slowly progress with central clearing. Lack of symptoms, scaling, or associated vesicles helps to differentiate GA from other skin conditions such as tinea corporis, pityriasis rosea, psoriasis, or erythema annulare centrifugum. Treatment is often not needed as the majority of these lesions are self-resolving within 2 years. Treatment may be pursued for cosmetic reasons. Available options include high-dose steroid creams, PUVA, cryotherapy, or drugs such as niacinamide, infliximab, Dapsone, and topical calcineurin inhibitors. PMID:20209383

  20. Fast 3D dark-field reflection-mode photoacoustic microscopy in vivo with a 30-MHz ultrasound linear array

    PubMed Central

    Song, Liang; Maslov, Konstantin; Bitton, Rachel; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-01-01

    We present an in vivo dark-field reflection-mode photoacoustic microscopy system that performs cross-sectional (B-scan) imaging at 50 Hz with realtime beamforming and 3D imaging consisting of 166 B-scan frames at 1 Hz with post-beamforming. To our knowledge, this speed is currently the fastest in photoacoustic imaging. A custom-designed light delivery system is integrated with a 30-MHz ultrasound linear array to realize dark-field reflection-mode imaging. Linear mechanical scanning of the array produces 3D images. The system has axial, lateral, and elevational resolutions of 25, 70, and 200 μm, respectively, and can image 3 mm deep in scattering biological tissues. Volumetric images of subcutaneous vasculature in rats are demonstrated in vivo. Fast 3D photoacoustic microscopy is anticipated to facilitate applications of photoacoustic imaging in biomedical studies that involve dynamics and clinical procedures that demand immediate diagnosis. PMID:19021408

  1. Granuloma Annulare.

    PubMed

    Keimig, Emily Louise

    2015-07-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is a noninfectious granulomatous skin condition that can present with a variety of cutaneous morphologies. It is characterized by collagen degeneration, mucin deposition, and palisaded or interstitial histiocytes. Although the mechanism underlying development of GA is unknown, studies point to a cell-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to an as-yet undetermined antigen. Systemic associations with diabetes, thyroid disorders, lipid abnormalities, malignancy, and infection are described in atypical GA. Treatment is divided into localized skin-directed therapies and systemic immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive therapies. The selected treatment modality should be based on disease severity, comorbid conditions, consideration of potential side effects, and patient preference. PMID:26143416

  2. [Granuloma annulare].

    PubMed

    Butsch, F; Weidenthaler-Barth, B; von Stebut, E

    2015-11-01

    Granuloma annulare is a benign, chronic inflammatory skin disease. Its pathogenesis is still unclear, but reports on infections as a trigger can be found. In addition, some authors reported an association with other systemic disease, e.g., cancer, trauma, and diabetes mellitus; however, these have not been verified. The clinical picture of granuloma annulare ranges from the localized form predominantly at the extremities to disseminated, subcutaneous, or perforating forms. Diagnosis is based on the typical clinical presentation which may be confirmed by a biopsy. Histologically, necrobiotic areas within granulomatous inflammation are typical. The prognosis of the disease is good with spontaneous resolution being frequently observed, especially in localized forms. Disseminated manifestations tend to persist longer, and recurrences are reported. When choosing between different therapeutic options, the benign disease character versus the individual degree of suffering and the potential therapy side effects must be considered. For local treatment, topical application of corticosteroids is most common. Disseminated forms can be treated systemically with corticosteroids for several weeks; alternatively, dapsone, hydroxychloroquine, retinoids, fumaric acid, cyclosporine, and anti-TNFα appear to be effective. PMID:26487494

  3. Laser Doppler velocimeter measurements and laser sheet imaging in an annular combustor model. M.S. Thesis, Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwenger, Richard Dale

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in annular combustor model to provide a better understanding of the flowfield. Combustor model configurations consisting of primary jets only, annular jets only, and a combination of annular and primary jets were investigated. The purpose of this research was to provide a better understanding of combustor flows and to provide a data base for comparison with computational models. The first part of this research used a laser Doppler velocimeter to measure mean velocity and statistically calculate root-mean-square velocity in two coordinate directions. From this data, one Reynolds shear stress component and a two-dimensional turbulent kinetic energy term was determined. Major features of the flowfield included recirculating flow, primary and annular jet interaction, and high turbulence. The most pronounced result from this data was the effect the primary jets had on the flowfield. The primary jets were seen to reduce flow asymmetries, create larger recirculation zones, and higher turbulence levels. The second part of this research used a technique called marker nephelometry to provide mean concentration values in the combustor. Results showed the flow to be very turbulent and unsteady. All configurations investigated were highly sensitive to alignment of the primary and annular jets in the model and inlet conditions. Any imbalance between primary jets or misalignment of the annular jets caused severe flow asymmetries.

  4. Time resolved X-ray Dark-Field Tomography Revealing Water Transport in a Fresh Cement Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prade, Friedrich; Fischer, Kai; Heinz, Detlef; Meyer, Pascal; Mohr, Jürgen; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2016-06-01

    Grating-based X-ray dark-field tomography is a promising technique for biomedical and materials research. Even if the resolution of conventional X-ray tomography does not suffice to resolve relevant structures, the dark-field signal provides valuable information about the sub-pixel microstructural properties of the sample. Here, we report on the potential of X-ray dark-field imaging to be used for time-resolved three-dimensional studies. By repeating consecutive tomography scans on a fresh cement sample, we were able to study the hardening dynamics of the cement paste in three dimensions over time. The hardening of the cement was accompanied by a strong decrease in the dark-field signal pointing to microstructural changes within the cement paste. Furthermore our results hint at the transport of water from certain limestone grains, which were embedded in the sample, to the cement paste during the process of hardening. This is indicated by an increasing scattering signal which was observed for two of the six tested limestone grains. Electron microscopy images revealed a distinct porous structure only for those two grains which supports the following interpretation of our results. When the water filled pores of the limestone grains empty during the experiment the scattering signal of the grains increases.

  5. Time resolved X-ray Dark-Field Tomography Revealing Water Transport in a Fresh Cement Sample

    PubMed Central

    Prade, Friedrich; Fischer, Kai; Heinz, Detlef; Meyer, Pascal; Mohr, Jürgen; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Grating-based X-ray dark-field tomography is a promising technique for biomedical and materials research. Even if the resolution of conventional X-ray tomography does not suffice to resolve relevant structures, the dark-field signal provides valuable information about the sub-pixel microstructural properties of the sample. Here, we report on the potential of X-ray dark-field imaging to be used for time-resolved three-dimensional studies. By repeating consecutive tomography scans on a fresh cement sample, we were able to study the hardening dynamics of the cement paste in three dimensions over time. The hardening of the cement was accompanied by a strong decrease in the dark-field signal pointing to microstructural changes within the cement paste. Furthermore our results hint at the transport of water from certain limestone grains, which were embedded in the sample, to the cement paste during the process of hardening. This is indicated by an increasing scattering signal which was observed for two of the six tested limestone grains. Electron microscopy images revealed a distinct porous structure only for those two grains which supports the following interpretation of our results. When the water filled pores of the limestone grains empty during the experiment the scattering signal of the grains increases. PMID:27357449

  6. Time resolved X-ray Dark-Field Tomography Revealing Water Transport in a Fresh Cement Sample.

    PubMed

    Prade, Friedrich; Fischer, Kai; Heinz, Detlef; Meyer, Pascal; Mohr, Jürgen; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Grating-based X-ray dark-field tomography is a promising technique for biomedical and materials research. Even if the resolution of conventional X-ray tomography does not suffice to resolve relevant structures, the dark-field signal provides valuable information about the sub-pixel microstructural properties of the sample. Here, we report on the potential of X-ray dark-field imaging to be used for time-resolved three-dimensional studies. By repeating consecutive tomography scans on a fresh cement sample, we were able to study the hardening dynamics of the cement paste in three dimensions over time. The hardening of the cement was accompanied by a strong decrease in the dark-field signal pointing to microstructural changes within the cement paste. Furthermore our results hint at the transport of water from certain limestone grains, which were embedded in the sample, to the cement paste during the process of hardening. This is indicated by an increasing scattering signal which was observed for two of the six tested limestone grains. Electron microscopy images revealed a distinct porous structure only for those two grains which supports the following interpretation of our results. When the water filled pores of the limestone grains empty during the experiment the scattering signal of the grains increases. PMID:27357449

  7. Imaging performance of annular apertures. III - Apodization and modulation transfer functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschunko, H. F. A.

    1979-01-01

    Apodization functions with decreasing transmission and their opposite, functions with increasing transmission, are investigated for various central obstruction ratios. The resultant modulation transfer functions are presented for various transmission functions and central obstruction ratios. Conclusions applicable to the improvement of imaging performance are discussed.

  8. Identification of the Position and Thickness of the First Annular Pulley in Sonographic Images.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tai-Hua; Lin, Yi-Hsun; Chuang, Bo-I; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Lin, Wei-Jr; Yang, Dee-Shan; Wang, Shyh-Hau; Sun, Yung-Nien; Jou, I-Ming; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Su, Fong-Chin

    2016-05-01

    The purpose was to identify the A1 pulley's exact location and thickness by comparing measurements from a clinical high-frequency ultrasound scanner system (CHUS), a customized high-frequency ultrasound imaging research system (HURS) and a digital caliper. Ten cadaveric hands were used. We explored the pulley by layers, inserted guide pins and scanned it with the CHUS. After identifying the pulley, we measured each long finger's thickness using the CHUS and excised the pulley to measure its thickness with a digital caliper and the HURS. The thin hypo-echoic layer was revealed to be the synovial fluid space, and the pulley appears hyper-echoic regardless of scan direction. We also defined the pulley's boundaries. Moreover, the CHUS provided a significantly lower measurement of the pulley's thickness than the digital caliper and HURS. Likewise, based on the digital caliper's measurement, the HURS had significantly lower mean absolute and relative errors than the CHUS. PMID:26831343

  9. High contrast hollow-cone dark field transmission electron microscopy for nanocrystalline grain size quantification.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bo; Sun, Tik; Warren, Andrew; Heinrich, Helge; Barmak, Katayun; Coffey, Kevin R

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we describe hollow-cone dark field (HCDF) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, with a slightly convergent beam, as an improved technique that is suitable to form high contrast micrographs for nanocrystalline grain size quantification. We also examine the various factors that influence the HCDF TEM image quality, including the conditions of microscopy (alignment, focus and objective aperture size), the properties of the materials imaged (e.g., atomic number, strain, defects), and the characteristics of the TEM sample itself (e.g., thickness, ion milling artifacts). Sample preparation was found to be critical and an initial thinning by wet etching of the substrate (for thin film samples) or tripod polishing (for bulk samples), followed by low-angle ion milling was found to be the preferred approach for preparing high-quality electron transparent samples for HCDF imaging. PMID:20018512

  10. Grating-based X-ray Dark-field Computed Tomography of Living Mice

    PubMed Central

    Velroyen, A.; Yaroshenko, A.; Hahn, D.; Fehringer, A.; Tapfer, A.; Müller, M.; Noël, P.B.; Pauwels, B.; Sasov, A.; Yildirim, A.Ö.; Eickelberg, O.; Hellbach, K.; Auweter, S.D.; Meinel, F.G.; Reiser, M.F.; Bech, M.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in x-ray attenuating tissue caused by lung disorders like emphysema or fibrosis are subtle and thus only resolved by high-resolution computed tomography (CT). The structural reorganization, however, is of strong influence for lung function. Dark-field CT (DFCT), based on small-angle scattering of x-rays, reveals such structural changes even at resolutions coarser than the pulmonary network and thus provides access to their anatomical distribution. In this proof-of-concept study we present x-ray in vivo DFCTs of lungs of a healthy, an emphysematous and a fibrotic mouse. The tomographies show excellent depiction of the distribution of structural – and thus indirectly functional – changes in lung parenchyma, on single-modality slices in dark field as well as on multimodal fusion images. Therefore, we anticipate numerous applications of DFCT in diagnostic lung imaging. We introduce a scatter-based Hounsfield Unit (sHU) scale to facilitate comparability of scans. In this newly defined sHU scale, the pathophysiological changes by emphysema and fibrosis cause a shift towards lower numbers, compared to healthy lung tissue. PMID:26629545

  11. Grating-based X-ray Dark-field Computed Tomography of Living Mice.

    PubMed

    Velroyen, A; Yaroshenko, A; Hahn, D; Fehringer, A; Tapfer, A; Müller, M; Noël, P B; Pauwels, B; Sasov, A; Yildirim, A Ö; Eickelberg, O; Hellbach, K; Auweter, S D; Meinel, F G; Reiser, M F; Bech, M; Pfeiffer, F

    2015-10-01

    Changes in x-ray attenuating tissue caused by lung disorders like emphysema or fibrosis are subtle and thus only resolved by high-resolution computed tomography (CT). The structural reorganization, however, is of strong influence for lung function. Dark-field CT (DFCT), based on small-angle scattering of x-rays, reveals such structural changes even at resolutions coarser than the pulmonary network and thus provides access to their anatomical distribution. In this proof-of-concept study we present x-ray in vivo DFCTs of lungs of a healthy, an emphysematous and a fibrotic mouse. The tomographies show excellent depiction of the distribution of structural - and thus indirectly functional - changes in lung parenchyma, on single-modality slices in dark field as well as on multimodal fusion images. Therefore, we anticipate numerous applications of DFCT in diagnostic lung imaging. We introduce a scatter-based Hounsfield Unit (sHU) scale to facilitate comparability of scans. In this newly defined sHU scale, the pathophysiological changes by emphysema and fibrosis cause a shift towards lower numbers, compared to healthy lung tissue. PMID:26629545

  12. EUV Dark-Field Microscopy for Defect Inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Juschkin, L.; Maryasov, A.; Herbert, S.; Aretz, A.; Bergmann, K.; Lebert, R.

    2011-09-09

    An actinic EUV microscope for defect detection on mask blanks for operation in dark field using a table-top discharge-produced plasma source has been developed. Several test structures (pits and bumps) on multilayer mirrors were investigated by our Schwarzschild objective-based EUV microscope at 13.5-nm wavelength and then characterized with an atomic force microscope. Possible defect-detection limits with large field of view and moderate magnification are discussed in terms of required irradiation dose and system performance.

  13. Limitations of haemozoin-based diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum using dark-field microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The haemozoin crystal continues to be investigated extensively for its potential as a biomarker for malaria diagnostics. In order for haemozoin to be a valuable biomarker, it must be present in detectable quantities in the peripheral blood and distinguishable from false positives. Here, dark-field microscopy coupled with sophisticated image processing algorithms is used to characterize the abundance of detectable haemozoin within infected erythrocytes from field samples in order to determine the window of detection in peripheral blood. Methods Thin smears from Plasmodium falciparum-infected and uninfected patients were imaged in both dark field (DF) unstained and bright field (BF) Giemsa-stained modes. The images were co-registered such that each parasite had thumbnails in both BF and DF modes, providing an accurate map between parasites and DF objects. This map was used to find the abundance of haemozoin as a function of parasite stage through careful parasite staging and correlation with DF objects. An automated image-processing and classification algorithm classified the bright spots in the DF images as either haemozoin or non-haemozoin objects. Results The algorithm distinguishes haemozoin from non-haemozoin objects in DF images with an object-level sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 97%. Ring stages older than about 6 hours begin to show detectable haemozoin, and rings between 10–16 hours reliably contain detectable haemozoin. However, DF microscopy coupled with the image-processing algorithm detect no haemozoin in rings younger than six hours. Discussion Although this method demonstrates the most sensitive detection of haemozoin in field samples reported to date, it does not detect haemozoin in ring-stage parasites younger than six hours. Thus, haemozoin is a poor biomarker for field samples primarily composed of young ring-stage parasites because the crystal is not present in detectable quantities by the methods described here. Based on

  14. On the origin and nature of the grating interferometric dark-field contrast obtained with low-brilliance x-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Thomas; Zuber, Marcus; Trimborn, Barbara; Farago, Tomas; Meyer, Pascal; Kunka, Danays; Albrecht, Frederic; Kreuer, Sascha; Volk, Thomas; Fiederle, Michael; Baumbach, Tilo

    2016-05-01

    The x-ray dark-field contrast accessible via grating interferometry is sensitive to features at length scales well below what is resolvable by a detector system. It is commonly explained as arising from small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), and can be implemented both at synchrotron beamlines and with low-brilliance sources such as x-ray tubes. Here, we demonstrate that for tube based setups the underlying process of image formation can be fundamentally different. For focal spots or detector pixels that comprise multiple grating periods, we show that dark-field images contain a strong artificial and system-specific component not arising from SAXS. Based on experiments carried out with a nanofocus x-ray tube and the example of an excised rat lung, we demonstrate that the dark-field contrast observed for porous media transforms into a differential phase contrast for large geometric magnifications. Using a photon counting detector with an adjustable point spread function, we confirm that a dark-field image can indeed be formed by an intra-pixel differential phase contrast that cannot be resolved as such due to a dephasing between the periodicities of the absorption grating and the Talbot carpet. Our findings are further corroborated by a link between the strength of this pseudo-dark-field contrast and our x-ray tube’s focal spot size in a three-grating setup. These results must not be ignored when measurements are intended to be reproducible across systems.

  15. On the origin and nature of the grating interferometric dark-field contrast obtained with low-brilliance x-ray sources.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Thomas; Zuber, Marcus; Trimborn, Barbara; Farago, Tomas; Meyer, Pascal; Kunka, Danays; Albrecht, Frederic; Kreuer, Sascha; Volk, Thomas; Fiederle, Michael; Baumbach, Tilo

    2016-05-01

    The x-ray dark-field contrast accessible via grating interferometry is sensitive to features at length scales well below what is resolvable by a detector system. It is commonly explained as arising from small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), and can be implemented both at synchrotron beamlines and with low-brilliance sources such as x-ray tubes. Here, we demonstrate that for tube based setups the underlying process of image formation can be fundamentally different. For focal spots or detector pixels that comprise multiple grating periods, we show that dark-field images contain a strong artificial and system-specific component not arising from SAXS. Based on experiments carried out with a nanofocus x-ray tube and the example of an excised rat lung, we demonstrate that the dark-field contrast observed for porous media transforms into a differential phase contrast for large geometric magnifications. Using a photon counting detector with an adjustable point spread function, we confirm that a dark-field image can indeed be formed by an intra-pixel differential phase contrast that cannot be resolved as such due to a dephasing between the periodicities of the absorption grating and the Talbot carpet. Our findings are further corroborated by a link between the strength of this pseudo-dark-field contrast and our x-ray tube's focal spot size in a three-grating setup. These results must not be ignored when measurements are intended to be reproducible across systems. PMID:27046451

  16. Spatially multiplexed dark-field microspectrophotometry for nanoplasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pini, V.; Kosaka, P. M.; Ruz, J. J.; Malvar, O.; Encinar, M.; Tamayo, J.; Calleja, M.

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring the effect of the substrate on the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of metallic nanoparticles is key for deepening our understanding of light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. This coupling gives rise to shifts of the LSPR as well as changes in the scattering pattern shape. The problem requires of high-throughput techniques that present both high spatial and spectral resolution. We present here a technique, referred to as Spatially Multiplexed Micro-Spectrophotometry (SMMS), able to perform polarization-resolved spectral and spatial analysis of the scattered light over large surface areas. The SMMS technique provides three orders of magnitude faster spectroscopic analysis than conventional dark-field microspectrophotometry, with the capability for mapping the spatial distribution of the scattered light intensity with lateral resolution of 40 nm over surface areas of 0.02 mm2. We show polarization-resolved dark-field spectral analysis of hundreds of gold nanoparticles deposited on a silicon surface. The technique allows determining the effect of the substrate on the LSPR of single nanoparticles and dimers and their scattering patterns. This is applied for rapid discrimination and counting of monomers and dimers of nanoparticles. In addition, the diameter of individual nanoparticles can be rapidly assessed with 1 nm accuracy.

  17. Spatially multiplexed dark-field microspectrophotometry for nanoplasmonics

    PubMed Central

    Pini, V.; Kosaka, P. M.; Ruz, J. J.; Malvar, O.; Encinar, M.; Tamayo, J.; Calleja, M.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the effect of the substrate on the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of metallic nanoparticles is key for deepening our understanding of light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. This coupling gives rise to shifts of the LSPR as well as changes in the scattering pattern shape. The problem requires of high-throughput techniques that present both high spatial and spectral resolution. We present here a technique, referred to as Spatially Multiplexed Micro-Spectrophotometry (SMMS), able to perform polarization-resolved spectral and spatial analysis of the scattered light over large surface areas. The SMMS technique provides three orders of magnitude faster spectroscopic analysis than conventional dark-field microspectrophotometry, with the capability for mapping the spatial distribution of the scattered light intensity with lateral resolution of 40 nm over surface areas of 0.02 mm2. We show polarization-resolved dark-field spectral analysis of hundreds of gold nanoparticles deposited on a silicon surface. The technique allows determining the effect of the substrate on the LSPR of single nanoparticles and dimers and their scattering patterns. This is applied for rapid discrimination and counting of monomers and dimers of nanoparticles. In addition, the diameter of individual nanoparticles can be rapidly assessed with 1 nm accuracy. PMID:26953042

  18. Spatially multiplexed dark-field microspectrophotometry for nanoplasmonics.

    PubMed

    Pini, V; Kosaka, P M; Ruz, J J; Malvar, O; Encinar, M; Tamayo, J; Calleja, M

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the effect of the substrate on the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of metallic nanoparticles is key for deepening our understanding of light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. This coupling gives rise to shifts of the LSPR as well as changes in the scattering pattern shape. The problem requires of high-throughput techniques that present both high spatial and spectral resolution. We present here a technique, referred to as Spatially Multiplexed Micro-Spectrophotometry (SMMS), able to perform polarization-resolved spectral and spatial analysis of the scattered light over large surface areas. The SMMS technique provides three orders of magnitude faster spectroscopic analysis than conventional dark-field microspectrophotometry, with the capability for mapping the spatial distribution of the scattered light intensity with lateral resolution of 40 nm over surface areas of 0.02 mm(2). We show polarization-resolved dark-field spectral analysis of hundreds of gold nanoparticles deposited on a silicon surface. The technique allows determining the effect of the substrate on the LSPR of single nanoparticles and dimers and their scattering patterns. This is applied for rapid discrimination and counting of monomers and dimers of nanoparticles. In addition, the diameter of individual nanoparticles can be rapidly assessed with 1 nm accuracy. PMID:26953042

  19. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare.

    PubMed

    Requena, Luis; Fernández-Figueras, María Teresa

    2007-06-01

    Subcutaneous granuloma annulare is a rare clinicopathologic variant of granuloma annulare, characterized by subcutaneous nodules that may appear alone or in association with intradermal lesions. The pathogenesis of this deep variant of granuloma annulare remains uncertain. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare appears more frequently in children and young adults, and the lesions consist of subcutaneous nodules with no inflammatory appearance at the skin surface, most commonly located on the anterior aspects of the lower legs, hands, head, and buttocks. Usually, subcutaneous granuloma annulare is an authentic and exclusive panniculitic process with no dermal participation, although in 25% of the patients lesions of subcutaneous granuloma annulare coexist with the classic findings of granuloma annulare in the dermis. Histopathologically, subcutaneous granuloma annulare consist of areas of basophilic degeneration of collagen bundles with peripheral palisading granulomas involving the connective tissue septa of the subcutis. Usually, the area of necrobiosis in subcutaneous granuloma annulare is larger than in the dermal counterpart. The central necrobiotic areas contain increased amounts of connective tissue mucin and nuclear dust from neutrophils between the degenerated collagen bundles. Eosinophils are more common in subcutaneous granuloma annulare than in the dermal counterpart. There are not descriptions of subcutaneous granuloma annulare showing a histopathologic pattern of the so-called incomplete or interstitial variant. Histopathologic differential diagnosis of subcutaneous granuloma annulare includes rheumatoid nodule, necrobiosis lipoidica and epithelioid sarcoma. PMID:17544961

  20. Dark field X-ray microscopy: the effects of condenser/detector aperture.

    PubMed

    Vogt, S; Chapman, H N; Jacobsen, C; Medenwaldt, R

    2001-03-01

    In order to visualize the functionality of a biological cell, it is often desirable to label specific proteins. In this work we concentrate on the optical theory of visualizing colloidal gold labels with soft X-ray microscopes, where scattering from small gold spheres used as labels dominates the image. Using numerical simulations of bright and dark field imaging, we compare different configurations of condenser and objective lenses in transmission X-ray microscopes, and configurations of detector and objective lens in scanning transmission X-ray microscopes. It is verified that the contrast of small, closely spaced features is strongly affected by changes in these configurations; the optimum situation is to have the condenser aperture (in TXM) or detector aperture (in STXM) equal to 3/2 that of the objective numerical aperture. PMID:11310539

  1. Two-dimensional misorientation mapping by rocking dark-field transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tyutyunnikov, Dmitry; Mitsuhara, Masatoshi; Koch, Christoph T

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we introduce an approach for precise orientation mapping of crystalline specimens by means of transmission electron microscopy. We show that local orientation values can be reconstructed from experimental dark-field image data acquired at different specimen tilts and multiple Bragg reflections. By using the suggested method it is also possible to determine the orientation of the tilt axis with respect to the image or diffraction pattern. The method has been implemented to automatically acquire the necessary data and then map crystal orientation for a given region of interest. We have applied this technique to a specimen prepared from a Ni-based super-alloy CMSX-4. The functionality and limitations of our method are discussed and compared to those of other techniques available. PMID:26255118

  2. STEM Imaging of Single Pd Atoms in Activated Carbon Fibers Considered for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benthem, Klaus; Bonifacio, Cecile S; Contescu, Cristian I; Pennycook, Stephen J; Gallego, Nidia C

    2011-01-01

    Aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to demonstrate the feasibility of imaging individual Pd atoms that are highly dispersed throughout the volume of activated carbon fibers. Simultaneous acquisition of high-angle annular dark-field and bright-field images allows correlation of the location of single Pd atoms with microstructural features of the carbon host material. Sub-Angstrom imaging conditions revealed that 18 wt% of the total Pd content is dispersed as single Pd atoms in three re-occurring local structural arrangements. The identified structural configurations may represent effective storage sites for molecular hydrogen through Kubas complex formation as discussed in detail in the preceding article.

  3. Dark-field transmission electron microscopy of cortical bone reveals details of extrafibrillar crystals.

    PubMed

    Schwarcz, Henry P; McNally, Elizabeth A; Botton, Gianluigi A

    2014-12-01

    In a previous study we showed that most of the mineral in bone is present in the form of "mineral structures", 5-6nm-thick, elongated plates which surround and are oriented parallel to collagen fibrils. Using dark-field transmission electron microscopy, we viewed mineral structures in ion-milled sections of cortical human bone cut parallel to the collagen fibrils. Within the mineral structures we observe single crystals of apatite averaging 5.8±2.7nm in width and 28±19nm in length, their long axes oriented parallel to the fibril axis. Some appear to be composite, co-aligned crystals as thin as 2nm. From their similarity to TEM images of crystals liberated from deproteinated bone we infer that we are viewing sections through platy crystals of apatite that are assembled together to form the mineral structures. PMID:25449316

  4. Adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscopy with annular pupils

    PubMed Central

    Sulai, Yusufu N.; Dubra, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Annular apodization of the illumination and/or imaging pupils of an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) for improving transverse resolution was evaluated using three different normalized inner radii (0.26, 0.39 and 0.52). In vivo imaging of the human photoreceptor mosaic at 0.5 and 10° from fixation indicates that the use of an annular illumination pupil and a circular imaging pupil provides the most benefit of all configurations when using a one Airy disk diameter pinhole, in agreement with the paraxial confocal microscopy theory. Annular illumination pupils with 0.26 and 0.39 normalized inner radii performed best in terms of the narrowing of the autocorrelation central lobe (between 7 and 12%), and the increase in manual and automated photoreceptor counts (8 to 20% more cones and 11 to 29% more rods). It was observed that the use of annular pupils with large inner radii can result in multi-modal cone photoreceptor intensity profiles. The effect of the annular masks on the average photoreceptor intensity is consistent with the Stiles-Crawford effect (SCE). This indicates that combinations of images of the same photoreceptors with different apodization configurations and/or annular masks can be used to distinguish cones from rods, even when the former have complex multi-modal intensity profiles. In addition to narrowing the point spread function transversally, the use of annular apodizing masks also elongates it axially, a fact that can be used for extending the depth of focus of techniques such as adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT). Finally, the positive results from this work suggest that annular pupil apodization could be used in refractive or catadioptric adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes to mitigate undesired back-reflections. PMID:22808435

  5. Efficient elastic imaging of single atoms on ultrathin supports in a scanning transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Hovden, Robert; Muller, David A

    2012-12-01

    Mono-atomic-layer membranes such as graphene offer new opportunities for imaging and detecting individual light atoms in transmission electron microscopes (TEM). For such applications where multiple scattering and diffraction effects are weak, we evaluate the detection efficiency and interpretability of single atom images for the most common detector geometries using quantitative quantum mechanical simulations. For well-resolved and atomically-thin specimens, the low angle annular dark field (LAADF) detector can provide a significant increase in signal-to-noise over other common detector geometries including annular bright field and incoherent bright field. This dramatically improves the visibility of organic specimens on atomic-layer membranes. Simulations of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) imaged under ideal conditions indicate the minimal dose requirements for elastic imaging by STEM or conventional TEM still exceed previously reported dose limits. PMID:22727335

  6. Three-dimensional characteristics of alveolar macrophages in vitro observed by dark field microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarat, Dominic; Wiemann, Martin; Lipinski, Hans-Gerd

    2014-05-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) are cells from immune defense inside the lung. They engulf particles in vacuoles from the outer membrane. Volume and surface are important parameters to characterize the particle uptake. AM change their shape within a few seconds, therefore it is hard to obtain by confocal laser scanning microscopy, which is commonly used to generate 3D-images. So we used an intensified dark field microscopy (DFM) as an alternative method to generate contrast rich AM gray tone image slices used for 3D-reconstructions of AM cells by VTK software applications. From these 3D-reconstructions approximate volume and surface data of the AM were obtained and compared to values found in the literature. Finally, simple geometrical 3D-models of the AM were created and compared to real data. Averaged volume and surface data from the DFM images are close to values found in the literature. Furthermore, calculation of volume and surface data from DFM images could be done faster if simplified geometrical 3D-models of the cells were used.

  7. A method to determine the Young's modulus of thin-film elements assisted by dark-field electron holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reboh, S.; Benzo, P.; Morin, P.; Cours, R.; Hÿtch, M. J.; Claverie, A.

    2013-02-01

    We present a method to determine the isotropic elastic modulus of nanometer-thick films of unknown or imprecise microstructure and composition. First, the mesoscopic stress of the film is determined using Stoney's method. Then, after fabricating film-stripes by lithography, dark-field electron holography is used to image the strain fields (3 nm spatial resolution, ˜2 × 10-4 precision) resulting from the local interactions between the stripes and an underlying silicon crystal. By comparing the experimental results with finite element method modeling, we deduce Young's modulus of the film. Silicon nitride films on Si substrates are presented as a model system.

  8. Reproducible strain measurement in electronic devices by applying integer multiple to scanning grating in scanning moiré fringe imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Suhyun; Jung, Younheum; Kim, Joong Jung; Lee, Sunyoung; Lee, Haebum; Kondo, Yukihito

    2014-10-01

    Scanning moiré fringe (SMF) imaging by high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to measure the strain field in the channel of a transistor with a CoSi2 source and drain. Nanometer-scale SMFs were formed with a scanning grating size of ds at integer multiples of the Si crystal lattice spacing dl (ds ˜ ndl, n = 2, 3, 4, 5). The moiré fringe formula was modified to establish a method for quantifying strain measurement. We showed that strain fields in a transistor measured by SMF images were reproducible with an accuracy of 0.02%.

  9. Laser-scanning tomography and related dark-field nanoscopy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Paul C.; Gall-Borrut, Pascal; Ardisasmita, Syamsa M.; Castagne, Michel; Bonnafe, Jacques; Fillard, Jean-Pierre

    1991-01-01

    Nanoscopy is a term that we use to describe optical techniques using digital image processing that are capable of nanometric observation and measurement. Laser Scanning Tomography (LST) is used for defect analysis in the bulk of semiconductor wafers for revealing particles as small as mm and for measuring densities of uptolO13 cm3 The unusually high contrast of the system allows us to observe submicron particles which are more than three orders of magnitude smaller than the Rayleigh criterion for the optical system. Recent work using deconvolution of point image functions enables us to perform sub-micron optical serial sectioning, for determining the depth of defects. The best conditions for classical LST (using laser illumination perpendicular to the viewing direction) are when operating further than a few microns below the surface in semiconductor wafers; ie it is ideal for bulk defect studies. The study of imperfections inside epilayers in the top ijim layer requires a modified technique. Instead of illuminating at 900 the viewing direction, the infra red laser beam is introduced obliquely to the front suffe to illuminate the defects in the epilayer while still in the dark-field mode. Combining this method with high resolution sectioning will be the basis for a technique of three dimensional submicron defect analysis in epilayers. Results are given of defect studies in annealed GaAs and silicon to demonstrate the capabilities of LST for naiiometer analysis in bulk materials. Sub-micron depth measurement is shown for single particles using the PSF of the system for the out-offocus case. Some initial results are given of studies of defects in a highly lattice mismatched epilayer using IR transmission microscopy, phase stepping microscopy (PSM, used in surface profiling) and the new dark field oblique laser illumination technique. LST, and the new nanoscopy techniques are non-destructive, operate under normal room conditions, and give sub-micron observation and

  10. Behavior interrelationships in annular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubring, Duwayne

    Two-phase gas-liquid flow occurs in many types of industrial boiling and condensing heat transfer equipment, including the reactor cores of boiling water nuclear reactors (BWRs) and the steam generators of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). In annular flow, the liquid phase often travels as both a thin film around the wall (containing disturbance waves and base film) and as entrained droplets in the central gas core. Gas bubbles are also often entrained into this film. Annular flow displays several quantifiable flow behaviors, including pressure loss, disturbance waves, and film thickness, along with micro-scale velocity profiles and fluctuations in the liquid film. The conventional approach to annular flow closely links film thickness and pressure loss, but relies on an assumed film velocity profile and does not consider disturbance waves explicitly. The present work seeks to explore a more complete range of behaviors in both horizontal and vertical flow to explore the relationships among them and thereby improve modeling of annular flow. Several of these investigations employ quantitative visualization. Modern optics and computing (in the form of non-trivial data reduction codes) are applied to the study of two-phase flow to process images of a physical experiment to quantify behavior information. Quantitative visualization allows for rapid acquisition of a large volume of flow behavior data, which allows for analysis of the flow behaviors themselves and how they relate to one another and to global modeling. By integrating behavior data from these quantitative visualizations and other conventional experimental investigations, a new two-region (base film and disturbance wave) model is proposed that can be implemented given only flow rates, external geometry, and fluid properties.

  11. Mechanically expandable annular seal

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Richard F.

    1983-01-01

    A mechanically expandable annular reusable seal assembly to form an annular hermetic barrier between two stationary, parallel, and planar containment surfaces. A rotatable ring, attached to the first surface, has ring wedges resembling the saw-tooth array of a hole saw. Matching seal wedges are slidably attached to the ring wedges and have their motion restricted to be perpendicular to the second surface. Each seal wedge has a face parallel to the second surface. An annular elastomer seal has a central annular region attached to the seal wedges' parallel faces and has its inner and outer circumferences attached to the first surface. A rotation of the ring extends the elastomer seal's central region perpendicularly towards the second surface to create the fluidtight barrier. A counterrotation removes the barrier.

  12. Mechanically expandable annular seal

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, R.F.

    1983-07-19

    A mechanically expandable annular reusable seal assembly to form an annular hermetic barrier between two stationary, parallel, and planar containment surfaces is described. A rotatable ring, attached to the first surface, has ring wedges resembling the saw-tooth array of a hole saw. Matching seal wedges are slidably attached to the ring wedges and have their motion restricted to be perpendicular to the second surface. Each seal wedge has a face parallel to the second surface. An annular elastomer seal has a central annular region attached to the seal wedges' parallel faces and has its inner and outer circumferences attached to the first surface. A rotation of the ring extends the elastomer seal's central region perpendicularly towards the second surface to create the fluid tight barrier. A counter rotation removes the barrier. 6 figs.

  13. Simulating Realistic Imaging Conditions For In-Situ Liquid Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Welch, David A.; Faller, Roland; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2013-01-01

    In situ transmission electron microscopy enables the imaging of biological cells, macromolecular protein complexes, nanoparticles, and other systems in a near-native environment. In order to improve interpretation of image contrast features and also predict ideal imaging conditions ahead of time, new virtual electron microscopic techniques are needed. A technique for virtual fluid-stage high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy with the multislice method is presented that enables the virtual imaging of model fluid-stage systems composed of millions of atoms. The virtual technique is exemplified by simulating images of PbS nanoparticles under different imaging conditions and the results agree with previous experimental findings. General insight is obtained on the influence of the effects of fluid path length, membrane thickness, nanoparticle position, defocus and other microscope parameters on attainable image quality. PMID:23872040

  14. Simulating realistic imaging conditions for in situ liquid microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, David A.; Faller, Roland; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2013-12-01

    In situ transmission electron microscopy enables the imaging of biological cells, macromolecular protein complexes, nanoparticles, and other systems in a near-native environment. In order to improve interpretation of image contrast features and also predict ideal imaging conditions ahead of time, new virtual electron microscopic techniques are needed. A technique for virtual fluid-stage high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy with the multislice method is presented that enables the virtual imaging of model fluid-stage systems composed of millions of atoms. The virtual technique is exemplified by simulating images of PbS nanoparticles under different imaging conditions and the results agree with previous experimental findings. General insight is obtained on the influence of the effects of fluid path length, membrane thickness, nanoparticle position, defocus and other microscope parameters on attainable image quality.

  15. Strain mapping of LED devices by dark-field inline electron holography: comparison between deterministic and iterative phase retrieval approaches.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyung; Shin, Ga-Young; Kim, Jong Kyu; Oh, Sang Ho; Koch, Christoph T

    2013-04-01

    Dark-field inline electron holography has recently been established as a convenient method to map strain in semiconductor devices, combining high precision, low noise, sub-nm spatial resolution and fields-of-view larger than 1 μm. Here we compare two approaches to reconstruct the geometric phase from a transmission electron microscopy dark-field focal series and their effects on the strain measurement: the transport-of-intensity-equation (TIE) and a flux-preserving iterative approach. For this task, we used a GaN-based light emitting diode with a highly complex heterostructure as a model system. While the TIE relies on 3 images only but requires the optimization of two free parameters (defocus step and low-limit cut-off frequency), the iterative reconstruction algorithm involves no adjustable parameters and uses images recorded at 9 different planes of focus with quadratically increasing defocus values. Optimum parameters for the TIE-reconstruction could be identified. However, the iterative phase retrieval approach yields the strain values that agree best with the expected strain levels and provides also higher spatial resolution. PMID:22910615

  16. Three-dimensional imaging of carbon nanostructures by scanning confocal electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Ayako; Shimojo, Masayuki; Mitsuishi, Kazutaka; Takeguchi, Masaki

    2009-10-01

    Although scanning confocal electron microscopy (SCEM) shows a promise for optical depth sectioning with high resolution, practical and theoretical problems have prevented its application to three-dimensional (3D) imaging. We employed a stage-scanning system in which only the specimen is moved three dimensionally under a fixed lens configuration, and an annular dark-field (ADF) aperture which blocks direct beams and selects only the scattered electrons. This ADF-SCEM improved depth resolution sufficiently to perform optical depth sectioning. Finally, we succeeded in demonstrating the 3D reconstruction of carbon nanocoils using ADF-SCEM.

  17. Diffraction contrast imaging using virtual apertures.

    PubMed

    Gammer, Christoph; Burak Ozdol, V; Liebscher, Christian H; Minor, Andrew M

    2015-08-01

    Two methods on how to obtain the full diffraction information from a sample region and the associated reconstruction of images or diffraction patterns using virtual apertures are demonstrated. In a STEM-based approach, diffraction patterns are recorded for each beam position using a small probe convergence angle. Similarly, a tilt series of TEM dark-field images is acquired. The resulting datasets allow the reconstruction of either electron diffraction patterns, or bright-, dark- or annular dark-field images using virtual apertures. The experimental procedures of both methods are presented in the paper and are applied to a precipitation strengthened and creep deformed ferritic alloy with a complex microstructure. The reconstructed virtual images are compared with conventional TEM images. The major advantage is that arbitrarily shaped virtual apertures generated with image processing software can be designed without facing any physical limitations. In addition, any virtual detector that is specifically designed according to the underlying crystal structure can be created to optimize image contrast. PMID:25840371

  18. Dark-field electron holography for the mapping of strain in nanostructures: correcting artefacts and aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hÿtch, M. J.; Houdellier, F.; Hüe, F.; Snoeck, E.

    2010-07-01

    We present details of the new electron holographic dark-field technique (HoloDark) for mapping strain in nanostructures. A diffracted beam emanating from an unstrained region of crystal is interfered (with the aid of an electrostatic biprism) with a diffracted beam from the strained region of interest. Geometric phase analysis (GPA) of the holographic fringes determines the relative deformation of the two crystalline lattices. Strain can be measured to high precision, with nanometre spatial resolution and for micron fields of view. Experiments are carried out on the SACTEM-Toulouse, a Tecnai F20 (FEI) equipped with imaging aberration corrector (CEOS), field-emission gun and rotatable biprism (FEI). We operate the microscope in free-lens control with the main objective lens switched off and using the corrector transfer lenses as a Lorentz lens. We will present measurements of strain in test nanostructures and show how artefacts from thickness variations can be removed. Finally, we show our first results using a recently developed aberration-corrected Lorentz mode (CEOS).

  19. Differential phase-contrast dark-field electron holography for strain mapping.

    PubMed

    Denneulin, Thibaud; Houdellier, Florent; Hÿtch, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Strain mapping is an active area of research in transmission electron microscopy. Here we introduce a dark-field electron holographic technique that shares several aspects in common with both off-axis and in-line holography. Two incident and convergent plane waves are produced in front of the specimen thanks to an electrostatic biprism in the condenser system of a transmission electron microscope. The interference of electron beams diffracted by the illuminated crystal is then recorded in a defocused plane. The differential phase recovered from the hologram is directly proportional to the strain in the sample. The strain can be quantified if the separation of the images due to the defocus is precisely determined. The present technique has the advantage that the derivative of the phase is measured directly which allows us to avoid numerical differentiation. The distribution of the noise in the reconstructed strain maps is isotropic and more homogeneous. This technique was used to investigate different samples: a Si/SiGe superlattice, transistors with SiGe source/drain and epitaxial PZT thin films. PMID:26476802

  20. Comparative morphology analysis of live blood platelets using scanning ion conductance and robotic dark-field microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Max-Joseph; Seifert, Jan; Strasser, Erwin F; Gawaz, Meinrad; Schäffer, Tilman E; Rheinlaender, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Many conventional microscopy techniques for investigating platelet morphology such as electron or fluorescence microscopy require highly invasive treatment of the platelets such as fixation, drying and metal coating or staining. Here, we present two unique but entirely different microscopy techniques for direct morphology analysis of live, unstained platelets: scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) and robotic dark-field microscopy (RDM). We demonstrate that both techniques allow for a quantitative evaluation of the morphological features of live adherent platelets. We show that their morphology can be quantified by both techniques using the same geometric parameters and therefore can be directly compared. By imaging the same identical platelets subsequently with SICM and RDM, we found that area, perimeter and circularity of the platelets are directly correlated between SICM and dark-field microscopy (DM), while the fractal dimension (FD) differed between the two microscopy techniques. We show that SICM and RDM are both valuable tools for the ex vivo investigation of the morphology of live platelets, which might contribute to new insights into the physiological and pathophysiological role of platelet spreading. PMID:27063564

  1. Erythematous Granuloma Annulare

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eun Joo; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Kim, Mi Kyeong

    2011-01-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is a common, benign, chronic inflammatory disorder, which is characterized by grouped papules in an enlarging annular shape. It has been described in several clinical subtypes, including localized, generalized, subcutaneous, perforating, and erythematous types. Even though generalized, subcutaneous, and perforating types of GA are unusual, there are several reports of those types. However, erythematous or patch GA, has not been reported yet in the Korean literature. Herein, we report a 42-year-old woman with pruritic erythematous patches, which occurred on the extremities without preceding event, and showed typical clinical and histopatologic findings of erythematous GA. PMID:21909221

  2. Imaging "invisible" dopant atoms in semiconductor nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Gunawan, Aloysius A; Mkhoyan, K Andre; Wills, Andrew W; Thomas, Malcolm G; Norris, David J

    2011-12-14

    Nanometer-scale semiconductors that contain a few intentionally added impurity atoms can provide new opportunities for controlling electronic properties. However, since the physics of these materials depends strongly on the exact arrangement of the impurities, or dopants, inside the structure, and many impurities of interest cannot be observed with currently available imaging techniques, new methods are needed to determine their location. We combine electron energy loss spectroscopy with annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM) to image individual Mn impurities inside ZnSe nanocrystals. While Mn is invisible to conventional ADF-STEM in this host, our experiments and detailed simulations show consistent detection of Mn. Thus, a general path is demonstrated for atomic-scale imaging and identification of individual dopants in a variety of semiconductor nanostructures. PMID:22107439

  3. Improved In vivo Assessment of Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice using X-Ray Dark-Field Radiography.

    PubMed

    Yaroshenko, Andre; Hellbach, Katharina; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Conlon, Thomas M; Fernandez, Isis Enlil; Bech, Martin; Velroyen, Astrid; Meinel, Felix G; Auweter, Sigrid; Reiser, Maximilian; Eickelberg, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive lung disease with a median life expectancy of 4-5 years after initial diagnosis. Early diagnosis and accurate monitoring of IPF are limited by a lack of sensitive imaging techniques that are able to visualize early fibrotic changes at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface. Here, we report a new x-ray imaging approach that directly visualizes the air-tissue interfaces in mice in vivo. This imaging method is based on the detection of small-angle x-ray scattering that occurs at the air-tissue interfaces in the lung. Small-angle scattering is detected with a Talbot-Lau interferometer, which provides the so-called x-ray dark-field signal. Using this imaging modality, we demonstrate-for the first time-the quantification of early pathogenic changes and their correlation with histological changes, as assessed by stereological morphometry. The presented radiography method is significantly more sensitive in detecting morphological changes compared with conventional x-ray imaging, and exhibits a significantly lower radiation dose than conventional x-ray CT. As a result of the improved imaging sensitivity, this new imaging modality could be used in future to reduce the number of animals required for pulmonary research studies. PMID:26619958

  4. Improved In vivo Assessment of Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice using X-Ray Dark-Field Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Yaroshenko, Andre; Hellbach, Katharina; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Conlon, Thomas M.; Fernandez, Isis Enlil; Bech, Martin; Velroyen, Astrid; Meinel, Felix G.; Auweter, Sigrid; Reiser, Maximilian; Eickelberg, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive lung disease with a median life expectancy of 4–5 years after initial diagnosis. Early diagnosis and accurate monitoring of IPF are limited by a lack of sensitive imaging techniques that are able to visualize early fibrotic changes at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface. Here, we report a new x-ray imaging approach that directly visualizes the air-tissue interfaces in mice in vivo. This imaging method is based on the detection of small-angle x-ray scattering that occurs at the air-tissue interfaces in the lung. Small-angle scattering is detected with a Talbot-Lau interferometer, which provides the so-called x-ray dark-field signal. Using this imaging modality, we demonstrate-for the first time-the quantification of early pathogenic changes and their correlation with histological changes, as assessed by stereological morphometry. The presented radiography method is significantly more sensitive in detecting morphological changes compared with conventional x-ray imaging, and exhibits a significantly lower radiation dose than conventional x-ray CT. As a result of the improved imaging sensitivity, this new imaging modality could be used in future to reduce the number of animals required for pulmonary research studies. PMID:26619958

  5. Improved In vivo Assessment of Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice using X-Ray Dark-Field Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroshenko, Andre; Hellbach, Katharina; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Conlon, Thomas M.; Fernandez, Isis Enlil; Bech, Martin; Velroyen, Astrid; Meinel, Felix G.; Auweter, Sigrid; Reiser, Maximilian; Eickelberg, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-12-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive lung disease with a median life expectancy of 4-5 years after initial diagnosis. Early diagnosis and accurate monitoring of IPF are limited by a lack of sensitive imaging techniques that are able to visualize early fibrotic changes at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface. Here, we report a new x-ray imaging approach that directly visualizes the air-tissue interfaces in mice in vivo. This imaging method is based on the detection of small-angle x-ray scattering that occurs at the air-tissue interfaces in the lung. Small-angle scattering is detected with a Talbot-Lau interferometer, which provides the so-called x-ray dark-field signal. Using this imaging modality, we demonstrate-for the first time-the quantification of early pathogenic changes and their correlation with histological changes, as assessed by stereological morphometry. The presented radiography method is significantly more sensitive in detecting morphological changes compared with conventional x-ray imaging, and exhibits a significantly lower radiation dose than conventional x-ray CT. As a result of the improved imaging sensitivity, this new imaging modality could be used in future to reduce the number of animals required for pulmonary research studies.

  6. Specimen illumination apparatus with optical cavity for dark field illumination

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, Daniel; Sudar, Damir; Albertson, Donna

    1999-01-01

    An illumination apparatus with a specimen slide holder, an illumination source, an optical cavity producing multiple reflection of illumination light to a specimen comprising a first and a second reflective surface arranged to achieve multiple reflections of light to a specimen is provided. The apparatus can further include additional reflective surfaces to achieve the optical cavity, a slide for mounting the specimen, a coverslip which is a reflective component of the optical cavity, one or more prisms for directing light within the optical cavity, antifading solutions for improving the viewing properties of the specimen, an array of materials for analysis, fluorescent components, curved reflective surfaces as components of the optical cavity, specimen detection apparatus, optical detection equipment, computers for analysis of optical images, a plane polarizer, fiberoptics, light transmission apertures, microscopic components, lenses for viewing the specimen, and upper and lower mirrors above and below the specimen slide as components of the optical cavity. Methods of using the apparatus are also provided.

  7. Segmented annular combustor

    DOEpatents

    Reider, Samuel B.

    1979-01-01

    An industrial gas turbine engine includes an inclined annular combustor made up of a plurality of support segments each including inner and outer walls of trapezoidally configured planar configuration extents and including side flanges thereon interconnected by means of air cooled connector bolt assemblies to form a continuous annular combustion chamber therebetween and wherein an air fuel mixing chamber is formed at one end of the support segments including means for directing and mixing fuel within a plenum and a perforated header plate for directing streams of air and fuel mixture into the combustion chamber; each of the outer and inner walls of each of the support segments having a ribbed lattice with tracks slidably supporting porous laminated replaceable panels and including pores therein for distributing combustion air into the combustion chamber while cooling the inner surface of each of the panels by transpiration cooling thereof.

  8. Granuloma annulare, patch type.

    PubMed

    Victor, Frank C; Mengden, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    A 64-year-old man was referred to the Bellevue Hospital Center Dermatology Clinic for evaluation of an asymptomatic eruption on his left inner arm, which had been present for 4 months and was unresponsive to topical anti-fungal therapy. One month after the initial eruption, 2 similar, asymptomatic lesions appeared on the right inner arm. The lesions were slowly expanding. A biopsy specimen from the left medial arm was consistent with interstitial granuloma annulare. The patient's clinical presentation was consistent with patch-type granuloma annulare. He was treated with a mid-potency topical glucocorticoid twice daily for 4 weeks without benefit. Since the eruption was asymptomatic, treatment was discontinued. PMID:18627757

  9. Non-rigid registration and non-local principle component analysis to improve electron microscopy spectrum images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovich, Andrew B.; Zhang, Chenyu; Oh, Albert; Slater, Thomas J. A.; Azough, Feridoon; Freer, Robert; Haigh, Sarah J.; Willett, Rebecca; Voyles, Paul M.

    2016-09-01

    Image registration and non-local Poisson principal component analysis (PCA) denoising improve the quality of characteristic x-ray (EDS) spectrum imaging of Ca-stabilized Nd2/3TiO3 acquired at atomic resolution in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Image registration based on the simultaneously acquired high angle annular dark field image significantly outperforms acquisition with a long pixel dwell time or drift correction using a reference image. Non-local Poisson PCA denoising reduces noise more strongly than conventional weighted PCA while preserving atomic structure more faithfully. The reliability of and optimal internal parameters for non-local Poisson PCA denoising of EDS spectrum images is assessed using tests on phantom data.

  10. Super-resolution of fluorescence-free plasmonic nanoparticles using enhanced dark-field illumination based on wavelength-modulation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Peng; Lee, Seungah; Yu, Hyunung; Fang, Ning; Ho Kang, Seong

    2015-06-15

    Super-resolution imaging of fluorescence-free plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) was achieved using enhanced dark-field (EDF) illumination based on wavelength-modulation. Indistinguishable adjacent EDF images of 103-nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs), 40-nm gold nanorods (GNRs), and 80-nm silver nanoparticles (SNPs) were modulated at their wavelengths of specific localized surface plasmon scattering. The coordinates (x, y) of each NP were resolved by fitting their point spread functions with a two-dimensional Gaussian. The measured localization precisions of GNPs, GNRs, and SNPs were 2.5 nm, 5.0 nm, and 2.9 nm, respectively. From the resolved coordinates of NPs and the corresponding localization precisions, super-resolution images were reconstructed. Depending onmore » the spontaneous polarization of GNR scattering, the orientation angle of GNRs in two-dimensions was resolved and provided more elaborate localization information. This novel fluorescence-free super-resolution method was applied to live HeLa cells to resolve NPs and provided remarkable subdiffraction limit images.« less

  11. Super-resolution of fluorescence-free plasmonic nanoparticles using enhanced dark-field illumination based on wavelength-modulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Lee, Seungah; Yu, Hyunung; Fang, Ning; Ho Kang, Seong

    2015-01-01

    Super-resolution imaging of fluorescence-free plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) was achieved using enhanced dark-field (EDF) illumination based on wavelength-modulation. Indistinguishable adjacent EDF images of 103-nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs), 40-nm gold nanorods (GNRs), and 80-nm silver nanoparticles (SNPs) were modulated at their wavelengths of specific localized surface plasmon scattering. The coordinates (x, y) of each NP were resolved by fitting their point spread functions with a two-dimensional Gaussian. The measured localization precisions of GNPs, GNRs, and SNPs were 2.5 nm, 5.0 nm, and 2.9 nm, respectively. From the resolved coordinates of NPs and the corresponding localization precisions, super-resolution images were reconstructed. Depending on the spontaneous polarization of GNR scattering, the orientation angle of GNRs in two-dimensions was resolved and provided more elaborate localization information. This novel fluorescence-free super-resolution method was applied to live HeLa cells to resolve NPs and provided remarkable sub-diffraction limit images. PMID:26074302

  12. Super-resolution of fluorescence-free plasmonic nanoparticles using enhanced dark-field illumination based on wavelength-modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Peng; Lee, Seungah; Yu, Hyunung; Fang, Ning; Ho Kang, Seong

    2015-06-15

    Super-resolution imaging of fluorescence-free plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) was achieved using enhanced dark-field (EDF) illumination based on wavelength-modulation. Indistinguishable adjacent EDF images of 103-nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs), 40-nm gold nanorods (GNRs), and 80-nm silver nanoparticles (SNPs) were modulated at their wavelengths of specific localized surface plasmon scattering. The coordinates (x, y) of each NP were resolved by fitting their point spread functions with a two-dimensional Gaussian. The measured localization precisions of GNPs, GNRs, and SNPs were 2.5 nm, 5.0 nm, and 2.9 nm, respectively. From the resolved coordinates of NPs and the corresponding localization precisions, super-resolution images were reconstructed. Depending on the spontaneous polarization of GNR scattering, the orientation angle of GNRs in two-dimensions was resolved and provided more elaborate localization information. This novel fluorescence-free super-resolution method was applied to live HeLa cells to resolve NPs and provided remarkable subdiffraction limit images.

  13. Endoscopic measurements using a panoramic annular lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, John A.; Matthys, Donald R.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design, build, demonstrate, and deliver a prototype system for making measurements within cavities. The system was to utilize structured lighting as the means for making measurements and was to rely on a stationary probe, equipped with a unique panoramic annular lens, to capture a cylindrical view of the illuminated cavity. Panoramic images, acquired with a digitizing camera and stored in a desk top computer, were to be linearized and analyzed by mouse-driven interactive software.

  14. Annular recuperator design

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Yungmo

    2005-10-04

    An annular heat recuperator is formed with alternating hot and cold cells to separate counter-flowing hot and cold fluid streams. Each cold cell has a fluid inlet formed in the inner diameter of the recuperator near one axial end, and a fluid outlet formed in the outer diameter of the recuperator near the other axial end to evenly distribute fluid mass flow throughout the cell. Cold cells may be joined with the outlet of one cell fluidly connected to the inlet of an adjacent downstream cell to form multi-stage cells.

  15. Dark-field electron holography for the measurement of geometric phase.

    PubMed

    Hÿtch, M J; Houdellier, F; Hüe, F; Snoeck, E

    2011-07-01

    The genesis, theoretical basis and practical application of the new electron holographic dark-field technique for mapping strain in nanostructures are presented. The development places geometric phase within a unified theoretical framework for phase measurements by electron holography. The total phase of the transmitted and diffracted beams is described as a sum of four contributions: crystalline, electrostatic, magnetic and geometric. Each contribution is outlined briefly and leads to the proposal to measure geometric phase by dark-field electron holography (DFEH). The experimental conditions, phase reconstruction and analysis are detailed for off-axis electron holography using examples from the field of semiconductors. A method for correcting for thickness variations will be proposed and demonstrated using the phase from the corresponding bright-field electron hologram. PMID:21864773

  16. Partial dark-field microscopy for investigating domain structures of double-layer microsphere film

    PubMed Central

    Heon Kim, Joon; Su Park, Jung

    2015-01-01

    A lateral dislocation in a double-layer microsphere film is very difficult to identify because the constituent domains have the same two-dimensional crystalline orientation. Orientation-sensitive optical techniques cannot resolve this issue. Here, we demonstrate that partial dark-field (pDF) optical microscopy can be very effective in identifying this type of domain boundary and dislocation of a close-packed microsphere double-layer. Using the hexagonal symmetry of the close-packed microsphere film and the light-focusing property of microspheres, the partially blocked dark-field condenser can provide much higher contrast than other optical microscopy modes can in identifying the laterally dislocated domains. The former can also distinguish domains with different crystalline orientation by rotating the pDF stop. The simplicity of the pDF mode will make it an ideal tool for the structural study of close-packed double-layer microsphere films. PMID:25959375

  17. Beam tracking approach for single–shot retrieval of absorption, refraction, and dark-field signals with laboratory  x-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Vittoria, Fabio A. Diemoz, Paul C.; Olivo, Alessandro; Kallon, Gibril K. N.; Basta, Dario; Endrizzi, Marco; Robinson, Ian K.

    2015-06-01

    We present the translation of the beam tracking approach for x-ray phase-contrast and dark-field imaging, recently demonstrated using synchrotron radiation, to a laboratory setup. A single absorbing mask is used before the sample, and a local Gaussian interpolation of the beam at the detector is used to extract absorption, refraction, and dark–field signals from a single exposure of the sample. Multiple exposures can be acquired when high resolution is needed, as shown here. A theoretical analysis of the effect of polychromaticity on the retrieved signals, and of the artifacts this might cause when existing retrieval methods are used, is also discussed.

  18. Portal Annular Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Harnoss, Jonathan M.; Harnoss, Julian C.; Diener, Markus K.; Contin, Pietro; Ulrich, Alexis B.; Büchler, Markus W.; Schmitz-Winnenthal, Friedrich H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Portal annular pancreas (PAP) is an asymptomatic congenital pancreas anomaly, in which portal and/or mesenteric veins are encased by pancreas tissue. The aim of the study was to determine the role of PAP in pancreatic surgery as well as its management and potential complication, specifically, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). On the basis of a case report, the MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science databases were systematically reviewed up to September 2012. All articles describing a case of PAP were considered. In summary, 21 studies with 59 cases were included. The overall prevalence of PAP was 2.4% and the patients' mean (SD) age was 55.9 (16.2) years. The POPF rate in patients with PAP (12 pancreaticoduodenectomies and 3 distal pancreatectomies) was 46.7% (in accordance with the definition of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery). Portal annular pancreas is a quite unattended pancreatic variant with high prevalence and therefore still remains a clinical challenge to avoid postoperative complications. To decrease the risk for POPF, attentive preoperative diagnostics should also focus on PAP. In pancreaticoduodenectomy, a shift of the resection plane to the pancreas tail should be considered; in extensive pancreatectomy, coverage of the pancreatic remnant by the falciform ligament could be a treatment option. PMID:25207658

  19. Resonance Raman microscopy in combination with partial dark-field microscopy lights up a new path in malaria diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Wood, Bayden R; Hermelink, Antje; Lasch, Peter; Bambery, Keith R; Webster, Grant T; Khiavi, Mehdi Asghari; Cooke, Brian M; Deed, Samantha; Naumann, Dieter; McNaughton, Don

    2009-06-01

    Our goal is to produce a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool for malaria using resonance Raman spectroscopy to detect small inclusions of haemozoin in Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells. In pursuit of this aim we serendipitously discovered a partial dark-field effect generated by our experimental setup, which helps identify in thick blood films potential parasites that are normally difficult to see with conventional bright-field microscopy. The haemozoin deposits 'light up' and these can be selectively targeted with the Raman microscope to confirm the presence or absence of haemozoin by the strong 1569 cm(-1) band, which is a marker for haemozoin. With newly developed imaging Raman microscopes incorporating ultra-sensitive rapid readout CCDs it is possible to obtain spectra with a good signal-to-noise ratio in 1 second. Moreover, images from a smear of potentially infected cells can be recorded and analysed with multivariate methods. The reconstructed images show what appear to be sub-micron-inclusions of haemozoin in some cells indicating that the technique has potential to identify low pigmented forms of the parasite including early trophozoite-stage infected cells. Further work is required to unambiguously confirm the presence of such forms through systematic staining but the results are indeed promising and may lead to the development of a new Raman-based malaria diagnostic. PMID:19475137

  20. Performance of annular high frequency thermoacoustic engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Ivan A.

    This thesis presents studies of the behavior of miniature annular thermoacoustic prime movers and the imaging of the complex sound fields using PIV inside the small acoustic wave guides when driven by a temperature gradient. Thermoacoustic engines operating in the standing wave mode are limited in their acoustic efficiency by a high degree of irreversibility that is inherent in how they work. Better performance can be achieved by using traveling waves in the thermoacoustic devices. This has led to the development of an annular high frequency thermoacoustic prime mover consisting of a regenerator, which is a random stack in-between a hot and cold heat exchanger, inside an annular waveguide. Miniature devices were developed and studied with operating frequencies in the range of 2-4 kHz. This corresponds to an average ring circumference of 11 cm for the 3 kHz device, the resonator bore being 6 mm. A similar device of 11 mm bore, length of 18 cm was also investigated; its resonant frequency was 2 kHz. Sound intensities as high as 166.8 dB were generated with limited heat input. Sound power was extracted from the annular structure by an impedance-matching side arm. The nature of the acoustic wave generated by heat was investigated using a high speed PIV instrument. Although the acoustic device appears symmetric, its performance is characterized by a broken symmetry and by perturbations that exist in its structure. Effects of these are observed in the PIV imaging; images show axial and radial components. Moreover, PIV studies show effects of streaming and instabilities which affect the devices' acoustic efficiency. The acoustic efficiency is high, being of 40% of Carnot. This type of device shows much promise as a high efficiency energy converter; it can be reduced in size for microcircuit applications.

  1. Imaging screw dislocations at atomic resolution by aberration-corrected electron optical sectioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Lozano, J. G.; Pennycook, T. J.; Jones, L.; Hirsch, P. B.; Nellist, P. D.

    2015-06-01

    Screw dislocations play an important role in materials' mechanical, electrical and optical properties. However, imaging the atomic displacements in screw dislocations remains challenging. Although advanced electron microscopy techniques have allowed atomic-scale characterization of edge dislocations from the conventional end-on view, for screw dislocations, the atoms are predominantly displaced parallel to the dislocation line, and therefore the screw displacements are parallel to the electron beam and become invisible when viewed end-on. Here we show that screw displacements can be imaged directly with the dislocation lying in a plane transverse to the electron beam by optical sectioning using annular dark field imaging in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Applying this technique to a mixed [a+c] dislocation in GaN allows direct imaging of a screw dissociation with a 1.65-nm dissociation distance, thereby demonstrating a new method for characterizing dislocation core structures.

  2. Minerals and aligned collagen fibrils in tilapia fish scales: structural analysis using dark-field and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Mitsuhiro; Ogawa, Nobuhiro; Takeguchi, Masaki; Hashimoto, Ayako; Tagaya, Motohiro; Chen, Song; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Ikoma, Toshiyuki

    2011-10-01

    The mineralized structure of aligned collagen fibrils in a tilapia fish scale was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques after a thin sample was prepared using aqueous techniques. Electron diffraction and electron energy loss spectroscopy data indicated that a mineralized internal layer consisting of aligned collagen fibrils contains hydroxyapatite crystals. Bright-field imaging, dark-field imaging, and energy-filtered TEM showed that the hydroxyapatite was mainly distributed in the hole zones of the aligned collagen fibrils structure, while needle-like materials composed of calcium compounds including hydroxyapatite existed in the mineralized internal layer. Dark-field imaging and three-dimensional observation using electron tomography revealed that hydroxyapatite and needle-like materials were mainly found in the matrix between the collagen fibrils. It was observed that hydroxyapatite and needle-like materials were preferentially distributed on the surface of the hole zones in the aligned collagen fibrils structure and in the matrix between the collagen fibrils in the mineralized internal layer of the scale. PMID:21899811

  3. Reconfigurable mosaic annular arrays.

    PubMed

    Thomenius, Kai E; Wodnicki, Robert; Cogan, Scott D; Fisher, Rayette A; Burdick, Bill; Smith, L Scott; Khuri-Yakub, Pierre; Lin, Der-Song; Zhuang, Xuefeng; Bonitz, Barry; Davies, Todd; Thomas, Glen; Woychik, Charles

    2014-07-01

    Mosaic annular arrays (MAA) based on reconfigurable array (RA) transducer electronics assemblies are presented as a potential solution for future highly integrated ultrasonic transducer subsystems. Advantages of MAAs include excellent beam quality and depth of field resulting from superior elevational focus compared with 1-D electronically scanned arrays, as well as potentially reduced cost, size, and power consumption resulting from the use of a limited number of beamforming channels for processing a large number of subelements. Specific design tradeoffs for these highly integrated arrays are discussed in terms of array specifications for center frequency, element pitch, and electronic switch-on resistance. Large-area RAs essentially function as RC delay lines. Efficient architectures which take into account RC delay effects are presented. Architectures for integration of the transducer and electronics layers of large-area array implementations are reviewed. PMID:24960699

  4. Axisymmetric annular curtain stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Zahir U.; Khayat, Roger E.; Maissa, Philippe; Mathis, Christian

    2012-06-01

    A temporal stability analysis was carried out to investigate the stability of an axially moving viscous annular liquid jet subject to axisymmetric disturbances in surrounding co-flowing viscous gas media. We investigated in this study the effects of inertia, surface tension, the gas-to-liquid density ratio, the inner-to-outer radius ratio and the gas-to-liquid viscosity ratio on the stability of the jet. With an increase in inertia, the growth rate of the unstable disturbances is found to increase. The dominant (or most unstable) wavenumber decreases with increasing Reynolds number for larger values of the gas-to-liquid viscosity ratio. However, an opposite tendency for the most unstable wavenumber is predicted for small viscosity ratio in the same inertia range. The surrounding gas density, in the presence of viscosity, always reduces the growth rate, hence stabilizing the flow. There exists a critical value of the density ratio above which the flow becomes stable for very small viscosity ratio, whereas for large viscosity ratio, no stable flow appears in the same range of the density ratio. The curvature has a significant destabilizing effect on the thin annular jet, whereas for a relatively thick jet, the maximum growth rate decreases as the inner radius increases, irrespective of the surrounding gas viscosity. The degree of instability increases with Weber number for a relatively large viscosity ratio. In contrast, for small viscosity ratio, the growth rate exhibits a dramatic dependence on the surface tension. There is a small Weber number range, which depends on the viscosity ratio, where the flow is stable. The viscosity ratio always stabilizes the flow. However, the dominant wavenumber increases with increasing viscosity ratio. The range of unstable wavenumbers is affected only by the curvature effect.

  5. Process development using negative tone development for the dark field critical layers in a 28nm node process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versluijs, Janko; Truffert, Vincent; Murdoch, Gayle; De Bisschop, Peter; Trivkovic, Darko; Wiaux, Vincent; Kunnen, Eddy; Souriau, Laurent; Demuynck, Steven; Ercken, Monique

    2012-03-01

    The demand for ever shrinking semiconductor devices is driving efforts to reduce pattern dimensions in semiconductor lithography. In this work, the aim is to find a single patterning litho solution for a 28nm technology node using 193nm immersion lithography. Target poly pitch is 110nm and metal1 pitch is 90nm. For this, we have introduced a range of different techniques to reach this goal. At this node, it becomes essential to include the layout itself into the optimization process. This leads to the introduction of restricted design rules, together with the co-optimization of source and mask (SMO) and the use of customized illumination modes (freeform illumination sources; FlexrayTM). Also, negative tone development (NTD) is employed to further extend the applicability of 193nm immersion lithography. Traditionally, the printing of contacts and trenches is done by using a dark field mask in combination with a positive tone resist and positive tone development. The use of negative tone development enables images reversal. This allows benefiting from the improved imaging performance when exposing with bright field masks. The same features can be printed in positive tone resists and with improved process latitudes. At the same time intermediate metal (IM) layers are used to connect the front-end and back-end-of-line, resulting in huge area benefits compared to layouts without these IM layers. The use of these IM layers will not happen for the 28nm node, but is intended to be introduced towards the 20nm node, and beyond. Nevertheless, the choice was made to use this architecture to obtain a first learning cycle on this approach. In this study, the use of negative tone development is explored, and its use for the various dark field critical layers in a 28nm node process is successfully demonstrated. In order to obtain sufficiently large process windows, structures are printed larger than the designed target CD. As a consequence, a shrink of the structures needs to be

  6. Endoscopic inspection using a panoramic annular lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, John A.; Matthys, Donald R.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this one year study was to design, build, and demonstrate a prototype system for cavity inspection. A cylindrical view of the cavity interior was captured in real time through a compound lens system consisting of a unique panoramic annular lens and a collector lens. Images, acquired with a digitizing camera and stored in a desktop computer, were manipulated using image processing software to aid in visual inspection and qualitative analysis. A detailed description of the lens and its applications is given.

  7. Concomitant occurrence of patch granuloma annulare and classical granuloma annulare.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, Daisuke; Sowa, Junko; Hiroyasu, Sho; Ishii, Masamitsu; Kobayashi, Hiromi

    2011-05-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is characterized clinically as annularly-distributed, erythematous papules on the extremities in children and adolescents. GA is recognized histologically as palisading granulomas with central degenerated collagen and mucin deposits. Here, we present a case of concomitant occurrence of patch GA (PGA), the most rare type of GA, and classical GA in a patient. A 60-year-old man was referred to our hospital for asymptomatic eruptions on the upper arms, forearms, right flank and right lateral chest. Clinical examination revealed annular erythematous plaques composed of numerous small papules on bilateral upper arms and forearms. Moreover, an indurative, exudative erythematous to violaceous plaque was present on the right lateral chest and right flank. Histopathology of the former was compatible with palisade-type GA, and the latter interstitial-type GA. This is the first report of PGA concomitant with "classical" annular papular lesions. PMID:21352310

  8. Direct observation of nanometer-scale strain field around CoSi{sub 2}/Si interface using scanning moiré fringe imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Suhyun; Jung, Younheum; Jung Kim, Joong; Byun, Gwangseon; Lee, Sunyoung; Lee, Heabum

    2014-04-21

    We report the use of scanning moiré fringe (SMF) imaging through high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to measure the strain field around a CoSi{sub 2} contact embedded in the source and drain (S/D) region of a transistor. The atomic arrangement of the CoSi{sub 2}/Si (111) interface was determined from the high-resolution (HR)-STEM images, and the strain field formed around the S/D region was revealed by nanometer-scale SMFs appearing in the STEM image. In addition, we showed that the strain field in the S/D region measured by SMF imaging agreed with results obtained via peak-pairs analysis of HR-STEM images.

  9. Influence of nuclear quantum effects on frozen phonon simulations of electron vortex beam HAADF-STEM images.

    PubMed

    Löfgren, André; Zeiger, Paul; Kocevski, Vancho; Rusz, Ján

    2016-05-01

    We have evaluated atomic resolution high-angle annular dark field images with ordinary beams and electron vortex beams for thin crystals of bcc iron, explicitly considering the atomic vibrations using molecular dynamics. The shape of the image representing an atomic column depends on the orbital angular momentum, sample thickness and temperature. For electron vortex beams we observe characteristic doughnut-shaped images of atomic columns. It is shown how the thermal diffuse scattering reduces the depth of their central minima, which get further smeared by finite source size effects. In addition, it is shown that in calculations of HAADF-STEM images at low temperatures one has to explicitly consider the nuclear quantum effects (zero point vibrations), otherwise the effect of atomic vibrations is strongly underestimated. PMID:26852870

  10. Ultrafast dark-field surface inspection with hybrid-dispersion laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazaki, Akio; Kim, Chanju; Chan, Jacky; Mahjoubfar, Ata; Goda, Keisuke; Watanabe, Masahiro; Jalali, Bahram

    2014-06-01

    High-speed surface inspection plays an important role in industrial manufacturing, safety monitoring, and quality control. It is desirable to go beyond the speed limitation of current technologies for reducing manufacturing costs and opening a new window onto a class of applications that require high-throughput sensing. Here, we report a high-speed dark-field surface inspector for detection of micrometer-sized surface defects that can travel at a record high speed as high as a few kilometers per second. This method is based on a modified time-stretch microscope that illuminates temporally and spatially dispersed laser pulses on the surface of a fast-moving object and detects scattered light from defects on the surface with a sensitive photodetector in a dark-field configuration. The inspector's ability to perform ultrafast dark-field surface inspection enables real-time identification of difficult-to-detect features on weakly reflecting surfaces and hence renders the method much more practical than in the previously demonstrated bright-field configuration. Consequently, our inspector provides nearly 1000 times higher scanning speed than conventional inspectors. To show our method's broad utility, we demonstrate real-time inspection of the surface of various objects (a non-reflective black film, transparent flexible film, and reflective hard disk) for detection of 10 μm or smaller defects on a moving target at 20 m/s within a scan width of 25 mm at a scan rate of 90.9 MHz. Our method holds promise for improving the cost and performance of organic light-emitting diode displays for next-generation smart phones, lithium-ion batteries for green electronics, and high-efficiency solar cells.

  11. Ultrafast dark-field surface inspection with hybrid-dispersion laser scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Yazaki, Akio; Kim, Chanju; Chan, Jacky; Mahjoubfar, Ata; Goda, Keisuke; Watanabe, Masahiro; Jalali, Bahram

    2014-06-23

    High-speed surface inspection plays an important role in industrial manufacturing, safety monitoring, and quality control. It is desirable to go beyond the speed limitation of current technologies for reducing manufacturing costs and opening a new window onto a class of applications that require high-throughput sensing. Here, we report a high-speed dark-field surface inspector for detection of micrometer-sized surface defects that can travel at a record high speed as high as a few kilometers per second. This method is based on a modified time-stretch microscope that illuminates temporally and spatially dispersed laser pulses on the surface of a fast-moving object and detects scattered light from defects on the surface with a sensitive photodetector in a dark-field configuration. The inspector's ability to perform ultrafast dark-field surface inspection enables real-time identification of difficult-to-detect features on weakly reflecting surfaces and hence renders the method much more practical than in the previously demonstrated bright-field configuration. Consequently, our inspector provides nearly 1000 times higher scanning speed than conventional inspectors. To show our method's broad utility, we demonstrate real-time inspection of the surface of various objects (a non-reflective black film, transparent flexible film, and reflective hard disk) for detection of 10 μm or smaller defects on a moving target at 20 m/s within a scan width of 25 mm at a scan rate of 90.9 MHz. Our method holds promise for improving the cost and performance of organic light-emitting diode displays for next-generation smart phones, lithium-ion batteries for green electronics, and high-efficiency solar cells.

  12. Quantitative readout of optically encoded gold nanorods using an ordinary dark-field microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercatelli, Raffaella; Ratto, Fulvio; Centi, Sonia; Soria, Silvia; Romano, Giovanni; Matteini, Paolo; Quercioli, Franco; Pini, Roberto; Fusi, Franco

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we report on a new use for dark-field microscopy in order to retrieve two-dimensional maps of optical parameters of a thin sample such as a cryptograph, a histological section, or a cell monolayer. In particular, we discuss the construction of quantitative charts of light absorbance and scattering coefficients of a polyvinyl alcohol film that was embedded with gold nanorods and then etched using a focused mode-locked Ti:Sapphire oscillator. Individual pulses from this laser excite plasmonic oscillations of the gold nanorods, thus triggering plastic deformations of the particles and their environment, which are confined within a few hundred nm of the light focus. In turn, these deformations modify the light absorbance and scattering landscape, which can be measured with optical resolution in a dark-field microscope equipped with an objective of tuneable numerical aperture. This technique may prove to be valuable for various applications, such as the fast readout of optically encoded data or to model functional interactions between light and biological tissue at the level of cellular organelles, including the photothermolysis of cancer.In this paper we report on a new use for dark-field microscopy in order to retrieve two-dimensional maps of optical parameters of a thin sample such as a cryptograph, a histological section, or a cell monolayer. In particular, we discuss the construction of quantitative charts of light absorbance and scattering coefficients of a polyvinyl alcohol film that was embedded with gold nanorods and then etched using a focused mode-locked Ti:Sapphire oscillator. Individual pulses from this laser excite plasmonic oscillations of the gold nanorods, thus triggering plastic deformations of the particles and their environment, which are confined within a few hundred nm of the light focus. In turn, these deformations modify the light absorbance and scattering landscape, which can be measured with optical resolution in a dark-field

  13. Dynamic scattering theory for dark-field electron holography of 3D strain fields.

    PubMed

    Lubk, Axel; Javon, Elsa; Cherkashin, Nikolay; Reboh, Shay; Gatel, Christophe; Hÿtch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Dark-field electron holography maps strain in crystal lattices into reconstructed phases over large fields of view. Here we investigate the details of the lattice strain-reconstructed phase relationship by applying dynamic scattering theory both analytically and numerically. We develop efficient analytic linear projection rules for 3D strain fields, facilitating a straight-forward calculation of reconstructed phases from 3D strained materials. They are used in the following to quantify the influence of various experimental parameters like strain magnitude, specimen thickness, excitation error and surface relaxation. PMID:24012934

  14. Icosahedral stereographic projections in three dimensions for use in dark field TEM.

    PubMed

    Bourdillon, Antony J

    2013-08-01

    Thermodynamics require that rapidly cooled crystals and quasicrystals are relatively defective. Yet, without convenient 3-dimensional indexation both at crystal poles and in diffraction planes, or Kikuchi maps, it is difficult to identify the defects by dark field transmission electron microscopy. For two phase Al6Mn, these maps are derived. They relate i-Al6Mn to the standard face centered cubic, matrix crystals. An example of their usefulness in determining interfacial characteristics is described. Indices are integral powers on an irrational number. PMID:23850135

  15. Manufacture of annular cermet articles

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2004-11-02

    A method to produce annular-shaped, metal-clad cermet components directly produces the form and avoids multiple fabrication steps such as rolling and welding. The method includes the steps of: providing an annular hollow form with inner and outer side walls; filling the form with a particulate mixture of ceramic and metal; closing, evacuating, and hermetically sealing the form; heating the form to an appropriate temperature; and applying force to consolidate the particulate mixture into solid cermet.

  16. Dark-field X-ray microscopy for multiscale structural characterization

    PubMed Central

    Simons, H.; King, A.; Ludwig, W.; Detlefs, C.; Pantleon, W.; Schmidt, S.; Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.; Poulsen, H. F.

    2015-01-01

    Many physical and mechanical properties of crystalline materials depend strongly on their internal structure, which is typically organized into grains and domains on several length scales. Here we present dark-field X-ray microscopy; a non-destructive microscopy technique for the three-dimensional mapping of orientations and stresses on lengths scales from 100 nm to 1 mm within embedded sampling volumes. The technique, which allows ‘zooming’ in and out in both direct and angular space, is demonstrated by an annealing study of plastically deformed aluminium. Facilitating the direct study of the interactions between crystalline elements is a key step towards the formulation and validation of multiscale models that account for the entire heterogeneity of a material. Furthermore, dark-field X-ray microscopy is well suited to applied topics, where the structural evolution of internal nanoscale elements (for example, positioned at interfaces) is crucial to the performance and lifetime of macro-scale devices and components thereof. PMID:25586429

  17. Statistical distribution of single atoms and clusters of supported Au catalyst analyzed by global high-resolution HAADF-STEM observation with morphological image-processing operation.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuta; Arai, Shigeo; Esaki, Akihiko; Ohyama, Junya; Satsuma, Atsushi; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2014-06-01

    We have developed a quantitative particle size analytical method at the single atomic level employing electron microscopy and image processing for the investigation of supported metal catalysts. In the present study, a supported gold (Au) catalyst containing sub-nano clusters and individual atoms was globally observed by high-resolution high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) using spherical aberration (Cs)-corrected TEM. To fully extract structural information of the Au clusters and individual atoms from the HAADF-STEM images, a morphological image-processing operation was applied. The resulting mean particle size was in good agreement with particle sizes estimated from average information provided by X-ray absorption fine structure analysis. It is demonstrated that the present HAADF-STEM image analysis gives a quantitative particle size distribution measurement of supported Au clusters and individual atoms. PMID:24489113

  18. Sidestream dark field videomicroscopy for in vivo evaluation of vascularization and perfusion of mammary tumours in HER2/neu transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Elisa; Pierpaoli, Elisa; Orlando, Fiorenza; Donati, Abele; Provinciali, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    Angiogenesis plays a key role in tumour growth and the formation of metastases. Angiogenesis inhibitors and antivascular agents may prove useful in the treatment of breast cancer. A comprehensive characterization of the vasculature and perfusion of mammary tumours is a prerequisite for developing new specific drugs. We used sidestream dark field videomicroscopy to evaluate in vivo the vascular network of spontaneous mammary tumours in HER2/neu transgenic mice. The tumour masses showed higher vessel density compared with the healthy mammary gland (median (interquartile range) total vessel density 16.8 (13.4-20.5) vs 9.1 (8.1-10.9) mm/mm(2), respectively; P < 0.001). Tumor vessel density was reduced in mice treated with the anti-angiogenesis agent berberine, 12.1 (10.6-13.1) mm/mm(2). Sidestream dark field imaging is a versatile technique that may be useful for understanding the role of angiogenesis in the progression of breast cancer and its relationship with outcome. It may represent a valuable tool for dynamic monitoring of the effects of new anti-angiogenesis therapies. PMID:25443643

  19. Scanning transmission electron microscopic tomography of cortical bone using Z-contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    McNally, Elizabeth; Nan, Feihong; Botton, Gianluigi A; Schwarcz, Henry P

    2013-06-01

    Previously we presented (McNally et al., 2012) a model for the ultrastructure of bone showing that the mineral resides principally outside collagen fibrils in the form of 5 nm thick mineral structures hundreds of nanometers long oriented parallel to the fibrils. Here we use high-angle annular dark-field electron tomography in the scanning transmission electron microscope to confirm this model and further elucidate the composite structure. Views of a section cut parallel to the fibril axes show bundles of mineral structures extending parallel to the fibrils and encircling them. The mineral density inside the fibrils is too low to be visualized in these tomographic images. A section cut perpendicular to the fibril axes, shows quasi-circular walls composed of mineral structures, wrapping around apparently empty holes marking the sites of fibrils. These images confirm our original model that the majority of mineral in bone resides outside the collagen fibrils. PMID:23545162

  20. Preparation of Gold-Carbon Dots and Ratiometric Fluorescence Cellular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingyang; Wang, Donghui; Huang, Haowen; Liu, Lanfang; Zhou, Yuan; Xia, Xiaodong; Deng, Keqin; Liu, Xuanyong

    2016-03-16

    In this study, we synthesized novel gold-carbon dots (GCDs) with unique properties by microwave-assisted method. The characterization of high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), XRD, high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscope (HAADF-STEM), and energy dispersive spectrometer demonstrates that GCDs are composed of carbon and Au. Tiny Au clusters are dispersed in a 2 nm-size carbon skeleton, which integrates the properties of typical CDs and gold nanoclusters (AuNCs), displaying fascinating peroxidase-like activity and single excitation/dual emission. Dual emission of the GCDs exhibits different fluorescent response to the target species and enables the GCDs to be exploited for sensing and bioimaging. The highly photostable and biocompatible GCDs were applied to dual fluorescent imaging for breast cancer cells and normal rat osteoblast cells under a single excitation. Moreover, ratiometric fluorescence imaging was used to monitor Fe(3+) level in normal rat osteoblast cells. PMID:26905318

  1. Strain in Hydrogen-Implanted Si Investigated Using Dark-Field Electron Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkashin, Nikolay; Reboh, Shay; Lubk, Axel; Hÿtch, Martin J.; Claverie, Alain

    2013-09-01

    The microstructure of ion-implanted crystals is profoundly dictated by mechanical strain developing in interplay with structural defects. Understanding the origin of strain during the early stages of development is challenging and requires accurate measurements and modeling. Here, we investigate the mechanical strain in H-implanted Si. X-ray diffraction analysis is performed to measure the mesoscopic out-of-plane strain and dark-field electron holography to map strain in two-dimensions (2D) with nanometer spatial resolution. Supported by finite element method modeling, we propose that the mean strain field is explained by overlapping and averaging discrete strain fields generated by sub-nanoscopic defects that are intimately related to the H depth concentration.

  2. Dark-field microspectroscopic analysis of gold nanorods in spiral Ganglion neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, J.; Brown, W. G. A.; Needham, K.; Nayagam, B. A.; Yu, A.; McArthur, S. L.; Stoddart, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    Heterogeneous samples of spiral ganglion neuron primary cells were incubated with gold nanorods in order to investigate the photothermal processes induced by exposure to 780 nm laser light. Dark-field microspectroscopy was used to analyze the distribution and spectrum of nanorods in the neurons. The scattering data showed a typical gold nanorod spectrum, while a shift in the peak position suggested changes in the refractive index of the nanorod environment. The relationship between gold nanorods distribution and local temperature has also been examined with an open pipette microelectrode placed in the surrounding bath of the neurons. These temperature measurements confirm that the gold nanorods provide efficient localized heating under 780 nm laser exposure.

  3. Neutron Dark-Field Imaging of the Domain Distribution in the Intermediate State of Lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimann, T.; Schulz, M.; Grünzweig, C.; Kaestner, A.; Bauer, A.; Böni, P.; Mühlbauer, S.

    2016-02-01

    The intermediate state (IS) of a type-I superconductor is characterized by coexistence of Meissner phase and normal conducting phase. Experiments on the topology of the IS show a variety of universal domain patterns which are also seen in various other physical, chemical or even biological systems on various length and time scales. The possibility to easily tune the domain structure of the IS by a variation of magnetic field or temperature ideally qualifies type-I superconductors as general model systems for the investigation of domain nucleation and distribution. However, the experimental observation of the IS domain structure was up to now restricted to either thin films or surfaces. We demonstrate how neutron grating interferometry (nGI) probes the IS domain distribution in the interior of a bulk single-crystalline lead sample. By means of nGI, we are able to visualize the field penetration process into the superconductor as well as the hysteretic behavior of the intermediate state morphology. Finally, the impact of nGI for investigations on bulk domain nucleation is discussed, as this technique is applicable on many other systems that reveal a phase separation on a micrometer length scale.

  4. Portal annular pancreas: the pancreatic duct ring sign on MRCP

    PubMed Central

    Lath, Chinar O.; Agrawal, Dilpesh S.; Timins, Michael E.; Wein, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    Portal annular pancreas is a rare pancreatic variant in which the uncinate process of the pancreas extends and fuses to the dorsal surface of the body of the pancreas by surrounding the portal vein. It is asymptomatic, but it can be mistaken for a pancreatic head mass on imaging and could also have serious consequences during pancreatic surgery, if unrecognized. We report this case of a 53-year-old female patient who was diagnosed to have portal annular pancreas on the basis of an unusual course (ring appearance) of the main pancreatic duct on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, not described earlier in the radiology literature. PMID:26649117

  5. Portal annular pancreas: the pancreatic duct ring sign on MRCP.

    PubMed

    Lath, Chinar O; Agrawal, Dilpesh S; Timins, Michael E; Wein, Melissa M

    2015-12-01

    Portal annular pancreas is a rare pancreatic variant in which the uncinate process of the pancreas extends and fuses to the dorsal surface of the body of the pancreas by surrounding the portal vein. It is asymptomatic, but it can be mistaken for a pancreatic head mass on imaging and could also have serious consequences during pancreatic surgery, if unrecognized. We report this case of a 53-year-old female patient who was diagnosed to have portal annular pancreas on the basis of an unusual course (ring appearance) of the main pancreatic duct on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, not described earlier in the radiology literature. PMID:26649117

  6. Annular Eclipse as Seen by Hinode

    NASA Video Gallery

    This timelapse shows an annular eclipse as seen by JAXA's Hinode satellite on Jan. 4, 2011. An annular eclipse occurs when the moon, slightly more distant from Earth than on average, moves directly...

  7. Design and analysis of annular antenna arrays with different reflectors.

    PubMed

    Shi, G; Joines, W T

    2004-09-01

    The design and performance of annular antenna arrays with reflectors is presented. Arrays with three shapes of reflectors are analysed and simulated. These include the corner reflector, the circular reflector and the elliptical reflector. Power-density distributions within the annular arrays with and without reflectors are obtained by using the FDTD method. Also, the image theory method is used to verify the FDTD results in one case. By comparing the power-density distribution pattern of all four of the array designs (three with different reflectors, one without reflector), it is readily seen in each case that the array with reflectors yields better power-efficiency than the array without reflectors and the elliptical reflector yields the best performance. Comparisons of each array are made using 4, 6 and 8 antennae in the annular array. By using the optimized results of the elliptical reflector, the requirement for the input-power level to each antenna is greatly reduced. PMID:15370818

  8. Reproducible strain measurement in electronic devices by applying integer multiple to scanning grating in scanning moiré fringe imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Suhyun Jung, Younheum; Kim, Joong Jung; Lee, Sunyoung; Lee, Haebum; Kondo, Yukihito

    2014-10-15

    Scanning moiré fringe (SMF) imaging by high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to measure the strain field in the channel of a transistor with a CoSi{sub 2} source and drain. Nanometer-scale SMFs were formed with a scanning grating size of d{sub s} at integer multiples of the Si crystal lattice spacing d{sub l} (d{sub s} ∼ nd{sub l}, n = 2, 3, 4, 5). The moiré fringe formula was modified to establish a method for quantifying strain measurement. We showed that strain fields in a transistor measured by SMF images were reproducible with an accuracy of 0.02%.

  9. Eosinophilic annular erythema in childhood - Case report.

    PubMed

    Abarzúa, Alvaro; Giesen, Laura; Silva, Sergio; González, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic annular erythema is a rare, benign, recurrent disease, clinically characterized by persistent, annular, erythematous lesions, revealing histopathologically perivascular infiltrates with abundant eosinophils. This report describes an unusual case of eosinophilic annular erythema in a 3-year-old female, requiring sustained doses of hydroxychloroquine to be adequately controlled. PMID:27579748

  10. Eosinophilic annular erythema in childhood - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Abarzúa, Alvaro; Giesen, Laura; Silva, Sergio; González, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic annular erythema is a rare, benign, recurrent disease, clinically characterized by persistent, annular, erythematous lesions, revealing histopathologically perivascular infiltrates with abundant eosinophils. This report describes an unusual case of eosinophilic annular erythema in a 3-year-old female, requiring sustained doses of hydroxychloroquine to be adequately controlled. PMID:27579748

  11. How to assess aortic annular size before transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI): the role of echocardiography compared with other imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Cliona; Monaghan, Mark

    2015-05-01

    After reading this article, the reader should be able to: Recognise the complex 3 dimensional anatomy of the aortic annulus. Select appropriate cardiac imaging modalities for measurement of aortic annulus size and distinguish the different measurements which may be made. Describe the advantages & limitations of different imaging modalities with reference to clinical outcomes and complications. PMID:25227703

  12. Laser-induced retinal damage thresholds for annular retinal beam profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Paul K.; Zuclich, Joseph A.; Lund, David J.; Edsall, Peter R.; Till, Stephen; Stuck, Bruce E.; Hollins, Richard C.

    2004-07-01

    The dependence of retinal damage thresholds on laser spot size, for annular retinal beam profiles, was measured in vivo for 3 μs, 590 nm pulses from a flashlamp-pumped dye laser. Minimum Visible Lesion (MVL)ED50 thresholds in rhesus were measured for annular retinal beam profiles covering 5, 10, and 20 mrad of visual field; which correspond to outer beam diameters of roughly 70, 160, and 300 μm, respectively, on the primate retina. Annular beam profiles at the retinal plane were achieved using a telescopic imaging system, with the focal properties of the eye represented as an equivalent thin lens, and all annular beam profiles had a 37% central obscuration. As a check on experimental data, theoretical MVL-ED50 thresholds for annular beam exposures were calculated using the Thompson-Gerstman granular model of laser-induced thermal damage to the retina. Threshold calculations were performed for the three experimental beam diameters and for an intermediate case with an outer beam diameter of 230 μm. Results indicate that the threshold vs. spot size trends, for annular beams, are similar to the trends for top hat beams determined in a previous study; i.e., the threshold dose varies with the retinal image area for larger image sizes. The model correctly predicts the threshold vs. spot size trends seen in the biological data, for both annular and top hat retinal beam profiles.

  13. Dynamical effects in strain measurements by dark-field electron holography.

    PubMed

    Javon, E; Lubk, A; Cours, R; Reboh, S; Cherkashin, N; Houdellier, F; Gatel, C; Hÿtch, M J

    2014-12-01

    Here, we study the effect of dynamic scattering on the projected geometric phase and strain maps reconstructed using dark-field electron holography (DFEH) for non-uniformly strained crystals. The investigated structure consists of a {SiGe/Si} superlattice grown on a (001)-Si substrate. The three-dimensional strain field within the thin TEM lamella is modelled by the finite element method. The observed projected strain is simulated in two ways by multiplying the strain at each depth in the crystal by a weighting function determined from a recently developed analytical two-beam dynamical theory, and by simply taking the average value. We demonstrate that the experimental results need to be understood in terms of the dynamical theory and good agreement is found between the experimental and simulated results. Discrepancies do remain for certain cases and are likely to be from an imprecision in the actual two-beam diffraction conditions, notably the deviation parameter, and points to limitations in the 2-beam approximation. Finally, a route towards a 3D reconstruction of strain fields is proposed. PMID:25062040

  14. Dark-field microscopy visualization of unstained axonal pathways using oil of wintergreen.

    PubMed

    Senatorov, Vladimir V

    2002-01-15

    Despite enormous progress in the development of new morphological techniques, there is still not a simple technique for visualization of the fiber architecture in the mammalian brain. To develop such a technique, thick (400-600 microm) sections of the rat, mice, calf or postmortal human brain were fixed in paraformaldehyde, dehydrated in a series of ethanol and finally immersed in methyl salicylate. The major principle of this newly developed method was to make the neural tissue transparent, and then utilize the ability of neuronal fibers to deflect and deviate light directed from the side to render them visible. Dark-field illumination was used to create illuminating rays of light arriving at an angle exceeding the collecting angle of the objective lens, thus causing only the axonal pathways to be visible as a bright silver silhouette against a dark background. As a result, a three-dimensional structure of the whole white matter of the brain slice became clearly viewable. This technique worked equally well for mammalian brain frontal, sagittal and horizontal sections, as well as for the spinal cord sections. The method was appropriate for verification of axonal fiber courses in brain slice preparations used in electrophysiological experiments, including special applications, such as visualization of axonal bundles within neural transplants. Due to its simplicity, the technique can be successfully used even in an amateur laboratory having basic microscopy equipment and reagents. PMID:11741722

  15. STEM Electron Diffraction and High Resolution Images Used in the Determination of the Crystal Structure of Au144(SR)60 Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Bahena, Daniel; Bhattarai, Nabraj; Santiago, Ulises; Tlahuice, Alfredo; Ponce, Arturo; Bach, Stephan B. H.; Yoon, Bokwon; Whetten, Robert L.; Landman, Uzi; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the total structure of molecular nanocrystals is an outstanding experimental challenge that has been met, in only a few cases, by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Described here is an alternative approach that is of most general applicability and does not require the fabrication of a single crystal. The method is based on rapid, time-resolved nanobeam electron diffraction (NBD) combined with high-angle annular dark field scanning/transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) images in a probe corrected STEM microscope, operated at reduced voltages. The results are compared with theoretical simulations of images and diffraction patterns obtained from atomistic structural models derived through first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The method is demonstrated by application to determination of the structure of the Au144(SCH2CH2Ph)60 cluster. PMID:23687562

  16. Annular arc accelerator shock tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, L. P. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An annular arc accelerator shock tube employs a cold gas driver to flow a stream of gas from an expansion section through a high voltage electrode section to a test section, thus driving a shock wave in front of it. A glow discharge detects the shock wave and actuates a trigger generator which in turn fires spark-gap switches to discharge a bank of capacitors across a centered cathode and an annular anode in tandem electrode sections. The initial shock wave passes through the anode section from the cathode section thereby depositing energy into the flow gas without the necessity of any diaphragm opening in the gas flow from the expansion section through the electrode sections.

  17. Energy Focusability of Annular Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astadjov, Dimo N.

    2010-01-01

    A simulation of coherent annular flat two-level beams by two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform is presented. After parameterization of the source beam (the `input') we examined the influence of its parameters on the shape and proportions of the output beam profile. The output pattern has a prominent central peak and faint rings concentrically surrounding it. The fraction of the central peak energy to the whole energy of beam, PF0 gives a notion of energy spread within the focal spot: PF0 is a function of beam annularity, k (i.e. `inside diameter/outside diameter' ratio) and the intensity dip, Idip of annulus central area (i.e. ring intensity minus central-bottom intensity, normalized). Up to k = 0.8 and Idip = 0.75, PF0 does not change too much—it is ⩾0.7 which is ⩾90% of PF0 maximum (0.778 at k = 0 and Idip = 0). Simulations revealed that even great changes in the shape of input beam annulus lead to small variations in the energy spread of output beam profile in the range of practical use of coherent annular beams.

  18. Probe and object function reconstruction in incoherent stem imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Nellist, P.D.; Pennycook, S.J.

    1996-09-01

    Using the phase-object approximation it is shown how an annular dark- field (ADF) detector in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) leads to an image which can be described by an incoherent model. The point spread function is found to be simply the illuminating probe intensity. An important consequence of this is that there is no phase problem in the imaging process, which allows various image processing methods to be applied directly to the image intensity data. Using an image of a GaAs<110>, the probe intensity profile is reconstructed, confirming the existence of a 1.3 {Angstrom} probe in a 300kV STEM. It is shown that simply deconvolving this reconstructed probe from the image data does not improve its interpretability because the dominant effects of the imaging process arise simply from the restricted resolution of the microscope. However, use of the reconstructed probe in a maximum entropy reconstruction is demonstrated, which allows information beyond the resolution limit to be restored and does allow improved image interpretation.

  19. Atomic-scale imaging of cation ordering in inverse spinel Zn2SnO4 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lihong; Zang, Jianfeng; Wang, Guofeng; Li, Xiaodong

    2014-11-12

    By using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) coupled with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we demonstrate the atomic-level imaging of cation ordering in inverse spinel Zn2SnO4 nanowires. This cation ordering was identified as 1:1 ordering of Zn(2+) and Sn(4+) at the octahedral sites of the inverse spinel crystal with microscopic symmetry transition from original cubic Fd3̅m to orthorhombic Imma group. This ordering generated a 67.8% increase in the elastic modulus and 1-2 order of magnitude lower in the electric conductivity and electron mobility compared to their bulk counterpart. PMID:25300009

  20. Strain mapping for the semiconductor industry by dark-field electron holography and nanobeam electron diffraction with nm resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, David; Béché, Armand; Hartmann, Jean Michel; Carron, Veronique; Rouvière, Jean-Luc

    2010-09-01

    There is a requirement of the semiconductor industry to measure strain in semiconductor devices with nm-scale resolution. Here we show that dark-field electron holography and nanobeam electron diffraction (NBED) are both complementary techniques that can be used to determine the strain in these devices. We show two-dimensional strain maps acquired by dark holography and line profiles that have been acquired by NBED of recessed SiGe sources and drains with a variety of different gate lengths and Ge concentrations. We have also used dark-field electron holography to measure the evolution in strain during the silicidation process, showing that this can reduce the applied uniaxial compressive strain in the conduction channel by up to a factor of 3.

  1. Granuloma annulare in herpes zoster scars.

    PubMed

    Ohata, C; Shirabe, H; Takagi, K; Kawatsu, T

    2000-03-01

    A 54-year-old Japanese female developed granuloma annulare twice in herpes zoster scars. Soon after the second event, she developed ulcerative colitis, which was well controlled by sulfonamides and corticosteroid suppository. She had no history of diabetes mellitus. There was no recurrence of granuloma annulare by June of 1999. Granuloma annulare might have contributed to the complications of ulcerative colitis, although this had not been noticed before. PMID:10774142

  2. Annular Solar Eclipse of 10 May 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1993-01-01

    An annular eclipse of the Sun will be widely visible from the Western Hemisphere on 10 May 1994. The path of the Moon's shadow passes through Mexico, the United States of America, maritime Canada, the North Atlantic, the Azores and Morocco. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include tables of geographic coordinates of the annular path, local circumstances for hundreds of cities, maps of the path of annular and partial eclipse, weather prospects, and the lunar limb profile.

  3. Quantitative nanoimmunosensor based on dark-field illumination with enhanced sensitivity and on-off switching using scattering signals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungah; Nan, He; Yu, Hyunung; Kang, Seong Ho

    2016-05-15

    A nanoimmunosensor based on wavelength-dependent dark-field illumination with enhanced sensitivity was used to detect a disease-related protein molecule at zeptomolar (zM) concentrations. The assay platform of 100-nm gold nanospots could be selectively acquired using the wavelength-dependence of enhanced scattering signals from antibody-conjugated plasmonic silver nanoparticles (NPs) with on-off switching using optical filters. Detection of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (hTSH) at a sensitivity of 100 zM, which corresponds to 1-2 molecules per gold spot, was possible within a linear range of 100 zM-100 fM (R=0.9968). A significantly enhanced sensitivity (~4-fold) was achieved with enhanced dark-field illumination compared to using a total internal reflection fluorescence immunosensor. Immunoreactions were confirmed via optical axial-slicing based on the spectral characteristics of two plasmonic NPs. This method of using wavelength-dependent dark-field illumination had an enhanced sensitivity and a wide, linear dynamic range of 100 zM-100 fM, and was an effective tool for quantitatively detecting a single molecule on a nanobiochip for molecular diagnostics. PMID:26774086

  4. Spectroscopic imaging in electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, Stephen J; Colliex, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the scanning transmission electron microscope, multiple signals can be simultaneously collected, including the transmitted and scattered electron signals (bright field and annular dark field or Z-contrast images), along with spectroscopic signals such as inelastically scattered electrons and emitted photons. In the last few years, the successful development of aberration correctors for the electron microscope has transformed the field of electron microscopy, opening up new possibilities for correlating structure to functionality. Aberration correction not only allows for enhanced structural resolution with incident probes into the sub-angstrom range, but can also provide greater probe currents to facilitate mapping of intrinsically weak spectroscopic signals at the nanoscale or even the atomic level. In this issue of MRS Bulletin, we illustrate the power of the new generation of electron microscopes with a combination of imaging and spectroscopy. We show the mapping of elemental distributions at atomic resolution and also the mapping of electronic and optical properties at unprecedented spatial resolution, with applications ranging from graphene to plasmonic nanostructures, and oxide interfaces to biology.

  5. Confocal Annular Josephson Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The physics of Josephson tunnel junctions drastically depends on their geometrical configurations and here we show that also tiny geometrical details play a determinant role. More specifically, we develop the theory of short and long annular Josephson tunnel junctions delimited by two confocal ellipses. The behavior of a circular annular Josephson tunnel junction is then seen to be simply a special case of the above result. For junctions having a normalized perimeter less than one, the threshold curves in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field of arbitrary orientations are derived and computed even in the case with trapped Josephson vortices. For longer junctions, a numerical analysis is carried out after the derivation of the appropriate motion equation for the Josephson phase. We found that the system is modeled by a modified and perturbed sine-Gordon equation with a space-dependent effective Josephson penetration length inversely proportional to the local junction width. Both the fluxon statics and dynamics are deeply affected by the non-uniform annulus width. Static zero-field multiple-fluxon solutions exist even in the presence of a large bias current. The tangential velocity of a traveling fluxon is not determined by the balance between the driving and drag forces due to the dissipative losses. Furthermore, the fluxon motion is characterized by a strong radial inward acceleration which causes electromagnetic radiation concentrated at the ellipse equatorial points.

  6. Confocal Annular Josephson Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    The physics of Josephson tunnel junctions drastically depends on their geometrical configurations and here we show that also tiny geometrical details play a determinant role. More specifically, we develop the theory of short and long annular Josephson tunnel junctions delimited by two confocal ellipses. The behavior of a circular annular Josephson tunnel junction is then seen to be simply a special case of the above result. For junctions having a normalized perimeter less than one, the threshold curves in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field of arbitrary orientations are derived and computed even in the case with trapped Josephson vortices. For longer junctions, a numerical analysis is carried out after the derivation of the appropriate motion equation for the Josephson phase. We found that the system is modeled by a modified and perturbed sine-Gordon equation with a space-dependent effective Josephson penetration length inversely proportional to the local junction width. Both the fluxon statics and dynamics are deeply affected by the non-uniform annulus width. Static zero-field multiple-fluxon solutions exist even in the presence of a large bias current. The tangential velocity of a traveling fluxon is not determined by the balance between the driving and drag forces due to the dissipative losses. Furthermore, the fluxon motion is characterized by a strong radial inward acceleration which causes electromagnetic radiation concentrated at the ellipse equatorial points.

  7. Bistability and hysteresis of annular impinging jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisovsky, Tomas

    2016-06-01

    In present study, the bistability and hysteresis of annular impinging jets is investigated. Annular impinging jets are simulated using open source CFD code - OpenFOAM. Both flow field patterns of interest are obtained and hysteresis is found by means of dynamic mesh simulation. Effect of nozzle exit velocity on resulting hysteresis loop is also illustrated.

  8. Granuloma annulare with prominent lymphoid infiltrates ("pseudolymphomatous" granuloma annulare).

    PubMed

    Cota, Carlo; Ferrara, Gerardo; Cerroni, Lorenzo

    2012-05-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is characterized histopathologically by 3 patterns: necrobiotic granuloma, interstitial incomplete form and, rarely, sarcoidal or tuberculoid granuloma. The amount of lymphoid infiltrate in GA is usually limited. We describe 10 cases of GA with prominent "pseudolymphomatous" lymphoid infiltrates mimicking cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia. Patients were 6 males and 4 females (mean age 49.9 years, median age 47 years, age range 25-70). Lesions were localized to a limited area of the body (n = 6), or involved the entire trunk (n = 3), or were generalized (n = 1). The correct clinical diagnosis of GA was provided only in 30% of the cases. In all cases, histopathologic features were characterized by dense, nodular, superficial, and deep infiltrates of lymphocytes. Immunohistology revealed predominance of T lymphocytes in 7 of 7 tested cases. This "pseudolymphomatous" variant of GA represents a pitfall in the histopathologic diagnosis of the disease and may be misinterpreted as other types of cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:22207445

  9. Free transverse vibration of a wrinkled annular thin film by using finite difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. G.; Liu, Y. P.; Lan, L.; Tan, H. F.

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the free transverse vibration of a wrinkled annular thin film. The non-dimensional Hamilton motion equation of the wrinkled annular thin film is established, which is solved by using the finite difference method to acquire the vibration frequency and mode. The predicted vibration characteristics are verified by the experimental measurements based on the digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The results show that wrinkles have great effects on the vibration of the annular thin film. Especially for the heavily wrinkled cases, the local-global interactive mode dominates the vibration of the annular thin film. The frequency increases as the wrinkling level increases which is mainly due to the increased nonlinear geometric stiffness. The results provide favorable supports for understanding the role of nonlinear wrinkling on the vibration of thin films.

  10. Design and characterization of the annular cathode high current pulsed electron beam source for circular components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Langping; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2016-08-01

    In order to irradiate circular components with high current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB), an annular cathode based on carbon fiber bunches was designed and fabricated. Using an acceleration voltage of 25 kV, the maximum pulsed irradiation current and energy of this annular cathode can reach 7.9 kA and 300 J, respectively. The irradiation current density distribution of the annular cathode HCPEB source measured along the circumferential direction shows that the annular cathode has good emission uniformity. In addition, four 9310 steel substrates fixed uniformly along the circumferential direction of a metal ring substrate were irradiated by this annular cathode HCPEB source. The surface and cross-section morphologies of the irradiated samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images of the surface reveal that crater and surface undulation have been formed, which hints that the irradiation energy of the HCPEB process is large enough for surface modification of 9310 steel. Meanwhile, SEM cross-section images exhibit that remelted layers with a thickness of about 5.4 μm have been obtained in all samples, which proves that a good practical irradiation uniformity can be achieved by this annular cathode HCPEB source.