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Sample records for annular superposition integral

  1. Annular flow optimization: A new integrated approach

    SciTech Connect

    Maglione, R.; Robotti, G.; Romagnoli, R.

    1997-07-01

    During the drilling stage of an oil and gas well the hydraulic circuit of the mud assumes great importance with respect to most of the numerous and various constituting parts (mostly in the annular sections). Each of them has some points to be satisfied in order to guarantee both the safety of the operations and the performance optimization of each of the single elements of the circuit. The most important tasks for the annular part of the drilling hydraulic circuit are the following: (1) Maximum available pressure to the last casing shoe; (2) avoid borehole wall erosions; and (3) guarantee the hole cleaning. A new integrated system considering all the elements of the annular part of the drilling hydraulic circuit and the constraints imposed from each of them has been realized. In this way the family of the flow parameters (mud rheology and pump rate) satisfying simultaneously all the variables of the annular section has been found. Finally two examples regarding a standard and narrow annular section (slim hole) will be reported, showing briefly all the steps of the calculations until reaching the optimum flow parameters family (for that operational condition of drilling) that satisfies simultaneous all the flow parameters limitations imposed by the elements of the annular section circuit.

  2. Transient Response of Shells of Revolution by Direct Integration and Modal Superposition Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, W. B.; Adelman, H. M.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an analytical effort to obtain and evaluate transient response data for a cylindrical and a conical shell by use of two different approaches: direct integration and modal superposition are described. The inclusion of nonlinear terms is more important than the inclusion of secondary linear effects (transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia) although there are thin-shell structures where these secondary effects are important. The advantages of the direct integration approach are that geometric nonlinear and secondary effects are easy to include and high-frequency response may be calculated. In comparison to the modal superposition technique the computer storage requirements are smaller. The advantages of the modal superposition approach are that the solution is independent of the previous time history and that once the modal data are obtained, the response for repeated cases may be efficiently computed. Also, any admissible set of initial conditions can be applied.

  3. An integral equation formulation for predicting radiation patterns of a space shuttle annular slot antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. E.; Richmond, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    An integral equation formulation is applied to predict pitch- and roll-plane radiation patterns of a thin VHF/UHF (very high frequency/ultra high frequency) annular slot communications antenna operating at several locations in the nose region of the space shuttle orbiter. Digital computer programs used to compute radiation patterns are given and the use of the programs is illustrated. Experimental verification of computed patterns is given from measurements made on 1/35-scale models of the orbiter.

  4. Unsteady Annular Viscous Flows Between Oscillating Cylinders. Part I: Computational Solutions Based on a Time-Integration Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateescu, D.; Païdoussis, M. P.; Belanger, F.

    1994-07-01

    The paper presents 2-D and 3-D computational solutions for unsteady annular viscous flows with oscillating boundaries. A time-integration method based on a three-time-level implicit semi-discretization is first formulated in cylindrical coordinates for solving the time-dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. This methods uses a pseudo-time integration with artificial compressibility to advance the solution between consecutive real time levels, and a finite-difference spatial discretization based on a stretched staggered grid. A decoupling procedure based on a factored ADI scheme with lagged nonlinearities reduces the problem to the solution of scalar tridiagonal systems. As a result, this method displays very good computing efficiency and accuracy in all numerical examples analysed. The method is first validated for axisymmetric flow over an annular backstep, by comparison with previous results, and is then employed to analyse 2-D unsteady annular flows due to transverse oscillations of the outer boundary. The results obtained with this method are free of spurious, numerically induced, oscillations in the unsteady pressure, which otherwise arise if a Crank-Nicolson scheme is used instead for time-discretization.The 3-D case of oscillating boundaries in annular axial flow is also analysed with this method by considering a fully developed viscous axial flow between two concentric cylinders when the central portion of the outer cylinder executes transverse translational oscillations; the computational solution thus obtained is of interest in the study of flow-induced vibration problems in such configurations.

  5. Annular pancreas

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001142.htm Annular pancreas To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An annular pancreas is a ring of pancreatic tissue that encircles ...

  6. Imaging performance of annular apertures. IV - Apodization and point spread functions. V - Total and partial energy integral functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschunko, H. F. A.

    1983-01-01

    Reference is made to a study by Tschunko (1979) in which it was discussed how apodization modifies the modulation transfer function for various central obstruction ratios. It is shown here how apodization, together with the central obstruction ratio, modifies the point spread function, which is the basic element for the comparison of imaging performance and for the derivation of energy integrals and other functions. At high apodization levels and lower central obstruction (less than 0.1), new extended radial zones are formed in the outer part of the central ring groups. These transmutation of the image functions are of more than theoretical interest, especially if the irradiance levels in the outer ring zones are to be compared to the background irradiance levels. Attention is then given to the energy distribution in point images generated by annular apertures apodized by various transmission functions. The total energy functions are derived; partial energy integrals are determined; and background irradiance functions are discussed.

  7. Internal combustion engine with a central crankshaft and integral tandem annular pistons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esparbes, Bernard

    1993-08-01

    An internal combustion engine with tandem annular pistons and a central crankshaft is disclosed, based on that found in British patent 11027 of 11 May 1914. The piston block formed by the two pistons presents, at each axial extremity, a double axial skirt fitted with an outer crown forming the head of the piston as such, and an inner crown forming an inlet pump with a holding chamber radially located at the inside of the corresponding annular cylinder, in which the piston head delimits a combustion chamber. Radial fingers, crossing axial openings of the crankcase and radial holes of the piston block, have their inner radial ends engaged within wavy sinusoidal peripheral slots arranged in a bulging central portion of the central crankshaft set into rotation by alternating axial movements of the piston block. The admission of fuel or combustion sustaining gas is ensured axially by the extremities, valves, and openings in the end plates closing the holding chambers in which the inner crowns slide, fitted with valves to act as an inlet pump. The invention is particularly applicable to aircraft engines in view of the ease in which the shaft rotation can be adapted to such a use.

  8. Granuloma annulare.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Diptesh; Hess, Brian; Bachegowda, Lohith

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of a 77-year-old, diabetic male with a 20-year history of a migratory erythematous, asymptomatic, generalized, nonscaly, and nonitchy rash that started over the dorsum of his left hand. On examination, there were multiple annular erythematous plaques, distributed symmetrically and diffusely over his torso and arms, with central clearing and no scales. A punch biopsy of the skin helped us to arrive at the diagnosis of a generalized granuloma annulare (GA). GA is a benign, self-limiting skin condition of unknown etiology that is often asymptomatic. The cause of this condition is unknown, but it has been associated with diabetes mellitus, infections such as HIV, and malignancies such as lymphoma. These lesions typically start as a ring of flesh-colored papules that slowly progress with central clearing. Lack of symptoms, scaling, or associated vesicles helps to differentiate GA from other skin conditions such as tinea corporis, pityriasis rosea, psoriasis, or erythema annulare centrifugum. Treatment is often not needed as the majority of these lesions are self-resolving within 2 years. Treatment may be pursued for cosmetic reasons. Available options include high-dose steroid creams, PUVA, cryotherapy, or drugs such as niacinamide, infliximab, Dapsone, and topical calcineurin inhibitors. PMID:20209383

  9. Multipartite entanglement of superpositions

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalcanti, D.; Terra Cunha, M. O.; Acin, A.

    2007-10-15

    The entanglement of superpositions [Linden et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 100502 (2006)]is generalized to the multipartite scenario: an upper bound to the multipartite entanglement of a superposition is given in terms of the entanglement of the superposed states and the superposition coefficients. This bound is proven to be tight for a class of states composed of an arbitrary number of qubits. We also extend the result to a large family of quantifiers, which includes the negativity, the robustness of entanglement, and the best separable approximation measure.

  10. Multipartite entanglement of superpositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, D.; Terra Cunha, M. O.; Acín, A.

    2007-10-01

    The entanglement of superpositions [Linden , Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 100502 (2006)]is generalized to the multipartite scenario: an upper bound to the multipartite entanglement of a superposition is given in terms of the entanglement of the superposed states and the superposition coefficients. This bound is proven to be tight for a class of states composed of an arbitrary number of qubits. We also extend the result to a large family of quantifiers, which includes the negativity, the robustness of entanglement, and the best separable approximation measure.

  11. K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    RITTMANN, P.D.

    1999-10-07

    Three bounding accidents postdated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing, and a hydrogen explosion. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

  12. K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    2000-01-10

    Four bounding accidents postulated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing a hydrogen explosion, and a fire breaching filter vessel and enclosure. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

  13. Granuloma Annulare.

    PubMed

    Keimig, Emily Louise

    2015-07-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is a noninfectious granulomatous skin condition that can present with a variety of cutaneous morphologies. It is characterized by collagen degeneration, mucin deposition, and palisaded or interstitial histiocytes. Although the mechanism underlying development of GA is unknown, studies point to a cell-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to an as-yet undetermined antigen. Systemic associations with diabetes, thyroid disorders, lipid abnormalities, malignancy, and infection are described in atypical GA. Treatment is divided into localized skin-directed therapies and systemic immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive therapies. The selected treatment modality should be based on disease severity, comorbid conditions, consideration of potential side effects, and patient preference. PMID:26143416

  14. [Granuloma annulare].

    PubMed

    Butsch, F; Weidenthaler-Barth, B; von Stebut, E

    2015-11-01

    Granuloma annulare is a benign, chronic inflammatory skin disease. Its pathogenesis is still unclear, but reports on infections as a trigger can be found. In addition, some authors reported an association with other systemic disease, e.g., cancer, trauma, and diabetes mellitus; however, these have not been verified. The clinical picture of granuloma annulare ranges from the localized form predominantly at the extremities to disseminated, subcutaneous, or perforating forms. Diagnosis is based on the typical clinical presentation which may be confirmed by a biopsy. Histologically, necrobiotic areas within granulomatous inflammation are typical. The prognosis of the disease is good with spontaneous resolution being frequently observed, especially in localized forms. Disseminated manifestations tend to persist longer, and recurrences are reported. When choosing between different therapeutic options, the benign disease character versus the individual degree of suffering and the potential therapy side effects must be considered. For local treatment, topical application of corticosteroids is most common. Disseminated forms can be treated systemically with corticosteroids for several weeks; alternatively, dapsone, hydroxychloroquine, retinoids, fumaric acid, cyclosporine, and anti-TNFα appear to be effective. PMID:26487494

  15. Supercement for Annular Seal and Long-Term Integrity in Deep, Hot Wells "Deep Trek"

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin D. Edgley; Fred L. Sabins; Larry T. Watters

    2005-08-31

    The purpose of this project is to formulate a ''Supercement'' designed for improving the long-term sealing integrity in HPHT wells. Phase I concentrated on chemistry studies and screening tests to design and evaluate Portland-based, hybrid Portland, and non-Portland-based cement systems suitable for further scale-up testing. Phase II work concentrated on additional lab and field testing to reduce the candidate materials list to two systems, as well as scale up activities aimed at verifying performance at the field scale. Phase II was extended thorough a proposal to develop additional testing capabilities aimed at quantifying cementing material properties and performance that were previously not possible. Two materials are being taken into Phase III for field testing and commercialization: {lg_bullet} Highly-expansive cement (Portland-based), patent pending as ''Pre-Stressed Cement'' {lg_bullet} Epoxy Resin (non-Portland-based), patent pending In Phase II, significant effort was expended on scaling up the processes for handling resin in the field, as it is quite different than conventional Portland-based cements in mixing, personnel protection, and cleanup. Through this effort, over fifty (50) field jobs were done at a variety of temperatures and depths, most with excellent results. Large-scale field testing was less relevant with Pre-stressed Cement, because the materials and surface processes do not vary from those that have been developed for conventional Portland materials over the last eighty (80) years. The formulation is quite unique, however, and performs very differently than conventional Portland cements downhole.

  16. Supercement for Annular Seal and Long-Term Integrity in Deep, Hot Wells "DeepTrek"

    SciTech Connect

    CSI Technologies

    2007-08-31

    The purpose of this project is to formulate a 'Supercement' designed for improving the long-term sealing integrity in HPHT wells. Phase I concentrated on chemistry studies and screening tests to design and evaluate Portland-based, hybrid Portland, and non-Portland-based cement systems suitable for further scale-up testing. Phase II work concentrated on additional lab and field testing to reduce the candidate materials list to two systems, as well as scaleup activities aimed at verifying performance at the field scale. Phase II was extended thorough a proposal to develop additional testing capabilities aimed at quantifying cementing material properties and performance that were previously not possible. Phase III focused on bringing the material(s) developed in previous Phases to commercialization, through Field Trials, Cost/Benefit Analysis, and Technology Transfer. Extensive development and testing work throughout the project led to Phase III commercialization of two very different materials: (1) Highly-expansive cement (Portland-based), patent pending as 'PRESTRESSED CEMENT'; and (2) Epoxy Resin (non-Portland-based), patent pending. Trade name is Ultra Seal-R. In Phase III, work concentrated on application of the Supercement materials in various increasingly-challenging wells. Previous testing revealed that PRESTRESSED CEMENT, when applied in weak or unconsolidated formations, tends to expand away from the central pipe, restricting the applicability of this material to competent formations. Tests were devised to quantify this effect so the material could be applied in appropriate wells. Additionally, the testing was needed because of industry resistance to expansive cements, due to previous marketing attempts with other materials that were less than successful. Field trials with the Epoxy Resin currently numbers in the hundreds of jobs at up to 295 deg F, with a large percentage being completely successful. Both the PRESTRESSED CEMENT as well as the Ultra Seal

  17. Superposition State Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Venkatnathan, Arun; Voth, Gregory A

    2005-01-01

    The ergodic sampling of rough energy landscapes is crucial for understanding phenomena like protein folding, peptide aggregation, polymer dynamics, and the glass transition. These rough energy landscapes are characterized by the presence of many local minima separated by high energy barriers, where Molecular Dynamics (MD) fails to satisfy ergodicity. To enhance ergodic behavior, we have developed the Superposition State Molecular Dynamics (SSMD) method, which uses a superposition of energy states to obtain an effective potential for the MD simulation. In turn, the dynamics on this effective potential can be used to sample the configurational free energy of the real potential. The effectiveness of the SSMD method for a one-dimensional rough potential energy landscape is presented as a test case. PMID:26641113

  18. Artificial neural superposition eye.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Andreas; Duparré, Jacques; Dannberg, Peter; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2007-09-17

    We propose an ultra-thin imaging system which is based on the neural superposition compound eye of insects. Multiple light sensitive pixels in the footprint of each lenslet of this multi-channel configuration enable the parallel imaging of the individual object points. Together with the digital superposition of related signals this multiple sampling enables advanced functionalities for artificial compound eyes. Using this technique, color imaging and a circumvention for the trade-off between resolution and sensitivity of ultra-compact camera devices have been demonstrated in this article. The optical design and layout of such a system is discussed in detail. Experimental results are shown which indicate the attractiveness of microoptical artificial compound eyes for applications in the field of machine vision, surveillance or automotive imaging. PMID:19547555

  19. Concurrence of superpositions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Chang-shui; Yi, X. X.; Song, He-shan

    2007-02-15

    Bounds on the concurrence of the superposition state in terms of the concurrences of the states being superposed are found in this paper. The bounds on concurrence are quite different from those on the entanglement measured by von Neumann entropy [Linden et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 100502 (2006)]. In particular, a nonzero lower bound can be provided if the states being superposed are properly constrained.

  20. Robust mesoscopic superposition of strongly correlated ultracold atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hallwood, David W.; Ernst, Thomas; Brand, Joachim

    2010-12-15

    We propose a scheme to create coherent superpositions of annular flow of strongly interacting bosonic atoms in a one-dimensional ring trap. The nonrotating ground state is coupled to a vortex state with mesoscopic angular momentum by means of a narrow potential barrier and an applied phase that originates from either rotation or a synthetic magnetic field. We show that superposition states in the Tonks-Girardeau regime are robust against single-particle loss due to the effects of strong correlations. The coupling between the mesoscopically distinct states scales much more favorably with particle number than in schemes relying on weak interactions, thus making particle numbers of hundreds or thousands feasible. Coherent oscillations induced by time variation of parameters may serve as a 'smoking gun' signature for detecting superposition states.

  1. Reconfigurable mosaic annular arrays.

    PubMed

    Thomenius, Kai E; Wodnicki, Robert; Cogan, Scott D; Fisher, Rayette A; Burdick, Bill; Smith, L Scott; Khuri-Yakub, Pierre; Lin, Der-Song; Zhuang, Xuefeng; Bonitz, Barry; Davies, Todd; Thomas, Glen; Woychik, Charles

    2014-07-01

    Mosaic annular arrays (MAA) based on reconfigurable array (RA) transducer electronics assemblies are presented as a potential solution for future highly integrated ultrasonic transducer subsystems. Advantages of MAAs include excellent beam quality and depth of field resulting from superior elevational focus compared with 1-D electronically scanned arrays, as well as potentially reduced cost, size, and power consumption resulting from the use of a limited number of beamforming channels for processing a large number of subelements. Specific design tradeoffs for these highly integrated arrays are discussed in terms of array specifications for center frequency, element pitch, and electronic switch-on resistance. Large-area RAs essentially function as RC delay lines. Efficient architectures which take into account RC delay effects are presented. Architectures for integration of the transducer and electronics layers of large-area array implementations are reviewed. PMID:24960699

  2. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare.

    PubMed

    Requena, Luis; Fernández-Figueras, María Teresa

    2007-06-01

    Subcutaneous granuloma annulare is a rare clinicopathologic variant of granuloma annulare, characterized by subcutaneous nodules that may appear alone or in association with intradermal lesions. The pathogenesis of this deep variant of granuloma annulare remains uncertain. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare appears more frequently in children and young adults, and the lesions consist of subcutaneous nodules with no inflammatory appearance at the skin surface, most commonly located on the anterior aspects of the lower legs, hands, head, and buttocks. Usually, subcutaneous granuloma annulare is an authentic and exclusive panniculitic process with no dermal participation, although in 25% of the patients lesions of subcutaneous granuloma annulare coexist with the classic findings of granuloma annulare in the dermis. Histopathologically, subcutaneous granuloma annulare consist of areas of basophilic degeneration of collagen bundles with peripheral palisading granulomas involving the connective tissue septa of the subcutis. Usually, the area of necrobiosis in subcutaneous granuloma annulare is larger than in the dermal counterpart. The central necrobiotic areas contain increased amounts of connective tissue mucin and nuclear dust from neutrophils between the degenerated collagen bundles. Eosinophils are more common in subcutaneous granuloma annulare than in the dermal counterpart. There are not descriptions of subcutaneous granuloma annulare showing a histopathologic pattern of the so-called incomplete or interstitial variant. Histopathologic differential diagnosis of subcutaneous granuloma annulare includes rheumatoid nodule, necrobiosis lipoidica and epithelioid sarcoma. PMID:17544961

  3. Superposition of Polytropes in the Inner Heliosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livadiotis, G.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a possible generalization of the equation of state and Bernoulli's integral when a superposition of polytropic processes applies in space and astrophysical plasmas. The theory of polytropic thermodynamic processes for a fixed polytropic index is extended for a superposition of polytropic indices. In general, the superposition may be described by any distribution of polytropic indices, but emphasis is placed on a Gaussian distribution. The polytropic density-temperature relation has been used in numerous analyses of space plasma data. This linear relation on a log-log scale is now generalized to a concave-downward parabola that is able to describe the observations better. The model of the Gaussian superposition of polytropes is successfully applied in the proton plasma of the inner heliosheath. The estimated mean polytropic index is near zero, indicating the dominance of isobaric thermodynamic processes in the sheath, similar to other previously published analyses. By computing Bernoulli's integral and applying its conservation along the equator of the inner heliosheath, the magnetic field in the inner heliosheath is estimated, B ˜ 2.29 ± 0.16 μG. The constructed normalized histogram of the values of the magnetic field is similar to that derived from a different method that uses the concept of large-scale quantization, bringing incredible insights to this novel theory.

  4. Reexamination of entanglement of superpositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gour, Gilad

    2007-11-01

    We find tight lower and upper bounds on the entanglement of a superposition of two bipartite states in terms of the entanglement of the two states constituting the superposition. Our upper bound is dramatically tighter than the one presented by Linden [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 100502 (2006)] and our lower bound can be used to provide lower bounds on different measures of entanglement such as the entanglement of formation and the entanglement of subspaces. We also find that in the case in which the two states are one-sided orthogonal, the entanglement of the superposition state can be expressed explicitly in terms of the entanglement of the two states in the superposition.

  5. Superposition Enhanced Nested Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martiniani, Stefano; Stevenson, Jacob D.; Wales, David J.; Frenkel, Daan

    2014-07-01

    The theoretical analysis of many problems in physics, astronomy, and applied mathematics requires an efficient numerical exploration of multimodal parameter spaces that exhibit broken ergodicity. Monte Carlo methods are widely used to deal with these classes of problems, but such simulations suffer from a ubiquitous sampling problem: The probability of sampling a particular state is proportional to its entropic weight. Devising an algorithm capable of sampling efficiently the full phase space is a long-standing problem. Here, we report a new hybrid method for the exploration of multimodal parameter spaces exhibiting broken ergodicity. Superposition enhanced nested sampling combines the strengths of global optimization with the unbiased or athermal sampling of nested sampling, greatly enhancing its efficiency with no additional parameters. We report extensive tests of this new approach for atomic clusters that are known to have energy landscapes for which conventional sampling schemes suffer from broken ergodicity. We also introduce a novel parallelization algorithm for nested sampling.

  6. Superpositions of Free Electron Vortices and Measurement of Matter Wave Gouy Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMorran, Benjamin; Harvey, Tyler; Pierce, Jordan; Linck, Martin

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate superpositions of free electron matter wave orbital states using nanofabricated diffraction holograms. The orbital superposition is comprised of an electron beam that is a coherent mixture of two overlapped, co-propagating vortex beam modes with different topological charge. Whereas a pure mode electron vortex beam forms an annular spot when projected onto an imaging detector, the superposition has an intensity profile that is broken into azimuthal lobes. The number of lobes is given by the absolute difference in topological charge between the two orbital components. We created superpositions of vortices with various topological charges, from ml = 0 to 15. We use these superposition states to measure the Gouy phase measurement for matter waves. We discuss the possibility of using these beams to measure magnetic fields. Support from University of Oregon CAMCOR, and LBNL LDRD grant.

  7. Quantum superpositions of crystalline structures

    SciTech Connect

    Baltrusch, Jens D.; Morigi, Giovanna; Cormick, Cecilia; De Chiara, Gabriele; Calarco, Tommaso

    2011-12-15

    A procedure is discussed for creating coherent superpositions of motional states of ion strings. The motional states are across the structural transition linear-zigzag, and their coherent superposition is achieved by means of spin-dependent forces, such that a coherent superposition of the electronic states of one ion evolves into an entangled state between the chain's internal and external degrees of freedom. It is shown that the creation of such an entangled state can be revealed by performing Ramsey interferometry with one ion of the chain.

  8. Network Class Superposition Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Carl A. B.; Zeng, Chen; Simha, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., for the yeast cell cycle process [1]), considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix , which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for derived from Boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with . We show how to generate Derrida plots based on . We show that -based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on . We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology Boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for , for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses. PMID:23565141

  9. Reexamination of entanglement of superpositions

    SciTech Connect

    Gour, Gilad

    2007-11-15

    We find tight lower and upper bounds on the entanglement of a superposition of two bipartite states in terms of the entanglement of the two states constituting the superposition. Our upper bound is dramatically tighter than the one presented by Linden et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 100502 (2006)] and our lower bound can be used to provide lower bounds on different measures of entanglement such as the entanglement of formation and the entanglement of subspaces. We also find that in the case in which the two states are one-sided orthogonal, the entanglement of the superposition state can be expressed explicitly in terms of the entanglement of the two states in the superposition.

  10. Behavior interrelationships in annular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubring, Duwayne

    Two-phase gas-liquid flow occurs in many types of industrial boiling and condensing heat transfer equipment, including the reactor cores of boiling water nuclear reactors (BWRs) and the steam generators of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). In annular flow, the liquid phase often travels as both a thin film around the wall (containing disturbance waves and base film) and as entrained droplets in the central gas core. Gas bubbles are also often entrained into this film. Annular flow displays several quantifiable flow behaviors, including pressure loss, disturbance waves, and film thickness, along with micro-scale velocity profiles and fluctuations in the liquid film. The conventional approach to annular flow closely links film thickness and pressure loss, but relies on an assumed film velocity profile and does not consider disturbance waves explicitly. The present work seeks to explore a more complete range of behaviors in both horizontal and vertical flow to explore the relationships among them and thereby improve modeling of annular flow. Several of these investigations employ quantitative visualization. Modern optics and computing (in the form of non-trivial data reduction codes) are applied to the study of two-phase flow to process images of a physical experiment to quantify behavior information. Quantitative visualization allows for rapid acquisition of a large volume of flow behavior data, which allows for analysis of the flow behaviors themselves and how they relate to one another and to global modeling. By integrating behavior data from these quantitative visualizations and other conventional experimental investigations, a new two-region (base film and disturbance wave) model is proposed that can be implemented given only flow rates, external geometry, and fluid properties.

  11. Annular pancreas (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Annular pancreas is an abnormal ring or collar of pancreatic tissue that encircles the duodenum (the part of the ... intestine that connects to stomach). This portion of pancreas can constrict the duodenum and block or impair ...

  12. Mechanically expandable annular seal

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Richard F.

    1983-01-01

    A mechanically expandable annular reusable seal assembly to form an annular hermetic barrier between two stationary, parallel, and planar containment surfaces. A rotatable ring, attached to the first surface, has ring wedges resembling the saw-tooth array of a hole saw. Matching seal wedges are slidably attached to the ring wedges and have their motion restricted to be perpendicular to the second surface. Each seal wedge has a face parallel to the second surface. An annular elastomer seal has a central annular region attached to the seal wedges' parallel faces and has its inner and outer circumferences attached to the first surface. A rotation of the ring extends the elastomer seal's central region perpendicularly towards the second surface to create the fluidtight barrier. A counterrotation removes the barrier.

  13. Mechanically expandable annular seal

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, R.F.

    1983-07-19

    A mechanically expandable annular reusable seal assembly to form an annular hermetic barrier between two stationary, parallel, and planar containment surfaces is described. A rotatable ring, attached to the first surface, has ring wedges resembling the saw-tooth array of a hole saw. Matching seal wedges are slidably attached to the ring wedges and have their motion restricted to be perpendicular to the second surface. Each seal wedge has a face parallel to the second surface. An annular elastomer seal has a central annular region attached to the seal wedges' parallel faces and has its inner and outer circumferences attached to the first surface. A rotation of the ring extends the elastomer seal's central region perpendicularly towards the second surface to create the fluid tight barrier. A counter rotation removes the barrier. 6 figs.

  14. Erythematous Granuloma Annulare

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eun Joo; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Kim, Mi Kyeong

    2011-01-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is a common, benign, chronic inflammatory disorder, which is characterized by grouped papules in an enlarging annular shape. It has been described in several clinical subtypes, including localized, generalized, subcutaneous, perforating, and erythematous types. Even though generalized, subcutaneous, and perforating types of GA are unusual, there are several reports of those types. However, erythematous or patch GA, has not been reported yet in the Korean literature. Herein, we report a 42-year-old woman with pruritic erythematous patches, which occurred on the extremities without preceding event, and showed typical clinical and histopatologic findings of erythematous GA. PMID:21909221

  15. Superposition of super-integrable pseudo-Euclidean potentials in N = 2 with a fundamental constant of motion of arbitrary order in the momenta

    SciTech Connect

    Campoamor-Stursberg, R.

    2014-04-15

    It is shown that for any α,β∈R and k∈Z, the Hamiltonian H{sub k}=p{sub 1}p{sub 2}−αq{sub 2}{sup (2k+1)}q{sub 1}{sup (−2k−3)}−(β)/2 q{sub 2}{sup k}q{sub 1}{sup (−k−2)} is super-integrable, possessing fundamental constants of motion of degrees 2 and 2k + 2 in the momenta.

  16. Linear superposition in nonlinear equations.

    PubMed

    Khare, Avinash; Sukhatme, Uday

    2002-06-17

    Several nonlinear systems such as the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and modified KdV equations and lambda phi(4) theory possess periodic traveling wave solutions involving Jacobi elliptic functions. We show that suitable linear combinations of these known periodic solutions yield many additional solutions with different periods and velocities. This linear superposition procedure works by virtue of some remarkable new identities involving elliptic functions. PMID:12059300

  17. On the superposition principle in interference experiments

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Aninda; H. Vijay, Aravind; Sinha, Urbasi

    2015-01-01

    The superposition principle is usually incorrectly applied in interference experiments. This has recently been investigated through numerics based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods as well as the Feynman path integral formalism. In the current work, we have derived an analytic formula for the Sorkin parameter which can be used to determine the deviation from the application of the principle. We have found excellent agreement between the analytic distribution and those that have been earlier estimated by numerical integration as well as resource intensive FDTD simulations. The analytic handle would be useful for comparing theory with future experiments. It is applicable both to physics based on classical wave equations as well as the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation. PMID:25973948

  18. Eccentric annular crack under general nonuniform internal pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeini-Ardakani, S.; Kamali, M. T.; Shodja, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    For a better approximation of ring-shaped and toroidal cracks, a new eccentric annular crack model is proposed and an analytical approach for determination of the corresponding stress intensity factors is given. The crack is subjected to arbitrary mode I loading. A rigorous solution is provided by mapping the eccentric annular crack to a concentric annular crack. The analysis leads to two decoupled Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. For the sake of verification, the problem of a conventional annular crack is examined. Furthermore, for various crack configurations of an eccentric annular crack under uniform tension, the stress intensity factors pertaining to the inner and outer crack edges are delineated in dimensionless plots.

  19. The Paraconsistent Logic of Quantum Superpositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, N.; de Ronde, C.

    2013-07-01

    Physical superpositions exist both in classical and in quantum physics. However, what is exactly meant by `superposition' in each case is extremely different. In this paper we discuss some of the multiple interpretations which exist in the literature regarding superpositions in quantum mechanics. We argue that all these interpretations have something in common: they all attempt to avoid `contradiction'. We argue in this paper, in favor of the importance of developing a new interpretation of superpositions which takes into account contradiction, as a key element of the formal structure of the theory, "right from the start". In order to show the feasibility of our interpretational project we present an outline of a paraconsistent approach to quantum superpositions which attempts to account for the contradictory properties present in general within quantum superpositions. This approach must not be understood as a closed formal and conceptual scheme but rather as a first step towards a different type of understanding regarding quantum superpositions.

  20. Segmented annular combustor

    DOEpatents

    Reider, Samuel B.

    1979-01-01

    An industrial gas turbine engine includes an inclined annular combustor made up of a plurality of support segments each including inner and outer walls of trapezoidally configured planar configuration extents and including side flanges thereon interconnected by means of air cooled connector bolt assemblies to form a continuous annular combustion chamber therebetween and wherein an air fuel mixing chamber is formed at one end of the support segments including means for directing and mixing fuel within a plenum and a perforated header plate for directing streams of air and fuel mixture into the combustion chamber; each of the outer and inner walls of each of the support segments having a ribbed lattice with tracks slidably supporting porous laminated replaceable panels and including pores therein for distributing combustion air into the combustion chamber while cooling the inner surface of each of the panels by transpiration cooling thereof.

  1. Granuloma annulare, patch type.

    PubMed

    Victor, Frank C; Mengden, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    A 64-year-old man was referred to the Bellevue Hospital Center Dermatology Clinic for evaluation of an asymptomatic eruption on his left inner arm, which had been present for 4 months and was unresponsive to topical anti-fungal therapy. One month after the initial eruption, 2 similar, asymptomatic lesions appeared on the right inner arm. The lesions were slowly expanding. A biopsy specimen from the left medial arm was consistent with interstitial granuloma annulare. The patient's clinical presentation was consistent with patch-type granuloma annulare. He was treated with a mid-potency topical glucocorticoid twice daily for 4 weeks without benefit. Since the eruption was asymptomatic, treatment was discontinued. PMID:18627757

  2. Creating a Superposition of Unknown Quantum States.

    PubMed

    Oszmaniec, Michał; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Wójcik, Antoni

    2016-03-18

    The superposition principle is one of the landmarks of quantum mechanics. The importance of quantum superpositions provokes questions about the limitations that quantum mechanics itself imposes on the possibility of their generation. In this work, we systematically study the problem of the creation of superpositions of unknown quantum states. First, we prove a no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. Second, we provide an explicit probabilistic protocol generating a superposition of two unknown states, each having a fixed overlap with the known referential pure state. The protocol can be applied to generate coherent superposition of results of independent runs of subroutines in a quantum computer. Moreover, in the context of quantum optics it can be used to efficiently generate highly nonclassical states or non-Gaussian states. PMID:27035290

  3. Creating a Superposition of Unknown Quantum States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oszmaniec, Michał; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Wójcik, Antoni

    2016-03-01

    The superposition principle is one of the landmarks of quantum mechanics. The importance of quantum superpositions provokes questions about the limitations that quantum mechanics itself imposes on the possibility of their generation. In this work, we systematically study the problem of the creation of superpositions of unknown quantum states. First, we prove a no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. Second, we provide an explicit probabilistic protocol generating a superposition of two unknown states, each having a fixed overlap with the known referential pure state. The protocol can be applied to generate coherent superposition of results of independent runs of subroutines in a quantum computer. Moreover, in the context of quantum optics it can be used to efficiently generate highly nonclassical states or non-Gaussian states.

  4. Rotational superposition: a review of methods.

    PubMed

    Flower, D R

    1999-01-01

    Rotational superposition is one of the most commonly used algorithms in molecular modelling. Many different methods of solving superposition have been suggested. Of these, methods based on the quaternion parameterization of rotation are fast, accurate, and robust. Quaternion parameterization-based methods cannot result in rotation inversion and do not have special cases such as co-linearity or co-planarity of points. Thus, quaternion parameterization-based methods are the best choice for rotational superposition applications. PMID:10736782

  5. Superposition flows of entangled polymeric solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ianniruberto, Giovanni; Unidad, Herwin Jerome

    2015-12-01

    Parallel and orthogonal superposition experiments by Vermant et al. (1998) on a polydisperse, entangled polymeric solution are here analyzed by using a simple, multi-mode differential constitutive equation based on the tube model, and also accounting for convective constraint release effects. Model predictions are in very good qualitative and quantitative agreement with parallel superposition data, while some discrepancies are found with orthogonal data, thus suggesting that orthogonal superposition experiments represent a more severe test for molecularly-based constitutive equations.

  6. Mesoscopic Superposition States in Relativistic Landau Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, A.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.; Solano, E.

    2007-09-21

    We show that a linear superposition of mesoscopic states in relativistic Landau levels can be built when an external magnetic field couples to a relativistic spin 1/2 charged particle. Under suitable initial conditions, the associated Dirac equation produces unitarily superpositions of coherent states involving the particle orbital quanta in a well-defined mesoscopic regime. We demonstrate that these mesoscopic superpositions have a purely relativistic origin and disappear in the nonrelativistic limit.

  7. Macroscopic optomechanical superposition via periodic qubit flipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Wenchao; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2015-01-01

    We propose a scheme to generate macroscopic superpositions of well-distinguishable coherent states in an optomechanical system via periodic qubit flipping. Our scheme does not require the single-photon strong-coupling rate of an optomechanical system. The generated mechanical superposition state can be reconstructed using mechanical quantum-state reconstruction. The proposed scheme relies on recycling of an atom, fast atomic qubit flipping, and coherent state mapping between a single-photon superposition state and an atomic superposition state. We discuss the experimental feasibility of our proposal under current technology.

  8. Annular recuperator design

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Yungmo

    2005-10-04

    An annular heat recuperator is formed with alternating hot and cold cells to separate counter-flowing hot and cold fluid streams. Each cold cell has a fluid inlet formed in the inner diameter of the recuperator near one axial end, and a fluid outlet formed in the outer diameter of the recuperator near the other axial end to evenly distribute fluid mass flow throughout the cell. Cold cells may be joined with the outlet of one cell fluidly connected to the inlet of an adjacent downstream cell to form multi-stage cells.

  9. The M&M Superposition Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John B.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a physical system for demonstrating operators, eigenvalues, and superposition of states for a set of unusual wave functions. Uses candy to provide students with a visual and concrete picture of a superposition of states rather than an abstract plot of several overlaid mathematical states. (WRM)

  10. Portal Annular Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Harnoss, Jonathan M.; Harnoss, Julian C.; Diener, Markus K.; Contin, Pietro; Ulrich, Alexis B.; Büchler, Markus W.; Schmitz-Winnenthal, Friedrich H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Portal annular pancreas (PAP) is an asymptomatic congenital pancreas anomaly, in which portal and/or mesenteric veins are encased by pancreas tissue. The aim of the study was to determine the role of PAP in pancreatic surgery as well as its management and potential complication, specifically, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). On the basis of a case report, the MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science databases were systematically reviewed up to September 2012. All articles describing a case of PAP were considered. In summary, 21 studies with 59 cases were included. The overall prevalence of PAP was 2.4% and the patients' mean (SD) age was 55.9 (16.2) years. The POPF rate in patients with PAP (12 pancreaticoduodenectomies and 3 distal pancreatectomies) was 46.7% (in accordance with the definition of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery). Portal annular pancreas is a quite unattended pancreatic variant with high prevalence and therefore still remains a clinical challenge to avoid postoperative complications. To decrease the risk for POPF, attentive preoperative diagnostics should also focus on PAP. In pancreaticoduodenectomy, a shift of the resection plane to the pancreas tail should be considered; in extensive pancreatectomy, coverage of the pancreatic remnant by the falciform ligament could be a treatment option. PMID:25207658

  11. Axisymmetric annular curtain stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Zahir U.; Khayat, Roger E.; Maissa, Philippe; Mathis, Christian

    2012-06-01

    A temporal stability analysis was carried out to investigate the stability of an axially moving viscous annular liquid jet subject to axisymmetric disturbances in surrounding co-flowing viscous gas media. We investigated in this study the effects of inertia, surface tension, the gas-to-liquid density ratio, the inner-to-outer radius ratio and the gas-to-liquid viscosity ratio on the stability of the jet. With an increase in inertia, the growth rate of the unstable disturbances is found to increase. The dominant (or most unstable) wavenumber decreases with increasing Reynolds number for larger values of the gas-to-liquid viscosity ratio. However, an opposite tendency for the most unstable wavenumber is predicted for small viscosity ratio in the same inertia range. The surrounding gas density, in the presence of viscosity, always reduces the growth rate, hence stabilizing the flow. There exists a critical value of the density ratio above which the flow becomes stable for very small viscosity ratio, whereas for large viscosity ratio, no stable flow appears in the same range of the density ratio. The curvature has a significant destabilizing effect on the thin annular jet, whereas for a relatively thick jet, the maximum growth rate decreases as the inner radius increases, irrespective of the surrounding gas viscosity. The degree of instability increases with Weber number for a relatively large viscosity ratio. In contrast, for small viscosity ratio, the growth rate exhibits a dramatic dependence on the surface tension. There is a small Weber number range, which depends on the viscosity ratio, where the flow is stable. The viscosity ratio always stabilizes the flow. However, the dominant wavenumber increases with increasing viscosity ratio. The range of unstable wavenumbers is affected only by the curvature effect.

  12. Concomitant occurrence of patch granuloma annulare and classical granuloma annulare.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, Daisuke; Sowa, Junko; Hiroyasu, Sho; Ishii, Masamitsu; Kobayashi, Hiromi

    2011-05-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is characterized clinically as annularly-distributed, erythematous papules on the extremities in children and adolescents. GA is recognized histologically as palisading granulomas with central degenerated collagen and mucin deposits. Here, we present a case of concomitant occurrence of patch GA (PGA), the most rare type of GA, and classical GA in a patient. A 60-year-old man was referred to our hospital for asymptomatic eruptions on the upper arms, forearms, right flank and right lateral chest. Clinical examination revealed annular erythematous plaques composed of numerous small papules on bilateral upper arms and forearms. Moreover, an indurative, exudative erythematous to violaceous plaque was present on the right lateral chest and right flank. Histopathology of the former was compatible with palisade-type GA, and the latter interstitial-type GA. This is the first report of PGA concomitant with "classical" annular papular lesions. PMID:21352310

  13. Depth-targeted transvascular drug delivery by using annular-shaped photomechanical waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Takuya; Sato, Shunichi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2011-02-01

    Laser-based drug delivery is attractive for the targeting capability due to high spatial controllability of laser energy. Recently, we found that photomechanical waves (PMWs) can transiently increase the permeability of blood vessels in skin, muscle and brain of rats. In this study, we examined the use of annular-shaped PMWs to increase pressure at target depths due to superposition effect of pressure waves. This can increase the permeability of blood vessels located in the specific depth regions, enabling depth-targeted transvascular drug delivery. Annular PMWs were produced by irradiating a laser-absorbing material with annular-shaped pulsed laser beams that were produced by using an axicon lens. We first examined propagation and pressure characteristics of annular PMWs in tissue phantoms and confirmed an increased pressure at a target depth, which can be controlled by changing laser parameters. We injected Evans blue (EB) into a rat tail vein, and annular PMWs (inner diameter, 3 mm; outer diameter, 5 mm) were applied from the myofascial surface of the anterior tibialis muscle. After perfusion fixation, we observed fluorescence originating from EB in the tissue. We observed intense fluorescence at a target depth region of around 5 mm. These results demonstrate the capability of annular PMWs for depth-targeted transvascular drug delivery.

  14. Engineering mesoscopic superpositions of superfluid flow

    SciTech Connect

    Hallwood, D. W.; Brand, J.

    2011-10-15

    Modeling strongly correlated atoms demonstrates the possibility to prepare quantum superpositions that are robust against experimental imperfections and temperature. Such superpositions of vortex states are formed by adiabatic manipulation of interacting ultracold atoms confined to a one-dimensional ring trapping potential when stirred by a barrier. Here, we discuss the influence of nonideal experimental procedures and finite temperature. Adiabaticity conditions for changing the stirring rate reveal that superpositions of many atoms are most easily accessed in the strongly interacting, Tonks-Girardeau, regime, which is also the most robust at finite temperature. NOON-type superpositions of weakly interacting atoms are most easily created by adiabatically decreasing the interaction strength by means of a Feshbach resonance. The quantum dynamics of small numbers of particles is simulated and the size of the superpositions is calculated based on their ability to make precision measurements. The experimental creation of strongly correlated and NOON-type superpositions with about 100 atoms seems feasible in the near future.

  15. Manufacture of annular cermet articles

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2004-11-02

    A method to produce annular-shaped, metal-clad cermet components directly produces the form and avoids multiple fabrication steps such as rolling and welding. The method includes the steps of: providing an annular hollow form with inner and outer side walls; filling the form with a particulate mixture of ceramic and metal; closing, evacuating, and hermetically sealing the form; heating the form to an appropriate temperature; and applying force to consolidate the particulate mixture into solid cermet.

  16. Experimental superposition of orders of quantum gates.

    PubMed

    Procopio, Lorenzo M; Moqanaki, Amir; Araújo, Mateus; Costa, Fabio; Alonso Calafell, Irati; Dowd, Emma G; Hamel, Deny R; Rozema, Lee A; Brukner, Časlav; Walther, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Quantum computers achieve a speed-up by placing quantum bits (qubits) in superpositions of different states. However, it has recently been appreciated that quantum mechanics also allows one to 'superimpose different operations'. Furthermore, it has been shown that using a qubit to coherently control the gate order allows one to accomplish a task--determining if two gates commute or anti-commute--with fewer gate uses than any known quantum algorithm. Here we experimentally demonstrate this advantage, in a photonic context, using a second qubit to control the order in which two gates are applied to a first qubit. We create the required superposition of gate orders by using additional degrees of freedom of the photons encoding our qubits. The new resource we exploit can be interpreted as a superposition of causal orders, and could allow quantum algorithms to be implemented with an efficiency unlikely to be achieved on a fixed-gate-order quantum computer. PMID:26250107

  17. An approximate CPHD filter for superpositional sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Ronald; El-Fallah, Adel

    2012-06-01

    Most multitarget tracking algorithms, such as JPDA, MHT, and the PHD and CPHD filters, presume the following measurement model: (a) targets are point targets, (b) every target generates at most a single measurement, and (c) any measurement is generated by at most a single target. However, the most familiar sensors, such as surveillance and imaging radars, violate assumption (c). This is because they are actually superpositional-that is, any measurement is a sum of signals generated by all of the targets in the scene. At this conference in 2009, the first author derived exact formulas for PHD and CPHD filters that presume general superpositional measurement models. Unfortunately, these formulas are computationally intractable. In this paper, we modify and generalize a Gaussian approximation technique due to Thouin, Nannuru, and Coates to derive a computationally tractable superpositional-CPHD filter. Implementation requires sequential Monte Carlo (particle filter) techniques.

  18. Real-time dose computation: GPU-accelerated source modeling and superposition/convolution

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques, Robert; Wong, John; Taylor, Russell; McNutt, Todd

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: To accelerate dose calculation to interactive rates using highly parallel graphics processing units (GPUs). Methods: The authors have extended their prior work in GPU-accelerated superposition/convolution with a modern dual-source model and have enhanced performance. The primary source algorithm supports both focused leaf ends and asymmetric rounded leaf ends. The extra-focal algorithm uses a discretized, isotropic area source and models multileaf collimator leaf height effects. The spectral and attenuation effects of static beam modifiers were integrated into each source's spectral function. The authors introduce the concepts of arc superposition and delta superposition. Arc superposition utilizes separate angular sampling for the total energy released per unit mass (TERMA) and superposition computations to increase accuracy and performance. Delta superposition allows single beamlet changes to be computed efficiently. The authors extended their concept of multi-resolution superposition to include kernel tilting. Multi-resolution superposition approximates solid angle ray-tracing, improving performance and scalability with a minor loss in accuracy. Superposition/convolution was implemented using the inverse cumulative-cumulative kernel and exact radiological path ray-tracing. The accuracy analyses were performed using multiple kernel ray samplings, both with and without kernel tilting and multi-resolution superposition. Results: Source model performance was <9 ms (data dependent) for a high resolution (400{sup 2}) field using an NVIDIA (Santa Clara, CA) GeForce GTX 280. Computation of the physically correct multispectral TERMA attenuation was improved by a material centric approach, which increased performance by over 80%. Superposition performance was improved by {approx}24% to 0.058 and 0.94 s for 64{sup 3} and 128{sup 3} water phantoms; a speed-up of 101-144x over the highly optimized Pinnacle{sup 3} (Philips, Madison, WI) implementation. Pinnacle{sup 3

  19. Macroscopic Quantum Superposition in Cavity Optomechanics.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Tian, Lin

    2016-04-22

    Quantum superposition in mechanical systems is not only key evidence for macroscopic quantum coherence, but can also be utilized in modern quantum technology. Here we propose an efficient approach for creating macroscopically distinct mechanical superposition states in a two-mode optomechanical system. Photon hopping between the two cavity modes is modulated sinusoidally. The modulated photon tunneling enables an ultrastrong radiation-pressure force acting on the mechanical resonator, and hence significantly increases the mechanical displacement induced by a single photon. We study systematically the generation of the Yurke-Stoler-like states in the presence of system dissipations. We also discuss the experimental implementation of this scheme. PMID:27152802

  20. Macroscopic Quantum Superposition in Cavity Optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Tian, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Quantum superposition in mechanical systems is not only key evidence for macroscopic quantum coherence, but can also be utilized in modern quantum technology. Here we propose an efficient approach for creating macroscopically distinct mechanical superposition states in a two-mode optomechanical system. Photon hopping between the two cavity modes is modulated sinusoidally. The modulated photon tunneling enables an ultrastrong radiation-pressure force acting on the mechanical resonator, and hence significantly increases the mechanical displacement induced by a single photon. We study systematically the generation of the Yurke-Stoler-like states in the presence of system dissipations. We also discuss the experimental implementation of this scheme.

  1. Large energy superpositions via Rydberg dressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazali, Mohammadsadegh; Lau, Hon Wai; Humeniuk, Adam; Simon, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    We propose to create superposition states of over 100 strontium atoms in a ground state or metastable optical clock state using the Kerr-type interaction due to Rydberg state dressing in an optical lattice. The two components of the superposition can differ by an order of 300 eV in energy, allowing tests of energy decoherence models with greatly improved sensitivity. We take into account the effects of higher-order nonlinearities, spatial inhomogeneity of the interaction, decay from the Rydberg state, collective many-body decoherence, atomic motion, molecular formation, and diminishing Rydberg level separation for increasing principal number.

  2. Annular Eclipse as Seen by Hinode

    NASA Video Gallery

    This timelapse shows an annular eclipse as seen by JAXA's Hinode satellite on Jan. 4, 2011. An annular eclipse occurs when the moon, slightly more distant from Earth than on average, moves directly...

  3. The Evolution and Development of Neural Superposition

    PubMed Central

    Agi, Egemen; Langen, Marion; Altschuler, Steven J.; Wu, Lani F.; Zimmermann, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Visual systems have a rich history as model systems for the discovery and understanding of basic principles underlying neuronal connectivity. The compound eyes of insects consist of up to thousands of small unit eyes that are connected by photoreceptor axons to set up a visual map in the brain. The photoreceptor axon terminals thereby represent neighboring points seen in the environment in neighboring synaptic units in the brain. Neural superposition is a special case of such a wiring principle, where photoreceptors from different unit eyes that receive the same input converge upon the same synaptic units in the brain. This wiring principle is remarkable, because each photoreceptor in a single unit eye receives different input and each individual axon, among thousands others in the brain, must be sorted together with those few axons that have the same input. Key aspects of neural superposition have been described as early as 1907. Since then neuroscientists, evolutionary and developmental biologists have been fascinated by how such a complicated wiring principle could evolve, how it is genetically encoded, and how it is developmentally realized. In this review article, we will discuss current ideas about the evolutionary origin and developmental program of neural superposition. Our goal is to identify in what way the special case of neural superposition can help us answer more general questions about the evolution and development of genetically “hard-wired” synaptic connectivity in the brain. PMID:24912630

  4. The principle of superposition in human prehension

    PubMed Central

    Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.; Gao, Fan; Shim, Jae Kun

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The experimental evidence supports the validity of the principle of superposition for multi-finger prehension in humans. Forces and moments of individual digits are defined by two independent commands: “Grasp the object stronger/weaker to prevent slipping” and “Maintain the rotational equilibrium of the object”. The effects of the two commands are summed up. PMID:20186284

  5. Eosinophilic annular erythema in childhood - Case report.

    PubMed

    Abarzúa, Alvaro; Giesen, Laura; Silva, Sergio; González, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic annular erythema is a rare, benign, recurrent disease, clinically characterized by persistent, annular, erythematous lesions, revealing histopathologically perivascular infiltrates with abundant eosinophils. This report describes an unusual case of eosinophilic annular erythema in a 3-year-old female, requiring sustained doses of hydroxychloroquine to be adequately controlled. PMID:27579748

  6. Eosinophilic annular erythema in childhood - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Abarzúa, Alvaro; Giesen, Laura; Silva, Sergio; González, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic annular erythema is a rare, benign, recurrent disease, clinically characterized by persistent, annular, erythematous lesions, revealing histopathologically perivascular infiltrates with abundant eosinophils. This report describes an unusual case of eosinophilic annular erythema in a 3-year-old female, requiring sustained doses of hydroxychloroquine to be adequately controlled. PMID:27579748

  7. Liquid Annular Seal Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, Alan B.; Venkataraman, Balaji; Padavala, Sathya S.; Ryan, Steve; Vallely, Pat; Funston, Kerry

    1996-01-01

    This paper highlights the accomplishments on a joint effort between NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center and Texas A and M University to develop accurate seal analysis software for use in rocket turbopump design, design audits and trouble shooting. Results for arbitrary clearance profile, transient simulation, thermal effects solution and flexible seal wall model are presented. A new solution for eccentric seals based on cubic spline interpolation and ordinary differential equation integration is also presented.

  8. An experimental investigation of straight and curved annular wall jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodman, L. C.; Wood, N. J.; Roberts, L.

    1987-01-01

    Accurate turbulence measurements taken in wall jet flows are difficult to obtain, due to high intensity turbulence and problems in achieving two-dimensionality. The problem is compounded when streamwise curvature of the flow is introduced, since the jet entrainment and turbulence levels are greatly increased over the equivalent planar values. In this experiment, two-dimensional straight and curved incompressible wall jet flows are simulated by having a jet blow axially over a cylinder. Hot wire measurements and some Laser Doppler Velocimetry measurements are presented for straight and curved wall jet flows. The results for the straight wall showed good agreement between the annular flow data and the rectangular data taken by previous researchers. For the jets with streamwise curvature, there was agreement between the annular and corresponding rectangular jets for the flow region closest to the slot exit. An integral analysis was used as a simple technique to interpret the experimental results. Integral momentum calculations were performed for both straight and curved annular and two dimensional wall jets. The results of the calculation were used to identify transverse curvature parameters and to predict the values of those parameters which would delineate the region where the annular flow can satisfactorily simulate two dimensional flow.

  9. Macroscopic Quantum Superposition in Cavity Optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Tian, Lin

    Quantum superposition in mechanical systems is not only a key evidence of macroscopic quantum coherence, but can also be utilized in modern quantum technology. Here we propose an efficient approach for creating macroscopically distinct mechanical superposition states in a two-mode optomechanical system. Photon hopping between the two cavity-modes is modulated sinusoidally. The modulated photon tunneling enables an ultrastrong radiation-pressure force acting on the mechanical resonator, and hence significantly increases the mechanical displacement induced by a single photon. We present systematic studies on the generation of the Yurke-Stoler-like states in the presence of system dissipations. The state generation method is general and it can be implemented with either optomechanical or electromechanical systems. The authors are supported by the National Science Foundation under Award No. NSF-DMR-0956064 and the DARPA ORCHID program through AFOSR.

  10. Concurrence of superpositions of many states

    SciTech Connect

    Akhtarshenas, Seyed Javad

    2011-04-15

    In this paper, we use the concurrence vector as a measure of entanglement, and investigate lower and upper bounds on the concurrence of a superposition of bipartite states as a function of the concurrence of the superposed states. We show that the amount of entanglement quantified by the concurrence vector is exactly the same as that quantified by I concurrence, so that our results can be compared to those given in Phys. Rev. A 76, 042328 (2007). We obtain a tighter lower bound in the case in which the two superposed states are orthogonal. We also show that when the two superposed states are not necessarily orthogonal, both lower and upper bounds are, in general, tighter than the bounds given in terms of the I concurrence. An extension of the results to the case with more than two states in the superpositions is also given.

  11. Theory of low voltage annular beam free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, M.; Freund, H.P.; Jackson, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    An nonlinear analysis of an annular beam propagating through a cylindrical waveguide in the presence of a helical wiggler and an axial guide field is presented. The analysis is based upon the ARACHNE simulation which is a non-wiggler-averaged slow-time-scale simulation code in which the electromagnetic field is represented as a superposition of the TE and TM modes in a vacuum waveguide, and the beam space-charge waves are represented as a superposition of Gould-Trivelpiece modes. The DC self-electric and self-magnetic fields are also included in the model. ARACHNE has been extensively benchmarked against experiments at MIT and NRL in the past with good agreement, but all of these experiments have dealt with solid electron beams and beam voltages in excess of 200 kV. In seeking to reduce the beam voltage requirements we now consider the effect of operation with an annular beam. One advantage to be obtained by using an annular beam is that, for a fixed beam current, the effect of the DC selffields (i.e., the space-charge depression in beam voltage) will be reduced relative to that of a solid beam. This facilitates beam transport in short period wigglers in which the transverse dimensions are also small. A specific example is under study which makes use of 55 kV/5A electron beam with inner and outer radii of 0.27 cm and 0.33 cm respectively. The wiggler amplitude is 250 G with a period of 0.9 cm. and guide fields up to 3 kG corresponding to Group I trajectories. The waveguide radius is chosen to correspond to grazing incidence for the fundamental mode in Ku-Band (12-18 GHz). Preliminary results indicate that efficiencies upwards of 10% are possible with no wiggler taper. In addition, the energy spread must be held below 0.1%, and the instantaneous bandwidth is found to be greater than 20%.

  12. Annular arc accelerator shock tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, L. P. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An annular arc accelerator shock tube employs a cold gas driver to flow a stream of gas from an expansion section through a high voltage electrode section to a test section, thus driving a shock wave in front of it. A glow discharge detects the shock wave and actuates a trigger generator which in turn fires spark-gap switches to discharge a bank of capacitors across a centered cathode and an annular anode in tandem electrode sections. The initial shock wave passes through the anode section from the cathode section thereby depositing energy into the flow gas without the necessity of any diaphragm opening in the gas flow from the expansion section through the electrode sections.

  13. Energy Focusability of Annular Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astadjov, Dimo N.

    2010-01-01

    A simulation of coherent annular flat two-level beams by two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform is presented. After parameterization of the source beam (the `input') we examined the influence of its parameters on the shape and proportions of the output beam profile. The output pattern has a prominent central peak and faint rings concentrically surrounding it. The fraction of the central peak energy to the whole energy of beam, PF0 gives a notion of energy spread within the focal spot: PF0 is a function of beam annularity, k (i.e. `inside diameter/outside diameter' ratio) and the intensity dip, Idip of annulus central area (i.e. ring intensity minus central-bottom intensity, normalized). Up to k = 0.8 and Idip = 0.75, PF0 does not change too much—it is ⩾0.7 which is ⩾90% of PF0 maximum (0.778 at k = 0 and Idip = 0). Simulations revealed that even great changes in the shape of input beam annulus lead to small variations in the energy spread of output beam profile in the range of practical use of coherent annular beams.

  14. Toward quantum superposition of living organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Isart, Oriol; Juan, Mathieu L.; Quidant, Romain; Cirac, J. Ignacio

    2010-03-01

    The most striking feature of quantum mechanics is the existence of superposition states, where an object appears to be in different situations at the same time. The existence of such states has been previously tested with small objects, such as atoms, ions, electrons and photons (Zoller et al 2005 Eur. Phys. J. D 36 203-28), and even with molecules (Arndt et al 1999 Nature 401 680-2). More recently, it has been shown that it is possible to create superpositions of collections of photons (Deléglise et al 2008 Nature 455 510-14), atoms (Hammerer et al 2008 arXiv:0807.3358) or Cooper pairs (Friedman et al 2000 Nature 406 43-6). Very recent progress in optomechanical systems may soon allow us to create superpositions of even larger objects, such as micro-sized mirrors or cantilevers (Marshall et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 130401; Kippenberg and Vahala 2008 Science 321 1172-6 Marquardt and Girvin 2009 Physics 2 40; Favero and Karrai 2009 Nature Photon. 3 201-5), and thus to test quantum mechanical phenomena at larger scales. Here we propose a method to cool down and create quantum superpositions of the motion of sub-wavelength, arbitrarily shaped dielectric objects trapped inside a high-finesse cavity at a very low pressure. Our method is ideally suited for the smallest living organisms, such as viruses, which survive under low-vacuum pressures (Rothschild and Mancinelli 2001 Nature 406 1092-101) and optically behave as dielectric objects (Ashkin and Dziedzic 1987 Science 235 1517-20). This opens up the possibility of testing the quantum nature of living organisms by creating quantum superposition states in very much the same spirit as the original Schrödinger's cat 'gedanken' paradigm (Schrödinger 1935 Naturwissenschaften 23 807-12, 823-8, 844-9). We anticipate that our paper will be a starting point for experimentally addressing fundamental questions, such as the role of life and consciousness in quantum mechanics.

  15. X-ray optics simulation using Gaussian superposition technique.

    PubMed

    Idir, Mourad; Cywiak, Moisés; Morales, Arquímedes; Modi, Mohammed H

    2011-09-26

    We present an efficient method to perform x-ray optics simulation with high or partially coherent x-ray sources using Gaussian superposition technique. In a previous paper, we have demonstrated that full characterization of optical systems, diffractive and geometric, is possible by using the Fresnel Gaussian Shape Invariant (FGSI) previously reported in the literature. The complex amplitude distribution in the object plane is represented by a linear superposition of complex Gaussians wavelets and then propagated through the optical system by means of the referred Gaussian invariant. This allows ray tracing through the optical system and at the same time allows calculating with high precision the complex wave-amplitude distribution at any plane of observation. This technique can be applied in a wide spectral range where the Fresnel diffraction integral applies including visible, x-rays, acoustic waves, etc. We describe the technique and include some computer simulations as illustrative examples for x-ray optical component. We show also that this method can be used to study partial or total coherence illumination problem. PMID:21996845

  16. Time-Temperature Superposition Applied to PBX Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Darla; Deluca, Racci

    2011-06-01

    The use of plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) in weapon applications requires a certain level of structural/mechanical integrity. Uniaxial tension and compression experiments characterize the mechanical response of materials over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates, providing the basis for predictive modeling in more complex geometries. After years of data collection on a wide variety of PBX formulations, we have applied time-temperature superposition principles to a mechanical properties database which includes PBX 9501, PBX 9502, PBXN-110, PBXN-9, and HPP (propellant). The results of quasi-static tension and compression, SHPB compression, and cantilever DMA are compared. Time-temperature relationships of maximum stress and corresponding strain values are analyzed in addition to the more conventional analysis of modulus. Our analysis shows adherence to the principles of time-temperature superposition and correlations of mechanical response to the binder glass transition and specimen density. Direct ties relate time-temperature analysis to the underlying basis of existing PBX mechanical models (ViscoSCRAM). Results suggest that, within limits, mechanical response can be predicted at conditions not explicitly measured. LA-UR 11-01096.

  17. Time-temperature superposition applied to PBX mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Darla; DeLuca, Racci; Wright, Walter J.

    2012-03-01

    The use of plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) in weapon applications requires that they possess and maintain a level of structural/mechanical integrity. Uniaxial tension and compression experiments are typically used to characterize the mechanical response of materials over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates, providing the basis for predictive modeling in more complex geometries. After many years of data collection on a variety of PBX formulations, we have here applied the principles of time-temperature superposition to a mechanical properties database which includes PBX 9501, PBX 9502, PBXN-110, PBXN-9, and HPP (propellant). Consistencies are demonstrated between the results of quasi-static tension and compression, dynamic Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) compression, and cantilever Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). Timetemperature relationships of maximum stress and corresponding strain values are analyzed, in addition to the more conventional analysis of modulus. The extensive analysis shows adherence to the principles of time-temperature superposition and correlations of mechanical response to binder glasstransition temperature (Tg) and specimen density. Direct ties exist between the time-temperature analysis and the underlying basis of a useful existing PBX mechanical model (ViscoSCRAM). Results give confidence that, with some limitations, mechanical response can be predicted at conditions not explicitly measured.

  18. X-ray optics simulation using Gaussian superposition technique

    SciTech Connect

    Idir, M.; Cywiak, M.; Morales, A. and Modi, M.H.

    2011-09-15

    We present an efficient method to perform x-ray optics simulation with high or partially coherent x-ray sources using Gaussian superposition technique. In a previous paper, we have demonstrated that full characterization of optical systems, diffractive and geometric, is possible by using the Fresnel Gaussian Shape Invariant (FGSI) previously reported in the literature. The complex amplitude distribution in the object plane is represented by a linear superposition of complex Gaussians wavelets and then propagated through the optical system by means of the referred Gaussian invariant. This allows ray tracing through the optical system and at the same time allows calculating with high precision the complex wave-amplitude distribution at any plane of observation. This technique can be applied in a wide spectral range where the Fresnel diffraction integral applies including visible, x-rays, acoustic waves, etc. We describe the technique and include some computer simulations as illustrative examples for x-ray optical component. We show also that this method can be used to study partial or total coherence illumination problem.

  19. Annular beam shaping and optical trepanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Danyong

    surfaces of the annulus, respectively, and full Gaussian with maximum intensity within the annulus. Two refractive arrangements have been presented in this study. Geometric optics, or ray optics, describes light propagation in terms of rays. However, it is a simplification of optics, and fails to account for many important optical effects such as diffraction and polarization. The diffractive behaviors of this optical trepanning system are stimulated and analyzed based on the Fresnel diffraction integral. Diffraction patterns of the resulting optical system are measured using a laser beam analyzer and compared with the theoretical results. Based on the theoretical and experimental results, the effects of experimental parameters are discussed. We have designed the annular beam shaping optical elements and the gas delivery system to construct an optical trepanning system. Laser drilling experiments are performed on the Stainless Steel-316 (SS 316) plate and the Inconel 718 (IN 718) plate. The geometry of the trepanning holes with different sizes is presented in this study.

  20. Granuloma annulare in herpes zoster scars.

    PubMed

    Ohata, C; Shirabe, H; Takagi, K; Kawatsu, T

    2000-03-01

    A 54-year-old Japanese female developed granuloma annulare twice in herpes zoster scars. Soon after the second event, she developed ulcerative colitis, which was well controlled by sulfonamides and corticosteroid suppository. She had no history of diabetes mellitus. There was no recurrence of granuloma annulare by June of 1999. Granuloma annulare might have contributed to the complications of ulcerative colitis, although this had not been noticed before. PMID:10774142

  1. Annular Solar Eclipse of 10 May 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1993-01-01

    An annular eclipse of the Sun will be widely visible from the Western Hemisphere on 10 May 1994. The path of the Moon's shadow passes through Mexico, the United States of America, maritime Canada, the North Atlantic, the Azores and Morocco. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include tables of geographic coordinates of the annular path, local circumstances for hundreds of cities, maps of the path of annular and partial eclipse, weather prospects, and the lunar limb profile.

  2. Atom Microscopy via Dual Resonant Superposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Jabar, M. S.; Bakht, Amin Bacha; Jalaluddin, M.; Iftikhar, Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    An M-type Rb87 atomic system is proposed for one-dimensional atom microscopy under the condition of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency. Super-localization of the atom in the absorption spectrum while its delocalization in the dispersion spectrum is observed due to the dual superposition effect of the resonant fields. The observed minimum uncertainty peaks will find important applications in Laser cooling, creating focused atom beams, atom nanolithography, and in measurement of the center-of-mass wave function of moving atoms.

  3. Design of artificial spherical superposition compound eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhaolou; Zhai, Chunjie; Wang, Keyi

    2015-12-01

    In this research, design of artificial spherical superposition compound eye is presented. The imaging system consists of three layers of lens arrays. In each channel, two lenses are designed to control the angular magnification and a field lens is added to improve the image quality and extend the field of view. Aspherical surfaces are introduced to improve the image quality. Ray tracing results demonstrate that the light from the same object point is focused at the same imaging point through different channels. Therefore the system has much higher energy efficiency than conventional spherical apposition compound eye.

  4. Maximum predictive power and the superposition principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summhammer, Johann

    1994-01-01

    In quantum physics the direct observables are probabilities of events. We ask how observed probabilities must be combined to achieve what we call maximum predictive power. According to this concept the accuracy of a prediction must only depend on the number of runs whose data serve as input for the prediction. We transform each probability to an associated variable whose uncertainty interval depends only on the amount of data and strictly decreases with it. We find that for a probability which is a function of two other probabilities maximum predictive power is achieved when linearly summing their associated variables and transforming back to a probability. This recovers the quantum mechanical superposition principle.

  5. On Kolmogorov's superpositions and Boolean functions

    SciTech Connect

    Beiu, V.

    1998-12-31

    The paper overviews results dealing with the approximation capabilities of neural networks, as well as bounds on the size of threshold gate circuits. Based on an explicit numerical (i.e., constructive) algorithm for Kolmogorov's superpositions they will show that for obtaining minimum size neutral networks for implementing any Boolean function, the activation function of the neurons is the identity function. Because classical AND-OR implementations, as well as threshold gate implementations require exponential size (in the worst case), it will follow that size-optimal solutions for implementing arbitrary Boolean functions require analog circuitry. Conclusions and several comments on the required precision are ending the paper.

  6. Annular MHD Physics for Turbojet Energy Bypass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    The use of annular Hall type MHD generator/accelerator ducts for turbojet energy bypass is evaluated assuming weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges. The equations for a 1-D, axisymmetric MHD generator/accelerator are derived and numerically integrated to determine the generator/accelerator performance characteristics. The concept offers a shockless means of interacting with high speed inlet flows and potentially offers variable inlet geometry performance without the complexity of moving parts simply by varying the generator loading parameter. The cycle analysis conducted iteratively with a spike inlet and turbojet flying at M = 7 at 30 km altitude is estimated to have a positive thrust per unit mass flow of 185 N-s/kg. The turbojet allowable combustor temperature is set at an aggressive 2200 deg K. The annular MHD Hall generator/accelerator is L = 3 m in length with a B(sub r) = 5 Tesla magnetic field and a conductivity of sigma = 5 mho/m for the generator and sigma= 1.0 mho/m for the accelerator. The calculated isentropic efficiency for the generator is eta(sub sg) = 84 percent at an enthalpy extraction ratio, eta(sub Ng) = 0.63. The calculated isentropic efficiency for the accelerator is eta(sub sa) = 81 percent at an enthalpy addition ratio, eta(sub Na) = 0.62. An assessment of the ionization fraction necessary to achieve a conductivity of sigma = 1.0 mho/m is n(sub e)/n = 1.90 X 10(exp -6), and for sigma = 5.0 mho/m is n(sub e)/n = 9.52 X 10(exp -6).

  7. Confocal Annular Josephson Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The physics of Josephson tunnel junctions drastically depends on their geometrical configurations and here we show that also tiny geometrical details play a determinant role. More specifically, we develop the theory of short and long annular Josephson tunnel junctions delimited by two confocal ellipses. The behavior of a circular annular Josephson tunnel junction is then seen to be simply a special case of the above result. For junctions having a normalized perimeter less than one, the threshold curves in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field of arbitrary orientations are derived and computed even in the case with trapped Josephson vortices. For longer junctions, a numerical analysis is carried out after the derivation of the appropriate motion equation for the Josephson phase. We found that the system is modeled by a modified and perturbed sine-Gordon equation with a space-dependent effective Josephson penetration length inversely proportional to the local junction width. Both the fluxon statics and dynamics are deeply affected by the non-uniform annulus width. Static zero-field multiple-fluxon solutions exist even in the presence of a large bias current. The tangential velocity of a traveling fluxon is not determined by the balance between the driving and drag forces due to the dissipative losses. Furthermore, the fluxon motion is characterized by a strong radial inward acceleration which causes electromagnetic radiation concentrated at the ellipse equatorial points.

  8. Confocal Annular Josephson Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    The physics of Josephson tunnel junctions drastically depends on their geometrical configurations and here we show that also tiny geometrical details play a determinant role. More specifically, we develop the theory of short and long annular Josephson tunnel junctions delimited by two confocal ellipses. The behavior of a circular annular Josephson tunnel junction is then seen to be simply a special case of the above result. For junctions having a normalized perimeter less than one, the threshold curves in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field of arbitrary orientations are derived and computed even in the case with trapped Josephson vortices. For longer junctions, a numerical analysis is carried out after the derivation of the appropriate motion equation for the Josephson phase. We found that the system is modeled by a modified and perturbed sine-Gordon equation with a space-dependent effective Josephson penetration length inversely proportional to the local junction width. Both the fluxon statics and dynamics are deeply affected by the non-uniform annulus width. Static zero-field multiple-fluxon solutions exist even in the presence of a large bias current. The tangential velocity of a traveling fluxon is not determined by the balance between the driving and drag forces due to the dissipative losses. Furthermore, the fluxon motion is characterized by a strong radial inward acceleration which causes electromagnetic radiation concentrated at the ellipse equatorial points.

  9. Bistability and hysteresis of annular impinging jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisovsky, Tomas

    2016-06-01

    In present study, the bistability and hysteresis of annular impinging jets is investigated. Annular impinging jets are simulated using open source CFD code - OpenFOAM. Both flow field patterns of interest are obtained and hysteresis is found by means of dynamic mesh simulation. Effect of nozzle exit velocity on resulting hysteresis loop is also illustrated.

  10. Phase properties of multicomponent superposition states in various amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang-Soo; Kim, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    There have been theoretical studies for generation of optical coherent superposition states. Once the superposition state is generated it is natural to ask if it is possible to amplify it without losing the nonclassical properties of the field state. We consider amplification of the superposition state in various amplifiers such as a sub-Poissonian amplifier, a phase-sensitive amplifier and a classical amplifier. We show the evolution of phase probability distribution functions in the amplifier.

  11. Granuloma annulare with prominent lymphoid infiltrates ("pseudolymphomatous" granuloma annulare).

    PubMed

    Cota, Carlo; Ferrara, Gerardo; Cerroni, Lorenzo

    2012-05-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is characterized histopathologically by 3 patterns: necrobiotic granuloma, interstitial incomplete form and, rarely, sarcoidal or tuberculoid granuloma. The amount of lymphoid infiltrate in GA is usually limited. We describe 10 cases of GA with prominent "pseudolymphomatous" lymphoid infiltrates mimicking cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia. Patients were 6 males and 4 females (mean age 49.9 years, median age 47 years, age range 25-70). Lesions were localized to a limited area of the body (n = 6), or involved the entire trunk (n = 3), or were generalized (n = 1). The correct clinical diagnosis of GA was provided only in 30% of the cases. In all cases, histopathologic features were characterized by dense, nodular, superficial, and deep infiltrates of lymphocytes. Immunohistology revealed predominance of T lymphocytes in 7 of 7 tested cases. This "pseudolymphomatous" variant of GA represents a pitfall in the histopathologic diagnosis of the disease and may be misinterpreted as other types of cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:22207445

  12. Authentication Protocol using Quantum Superposition States

    SciTech Connect

    Kanamori, Yoshito; Yoo, Seong-Moo; Gregory, Don A.; Sheldon, Frederick T

    2009-01-01

    When it became known that quantum computers could break the RSA (named for its creators - Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman) encryption algorithm within a polynomial-time, quantum cryptography began to be actively studied. Other classical cryptographic algorithms are only secure when malicious users do not have sufficient computational power to break security within a practical amount of time. Recently, many quantum authentication protocols sharing quantum entangled particles between communicators have been proposed, providing unconditional security. An issue caused by sharing quantum entangled particles is that it may not be simple to apply these protocols to authenticate a specific user in a group of many users. An authentication protocol using quantum superposition states instead of quantum entangled particles is proposed. The random number shared between a sender and a receiver can be used for classical encryption after the authentication has succeeded. The proposed protocol can be implemented with the current technologies we introduce in this paper.

  13. Means of manufacturing annular arrays

    DOEpatents

    Day, R.A.

    1985-10-10

    A method is described for manufacturing an annular acoustic transducer array from a plate of transducer material, which enables production of precision aligned arrays at low cost. The circular plate is sawed along at least two lines that are radial to the axis of the plate. At steps along each radial cut, the plate is rotated first in one direction and then in an opposite direction by a predetermined angle such as slightly less than 90/sup 0/. The cuts result in the forming of several largely ring-shaped lands, each largely ring-shaped land being joined to the other rings of different radii by thin portions of the plate, and each ring being cut into segments. The bridges that join different rings hold the transducer together until it can be mounted on a lens.

  14. Nonclassical Properties of Q-Deformed Superposition Light Field State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ren, Min; Shenggui, Wang; Ma, Aiqun; Jiang, Zhuohong

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, the squeezing effect, the bunching effect and the anti-bunching effect of the superposition light field state which involving q-deformation vacuum state and q-Glauber coherent state are studied, the controllable q-parameter of the squeezing effect, the bunching effect and the anti-bunching effect of q-deformed superposition light field state are obtained.

  15. Etizolam-induced superficial erythema annulare centrifugum.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, K; Yabunami, H; Hisanaga, Y

    2002-01-01

    Erythema annulare centrifugum (EAC) is characterized by slowly enlarging annular erythematous lesions. Although the origin is not clear in most cases, EAC has been associated with infections, medications, and in rare cases, underlying malignancy. We describe a patient who developed annular erythematous lesions after etizolam administration. The eruptions were typical of the superficial form of EAC, both clinically and histopathologically. The lesions disappeared shortly after discontinuation of the medication. Patch testing with etizolam gave positive results. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of etizolam-induced superficial EAC. PMID:11952667

  16. Sealing arrangement with annular flexible disc

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.; Honigsberg, Charles A.

    1983-01-01

    Fluid sealing arrangements including an annular shaped flexible disc having enlarged edges disposed within channel-shaped annular receptacles which are spaced from one another. The receptacles form an annular region for contacting and containing the enlarged edges of the disc, and the disc is preloaded to a conical configuration. The disc is flexibly and movably supported within the receptacles so that unevenly distributed relative motion between the components containing the receptacles is accommodated without loss of sealing contact between the edges of the disc and the walls of the receptacles.

  17. Generation of photonic orbital angular momentum superposition states using vortex beam emitters with superimposed gratings.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qingsheng; Klitis, Charalambos; Li, Shimao; Chen, Yueyang; Cai, Xinlun; Sorel, Marc; Yu, Siyuan

    2016-02-22

    An integrated approach to produce photonic orbital angular momentum (OAM) superposition states with arbitrary OAM spectrum has been demonstrated. Superposition states between two vector OAM modes have been achieved by integrating a superimposed angular grating in one silicon micro-ring resonator, with each mode having near equal weight. The topological charge difference between the two compositional OAM modes is determined by the difference between the numbers of elements in the two original gratings being superimposed, while the absolute values of the topological charge can be changed synchronously by switching WGM resonant wavelengths. This novel approach provides a scalable and flexible source for the OAM-based quantum information and optical manipulation applications. PMID:26906981

  18. Method and apparatus for continuous annular electrochromatography

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.

    1987-01-01

    Separation of complex mixtures and solutions can be carried out using a method and apparatus for continuous annular electrochromatography. Solutes are diverted radially by an imposed electrical field as they move downward in a rotating chromatographic column.

  19. Granuloma Annulare Treated with Excimer Laser

    PubMed Central

    Ragi, Jennifer; Milgraum, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To review the current therapy for granuloma annulare and report a case of refractory generalized granuloma annulare successfully treated with excimer laser. A discussion about the characteristics of excimer laser and the mechanism of its effectiveness is presented. Design: Patient case report and literature review. Setting: Outpatient dermatology practice. Participants: A 73-year-old woman suffering from generalized granuloma annulare for more than 40 years. Measurements: Change in clinical appearance of lesions. Results: Use of excimer laser therapy resulted in prompt and complete resolution in treated areas with no residual skin changes or side effects. Conclusion: Excimer laser therapy is a powerful treatment modality with minimal side effects for patients with granuloma annulare. Further study is necessary to elucidate optimal dosing, long-term efficacy, and safety profile. PMID:23198013

  20. [Treatment of disseminated granuloma annulare with anthralin].

    PubMed

    Jantke, M E; Bertsch, H-P; Schön, M P; Fuchs, T

    2011-12-01

    Granuloma annulare is a benign, often asymptomatic and self-limiting granulomatous skin disease. In cases of disseminated granuloma annulare, spontaneous regression is considerably less frequent than in localized forms so that therapy is often desired. Systemic treatments should always be assessed critically and reserved for patients who are severely affected and in whom treatment approaches with few side effects such as local application of anthralin do not suffice to achieve a satisfactory effect. PMID:21656108

  1. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  2. Adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscopy with annular pupils

    PubMed Central

    Sulai, Yusufu N.; Dubra, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Annular apodization of the illumination and/or imaging pupils of an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) for improving transverse resolution was evaluated using three different normalized inner radii (0.26, 0.39 and 0.52). In vivo imaging of the human photoreceptor mosaic at 0.5 and 10° from fixation indicates that the use of an annular illumination pupil and a circular imaging pupil provides the most benefit of all configurations when using a one Airy disk diameter pinhole, in agreement with the paraxial confocal microscopy theory. Annular illumination pupils with 0.26 and 0.39 normalized inner radii performed best in terms of the narrowing of the autocorrelation central lobe (between 7 and 12%), and the increase in manual and automated photoreceptor counts (8 to 20% more cones and 11 to 29% more rods). It was observed that the use of annular pupils with large inner radii can result in multi-modal cone photoreceptor intensity profiles. The effect of the annular masks on the average photoreceptor intensity is consistent with the Stiles-Crawford effect (SCE). This indicates that combinations of images of the same photoreceptors with different apodization configurations and/or annular masks can be used to distinguish cones from rods, even when the former have complex multi-modal intensity profiles. In addition to narrowing the point spread function transversally, the use of annular apodizing masks also elongates it axially, a fact that can be used for extending the depth of focus of techniques such as adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT). Finally, the positive results from this work suggest that annular pupil apodization could be used in refractive or catadioptric adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes to mitigate undesired back-reflections. PMID:22808435

  3. Annular gel reactor for chemical pattern formation

    DOEpatents

    Nosticzius, Zoltan; Horsthemke, Werner; McCormick, William D.; Swinney, Harry L.; Tam, Wing Y.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an annular gel reactor suitable for the production and observation of spatiotemporal patterns created during a chemical reaction. The apparatus comprises a vessel having at least a first and second chamber separated one from the other by an annular polymer gel layer (or other fine porous medium) which is inert to the materials to be reacted but capable of allowing diffusion of the chemicals into it.

  4. Multiple Granuloma Annulare in a 2-year-old Child

    PubMed Central

    Siddalingappa, Karjigi; Murthy, Sambasiviah Chidambara; Herakal, Kallappa; Kusuma, Marganahalli Ramachandra

    2015-01-01

    Granuloma annulare is a benign, self-limiting, inflammatory and granulomatous disease of unknown etiology occurring in both adults and children. An 18-month-old male child had multiple progressive annular plaques over the lower extremities. Clinical and histopathological features were consistent with granuloma annulare. Localized granuloma annulare is the most common form in children. We report a young child with multiple, progressive granuloma annulare over the lower extremities. PMID:26677301

  5. Superposition rules for higher order systems and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariñena, J. F.; Grabowski, J.; de Lucas, J.

    2012-05-01

    Superposition rules form a class of functions that describe general solutions of systems of first-order ordinary differential equations in terms of generic families of particular solutions and certain constants. In this work, we extend this notion and other related ones to systems of higher order differential equations and analyse their properties. Several results concerning the existence of various types of superposition rules for higher order systems are proved and illustrated with examples extracted from the physics and mathematics literature. In particular, two new superposition rules for the second- and third-order Kummer-Schwarz equations are derived.

  6. Many-Body Basis Set Superposition Effect.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, John F; Bettens, Ryan P A

    2015-11-10

    The basis set superposition effect (BSSE) arises in electronic structure calculations of molecular clusters when questions relating to interactions between monomers within the larger cluster are asked. The binding energy, or total energy, of the cluster may be broken down into many smaller subcluster calculations and the energies of these subsystems linearly combined to, hopefully, produce the desired quantity of interest. Unfortunately, BSSE can plague these smaller fragment calculations. In this work, we carefully examine the major sources of error associated with reproducing the binding energy and total energy of a molecular cluster. In order to do so, we decompose these energies in terms of a many-body expansion (MBE), where a "body" here refers to the monomers that make up the cluster. In our analysis, we found it necessary to introduce something we designate here as a many-ghost many-body expansion (MGMBE). The work presented here produces some surprising results, but perhaps the most significant of all is that BSSE effects up to the order of truncation in a MBE of the total energy cancel exactly. In the case of the binding energy, the only BSSE correction terms remaining arise from the removal of the one-body monomer total energies. Nevertheless, our earlier work indicated that BSSE effects continued to remain in the total energy of the cluster up to very high truncation order in the MBE. We show in this work that the vast majority of these high-order many-body effects arise from BSSE associated with the one-body monomer total energies. Also, we found that, remarkably, the complete basis set limit values for the three-body and four-body interactions differed very little from that at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level for the respective subclusters embedded within a larger cluster. PMID:26574311

  7. Nonclassical properties and quantum resources of hierarchical photonic superposition states

    SciTech Connect

    Volkoff, T. J.

    2015-11-15

    We motivate and introduce a class of “hierarchical” quantum superposition states of N coupled quantum oscillators. Unlike other well-known multimode photonic Schrödinger-cat states such as entangled coherent states, the hierarchical superposition states are characterized as two-branch superpositions of tensor products of single-mode Schrödinger-cat states. In addition to analyzing the photon statistics and quasiprobability distributions of prominent examples of these nonclassical states, we consider their usefulness for highprecision quantum metrology of nonlinear optical Hamiltonians and quantify their mode entanglement. We propose two methods for generating hierarchical superpositions in N = 2 coupled microwave cavities, exploiting currently existing quantum optical technology for generating entanglement between spatially separated electromagnetic field modes.

  8. A Galois connection approach to superposition and inaccessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterfield, Jeremy; Melia, Joseph

    1993-12-01

    Working in a quantum logic framework and using the idea of Galois connections, we give a natural sufficient condition for superposition and inaccessibility to give the same closure map on sets of states.

  9. Quantum State Engineering Via Coherent-State Superpositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janszky, Jozsef; Adam, P.; Szabo, S.; Domokos, P.

    1996-01-01

    The quantum interference between the two parts of the optical Schrodinger-cat state makes possible to construct a wide class of quantum states via discrete superpositions of coherent states. Even a small number of coherent states can approximate the given quantum states at a high accuracy when the distance between the coherent states is optimized, e. g. nearly perfect Fock state can be constructed by discrete superpositions of n + 1 coherent states lying in the vicinity of the vacuum state.

  10. Optical threshold secret sharing scheme based on basic vector operations and coherence superposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaopeng; Wen, Wei; Mi, Xianwu; Long, Xuewen

    2015-04-01

    We propose, to our knowledge for the first time, a simple optical algorithm for secret image sharing with the (2,n) threshold scheme based on basic vector operations and coherence superposition. The secret image to be shared is firstly divided into n shadow images by use of basic vector operations. In the reconstruction stage, the secret image can be retrieved by recording the intensity of the coherence superposition of any two shadow images. Compared with the published encryption techniques which focus narrowly on information encryption, the proposed method can realize information encryption as well as secret sharing, which further ensures the safety and integrality of the secret information and prevents power from being kept centralized and abused. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by numerical results.

  11. Annular bilayer magnetoelectric composites: theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingsen; Dong, Shuxiang

    2010-01-01

    The laminated bilayer magnetoelectric (ME) composites consist of magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers are known to have giant ME coefficient due to the high coupling efficiency in bending mode. In our previous report, the bar-shaped bilayer composite has been investigated by using a magnetoelectric-coupling equivalent circuit. Here, we propose an annular bilayer ME composite, which consists of magnetostrictive and piezoelectric rings. This composite has a much lower resonance frequency of bending mode compared with its radial mode. In addition, the annular bilayer ME composite is expected to respond to vortex magnetic field as well as unidirectional magnetic field. In this paper, we investigate the annular bilayer ME composite by using impedance-matrix method and predict the ME coefficients as a function of geometric parameters of the composites. PMID:20178914

  12. Annular feed air breathing fuel cell stack

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1996-01-01

    A stack of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is formed from a plurality of unit cells where each unit cell includes fuel cell components defining a periphery and distributed along a common axis, where the fuel cell components include a polymer electrolyte membrane, an anode and a cathode contacting opposite sides of the membrane, and fuel and oxygen flow fields contacting the anode and the cathode, respectively, wherein the components define an annular region therethrough along the axis. A fuel distribution manifold within the annular region is connected to deliver fuel to the fuel flow field in each of the unit cells. In a particular embodiment, a single bolt through the annular region clamps the unit cells together. In another embodiment, separator plates between individual unit cells have an extended radial dimension to function as cooling fins for maintaining the operating temperature of the fuel cell stack.

  13. Quantum superposition at the half-metre scale.

    PubMed

    Kovachy, T; Asenbaum, P; Overstreet, C; Donnelly, C A; Dickerson, S M; Sugarbaker, A; Hogan, J M; Kasevich, M A

    2015-12-24

    The quantum superposition principle allows massive particles to be delocalized over distant positions. Though quantum mechanics has proved adept at describing the microscopic world, quantum superposition runs counter to intuitive conceptions of reality and locality when extended to the macroscopic scale, as exemplified by the thought experiment of Schrödinger's cat. Matter-wave interferometers, which split and recombine wave packets in order to observe interference, provide a way to probe the superposition principle on macroscopic scales and explore the transition to classical physics. In such experiments, large wave-packet separation is impeded by the need for long interaction times and large momentum beam splitters, which cause susceptibility to dephasing and decoherence. Here we use light-pulse atom interferometry to realize quantum interference with wave packets separated by up to 54 centimetres on a timescale of 1 second. These results push quantum superposition into a new macroscopic regime, demonstrating that quantum superposition remains possible at the distances and timescales of everyday life. The sub-nanokelvin temperatures of the atoms and a compensation of transverse optical forces enable a large separation while maintaining an interference contrast of 28 per cent. In addition to testing the superposition principle in a new regime, large quantum superposition states are vital to exploring gravity with atom interferometers in greater detail. We anticipate that these states could be used to increase sensitivity in tests of the equivalence principle, measure the gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect, and eventually detect gravitational waves and phase shifts associated with general relativity. PMID:26701053

  14. Quantum superposition at the half-metre scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovachy, T.; Asenbaum, P.; Overstreet, C.; Donnelly, C. A.; Dickerson, S. M.; Sugarbaker, A.; Hogan, J. M.; Kasevich, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The quantum superposition principle allows massive particles to be delocalized over distant positions. Though quantum mechanics has proved adept at describing the microscopic world, quantum superposition runs counter to intuitive conceptions of reality and locality when extended to the macroscopic scale, as exemplified by the thought experiment of Schrödinger’s cat. Matter-wave interferometers, which split and recombine wave packets in order to observe interference, provide a way to probe the superposition principle on macroscopic scales and explore the transition to classical physics. In such experiments, large wave-packet separation is impeded by the need for long interaction times and large momentum beam splitters, which cause susceptibility to dephasing and decoherence. Here we use light-pulse atom interferometry to realize quantum interference with wave packets separated by up to 54 centimetres on a timescale of 1 second. These results push quantum superposition into a new macroscopic regime, demonstrating that quantum superposition remains possible at the distances and timescales of everyday life. The sub-nanokelvin temperatures of the atoms and a compensation of transverse optical forces enable a large separation while maintaining an interference contrast of 28 per cent. In addition to testing the superposition principle in a new regime, large quantum superposition states are vital to exploring gravity with atom interferometers in greater detail. We anticipate that these states could be used to increase sensitivity in tests of the equivalence principle, measure the gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect, and eventually detect gravitational waves and phase shifts associated with general relativity.

  15. [Superposition impact character of air pollution from decentralization docks in a freshwater port].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-chang; Li, Xing-hua; Xu, Hong-lei; Cheng, Jin-xiang; Wang, Zhong-dai; Xiao, Yang

    2013-05-01

    Air pollution from freshwater port is mainly caused by dust pollution, including material loading and unloading dust, road dust, and wind erosion dust from stockpile, bare soil. The dust pollution from a single dock characterized in obvious difference with air pollution from multiple scattered docks. Jining Port of Shandong Province was selected as a case study to get superposition impact contribution of air pollution for regional air environment from multiple scattered docks and to provide technical support for system evaluation of port air pollution. The results indicate that (1) the air pollution from freshwater port occupies a low proportion of pollution impact on regional environmental quality because the port is consisted of serveral small scattered docks; (2) however, the geometric center of the region distributed by docks is severely affected with the most superposition of the air pollution; and (3) the ADMS model is helpful to attain an effective and integrated assessment to predict a superposition impact of multiple non-point pollution sources when the differences of high-altitude weather conditions was not considered on a large scale. PMID:23914566

  16. Observing a coherent superposition of an atom and a molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Dowling, Mark R.; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Rudolph, Terry; Spekkens, Robert W.

    2006-11-15

    We demonstrate that it is possible, in principle, to perform a Ramsey-type interference experiment to exhibit a coherent superposition of a single atom and a diatomic molecule. This gedanken experiment, based on the techniques of Aharonov and Susskind [Phys. Rev. 155, 1428 (1967)], explicitly violates the commonly accepted superselection rule that forbids coherent superpositions of eigenstates of differing atom number. A Bose-Einstein condensate plays the role of a reference frame that allows for coherent operations analogous to Ramsey pulses. We also investigate an analogous gedanken experiment to exhibit a coherent superposition of a single boson and a fermion, violating the commonly accepted superselection rule forbidding coherent superpositions of states of differing particle statistics. In this case, the reference frame is realized by a multimode state of many fermions. This latter case reproduces all of the relevant features of Ramsey interferometry, including Ramsey fringes over many repetitions of the experiment. However, the apparent inability of this proposed experiment to produce well-defined relative phases between two distinct systems each described by a coherent superposition of a boson and a fermion demonstrates that there are additional, outstanding requirements to fully 'lift' the univalence superselection rule.

  17. Azimuthally forced flames in an annular combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worth, Nicholas; Dawson, James; Mastorakos, Epaminondas

    2015-11-01

    Thermoacoustic instabilities are more likely to occur in lean burn combustion systems, making their adoption both difficult and costly. At present, our knowledge of such phenomena is insufficient to produce an inherently stable combustor by design, and therefore an improved understanding of these instabilities has become the focus of a significant research effort. Recent experimental and numerical studies have demonstrated that the symmetry of annular chambers permit a range of self-excited azimuthal modes to be generated in annular geometry, which can make the study of isolated modes difficult. While acoustic forcing is common in single flame experiments, no equivalent for forced azimuthal modes in an annular chamber have been demonstrated. The present investigation focuses on the novel application of acoustic forcing to a laboratory scale annular combustor, in order to generate azimuthal standing wave modes at a prescribed frequency and amplitude. The results focus on the ability of the method to isolate the mode of oscillation using experimental pressure and high speed OH* measurements. The successful excitation of azimuthal modes demonstrated represents an important step towards improving our fundamental understanding of this phenomena in practically relevant geometry.

  18. Ultrasonic field modeling for immersed components using Gaussian beam superposition.

    PubMed

    Spies, Martin

    2007-05-01

    The Gaussian beam (GB) superposition approach can be applied to model ultrasound propagation in complex-structured materials and components. In this article, progress made in extending and applying the Gaussian beam superposition technique to model the beam fields generated by transducers with flat and focused rectangular apertures as well as with circular focused apertures is addressed. The refraction of transducer beam fields through curved surfaces is illustrated by calculation results for beam fields generated in curved components during immersion testing. In particular, the following developments are put forward: (i) the use of individually determined sets of GBs to model transducer beam fields with a number of less than ten beams; (ii) the application of the GB representation of rectangular transducers to focusing probes, as well as to the problem of transmission through interfaces; and (iii) computationally efficient transient modeling by superposition of 'temporally limited' GBs. PMID:17335863

  19. Non-coaxial superposition of vector vortex beams.

    PubMed

    Aadhi, A; Vaity, Pravin; Chithrabhanu, P; Reddy, Salla Gangi; Prabakar, Shashi; Singh, R P

    2016-02-10

    Vector vortex beams are classified into four types depending upon spatial variation in their polarization vector. We have generated all four of these types of vector vortex beams by using a modified polarization Sagnac interferometer with a vortex lens. Further, we have studied the non-coaxial superposition of two vector vortex beams. It is observed that the superposition of two vector vortex beams with same polarization singularity leads to a beam with another kind of polarization singularity in their interaction region. The results may be of importance in ultrahigh security of the polarization-encrypted data that utilizes vector vortex beams and multiple optical trapping with non-coaxial superposition of vector vortex beams. We verified our experimental results with theory. PMID:26906384

  20. Dissipative Optomechanical Preparation of Macroscopic Quantum Superposition States.

    PubMed

    Abdi, M; Degenfeld-Schonburg, P; Sameti, M; Navarrete-Benlloch, C; Hartmann, M J

    2016-06-10

    The transition from quantum to classical physics remains an intensely debated question even though it has been investigated for more than a century. Further clarifications could be obtained by preparing macroscopic objects in spatial quantum superpositions and proposals for generating such states for nanomechanical devices either in a transient or a probabilistic fashion have been put forward. Here, we introduce a method to deterministically obtain spatial superpositions of arbitrary lifetime via dissipative state preparation. In our approach, we engineer a double-well potential for the motion of the mechanical element and drive it towards the ground state, which shows the desired spatial superposition, via optomechanical sideband cooling. We propose a specific implementation based on a superconducting circuit coupled to the mechanical motion of a lithium-decorated monolayer graphene sheet, introduce a method to verify the mechanical state by coupling it to a superconducting qubit, and discuss its prospects for testing collapse models for the quantum to classical transition. PMID:27341233

  1. Dissipative Optomechanical Preparation of Macroscopic Quantum Superposition States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdi, M.; Degenfeld-Schonburg, P.; Sameti, M.; Navarrete-Benlloch, C.; Hartmann, M. J.

    2016-06-01

    The transition from quantum to classical physics remains an intensely debated question even though it has been investigated for more than a century. Further clarifications could be obtained by preparing macroscopic objects in spatial quantum superpositions and proposals for generating such states for nanomechanical devices either in a transient or a probabilistic fashion have been put forward. Here, we introduce a method to deterministically obtain spatial superpositions of arbitrary lifetime via dissipative state preparation. In our approach, we engineer a double-well potential for the motion of the mechanical element and drive it towards the ground state, which shows the desired spatial superposition, via optomechanical sideband cooling. We propose a specific implementation based on a superconducting circuit coupled to the mechanical motion of a lithium-decorated monolayer graphene sheet, introduce a method to verify the mechanical state by coupling it to a superconducting qubit, and discuss its prospects for testing collapse models for the quantum to classical transition.

  2. Seeing lens imaging as a superposition of multiple views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grusche, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    In the conventional approach to lens imaging, rays are used to map object points to image points. However, many students want to think of the image as a whole. To answer this need, Kepler’s ray drawing is reinterpreted in terms of shifted camera obscura images. These images are uncovered by covering the lens with pinholes. Thus, lens imaging is seen as a superposition of sharp images from different viewpoints, so-called elemental images. This superposition is simulated with projectors, and with transparencies. Lens ray diagrams are constructed based on elemental images; the conventional construction method is included as a special case.

  3. Tight bounds on the concurrence of quantum superpositions

    SciTech Connect

    Niset, J.; Cerf, N. J.

    2007-10-15

    The entanglement content of superpositions of quantum states is investigated based on a measure called concurrence. Given a bipartite pure state in arbitrary dimension written as the quantum superposition of two other such states, we find simple inequalities relating the concurrence of the state to that of its components. We derive an exact expression for the concurrence when the component states are biorthogonal and provide elegant upper and lower bounds in all other cases. For quantum bits, our upper bound is tighter than the previously derived bound [N. Linden et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 100502 (2006)].

  4. Orbital angular momentum of superposition of identical shifted vortex beams.

    PubMed

    Kovalev, A A; Kotlyar, V V

    2015-10-01

    We have formulated and proven the following theorem: the superposition of an arbitrary number of arbitrarily off-axis, identical nonparaxial optical vortex beams of arbitrary radially symmetric shape, integer topological charge n, and arbitrary real weight coefficients has the normalized orbital angular momentum (OAM) equal to that of individual constituent identical beams. This theorem enables generating vortex laser beams with different (not necessarily radially symmetric) intensity profiles but identical OAM. Superpositions of Bessel, Hankel-Bessel, Bessel-Gaussian, and Laguerre-Gaussian beams with the same OAM are discussed. PMID:26479934

  5. Management of Periocular Granuloma Annulare Using Topical Dapsone

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mayha; Shitabata, Paul; Horowitz, David

    2015-01-01

    Granuloma annulare is a disease characterized by granulomatous inflammation of the dermis. Localized granuloma annulare may resolve spontaneously, while generalized granuloma annulare may persist for decades. The authors present the case of a 41-year-old Hispanic man with a two-week history of periocular granuloma annulare. Due to previously reported success in the use of systemic dapsone for the treatment of granuloma annulare, and the periocular proximity of the patient’s lesion, topical dapsone was used for treatment. Various additional therapies for the management of granuloma annulare have been reported, such as topical and systemic steroids, isotretinoin, pentoxifylline, cyclosporine, Interferon gamma, potassium iodide, nicotinamide, niacinamide, salicylic acid, fumaric acid ester, etanercept, infliximab, and hydroxychloroquine. Additional clinical trials are necessary to further evaluate the effectiveness of topical dapsone in the management of granuloma annulare. PMID:26203321

  6. LDV measurements in an annular combustor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, Dean A.

    1986-08-01

    The design and setup of a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) system used to take velocity measurements in an annular combustor model are covered. The annular combustor model is of contemporary design using 60 degree flat vane swirlers, producing a strong recirculation zone. Detailed measurements are taken of the swirler inlet air flow and of the downstream enclosed swirling flow. The laser system used is a two color, two component system set up in forward scatter. Detailed are some of the special considerations needed for LDV use in the confined turbulent flow of the combustor model. The LDV measurements in a single swirler rig indicated that the flow changes radically in the first duct height. After this, a flow profile is set up and remains constant in shape. The magnitude of the velocities gradually decays due to viscous damping.

  7. Development of an Advanced Annular Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusnak, J. P.; Shadowen, J. H.

    1969-01-01

    The objective of the effort described in this report was to determine the structural durability of a full-scale advanced annular turbojet combustor using ASTM A-1 type fuel and operating at conditions typical of advanced supersonic aircraft. A full-scale annular combustor of the ram-induction type was fabricated and subjected to a 325-hour cyclic endurance test at conditions representative of operation in a Mach 3.0 aircraft. The combustor exhibited extensive cracking and scoop burning at the end of the test program. But these defects had no appreciable effect on combustor performance, as performance remained at a high level throughout the endurance program. Most performance goals were achieved with pressure loss values near 6% and 8%, and temperature rise variation ratio (deltaTVR) values near 1.25 and l.22 at takeoff and cruise conditions, respectively. Combustion efficiencies approached l004 and the exit radial temperature profiles were approximately as desired.

  8. LDV Measurements in an Annular Combustor Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barron, Dean A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis covers the design and setup of a laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) system used to take velocity measurements in an annular combustor model. The annular combustor model is of contemporary design using 60 degree flat vane swirlers, producing a strong recirculation zone. Detailed measurements are taken of the swirler inlet air flow and of the downstream enclosed swirling flow. The laser system used is a two color, two component system set up in forward scatter. Detailed are some of the special considerations needed for LDV use in the confined turbulent flow of the combustor model. LDV measurements in a single swirler rig indicated that the flow changes radically in the first duct height. After this, a flow profile is set up and remains constant in shape. The magnitude of the velocities gradually decays due to viscous damping.

  9. Annular and Total Solar Eclipses of 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    2002-01-01

    On Saturday, 2003 May 31, an annular eclipse of the Sun will be visible from a broad corridor that traverses the North Atlantic. The path of the Moon's antumbral shadow begins in northern Scotland, crosses Iceland and central Greenland, and ends at sunrise in Baffin Bay (Canada). A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes most of Europe, the Middle East, central and northern Asia, and northwestern North America. The trajectory of the Moon's shadow is quite unusual during this event. The shadow axis passes to the far north where it barely grazes Earth's surface. In fact, the northern edge of the antumbra actually misses Earth so that one path limit is defined by the day/night terminator rather than by the shadow's upper edge. As a result, the track of annularity has a peculiar "D" shape that is nearly 1200 kilometers wide. Since the eclipse occurs just three weeks prior to the northern summer solstice, Earth's northern axis is pointed sunwards by 22.8 deg. As seen from the Sun, the antumbral shadow actually passes between the North Pole and the terminator. As a consequence of this extraordinary geometry, the path of annularity runs from east to west rather than the more typical west to east. The event transpires near the Moon's ascending node in Taurus five degrees north of Aldebaran. Since apogee occurs three days earlier (May 28 at 13 UT), the Moon's apparent diameter (29.6 arc-minutes) is still too small to completely cover the Sun (31.6 arc-minutes) resulting in an annular eclipse.

  10. Atypical scabies presenting as annular patches.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Delwar

    2014-01-01

    Scabies is a common parasitic disease that can be recognized by the development of itchy lesions and a predilection for certain places on the body. It may infrequently present with patchy lesions. We report a patient with well-defined annular patches. Histopathology showed an egg of the scabies mite in the epidermis. Treatment with permethrin cream resulted in complete resolution of her disease. PMID:22967356

  11. The Annular Suspension and Pointing System /ASPS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. W.; Woolley, C. T.

    1978-01-01

    The Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS) may be attached to a carrier vehicle for orientation, mechanical isolation, and fine pointing purposes applicable to space experiments. It has subassemblies for both coarse and vernier pointing. A fourteen-degree-of-freedom simulation of the ASPS mounted on a Space Shuttle has yielded initial performance data. The simulation describes: the magnetic actuators, payload sensors, coarse gimbal assemblies, control algorithms, rigid body dynamic models of the payload and Shuttle, and a control system firing model.

  12. Annular Alopecia Areata: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Manish; Manchanda, Kajal; Pandey, SS

    2013-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an auto-immune disorder characterized by the appearance of non-scarring bald patches affecting the hair bearing areas of the body. Scalp is the most common site of involvement. AA can affect any age group. The usual pattern of the hair loss is oval or round. We hereby, report two cases of annular and circinate pattern of AA due to its unusual morphology. PMID:24403774

  13. Neoclassical transport in an annular penning trap

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, S.

    1997-07-01

    A modified Penning trap is described with an annular confinement region and a toroidal magnetic field. A non-neutral electron plasma is confined axially by an electrostatic field and, in the radial direction, particles are constrained to lie within a small drift distance of a cylindrical flux surface. Drift orbits of all particles are banana-shaped and collisions cause neoclassical transport. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Endoscopic measurements using a panoramic annular lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, John A.; Matthys, Donald R.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design, build, demonstrate, and deliver a prototype system for making measurements within cavities. The system was to utilize structured lighting as the means for making measurements and was to rely on a stationary probe, equipped with a unique panoramic annular lens, to capture a cylindrical view of the illuminated cavity. Panoramic images, acquired with a digitizing camera and stored in a desk top computer, were to be linearized and analyzed by mouse-driven interactive software.

  15. Performance of annular high frequency thermoacoustic engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Ivan A.

    This thesis presents studies of the behavior of miniature annular thermoacoustic prime movers and the imaging of the complex sound fields using PIV inside the small acoustic wave guides when driven by a temperature gradient. Thermoacoustic engines operating in the standing wave mode are limited in their acoustic efficiency by a high degree of irreversibility that is inherent in how they work. Better performance can be achieved by using traveling waves in the thermoacoustic devices. This has led to the development of an annular high frequency thermoacoustic prime mover consisting of a regenerator, which is a random stack in-between a hot and cold heat exchanger, inside an annular waveguide. Miniature devices were developed and studied with operating frequencies in the range of 2-4 kHz. This corresponds to an average ring circumference of 11 cm for the 3 kHz device, the resonator bore being 6 mm. A similar device of 11 mm bore, length of 18 cm was also investigated; its resonant frequency was 2 kHz. Sound intensities as high as 166.8 dB were generated with limited heat input. Sound power was extracted from the annular structure by an impedance-matching side arm. The nature of the acoustic wave generated by heat was investigated using a high speed PIV instrument. Although the acoustic device appears symmetric, its performance is characterized by a broken symmetry and by perturbations that exist in its structure. Effects of these are observed in the PIV imaging; images show axial and radial components. Moreover, PIV studies show effects of streaming and instabilities which affect the devices' acoustic efficiency. The acoustic efficiency is high, being of 40% of Carnot. This type of device shows much promise as a high efficiency energy converter; it can be reduced in size for microcircuit applications.

  16. Annular flow film characteristics in variable gravity.

    PubMed

    MacGillivray, Ryan M; Gabriel, Kamiel S

    2002-10-01

    Annular flow is a frequently occurring flow regime in many industrial applications. The need for a better understanding of this flow regime is driven by the desire to improve the design of many terrestrial and space systems. Annular two-phase flow occurs in the mining and transportation of oil and natural gas, petrochemical processes, and boilers and condensers in heating and refrigeration systems. The flow regime is also anticipated during the refueling of space vehicles, and thermal management systems for space use. Annular flow is mainly inertia driven with little effect of buoyancy. However, the study of this flow regime is still desirable in a microgravity environment. The influence of gravity can create an unstable, chaotic film. The absence of gravity, therefore, allows for a more stable and axisymmetric film. Such conditions allow for the film characteristics to be easily studied at low gas flow rates. Previous studies conducted by the Microgravity Research Group dealt with varying the gas or liquid mass fluxes at a reduced gravitational acceleration.(1,2) The study described here continues this work by examining the effect of changing the gravitational acceleration (hypergravity) on the film characteristics. In particular, the film thickness and the associated pressure drops are examined. The film thickness was measured using a pair of two-wire conductance probes. Experimental data was collected over a range of annular flow set points by changing the liquid and gas mass flow rates, the liquid-to-gas density ratio and the gravitational acceleration. The liquid-to-gas density ratio was varied by collecting data with helium-water and air-water at the same flow rates. The gravitational effect was examined by collecting data during the microgravity and pull-up (hypergravity) portions of the parabolic flights. PMID:12446332

  17. Vibration analysis of annular-like plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, L.; Li, Y. Y.; Yam, L. H.

    2003-05-01

    The existence of eccentricity of the central hole for an annular plate results in a significant change in the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the structure. In this paper, the vibration analysis of annular-like plates is presented based on numerical and experimental approaches. Using the finite element analysis code Nastran, the effects of the eccentricity, hole size and boundary condition on vibration modes are investigated systematically through both global and local analyses. The results show that analyses for perfect symmetric conditions can still roughly predict the mode shapes of "recessive" modes of the plate with a slightly eccentric hole. They will, however, lead to erroneous results for "dominant" modes. In addition, the residual displacement mode shape is verified as an effective parameter for identifying damage occurring in plate-like structures. Experimental modal analysis on a clamped-free annular-like plate is performed, and the results obtained reveal good agreement with those obtained by numerical analysis. This study provides guidance on modal analysis, vibration measurement and damage detection of plate-like structures.

  18. Annular feed air breathing fuel cell stack

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Neutzler, Jay K.

    1997-01-01

    A stack of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is formed from a plurality of unit cells where each unit cell includes fuel cell components defining a periphery and distributed along a common axis, where the fuel cell components include a polymer electrolyte membrane, an anode and a cathode contacting opposite sides of the membrane, and fuel and oxygen flow fields contacting the anode and the cathode, respectively, wherein the components define an annular region therethrough along the axis. A fuel distribution manifold within the annular region is connected to deliver fuel to the fuel flow field in each of the unit cells. The fuel distribution manifold is formed from a hydrophilic-like material to redistribute water produced by fuel and oxygen reacting at the cathode. In a particular embodiment, a single bolt through the annular region clamps the unit cells together. In another embodiment, separator plates between individual unit cells have an extended radial dimension to function as cooling fins for maintaining the operating temperature of the fuel cell stack.

  19. Multidimensional detonation propagation modeled via nonlinear shock wave superposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Andrew; Mehrjoo, Navid

    2010-11-01

    Detonation waves in gases are inherently multidimensional due to their cellular structure, and detonations in liquids and heterogeneous solids are often associated with instabilities and stochastic, localized reaction centers (i.e., hot spots). To explore the statistical nature of detonation dynamics in such systems, a simple model that idealizes detonation propagation as an ensemble of interacting blast waves originating from spatially random point sources has been proposed. Prior results using this model exhibited features that have been observed in real detonating systems, such as anomalous scaling between axisymmetric and two-dimensional geometries. However, those efforts used simple linear superposition of the blast waves. The present work uses a model of blast wave superposition developed for multiple-source explosions (the LAMB approximation) that incorporates the nonlinear interaction of shock waves analytically, permitting the effect of a more physical model of blast wave interaction to be explored. The results are suggestive of a universal behavior in systems of spatially randomized energy sources.

  20. Nonclassicality tests and entanglement witnesses for macroscopic mechanical superposition states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gittsovich, Oleg; Moroder, Tobias; Asadian, Ali; Gühne, Otfried; Rabl, Peter

    2015-02-01

    We describe a set of measurement protocols for performing nonclassicality tests and the verification of entangled superposition states of macroscopic continuous variable systems, such as nanomechanical resonators. Following earlier works, we first consider a setup where a two-level system is used to indirectly probe the motion of the mechanical system via Ramsey measurements and discuss the application of this method for detecting nonclassical mechanical states. We then show that the generalization of this technique to multiple resonator modes allows the conditioned preparation and the detection of entangled mechanical superposition states. The proposed measurement protocols can be implemented in various qubit-resonator systems that are currently under experimental investigation and find applications in future tests of quantum mechanics at a macroscopic scale.

  1. Quantum Delayed-Choice Experiment and Wave-Particle Superposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qi; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2015-08-01

    We propose a simple implementation scheme of quantum delayed-choice experiment in linear optical system without initial entanglement resource. By choosing different detecting devices, one can selectively observe the photon's different behaviors after the photon has been passed the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The scheme shows that the photon's wave behavior and particle behavior can be observed with a single experimental setup by postselection, that is, the photon can show the superposition behavior of wave and particle. Especially, we compare the wave-particle superposition behavior and the wave-particle mixture behavior in detail, and find the quantum interference effect between wave and particle behavior, which may be helpful to reveal the nature of photonessentially.

  2. Functional specifications of the annular suspension pointing system, appendix A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, B.

    1980-01-01

    The Annular Suspension Pointing System is described. The Design Realization, Evaluation and Modelling (DREAM) system, and its design description technique, the DREAM Design Notation (DDN) is employed.

  3. Sensing Super-position: Visual Instrument Sensor Replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Schipper, John F.

    2006-01-01

    The coming decade of fast, cheap and miniaturized electronics and sensory devices opens new pathways for the development of sophisticated equipment to overcome limitations of the human senses. This project addresses the technical feasibility of augmenting human vision through Sensing Super-position using a Visual Instrument Sensory Organ Replacement (VISOR). The current implementation of the VISOR device translates visual and other passive or active sensory instruments into sounds, which become relevant when the visual resolution is insufficient for very difficult and particular sensing tasks. A successful Sensing Super-position meets many human and pilot vehicle system requirements. The system can be further developed into cheap, portable, and low power taking into account the limited capabilities of the human user as well as the typical characteristics of his dynamic environment. The system operates in real time, giving the desired information for the particular augmented sensing tasks. The Sensing Super-position device increases the image resolution perception and is obtained via an auditory representation as well as the visual representation. Auditory mapping is performed to distribute an image in time. The three-dimensional spatial brightness and multi-spectral maps of a sensed image are processed using real-time image processing techniques (e.g. histogram normalization) and transformed into a two-dimensional map of an audio signal as a function of frequency and time. This paper details the approach of developing Sensing Super-position systems as a way to augment the human vision system by exploiting the capabilities of the human hearing system as an additional neural input. The human hearing system is capable of learning to process and interpret extremely complicated and rapidly changing auditory patterns. The known capabilities of the human hearing system to learn and understand complicated auditory patterns provided the basic motivation for developing an

  4. Interplay of gravitation and linear superposition of different mass eigenstates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, D. V.; Burgard, C.

    1998-04-01

    The interplay of gravitation and the quantum-mechanical principle of linear superposition induces a new set of neutrino oscillation phases. These ensure that the flavor-oscillation clocks, inherent in the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations, redshift precisely as required by Einstein's theory of gravitation. The physical observability of these phases in the context of the solar neutrino anomaly, type-II supernova, and certain atomic systems is briefly discussed.

  5. Tailoring quantum superpositions with linearly polarized amplitude-modulated light

    SciTech Connect

    Pustelny, S.; Koczwara, M.; Cincio, L.; Gawlik, W.

    2011-04-15

    Amplitude-modulated nonlinear magneto-optical rotation is a powerful technique that offers a possibility of controllable generation of given quantum states. In this paper, we demonstrate creation and detection of specific ground-state magnetic-sublevel superpositions in {sup 87}Rb. By appropriate tuning of the modulation frequency and magnetic-field induction the efficiency of a given coherence generation is controlled. The processes are analyzed versus different experimental parameters.

  6. Quantum Superposition, Collapse, and the Default Specification Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkhah Shirazi, Armin

    2014-03-01

    Quantum Superposition and collapse lie at the heart of the difficulty in understanding what quantum mechanics is exactly telling us about reality. We present here a principle which permits one to formulate a simple and general mathematical model that abstracts these features out of quantum theory. A precise formulation of this principle in terms of a set-theoretic axiom added to standard set theory may directly connect the foundations of physics to the foundations of mathematics.

  7. Macroscopic superposition of ultracold atoms with orbital degrees of freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-March, M. A.; Carr, L. D.; Dounas-Frazer, D. R.

    2011-04-15

    We introduce higher dimensions into the problem of Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential, taking into account orbital angular momentum. We completely characterize the eigenstates of this system, delineating new regimes via both analytical high-order perturbation theory and numerical exact diagonalization. Among these regimes are mixed Josephson- and Fock-like behavior, crossings in both excited and ground states, and shadows of macroscopic superposition states.

  8. Single-Atom Gating of Quantum State Superpositions

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Christopher

    2010-04-28

    The ultimate miniaturization of electronic devices will likely require local and coherent control of single electronic wavefunctions. Wavefunctions exist within both physical real space and an abstract state space with a simple geometric interpretation: this state space - or Hilbert space - is spanned by mutually orthogonal state vectors corresponding to the quantized degrees of freedom of the real-space system. Measurement of superpositions is akin to accessing the direction of a vector in Hilbert space, determining an angle of rotation equivalent to quantum phase. Here we show that an individual atom inside a designed quantum corral1 can control this angle, producing arbitrary coherent superpositions of spatial quantum states. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy and nanostructures assembled atom-by-atom we demonstrate how single spins and quantum mirages can be harnessed to image the superposition of two electronic states. We also present a straightforward method to determine the atom path enacting phase rotations between any desired state vectors. A single atom thus becomes a real-space handle for an abstract Hilbert space, providing a simple technique for coherent quantum state manipulation at the spatial limit of condensed matter.

  9. Experiment of rocket-ram annular combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsuyanagi, N.; Sakamoto, H.; Sato, K.; Ono, F.; Sasaki, M.; Takahashi, M.

    In this experiment, the double-nozzle type of rocket-ram annular combustor with a total thrust of 5kN was designed and tested with varying ratios of thrust produced by rocket and ram. Thrust and pressure distribution along the common expansion nozzle, i.e., the ram combustor nozzle, were measured to investigate the effect of interaction of the two expansion gases on thrust. Enhancement of specific impulse was verified by the experiments. That is, the specific impulse gains in rocket-ram parallel operation, the ratio of rocket thrust to ram thrust being 50 to 50, were found to be 190 percent of gains in pure rocket operation.

  10. Duration test of an annular colloid thruster.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perel, J.; Mahoney, J. F.; Daley, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    An annular colloid thruster was continuously operated for 1023 hours. Performance was stable with no sparking and negligible drain currents observed. An average thrust of 25.1 micropounds and an average specific impulse of 1160 seconds were obtained at an accelerating voltage of 15 k he thruster exhaust beam was continuously neutralized using electrons and electrostatic vectoring was demonstrated periodically. The only clear trend with time was an increase in specific impulse during the last third of the test period. From these results the thruster lifetime was estimated to be over an order of magnitude greater than the test duration.

  11. Wave turbulence in annular wave tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onorato, Miguel; Stramignoni, Ettore

    2014-05-01

    We perform experiments in an annular wind wave tank at the Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' di Torino. The external diameter of the tank is 5 meters while the internal one is 1 meter. The tank is equipped by two air fans which can lead to a wind of maximum 5 m/s. The present set up is capable of studying the generation of waves and the development of wind wave spectra for large duration. We have performed different tests including different wind speeds. For large wind speed we observe the formation of spectra consistent with Kolmogorv-Zakharov predictions.

  12. Tank evaluation system shielded annular tank application

    SciTech Connect

    Freier, D.A.

    1988-10-04

    TEST (Tank Evaluation SysTem) is a research project utilizing neutron interrogation techniques to analyze the content of nuclear poisons and moderators in tank shielding. TEST experiments were performed on an experimental SAT (Shielded Annular Tank) at the Rocky Flats Plant. The purpose of these experiments was threefold: (1) to assess TEST application to SATs, (2) to determine if Nuclear Safety inspection criteria could be met, and (3) to perform a preliminary calibration of TEST for SATs. Several experiments were performed, including measurements of 11 tank shielding configurations, source-simulated holdup experiments, analysis of three detector modes, resolution studies, and TEST scanner geometry experiments. 1 ref., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Thread-annular flow in vertical pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, Ch.; Lüscher, P.; Wintermantel, E.

    2000-05-01

    Thread injection is a promising method for different minimally invasive medical applications. This paper documents an experimental study dealing with an axially moving thread in annular pipe flow. Mass flow and axial force on the thread are measured for a 0.46 mm diameter thread in pipes with diameters between 0.55 and 1.35 mm. The experiments with thread velocities of up to 1.5 ms[minus sign]1 confirm the findings of theoretical studies that for clinical requirements the radius ratio between thread and pipe is crucial for the adjustments of mass ow and force on the thread.

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection mimicking erythema annulare centrifugum.

    PubMed

    Czechowicz, R T; Warren, L J; Moore, L; Saxon, B

    2001-02-01

    A 3-year-old girl receiving chemotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukaemia developed a rapidly expanding red annular plaque on her thigh, initially without signs of systemic toxicity or local pain. Subsequently she developed Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis and purpura at the leading edge of the plaque. Skin biopsy showed an extensive necrotizing vasculitis with numerous Gram-negative bacilli in the blood vessel walls. In immunocompromised individuals, skin biopsy and culture of cutaneous lesions for bacteria and fungi should be considered even in the absence of signs of systemic toxicity or multiple lesions. PMID:11233725

  15. Endoscopic inspection using a panoramic annular lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, John A.; Matthys, Donald R.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this one year study was to design, build, and demonstrate a prototype system for cavity inspection. A cylindrical view of the cavity interior was captured in real time through a compound lens system consisting of a unique panoramic annular lens and a collector lens. Images, acquired with a digitizing camera and stored in a desktop computer, were manipulated using image processing software to aid in visual inspection and qualitative analysis. A detailed description of the lens and its applications is given.

  16. Interfacial friction in cocurrent upward annular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossfeld, L. M.; Bharathan, D.; Wallis, G. B.; Richter, H. J.

    1982-03-01

    Cocurrent upward annular flow is investigated, with an emphasis on correlating and predicting pressure drop. Attention is given to the characteristics of the liquid flow in the film, and the interaction of the core with the film. Alternate approaches are discussed for correlating suitably defined interfacial friction factors. Both approaches are dependent on knowledge of the entrainment in order to make predictions. Dimensional analysis is used to define characteristic parameters of the flow and an effort is made to determine, to the extent possible, the influences of these parameters on the interfacial friction factor.

  17. Optical manipulation using optimal annular vortices.

    PubMed

    Paez-Lopez, Rafael; Ruiz, Ulises; Arrizon, Victor; Ramos-Garcia, Ruben

    2016-09-01

    We discuss a simple method to generate a configurable annular vortex beam (AVB) with the maximum possible peak intensity, employing a phase hologram whose transmittance is the phase of a Bessel beam. Due to its maximum intensity, the AVB provides the optimal density of the orbital angular moment. Another attribute of the generated AVB is the relatively high invariance of the intensity profile when the topological charge is changed. We demonstrate the advantages and flexibility of these AVBs for optical trapping applications. PMID:27607992

  18. Nonlinear features of Northern Annular Mode variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zuntao; Shi, Liu; Xie, Fenghua; Piao, Lin

    2016-05-01

    Nonlinear features of daily Northern Annular Mode (NAM) variability at 17 pressure levels are quantified by two different measures. One is nonlinear correlation, and the other is time-irreversible symmetry. Both measures show that there are no significant nonlinear features in NAM variability at the higher pressure levels, however as the pressure level decreases, the strength of nonlinear features in NAM variability becomes predominant. This indicates that in order to reach better prediction of NAM variability in the lower pressure levels, nonlinear features must be taken into consideration to build suitable models.

  19. Uncertainty methodology for the strongly coupled physical phenomena associated with annular flow

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J. W.; Aumiller Jr, D. L.

    2012-07-01

    Best-Estimate plus Uncertainty (BEPU) methods are slowly supplanting the use of deterministic analysis methods for thermal-hydraulic analyses. As the uncertainty methodologies evolve it is expected that, where both experimental techniques allow and data are available, there will be a shift to quantifying the uncertainty in increasingly more fundamental parameters. For example, for annular flow in a three-field analysis environment (vapor, liquid film, droplet), the driving parameters would be: a) film interfacial shear stress, b) droplet drag, c) droplet entrainment rate and d) droplet deposition rate. An improved annular flow modeling package was recently developed and implemented in an in-house version of the COBRA-TF best-estimate subchannel analysis tool (Lane, 2009). Significant improvement was observed in the code-to-data predictions of several steam-water annular flow tests following the implementation of this modeling package; however, to apply this model set in formal BEPU analysis requires uncertainty distributions to be determined. The unique aspect of annular flow, and the topic of the present work, is the strong coupling between the interfacial drag, entrainment and deposition phenomena. Ideally the uncertainty in each phenomenon would be isolated; however, the situation is further complicated by an inability to experimentally isolate and measure the individual rate processes (particularly entrainment rate), which results in available experimental data that are inherently integral in nature. This paper presents a methodology for isolating the individual physical phenomena of interest, to the extent that the currently available experimental data allow, and developing the corresponding uncertainty distributions for annular flow. (authors)

  20. Laminar heat transfer in annular sector ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Soliman, H.M. )

    1987-02-01

    The continuing interest in compact heat exchangeers has created the need for friction factor and Nusselt number data for different passage shapes. It has long been recognized that circular tube results are generally not applicable to noncircular passages even when the hydraulic diameter is used as the characteristic dimension. Hence, design data should be generated for each passage individually, and a good source of such information is Shah and London. One duct geometry for which complete design information does not appear to be available in the open literature is that of annular sector ducts. Such configuration is encountered in multipassage internally finned tubes and many other compact het exchanger applications. The fluid flow problem for this configuration has been solved by Sparrow et al., and more recently by Niida. However, to the beest of the author's knowledge, the heat transfer results are not available yet. The purpose of this note is to summarize the analysis and results of fluid flow and heat transfer in annular sector ducts.

  1. Detonation diffraction from an annular channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, James; Ng, Hoi Dick; Lee, John H. S.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, gaseous detonation diffraction from an annular channel was investigated with a streak camera and the critical pressure for transmission of the detonation wave was obtained. The annular channel was used to approximate an infinite slot resulting in cylindrically expanding detonation waves. Two mixtures, stoichiometric acetylene-oxygen and stoichiometric acetylene-oxygen with 70% Ar dilution, were tested in a 4.3 and 14.3 mm channel width ( W). The undiluted and diluted mixtures were found to have values of the critical channel width over the cell size around 3 and 12 respectively. Comparing these results to values of the critical diameter ( d c ), in which a spherical detonation occurs, a value of critical d c / W c near 2 is observed for the highly diluted mixture. This value corresponds to the geometrical factor of the curvature term between a spherical and cylindrical diverging wave. Hence, the result is in support of Lee's proposed mechanism [Lee in Dynamics of Exothermicity, pp. 321, Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, 1996] for failure due to diffraction based on curvature in stable mixtures such as those highly argon diluted with very regular detonation cellular patterns.

  2. Annular and Total Solar Eclipses of 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, J.

    2008-01-01

    While most NASA eclipse bulletins cover a single eclipse, this publication presents predictions for two solar eclipses during 2010. This has required a different organization of the material into the following sections. Section 1 -- Eclipse Predictions: The section consists of a general discussion about the eclipse path maps, Besselian elements, shadow contacts, eclipse path tables, local circumstances tables, and the lunar limb profile. Section 2 -- Annular Solar Eclipse of 2010 Ja n 15: The section covers predictions and weather prospects for the annular eclipse. Section 3 -- Total Solar Eclipse of 2010 Jul 11: The se ction covers predictions and weather prospects for the total eclipse. Section 4 -- Observing Eclipses: The section provides information on eye safety, solar filters, eclipse photography, and making contact timings from the path limits. Section 5 -- Eclipse Resources: The final section contains a number of resources including information on the IAU Working Group on Eclipses, the Solar Eclipse Mailing List, the NASA eclipse bulletins on the Internet, Web sites for the two 2010 eclipses, and a summary identifying the algorithms, ephemerides, and paramete rs used in the eclipse predictions.

  3. NWIS MEASUREMENTS FOR URANIUM METAL ANNULAR CASTINGS

    SciTech Connect

    MATTINGLY, J.K.; VALENTINE, T.E.; MIHALCZO, J.T.

    1998-03-13

    This report describes measurements performed with annular uranium metal castings of different enrichments to investigate the use of {sup 252}Cf-source-driven noise analysis measurements as a means to quantify the amount of special nuclear material (SNM) in the casting. This work in FY 97 was sponsored by the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and the DOE Office of Technology Development Programs. Previous measurements and calculational studies have shown that many of the signatures obtained from the source-driven measurement are very sensitive to fissile mass. Measurements were performed to assess the applicability of this method to standard annular uranium metal castings at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant under verification by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) using the Nuclear Weapons Identification System (NWIS) processor. Before the measurements with different enrichments, a limited study of source-detector-casting moderator configurations was performed to enhance the correlated information. These configurations consisted of a casting with no reflector and with various thicknesses of polyethylene reflectors up to 10.16 cm in 2.54 cm steps. The polyethylene moderator thickness of 7.62 cm was used for measurements with castings of different enrichments reported here. The sensitivity of the measured parameters to fissile mass was investigated using four castings each with a different enrichment. The high sensitivity of this measurement method to fissile mass and to other material and configurations provides some advantages over existing safeguards methods.

  4. 75 FR 23582 - Annular Casing Pressure Management for Offshore Wells

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... published the proposed rule Annular Casing Pressure Management for Offshore Wells (74 FR 38147). The comment... the published proposed rule 1010-AD47 Annular Casing Pressure Management for Offshore Wells (74 FR... subsea wellhead. (3) hybrid well, a riser or the production casing pressure is greater than 100...

  5. Controlling the pressure within an annular volume of a wellbore

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.; Gonzalez, Manuel E.; Llewellyn, Brian C.; Bloys, James B.

    2010-06-29

    A process is described for replacing at least a portion of the liquid within the annular volume of a casing system within a wellbore with a second liquid. The second liquid is preselected to provide a measure of control of the pressure within the annular volume as the fluid within the volume is being heated.

  6. Controlling the pressure within an annular volume of a wellbore

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.; Gonzalez, Manuel E.; Llewellyn, Brian C.; Bloys, James B.; Coates, Don M.

    2011-05-31

    A process is described for replacing at least a portion of the liquid within the annular volume of a casing system within a wellbore with a second liquid. The second liquid is preselected to provide a measure of control of the pressure within the annular volume as the fluid within the volume is being heated.

  7. Controlling the pressure within an annular volume of a wellbore

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.; Gonzalez, Manuel E.; Llewellyn, Brian C.; Bloys, James B.

    2008-10-28

    A process is described for replacing at least a portion of the liquid within the annular volume of a casing system within a wellbore with a second liquid. The second liquid is preselected to provide a measure of control of the pressure within the annular volume as the fluid within the volume is being heated.

  8. Controlling the pressure within an annular volume of a wellbore

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.; Gonzalez, Manuel E.; Llewellyn, Brian C.; Bloys, James B.

    2011-01-18

    A process is described for replacing at least a portion of the liquid within the annular volume of a casing system within a wellbore with a second liquid. The second liquid is preselected to provide a measure of control of the pressure within the annular volume as the fluid within the volume is being heated.

  9. Controlling the pressure within an annular volume of a wellbore

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.; Gonzalez, Manuel E.; Llewellyn, Brian C.; Bloys, James B.; Coates, Don M.

    2011-06-21

    A process is described for replacing at least a portion of the liquid within the annular volume of a casing system within a wellbore with a second liquid. The second liquid is preselected to provide a measure of control of the pressure within the annular volume as the fluid within the volume is being heated.

  10. Localized interstitial granuloma annulare induced by subcutaneous injections for desensitization.

    PubMed

    Spring, Philipp; Vernez, Maxime; Maniu, Christa-Maria; Hohl, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    We describe a patient with interstitial granuloma annulare associated with subcutaneous injection therapy (SIT) for desensitization to a type I allergy. Asymptomatic, erythematous, violaceous annular patches were located at the injection sites on both her arms. Medical history revealed perennial rhinoconjonctivitis treated with SIT (Phostal Stallergen® cat 100% and D. pteronyssinus/D.farinae 50%:50%). PMID:24011321

  11. Annular pancreas intra operatively discovered: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Zeineb, Mzoughi; Sadri, Ben Abid; Nizar, Miloudi; Hassen, Hentati; Nafaa, Arfa; Taher, Khalfallah

    2011-01-01

    Annular pancreas is a rare congenital abnormality. This entity can rarely be symptomatic. Patients can present with gastrointestinal obstruction or acute pancreatitis. We report a case with a rich iconography, of an annular pancreas discovered intraoperatively. A 46-year-old woman was operated with the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis with common bile duct stones. At operation, a strip of pancreatic tissue (2 cm) completely encircled the second duodenum. Open cholecytectomy with choledocotomy and stones extractionwas done. Postoperatively, she developed an acute pancreatitis. The post-operative cholangiography showed the annular duct surrounding the second duodenum. Annular pancreas is rare. Symptoms may occur in newborn children. In adults, annular pancreas discovering is radiological or intra operatively. PMID:24765382

  12. Virtual cathode microwave generator having annular anode slit

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.

    1988-03-08

    A microwave generator using an oscillating virtual cathode is described comprising: a cathode for emitting electrons; an anode for accelerating emitted electrons from the cathode, the anode having an annular slit therethrough effective for forming the virtual cathode and having at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflected from the virtual cathode; and magnet means for producing a magnetic field having a field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit and to enable the electrons reflected from the virtual cathode to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons return toward the cathode diverge from the annular beam and are absorbed by the anode to substantially eliminate electrons reflexing between the cathode and the virtual cathode.

  13. Push-Pull Optical Pumping of Pure Superposition States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jau, Y.-Y.; Miron, E.; Post, A. B.; Kuzma, N. N.; Happer, W.

    2004-10-01

    A new optical pumping method, “push-pull pumping,” can produce very nearly pure, coherent superposition states between the initial and the final sublevels of the important field-independent 0-0 clock resonance of alkali-metal atoms. The key requirement for push-pull pumping is the use of D1 resonant light which alternates between left and right circular polarization at the Bohr frequency of the state. The new pumping method works for a wide range of conditions, including atomic beams with almost no collisions, and atoms in buffer gases with pressures of many atmospheres.

  14. Controllable photon bunching by atomic superpositions in a driven cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Weijie; Wang, Yao; Wei, L. F.

    2016-04-01

    We propose a feasible approach to generate the desired light with controllable photon bunchings by adjusting the atomic superpositions in a driven cavity. Under the large detuning limit, i.e., the cavity is far resonance with the inside atom(s), we show that the photons in the cavity are always bunchings. Typically, when the effective dispersive interaction equals the detuning between the driving and cavity fields, we find that the value of second-order correlation g(2 )(0 ) inverses to the probability of the superposed atomic state. This suggests that such a value could be arbitrarily large, and thus the bunchings of the photons could be significantly enhanced.

  15. Scaling of macroscopic superpositions close to a quantum phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad, Tahereh; Karimipour, Vahid

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that in a quantum phase transition (QPT), entanglement remains short ranged [Osterloh et al., Nature (London) 416, 608 (2005), 10.1038/416608a]. We ask if there is a quantum property entailing the whole system which diverges near this point. Using the recently proposed measures of quantum macroscopicity, we show that near a quantum critical point, it is the effective size of macroscopic superposition between the two symmetry breaking states which grows to the scale of system size, and its derivative with respect to the coupling shows both singular behavior and scaling properties.

  16. Accelerated Superposition State Molecular Dynamics for Condensed Phase Systems.

    PubMed

    Ceotto, Michele; Ayton, Gary S; Voth, Gregory A

    2008-04-01

    An extension of superposition state molecular dynamics (SSMD) [Venkatnathan and Voth J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2005, 1, 36] is presented with the goal to accelerate timescales and enable the study of "long-time" phenomena for condensed phase systems. It does not require any a priori knowledge about final and transition state configurations, or specific topologies. The system is induced to explore new configurations by virtue of a fictitious (free-particle-like) accelerating potential. The acceleration method can be applied to all degrees of freedom in the system and can be applied to condensed phases and fluids. PMID:26620930

  17. Effects study on the thermal stresses in a LEU metal foil annular target.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Srisharan G; Solbrekken, Gary L

    2015-09-01

    The effects of fission gas pressure, uranium swelling and thermal contact conductance on the thermal-mechanical behavior of an annular target containing a low-enriched uranium foil (LEU) encapsulated in a nickel foil have been presented in this paper. The draw-plug assembly method is simulated to obtain the residual stresses, which are applied to the irradiation model as initial inputs, and the integrated assembly-irradiation process is simulated as an axisymmetric problem using the commercial finite element code Abaqus FEA. Parametric studies were performed on the LEU heat generation rate and the results indicate satisfactory irradiation performance of the annular target. The temperature and stress margins have been provided along with a discussion of the results. PMID:26036440

  18. Intraorbital granuloma annulare in an elderly patient.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Dianne; Petris, Carisa; Garrido Hermosilla, Antonio Manuel; Oktavec, Kathleen; Mansukhani, Mahesh; Kazim, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Classically, granuloma annulare (GA) is a cutaneous disorder localized to the dorsum of the hands and/or feet in children and young adults. Very rarely it can present on the face and rarer still on periorbital structures such as the eyelid and orbital rim. Diagnosis hinges on clinical presentation and histological features, such as palisading granulomas with central destruction of collagen, presence of mucin and lymphohistiocytic infiltration. The etiology of this condition remains unknown, but may involve a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, malignancy and/or infection. Herein is the first reported case of an intraorbital GA in an 86-year-old male patient who presented with right eye proptosis. PMID:27163779

  19. The liquid annular reactor system (LARS) propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Maise, G.; Lazareth, O.W.; Horn, F.; Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H. ); Lenard, R.X. )

    1991-01-05

    A new concept for very high specific impulse ({gt}2000 seconds) direct nuclear propulsion is described. The concept, termed LARS (Liquid Annular Reactor System) uses liquid nuclear fuel elements to heat hydrogen propellant to very high temperatures ({similar to}6000 K). Operating pressure is moderate ({similar to}10 atm), with the result that the outlet hydrogen is virtually 100% dissociated to monatomic H. The molten fuel is contained in a solid container of its own material, which is rotated to stabilize the liquid layer by centripetal force. LARS reactor designs are described, together with neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analyses. Power levels are on the order of 200 megawatts. Typically, LARS designs use 7 rotating fuel elements, are beryllium moderated and have critical radii of {similar to}100 cm (core L/D{approx}1.5).

  20. Facility modernization Annular Core Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.M.; Luera, T.F.; McCrory, F.M.; Nelson, D.A.; Trowbridge, F.R.; Wold, S.A.

    1990-07-01

    The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) has undergone numerous modifications since its conception in response to program needs. The original reactor fuel, which was special U-ZrH TRIGA fuel designed primarily for pulsing, has been replaced with a higher pulsing capacity BeO fuel. Other advanced operating modes which use this increased capability, in addition to the pulse and steady state, have been incorporated to tailor power histories and fluences to the experiments. Various experimental facilities have been developed that range from a radiography facility to a 50 cm diameter External Fuel Ring Cavity (FREC) using 180 of the original ZrH fuel elements. Currently a digital reactor console is being produced with GA, which will give enhanced monitoring capabilities of the reactor parameters while leaving the safety-related shutdown functions with analog technology. (author)

  1. Annular array and method of manufacturing same

    DOEpatents

    Day, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    A method for manufacturing an annular acoustic transducer array from a plate of transducer material, which enables production of precision aligned arrays at low cost. The circular plate is sawed along at least two lines that are radial to the axis of the plate. At steps along each radial cut, the plate is rotated first in one direction and then in an opposite direction by a predetermined angle such as slightly less than 90.degree.. The cuts result in the forming of several largely ring-shaped lands, each largely ring-shaped land being joined to the other rings of different radii by thin portions of the plate, and each ring being cut into segments. The bridges that join different rings, hold the transducer together until it can be mounted on a lens.

  2. A Bethe ansatz solvable model for superpositions of Cooper pairs and condensed molecular bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibberd, K. E.; Dunning, C.; Links, J.

    2006-08-01

    We introduce a general Hamiltonian describing coherent superpositions of Cooper pairs and condensed molecular bosons. For particular choices of the coupling parameters, the model is integrable. One integrable manifold, as well as the Bethe ansatz solution, was found by Dukelsky et al. [J. Dukelsky, G.G. Dussel, C. Esebbag, S. Pittel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 050403]. Here we show that there is a second integrable manifold, established using the boundary quantum inverse scattering method. In this manner we obtain the exact solution by means of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. In the case where the Cooper pair energies are degenerate we examine the relationship between the spectrum of these integrable Hamiltonians and the quasi-exactly solvable spectrum of particular Schrödinger operators. For the solution we derive here the potential of the Schrödinger operator is given in terms of hyperbolic functions. For the solution derived by Dukelsky et al., loc. cit. the potential is sextic and the wavefunctions obey PT-symmetric boundary conditions. This latter case provides a novel example of an integrable Hermitian Hamiltonian acting on a Fock space whose states map into a Hilbert space of PT-symmetric wavefunctions defined on a contour in the complex plane.

  3. Recurrent Annular Peripheral Choroidal Detachment after Trabeculectomy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaohui; Sun, Lisa L.; Kavanaugh, A. Scott; Langford, Marlyn P.; Liang, Chanping

    2013-01-01

    We report a challenging case of recurrent flat anterior chamber without hypotony after trabeculectomy in a 54-year-old Black male with a remote history of steroid-treated polymyositis, cataract surgery, and uncontrolled open angle glaucoma. The patient presented with a flat chamber on postoperative day 11, but had a normal fundus exam and intraocular pressure (IOP). Flat chamber persisted despite treatment with cycloplegics, steroids, and a Healon injection into the anterior chamber. A transverse B-scan of the peripheral fundus revealed a shallow annular peripheral choroidal detachment. The suprachoroidal fluid was drained. The patient presented 3 days later with a recurrent flat chamber and an annular peripheral choroidal effusion. The fluid was removed and reinforcement of the scleral flap was performed with the resolution of the flat anterior chamber. A large corneal epithelial defect developed after the second drainage. The oral prednisone was tapered quickly and the topical steroid was decreased. One week later, his vision decreased to count fingers with severe corneal stromal edema and Descemet's membrane folds that improved to 20/50 within 24 h of resumption of the oral steroid and frequent topical steroid. The patient's visual acuity improved to 20/20 following a slow withdrawal of the oral and topical steroid. Eight months after surgery, the IOP was 15 mm Hg without glaucoma medication. The detection of a shallow anterior choroidal detachment by transverse B-scan is critical to making the correct diagnosis. Severe cornea edema can occur if the steroid is withdrawn too quickly. Thus, steroids should be tapered cautiously in steroid-dependent patients. PMID:24348402

  4. A millimeter wave linear superposition oscillator in 0.18 μm CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yan; Luhong, Mao; Qiujie, Su; Sheng, Xie; Shilin, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a millimeter wave (mm-wave) oscillator that generates signal at 36.56 GHz. The mm-wave oscillator is realized in a UMC 0.18 μm CMOS process. The linear superposition (LS) technique breaks through the limit of cut-off frequency (fT), and realizes a much higher oscillation than fT. Measurement results show that the LS oscillator produces a calibrated -37.17 dBm output power when biased at 1.8 V; the output power of fundamental signal is -10.85 dBm after calibration. The measured phase noise at 1 MHz frequency offset is -112.54 dBc/Hz at the frequency of 9.14 GHz. This circuit can be properly applied to mm-wave communication systems with advantages of low cost and high integration density.

  5. Modeling scattering from azimuthally symmetric bathymetric features using wavefield superposition.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, John A

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, an approach for modeling the scattering from azimuthally symmetric bathymetric features is described. These features are useful models for small mounds and indentations on the seafloor at high frequencies and seamounts, shoals, and basins at low frequencies. A bathymetric feature can be considered as a compact closed region, with the same sound speed and density as one of the surrounding media. Using this approach, a number of numerical methods appropriate for a partially buried target or facet problem can be applied. This paper considers the use of wavefield superposition and because of the azimuthal symmetry, the three-dimensional solution to the scattering problem can be expressed as a Fourier sum of solutions to a set of two-dimensional scattering problems. In the case where the surrounding two half spaces have only a density contrast, a semianalytic coupled mode solution is derived. This provides a benchmark solution to scattering from a class of penetrable hemispherical bosses or indentations. The details and problems of the numerical implementation of the wavefield superposition method are described. Example computations using the method for a simple scattering feature on a seabed are presented for a wide band of frequencies. PMID:18247740

  6. Experiments testing macroscopic quantum superpositions must be slow

    PubMed Central

    Mari, Andrea; De Palma, Giacomo; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    We consider a thought experiment where the preparation of a macroscopically massive or charged particle in a quantum superposition and the associated dynamics of a distant test particle apparently allow for superluminal communication. We give a solution to the paradox which is based on the following fundamental principle: any local experiment, discriminating a coherent superposition from an incoherent statistical mixture, necessarily requires a minimum time proportional to the mass (or charge) of the system. For a charged particle, we consider two examples of such experiments, and show that they are both consistent with the previous limitation. In the first, the measurement requires to accelerate the charge, that can entangle with the emitted photons. In the second, the limitation can be ascribed to the quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. On the other hand, when applied to massive particles our result provides an indirect evidence for the existence of gravitational vacuum fluctuations and for the possibility of entangling a particle with quantum gravitational radiation. PMID:26959656

  7. Experiments testing macroscopic quantum superpositions must be slow.

    PubMed

    Mari, Andrea; De Palma, Giacomo; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    We consider a thought experiment where the preparation of a macroscopically massive or charged particle in a quantum superposition and the associated dynamics of a distant test particle apparently allow for superluminal communication. We give a solution to the paradox which is based on the following fundamental principle: any local experiment, discriminating a coherent superposition from an incoherent statistical mixture, necessarily requires a minimum time proportional to the mass (or charge) of the system. For a charged particle, we consider two examples of such experiments, and show that they are both consistent with the previous limitation. In the first, the measurement requires to accelerate the charge, that can entangle with the emitted photons. In the second, the limitation can be ascribed to the quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. On the other hand, when applied to massive particles our result provides an indirect evidence for the existence of gravitational vacuum fluctuations and for the possibility of entangling a particle with quantum gravitational radiation. PMID:26959656

  8. Experiments testing macroscopic quantum superpositions must be slow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Andrea; de Palma, Giacomo; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-03-01

    We consider a thought experiment where the preparation of a macroscopically massive or charged particle in a quantum superposition and the associated dynamics of a distant test particle apparently allow for superluminal communication. We give a solution to the paradox which is based on the following fundamental principle: any local experiment, discriminating a coherent superposition from an incoherent statistical mixture, necessarily requires a minimum time proportional to the mass (or charge) of the system. For a charged particle, we consider two examples of such experiments, and show that they are both consistent with the previous limitation. In the first, the measurement requires to accelerate the charge, that can entangle with the emitted photons. In the second, the limitation can be ascribed to the quantum vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. On the other hand, when applied to massive particles our result provides an indirect evidence for the existence of gravitational vacuum fluctuations and for the possibility of entangling a particle with quantum gravitational radiation.

  9. Runs in superpositions of renewal processes with applications to discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsmeyer, Gerold; Irle, Albrecht

    2006-02-01

    Wald and Wolfowitz [Ann. Math. Statist. 11 (1940) 147-162] introduced the run test for testing whether two samples of i.i.d. random variables follow the same distribution. Here a run means a consecutive subsequence of maximal length from only one of the two samples. In this paper we contribute to the problem of runs and resulting test procedures for the superposition of independent renewal processes which may be interpreted as arrival processes of customers from two different input channels at the same service station. To be more precise, let (Sn)n[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 and (Tn)n[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 be the arrival processes for channel 1 and channel 2, respectively, and (Wn)n[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 their be superposition with counting process . Let further be the number of runs in W1,...,Wn and the number of runs observed up to time t. We study the asymptotic behavior of and Rt, first for the case where (Sn)n[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 and (Tn)n[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 have exponentially distributed increments with parameters [lambda]1 and [lambda]2, and then for the more difficult situation when these increments have an absolutely continuous distribution. These results are used to design asymptotic level [alpha] tests for testing [lambda]1=[lambda]2 against [lambda]1[not equal to][lambda]2 in the first case, and for testing for equal scale parameters in the second.

  10. Evolution of superpositions of quantum states through a level crossing

    SciTech Connect

    Torosov, B. T.; Vitanov, N. V.

    2011-12-15

    The Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg-Majorana (LZSM) model is widely used for estimating transition probabilities in the presence of crossing energy levels in quantum physics. This model, however, makes the unphysical assumption of an infinitely long constant interaction, which introduces a divergent phase in the propagator. This divergence remains hidden when estimating output probabilities for a single input state insofar as the divergent phase cancels out. In this paper we show that, because of this divergent phase, the LZSM model is inadequate to describe the evolution of pure or mixed superposition states across a level crossing. The LZSM model can be used only if the system is initially in a single state or in a completely mixed superposition state. To this end, we show that the more realistic Demkov-Kunike model, which assumes a hyperbolic-tangent level crossing and a hyperbolic-secant interaction envelope, is free of divergences and is a much more adequate tool for describing the evolution through a level crossing for an arbitrary input state. For multiple crossing energies which are reducible to one or more effective two-state systems (e.g., by the Majorana and Morris-Shore decompositions), similar conclusions apply: the LZSM model does not produce definite values of the populations and the coherences, and one should use the Demkov-Kunike model instead.

  11. Planar Pressure Field Determination in the Initial Merging Zone of an Annular Swirling Jet Based on Stereo-PIV Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Vanierschot, Maarten; Van den Bulck, Eric

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the static pressure field of an annular swirling jet is measured indirectly using stereo-PIV measurements. The pressure field is obtained from numerically solving the Poisson equation, taken into account the axisymmetry of the flow At the boundaries no assumptions are made and the exact boundary conditions are applied. Since all source terms can be measured using stereo-PIV and the boundary conditions are exact, no assumptions other than axisymmetry had to be made in the calculation of the pressure field. The advantage of this method of indirect pressure measurement is its high spatial resolution compared to the traditional pitot probes. Moreover this method is non-intrusive while the insertion of a pitot tube disturbs the flow It is shown that the annular swirling flow can be divided into three regimes: a low, an intermediate and a high swirling regime. The pressure field of the low swirling regime is the superposition of the pressure field of the non-swirling jet and a swirl induced pressure field due to the centrifugal forces of the rotating jet. As the swirl increases, the swirl induced pressure field becomes dominant and for the intermediate and high swirling regimes, the simple radial equilibrium equation holds.

  12. Student ability to distinguish between superposition states and mixed states in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passante, Gina; Emigh, Paul J.; Shaffer, Peter S.

    2015-12-01

    Superposition gives rise to the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics and is therefore one of the concepts at the heart of quantum mechanics. Although we have found that many students can successfully use the idea of superposition to calculate the probabilities of different measurement outcomes, they are often unable to identify the experimental implications of a superposition state. In particular, they fail to recognize how a superposition state and a mixed state (sometimes called a "lack of knowledge" state) can produce different experimental results. We present data that suggest that superposition in quantum mechanics is a difficult concept for students enrolled in sophomore-, junior-, and graduate-level quantum mechanics courses. We illustrate how an interactive lecture tutorial can improve student understanding of quantum mechanical superposition. A longitudinal study suggests that the impact persists after an additional quarter of quantum mechanics instruction that does not specifically address these ideas.

  13. Effects of superpositions of quantum states on quantum isoenergetic cycles: Efficiency and maximum power output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, X. Y.; Huang, X. L.; Shang, Y. F.; Wang, X. Y.

    2015-04-01

    Superposition principle plays a crucial role in quantum mechanics, thus its effects on thermodynamics is an interesting topic. Here, the effects of superpositions of quantum states on isoenergetic cycle are studied. We find superposition can improve the heat engine efficiency and release the positive work condition in general case. In the finite time process, we find the efficiency at maximum power output in superposition case is lower than the nonsuperposition case. This efficiency depends on one index of the energy spectrum of the working substance. This result does not mean the superposition discourages the heat engine performance. For fixed efficiency or fixed power, the superposition improves the power or efficiency respectively. These results show how quantum mechanical properties affect the thermodynamical cycle.

  14. The origin of non-classical effects in a one-dimensional superposition of coherent states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzek, V.; Knight, P. L.; Barranco, A. Vidiella

    1992-01-01

    We investigate the nature of the quantum fluctuations in a light field created by the superposition of coherent fields. We give a physical explanation (in terms of Wigner functions and phase-space interference) why the 1-D superposition of coherent states in the direction of the x-quadrature leads to the squeezing of fluctuations in the y-direction, and show that such a superposition can generate the squeezed vacuum and squeezed coherent states.

  15. Macroscopicity of quantum superpositions on a one-parameter unitary path in Hilbert space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkoff, T. J.; Whaley, K. B.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze quantum states formed as superpositions of an initial pure product state and its image under local unitary evolution, using two measurement-based measures of superposition size: one based on the optimal quantum binary distinguishability of the branches of the superposition and another based on the ratio of the maximal quantum Fisher information of the superposition to that of its branches, i.e., the relative metrological usefulness of the superposition. A general formula for the effective sizes of these states according to the branch-distinguishability measure is obtained and applied to superposition states of N quantum harmonic oscillators composed of Gaussian branches. Considering optimal distinguishability of pure states on a time-evolution path leads naturally to a notion of distinguishability time that generalizes the well-known orthogonalization times of Mandelstam and Tamm and Margolus and Levitin. We further show that the distinguishability time provides a compact operational expression for the superposition size measure based on the relative quantum Fisher information. By restricting the maximization procedure in the definition of this measure to an appropriate algebra of observables, we show that the superposition size of, e.g., NOON states and hierarchical cat states, can scale linearly with the number of elementary particles comprising the superposition state, implying precision scaling inversely with the total number of photons when these states are employed as probes in quantum parameter estimation of a 1-local Hamiltonian in this algebra.

  16. Robustness of superposition states evolving under the influence of a thermal reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Sales, J. S.; Almeida, N. G. de

    2011-06-15

    We study the evolution of superposition states under the influence of a reservoir at zero and finite temperatures in cavity quantum electrodynamics aiming to know how their purity is lost over time. The superpositions studied here are composed of coherent states, orthogonal coherent states, squeezed coherent states, and orthogonal squeezed coherent states, which we introduce to generalize the orthogonal coherent states. For comparison, we also show how the robustness of the superpositions studied here differs from that of a qubit given by a superposition of zero- and one-photon states.

  17. Wall pressure measurements of flooding in vertical countercurrent annular air–water flow

    SciTech Connect

    Choutapalli, I., Vierow, K.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental study of flooding in countercurrent air-water annular flow in a large diameter vertical tube using wall pressure measurements is described in this paper. Axial pressure profiles along the length of the test section were measured up to and after flooding using fast response pressure transducers for three representative liquid flow rates representing a wide range of liquid Reynolds numbers (ReL = 4Γ/μ; Γ is the liquid mass flow rate per unit perimeter; μ is the dynamic viscosity) from 3341 to 19,048. The results show that flooding in large diameter tubes cannot be initiated near the air outlet and is only initiated near the air inlet. Fourier analysis of the wall pressure measurements shows that up to the point of flooding, there is no dominant wave frequency but rather a band of frequencies encompassing both the low frequency and the broad band that are responsible for flooding. The data indicates that flooding in large diameter vertical tubes may be caused by the constructive superposition of a plurality of waves rather than the action of a single large-amplitude wave.

  18. Pollution technology program, can-annular combustor engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, R.; Fiorentino, A. J.; Greene, W.

    1976-01-01

    A Pollution Reduction Technology Program to develop and demonstrate the combustor technology necessary to reduce exhaust emissions for aircraft engines using can-annular combustors is described. The program consisted of design, fabrication, experimental rig testing and assessment of results and was conducted in three program elements. The combustor configurations of each program element represented increasing potential for meeting the 1979 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission standards, while also representing increasing complexity and difficulty of development and adaptation to an operational engine. Experimental test rig results indicate that significant reductions were made to the emission levels of the baseline JT8D-17 combustor by concepts in all three program elements. One of the Element I single-stage combustors reduced carbon monoxide to a level near, and total unburned hydrocarbons (THC) and smoke to levels below the 1979 EPA standards with little or no improvement in oxides of nitrogen. The Element II two-stage advanced Vorbix (vortex burning and mixing) concept met the standard for THC and achieved significant reductions in CO and NOx relative to the baseline. Although the Element III prevaporized-premixed concept reduced high power NOx below the Element II results, there was no improvement to the integrated EPA parameter relative to the Vorbix combustor.

  19. Self-assembled large-area annular cavity arrays with tunable cylindrical surface plasmons for sensing.

    PubMed

    Ni, Haibin; Wang, Ming; Shen, Tianyi; Zhou, Jing

    2015-02-24

    Surface plasmons that propagate along cylindrical metal/dielectric interfaces in annular apertures in metal films, called cylindrical surface plasmons (CSPs), exhibit attractive optical characteristics. However, it is challenging to fabricate these nanocoaxial structures. Here, we demonstrate a practical low-cost route to manufacture highly ordered, large-area annular cavity arrays (ACAs) that can support CSPs with great tunability. By employing a sol-gel coassembly method, reactive ion etching and metal sputtering techniques, regular, highly ordered ACAs in square-centimeter-scale with a gap width tunable in the range of several to hundreds of nanometers have been produced with good reproducibility. Ag ACAs with a gap width of 12 nm and a gap height of 635 nm are demonstrated. By finite-difference time-domain simulation, we confirm that the pronounced dips in the reflectance spectra of ACAs are attributable to CSP resonances excited in the annular gaps. By adjusting etching time and Ag film thickness, the CSP dips can be tuned to sweep the entire optical range of 360 to 1800 nm without changing sphere size, which makes them a promising candidate for forming integrated plasmonic sensing arrays. The high tunability of the CSP resonant frequencies together with strong electric field enhancement in the cavities make the ACAs promising candidates for surface plasmon sensors and SERS substrates, as, for example, they have been used in liquid refractive index (RI) sensing, demonstrating a sensitivity of 1505 nm/RIU and a figure of merit of 9. One of the CSP dips of ACAs with a certain geometry size is angle- (0-70 degrees) and polarization-independent and can be used as a narrow-band absorber. Furthermore, the nano annular cavity arrays can be used to construct solar cells, nanolasers and nanoparticle plasmonic tweezers. PMID:25639937

  20. Superresolved imaging in digital holography by superposition of tilted wavefronts.

    PubMed

    Mico, Vicente; Zalevsky, Zeev; García-Martínez, Pascuala; García, Javier

    2006-02-10

    A technique based on superresolution by digital holographic microscopic imaging is presented. We used a two dimensional (2-D) vertical-cavity self-emitting laser (VCSEL) array as spherical-wave illumination sources. The method is defined in terms of an incoherent superposition of tilted wavefronts. The tilted spherical wave originating from the 2-D VCSEL elements illuminates the target in transmission mode to obtain a hologram in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration. Superresolved images of the input object above the common lens diffraction limit are generated by sequential recording of the individual holograms and numerical reconstruction of the image with the extended spatial frequency range. We have experimentally tested the approach for a microscope objective with an exact 2-D reconstruction image of the input object. The proposed approach has implementation advantages for applications in biological imaging or the microelectronic industry in which structured targets are being inspected. PMID:16512523

  1. Superposition method for analysis of free-edge stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitcomb, J. D.; Raju, I. S.

    1983-01-01

    Superposition techniques were used to transform the edge stress problem for composite laminates into a more lucid form. By eliminating loads and stresses not contributing to interlaminar stresses, the essential aspects of the edge stress problem are easily recognized. Transformed problem statements were developed for both mechanical and thermal loads. Also, a technique for approximate analysis using a two dimensional plane strain analysis was developed. Conventional quasi-three dimensional analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of the transformed problems and the approximate two dimensional analysis. The transformed problems were shown to be exactly equivalent to the original problems. The approximate two dimensional analysis was found to predict the interlaminar normal and shear stresses reasonably well.

  2. Sensing Super-Position: Human Sensing Beyond the Visual Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Schipper, John F.

    2007-01-01

    The coming decade of fast, cheap and miniaturized electronics and sensory devices opens new pathways for the development of sophisticated equipment to overcome limitations of the human senses. This paper addresses the technical feasibility of augmenting human vision through Sensing Super-position by mixing natural Human sensing. The current implementation of the device translates visual and other passive or active sensory instruments into sounds, which become relevant when the visual resolution is insufficient for very difficult and particular sensing tasks. A successful Sensing Super-position meets many human and pilot vehicle system requirements. The system can be further developed into cheap, portable, and low power taking into account the limited capabilities of the human user as well as the typical characteristics of his dynamic environment. The system operates in real time, giving the desired information for the particular augmented sensing tasks. The Sensing Super-position device increases the image resolution perception and is obtained via an auditory representation as well as the visual representation. Auditory mapping is performed to distribute an image in time. The three-dimensional spatial brightness and multi-spectral maps of a sensed image are processed using real-time image processing techniques (e.g. histogram normalization) and transformed into a two-dimensional map of an audio signal as a function of frequency and time. This paper details the approach of developing Sensing Super-position systems as a way to augment the human vision system by exploiting the capabilities of Lie human hearing system as an additional neural input. The human hearing system is capable of learning to process and interpret extremely complicated and rapidly changing auditory patterns. The known capabilities of the human hearing system to learn and understand complicated auditory patterns provided the basic motivation for developing an image-to-sound mapping system. The

  3. Spatial properties of coaxial superposition of two coherent Gaussian beams.

    PubMed

    Boubaha, Boualem; Naidoo, Darryl; Godin, Thomas; Fromager, Michael; Forbes, Andrew; Aït-Ameur, Kamel

    2013-08-10

    In this paper, we explore theoretically and experimentally the laser beam shaping ability resulting from the coaxial superposition of two coherent Gaussian beams (GBs). This technique is classified under interferometric laser beam shaping techniques contrasting with the usual ones based on diffraction. The experimental setup does not involve the use of some two-wave interferometer but uses a spatial light modulator for the generation of the necessary interference term. This allows one to avoid the thermal drift occurring in interferometers and gives a total flexibility of the key parameter setting the beam transformation. In particular, we demonstrate the reshaping of a GB into a bottle beam or top-hat beam in the focal plane of a focusing lens. PMID:23938430

  4. Principle of radial transport in low temperature annular plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yunchao Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod

    2015-07-15

    Radial transport in low temperature annular plasmas is investigated theoretically in this paper. The electrons are assumed to be in quasi-equilibrium due to their high temperature and light inertial mass. The ions are not in equilibrium and their transport is analyzed in three different situations: a low electric field (LEF) model, an intermediate electric field (IEF) model, and a high electric field (HEF) model. The universal IEF model smoothly connects the LEF and HEF models at their respective electric field strength limits and gives more accurate results of the ion mobility coefficient and effective ion temperature over the entire electric field strength range. Annular modelling is applied to an argon plasma and numerical results of the density peak position, the annular boundary loss coefficient and the electron temperature are given as functions of the annular geometry ratio and Paschen number.

  5. Virtual cathode microwave generator having annular anode slit

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Snell, Charles M.

    1988-01-01

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit therethrough effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators.

  6. A wave superposition method formulated in digital acoustic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Yong-Sin

    In this thesis, a new formulation of the Wave Superposition method is proposed wherein the conventional mesh approach is replaced by a simple 3-D digital work space that easily accommodates shape optimization for minimizing or maximizing radiation efficiency. As sound quality is in demand in almost all product designs and also because of fierce competition between product manufacturers, faster and accurate computational method for shape optimization is always desired. Because the conventional Wave Superposition method relies solely on mesh geometry, it cannot accommodate fast shape changes in the design stage of a consumer product or machinery, where many iterations of shape changes are required. Since the use of a mesh hinders easy shape changes, a new approach for representing geometry is introduced by constructing a uniform lattice in a 3-D digital work space. A voxel (a portmanteau, a new word made from combining the sound and meaning, of the words, volumetric and pixel) is essentially a volume element defined by the uniform lattice, and does not require separate connectivity information as a mesh element does. In the presented method, geometry is represented with voxels that can easily adapt to shape changes, therefore it is more suitable for shape optimization. The new method was validated by computing radiated sound power of structures of simple and complex geometries and complex mode shapes. It was shown that matching volume velocity is a key component to an accurate analysis. A sensitivity study showed that it required at least 6 elements per acoustic wavelength, and a complexity study showed a minimal reduction in computational time.

  7. Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma: A report of 10 cases

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Sandeep; Malik, Ajay; Patil, Chetan; Balki, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma initially described by O’Brien in 1975 is a disorder of uncertain etiopathogenesis presenting with annular erythematous plaques predominantly on the sun-exposed areas. Hisptopathologically, it is characterized by elastin degenration, multinucleate giant cells, and elastophagocytosis. The authors came across 10 such cases, which were managed with hydroxychloroquine resulting in complete resolution in 4–6 months. PMID:26904442

  8. Experimental Results for an Annular Aerospike with Differential Throttling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; McDaniels, David M.

    2005-01-01

    A) MSFC funded an internal study on Altitude Compensating Nozzles: 1) Develop an ACN design and performance prediction tool. 2) Design, build and test cold flow ACN nozzles. 3) An annular aerospike nozzle was designed and tested. 4) Incorporated differential throttling to assess Thrust Vector Control. B) Objective of the test hardware: 1) Provide design tool verification. 2) Provide benchmark data for CFD calculations. 3) Experimentally measure side force, or TVC, for a differentially throttled annular aerospike.

  9. Annular Arrays Of Solar Cells For Spinning Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spilker, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    Report proposes annular arrays of solar photovoltaic cells installed on spin-stabilized spacecraft. Annular array faces Sun. Typical array consists of two stacked annuli of solar cells: one annulus fixed about spin axis, while other divided into deployable sectors mounted on dual swing arms and stowed by folding them atop fixed annulus. Once released, deployable sectors swing outward under spring or centrifugal force and expose fixed array so it generates additional power.

  10. New mitral annular force transducer optimized to distinguish annular segments and multi-plane forces.

    PubMed

    Skov, Søren Nielsen; Røpcke, Diana Mathilde; Ilkjær, Christine; Rasmussen, Jonas; Tjørnild, Marcell Juan; Jimenez, Jorge H; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Nygaard, Hans; Nielsen, Sten Lyager; Jensen, Morten Olgaard

    2016-03-21

    Limited knowledge exists about the forces acting on mitral valve annuloplasty repair devices. The aim of this study was to develop a new mitral annular force transducer to measure the forces acting on clinically used mitral valve annuloplasty devices. The design of an X-shaped transducer in the present study was optimized for simultaneous in- and out-of-plane force measurements. Each arm was mounted with strain gauges on four circumferential elements to measure out-of-plane forces, and the central parts of the X-arms were mounted with two strain gauges to measure in-plane forces. A dedicated calibration setup was developed to calibrate isolated forces with tension and compression for in- and out-of-plane measurements. With this setup, it was possible with linear equations to isolate and distinguish measured forces between the two planes and minimize transducer arm crosstalk. An in-vitro test was performed to verify the crosstalk elimination method and the assumptions behind it. The force transducer was implanted and evaluated in an 80kg porcine in-vivo model. Following crosstalk elimination, in-plane systolic force accumulation was found to be in average 4.0±0.1N and the out-of-plane annular segments experienced an average force of 1.4±0.4N. Directions of the systolic out-of-plane forces indicated movements towards a saddle shaped annulus, and the transducer was able to measure independent directional forces in individual annular segments. Further measurements with the new transducer coupled with clinical annuloplasty rings will provide a detailed insight into the biomechanical dynamics of these devices. PMID:26903412

  11. Experiment of rocket-ram annular combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsuyanagi, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sato, Kazuo; Sasaki, Masaki; Ono, Fumiei

    Superiority in specific impulse of the double-nozzle type of rocket-ram combined engine over the ducted type of combined engine was shown by performance calculations. Then, a double-nozzle type of rocket-ram annular combustor with a total thrust of 5 kN was designed and experimentally tested with varying ratios of thrust produced by rocket and ram. With the combustor having different diverging half-angles, namely 10 deg 18 arcmin, and 6 deg 40 arcmin, thrust and pressure distribution along the common expansion nozzle were measured to investigate the effect of interaction of the two expansion gases on thrust. Enhancement of specific impulse was experimentally verified. That is, the specific impulse gained in rocket-ram parallel operations, the ratio of rocket thrust to ram thrust being 50 to 50, were found to be 190 percent of those in pure rocket operations. However, in the downstream region of the common nozzle, the flow might separate due to the generation of shock waves in either type of nozzle configuration.

  12. Mechanical properties of stapedial annular ligament.

    PubMed

    Gan, Rong Z; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Xiangming; Nakmali, Don

    2011-04-01

    Stapedial annular ligament (SAL) provides a sealed but mobile boundary between the stapes footplate and oval window bony wall. Mechanical properties of the SAL affect the transmission of ossicular movement into the cochlea in sound conduction. However, the mechanical properties of this tissue have never been investigated due to its complexity. In this paper, we report measurement of the viscoelastic properties of SAL on human cadaver temporal bones using a micro-material testing system with digital image correlation analysis. The measured load-deformation relations of SAL samples were converted into shear stress-shear strain relationship, stress relaxation function, and ultimate shear stress and shear strain of the SAL. The hyperelastic Ogden model was used to describe constitutive behavior of the SAL and a 3D finite element model of the experimental setup with SAL was created for assessing the effects of loading variation and measurement errors on results. The study demonstrates that the human SAL is a typical viscoelastic material with hysteresis, nonlinear stress-strain relationship and stress relaxation function. The shear modulus changes from 3.6 to 220 kPa when the shear stress increases from 2 to 140 kPa. These results provide useful information on quasi-static behavior of the SAL. PMID:21112232

  13. Simulation of cryogenic turbopump annular seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzolo, Alan B.

    1993-11-01

    San Andres employed the NBS software package MIPROPS to account for density's dependence on pressure in the simulation of liquid annular seals. His example on a LH2 seal showed a significant change in the mass coefficient compared to a constant density model. San Andres, Yang, and Childs extended this analysis by including the pressure and temperature dependence of density, specific heat, viscosity, volumetric expansion, and thermal conductivity in a coupled solution of the energy, momentum, and continuity equations. Their example showed very significant changes in stiffness and inertia for a high speed (38,000 rpm), large L/D ratio (0.5) LOX seal, as compared to their constant temperature results. The current research rederived the San Andres-Yang-Childs (SYC) analysis and extended it to include not only the Moody friction model of SYC but also the Hir's friction model. The derivation begins with obtaining the local differential equations of continuity, momentum, and energy conservation in the seal. These equations are averaged across the film thickness to obtain the resulting 'bulk flow' differential equations. Shear stress and convective heat loss through the stator (seal) and rotor are related to the Moody and Hir's friction factor model. The Holman analogy is employed to relate heat conduction in or out of the fluid film's boundary layer to the friction induced shear stress.

  14. Fluxon Dynamics in Elliptic Annular Josephson Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, Roberto; Mygind, Jesper

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a magnetic flux quantum (current vortex) trapped in a current-biased long planar elliptic annular Josephson tunnel junction. The system is modeled by a perturbed sine-Gordon equation that determines the spatial and temporal behavior of the phase difference across the tunnel barrier separating the two superconducting electrodes. In the absence of an external magnetic field, the fluxon dynamics in an elliptic annulus does not differ from that of a circular annulus where the stationary fluxon speed merely is determined by the system losses. The interaction between the vortex magnetic moment and a spatially homogeneous in-plane magnetic field gives rise to a tunable periodic non-sinusoidal potential which is strongly dependent on the annulus aspect ratio. We study the escape of the vortex from a well in the tilted potential when the bias current exceeds the depinning current. The smallest depinning current as well as the lowest sensitivity of the annulus to the external field is achieved when the axes ratio is equal to √{2}. The presented extensive numerical results are in good agreement with the findings of the perturbative approach. We also probe the rectifying properties of an asymmetric potential implemented with an egg-shaped annulus formed by two semi-elliptic arcs.

  15. Solar cycle modulation of Southern Annular Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Yuhji

    2016-04-01

    Climate is known to be affected by various factors, including oceanic changes and volcanic eruptions. 11-year solar cycle change is one of such important factors. Observational analysis shows that the winter-mean North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and late-winter/spring Southern Annular Mode (SAM) show structural modulation associated with 11-year solar cycle. In fact, these signals tend to extend from surface to upper stratosphere and persistent longer period only in the High Solar (HS) years. In the present study, we used 35-year record of ERA-Interim reanalysis data and performed wave-energy and momentum analysis on the solar-cycle modulation of the SAM to examine key factors to create such solar-SAM relationship. It is found that enhanced wave-mean flow interaction tends to take place in the middle stratosphere in association with enhanced energy input from diabatic heating on September only in HS years. The result suggests atmospheric and solar conditions on September are keys to create solar-SAM relationship.

  16. Granuloma annulare: another manifestation of Bartonella infection?

    PubMed

    Smoller, B R; Madhusudhan, K T; Scott, M A; Horn, T D

    2001-12-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is a common cutaneous eruption whose pathogenesis remains unknown. Recent literature has suggested a relation between Borrelia infection and GA, a relation that has not been widely accepted. Earlier works attempted unsuccessfully to implicate various other infectious agents. Some reports have demonstrated the increased frequency of GA in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, again raising the possibility of an infectious etiology. Using polymerase chain reaction amplification, we examined 19 biopsy specimens from 19 patients with GA (14 with classic palisading GA and 5 with an interstitial pattern) for the presence of a 153-base pair sequence specific for Bartonella henselae or Bartonella quintana. None of our patients were known to be human immunodeficiency virus-positive. These primers failed to detect B. henselae and B. quintana DNA in any of the specimens examined. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that GA represents a granulomatous reaction pattern to cutaneous Bartonella infection. Nevertheless, we cannot exclude the possibility that there may be a relation in other geographic locations or in immunocompromised patients or that GA represents an autosensitization reaction in response to a distant site of infection. Additional studies are needed to address these hypotheses. PMID:11801791

  17. The numerical calculation of heat transfer performance for annular flow of liquid nitrogen in a vertical annular channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shufeng; Wu, Yuyuan; Zhao, Rongyi

    2001-04-01

    According to a separated phase flow model for vertical annular two-phase flow in an annular channel, the liquid film thickness, distributions of velocities and temperatures in the liquid layer are predicted in the range of heat fluxes: 6000-12000 W/m 2, mass flux: 500-1100 kg/m2 s. The pressure drop along the flow channel and heat transfer coefficient are also calculated. The liquid film thickness is in the order of micrometers and heat transfer coefficient is 2800-7800 W/m2 K of liquid nitrogen boiling in narrow annular channels. The measured heat transfer coefficient is 29% higher than the calculated values. With the mass flux increasing and the gap of the annular channel decreasing, pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient increase.

  18. Student Ability to Distinguish between Superposition States and Mixed States in Quantum Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passante, Gina; Emigh, Paul J.; Shaffer, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Superposition gives rise to the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics and is therefore one of the concepts at the heart of quantum mechanics. Although we have found that many students can successfully use the idea of superposition to calculate the probabilities of different measurement outcomes, they are often unable to identify the…

  19. Scrambled coherent superposition for enhanced optical fiber communication in the nonlinear transmission regime.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Chandrasekhar, S; Winzer, P J; Chraplyvy, A R; Tkach, R W; Zhu, B; Taunay, T F; Fishteyn, M; DiGiovanni, D J

    2012-08-13

    Coherent superposition of light waves has long been used in various fields of science, and recent advances in digital coherent detection and space-division multiplexing have enabled the coherent superposition of information-carrying optical signals to achieve better communication fidelity on amplified-spontaneous-noise limited communication links. However, fiber nonlinearity introduces highly correlated distortions on identical signals and diminishes the benefit of coherent superposition in nonlinear transmission regime. Here we experimentally demonstrate that through coordinated scrambling of signal constellations at the transmitter, together with appropriate unscrambling at the receiver, the full benefit of coherent superposition is retained in the nonlinear transmission regime of a space-diversity fiber link based on an innovatively engineered multi-core fiber. This scrambled coherent superposition may provide the flexibility of trading communication capacity for performance in future optical fiber networks, and may open new possibilities in high-performance and secure optical communications. PMID:23038549

  20. Sea Carousel—A benthic, annular flume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amos, Carl L.; Grant, J.; Daborn, G. R.; Black, K.

    1992-06-01

    A benthic annular flume (Sea Carousel) has been developed and tested to measure in situ the erodibility of cohesive sediments. The flume is equipped with three optical backscatter sensors, a lid rotation switch, and an electromagnetic (EM) flow meter capable of detecting azimuthal and vertical components of flow. Data are logged at rates up to 10·66 Hz. Erodibility is inferred from the rate of change in suspended sediment concentration detected in the annulus. The energy-density/wave number spectrum of azimuthal flow showed peaks in the energy spectrum at paddle rotation wave numbers (k) of 14 and 7 m -1 (macroturbulent time scales) but were not significant. Friction velocity ( U*), measured (1) at 1 Hz using a flush-mounted hot-film sensor, and (2) derived from measured velocity profiles in the inner part of the logarithmic layer gave comparable results for Ū* < 0·064 m s -1. At higher values of U*, method (2) underpredicted by up to 20%. Method (1) showed radial increases in Ū* in the annulus for Ū y > 0·32 m s -1. Radial velocity gradients were proportional to ( Ū y - 0·32 m s -1). Maximum radial differences in U* were 10% for Ū y = 0·5 ms -1. Suspended sediment mass concentration ( S) in the annulus resulted in a significant decrease (10·5%) in Ū* derived by method (1) over the range 0< S<208 mg l -1. These decreases were not evident in method (2). Method (1) may, therefore, be subject to changes in stress sensor calibration with changes in S. Subaerial deployments of Sea Carousel caused severe substrate disturbance, water losses, and aeration of the annulus. Submarine deployments produced stable results, though dispersion of turbid flume water took place. Results clearly demonstrated the existence of 'Type I' and 'Type II' erosion documented from laboratory studies.

  1. Advanced superposition methods for high speed turbopump vibration analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson, C. E.; Campany, A. D.

    1981-01-01

    The small, high pressure Mark 48 liquid hydrogen turbopump was analyzed and dynamically tested to determine the cause of high speed vibration at an operating speed of 92,400 rpm. This approaches the design point operating speed of 95,000 rpm. The initial dynamic analysis in the design stage and subsequent further analysis of the rotor only dynamics failed to predict the vibration characteristics found during testing. An advanced procedure for dynamics analysis was used in this investigation. The procedure involves developing accurate dynamic models of the rotor assembly and casing assembly by finite element analysis. The dynamically instrumented assemblies are independently rap tested to verify the analytical models. The verified models are then combined by modal superposition techniques to develop a completed turbopump model where dynamic characteristics are determined. The results of the dynamic testing and analysis obtained are presented and methods of moving the high speed vibration characteristics to speeds above the operating range are recommended. Recommendations for use of these advanced dynamic analysis procedures during initial design phases are given.

  2. Large quantum superpositions of a nanoparticle immersed in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychkovskiy, O.

    2016-06-01

    Preparing and detecting spatially extended quantum superpositions of a massive object comprises an important fundamental test of quantum theory. These quantum states are extremely fragile and tend to quickly decay into incoherent mixtures due to the environmental decoherence. Experimental setups considered up to date address this threat in a conceptually straightforward way—by eliminating the environment, i.e., by isolating an object in a sufficiently high vacuum. We show that another option exists: decoherence is suppressed in the presence of a strongly interacting environment if this environment is superfluid. Indeed, as long as an object immersed in a pure superfluid at zero temperature moves with a velocity below the critical one, it does not create, absorb, or scatter any excitations of the superfluid. Hence, in this idealized situation the decoherence is absent. In reality the decoherence will be present due to thermal excitations of the superfluid and impurities contaminating the superfluid. We examine various decoherence channels in the superfluid

  3. Solar Supergranulation Revealed as a Superposition of Traveling Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gizon, L.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Schou, J.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    40 years ago two new solar phenomena were described: supergranulation and the five-minute solar oscillations. While the oscillations have since been explained and exploited to determine the properties of the solar interior, the supergranulation has remained unexplained. The supergranules, appearing as convective-like cellular patterns of horizontal outward flow with a characteristic diameter of 30 Mm and an apparent lifetime of 1 day, have puzzling properties, including their apparent superrotation and the minute temperature variations over the cells. Using a 60-day sequence of data from the MDI (Michelson-Doppler Imager) instrument onboard the SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) spacecraft, we show that the supergranulation pattern is formed by a superposition of traveling waves with periods of 5-10 days. The wave power is anisotropic with excess power in the direction of rotation and toward the equator, leading to spurious rotation rates and north-south flows as derived from correlation analyses. These newly discovered waves could play an important role in maintaining differential rotation in the upper convection zone by transporting angular momentum towards the equator.

  4. Mechanical Analysis of High Power Internally Cooled Annular Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Jiyun; No, Hee Cheon; Kazimi, Mujid S.

    2004-05-15

    Annular fuel with internal flow is proposed to allow higher power density in pressurized water reactors. The structural behavior issues arising from the higher flow rate required to cool the fuel are assessed here, including buckling, vibrations, and potential wear problems. Five flow-induced vibration mechanisms are addressed: buckling instability, vortex-induced vibration, acoustic resonance, fluid-elastic instability, and turbulence-induced vibration. The structural behavior of the 17 x 17 traditional solid fuel array is compared with that of two types of annular fuels, a 15 x 15 array, and a 13 x 13 array.It is seen that the annular fuels are superior to the reference fuel in avoiding vibration-induced damage, even at a 50% increase in flow velocity above today's reactors. The higher resistance to vibration is mainly due to their relatively larger cross section area making them more rigid. The 13 x 13 annular fuel shows better structural performance than the 15 x 15 one due to its higher rigidity. Analysis of acoustic resonance of the inner channel cladding with pump blade passing frequencies showed that the acoustic frequencies are within 120% of the pulsation frequency. The annular fuel exhibits reduced impact, sliding, and fretting wear than the solid fuel, even at 150% flow rate of today's reactors.

  5. New method of annular sub-apertures stitching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yun; Wang, Kai; Ruan, Ningjuan; Li, Bo

    2009-05-01

    Annular sub-apertures stitching technology is a feasible method for testing asphere without assistant equipment. The overlap area of two annular sub-apertures is needed to sample in traditional stitching way. The size of overlap area influences the accuracy and efficiency of annular sub-apertures stitching, since small area will deduce the error of calculation, otherwise, more sub-apertures will be needed. Based on the principle of annular sub-apertures interference, a model is built to calculate the parameters of sub-apertures according to equal thickness interference in this paper firstly; then two clear-cut interference areas near the center of asphere and annular sub-apertures are figured out by theory and simulation. A new method is presented to use interference area near the center of asphere as the overlap area to sample. The results of simulation in the paper reveal that this new method can reduce stitching error relatively and improve efficiency availably, solving the inconsistency of error and efficiency consequently.

  6. Non-axisymmetric annular curtain stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Zahir U.; Khayat, Roger E.; Maissa, Philippe; Mathis, Christian

    2013-08-01

    A stability analysis of non-axisymmetric annular curtain is carried out for an axially moving viscous jet subject in surrounding viscous gas media. The effect of inertia, surface tension, gas-to-liquid density ratio, inner-to-outer radius ratio, and gas-to-liquid viscosity ratio on the stability of the jet is studied. In general, the axisymmetric disturbance is found to be the dominant mode. However, for small wavenumber, the non-axisymmetric mode is the most unstable mode and the one likely observed in reality. Inertia and the viscosity ratio for non-axisymmetric disturbances show a similar stability influence as observed for axisymmetric disturbances. The maximum growth rate in non-axisymmetric flow, interestingly, appears at very small wavenumber for all inertia levels. The dominant wavenumber increases (decreases) with inertia for non-axisymmetric (axisymmetric) flow. Gas-to-liquid density ratio, curvature effect, and surface tension, however, exhibit an opposite influence on growth rate compared to axisymmetric disturbances. Surface tension tends to stabilize the flow with reductions of the unstable wavenumber range and the maximum growth rate as well as the dominant wavenumber. The dominant wavenumber remains independent of viscosity ratio indicating the viscosity ratio increases the breakup length of the sheet with very little influence on the size of the drops. The range of unstable wavenumbers is affected only by curvature in axisymmetric flow, whereas all the stability parameters control the range of unstable wavenumbers in non-axisymmetric flow. Inertia and gas density increase the unstable wavenumber range, whereas the radius ratio, surface tension, and the viscosity ratio decrease the unstable wavenumber range. Neutral curves are plotted to separate the stable and unstable domains. Critical radius ratio decreases linearly and nonlinearly with the wavenumber for axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric disturbances, respectively. At smaller Weber numbers, a

  7. Granuloma Annulare Mimicking Sarcoidosis: Report of Patient With Localized Granuloma Annulare Whose Skin Lesions Show 3 Clinical Morphologies and 2 Histology Patterns.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Philip R; Carlos, Casey A

    2015-07-01

    Granuloma annulare, a benign dermatosis of undetermined etiology, typically presents in a localized or generalized form. It has 3 distinctive histologic patterns: an infiltrative (interstitial) pattern, a palisading granuloma pattern, and an epithelioid nodule (sarcoidal granuloma) pattern. A man whose granuloma annulare skin lesions mimicked sarcoidosis is described. His localized granuloma annulare presented with a total of 3 lesions that each had a distinctive clinical morphology: an annular lesion of individual papules, a dermal nodule, and a linear arrangement of 3 papules. Two of his lesions showed a palisading granuloma histology pattern of granuloma annulare; however, the linear papules on his posterior neck lesion demonstrated noncaseating granulomas consistent with either the epithelioid nodule histology pattern of granuloma annulare or sarcoidal granuloma compatible with sarcoidosis. A comprehensive evaluation excluded the diagnosis of systemic sarcoidosis. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on granuloma annulare, epithelioid nodule, sarcoidal granuloma, and sarcoidosis. The histology patterns of granuloma annulare-emphasizing the history and differentiating features of the epithelioid nodule pattern from cutaneous sarcoidosis-were reviewed. The epithelioid nodule (sarcoidal granuloma) histology pattern of granuloma annulare is uncommon and may mimic the histology changes observed in sarcoidosis skin lesions; the absence of asteroid or other giant cell inclusions and an increase in mucin deposition between the collagen bundles favor the diagnosis of granuloma annulare. In addition, the epithelioid nodule pattern of granuloma annulare can rarely also show other histologic patterns of granuloma annulare in the same biopsy specimen or concurrently present with other clinical lesions of granuloma annulare that demonstrate a palisading granuloma, or possibly an infiltrative, histology pattern. However, the presence of an

  8. A reciprocal space approach for locating symmetry elements in Patterson superposition maps

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrixson, T.

    1990-09-21

    A method for determining the location and possible existence of symmetry elements in Patterson superposition maps has been developed. A comparison of the original superposition map and a superposition map operated on by the symmetry element gives possible translations to the location of the symmetry element. A reciprocal space approach using structure factor-like quantities obtained from the Fourier transform of the superposition function is then used to determine the best'' location of the symmetry element. Constraints based upon the space group requirements are also used as a check on the locations. The locations of the symmetry elements are used to modify the Fourier transform coefficients of the superposition function to give an approximation of the structure factors, which are then refined using the EG relation. The analysis of several compounds using this method is presented. Reciprocal space techniques for locating multiple images in the superposition function are also presented, along with methods to remove the effect of multiple images in the Fourier transform coefficients of the superposition map. In addition, crystallographic studies of the extended chain structure of (NHC{sub 5}H{sub 5})SbI{sub 4} and of the twinning method of the orthorhombic form of the high-{Tc} superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} are presented. 54 refs.

  9. Derivation of anisotropic diffusion coefficients in a large annular cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Eiichi Suetomi; Hiroshi Sekimoto )

    1993-06-01

    A small reactor for a spacecraft or a small liquid-metal reactor for urban siting, decentralized electrical units, or seawater desalination is designed for a large leakage of neutrons from the reactor core. In these reactors, a movable annular reflector is used for reactivity control. Therefore, a large annular cavity exists between the core and the shielding materials. In this paper, anisotropic diffusion coefficients for a large annular cavity are derived by equating the neutron currents obtained by the diffusion equation and by the transport equation. These diffusion coefficients depend only on the geometrical configuration of the cavity. A numerical comparison of diffusion calculations using these diffusion coefficients and transport calculations shows good agreement.

  10. Annular subaperture interferometric testing technique for large aspheric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xi; Wu, Fan; Wu, Shibin; Chen, Qiang

    2005-02-01

    A new method to test large aspheric surface by using Annular Sub-aperture Interferometric Testing (ASIT) is described in this paper. It solves the two main difficulties, which are manufacture difficulty and high cost of auxiliary elements (optics compensator, CGH, large reflector) used generally in testing the large aspheric mirror. The method reduces departure between the reference wavefront and tested wavefront to the measurement range of the interferometer by testing annular subaperture of aspheric surface, which makes reference wavefronts with different curvature radius match corresponding annular subaperture, then sews all sub-aperture datum together with a suitable algorithm to get the whole information of the surface. A stitching mathematics model is provided. The feasibility of the technique has been demonstrated by comparing test results from an autocollimation test and ASIT of an 152-mm diameter paraboloidal mirror. This method extends the dynamic range of interferometric measurements, by which the large, fast aspheric surface can be directly tested without additional optical elements.

  11. Imaging performance of annular apertures. II - Line spread functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschunko, H. F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Line images formed by aberration-free optical systems with annular apertures are investigated in the whole range of central obstruction ratios. Annular apertures form lines images with central and side line groups. The number of lines in each line group is given by the ratio of the outer diameter of the annular aperture divided by the width of the annulus. The theoretical energy fraction of 0.889 in the central line of the image formed by an unobstructed aperture increases for centrally obstructed apertures to 0.932 for the central line group. Energy fractions for the central and side line groups are practically constant for all obstruction ratios and for each line group. The illumination of rectangular secondary apertures of various length/width ratios by apertures of various obstruction ratios is discussed.

  12. Design and analysis of annular antenna arrays with different reflectors.

    PubMed

    Shi, G; Joines, W T

    2004-09-01

    The design and performance of annular antenna arrays with reflectors is presented. Arrays with three shapes of reflectors are analysed and simulated. These include the corner reflector, the circular reflector and the elliptical reflector. Power-density distributions within the annular arrays with and without reflectors are obtained by using the FDTD method. Also, the image theory method is used to verify the FDTD results in one case. By comparing the power-density distribution pattern of all four of the array designs (three with different reflectors, one without reflector), it is readily seen in each case that the array with reflectors yields better power-efficiency than the array without reflectors and the elliptical reflector yields the best performance. Comparisons of each array are made using 4, 6 and 8 antennae in the annular array. By using the optimized results of the elliptical reflector, the requirement for the input-power level to each antenna is greatly reduced. PMID:15370818

  13. The Annular Gap: Gamma-Ray & Radio Emission of Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, G. J.; Du, Y. J.; Han, J. L.; Xu, R. X.

    2013-01-01

    Pulsars have been found more than 40 years. Observations from radio to gamma-rays present abundant information. However, the radiation mechanism is still an open question. It is found that the annular gap could be formed in the magnetosphere of pulsars (neutron stars or quark stars), which combines the advantages of the polar cap, slot gap and outer gap models. It is emphasized that observations of some radio pulsars, normal and millisecond gamma-ray pulsars (MSGPs) show that the annular gap would play a very important role. Here we show some observational and theoretical evidences about the annular gap. For example, bi-drifting sub-pulses; radio and gamma-ray millisecond pulsars and so on.

  14. The principle of superposition and its application in ground-water hydraulics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Franke, O. Lehn; Bennett, Gordon D.

    1987-01-01

    The principle of superposition, a powerful mathematical technique for analyzing certain types of complex problems in many areas of science and technology, has important applications in ground-water hydraulics and modeling of ground-water systems. The principle of superposition states that problem solutions can be added together to obtain composite solutions. This principle applies to linear systems governed by linear differential equations. This report introduces the principle of superposition as it applies to ground-water hydrology and provides background information, discussion, illustrative problems with solutions, and problems to be solved by the reader.

  15. The principle of superposition and its application in ground-water hydraulics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, T.E.; Franke, O.L.; Bennett, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    The principle of superposition, a powerful methematical technique for analyzing certain types of complex problems in many areas of science and technology, has important application in ground-water hydraulics and modeling of ground-water systems. The principle of superposition states that solutions to individual problems can be added together to obtain solutions to complex problems. This principle applies to linear systems governed by linear differential equations. This report introduces the principle of superposition as it applies to groundwater hydrology and provides background information, discussion, illustrative problems with solutions, and problems to be solved by the reader. (USGS)

  16. Generating superposition of up-to three photons for continuous variable quantum information processing.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, Mitsuyoshi; Miyata, Kazunori; Mizuta, Takahiro; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Marek, Petr; Filip, Radim; Furusawa, Akira

    2013-03-11

    We develop an experimental scheme based on a continuous-wave (cw) laser for generating arbitrary superpositions of photon number states. In this experiment, we successfully generate superposition states of zero to three photons, namely advanced versions of superpositions of two and three coherent states. They are fully compatible with developed quantum teleportation and measurement-based quantum operations with cw lasers. Due to achieved high detection efficiency, we observe, without any loss correction, multiple areas of negativity of Wigner function, which confirm strongly nonclassical nature of the generated states. PMID:23482124

  17. A convolution-superposition dose calculation engine for GPUs

    SciTech Connect

    Hissoiny, Sami; Ozell, Benoit; Despres, Philippe

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Graphic processing units (GPUs) are increasingly used for scientific applications, where their parallel architecture and unprecedented computing power density can be exploited to accelerate calculations. In this paper, a new GPU implementation of a convolution/superposition (CS) algorithm is presented. Methods: This new GPU implementation has been designed from the ground-up to use the graphics card's strengths and to avoid its weaknesses. The CS GPU algorithm takes into account beam hardening, off-axis softening, kernel tilting, and relies heavily on raytracing through patient imaging data. Implementation details are reported as well as a multi-GPU solution. Results: An overall single-GPU acceleration factor of 908x was achieved when compared to a nonoptimized version of the CS algorithm implemented in PlanUNC in single threaded central processing unit (CPU) mode, resulting in approximatively 2.8 s per beam for a 3D dose computation on a 0.4 cm grid. A comparison to an established commercial system leads to an acceleration factor of approximately 29x or 0.58 versus 16.6 s per beam in single threaded mode. An acceleration factor of 46x has been obtained for the total energy released per mass (TERMA) calculation and a 943x acceleration factor for the CS calculation compared to PlanUNC. Dose distributions also have been obtained for a simple water-lung phantom to verify that the implementation gives accurate results. Conclusions: These results suggest that GPUs are an attractive solution for radiation therapy applications and that careful design, taking the GPU architecture into account, is critical in obtaining significant acceleration factors. These results potentially can have a significant impact on complex dose delivery techniques requiring intensive dose calculations such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and arc therapy. They also are relevant for adaptive radiation therapy where dose results must be obtained rapidly.

  18. Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Rishi; Arunprasath, P; Padmavathy, L; Srivenkateswaran, K

    2016-01-01

    Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG) is a rare granulomatous skin disease characterized clinically by annular plaques with elevated borders and atrophic centers found mainly on sun-exposed skin and histologically by diffuse granulomatous infiltrates composed of multinucleated giant cells, histiocytes and lymphocytes in the dermis along with phagocytosis of elastic fibers by multinucleated giant cells. We report a case of AEGCG in a 50-year-old woman and is highlighted for the classical clinical and histological findings of the disease and its rare co-existence with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:27057492

  19. Portal annular pancreas: the pancreatic duct ring sign on MRCP.

    PubMed

    Lath, Chinar O; Agrawal, Dilpesh S; Timins, Michael E; Wein, Melissa M

    2015-12-01

    Portal annular pancreas is a rare pancreatic variant in which the uncinate process of the pancreas extends and fuses to the dorsal surface of the body of the pancreas by surrounding the portal vein. It is asymptomatic, but it can be mistaken for a pancreatic head mass on imaging and could also have serious consequences during pancreatic surgery, if unrecognized. We report this case of a 53-year-old female patient who was diagnosed to have portal annular pancreas on the basis of an unusual course (ring appearance) of the main pancreatic duct on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, not described earlier in the radiology literature. PMID:26649117

  20. Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Rishi; Arunprasath, P.; Padmavathy, L.; Srivenkateswaran, K.

    2016-01-01

    Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG) is a rare granulomatous skin disease characterized clinically by annular plaques with elevated borders and atrophic centers found mainly on sun-exposed skin and histologically by diffuse granulomatous infiltrates composed of multinucleated giant cells, histiocytes and lymphocytes in the dermis along with phagocytosis of elastic fibers by multinucleated giant cells. We report a case of AEGCG in a 50-year-old woman and is highlighted for the classical clinical and histological findings of the disease and its rare co-existence with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:27057492

  1. Polarization-independent waveguiding with annular photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Cicek, Ahmet; Ulug, Bulent

    2009-09-28

    A linear waveguide in an annular photonic crystal composed of a square array of annular dielectric rods in air is demonstrated to guide transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes simultaneously. Overlapping of the guided bands in the full band gap of the photonic crystal is shown to be achieved through an appropriate set of geometric parameters. Results of Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulations to demonstrate polarization-independent waveguiding with low loss and wavelength-order confinement are presented. Transmission through a 90 degrees bend is also demonstrated. PMID:19907629

  2. Predictions for the annular solar eclipse of 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, F.

    1984-01-01

    Predictions for the path of the annular solar eclipse of 30 May 1984 are presented. Local circumstances for cities in and along the path are discussed as well as the Saros history of this eclipse. The author investigates the possibility of observing the solar corona during maximum eclipse but concludes that the prospects are remote. Finally, the appearance of the eclipse during annularity, and beading phenomena, are discussed, with the help of a lunar-limb analysis and observations made at previous eclipses of this Saros series.

  3. Portal annular pancreas: the pancreatic duct ring sign on MRCP

    PubMed Central

    Lath, Chinar O.; Agrawal, Dilpesh S.; Timins, Michael E.; Wein, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    Portal annular pancreas is a rare pancreatic variant in which the uncinate process of the pancreas extends and fuses to the dorsal surface of the body of the pancreas by surrounding the portal vein. It is asymptomatic, but it can be mistaken for a pancreatic head mass on imaging and could also have serious consequences during pancreatic surgery, if unrecognized. We report this case of a 53-year-old female patient who was diagnosed to have portal annular pancreas on the basis of an unusual course (ring appearance) of the main pancreatic duct on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, not described earlier in the radiology literature. PMID:26649117

  4. Preceding Annular Skin Lesions in a Patient with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Hee Jin; Kim, Hyung Ok; Lee, Jun Young

    2015-01-01

    The cutaneous manifestations of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) are variable and nonspecific. A 42-year-old man presented with multiple annular, erythematous patches on the trunk for 3 months. Two months later, he presented with bullae along with high fever. The laboratory examination showed pancytopenia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypofibrinogenemia. The bone marrow biopsy specimen showed an active hemophagocytosis. On the basis of these findings, a diagnosis of HLH was concluded. After five cycles of chemotherapy, his skin lesion completely resolved. Taking the results together, we suggest that annular skin lesion can be added to the list of cutaneous manifestations of HLH. PMID:26512177

  5. Multi-functional annular fairing for coupling launch abort motor to space vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor); Scotti, Stephen J. (Inventor); Buning, Pieter G. (Inventor); Bauer, Steven X. S. (Inventor); Engelund, Walter C. (Inventor); Schuster, David M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An annular fairing having aerodynamic, thermal, structural and acoustic attributes couples a launch abort motor to a space vehicle having a payload of concern mounted on top of a rocket propulsion system. A first end of the annular fairing is fixedly attached to the launch abort motor while a second end of the annular fairing is attached in a releasable fashion to an aft region of the payload. The annular fairing increases in diameter between its first and second ends.

  6. On the Use of Material-Dependent Damping in ANSYS for Mode Superposition Transient Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, J.; Wei, X.

    2011-07-17

    The mode superposition method is often used for dynamic analysis of complex structures, such as the seismic Category I structures in nuclear power plants, in place of the less efficient full method, which uses the full system matrices for calculation of the transient responses. In such applications, specification of material-dependent damping is usually desirable because complex structures can consist of multiple types of materials that may have different energy dissipation capabilities. A recent review of the ANSYS manual for several releases found that the use of material-dependent damping is not clearly explained for performing a mode superposition transient dynamic analysis. This paper includes several mode superposition transient dynamic analyses using different ways to specify damping in ANSYS, in order to determine how material-dependent damping can be specified conveniently in a mode superposition transient dynamic analysis.

  7. Design and Evaluation of a Research-Based Teaching Sequence: The Superposition of Electric Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viennot, L.; Rainson, S.

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates an approach to research-based teaching strategies and their evaluation. Addresses a teaching sequence on the superposition of electric fields implemented at the college level in an institutional framework subject to severe constraints. Contains 28 references. (DDR)

  8. Intra-cavity generation of a superposition of Bessel-Gauss beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong-Campos, Jaime D.; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I.

    2012-10-01

    The generation of intra-cavity superpositions of Bessel-Gauss beams in an axicon resonator is studied numerically by means of a genetic algorithm. The coherent superposition of low order modes is induced by introducing crossed wires within the simulated cavity. Two different strategies are shown to be equivalent for the generation of the same superposition of two Bessel-Gauss beams with opposite azimuthal orders. In the first strategy the angle between a pair of cross-wires is varied for mode selection, the second consists on introducing a number of crosswires at equally spaced angles in which the number of wires corresponds exactly to the order of the superposed modes. Our results suggest a direct method for generating experimentally a coherent mode superposition of Bessel-Gauss beams using an axicon-based Bessel-Gauss resonator. These beams are relevant in areas such as optical trapping and micromanipulatio

  9. Can the Hypothesis 'Photon Interferes only with Itself' be Reconciled with Superposition of Light from Multiple Beams or Sources?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar; Prasad, Narasimha S.; Peng, Qing

    2007-01-01

    Any superposition effect as measured (SEM) by us is the summation of simultaneous stimulations experienced by a detector due to the presence of multiple copies of a detectee each carrying different values of the same parameter. We discus the cases with light beams carrying same frequency for both diffraction and multiple beam Fabry-Perot interferometer and also a case where the two superposed light beams carry different frequencies. Our key argument is that if light really consists of indivisible elementary particle, photon, then it cannot by itself create superposition effect since the state vector of an elementary particle cannot carry more than one values of any parameter at the same time. Fortunately, semiclassical model explains all light induced interactions using quantized atoms and classical EM wave packet. Classical physics, with its deeper commitment to Reality Ontology, was better prepared to nurture the emergence of Quantum Mechanics and still can provide guidance to explore nature deeper if we pay careful attention to successful classical formulations like Huygens-Fresnel diffraction integral.

  10. Accuracy of a teleported squeezed coherent-state superposition trapped into a high-Q cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Sales, J. S.; Silva, L. F. da; Almeida, N. G. de

    2011-03-15

    We propose a scheme to teleport a superposition of squeezed coherent states from one mode of a lossy cavity to one mode of a second lossy cavity. Based on current experimental capabilities, we present a calculation of the fidelity demonstrating that accurate quantum teleportation can be achieved for some parameters of the squeezed coherent states superposition. The signature of successful quantum teleportation is present in the negative values of the Wigner function.

  11. Resilience to decoherence of the macroscopic quantum superpositions generated by universally covariant optimal quantum cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Spagnolo, Nicolo; Sciarrino, Fabio; De Martini, Francesco

    2010-09-15

    We show that the quantum states generated by universal optimal quantum cloning of a single photon represent a universal set of quantum superpositions resilient to decoherence. We adopt the Bures distance as a tool to investigate the persistence of quantum coherence of these quantum states. According to this analysis, the process of universal cloning realizes a class of quantum superpositions that exhibits a covariance property in lossy configuration over the complete set of polarization states in the Bloch sphere.

  12. Accuracy of a teleported squeezed coherent-state superposition trapped into a high-Q cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales, J. S.; da Silva, L. F.; de Almeida, N. G.

    2011-03-01

    We propose a scheme to teleport a superposition of squeezed coherent states from one mode of a lossy cavity to one mode of a second lossy cavity. Based on current experimental capabilities, we present a calculation of the fidelity demonstrating that accurate quantum teleportation can be achieved for some parameters of the squeezed coherent states superposition. The signature of successful quantum teleportation is present in the negative values of the Wigner function.

  13. Subsonic annular wing theory with application to flow about nacelles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    A method has recently been developed for calculating the flow over a subsonic nacelle at zero angle of attack. The method makes use of annular wing theory and boundary-layer theory and has shown good agreement with both experimental data and more complex theoretical solutions. The method permits variation of the mass flow by changing the size of a center body.

  14. Annular linear induction pump with an externally supported duct

    DOEpatents

    Craig, Edwin R.; Semken, Robert S.

    1979-01-01

    Several embodiments of an annular linear induction pump for pumping liquid metals are disclosed having the features of generally one pass flow of the liquid metal through the pump and an increased efficiency resulting from the use of thin duct walls to enclose the stator. The stator components of this pump are removable for repair and replacement.

  15. Design curves for circular and annular duct silencers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Willie R.; Ramakrishnan, R.

    1989-01-01

    Conventional models of sound propagation between porous walls (Scott, 1946) are adapted in order to calculate design curves for the lined circular and annular-duct silencers used in HVAC systems. The derivation of the governing equations is outlined, and results for two typical cases are presented graphically. Good agreement with published experimental data is demonstrated.

  16. PARTICLE TRANSMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ANNULAR DENUDER AMBIENT SAMPLING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transmission measurements have been performed on URG 2000-30B glass annular denuders at 10 LPM using monodisperse particles in the 0.01 - 1 um dia size range. hrough control of the aerosol charge state, particle losses due to diffusion and electrostatic effects were separately me...

  17. RESIDENCE TIME DISTRIBUTION OF FLUIDS IN STIRRED ANNULAR PHOTOREACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When gases flow through an annular photoreactor at constant rate, some of the gas spends more or less than the average residence time in the reactor. This spread of residence time can have an important effect on the performance of the reactor. this study tested how the residence...

  18. Probe with integrated heater and thermocouple pack

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, Reg W.; Dial, Ralph E.; Finnell, Wilber K. R.

    1990-01-01

    A probe for measuring heat includes an elongate rod fitted within a sheath, and a plurality of annular recesses are formed on the surface of the rod in a spaced-apart relationship to form annular chambers that are resistant to heat flow. A longitudinal bore extends axially into the rod and within the cylinders defined by the annular chambers, and an integrated heater and thermocouple pack is dimensioned to fit within the bore. In construction, the integrated pack includes a plurality of wires disposed in electrical insulation within a sheath and a heater cable. These wires include one common wire and a plurality of thermocuple wires. The common wire is constructed of one type of conductive material while the thermocouple wires are each constructed of two types of materials so that at least one thermocouple junction is formed therein. All of the wires extend the length of the integrated pack and are connected together at their ends. The thermocouple wires are constructed to form thermocouple junctions proximate to each annular chamber for producing electromotive forces corresponding to the temperature of the rod within the annular chambers relative to outside the chambers. In the preferred embodiment, each thermocouple wire forms two thermocouple junctions, one junction being disposed within an annular chamber and the second junction being disposed outside of, but proximate to, the same annular chamber. In one embodiment two thermocouple wires are configured to double the sensitivity of the probe in one region.

  19. Probe with integrated heater and thermocouple pack

    DOEpatents

    McCulloch, Reginald W.; Dial, Ralph E.; Finnell, Wilber K. R.

    1988-01-01

    A probe for measuring heat includes an elongate rod fitted within a sheath, and a plurality of annular recesses are formed on the surface of the rod in a spaced-apart relationship to form annular chambers that are resistant to heat flow. A longitudinal bore extends axially into the rod and within the cylinders defined by the annular chambers, and an integrated heater and thermocouple pack is dimensioned to fit within the bore. In construction, the integrated pack includes a plurality of wires disposed in electrical insulation within a sheath and a heater cable. These wires include one common wire and a plurality of thermocouple wires. The common wire is constructed of one type of conductive material while the thermocouple wires are each constructed of two types of materials so that at least one thermocouple junction is formed therein. All of the wires extend the length of the integrated pack and are connected together at their ends. The thermocouple wires are constructed to form thermocouple junctions proximate to each annular chamber for producing electromotive forces corresponding to the temperature of the rod within the annular chambers relative to outside the chambers. In the preferred embodiment, each thermocouple wire forms two thermocouple junctions, one junction being disposed within an annular chamber and the second junction being disposed outside of, but proximate to, the same annular chamber. In one embodiment two thermocouple wires are configured to double the sensitivity of the probe in one region.

  20. Analysis of eccentric annular incompressible seals. II - Effects of eccentricity on rotordynamic coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, C. C.; Nguyen, D. T.

    1987-01-01

    A new analysis procedure has been presented which solves for the flow variables of an annular pressure seal in which the rotor has a large static displacement (eccentricity) from the centered position. The present paper incorporates the solutions to investigate the effect of eccentricity on the rotordynamic coefficients. The analysis begins with a set of governing equations based on a turbulent bulk-flow model and Moody's friction factor equation. Perturbations of the flow variables yields a set of zeroth- and first-order equations. After integration of the zeroth-order equations, the resulting zeroth-order flow variables are used as input in the solution of the first-order equations. Further integration of the first order pressures yields the eccentric rotordynamic coefficients. The results from this procedure compare well with available experimental and theoretical data, with accuracy just as good or slightly better than the predictions based on a finite-element model.

  1. Analysis for leakage and rotordynamic coefficients of surface roughened tapered annular gas seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    In order to soften the effects of rub, the smooth stators of turbine gas seals are sometimes replaced by a honeycomb surface. This deliberately roughened stator and smooth rotor combination retards the seal leakage and may lead to enhanced rotor stability. However, many factors determine the rotordynamic coefficients and little is known as to the effectiveness of these honeycomb seals under various changes in the independent seal parameters. An analytical-computational method to solve for the rotordynamic coefficients of this type of compressible-flow seal is developed. The governing equations for surface roughned tapered annular gas seals are based on a modified Hirs' turbulent bulk flow model. A perturbation analysis is employed to develop zeroth and first-order perturbation equations. These equations are numerically integrated to solve for the leakage, pressure, density, and velocity for small motion of the shaft about the centered position. The resulting pressure distribution is then integrated to find the corresponding rotor-dynamic coefficients.

  2. Full-aperture wavefront reconstruction from annular subaperture interferometric data by use of Zernike annular polynomials and a matrix method for testing large aspheric surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hou Xi; Wu Fan; Yang Li; Wu Shibin; Chen Qiang

    2006-05-20

    We propose a more accurate and efficient reconstruction method used in testing large aspheric surfaces with annular subaperture interferometry. By the introduction of the Zernike annular polynomials that are orthogonal over the annular region, the method proposed here eliminates the coupling problem in the earlier reconstruction algorithm based on Zernike circle polynomials. Because of the complexity of recurrence definition of Zernike annular polynomials, a general symbol representation of that in a computing program is established. The program implementation for the method is provided in detail. The performance of the reconstruction algorithm is evaluated in some pertinent cases, such as different random noise levels, different subaperture configurations, and misalignments.

  3. Ultrafast laser parallel microdrilling using multiple annular beams generated by a spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Zheng; Perrie, Walter; Edwardson, Stuart P.; Fearon, Eamonn; Dearden, Geoff

    2014-03-01

    Ultrafast laser parallel microdrilling using diffractive multiple annular beam patterns is demonstrated in this paper. The annular beam was generated by diffractive axicon computer generated holograms (CGHs) using a spatial light modulator. The diameter of the annular beam can be easily adjusted by varying the radius of the smallest ring in the axicon. Multiple annular beams with arbitrary arrangement and multiple annular beam arrays were generated by superimposing an axicon CGH onto a grating and lenses algorithm calculated multi-beam CGH and a binary Dammann grating CGH, respectively. Microholes were drilled through a 0.03 mm thick stainless steel foil using the multiple annular beams. By avoiding huge laser output attenuation and mechanical annular scanning, the processing is ˜200 times faster than the normal single beam processing.

  4. Phase Distribution of the Output of Jaynes-Cummings Model with the Superposition of Squeezed Displaced Fock States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Al-Kader, G. M.

    2006-05-01

    The Wigner quasi-probability function for the superposition of squeezed displaced Fock states (SDFS's) is reviewed. The interaction of these states with a two-level atom in cavity with the presence of additional Kerr medium is studied. Exact general matrix elements of the time-dependent operators of a Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM), in the presence of a Kerr medium, with these states are derived. We have obtained the phase distribution by two different ways: one is by Pegg-Barnett formalism, the second is by integration of the Wigner function over the radial variable. Results of these two approaches are compared. The Wigner phase distributions for some values of parameters are illustrated. The behaviors of the distributions have been shown as a function of the squeeze parameter in JCM.

  5. About simple nonlinear and linear superpositions of special exact solutions of Veselov-Novikov equation

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrovsky, V. G.; Topovsky, A. V.

    2013-03-15

    New exact solutions, nonstationary and stationary, of Veselov-Novikov (VN) equation in the forms of simple nonlinear and linear superpositions of arbitrary number N of exact special solutions u{sup (n)}, n= 1, Horizontal-Ellipsis , N are constructed via Zakharov and Manakov {partial_derivative}-dressing method. Simple nonlinear superpositions are represented up to a constant by the sums of solutions u{sup (n)} and calculated by {partial_derivative}-dressing on nonzero energy level of the first auxiliary linear problem, i.e., 2D stationary Schroedinger equation. It is remarkable that in the zero energy limit simple nonlinear superpositions convert to linear ones in the form of the sums of special solutions u{sup (n)}. It is shown that the sums u=u{sup (k{sub 1})}+...+u{sup (k{sub m})}, 1 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To k{sub 1} < k{sub 2} < Horizontal-Ellipsis < k{sub m} Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To N of arbitrary subsets of these solutions are also exact solutions of VN equation. The presented exact solutions include as superpositions of special line solitons and also superpositions of plane wave type singular periodic solutions. By construction these exact solutions represent also new exact transparent potentials of 2D stationary Schroedinger equation and can serve as model potentials for electrons in planar structures of modern electronics.

  6. Nonadiabatic creation of macroscopic superpositions with strongly correlated one-dimensional bosons in a ring trap

    SciTech Connect

    Schenke, C.; Minguzzi, A.; Hekking, F. W. J.

    2011-11-15

    We consider a strongly interacting quasi-one-dimensional Bose gas on a tight ring trap subjected to a localized barrier potential. We explore the possibility of forming a macroscopic superposition of a rotating and a nonrotating state under nonequilibrium conditions, achieved by a sudden quench of the barrier velocity. Using an exact solution for the dynamical evolution in the impenetrable-boson (Tonks-Girardeau) limit, we find an expression for the many-body wave function corresponding to a superposition state. The superposition is formed when the barrier velocity is tuned close to multiples of an integer or half-integer number of Coriolis flux quanta. As a consequence of the strong interactions, we find that (i) the state of the system can be mapped onto a macroscopic superposition of two Fermi spheres rather than two macroscopically occupied single-particle states as in a weakly interacting gas, and (ii) the barrier velocity should be larger than the sound velocity to better discriminate the two components of the superposition.

  7. Attosecond probing of state-resolved ionization and superpositions of atoms and molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    Isolated attosecond pulses in the extreme ultraviolet are used to probe strong field ionization and to initiate electronic and vibrational superpositions in atoms and small molecules. Few-cycle 800 nm pulses produce strong-field ionization of Xe atoms, and the attosecond probe is used to measure the risetimes of the two spin orbit states of the ion on the 4d inner shell transitions to the 5p vacancies in the valence shell. Step-like features in the risetimes due to the subcycles of the 800 nm pulse are observed and compared with theory to elucidate the instantaneous and effective hole dynamics. Isolated attosecond pulses create massive superpositions of electronic states in Ar and nitrogen as well as vibrational superpositions among electronic states in nitrogen. An 800 nm pulse manipulates the superpositions, and specific subcycle interferences, level shifting, and quantum beats are imprinted onto the attosecond pulse as a function of time delay. Detailed outcomes are compared to theory for measurements of time-dynamic superpositions by attosecond transient absorption. Supported by DOE, NSF, ARO, AFOSR, and DARPA.

  8. About simple nonlinear and linear superpositions of special exact solutions of Veselov-Novikov equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovsky, V. G.; Topovsky, A. V.

    2013-03-01

    New exact solutions, nonstationary and stationary, of Veselov-Novikov (VN) equation in the forms of simple nonlinear and linear superpositions of arbitrary number N of exact special solutions u(n), n = 1, …, N are constructed via Zakharov and Manakov overline{partial }-dressing method. Simple nonlinear superpositions are represented up to a constant by the sums of solutions u(n) and calculated by overline{partial }-dressing on nonzero energy level of the first auxiliary linear problem, i.e., 2D stationary Schrödinger equation. It is remarkable that in the zero energy limit simple nonlinear superpositions convert to linear ones in the form of the sums of special solutions u(n). It is shown that the sums u= u^{(k_1)}+ldots + u^{(k_m)}, 1 ⩽ k1 < k2 < … < km ⩽ N of arbitrary subsets of these solutions are also exact solutions of VN equation. The presented exact solutions include as superpositions of special line solitons and also superpositions of plane wave type singular periodic solutions. By construction these exact solutions represent also new exact transparent potentials of 2D stationary Schrödinger equation and can serve as model potentials for electrons in planar structures of modern electronics.

  9. Annular fuel and air co-flow premixer

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, Christian Xavier; Melton, Patrick Benedict; York, William David

    2013-10-15

    Disclosed is a premixer for a combustor including an annular outer shell and an annular inner shell. The inner shell defines an inner flow channel inside of the inner shell and is located to define an outer flow channel between the outer shell and the inner shell. A fuel discharge annulus is located between the outer flow channel and the inner flow channel and is configured to inject a fuel flow into a mixing area in a direction substantially parallel to an outer airflow through the outer flow channel and an inner flow through the inner flow channel. Further disclosed are a combustor including a plurality of premixers and a method of premixing air and fuel in a combustor.

  10. Annular hypopigmented mycosis fungoides: a novel ringed variant.

    PubMed

    Uhlenhake, Elizabeth E; Mehregan, Darius M

    2012-05-01

    Hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (MF) is a relatively uncommon variant of cutaneous lymphoma that is mostly seen in darker skin types. We present a novel and unique clinical presentation in an African-American female patient, consisting of regular hypopigmented annular rings in areas of normal skin and in more typical hypopigmented patches of MF. The lesions appeared diffusely on all extremities, anterior chest and back. Histopathologic examination showed an atypical lymphocytic infiltrate at the dermal-epidermal junction with epidermotropism and few Pautrier's collections. The patient was otherwise healthy and improved with narrowband ultraviolet (UV)-B. This case represents a presentation of a most unusual variant of hypopigmented MF, for which we propose the name 'annular hypopigmented MF'. PMID:22515225

  11. Electroosmotic flow and Joule heating in preparative continuous annular electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Laskowski, René; Bart, Hans-Jörg

    2015-09-01

    An openFOAM "computational fluid dynamic" simulation model was developed for the description of local interaction of hydrodynamics and Joule heating in annular electrochromatography. A local decline of electrical conductivity of the background eluent is caused by an electrokinetic migration of ions resulting in higher Joule heat generation. The model equations consider the Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible fluids, the energy equation for stationary temperature fields, and the mass transfer equation for the electrokinetic flow. The simulations were embedded in commercial ANSYS Fluent software and in open-source environment openFOAM. The annular gap (1 mm width) contained an inorganic C8 reverse-phase monolith as stationary phase prepared by an in situ sol-gel process. The process temperature generated by Joule heating was determined by thermal camera system. The local hydrodynamics in the prototype was detected by a gravimetric contact-free measurement method and experimental and simulated values matched quite well. PMID:25997390

  12. Energy and Exergy Analysis of an Annular Thermoelectric Heat Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, S. C.; Manikandan, S.; Hans, Ranjana

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the concept of an annular thermoelectric heat pump (ATEHP) has been introduced. An exoreversible thermodynamic model of the ATEHP considering the Thomson effect in conjunction with Peltier, Joule and Fourier heat conduction has been investigated using exergy analysis. New expressions for dimensionless heating power, optimum current at the maximum energy, exergy efficiency conditions and dimensionless irreversibilities in the ATEHP are derived. The results show that the heating power, energy and exergy efficiency of the ATEHP are lower than the flat-plate thermoelectric heat pump. The effects of annular shape parameter (S r = r 2 /r 1), dimensionless temperature ratio (θ = T h /T c) and the electrical contact resistances on the heating power, energy/exergy efficiency of an ATEHP have been studied. This study will help in the designing of actual ATEHP systems.

  13. Axisymmetric buckling of laminated thick annular spherical cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumir, P. C.; Dube, G. P.; Mallick, A.

    2005-03-01

    Axisymmetric buckling analysis is presented for moderately thick laminated shallow annular spherical cap under transverse load. Buckling under central ring load and uniformly distributed transverse load, applied statically or as a step function load is considered. The central circular opening is either free or plugged by a rigid central mass or reinforced by a rigid ring. Annular spherical caps have been analysed for clamped and simple supports with movable and immovable inplane edge conditions. The governing equations of the Marguerre-type, first order shear deformation shallow shell theory (FSDT), formulated in terms of transverse deflection w, the rotation ψ of the normal to the midsurface and the stress function Φ, are solved by the orthogonal point collocation method. Typical numerical results for static and dynamic buckling loads for FSDT are compared with the classical lamination theory and the dependence of the effect of the shear deformation on the thickness parameter for various boundary conditions is investigated.

  14. Erythema migrans and the differential diagnosis of annular erythema.

    PubMed

    Grau, Renee H; Allen, Pamela S; Cornelison, Raymond L

    2002-04-01

    The diagnosis of Lyme disease (LD) or Lyme borreliosis is often based on the recognition of erythema migrans (EM) because its clinical appearance precedes systemic manifestations of the disease and the antibody response. The clinical basis and variable presentation of EM leave room for diagnostic error and, as a consequence, potential long-term repercussions such as rheumatic, cardiac, ophthalmic, or neurologic complications. Most cases are reported in the Northcentral and Northeastern states. In areas where LD is not endemic, the differential diagnosis of annular erythema may not list EM highly, although all the features of a lesion may fit the typical description of EM. Therefore, a complete understanding of LD and its clinical presentation are key in making a diagnosis, especially in areas with low incidence. We present a hypothetical case report of EM from Oklahoma, a state with low incidence of LD, for the purposes of review of this entity and the differential diagnosis of annular erythema. PMID:11957843

  15. Analysis of Enriched Uranyl Nitrate in Nested Annular Tank Array

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; James D. Cleaver

    2009-06-01

    Two series of experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory during the 1980s using highly enriched (93%) uranyl nitrate solution in annular tanks. [1, 2] Tanks were of typical sizes found in nuclear production plants. Experiments looked at tanks of varying radii in a co-located set of nested tanks, a 1 by 2 array, and a 1 by 3 array. The co-located set of tanks had been analyzed previously [3] as a benchmark for inclusion within the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. [4] The current study represents the benchmark analysis of the 1 by 3 array of a series of nested annular tanks. Of the seventeen configurations performed in this set of experiments, twelve were evaluated and nine were judged as acceptable benchmarks.

  16. Evaluation of the performance of an annular diffusion denuder

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, B.J.; Cheng, Y.S.; Yeh, Hsu-Chi

    1994-11-01

    In air sampling, an annular diffusion denuder (ADD) is often used to trap specific gases from an air sample stream. The efficiency of an ADD in collecting a gas was considered in this study. A dimensional analysis showed that the collection efficiency depended on two parameters: the Peclet number and the annulus radii ratio. To determine collection efficiency, we calculated the fractional loss of the gas inside the denuder. In the calculation, the governing equations for gas concentration and flow field inside the annulus were solved numerically. After validating the methodology, a parameteric calculation of the collection efficiency was made, and a one-equation model based on the calculation was developed. A comparison of the model and experimental data showed a variance coefficient of 3.26%. This confirmed that the performance of an annular denuder could be evaluated by this model.

  17. High Thrust-to-Power Annular Engine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Thomas, Robert E.; Crofton, Mark W.; Young, Jason A.; Foster, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Gridded ion engines have the highest efficiency and total impulse of any mature electric propulsion technology, and have been successfully implemented for primary propulsion in both geocentric and heliocentric environments with excellent ground/in-space correlation of performance. However, they have not been optimized to maximize thrust-to-power, an important parameter for Earth orbit transfer applications. This publication discusses technology development work intended to maximize this parameter. These activities include investigating the capabilities of a non-conventional design approach, the annular engine, which has the potential of exceeding the thrust-to-power of other EP technologies. This publication discusses the status of this work, including the fabrication and initial tests of a large-area annular engine. This work is being conducted in collaboration among NASA Glenn Research Center, The Aerospace Corporation, and the University of Michigan.

  18. High Thrust-to-Power Annular Engine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael; Thomas, Robert; Crofton, Mark; Young, Jason A.; Foster, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Gridded ion engines have the highest efficiency and total impulse of any mature electric propulsion technology, and have been successfully implemented for primary propulsion in both geocentric and heliocentric environments with excellent ground-in-space correlation of performance. However, they have not been optimized to maximize thrust-to-power, an important parameter for Earth orbit transfer applications. This publication discusses technology development work intended to maximize this parameter. These activities include investigating the capabilities of a non-conventional design approach, the annular engine, which has the potential of exceeding the thrust-to-power of other EP technologies. This publication discusses the status of this work, including the fabrication and initial tests of a large-area annular engine. This work is being conducted in collaboration among NASA Glenn Research Center, The Aerospace Corporation, and the University of Michigan.

  19. Energy and Exergy Analysis of an Annular Thermoelectric Heat Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, S. C.; Manikandan, S.; Hans, Ranjana

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the concept of an annular thermoelectric heat pump (ATEHP) has been introduced. An exoreversible thermodynamic model of the ATEHP considering the Thomson effect in conjunction with Peltier, Joule and Fourier heat conduction has been investigated using exergy analysis. New expressions for dimensionless heating power, optimum current at the maximum energy, exergy efficiency conditions and dimensionless irreversibilities in the ATEHP are derived. The results show that the heating power, energy and exergy efficiency of the ATEHP are lower than the flat-plate thermoelectric heat pump. The effects of annular shape parameter ( S r = r 2 /r 1), dimensionless temperature ratio ( θ = T h /T c) and the electrical contact resistances on the heating power, energy/exergy efficiency of an ATEHP have been studied. This study will help in the designing of actual ATEHP systems.

  20. Dual annular rotating "windowed" nuclear reflector reactor control system

    DOEpatents

    Jacox, Michael G.; Drexler, Robert L.; Hunt, Robert N. M.; Lake, James A.

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear reactor control system is provided in a nuclear reactor having a core operating in the fast neutron energy spectrum where criticality control is achieved by neutron leakage. The control system includes dual annular, rotatable reflector rings. There are two reflector rings: an inner reflector ring and an outer reflector ring. The reflectors are concentrically assembled, surround the reactor core, and each reflector ring includes a plurality of openings. The openings in each ring are capable of being aligned or non-aligned with each other. Independent driving means for each of the annular reflector rings is provided so that reactor criticality can be initiated and controlled by rotation of either reflector ring such that the extent of alignment of the openings in each ring controls the reflection of neutrons from the core.

  1. System design of the annular suspension and pointing system /ASPS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, D. C.; Gismondi, T. P.; Wilson, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents the control system design for the Annular Suspension and Pointing System. Actuator sizing and configuration of the system are explained, and the control laws developed for linearizing and compensating the magnetic bearings, roll induction motor and gimbal torquers are given. Decoupling, feedforward and error compensation for the vernier and gimbal controllers is developed. The algorithm for computing the strapdown attitude reference is derived, and the allowable sampling rates, time delays and quantization of control signals are specified.

  2. Hydraulic forces caused by annular pressure seals in centrifugal pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iino, T.; Kaneko, H.

    1980-01-01

    The hydraulic forces caused by annular pressure seals were investigated. The measured inlet and exit loss coefficients of the flow through the seals were much smaller than the conventional values. The results indicate that the damping coefficient and the inertia coefficient of the fluid film in the seal are not affected much by the rotational speed or the eccentricity of the rotor, though the stiffness coefficient seemed to be influenced by the eccentricity.

  3. Granuloma annulare: Clinical and histologic variants, epidemiology, and genetics.

    PubMed

    Piette, Evan W; Rosenbach, Misha

    2016-09-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is a poorly understood condition characterized by a set of clinical morphologic variants with 2 predominant histopathologic patterns of inflammation. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the available information about the clinical variants and histopathologic features, current epidemiologic data, and potential genetic underpinnings of GA. Much of the current understanding of GA is based on retrospective studies, case series, and case reports; this review aims to synthesize the available information and present it clearly for practicing dermatologists. PMID:27543209

  4. Persistent currents in Bose gases confined in annular traps

    SciTech Connect

    Bargi, S.; Malet, F.; Reimann, S. M.; Kavoulakis, G. M.

    2010-10-15

    We examine the problem of stability of persistent currents in a mixture of two Bose gases trapped in an annular potential. We evaluate the critical coupling for metastability in the transition from quasi-one- to two-dimensional motion. We also evaluate the critical coupling for metastability in a mixture of two species as a function of the population imbalance. The stability of the currents is shown to be sensitive to the deviation from one-dimensional motion.

  5. Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD). Volume 1: Laboratory model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The annular momentum control device (AMCD) a thin hoop-like wheel with neither shaft nor spokes is described. The wheel floats in a magnetic field and can be rotated by a segmented motor. Potential advantages of such a wheel are low weight, configuration flexibility, a wheel that stiffens with increased speed, vibration isolation, and increased reliability. The analysis, design, fabrication, and testing is described of the laboratory model of the AMCD.

  6. Guided Wave Annular Array Sensor Design for Improved Tomographic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koduru, Jaya Prakash; Rose, Joseph L.

    2009-03-01

    Guided wave tomography for structural health monitoring is fast emerging as a reliable tool for the detection and monitoring of hotspots in a structure, for any defects arising from corrosion, crack growth etc. To date guided wave tomography has been successfully tested on aircraft wings, pipes, pipe elbows, and weld joints. Structures practically deployed are subjected to harsh environments like exposure to rain, changes in temperature and humidity. A reliable tomography system should take into account these environmental factors to avoid false alarms. The lack of mode control with piezoceramic disk sensors makes it very sensitive to traces of water leading to false alarms. In this study we explore the design of annular array sensors to provide mode control for improved structural tomography, in particular, addressing the false alarm potential of water loading. Clearly defined actuation lines in the phase velocity dispersion curve space are calculated. A dominant in-plane displacement point is found to provide a solution to the water loading problem. The improvement in the tomographic images with the annular array sensors in the presence of water traces is clearly illustrated with a series of experiments. An annular array design philosophy for other problems in NDE/SHM is also discussed.

  7. Slim hole MWD tool accurately measures downhole annular pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Burban, B.; Delahaye, T. )

    1994-02-14

    Measurement-while-drilling of downhole pressure accurately determines annular pressure losses from circulation and drillstring rotation and helps monitor swab and surge pressures during tripping. In early 1993, two slim-hole wells (3.4 in. and 3 in. diameter) were drilled with continuous real-time electromagnetic wave transmission of downhole temperature and annular pressure. The data were obtained during all stages of the drilling operation and proved useful for operations personnel. The use of real-time measurements demonstrated the characteristic hydraulic effects of pressure surges induced by drillstring rotation in the small slim-hole annulus under field conditions. The interest in this information is not restricted to the slim-hole geometry. Monitoring or estimating downhole pressure is a key element for drilling operations. Except in special cases, no real-time measurements of downhole annular pressure during drilling and tripping have been used on an operational basis. The hydraulic effects are significant in conventional-geometry wells (3 1/2-in. drill pipe in a 6-in. hole). This paper describes the tool and the results from the field test.

  8. Linearization of an annular image by using a diffractive optic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthys, Donald R.

    1996-01-01

    The goal for this project is to develop the algorithms for fracturing the zones defined by the mapping transformation, and to actually produce the binary optic in an appropriate setup. In 1984 a side-viewing panoramic viewing system was patented, consisting of a single piece of glass with spherical surfaces which produces a 360 degree view of the region surrounding the lens which extends about 25 degrees in front of and 20 degrees behind the lens. The system not only produces images of good quality, it is also afocal, i.e., images stay in focus for objects located right next to the lens as well as those located far from the lens. The lens produced a panoramic view in an annular shaped image, and so the lens was called a PAL (panoramic annular lens). When applying traditional measurements to PAL images, it is found advantageous to linearize the annular image. This can easily be done with a computer and such a linearized image can be produced within about 40 seconds on current microcomputers. However, this process requires a frame-grabber and a computer, and is not real-time. Therefore, it was decided to try to perform this linearization optically by using a diffractive optic.

  9. The annular flow electrothermal ramjet. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, B. D.

    1984-01-01

    The annular flow, electrothermal, plug ramjet is examined as a possible means of achieving rapid projectile acceleration to velocities for such applications as direct launch of spacebound payloads. The performance of this ramjet operating with hydrogen propellant is examined for cases where this working fluid is treated: (1) as a perfect gas, and (2) as a gas that is allowed to dissociate and ionize and then recombine with finite reaction rates in the nozzle. Performance results for these cases are compared to the performance of a conventional ramjet operating with perfect gas hydrogen propellant. The performance of the conventional ramjet is superior to that of the annular flow, electrothermal ramjet. However, it is argued that the mechanical complexities associated with conventional ramjet operation are difficult to attain, and for this reason the annular flow, electrothermal ramjet is more desirable as a launch system. Models are presented which describe both electrothermal plug ramjet and conventional ramjet operation, and it is shown that for a given flight velocity there is a rate of heat addition per unit propellant mass for which ramjet operation is optimized.

  10. Treatment of generalized granuloma annulare - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lukács, J; Schliemann, S; Elsner, P

    2015-08-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is a benign inflammatory skin disease. Localized GA is likely to resolve spontaneously, while generalized GA (GGA) is rare and may persist for decades. GGA usually is resistant to a variety of therapeutic modalities and takes a chronic course. The objective of this study was to summarize all reported treatments of generalized granuloma annulare. This is a systematic review based on MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Central Register search of articles in English and German and a manual search, between 1980 and 2013, to summarize the treatment of generalized granuloma annulare. Most medical literature on treatment of GGA is limited to individual case reports and small series of patients treated without a control group. Randomized controlled clinical studies are missing. Multiple treatment modalities for GGA were reported including topical and systemic steroids, PUVA, isotretinoin, dapsone, pentoxifylline, hydroxychloroquine, cyclosporine, IFN-γ, potassium iodide, nicotinamide, niacinamide, salicylic acid, dipyridamole, PDT, fumaric acid ester, etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab. While there are numerous case reports of successful treatments in the literature including surgical, medical and phototherapy options, well-designed, randomized, controlled clinical trials are required for an evidence-based treatment of GGA. PMID:25651003

  11. Free vortex theory for efficiency calculations from annular cascade data

    SciTech Connect

    Main, A.J.; Oldfield, M.L.G.; Lock, G.D.; Jones, T.V.

    1997-04-01

    This paper describes a new three-dimensional theory to calculate the efficiency or loss of nozzle guide vane annular cascades from experimental area traverse measurements of the compressible downstream flow. To calculate such an efficiency, it is necessary to mix out the measured flow computationally to either a uniform state or one that is a function of radius only. When this is done by conserving momentum, mass, and energy flow, there is a remaining degree of freedom in that the radial distribution of circumferential velocity can be chosen. This extra freedom does not arise in two-dimensional cascades. The new method mixes the flow out to a free (i.e., irrotational) vortex. This is preferred to existing methods in that it gives a physically realistic flow and also provides a unique, lossless, isentropic reference flow. The annular cascade efficiency is then uniquely defined as the ratio of the mixed-out experimental kinetic energy flux to the ideal isentropic kinetic energy flux at the same mean radius static pressure. The mathematical derivation of this method is presented. This new theory has been used to process data obtained from a large, transonic, annular cascade in a blowdown tunnel. A four-hole pyramid probe, mounted on a computer-controlled traverse, has been used to map the passage flowfield downstream of the nozzle guide vanes. Losses calculated by the new method are compared with those calculated from the same data using earlier analysis methods.

  12. Droplet sizes, dynamics and deposition in vertical annular flow

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, J C.B.; Dukler, A E

    1985-10-01

    The role of droplets in vertical upwards annular flow is investigated, focusing on the droplet size distributions, dynamics, and deposition phenomena. An experimental program was performed based on a new laser optical technique developed in these laboratories and implemented here for annular flow. This permitted the simultaneous measurement of droplet size, axial and radial velocity. The dependence of droplet size distributions on flow conditions is analyzed. The Upper-Log Normal function proves to be a good model for the size distribution. The mechanism controlling the maximum stable drop size was found to result from the interaction of the pressure fluctuations of the turbulent flow of the gas core with the droplet. The average axial droplet velocity showed a weak dependence on gas rates. This can be explained once the droplet size distribution and droplet size-velocity relationship are analyzed simultaneously. The surprising result from the droplet conditional analysis is that larger droplet travel faster than smaller ones. This dependence cannot be explained if the drag curves used do not take into account the high levels of turbulence present in the gas core in annular flow. If these are considered, then interesting new situations of multiplicity and stability of droplet terminal velocities are encountered. Also, the observed size-velocity relationship can be explained. A droplet deposition is formulated based on the particle inertia control. This permitted the calculation of rates of drop deposition directly from the droplet size and velocities data.

  13. Allopurinol induced granuloma annulare in a patient of lepromatous leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Satyendra Kumar; Manchanda, Kajal; Bhayana, Aakash Amar; Verma, Anurag

    2013-01-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is a benign, inflammatory dermatosis involving dermis or subcutis with unknown etiology and poorly understood pathology. GA has characteristic histological features of necrobiosis, granuloma formation and abundant mucin deposition. Various predisposing factors, systemic diseases and drugs have been implicated in the etiology. We hereby describe a case of 70 year old male who was a known case of lepromatous leprosy, taking multidrug therapy for 6 months presented with multiple discrete, annular, firm, non tender, smooth surfaced skin colored papular lesions ranging in size from 0.5-1 cm over back for 1 month. There was past history of intake of allopurinol for hyperuricemia which was started 1 year back. There was history of similar lesions 6 months back which healed within 1 month of stopping allopurinol and he started taking the drug for the past 4 months on his own without any medical advice. Histopathological examination showed superficial and deep perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate with numerous histiocytes scattered in the intersititum of reticular dermis and abundant mucin in between the histiocytes. Allopurinol was implicated as an etiological agent and dramatic improvement was seen after stopping the drug for a period of 4 weeks. Naranjo's algorithm showed a probable association with a score of 6. Thus the final diagnosis of allopurinol induced generalised interstitial granuolma annulare was made. Patient was advised to continue antileprotic drugs, low purine diet and avoid allopurinol intake. PMID:23761716

  14. Allopurinol induced granuloma annulare in a patient of lepromatous leprosy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satyendra Kumar; Manchanda, Kajal; Bhayana, Aakash Amar; Verma, Anurag

    2013-04-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is a benign, inflammatory dermatosis involving dermis or subcutis with unknown etiology and poorly understood pathology. GA has characteristic histological features of necrobiosis, granuloma formation and abundant mucin deposition. Various predisposing factors, systemic diseases and drugs have been implicated in the etiology. We hereby describe a case of 70 year old male who was a known case of lepromatous leprosy, taking multidrug therapy for 6 months presented with multiple discrete, annular, firm, non tender, smooth surfaced skin colored papular lesions ranging in size from 0.5-1 cm over back for 1 month. There was past history of intake of allopurinol for hyperuricemia which was started 1 year back. There was history of similar lesions 6 months back which healed within 1 month of stopping allopurinol and he started taking the drug for the past 4 months on his own without any medical advice. Histopathological examination showed superficial and deep perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate with numerous histiocytes scattered in the intersititum of reticular dermis and abundant mucin in between the histiocytes. Allopurinol was implicated as an etiological agent and dramatic improvement was seen after stopping the drug for a period of 4 weeks. Naranjo's algorithm showed a probable association with a score of 6. Thus the final diagnosis of allopurinol induced generalised interstitial granuolma annulare was made. Patient was advised to continue antileprotic drugs, low purine diet and avoid allopurinol intake. PMID:23761716

  15. The influence of annular seal clearance to the critical speed of the multistage pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Shen, H. P.; Y Ye, X.; Hu, J. N.; Feng, Y. N.

    2013-12-01

    In the multistage pump of high head, pressure difference in two ends of annular seal clearance and rotor eccentric would produce the sealing fluid force, the effect of which can be expressed by a damping and stiffness coefficient. It has a great influence on the critical speed of the rotor system. In order to research the influence of the annular seal to the rotor system, this paper used CFD method to conduct the numerical simulation for the flow field of annular seal clearance. The radial and tangential forces were obtained to calculate the annular dynamic coefficients. Also dynamic coefficient were obtained by Matlab. The rotor system was modeled using ANSYS finite software and the critical speed with and without annular seal clearance were calculated. The result shows: annular seal's fluid field is under the comprehensive effect of pressure difference and rotor entrainment. Due to the huge pressure difference in front annular seal, fluid flows under pressure difference; the low pressure difference results in the more obvious effect on the clearance field in back annular seal. The first order critical speed increases greatly with the annular seal clearance; while the average growth rate of the second order critical speed is only 3.2%; the third and fourth critical speed decreases little. Based on the above result, the annular seal has great influence to the first order speed, while has little influence on the rest.

  16. Oblique superposition of two elliptically polarized lightwaves using geometric algebra: is energy-momentum conserved?

    PubMed

    Sze, Michelle Wynne C; Sugon, Quirino M; McNamara, Daniel J

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we use Clifford (geometric) algebra Cl(3,0) to verify if electromagnetic energy-momentum density is still conserved for oblique superposition of two elliptically polarized plane waves with the same frequency. We show that energy-momentum conservation is valid at any time only for the superposition of two counter-propagating elliptically polarized plane waves. We show that the time-average energy-momentum of the superposition of two circularly polarized waves with opposite handedness is conserved regardless of the propagation directions of the waves. And, we show that the resulting momentum density of the superposed waves generally has a vector component perpendicular to the momentum densities of the individual waves. PMID:21045912

  17. Mesoscopic Superposition States Generated by Synthetic Spin-Orbit Interaction in Fock-State Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Da-Wei; Cai, Han; Liu, Ren-Bao; Scully, Marlan O.

    2016-06-01

    Mesoscopic superposition states of photons can be prepared in three cavities interacting with the same two-level atom. By periodically modulating the three cavity frequencies around the transition frequency of the atom with a 2 π /3 phase difference, the time reversal symmetry is broken and an optical circulator is generated with chiralities depending on the quantum state of the atom. A superposition of the atomic states can guide photons from one cavity to a mesoscopic superposition of the other two cavities. The physics can be understood in a finite spin-orbit-coupled Fock-state lattice where the atom and the cavities carry the spin and the orbit degrees of freedom, respectively. This scheme can be realized in circuit QED architectures and provides a new platform for exploring quantum information and topological physics in novel lattices.

  18. Mesoscopic Superposition States Generated by Synthetic Spin-Orbit Interaction in Fock-State Lattices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da-Wei; Cai, Han; Liu, Ren-Bao; Scully, Marlan O

    2016-06-01

    Mesoscopic superposition states of photons can be prepared in three cavities interacting with the same two-level atom. By periodically modulating the three cavity frequencies around the transition frequency of the atom with a 2π/3 phase difference, the time reversal symmetry is broken and an optical circulator is generated with chiralities depending on the quantum state of the atom. A superposition of the atomic states can guide photons from one cavity to a mesoscopic superposition of the other two cavities. The physics can be understood in a finite spin-orbit-coupled Fock-state lattice where the atom and the cavities carry the spin and the orbit degrees of freedom, respectively. This scheme can be realized in circuit QED architectures and provides a new platform for exploring quantum information and topological physics in novel lattices. PMID:27314706

  19. Neural networks learn highly selective representations in order to overcome the superposition catastrophe.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Jeffrey S; Vankov, Ivan I; Damian, Markus F; Davis, Colin J

    2014-04-01

    A key insight from 50 years of neurophysiology is that some neurons in cortex respond to information in a highly selective manner. Why is this? We argue that selective representations support the coactivation of multiple "things" (e.g., words, objects, faces) in short-term memory, whereas nonselective codes are often unsuitable for this purpose. That is, the coactivation of nonselective codes often results in a blend pattern that is ambiguous; the so-called superposition catastrophe. We show that a recurrent parallel distributed processing network trained to code for multiple words at the same time over the same set of units learns localist letter and word codes, and the number of localist codes scales with the level of the superposition. Given that many cortical systems are required to coactivate multiple things in short-term memory, we suggest that the superposition constraint plays a role in explaining the existence of selective codes in cortex. PMID:24564411

  20. A Particle Multi-Target Tracker for Superpositional Measurements Using Labeled Random Finite Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papi, Francesco; Kim, Du Yong

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we present a general solution for multi-target tracking with superpositional measurements. Measurements that are functions of the sum of the contributions of the targets present in the surveillance area are called superpositional measurements. We base our modelling on Labeled Random Finite Set (RFS) in order to jointly estimate the number of targets and their trajectories. This modelling leads to a labeled version of Mahler's multi-target Bayes filter. However, a straightforward implementation of this tracker using Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods is not feasible due to the difficulties of sampling in high dimensional spaces. We propose an efficient multi-target sampling strategy based on Superpositional Approximate CPHD (SA-CPHD) filter and the recently introduced Labeled Multi-Bernoulli (LMB) and Vo-Vo densities. The applicability of the proposed approach is verified through simulation in a challenging radar application with closely spaced targets and low signal-to-noise ratio.

  1. Optical Synthesis of Large-Amplitude Squeezed Coherent-State Superpositions with Minimal Resources.

    PubMed

    Huang, K; Le Jeannic, H; Ruaudel, J; Verma, V B; Shaw, M D; Marsili, F; Nam, S W; Wu, E; Zeng, H; Jeong, Y-C; Filip, R; Morin, O; Laurat, J

    2015-07-10

    We propose and experimentally realize a novel versatile protocol that allows the quantum state engineering of heralded optical coherent-state superpositions. This scheme relies on a two-mode squeezed state, linear mixing, and a n-photon detection. It is optimally using expensive non-Gaussian resources to build up only the key non-Gaussian part of the targeted state. In the experimental case of a two-photon detection based on high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors, the freely propagating state exhibits a 67% fidelity with a squeezed even coherent-state superposition with a size |α|(2)=3. The demonstrated procedure and the achieved rate will facilitate the use of such superpositions in subsequent protocols, including fundamental tests and optical hybrid quantum information implementations. PMID:26207468

  2. Quantum tic-tac-toe: A teaching metaphor for superposition in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, Allan

    2006-11-01

    Quantum tic-tac-toe was developed as a metaphor for the counterintuitive nature of superposition exhibited by quantum systems. It offers a way of introducing quantum physics without advanced mathematics, provides a conceptual foundation for understanding the meaning of quantum mechanics, and is fun to play. A single superposition rule is added to the child's game of classical tic-tac-toe. Each move consists of a pair of marks subscripted by the number of the move ("spooky" marks) that must be placed in different squares. When a measurement occurs, one spooky mark becomes real and the other disappears. Quantum tic-tac-toe illustrates a number of quantum principles including states, superposition, collapse, nonlocality, entanglement, the correspondence principle, interference, and decoherence. The game can be played on paper or on a white board. A Web-based version provides a refereed playing board to facilitate the mechanics of play, making it ideal for classrooms with a computer projector.

  3. Towards quantum superposition of a levitated nanodiamond with a NV center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tongcang

    2015-05-01

    Creating large Schrödinger's cat states with massive objects is one of the most challenging goals in quantum mechanics. We have previously achieved an important step of this goal by cooling the center-of-mass motion of a levitated microsphere from room temperature to millikelvin temperatures with feedback cooling. To generate spatial quantum superposition states with an optical cavity, however, requires a very strong quadratic coupling that is difficult to achieve. We proposed to optically trap a nanodiamond with a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in vacuum, and generate large spatial superposition states using the NV spin-optomechanical coupling in a strong magnetic gradient field. The large spatial superposition states can be used to study objective collapse theories of quantum mechanics. We have optically trapped nanodiamonds in air and are working towards this goal.

  4. Quantum decoherence time scales for ionic superposition states in ion channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salari, V.; Moradi, N.; Sajadi, M.; Fazileh, F.; Shahbazi, F.

    2015-03-01

    There are many controversial and challenging discussions about quantum effects in microscopic structures in neurons of the brain and their role in cognitive processing. In this paper, we focus on a small, nanoscale part of ion channels which is called the "selectivity filter" and plays a key role in the operation of an ion channel. Our results for superposition states of potassium ions indicate that decoherence times are of the order of picoseconds. This decoherence time is not long enough for cognitive processing in the brain, however, it may be adequate for quantum superposition states of ions in the filter to leave their quantum traces on the selectivity filter and action potentials.

  5. Geometric measure of pairwise quantum discord for superpositions of multipartite generalized coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, M.; Ahl Laamara, R.

    2012-07-01

    We give the explicit expressions of the pairwise quantum correlations present in superpositions of multipartite coherent states. A special attention is devoted to the evaluation of the geometric quantum discord. The dynamics of quantum correlations under a dephasing channel is analyzed. A comparison of geometric measure of quantum discord with that of concurrence shows that quantum discord in multipartite coherent states is more resilient to dissipative environments than is quantum entanglement. To illustrate our results, we consider some special superpositions of Weyl-Heisenberg, SU(2) and SU(1,1) coherent states which interpolate between Werner and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states.

  6. Coherent Scattering of a Multiphoton Quantum Superposition by a Mirror BEC

    SciTech Connect

    De Martini, Francesco; Sciarrino, Fabio; Vitelli, Chiara; Cataliotti, Francesco S.

    2010-02-05

    We present the proposition of an experiment in which the multiphoton quantum superposition consisting of Napprox =10{sup 5} particles generated by a quantum-injected optical parametric amplifier, seeded by a single-photon belonging to an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled pair, is made to interact with a mirror-Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) shaped as a Bragg interference structure. The overall process will realize a macroscopic quantum superposition involving a microscopic single-photon state of polarization entangled with the coherent macroscopic transfer of momentum to the BEC structure, acting in spacelike separated distant places.

  7. Intensity improvement in the attosecond pulse generation with the coherent superposition initial state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Liqiang; Chu, Tianshu

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the coherent superposition initial state effect and found that when the initial active electron state is prepared in the coherent superposition of the 1s and 2s states of the He+ ion and the chirp parameter of the fundamental field in the two-color scheme is chosen to be β=0.3, the harmonic cutoff energy is remarkably extended and the harmonic yield is enhanced by at least 6 orders of magnitude compared with the case of the single 1s ground state with chirp-free pulse. An ultrabroad supercontinuum with a 458 eV bandwidth is formed, directly producing an intense isolated 34 as pulse.

  8. Generalization of Abel's mechanical problem: The extended isochronicity condition and the superposition principle

    SciTech Connect

    Kinugawa, Tohru

    2014-02-15

    This paper presents a simple but nontrivial generalization of Abel's mechanical problem, based on the extended isochronicity condition and the superposition principle. There are two primary aims. The first one is to reveal the linear relation between the transit-time T and the travel-length X hidden behind the isochronicity problem that is usually discussed in terms of the nonlinear equation of motion (d{sup 2}X)/(dt{sup 2}) +(dU)/(dX) =0 with U(X) being an unknown potential. Second, the isochronicity condition is extended for the possible Abel-transform approach to designing the isochronous trajectories of charged particles in spectrometers and/or accelerators for time-resolving experiments. Our approach is based on the integral formula for the oscillatory motion by Landau and Lifshitz [Mechanics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1976), pp. 27–29]. The same formula is used to treat the non-periodic motion that is driven by U(X). Specifically, this unknown potential is determined by the (linear) Abel transform X(U) ∝ A[T(E)], where X(U) is the inverse function of U(X), A=(1/√(π))∫{sub 0}{sup E}dU/√(E−U) is the so-called Abel operator, and T(E) is the prescribed transit-time for a particle with energy E to spend in the region of interest. Based on this Abel-transform approach, we have introduced the extended isochronicity condition: typically, τ = T{sub A}(E) + T{sub N}(E) where τ is a constant period, T{sub A}(E) is the transit-time in the Abel type [A-type] region spanning X > 0 and T{sub N}(E) is that in the Non-Abel type [N-type] region covering X < 0. As for the A-type region in X > 0, the unknown inverse function X{sub A}(U) is determined from T{sub A}(E) via the Abel-transform relation X{sub A}(U) ∝ A[T{sub A}(E)]. In contrast, the N-type region in X < 0 does not ensure this linear relation: the region is covered with a predetermined potential U{sub N}(X) of some arbitrary choice, not necessarily obeying the Abel-transform relation. In discussing

  9. Generalization of Abel's mechanical problem: The extended isochronicity condition and the superposition principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinugawa, Tohru

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a simple but nontrivial generalization of Abel's mechanical problem, based on the extended isochronicity condition and the superposition principle. There are two primary aims. The first one is to reveal the linear relation between the transit-time T and the travel-length X hidden behind the isochronicity problem that is usually discussed in terms of the nonlinear equation of motion {d^2X}/{dt^2} + {dU}/{dX} = 0 with U(X) being an unknown potential. Second, the isochronicity condition is extended for the possible Abel-transform approach to designing the isochronous trajectories of charged particles in spectrometers and/or accelerators for time-resolving experiments. Our approach is based on the integral formula for the oscillatory motion by Landau and Lifshitz [Mechanics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1976), pp. 27-29]. The same formula is used to treat the non-periodic motion that is driven by U(X). Specifically, this unknown potential is determined by the (linear) Abel transform X(U) ∝ A[T(E)], where X(U) is the inverse function of U(X), A = (1/sqrt{π })int 0E {dU}/sqrt{E-U} is the so-called Abel operator, and T(E) is the prescribed transit-time for a particle with energy E to spend in the region of interest. Based on this Abel-transform approach, we have introduced the extended isochronicity condition: typically, τ = TA(E) + TN(E) where τ is a constant period, TA(E) is the transit-time in the Abel type [A-type] region spanning X > 0 and TN(E) is that in the Non-Abel type [N-type] region covering X < 0. As for the A-type region in X > 0, the unknown inverse function XA(U) is determined from TA(E) via the Abel-transform relation XA(U) ∝ A[TA(E)]. In contrast, the N-type region in X < 0 does not ensure this linear relation: the region is covered with a predetermined potential UN(X) of some arbitrary choice, not necessarily obeying the Abel-transform relation. In discussing the isochronicity problem, there has been no attempt of N-type regions that are

  10. Electron beam diagnostic system using computed tomography and an annular sensor

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.

    2014-07-29

    A system for analyzing an electron beam including a circular electron beam diagnostic sensor adapted to receive the electron beam, the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor having a central axis; an annular sensor structure operatively connected to the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor, wherein the sensor structure receives the electron beam; a system for sweeping the electron beam radially outward from the central axis of the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor to the annular sensor structure wherein the electron beam is intercepted by the annular sensor structure; and a device for measuring the electron beam that is intercepted by the annular sensor structure.

  11. Electron beam diagnostic system using computed tomography and an annular sensor

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.

    2015-08-11

    A system for analyzing an electron beam including a circular electron beam diagnostic sensor adapted to receive the electron beam, the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor having a central axis; an annular sensor structure operatively connected to the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor, wherein the sensor structure receives the electron beam; a system for sweeping the electron beam radially outward from the central axis of the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor to the annular sensor structure wherein the electron beam is intercepted by the annular sensor structure; and a device for measuring the electron beam that is intercepted by the annular sensor structure.

  12. A granuloma annulare-like eruption associated with the use of amlodipine.

    PubMed

    Lim, Adrian C; Hart, Kim; Murrell, Dédée

    2002-02-01

    A granuloma annulare-like drug reaction is a rarely encountered clinical entity. A 64-year-old Caucasian female developed a granuloma annulare-like reaction 13 days after starting amlodipine and cleared within 3 months after drug cessation. The eruption consisted of multiple erythematous pruritic papules, distributed symmetrically over the lateral aspects of the legs and thighs, as well as on both palms. Histology showed focal collagen degeneration and significant interstitial histiocytic dermal infiltrate suggestive of granuloma annulare. We review previously reported cases of granuloma annulare-like drug reactions, in the context of a recently proposed classification for drug-induced interstitial granulomatous reactions. PMID:11869204

  13. Application of time-temperature-stress superposition on creep of wood-plastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Feng-Cheng; Lam, Frank; Kadla, John F.

    2013-08-01

    Time-temperature-stress superposition principle (TTSSP) was widely applied in studies of viscoelastic properties of materials. It involves shifting curves at various conditions to construct master curves. To extend the application of this principle, a temperature-stress hybrid shift factor and a modified Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation that incorporated variables of stress and temperature for the shift factor fitting were studied. A wood-plastic composite (WPC) was selected as the test subject to conduct a series of short-term creep tests. The results indicate that the WPC were rheologically simple materials and merely a horizontal shift was needed for the time-temperature superposition, whereas vertical shifting would be needed for time-stress superposition. The shift factor was independent of the stress for horizontal shifts in time-temperature superposition. In addition, the temperature- and stress-shift factors used to construct master curves were well fitted with the WLF equation. Furthermore, the parameters of the modified WLF equation were also successfully calibrated. The application of this method and equation can be extended to curve shifting that involves the effects of both temperature and stress simultaneously.

  14. Drawings and Ideas of Physics Teacher Candidates Relating to the Superposition Principle on a Continuous Rope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengoren, Serap Kaya; Tanel, Rabia; Kavcar, Nevzat

    2006-01-01

    The superposition principle is used to explain many phenomena in physics. Incomplete knowledge about this topic at a basic level leads to physics students having problems in the future. As long as prospective physics teachers have difficulties in the subject, it is inevitable that high school students will have the same difficulties. The aim of…

  15. Using musical intervals to demonstrate superposition of waves and Fourier analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2013-09-01

    What follows is a description of a demonstration of superposition of waves and Fourier analysis using a set of four tuning forks mounted on resonance boxes and oscilloscope software to create, capture and analyze the waveforms and Fourier spectra of musical intervals.

  16. Using Musical Intervals to Demonstrate Superposition of Waves and Fourier Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    What follows is a description of a demonstration of superposition of waves and Fourier analysis using a set of four tuning forks mounted on resonance boxes and oscilloscope software to create, capture and analyze the waveforms and Fourier spectra of musical intervals.

  17. Java application for the superposition T-matrix code to study the optical properties of cosmic dust aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halder, P.; Chakraborty, A.; Deb Roy, P.; Das, H. S.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we report the development of a java application for the Superposition T-matrix code, JaSTA (Java Superposition T-matrix App), to study the light scattering properties of aggregate structures. It has been developed using Netbeans 7.1.2, which is a java integrated development environment (IDE). The JaSTA uses double precession superposition codes for multi-sphere clusters in random orientation developed by Mackowski and Mischenko (1996). It consists of a graphical user interface (GUI) in the front hand and a database of related data in the back hand. Both the interactive GUI and database package directly enable a user to model by self-monitoring respective input parameters (namely, wavelength, complex refractive indices, grain size, etc.) to study the related optical properties of cosmic dust (namely, extinction, polarization, etc.) instantly, i.e., with zero computational time. This increases the efficiency of the user. The database of JaSTA is now created for a few sets of input parameters with a plan to create a large database in future. This application also has an option where users can compile and run the scattering code directly for aggregates in GUI environment. The JaSTA aims to provide convenient and quicker data analysis of the optical properties which can be used in different fields like planetary science, atmospheric science, nano science, etc. The current version of this software is developed for the Linux and Windows platform to study the light scattering properties of small aggregates which will be extended for larger aggregates using parallel codes in future. Catalogue identifier: AETB_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AETB_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 571570 No. of bytes in distributed program

  18. Numerical analysis of the flows in annular slinger combustors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, S.; Exley, T.

    1990-07-01

    Improved gas-turbine combustor design techniques are developed through the application of CFD flow predictions. The conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy are solved using the finite-volume approach of Spalding. The geometry is a three-dimensional region of cyclic symmetry for a selected annular slinger combustor of reasonable performance. The flow is assumed nonreacting, isothermal, and turbulent. Mixing of the dilution jet stream with the bulk combustor flow is simulated by assuming different inlet temperatures for the two mass sources and noting the temperature profile at the combustor exit plane. A flow visualization experiment is performed on cold flow conditions and reasonably corroborates the CFD predictions.

  19. Parametric Investigations of Miniaturized Cylindrical and Annular Hall Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    A. Smirnov; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2001-10-16

    A cylindrical geometry Hall thruster may overcome certain physical and technological limitations in scaling down of Hall thrusters to miniature sizes. The absence of the inner wall and use of the cusp magnetic field can potentially reduce heating of the thruster parts and erosion of the channel. A 2.6 cm miniaturized Hall thruster of a flexible design was built and successfully operated in the power range of 50-300 W. Comparison of preliminary results obtained for cylindrical and annular thruster configurations is presented.

  20. Identification of dynamic coefficients of annular turbulent seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordmann, R.; Massmann, H.

    1984-01-01

    An identification procedure to determine dynamic coefficients of annular turbulent seals in turbopumps is presented. Measurements were carried out at a built test rig with two symmetrical arranged seals. A rigid rotating shaft is surrounded by an elastically supported housing, which is excited by impact forces. The relative radial motion between the rotating parts and the housing, respectively between the seal surfaces, is measured by displacement pick-ups and from the time signals complex frequency response functions can be calculated. Finally an analytical model, depending on the seal parameters, is fitted to the measured data, to find the dynamic coefficients.

  1. Analytic vortex dynamics in an annular Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toikka, L. A.; Suominen, K.-A.

    2016-05-01

    We consider analytically the dynamics of an arbitrary number and configuration of vortices in an annular Bose-Einstein condensate obtaining expressions for the free energy and vortex precession rates to logarithmic accuracy. We also obtain lower bounds for the lifetime of a single vortex in the annulus. Our results enable a closed-form analytic treatment of vortex-vortex interactions in the annulus that is exact in the incompressible limit. The incompressible hydrodynamics that is developed here paves the way for more general analytical treatments of vortex dynamics in non-simply-connected geometries.

  2. Dynamically adjustable annular laser trapping based on axicons

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Bing; Esener, Sadik C.; Nascimento, Jaclyn M.; Botvinick, Elliot L.; Berns, Michael W

    2006-09-01

    To study the chemotactic response of sperm to an egg and to characterize sperm motility, an annular laser trap based on axicons is designed, simulated with the ray-tracing tool, and implemented. The diameter of the trapping ring can be adjusted dynamically for a range of over 400 {mu}m by simply translating one axicon along the optical axis. Trapping experiments with microspheres and dog sperm demonstrate the feasibility of the system,and the power requirement agrees with theoretical expectation. This new type of laser trapping could provide a prototype of a parallel, objective, and quantitative tool for animal fertility and biotropism study.

  3. Laser window with annular grooves for thermal isolation

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Horton, J.A.; Alger, T.W.

    1983-07-13

    A laser window or other optical element which is thermally loaded, heats up and causes optical distortions because of temperature gradients between the center and the edge. A number of annular grooves, one to three or more, are formed in the element between a central portion and edge portion, producing a web portion which concentrates the thermal gradient and thermally isolates the central portion from the edge portion, producing a uniform temperature profile across the central portion and therefore reduce the optical distortions. The grooves are narrow and closely spaced with respect to the thickness of the element, and successive grooves are formed from alternate sides of the element.

  4. Annular self-similar solutions in ideal magnetogasdynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lock, R. M.; Mestel, A. J.

    2008-08-01

    We consider the possibility of self-similar solutions describing the implosion of hollow cylindrical annuli driven by an azimuthal magnetic field, in essence a self-similar imploding liner z-pinch. We construct such solutions for gasdynamics, for ideal ‘β=0’ plasma and for ideal magnetogasdynamics (MGD). In the latter two cases some quantities are singular at the annular boundaries. Numerical solutions of the full ideal MGD initial value problem indicate that the self-similar solutions are not attractive for arbitrary initial conditions, possibly as a result of flux-freezing.

  5. Granuloma annulare: Pathogenesis, disease associations and triggers, and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Piette, Evan W; Rosenbach, Misha

    2016-09-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) represents a cutaneous reaction pattern of unknown cause with a variety of previously described potential disease associations and triggers. This review attempts to synthesize the available data regarding potential etiopathogenesis, reviews the available data on potential GA disease associations and work-up indicated for patients with GA, and discusses potential inciting triggers. In the final part, this article describes the available treatments options and supporting data, and provides a framework for approaching management of patients with GA. The previous accompanying article provided a comprehensive overview of the available information known about the clinical variants, epidemiology, genetics, and histology of GA. PMID:27543210

  6. Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS) magnetic rotary joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. E.; Quach, W.; Thomas, W.

    1993-01-01

    The Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS) is a prototype of flight hardware for a high-accuracy space payload pointing mount. The long term project objective is to perform modifications and implement improvements to the existing ASPS in hopes of recommission. Also, new applications will be investigated for this technology. This report will focus on the first aspect of this overall goal, to establish operation of a single bearing station. Presented is an overview of the system history and bearing operation followed by the processes, results, and status of the single bearing study.

  7. Photoacoustic Imaging of Animals with an Annular Transducer Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Di-Wu; Zhou, Zhi-Bin; Zeng, Lv-Ming; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Xing-Hui

    2014-07-01

    A photoacoustic system with an annular transducer array is presented for rapid, high-resolution photoacoustic tomography of animals. An eight-channel data acquisition system is applied to capture the photoacoustic signals by using multiplexing and the total time of data acquisition and transferring is within 3 s. A limited-view filtered back projection algorithm is used to reconstruct the photoacoustic images. Experiments are performed on a mouse head and a rabbit head and clear photoacoustic images are obtained. The experimental results demonstrate that this imaging system holds the potential for imaging the human brain.

  8. Exhaust emissions of a double annular combustor: Parametric study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, D. F.

    1974-01-01

    A full scale double-annular ram-induction combustor designed for Mach 3.0 cruise operation was tested. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and smoke were measured over a range of combustor operating variables including reference velocity, inlet air temperature and pressure, and exit average temperature. ASTM Jet-A fuel was used for these tests. An equation is provided relating oxides of nitrogen emissions as a function of the combustor, operating variables. A small effect of radial fuel staging on reducing exhaust emissions (which were originally quite low) is demonstrated.

  9. Final Technical Report for the MIT Annular Fuel Research Project

    SciTech Connect

    Mujid S. Kazimi; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-01-31

    MIT-NFC-PR-082 (January 2006) Abstract This summary provides an overview of the results of the U.S. DOE funded NERI (Nuclear Research ENergy Initiative) program on development of the internally and externally cooled annular fuel for high power density PWRs. This new fuel was proposed by MIT to allow a substantial increase in poer density (on the order of 30% or higher) while maintaining or improving safety margins. A comprehensive study was performed by a team consisting of MIT (lead organization), Westinghuse Electric Corporation, Gamma Engineering Corporation, Framatome ANP(formerly Duke Engineering) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited.

  10. Cylindrical plasmas generated by an annular beam of ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D. M.; Allen, J. E.

    2015-07-15

    We investigate a cylindrical plasma system with ionization, by an annular beam of ultraviolet light, taking place only in the cylinder's outer region. In the steady state, both the outer and inner regions contain a plasma, with that in the inner region being uniform and field-free. At the interface between the two regions, there is an infinitesimal jump in ion density, the magnitude approaching zero in the quasi-neutral (λ{sub D} → 0) limit. The system offers the possibility of producing a uniform stationary plasma in the laboratory, hitherto obtained only with thermally produced alkali plasmas.

  11. Generalized granuloma annulare with open comedones in photoexposed areas.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, P; Aggarwal, A; Yadav, R; Baliyan, V

    2011-07-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is a noninfectious necrobiotic granuloma, which can present as localized or generalized patterns. We present a case of generalized GA with multiple large open comedones over the lesions in a woman with hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus. GA is associated with collagen and elastic-fibre damage, which may lead to loss of follicular support and resultant open comedone formation, analogous to solar elastosis or senile comedones. The rapid recovery of our patient after treatment with of oral hypoglycaemics supports the role of insulin resistance as a predisposing factor for GA. PMID:21392084

  12. A high efficiency annular dark field detector for STEM.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, E J; Thomas, M G

    1996-01-01

    A new high efficiency annular dark field (ADF) detector for an HB501 STEM (Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope) has been constructed and tested. This detector uses a single crystal YAP scintillator and a solid quartz light pipe extending from the scintillator (inside the vacuum) to the photomultiplier tube (outside the vacuum). A factor of approximately 100 improvement in signal relative to the original detector has been obtained. This has substantially improved the signal to noise ratio in the recorded high resolution ADF-STEM images. PMID:22666919

  13. Performance of a K-band superconducting annular ring antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, M. A.; Bhasin, K. B.; Lee, R. Q.; Claspy, P. C.

    1992-01-01

    Superconducting annular ring antennas operating in the TM12 mode at 21 GHz are designed and fabricated on a lanthanum aluminate substrate using a YBCO high-temperature superconducting thin film. The efficiencies and far-field antenna patterns are measured and compared with an identical antenna patterned with silver. The resonant frequencies and experimental far-field patterns agree well with published models, and efficiency measurements show a maximum improvement of 6 percent at 20 K in the efficiency of the HTS antenna when compared to the silver ring at the same temperature.

  14. Direct Determination of the Phase Distributions of Semi-VolatilePolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using Annular Denuders

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, L.A.; Lee, V.C.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Stevens, R.K.; Daisey,J.M.

    1994-06-01

    An annular denuder-based sampler, here called the integrated organic vapor/particle sampler (IOVPS), has been developed for direct determination of both gas and particulate semi-volatile organic species. The IOVPS uses a cyclone inlet for removal of particles greater than 2.5 micrometers from the airstream, followed by two or three sandblasted glass annular denuders coated with ground particles of an adsorbent resin. The denuders trap the gas phase species of interest before the airstream passes through a filter and a backup denuder. Extracts of the denuders and filters are analyzed for the semi-volatile species of interest. The IOVPS has been tested and validated for sampling semi-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in indoor laboratory room air and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Ground XAD-4 was the adsorbent for these initial studies. Gas- and particulate-phase concentrations of semi-volatile PAH are presented for these two environments. The new sampler provides the means for directly determining phase distributions of PAH and other classes of semi-volatile organic species, rather than by difference or by techniques that are subject to large positive and negative artifacts. For example, the results obtained with the IOVPS indicate that the volatilization artifact ('blow-off') from particulate PAH collected in indoor laboratory room air with a conventional filter-sorbent bed sampler at face velocity of 33 cm sec-1 led to three-fold underestimation of the particulate fractions of phenanthrene, pyrene and chrysene. Phase distributions for PAH in ETS are also reported here.

  15. Histological and Molecular Structure Characterization of Annular Collagen after Intradiskal Electrothermal Annuloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Southern, Daniel; Bracilovic, Ana; West, Paul; Spevak, Mila; Camacho, Nancy Pleshko; Doty, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of pain relief of intradiskal electrothermal annuloplasty (IDET) in the treatment of lumbar diskogenic pain is uncertain. Theories include sealing of annular fissures via collagen denaturation and contraction. Prior studies offer conflicting qualitative data on the ability of IDET to denature collagen. The objective of the present study is to evaluate IDET treatment effect onannular collagen using quantitative data supplied by Fourier-transform infrared imaging spectroscopy. The posterior annulus of disks (n = 3) from an intact human cadaveric spine at room temperature were treated with two different radiothermal catheters using standard intradiskal electrothermal annuloplasty (IDET) heating protocols. Disks were dissected free with catheters in place and fixed in formalin. Channels created by the catheters were marked and catheters were removed. Tissue samples of treated areas adjacent to the channels and internal control areas from the same disk were stained for light microscopy and placed on barium sulfate windows for Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS) analysis. Treated areas showed evidence of disruption in the fibrillar organization of annular collagen by light microscopy compared to intact stroma from control areas. Quantitative FT-IRIS analysis compared ratios of wavenumber regions known to be sensitive to collagen denaturation. Mean values for the ratios amide II/1,338 cm−1 (137.21 ± 25.84 treated, 76.94 ± 16.77 control) and 1,640/1,660 cm−1 (0.98 ± 0.03 treated, 0.89 ± 0.03 control) were significantly different between treated and control samples (p < 0.001), indicating a breakdown in collagen integrity. Separate analysis by catheter type suggests that catheter design may impact treatment effect. PMID:18751846

  16. Probe with integrated heater and thermocouple pack

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, R.W.; Dial, R.E.; Finnell, W.R.

    1988-02-16

    A gamma thermometer probe for detecting heat produced within the thermometer probe is described comprising: an outer elongate thermometer sheath having a cylindrical cross-section, a length, an outer end and an inner end; an elongate rod having a cylindrical cross-section fitted within the elongate thermometer sheath, the rod being constructed of material that absorbs radiation and produces heat; annular recesses formed between the rod, and sheath and being spaced apart along the length of the rod, the recesses forming annular chambers that are resistive to heat flow; a longitudinal bore extending axially into the rod and being positioned to extend through the cylinders defined by the annular chambers; and an integrated thermocouple pack dimensioned to fit within the longitudinal bore and extending through the cylinders defined by the annular chambers.

  17. Investigation of azimuthal staging concepts in annular gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noiray, Nicolas; Bothien, Mirko; Schuermans, Bruno

    2011-10-01

    In this work, the influence of azimuthal staging concepts on the thermoacoustic behavior of annular combustion chambers is assessed theoretically and numerically. Staging is a well-known and effective method to abate thermoacoustic pulsations in combustion chambers. However, in the case of, for example, fuel staging the associated inhomogeneity of equivalence ratio may result in increased levels of NOx emissions. In order to minimize this unwanted effect a staging concept is required in which the transfer functions of the burners are changed while affecting the equivalence ratio as little as possible. In order to achieve this goal, a theoretical framework for predicting the influence of staging concepts on pulsations has been developed. Both linear and nonlinear analytical approaches are presented and it is shown that the dynamics of azimuthal modes can be described by coupled Van der Pol oscillators. A criterion based on the thermoacoustic coupling strength and on the asymmetry degree provides the modal behavior in the annular combustor, i.e. standing or traveling waves. The model predictions have been verified by numerical simulations of a heavy-duty gas turbine using an in-house thermoacoustic network-modeling tool. The interaction between the heat release of the flame and the acoustic field was modeled using measured transfer functions and source terms. These numerical simulations confirmed the original theoretical considerations.

  18. Non-null annular subaperture stitching interferometry for aspheric test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Dong; Shi, Tu; Yang, Yongying; Chong, Shiyao; Miao, Liang; Huang, Wei; Shen, Yibing; Bai, Jian

    2015-10-01

    A non-null annular subaperture stitching interferometry (NASSI), combining the subaperture stitching idea and non-null test method, is proposed for steep aspheric testing. Compared with standard annular subaperture stitching interferometry (ASSI), a partial null lens (PNL) is employed as an alternative to the transmission sphere, to generate different aspherical wavefronts as the references. The coverage subaperture number would thus be reduced greatly for the better performance of aspherical wavefronts in matching the local slope of aspheric surfaces. Instead of various mathematical stitching algorithms, a simultaneous reverse optimizing reconstruction (SROR) method based on system modeling and ray tracing is proposed for full aperture figure error reconstruction. All the subaperture measurements are simulated simultaneously with a multi-configuration model in a ray-tracing program, including the interferometric system modeling and subaperture misalignments modeling. With the multi-configuration model, full aperture figure error would be extracted in form of Zernike polynomials from subapertures wavefront data by the SROR method. This method concurrently accomplishes subaperture retrace error and misalignment correction, requiring neither complex mathematical algorithms nor subaperture overlaps. A numerical simulation exhibits the comparison of the performance of the NASSI and standard ASSI, which demonstrates the high accuracy of the NASSI in testing steep aspheric. Experimental results of NASSI are shown to be in good agreement with that of Zygo® VerifireTM Asphere interferometer.

  19. Magnetohydrodynamics stability of a streaming annular cylindrical liquid surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radwan, Ahmed E.; Elazab, Samia S.; Hydia, Wafaa M.

    1997-08-01

    The instability of a streaming annular magnetized fluid jet surrounding a solid mantle subject to capillary, inertia, fluid kinetic pressure gradient and Lorentz forces has been developed for all kind of perturbations. Several recent works are recovered as limiting cases from the present result. The analytical discussion results are confirmed along with numerical and asymptotic analysis methods. The streaming has a strong destabilizing influence in hydrodynamic, magnetodynamic and hydromagnetics versions. That influence is found to be independent of the kind of perturbation and idem the stabilizing effect of the magnetic field pervaded the interior of the annular fluid jet model. An external longitudinal magnetic field is strongly stabilizing in both axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric perturbation modes. An external transverse varying magnetic field is destabilizing or stabilizing according to restrictions. Large values for the parameter of the transverse field is needed so that stability due to this transverse field may arise and thence the model stability states are modified. The streaming destabilizing influence may be overcome if the intensity of the axials fields interior and exterior the model is so strong that the Alfvén magnetic velocity is much larger than the basic streaming velocity of the fluid in the unperturbed initial state.

  20. Annular bullous lesions with atypical erythema multiforme in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Shah, Aishani; Mahajan, Rashmi; Ninama, Kishan; Bilimoria, Freny

    2014-09-01

    Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is an immune complex-mediated reaction that may complicate the course of multibacillary leprosy. Bullous lesions in Type II reaction, though reported, are exceedingly rare. We report the case of a 32 year old female patient who presented initially at our OPD with erythema nodosum. Cutaneous examination revealed impaired sensation over dorsum of right foot and thickened right lateral popliteal nerve. Slit skin smear (SSS) from ear lobes revealed AFB with a bacteriological index of 2+. She was started on MDT, tablet ofloxacin 200 mg twice a day, and 30 mg oral prednisolone. Two months later, she presented with generalised pruritus, large target lesions over the back, and hemorrhagic bullae over lower extremities and annular pattern of bullae, over both arms. A SSS was repeated which was positive for AFB. Histopathology from bullous lesions was consistent with ENL. Direct Immunofluorescence (DIF) study was negative. Our patient improved rapidly after she was started on thalidomide 100 mg twice daily, with withdrawal of ofloxacin. Erythema Multiforme (EMF) and annular bullous lesions have been reported in patients on treatment with ofloxacin. This case is being presented due to the unusual and varied manifestation of Type II lepra reaction in a 34 year old female patient. PMID:25509721

  1. Electrorheological damper with annular ducts for seismic protection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makris, Nicos; Burton, Scott A.; Taylor, Douglas P.

    1996-10-01

    This paper presents the design, analysis, testing and modeling of an electrorheological (ER) fluid damper developed for vibration and seismic protection of civil structures. The damper consists of a main cylinder and a piston rod that pushes an ER fluid through a stationary annular duct. The behavior of the damper can be approximated with Hagen - Poiseuille flow theory. The basic equations that describe the fluid flow across an annular duct are derived. Experimental results on the damper response with and without the presence of electric field are presented. As the rate of deformation increases, viscous stresses prevail over field-induced yield stresses and a smaller fraction of the total damper force can be controlled. Simple physically motivated phenomenological models are considered to approximate the damper response with and without the presence of electric field. Subsequently, the performance of a multilayer neural network constructed and trained by an efficient algorithm known as the Dependence Identification Algorithm is examined to predict the response of the electrorheological damper. A combination of a simple phenomenological model and a neural network is then proposed as a practical tool to approximate the nonlinear and velocity-dependent damper response.

  2. Coupled counterrotating polariton condensates in optically defined annular potentials.

    PubMed

    Dreismann, Alexander; Cristofolini, Peter; Balili, Ryan; Christmann, Gabriel; Pinsker, Florian; Berloff, Natasha G; Hatzopoulos, Zacharias; Savvidis, Pavlos G; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2014-06-17

    Polariton condensates are macroscopic quantum states formed by half-matter half-light quasiparticles, thus connecting the phenomena of atomic Bose-Einstein condensation, superfluidity, and photon lasing. Here we report the spontaneous formation of such condensates in programmable potential landscapes generated by two concentric circles of light. The imposed geometry supports the emergence of annular states that extend up to 100 μm, yet are fully coherent and exhibit a spatial structure that remains stable for minutes at a time. These states exhibit a petal-like intensity distribution arising due to the interaction of two superfluids counterpropagating in the circular waveguide defined by the optical potential. In stark contrast to annular modes in conventional lasing systems, the resulting standing wave patterns exhibit only minimal overlap with the pump laser itself. We theoretically describe the system using a complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, which indicates why the condensate wants to rotate. Experimentally, we demonstrate the ability to precisely control the structure of the petal condensates both by carefully modifying the excitation geometry as well as perturbing the system on ultrafast timescales to reveal unexpected superfluid dynamics. PMID:24889642

  3. The annular hematoma of the shrew yolk-sac placenta.

    PubMed

    King, B F; Enders, A C; Wimsatt, W A

    1978-05-01

    The annular hematoma of the shrew, Blarina brevicauda, is a specialized portion of the yolk-sac wall. In this study, we have examined the fine structure of the different cellular components of the anular hematoma. Small pieces of the gestation sacs from seven pregnant shrews were fixed in glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide and processed for transmission electron microscopy. In the area of the trophoblastic curtain, the maternal capillary endothelial cells were hypertrophied and syncytial trophoblast surrounded the capillaries. Cellular trophoblast covered part of the luminal surface of the curtain region, whereas masses of apparently degenerating syncytium were present on other areas of the surface. Maternal erythrocytes, released into the uterine lumen from the curtain region, were phagocytized and degraded by the columnar cells of the trophoblastic annulus. No evidence of iron or pigment accumulation was evident in the parietal endodermal cells underlying the annular trophoblast. Parietal endodermal cells were characterized by cuboidal shape, widely dilated intercellular spaces, and cytoplasm containing granular endoplasmic reticulum. Endodermal cells of the visceral yolk-sac accumulated large numbers of electron-dense granules as well as glycogen in their cytoplasm. Hemopoietic areas and vitelline capillaries were found subjacent to the visceral endoderm. The various portions of the yolk-sac wall of Blarina appear to perform complementary functions which are probably important in maternal-fetal iron transfer. PMID:677046

  4. The Growth of Instabilities in Annular Liquid Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, Daniel J.; Honnery, Damon R; Soria, Julio

    2015-11-01

    An annular liquid sheet surrounded by parallel co-flowing gas is an effective atomiser. However, the initial instabilities which determine the primary break-up of the liquid sheet are not well understood. Lack of agreement on the influence of the boundary conditions and the non-dimension scaling of the initial instability persists between theoretical stability analyses and experiments. To address this matter, we have undertaken an experimental parametric study of an aerodynamically-driven, non-swirling annular water sheet. The effects of sheet thickness, inner and outer gas-liquid momentum ratio were investigated over an order of magnitude variation in Reynolds and Weber number. From high-speed image correlation measurements in the near-nozzle region, we propose new empirical correlations for the frequency of the instability as a function of the total gas-liquid momentum ratio, with good non-dimensional collapse. From analysis of the instability velocity probability densities, we find two persistent and distinct superimposed instabilities with different growth rates. The first is a short-lived, rapidly saturating sawtooth-like instability. The second is a slower-growing stochastic instability which persists through the break-up of the sheet. The presence of multiple instabilities whose growth rates do not strongly correlate with the shear velocities may explain some of the discrepancies between experiments and stability analyses.

  5. Oscillation Characteristics of Thermocapillary Convection in An Open Annular Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Li; Kang, Qi; Zhang, Di

    2016-07-01

    Temperature oscillation characteristics and free surface deformation are essential phenomena in fluids with free surface. We report experimental oscillatory behaviors for hydrothermal wave instability in thermocapillary-driven flow in an open annular pool of silicone oil. The annular pool is heated from the inner cylindrical wall with the radius 4mm and cooled at the outer wall with radius 20mm, and the depth of the silicone oil layer is in the range of 0.8mm-3mm.Temperature difference between the two sidewalls was increased gradually, and the flow will become unstable via a super critical temperature difference. In the present paper we used T-type thermocouple measuring the single-point temperature inside the liquid layer and captured the tiny micrometer wave signal through a high-precision laser displacement sensor. The critical temperature difference and critical Ma number of onset of oscillation have been obtained. We discussed the critical temperature difference and critical Marangoni number varies with the change of the depth of liquid layer, and the relationship between the temperature oscillation and surface oscillation has been discussed. Experimental results show that temperature oscillation and surface oscillation start almost at the same time with similar spectrum characteristic.

  6. A compact annular ring microstrip antenna for WSN applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daihua; Song, Linli; Zhou, Hanchang; Zhang, Zhijie

    2012-01-01

    A compact annular ring microstrip antenna was proposed for a wireless sensor network (WSN) application in the 2.4 GHz band. In this paper the major considerations of the conformal antenna design were the compact size and the impact on antenna's performance of a steel installation base. By using a chip resistor of large resistance (120 Ω) the antenna size was reduced to 38% of that a conventional annular ring patch antenna. With the addition of the steel installation base the resonant frequency of the antenna increases about 4.2% and the bandwidth reduces from 17.5% to 11.7% by adjusting the load resistance simultaneously. Several key parameters were discussed and optimized, and the antenna was fabricated and its performance measured. The antenna is well matched at 2.4 GHz with 34.2 dB return loss and -2.5 dBi peak gain. Meanwhile, it exhibits excellent radiation patterns with very low cross-polarization levels. PMID:23012510

  7. Coupled counterrotating polariton condensates in optically defined annular potentials

    PubMed Central

    Dreismann, Alexander; Cristofolini, Peter; Balili, Ryan; Christmann, Gabriel; Pinsker, Florian; Berloff, Natasha G.; Hatzopoulos, Zacharias; Savvidis, Pavlos G.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    Polariton condensates are macroscopic quantum states formed by half-matter half-light quasiparticles, thus connecting the phenomena of atomic Bose–Einstein condensation, superfluidity, and photon lasing. Here we report the spontaneous formation of such condensates in programmable potential landscapes generated by two concentric circles of light. The imposed geometry supports the emergence of annular states that extend up to 100 μm, yet are fully coherent and exhibit a spatial structure that remains stable for minutes at a time. These states exhibit a petal-like intensity distribution arising due to the interaction of two superfluids counterpropagating in the circular waveguide defined by the optical potential. In stark contrast to annular modes in conventional lasing systems, the resulting standing wave patterns exhibit only minimal overlap with the pump laser itself. We theoretically describe the system using a complex Ginzburg–Landau equation, which indicates why the condensate wants to rotate. Experimentally, we demonstrate the ability to precisely control the structure of the petal condensates both by carefully modifying the excitation geometry as well as perturbing the system on ultrafast timescales to reveal unexpected superfluid dynamics. PMID:24889642

  8. A Compact Annular Ring Microstrip Antenna for WSN Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Daihua; Song, Linli; Zhou, Hanchang; Zhang, Zhijie

    2012-01-01

    A compact annular ring microstrip antenna was proposed for a wireless sensor network (WSN) application in the 2.4 GHz band. In this paper the major considerations of the conformal antenna design were the compact size and the impact on antenna's performance of a steel installation base. By using a chip resistor of large resistance (120 Ω) the antenna size was reduced to 38% of that a conventional annular ring patch antenna. With the addition of the steel installation base the resonant frequency of the antenna increases about 4.2% and the bandwidth reduces from 17.5% to 11.7% by adjusting the load resistance simultaneously. Several key parameters were discussed and optimized, and the antenna was fabricated and its performance measured. The antenna is well matched at 2.4 GHz with 34.2 dB return loss and –2.5 dBi peak gain. Meanwhile, it exhibits excellent radiation patterns with very low cross-polarization levels. PMID:23012510

  9. Annular beam-driven high-gradient accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Keinigs, R.; Jones, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    During the past several years there has been an increasing interest in using wakefield acceleration techniques as a means for achieving TeV energies with the next generation of linear colliders. The principal design goals for a wakefield accelerator that is to be sued in this context are high accelerating gradients and large transformer ratios. Fundamentally any slow wave structure can function as a wakefield accelerator, and several interesting concepts have been proposed. In this paper we consider for the slow wave structure a dielectrically loaded waveguide. The Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator is a very simple device. The geometry consists of a gapless cavity filled with a dielectric. The dielectric may fill all or just part of the cavity. Here we investigate driving the system with an intense annular beam, so the dielectric is separated from the wall by a vacuum region in which this beam is propagated. The primary advantage of driving with an annular beam is that larger currents can be achieved, and thus larger accelerating gradients can be generated. The drive beam is stabilized by a strong, axial magnetic field. The wall is coated with a dielectric liner to provide for better coupling. A small hole is drilled in the center of the dielectric to allow for the passage of a low current, witness beam.

  10. Design Attributes and Scale Up Testing of Annular Centrifugal Contactors

    SciTech Connect

    David H. Meikrantz; Jack D. Law

    2005-04-01

    Annular centrifugal contactors are being used for rapid yet efficient liquid- liquid processing in numerous industrial and government applications. Commercialization of this technology began eleven years ago and now units with throughputs ranging from 0.25 to 700 liters per minute are readily available. Separation, washing, and extraction processes all benefit from the use of this relatively new commercial tool. Processing advantages of this technology include: low in-process volume per stage, rapid mixing and separation in a single unit, connection-in-series for multi-stage use, and a wide operating range of input flow rates and phase ratios without adjustment. Recent design enhancements have been added to simplify maintenance, improve inspection ability, and provide increased reliability. Cartridge-style bearing and mechanical rotary seal assemblies that can include liquid-leak sensors are employed to enhance remote operations, minimize maintenance downtime, prevent equipment damage, and extend service life. Clean-in-place capability eliminates the need for disassembly, facilitates the use of contactors for feed clarification, and can be automated for continuous operation. In nuclear fuel cycle studies, aqueous based separations are being developed that efficiently partition uranium, actinides, and fission products via liquid-liquid solvent extraction. Thus, annular centrifugal contactors are destined to play a significant role in the design of such new processes. Laboratory scale studies using mini-contactors have demonstrated feasibility for many such separation processes but validation at an engineering scale is needed to support actual process design.

  11. Effects of Gravity on Bubble Formation in an Annular Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koepp, R. A.; Parthasarathy, R. N.; Gollahalli, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of gravity on the bubble formation in an annular jet were studied. The experiments were conducted in the 2.2-second drop tower at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Terrestrial gravity experiments were conducted at the Fluid Dynamics Research Laboratory at the University of Oklahoma. Stainless steel tubing with inner diameters of 1/8" (gas inner annulus) and 5/16" (liquid outer annulus) served as the injector. A rectangular test section, 6" x 6" x 14" tall, made out of half-inch thick Lexan was used. Images of the annular jet were acquired using a high-speed camera. The effects of gravity and varying liquid and gas flow rates on bubble size, wavelength, and breakup length were documented. In general, the bubble diameter was found to be larger in terrestrial gravity than in microgravity for varying Weber numbers (0.05 - 0.16 and 5 - 11) and liquid flow rates (1.5 ft/s - 3.0 ft/s). The wavelength was found to be larger in terrestrial gravity than in microgravity, but remained constant for varying Weber numbers. For low Weber numbers (0.05 - 0.16), the breakup length in microgravity was significantly higher than in terrestrial gravity. Comparison with linear stability analysis showed estimated bubble sizes within 9% of experimental bubble sizes. Bubble size compared to other terrestrial gravity experiments with same flow conditions showed distinct differences in bubble size, which displayed the importance of injector geometry on bubble formation.

  12. Investigating an annular nozzle on combustion products of hydrocarbon fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, V. A.; Afonina, N. E.; Gromov, V. G.; Smekhov, G. D.; Khmelevsky, A. N.; Markov, V. V.

    2013-09-01

    Full-scale and computational experiments were used to investigate the flows in the jet thrust unit with annular nozzle and deflector in the form of a spherical segment. The used working gas was the combustion products of air mixtures with acetylene, gas-phase aviation kerosene, and natural gas. Experimental studies were carried out in a hot-shot wind tunnel in the range of stagnation pressure from 0.48 to 2.05 MPa. The calculations for the cases of combustion products outflow in terrestrial and high altitude conditions were performed with the original computer program that used the Euler and Navier-Stokes systems supplemented by equations of chemical kinetics. It was found that the thrust of the jet module with an annular nozzle at high altitude almost twice exceeds the sound nozzle thrust, but is lesser (about 25 %) than the thrust of the ideal calculated Laval nozzle; the difference therewith decreases markedly with the decrease of flight altitude and stagnation pressure.

  13. Annular Flow Liquid Film Dynamics in Pipes and Bod Bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Peng

    Average liquid film thickness is important for detailed mechanistic modeling of annular two-phase flow in engineering applications. The existing models and correlations either have large relative errors or narrow application range. Because of this, a new liquid film thickness model has been developed for vertical annular flow in pipes based on three databases. The model includes the pressure, liquid and gas velocities, diameter, and viscosity effects on liquid film thickness. Analysis indicates the film thickness to be a function of Weber numbers for both liquid and gas, and the viscosity number. The model is compared with film thickness data which considers a wide range of liquid and gas superficial velocities, system pressure, fluid properties, as well as several pipe diameters. The trend in the current and available film thickness models at various system conditions are analyzed, highlighting the improvement and widening applicability of the new model. The newly proposed film thickness model results in an average relative error of 14% considering the complete database. Interfacial friction factor in annular two-phase flow is essential both for detailed modeling of two-fluid model and the calculation of pressure gradient. Most of the existing correlations on interfacial friction factor are based on Wallis 1969's correlation, which considers the interfacial friction factor as a function of film thickness. In this research, a new correlation of interfacial friction factor that is based on the wave characteristics has been proposed. The wave characteristics is considered to be a function of a group of non-dimensional numbers. Since the effects of wave characteristics for ripples waves and disturbance waves on interfacial friction factors are different, the correlation is divided into two sub-correlations based on these two wave regimes. The new correlation has been compared with a wide range of data. From the data comparison, the new correlation shows significant

  14. Analytical model of an Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD) laboratory test model magnetic bearing actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, N. J.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical model of an Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD) laboratory test model magnetic bearing actuator with permanent magnet fluxbiasing is presented. An AMCD consists of a spinning annular rim which is suspended by a noncontacting linear electromagnetic spin motor. The actuator is treated as a lumped-parameter electromechanical system in the development of the model.

  15. Entrance and exit region friction factor models for annular seal analysis. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, David Alan

    1988-01-01

    The Mach number definition and boundary conditions in Nelson's nominally-centered, annular gas seal analysis are revised. A method is described for determining the wall shear stress characteristics of an annular gas seal experimentally. Two friction factor models are developed for annular seal analysis; one model is based on flat-plate flow theory; the other uses empirical entrance and exit region friction factors. The friction factor predictions of the models are compared to experimental results. Each friction model is used in an annular gas seal analysis. The seal characteristics predicted by the two seal analyses are compared to experimental results and to the predictions of Nelson's analysis. The comparisons are for smooth-rotor seals with smooth and honeycomb stators. The comparisons show that the analysis which uses empirical entrance and exit region shear stress models predicts the static and stability characteristics of annular gas seals better than the other analyses. The analyses predict direct stiffness poorly.

  16. Annular core liquid-salt cooled reactor with multiple fuel and blanket zones

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Per F.

    2013-05-14

    A liquid fluoride salt cooled, high temperature reactor having a reactor vessel with a pebble-bed reactor core. The reactor core comprises a pebble injection inlet located at a bottom end of the reactor core and a pebble defueling outlet located at a top end of the reactor core, an inner reflector, outer reflector, and an annular pebble-bed region disposed in between the inner reflector and outer reflector. The annular pebble-bed region comprises an annular channel configured for receiving pebble fuel at the pebble injection inlet, the pebble fuel comprising a combination of seed and blanket pebbles having a density lower than the coolant such that the pebbles have positive buoyancy and migrate upward in said annular pebble-bed region toward the defueling outlet. The annular pebble-bed region comprises alternating radial layers of seed pebbles and blanket pebbles.

  17. Modeling corrosion rates in non-annular gas condensate wells containing CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Garber, J.D.; Polaki, V.; Adams, C.; Varanasi, N.R.

    1998-12-31

    New gas condensate wells are typically producing in annular flow. As the water production increases, the flow dynamics of these wells change to a non-annular flow regime. The flow regime could become chum or slug. A mathematical model has been developed to physically describe this condition. Corrosion rates have been measured in the laboratory and the corrosion rate in slug flow was consistently higher than in churn flow regardless of the experimental conditions selected. A number of non-annular flow wells from the field have been physically described using the new non-annular flow model. There appears to be a correlation between the Taylor bubble length and the corrosion rate. A corrosion rate model has been developed which uses 4 parameters from the non-annular flow model.

  18. Generation of a Superposition of Odd Photon Number States for Quantum Information Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neergaard-Nielsen, J. S.; Nielsen, B. Melholt; Hettich, C.; Mølmer, K.; Polzik, E. S.

    2006-08-01

    We report on the experimental observation of quantum-network-compatible light described by a nonpositive Wigner function. The state is generated by photon subtraction from a squeezed vacuum state produced by a continuous wave optical parametric amplifier. Ideally, the state is a coherent superposition of odd photon number states, closely resembling a superposition of weak coherent states |α⟩-|-α⟩. In the limit of low squeezing the state is basically a single photon state. Light is generated with about 10 000 and more events per second in a nearly perfect spatial mode with a Fourier-limited frequency bandwidth which matches well atomic quantum memory requirements. The generated state of light is an excellent input state for testing quantum memories, quantum repeaters, and linear optics quantum computers.

  19. Quantum superposition of the order of parties as a communication resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feix, Adrien; Araújo, Mateus; Brukner, Časlav

    2015-11-01

    In a variant of communication complexity tasks, two or more separated parties cooperate to compute a function of their local data, using a limited amount of communication. It is known that communication of quantum systems and shared entanglement can increase the probability for the parties to arrive at the correct value of the function, compared to classical resources. Here we show that quantum superpositions of the direction of communication between parties can also serve as a resource to improve the probability of success. We present a tripartite task for which such a superposition provides an advantage compared to the case where the parties communicate in a fixed order. In a more general context, our result also provides semi-device-independent certification of the absence of a definite order of communication.

  20. On basis set superposition error corrected stabilization energies for large n-body clusters.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Katarzyna; Friedrich, Joachim; Dolg, Michael

    2011-10-01

    In this contribution, we propose an approximate basis set superposition error (BSSE) correction scheme for the site-site function counterpoise and for the Valiron-Mayer function counterpoise correction of second order to account for the basis set superposition error in clusters with a large number of subunits. The accuracy of the proposed scheme has been investigated for a water cluster series at the CCSD(T), CCSD, MP2, and self-consistent field levels of theory using Dunning's correlation consistent basis sets. The BSSE corrected stabilization energies for a series of water clusters are presented. A study regarding the possible savings with respect to computational resources has been carried out as well as a monitoring of the basis set dependence of the approximate BSSE corrections. PMID:21992293

  1. Superposition and detection of two helical beams for optical orbital angular momentum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi-Dong; Gao, Chunqing; Gao, Mingwei; Qi, Xiaoqing; Weber, Horst

    2008-07-01

    A loop-like system with a Dove prism is used to generate a collinear superposition of two helical beams with different azimuthal quantum numbers in this manuscript. After the generation of the helical beams distributed on the circle centered at the optical axis by using a binary amplitude grating, the diffractive field is separated into two polarized ones with the same distribution. Rotated by the Dove prism in the loop-like system in counter directions and combined together, the two fields will generate the collinear superposition of two helical beams in certain direction. The experiment shows consistency with the theoretical analysis. This method has potential applications in optical communication by using orbital angular momentum of laser beams (optical vortices).

  2. Quantum decoherence time scales for ionic superposition states in ion channels.

    PubMed

    Salari, V; Moradi, N; Sajadi, M; Fazileh, F; Shahbazi, F

    2015-03-01

    There are many controversial and challenging discussions about quantum effects in microscopic structures in neurons of the brain and their role in cognitive processing. In this paper, we focus on a small, nanoscale part of ion channels which is called the "selectivity filter" and plays a key role in the operation of an ion channel. Our results for superposition states of potassium ions indicate that decoherence times are of the order of picoseconds. This decoherence time is not long enough for cognitive processing in the brain, however, it may be adequate for quantum superposition states of ions in the filter to leave their quantum traces on the selectivity filter and action potentials. PMID:25871141

  3. From constants of motion to superposition rules for Lie-Hamilton systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, A.; Cariñena, J. F.; Herranz, F. J.; de Lucas, J.; Sardón, C.

    2013-07-01

    A Lie system is a non-autonomous system of first-order differential equations possessing a superposition rule, i.e. a map expressing its general solution in terms of a generic finite family of particular solutions and some constants. Lie-Hamilton systems form a subclass of Lie systems whose dynamics is governed by a curve in a finite-dimensional real Lie algebra of functions on a Poisson manifold. It is shown that Lie-Hamilton systems are naturally endowed with a Poisson coalgebra structure. This allows us to devise methods for deriving in an algebraic way their constants of motion and superposition rules. We illustrate our methods by studying Kummer-Schwarz equations, Riccati equations, Ermakov systems and Smorodinsky-Winternitz systems with time-dependent frequency.

  4. Optical information encryption based on incoherent superposition with the help of the QR code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yi; Gong, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel optical information encryption approach is proposed with the help of QR code. This method is based on the concept of incoherent superposition which we introduce for the first time. The information to be encrypted is first transformed into the corresponding QR code, and thereafter the QR code is further encrypted into two phase only masks analytically by use of the intensity superposition of two diffraction wave fields. The proposed method has several advantages over the previous interference-based method, such as a higher security level, a better robustness against noise attack, a more relaxed work condition, and so on. Numerical simulation results and actual smartphone collected results are shown to validate our proposal.

  5. Robot Behavior Acquisition Superposition and Composting of Behaviors Learned through Teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Richard Alan, II

    2004-01-01

    Superposition of a small set of behaviors, learned via teleoperation, can lead to robust completion of a simple articulated reach-and-grasp task. Results support the hypothesis that a set of learned behaviors can be combined to generate new behaviors of a similar type. This supports the hypothesis that a robot can learn to interact purposefully with its environment through a developmental acquisition of sensory-motor coordination. Teleoperation bootstraps the process by enabling the robot to observe its own sensory responses to actions that lead to specific outcomes. A reach-and-grasp task, learned by an articulated robot through a small number of teleoperated trials, can be performed autonomously with success in the face of significant variations in the environment and perturbations of the goal. Superpositioning was performed using the Verbs and Adverbs algorithm that was developed originally for the graphical animation of articulated characters. Work was performed on Robonaut at NASA-JSC.

  6. Brain-wave representation of words by superposition of a few sine waves

    PubMed Central

    Suppes, Patrick; Han, Bing

    2000-01-01

    Data from three previous experiments were analyzed to test the hypothesis that brain waves of spoken or written words can be represented by the superposition of a few sine waves. First, we averaged the data over trials and a set of subjects, and, in one case, over experimental conditions as well. Next we applied a Fourier transform to the averaged data and selected those frequencies with high energy, in no case more than nine in number. The superpositions of these selected sine waves were taken as prototypes. The averaged unfiltered data were the test samples. The prototypes were used to classify the test samples according to a least-squares criterion of fit. The results were seven of seven correct classifications for the first experiment using only three frequencies, six of eight for the second experiment using nine frequencies, and eight of eight for the third experiment using five frequencies. PMID:10890906

  7. Enhanced simulation software for rocket turbopump, turbulent, annular liquid seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padavala, Satya; Palazzolo, Alan

    1994-01-01

    One of the main objectives of this work is to develop a new dynamic analysis for liquid annular seals with arbitrary profile and to analyze a general distorted interstage seal of the space shuttle main engine high pressure oxygen turbopump (SSME-ATD-HPOTP). The dynamic analysis developed is based on a method originally proposed by Nelson and Nguyen. A simpler scheme based on cubic splines is found to be computationally more efficient and has better convergence properties at higher eccentricities. The first order solution of the original analysis is modified by including a more exact solution that takes into account the variation of perturbed variables along the circumference. A new set of equations for dynamic analysis are derived based on this more general model. A unified solution procedure that is valid for both Moody's and Hirs' friction models is presented. Dynamic analysis is developed for three different models: constant properties, variable properties, and thermal effects with variable properties. Arbitrarily varying seal profiles in both axial and circumferential directions are considered. An example case of an elliptical seal with varying degrees of axial curvature is analyzed in detail. A case study based on predicted clearances of an interstage seal of the SSME-ATD-HPOTP is presented. Dynamic coefficients based on external specified load are introduced to analyze seals that support a preload. The other objective of this work is to study the effect of large rotor displacements of SSME-ATD-HPOTP on the dynamics of the annular seal and the resulting transient motion. One task is to identify the magnitude of motion of the rotor about the centered position and establish limits of effectiveness of using current linear models. This task is accomplished by solving the bulk flow model seal governing equations directly for transient seal forces for any given type of motion, including motion with large eccentricities. Based on the above study, an equivalence is

  8. A generalization of the Boltzmann superposition principle to polymer networks undergoing scission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moacanin, J.; Landel, R. F.; Aklonis, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Methods reported by Moacanin et al. (1975) and Moacanin and Aklonis (1971) are generalized with the objective to include strains (or stress) applied in an arbitrary manner to linearly viscoelastic materials. An imposition of changes in both the strain and the density of elastically effective chains in discrete increments is considered. In accordance with the Boltzmann superposition principle, each strain increment may be treated as a new independent experiment which adds linearly to the total response of the system.

  9. Note: An explicit solution of the optimal superposition and Eckart frame problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioslowski, Jerzy

    2016-07-01

    Attention is called to an explicit solution of both the optimal superposition and Eckart frame problems that requires neither matrix diagonalization nor quaternion algebra. A simple change in one variable that enters the expression for the solution matrix T allows for selection of T representing either a proper rotation or a more general orthogonal transformation. The issues concerning the use of these alternative selections and the equivalence of the two problems are addressed.

  10. Implementation and validation of collapsed cone superposition for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry of photon emitters.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Garcia, Manuel; Gardin, Isabelle; Lebtahi, Rachida; Dieudonné, Arnaud

    2015-10-21

    Two collapsed cone (CC) superposition algorithms have been implemented for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry of photon emitters. The straight CC (SCC) superposition method uses a water energy deposition kernel (EDKw) for each electron, positron and photon components, while the primary and scatter CC (PSCC) superposition method uses different EDKw for primary and once-scattered photons. PSCC was implemented only for photons originating from the nucleus, precluding its application to positron emitters. EDKw are linearly scaled by radiological distance, taking into account tissue density heterogeneities. The implementation was tested on 100, 300 and 600 keV mono-energetic photons and (18)F, (99m)Tc, (131)I and (177)Lu. The kernels were generated using the Monte Carlo codes MCNP and EGSnrc. The validation was performed on 6 phantoms representing interfaces between soft-tissues, lung and bone. The figures of merit were γ (3%, 3 mm) and γ (5%, 5 mm) criterions corresponding to the computation comparison on 80 absorbed doses (AD) points per phantom between Monte Carlo simulations and CC algorithms. PSCC gave better results than SCC for the lowest photon energy (100 keV). For the 3 isotopes computed with PSCC, the percentage of AD points satisfying the γ (5%, 5 mm) criterion was always over 99%. A still good but worse result was found with SCC, since at least 97% of AD-values verified the γ (5%, 5 mm) criterion, except a value of 57% for the (99m)Tc with the lung/bone interface. The CC superposition method for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry is a good alternative to Monte Carlo simulations while reducing computation complexity. PMID:26406778

  11. Entanglement, EPR correlations, and mesoscopic quantum superposition by the high-gain quantum injected parametric amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Caminati, Marco; De Martini, Francesco; Perris, Riccardo; Secondi, Veronica; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2006-12-15

    We investigate the multiparticle quantum superposition and the persistence of bipartite entanglement of the output field generated by the quantum injected high-gain optical parametric amplification of a single photon. The physical configuration based on the optimal universal quantum cloning has been adopted to investigate how the entanglement and the quantum coherence of the system persists for large values of the nonlinear parametric gain g.

  12. Stability of a superposition of shock waves with contact discontinuities for systems of viscous conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Huihui

    In this paper, we show the large time asymptotic nonlinear stability of a superposition of viscous shock waves with viscous contact waves for systems of viscous conservation laws with small initial perturbations, provided that the strengths of these viscous waves are small with the same order. The results are obtained by elementary weighted energy estimates based on the underlying wave structure and a new estimate on the heat equation.

  13. Robust coherent superposition of states by single-shot shaped pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndong, Mamadou; Djotyan, Gagik; Ruschhaupt, Andreas; Guérin, Stéphane

    2015-09-01

    We adapt a single-shot shaped pulse technique to produce robust coherent superpositions of quantum states with a high fidelity of control. We derive simple pulses of low areas for the corresponding Rabi frequency which are robust with respect to pulse area imperfections. Such features of robustness, high-fidelity, and low Rabi frequency area are crucial steps towards the experimental implementation of scalable quantum gates.

  14. Analysis of a teleportation scheme involving cavity field states in a linear superposition of Fock states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, C. R.; Guerra, E. S.; Jalbert, Ginette

    2008-04-01

    We analyse a teleportation scheme of cavity field states. The experimental sketch discussed makes use of cavity quantum electrodynamics involving the interaction of Rydberg atoms with superconducting (micromaser) cavities as well as with classical microwave (Ramsey) cavities. In our scheme the Ramsey cavities and the atoms play the role of auxiliary systems used to teleport a field state, which is formed by a linear superposition of vacuum |∅> and the one-photon state |1>, from a micromaser cavity to another.

  15. Note: An explicit solution of the optimal superposition and Eckart frame problems.

    PubMed

    Cioslowski, Jerzy

    2016-07-14

    Attention is called to an explicit solution of both the optimal superposition and Eckart frame problems that requires neither matrix diagonalization nor quaternion algebra. A simple change in one variable that enters the expression for the solution matrix T allows for selection of T representing either a proper rotation or a more general orthogonal transformation. The issues concerning the use of these alternative selections and the equivalence of the two problems are addressed. PMID:27421427

  16. Implementation and validation of collapsed cone superposition for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry of photon emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Garcia, Manuel; Gardin, Isabelle; Lebtahi, Rachida; Dieudonné, Arnaud

    2015-10-01

    Two collapsed cone (CC) superposition algorithms have been implemented for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry of photon emitters. The straight CC (SCC) superposition method uses a water energy deposition kernel (EDKw) for each electron, positron and photon components, while the primary and scatter CC (PSCC) superposition method uses different EDKw for primary and once-scattered photons. PSCC was implemented only for photons originating from the nucleus, precluding its application to positron emitters. EDKw are linearly scaled by radiological distance, taking into account tissue density heterogeneities. The implementation was tested on 100, 300 and 600 keV mono-energetic photons and 18F, 99mTc, 131I and 177Lu. The kernels were generated using the Monte Carlo codes MCNP and EGSnrc. The validation was performed on 6 phantoms representing interfaces between soft-tissues, lung and bone. The figures of merit were γ (3%, 3 mm) and γ (5%, 5 mm) criterions corresponding to the computation comparison on 80 absorbed doses (AD) points per phantom between Monte Carlo simulations and CC algorithms. PSCC gave better results than SCC for the lowest photon energy (100 keV). For the 3 isotopes computed with PSCC, the percentage of AD points satisfying the γ (5%, 5 mm) criterion was always over 99%. A still good but worse result was found with SCC, since at least 97% of AD-values verified the γ (5%, 5 mm) criterion, except a value of 57% for the 99mTc with the lung/bone interface. The CC superposition method for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry is a good alternative to Monte Carlo simulations while reducing computation complexity.

  17. Discrete annular regions of texture contribute independently to the analysis of shape from texture.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ken W S; Dickinson, J Edwin; Badcock, David R

    2016-09-01

    Radial frequency (RF) textures (created by applying a sinusoidal modulation of orientation to an otherwise circular texture) have been shown to be globally processed. RF textures differ from RF patterns (paths deformed from circular by a sinusoidal modulation in radius) in that the elements need not be constrained to a specific path. In the natural environment, objects differ from their background in texture, and a bounding contour can mark this textural change. This study examines the extent to which modulation of texture sums across space and whether the inclusion of a boundary between two areas provides a segmentation cue that limits the area over which summation occurs. RF textures were split into two annular regions and signal introduced to inner, outer, or both annuli Thresholds for the detection of RF modulation of orientation were not affected by the presence of a boundary. Further, it was found that the thresholds matched predictions for the independent contribution of the inner and outer areas to performance and that changing the relative phase of the modulation in the inner and outer annuli had no impact on performance, implying independent integration within the two annuli. Finally, integration of modulation information within the annuli was confirmed to ensure these results do apply to textures that are globally processed. PMID:27627734

  18. A Superposition Technique for Deriving Photon Scattering Statistics in Plane-Parallel Cloudy Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, S.

    1999-01-01

    Photon transport in a multiple scattering medium is critically dependent on scattering statistics, in particular the average number of scatterings. A superposition technique is derived to accurately determine the average number of scatterings encountered by reflected and transmitted photons within arbitrary layers in plane-parallel, vertically inhomogeneous clouds. As expected, the resulting scattering number profiles are highly dependent on cloud particle absorption and solar/viewing geometry. The technique uses efficient adding and doubling radiative transfer procedures, avoiding traditional time-intensive Monte Carlo methods. Derived superposition formulae are applied to a variety of geometries and cloud models, and selected results are compared with Monte Carlo calculations. Cloud remote sensing techniques that use solar reflectance or transmittance measurements generally assume a homogeneous plane-parallel cloud structure. The scales over which this assumption is relevant, in both the vertical and horizontal, can be obtained from the superposition calculations. Though the emphasis is on photon transport in clouds, the derived technique is applicable to any scattering plane-parallel radiative transfer problem, including arbitrary combinations of cloud, aerosol, and gas layers in the atmosphere.

  19. Sagnac interferometry with coherent vortex superposition states in exciton-polariton condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moxley, Frederick Ira; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Dai, Weizhong; Byrnes, Tim

    2016-05-01

    We investigate prospects of using counter-rotating vortex superposition states in nonequilibrium exciton-polariton Bose-Einstein condensates for the purposes of Sagnac interferometry. We first investigate the stability of vortex-antivortex superposition states, and show that they survive at steady state in a variety of configurations. Counter-rotating vortex superpositions are of potential interest to gyroscope and seismometer applications for detecting rotations. Methods of improving the sensitivity are investigated by targeting high momentum states via metastable condensation, and the application of periodic lattices. The sensitivity of the polariton gyroscope is compared to its optical and atomic counterparts. Due to the large interferometer areas in optical systems and small de Broglie wavelengths for atomic BECs, the sensitivity per detected photon is found to be considerably less for the polariton gyroscope than with competing methods. However, polariton gyroscopes have an advantage over atomic BECs in a high signal-to-noise ratio, and have other practical advantages such as room-temperature operation, area independence, and robust design. We estimate that the final sensitivities including signal-to-noise aspects are competitive with existing methods.

  20. Measurements in an annular combustor-diffuser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Freeman, W. G.; Mozumdar, S.; Grahmann, J. W.

    1990-07-01

    Results of three-component Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) measurements in an annular combustor-diffuser system are presented in this paper. The LDV measurements were made at several locations in the prediffuser and dump regions of the combustor-diffuser test rig for three different inlet velocity profiles. The prediffuser average inlet Mach number was maintained at 0.305 during these tests. The LDV data are compared with predictions obtained from a boundary-fitted, two-dimensional elliptic analytical model. The agreement between the LDV data and the predicted results is very good for mean velocities. However, measured turbulence intensities are higher than the predicted values in the region adjacent to the prediffuser walls.

  1. Digital controller design: Analysis of the annular suspension pointing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, B. C.

    1979-01-01

    The Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS) is a payload auxiliary pointing device of the Space Shuttle. The ASPS is comprised of two major subassemblies, a vernier and a coarse pointing subsystem. The experiment is attached to a mounting plate/rim combination which is suspended on magnetic bearing/actuators (MBA) strategically located about the rim. Fine pointing is achieved by gimballing the plate/rim within the MBA gaps. Control about the experiment line-of-sight is obtained through the use of a non-contacting rim drive and positioning torquer. All sensors used to close the servo loops on the vernier system are noncontacting elements. Therefore, the experiment is a free-flyer constrained only by the magnetic forces generated by the control loops.

  2. Non-axisymmetric instability of core-annular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Howard H.; Patankar, Neelesh

    1995-05-01

    Stability of core-annular flow of water and oil in a vertical circular pipe is studied with respect to non-axisymmetric disturbances. Results show that when the oil core is thin, the flow is most unstable to the asymmetric sinuous mode of disturbance, and the core moves in the form of corkscrew waves as observed in experiments. The asymmetric mode of disturbance is the most dangerous mode for quite a wide range of material and flow parameters. This asymmetric mode persists in vertical pipes with upward and downward flows and in horizontal pipes. The analysis also applies to the instability of freely rising axisymmetric cigarette smoke or a thermal plume. The study predicts a unique wavelength for the asymmetric meandering waves.

  3. Core/corona modeling of diode-imploded annular loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, R. E.; Guillory, J. U.

    1980-11-01

    The effects of a tenuous exterior plasma corona with anomalous resistivity on the compression and heating of a hollow, collisional aluminum z-pinch plasma are predicted by a one-dimensional code. As the interior ("core") plasma is imploded by its axial current, the energy exchange between core and corona determines the current partition. Under the conditions of rapid core heating and compression, the increase in coronal current provides a trade-off between radial acceleration and compression, which reduces the implosion forces and softens the pitch. Combined with a heuristic account of energy and momentum transport in the strongly coupled core plasma and an approximate radiative loss calculation including Al line, recombination and Bremsstrahlung emission, the current model can provide a reasonably accurate description of imploding annular plasma loads that remain azimuthally symmetric. The implications for optimization of generator load coupling are examined.

  4. Annular dark field transmission electron microscopy for protein structure determination.

    PubMed

    Koeck, Philip J B

    2016-02-01

    Recently annular dark field (ADF) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been advocated as a means of recording images of biological specimens with better signal to noise ratio (SNR) than regular bright field images. I investigate whether and how such images could be used to determine the three-dimensional structure of proteins given that an ADF aperture with a suitable pass-band can be manufactured and used in practice. I develop an approximate theory of ADF-TEM image formation for weak amplitude and phase objects and test this theory using computer simulations. I also test whether these simulated images can be used to calculate a three-dimensional model of the protein using standard software and discuss problems and possible ways to overcome these. PMID:26656466

  5. Design for a One-Gigawatt, Annular-Beam Klystron

    SciTech Connect

    Arfin, Bernard

    2001-01-23

    A one-gigawatt, annular beam klystron (ABK) is being developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory in collaboration with the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The pulse length is 1 {micro}s, the pulse repetition frequency is 5 Hz, and the operating frequency is 1.3 GHz. The beam voltage and current are 800 kV and 4 kA. Since the electron beam parameters are considerably beyond the state-of the-art, an aggressive cathode and electron gun design is required. The magnetron injection gun (MIG) configuration was chosen over the standard Pierce geometry that is typically used in klystrons. The tube design, design issues, and status are presented.

  6. Hyperthermia and inhomogeneous tissue effects using an Annular Phased Array

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, P.F.

    1984-08-01

    A regional hyperthermia Annular Phased Array (APA) applicator is described, and examples of its various heating patterns, obtained by scanning the electric fields with a small E-field sensor, are illustrated. Also shown are the effects of different frequencies of an elliptical phantom cylinder having a 1-cm-thick artificial fat wall and the general dimensions of the human trunk. These studies show the APA's ability to achieve uniform heating at lower frequencies (below 70 MHz) or to focus central heating at moderately higher frequencies (above 70 MHz). The influence of human anatomical contours in altering heating patterns is discussed using results obtained with a female mannequin having a thin latex shell filled with tissue-equivalent phantom. Field perturbations caused by internally embedded low-dielectric structures are presented, showing the localized effects of small objects whose surfaces are perpendicular to the electric field.

  7. Vortex shedding from struts in an annular exhaust diffuser

    SciTech Connect

    Fric, T.F.; Villarreal, R.; Auer, R.O.; James, M.L.; Ozgur, D.; Staley, T.K.

    1998-01-01

    Results from scale-model experiments and industrial gas turbine tests show that strut vortex shedding in an annular exhaust diffuser can effectively be modified by adding tapered chord to the struts. The struts are bluff bodies at full-speed, no-load conditions, when inlet swirl is close to 60 deg. Data from wind tunnel tests show that wake Strouhal number is 0.47, larger than that expected for an isolated cylinder wake. This value of Strouhal number agrees with those measured in full-scale exhaust diffusers. Wind tunnel tests showed that a strut with tapered chord most effectively reduced wake amplitudes and shifted shedding frequency. The tapered strut was also effective in reducing shedding amplitude in a scale-model diffuser. Finally, gas turbine tests employing a tapered strut showed significant reductions in unsteady pressure and noise. A major benefit of strut taper is a reduction of noise by uncoupling of vortex shedding from acoustic resonant response.

  8. Annular billiard dynamics in a circularly polarized strong laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamor, A.; Mauger, F.; Chandre, C.; Uzer, T.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a valence electron of the buckminsterfullerene molecule (C60) subjected to a circularly polarized laser field by modeling it with the motion of a classical particle in an annular billiard. We show that the phase space of the billiard model gives rise to three distinct trajectories: “whispering gallery orbits,” which hit only the outer billiard wall; “daisy orbits,” which hit both billiard walls (while rotating solely clockwise or counterclockwise for all time); and orbits that only visit the downfield part of the billiard, as measured relative to the laser term. These trajectories, in general, maintain their distinct features, even as the intensity is increased from 1010 to 1014Wcm-2. We attribute this robust separation of phase space to the existence of twistless tori.

  9. Thermo-electrohydrodynamic internal waves in annular geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Harunori; Meyer, Antoine; Crumeyrolle, Olivier; Mutabazi, Innocent

    2014-11-01

    An electric field applied to a dielectric fluid with a temperature gradient generates a body force on the fluid, which can be regarded as thermal buoyancy associated with an electric effective gravity. We consider the internal waves due to this thermoelectric force in annular geometry, where the force field is centro-symmetric. The Earth's gravity is neglected. This configuration is of relevance to large-scale geophysical flows. The dispersion relation of the waves is determined by a spectral method, with or without taking into account the fluid viscosity. The effects of geometry curvature and of a thermoelectric feedback are discussed. The oscillatory instability of the circular Couette flow under the thermoelectric body force and its relation with the waves will also be discussed. Authors acknowledge the financial support from the CNRS under the program PEPS-PTI OndInterGE.

  10. Interfacial shear modeling in two-phase annular flow

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Edwards, D.P.

    1996-07-01

    A new interfacial shear stress model called the law of the interface model, based on the law of the wall approach in turbulent flows, has been developed and locally applied in a fully developed, adiabatic, two-phase annular flow in a duct. Numerical results have been obtained using this model in conjunction with other models available in the literature that are required for the closure of the continuity and momentum equations. These results have been compared with droplet velocity data (using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot film anemometry), void fraction data (using gamma densitometry) and pressure drop data obtained in a R-134A refrigerant test facility. Droplet velocity results match the experimental data well, however, the prediction of the void fraction is less accurate. The poor prediction of void fraction, especially for the low void fraction cases, appears to be due to the lack of a good mechanistic model for entrainment.

  11. An in-house developed annular bright field detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lari, Leonardo; Wright, Ian; Pingstone, Daniel; Steward, Jonathan; Gilks, Daniel; Lazarov, Vlado K.

    2014-06-01

    Annular bright field (ABF) detectors have been developed in the last few years allowing the direct imaging of low-Z atoms from oxygen down to hydrogen. These types of detectors are now available as standard attachments for the latest generation of top-end electron microscopes. However these systems cannot always be installed in previous generation microscopes. In this paper we report the preliminary results of an in-house implementation of a ABF detection system on a CEOS aberration corrected JEOL 2200FS STEM. This has been obtained by exploiting the standard BF detector coupled with a high vacuum compatible, X-ray tight and retractable shadowing mechanism. This results in the acquisition of near zero-angle scattered electrons with inner collection semi-angle from 2.0 mrad to 23 mrad and outer semi-angle in the range from 3.0 mrad to 35 mrad. The characteristics and performances of this ABF detection system are discussed.

  12. Aerodynamic performance of an annular classical airfoil cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergsten, D. E.; Stauter, R. C.; Fleeter, S.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented for a series of experiments that were performed in a large-scale subsonic annular cascade facility that was specifically designed to provide three-dimensional aerodynamic data for the verification of numerical-calculation codes. In particular, the detailed three-dimensional aerodynamic performance of a classical flat-plate airfoil cascade is determined for angles of incidence of 0, 5, and 10 deg. The resulting data are analyzed and are correlated with predictions obtained from NASA's MERIDL and TSONIC numerical programs. It is found that: (1) at 0 and 5 deg, the airfoil surface data show a good correlation with the predictions; (2) at 10 deg, the data are in fair agreement with the numerical predictions; and (3) the two-dimensional Gaussian similarity relationship is appropriate for the wake velocity profiles in the mid-span region of the airfoil.

  13. Fuel Injector Design Optimization for an Annular Scramjet Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A four-parameter, three-level, central composite experiment design has been used to optimize the configuration of an annular scramjet injector geometry using computational fluid dynamics. The computational fluid dynamic solutions played the role of computer experiments, and response surface methodology was used to capture the simulation results for mixing efficiency and total pressure recovery within the scramjet flowpath. An optimization procedure, based upon the response surface results of mixing efficiency, was used to compare the optimal design configuration against the target efficiency value of 92.5%. The results of three different optimization procedures are presented and all point to the need to look outside the current design space for different injector geometries that can meet or exceed the stated mixing efficiency target.

  14. Investigation of a low NOx full-scale annular combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An atmospheric test program was conducted to evaluate a low NOx annular combustor concept suitable for a supersonic, high-altitude aircraft application. The lean premixed combustor, known as the vortex air blast (VAB) concept, was tested as a 22.0-cm diameter model in the early development phases to arrive at basic design and performance criteria. Final demonstration testing was carried out on a full scale combustor of 0.66-m diameter. Variable geometry dilution ports were incorporated to allow operation of the combustor across the range of conditions between idle (T(in) = 422 K, T(out) = 917 K) and cruise (T(in) = 833 K, T(out) - 1778 K). Test results show that the design could meet the program NOx goal of 1.0 g NO2/kg fuel at a one-atmospheric simulated cruise condition.

  15. Development of annular targets for {sup 99}MO production.

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, C.; Lewandowski, E. F.; Snelgrove, J. L.; Liberatore, M. W.; Walker, D. E.; Wiencek, T. C.; McGann, D. J.; Hofman, G. L.; Vandegrift, G. F.

    1999-09-30

    The new annular target performed well during irradiation. The target is inexpensive and provides good heat transfer during irradiation. Based on these and previous tests, we conclude that targets with zirconium tubes and either nickel-plated or zinc-plated foils work well. We proved that we could use aluminum target tubes, which are much cheaper and easier to work with than the zirconium tubes. In aluminum target tubes nickel-plated fission-recoil barriers work well and prevent bonding of the foil to the new target tubes during irradiation. Also, zinc-plated and aluminum-foil barriers appear promising in anodized aluminum tubes. Additional tests are anticipated to address such issues as fission-recoil barrier thickness and uranium foil composition. Overall, however, the target was successful and will provide an inexpensive, efficient way to irradiate LEU metal foil for the production of {sup 99}Mo.

  16. Two-phase flow instabilities in a vertical annular channel

    SciTech Connect

    Babelli, I.; Nair, S.; Ishii, M.

    1995-09-01

    An experimental test facility was built to study two-phase flow instabilities in vertical annular channel with emphasis on downward flow under low pressure and low flow conditions. The specific geometry of the test section is similar to the fuel-target sub-channel of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Mark 22 fuel assembly. Critical Heat Flux (CHF) was observed following flow excursion and flow reversal in the test section. Density wave instability was not recorded in this series of experimental runs. The results of this experimental study show that flow excursion is the dominant instability mode under low flow, low pressure, and down flow conditions. The onset of instability data are plotted on the subcooling-Zuber (phase change) numbers stability plane.

  17. Annular plaques on the tongue: what is your diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Kayhan, Tuba Çelebĺ; Bĺlaç, Cemal; Bĺlaç, Dilek Bayraktar; Ecemĺş, Talat; Ermertcan, Aylin Türel

    2011-11-01

    Geographic tongue is an inflammatory disorder of the tongue characterized by asymptomatic erythematous patches with serpiginous borders. Candidiasis of the tongue may be confused with geographic tongue. A 63-year-old male patient with painful white annular lesions localized to the left side of his tongue is presented. He applied topical corticosteroid and antiinflammatory agents, but his lesions did not respond to those therapies. Using direct mycologic examination and culture, the patient was diagnosed with candidiasis. After systemic and topical antifungal therapy, clinical improvement was observed. With this case, the clinical forms of oral candidiasis were discussed, and it was suggested that the clinical presentation of mucosal candidiasis may vary according to the stage of infection and individual immunity. PMID:22148032

  18. Annular modes and apparent eddy feedbacks in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Nicholas J.; Shepherd, Theodore G.; Woollings, Tim; Plumb, R. Alan

    2016-04-01

    Lagged correlation analysis is often used to infer intraseasonal dynamical effects but is known to be affected by nonstationarity. We highlight a pronounced quasi 2 year peak in the anomalous zonal wind and eddy momentum flux convergence power spectra in the Southern Hemisphere, which is prima facie evidence for nonstationarity. We then investigate the consequences of this nonstationarity for the Southern Annular Mode and for eddy momentum flux convergence. We argue that positive lagged correlations previously attributed to the existence of an eddy feedback are more plausibly attributed to nonstationary interannual variability external to any potential feedback process in the midlatitude troposphere. The findings have implications for the diagnosis of feedbacks in both models and reanalysis data as well as for understanding the mechanisms underlying variations in the zonal wind.

  19. Periocular granuloma annulare: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Katherine; Bhalla, Rohan; Mesinkovska, Natasha A; Piliang, Melissa P; Tamburro, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is a granulomatous dermatosis that rarely presents on the face and is extremely uncommon in the periocular region. We report our experience with the presentation and management of GA lesions on the eyelids of a 17-year-old girl. We performed a review of published literature and identified 13 cases of pediatric periocular GA. One additional case was identified upon review of all pediatric GA cases at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. Review of these cases suggests that periocular GA is a benign condition that spontaneously regresses within a few months. GA nodules have a predilection for the upper eyelids. A greater incidence is noted in African American children. Awareness of the self-resolving nature of this condition can prevent unnecessary surgical excisions in affected children. PMID:23551387

  20. Mathematical model for multicomponent separations on the continuous annular chromatograph

    SciTech Connect

    Bratzler, R.L.; Begovich, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A model for multicomponent separations on ion exchange columns has been adapted for use in studying the performance of the continuous annular chromatograph. The model accurately predicts solute peak positions in the column effluent and qualitatively predicts trends in solute effluent resolution as a function of increasing bandwidth of the solute feed pulse. The major virtues of the model are its simplicity in terms of the calculations involved and the fact that it incorporates the nonlinear solute-resin binding isotherms common in many ion exchange separations. Because dispersion effects are not accounted for in the model, discrepancies exist between the shapes of the effluent peaks predicted by the model and those determined experimentally.

  1. Orbital Granuloma Annulare as Presentation of Systemic Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Joann J.; Aakalu, Vinay K.; Lin, Amy; Setabutr, Pete

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report a unique case of an orbital mass with atypical histopathologic features that although overlap with other granulomatous disorders, likely represents orbital involvement of systemic sarcoidosis. Methods: Observational case report. Results: A 51-year-old woman presented with an orbital mass and was found to have mild proptosis and restriction of ocular motility. The remainder of her ophthalmic exam was unremarkable. Excisional biopsy revealed ill-defined granulomas with central necrosis, chronic inflammation and sclerotic collagen; several features consistent with granuloma annulare. Further systemic workup including laboratory and radiologic studies were compatible with a diagnosis of systemic sarcoidosis. Conclusion: Our case emphasizes the importance of a complete systemic workup with the detection of an orbital granuloma to ensure accurate diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:23895369

  2. Annular suspension and pointing system with controlled DC electromagnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Josephine Lynn; Tam, Kwok Hung

    1993-01-01

    The Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS) developed by the Flight System division of Sperry Corporation is a six-degree of freedom payload pointing system designed for use with the space shuttle. This magnetic suspension and pointing system provides precise controlled pointing in six-degrees of freedom, isolation of payload-carrier disturbances, and end mount controlled pointing. Those are great advantages over the traditional mechanical joints for space applications. In this design, we first analyzed the assumed model of the single degree ASPS bearing actuator and obtained the plant dynamics equations. By linearizing the plant dynamics equations, we designed the cascade and feedback compensators such that a stable and satisfied result was obtained. The specified feedback compensator was computer simulated with the nonlinearized plant dynamics equations. The results indicated that an unstable output occurred. In other words, the designed feedback compensator failed. The failure of the design is due to the Taylor's series expansion not converging.

  3. Simulation study with arbitrary profile liquid annular seals

    SciTech Connect

    Padavala, S.; Palazzolo, A.B.

    1994-10-01

    This paper presents an improved dynamic analysis for liquid annular seals with arbitrary profile based on a method first proposed by Nelson and Nguyen. An improved first-order solution that incorporates a continuous interpolation of perturbed quantities in the circumferential direction is presented. The original method uses an approximation scheme for circumferential gradients of zeroth order solution based on Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT). A simpler scheme based on cubic splines is found to be computationally more efficient, with better convergence at higher eccentricities. Arbitrarily varying seal profiles in both axial and circumferential directions are considered. A procedure for computing dynamic coefficients based on external specific load is discussed. An example case of an elliptical seal with varying degrees of axial curvature is analyzed. A case study based on actual operating clearances (6 axial planes with 68 clearances/plane) of an interstage seal of the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (SSME-ATD-HPOTP) is presented.

  4. Intermittent Flow of Granular Matter in an Annular Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzinski, Ted; Daniels, Karen E.

    Granular solids can be subjected to a finite stress below which the response is elastic. Above this yield stress, however, the material fails catastrophically, undergoing a rapid plastic deformation. In the case of a monotonically increasing stress the material exhibits a characteristic stick-slip response. We investigate the statistics of this intermittent failure in an annular shear geometry, driven with a linear-ramp torque in order to generate the stick-slip behavior. The apparatus is designed to allow visual access to particle trajectories and inter-particle forces (through the use of photoelastic materials). Additionally, twelve piezoelectric sensors at the outer wall measure acoustic emissions due to the plastic deformation of the material. We vary volume fraction, and use both fixed and deformable boundaries. We measure how the distribution of slip size and duration are related to the bulk properties of the packing, and compare to systems with similar governing statistics.

  5. Existence of non zero modes in an annular lined duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Agneta M.; Balint, Stefan; Tanasie, Loredana

    2012-11-01

    The purpose is to extend Vilenski - Rienstra's [32] results concerning mainly the general aspects of the existence of non zero modes in annular lined ducts. The case, when the radial and circumferential components of the mean flow are equal to zero and the axial component depends only on the distance to the duct axis, is investigated. Conditions for the existence of non zero modes, which satisfy the linearized homogeneous Euler equations (obtained by linearization around the mean flow) and the boundary conditions, (corresponding to the perturbation - liner interaction of mass-spring-damper type) are found. The first condition, called dispersion relation, is expressed in terms of the solutions of two normalized initial value problems and is equivalent to the linear dependence of these solutions. It is shown that the set of non zero modes, corresponding to a given frequency and given axial and circumferential wave number, is either the null space, either is a one dimensional function space. It is shown also that if the mean flow is symmetric with respect to the "center of the ring", then neither symmetric, nor anti-symmetric modes exist. This difference between the annular and rectangular or circular lined duct models explains while one of the boundary conditions can not be transferred in the center of symmetry. For symmetric flow, being constant in the "central part of the ring", new dispersion relations are derived. The new relations beside the solutions of the two normalized initial value problems incorporate also modified Bessel functions or additional Bessel functions. The Lyapunov stability of the mean flow with respect to the initial value perturbation by mode type perturbations is discussed in terms of the zero's of the dispersion relation.

  6. Influence of thermal deformations of resonators on propagation properties of laser annular beams through turbulent atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yufeng; Peng, Fang; Han, Junpeng

    2013-02-01

    Based on the laser field from a positive confocal unstable resonator, considering the influence of thermal distortion of the internal resonator mirror on the annular beam, the propagation characteristics of the annular beam through turbulent atmosphere are investigated by means of the fast Fourier transform algorithm (FFT). The intensity distributions of the output laser far-field are obtained to analyze the propagation characteristics of laser annular beam through the turbulent atmosphere, which is a function about different propagation distances. The results show that the peak intensity of the laser pattern becomes depressed and the spread of the far field diagram patterns is broadened under the increasing of the transmission distance and the thermal distortion of the laser resonator. β-parameter and strehl ratio are introduced to estimate the annular beam quality characteristics. It is found that the annular beam through strong turbulence influences much less obviously than the annular beam through weak turbulence on the quality characteristics with thermal distortion. In the same atmospheric conditions with a certain distance, the greater the mirror thermal distortion is, the worse the annular beam quality characteristics is.

  7. Laser-induced retinal damage thresholds for annular retinal beam profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Paul K.; Zuclich, Joseph A.; Lund, David J.; Edsall, Peter R.; Till, Stephen; Stuck, Bruce E.; Hollins, Richard C.

    2004-07-01

    The dependence of retinal damage thresholds on laser spot size, for annular retinal beam profiles, was measured in vivo for 3 μs, 590 nm pulses from a flashlamp-pumped dye laser. Minimum Visible Lesion (MVL)ED50 thresholds in rhesus were measured for annular retinal beam profiles covering 5, 10, and 20 mrad of visual field; which correspond to outer beam diameters of roughly 70, 160, and 300 μm, respectively, on the primate retina. Annular beam profiles at the retinal plane were achieved using a telescopic imaging system, with the focal properties of the eye represented as an equivalent thin lens, and all annular beam profiles had a 37% central obscuration. As a check on experimental data, theoretical MVL-ED50 thresholds for annular beam exposures were calculated using the Thompson-Gerstman granular model of laser-induced thermal damage to the retina. Threshold calculations were performed for the three experimental beam diameters and for an intermediate case with an outer beam diameter of 230 μm. Results indicate that the threshold vs. spot size trends, for annular beams, are similar to the trends for top hat beams determined in a previous study; i.e., the threshold dose varies with the retinal image area for larger image sizes. The model correctly predicts the threshold vs. spot size trends seen in the biological data, for both annular and top hat retinal beam profiles.

  8. A Bäcklund Transformation and Nonlinear Superposition Formula of the Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Kotera-Sawada Hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xing-Biao; Bullough, Robin

    1998-03-01

    In this paper, the Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Kotera-Sawada hierarchy in bilinear form is considered. A Bäcklund transformation for the CDGKS hierarchy is presented. Under certain conditions, the corresponding nonlinear superposition formula is proved.

  9. Annular and Cylindrical Phased Array Geometries for Transrectal High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) using PZT and Piezocomposite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seip, Ralf; Chen, Wohsing; Carlson, Roy; Frizzell, Leon; Warren, Gary; Smith, Nadine; Saleh, Khaldon; Gerber, Gene; Shung, Kirk; Guo, Hongkai; Sanghvi, Narendra T.

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents engineering progress and the latest in-vitro and in-vivo results obtained with a 4.0 MHz, 20 element, PZT annular transrectal HIFU array and several 4.0 MHz, 211 element, PZT and piezocomposite cylindrical transrectal HIFU arrays for the treatment of prostate cancer. The geometries of both arrays were designed and analyzed to steer the HIFU beams to the desired sites in the prostate volume using multi-channel electronic drivers, with the intent to increase treatment efficiency and reliability for the next generation of HIFU systems. The annular array is able to focus in depth from 25 mm to 50 mm, generate total acoustic powers in excess of 60W, and has been integrated into a modified Sonablate®500 HIFU system capable of controlling such an applicator through custom treatment planning and execution software. Both PZT- and piezocomposite cylindrical arrays were constructed and their characteristics were compared for the transrectal applications. These arrays have been installed into appropriate transducer housings, and have undergone characterization tests to determine their total acoustic power output, focusing range (in depth and laterally), focus quality, efficiency, and comparison tests to determine the material and technology of choice (PZT or piezocomposite) for intra-cavity HIFU applications. Array descriptions, characterization results, in-vitro and in-vivo results, and an overview of their intended use through the application software is shown.

  10. On the performance improvement of transmitted Bessel beams emitted from sub-wavelength annular aperture coupled with periodic grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Chun-Hung; Chung, Ming-Han; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2014-02-01

    The lens spatial resolution and depth of focus depends on the numerical aperture and the incident light beam wavelength. Traditionally, smaller focal spot size also means short depth of focus, which may hinder the system integration advancement. We investigate the possibility to break free the limitation associated with small focal size and short depth of focus. It was discovered by T. W. Ebbesen that periodic aperture on metallic film may improve the transmission and confine the divergent angle of the emitting light beams beyond the prediction of the Bethe's theory. We developed single sub-wavelength annular aperture (SAA) first and then used tapered hollow micro-tube to mimic the function of SAA so as to generate Bessel beam in the far-field region. High aspect ratio microstructures were fabricated using the above-mentioned techniques. In addition, coupling annular aperture and periodic grating to further advance the high aspect ratio fabrication technique was also explored. Firstly, to maximize the transmission in specific wavelength, the pitch of grating was modulated. More specifically, we manipulated the periodic grating to search the maximum transmission efficiency in specific waveband. Secondly, in order to improve the depth of focus, we changed the grating slit width to induce proper phase delay. These studies were all verified by FDTD simulations and some experimental results.

  11. Hydraulic and Clean-in-Place Evaluations for a 12.5-cm Annular Centrifugal Contactor at INL

    SciTech Connect

    Troy G. Garn; David H. Meikrantz; Nick R. Mann; Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd

    2008-09-01

    Hydraulic and Clean-in-Place Evaluations for a 12.5 cm Annular Centrifugal Contactor at the INL Troy G. Garn, Dave H. Meikrantz, Nick R. Mann, Jack D. Law, Terry A. Todd Idaho National Laboratory Commercially available, Annular Centrifugal Contactors (ACC) are currently being evaluated for processing dissolved nuclear fuel solutions to selectively partition integrated elements using solvent extraction technologies. These evaluations include hydraulic and clean-in-place (CIP) testing of a commercially available 12.5 cm unit. Data from these evaluations is used to support design of future nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. Hydraulic testing provides contactor throughput performance data on two-phase systems for a wide range of operating conditions. Hydraulic testing results on a simple two-phase oil and water system followed by a 30 % Tributyl phosphate in N-dodecane / nitric acid pair are reported. Maximum total throughputs for this size contactor ranged from 20 to 32 liters per minute without significant other phase carryover. A relatively new contactor design enhancement providing Clean-in-Place capability for ACCs was also investigated. Spray nozzles installed into the central rotor shaft allow the rotor internals to be cleaned, offline. Testing of the solids capture of a diatomaceous earth/water slurry feed followed by CIP testing was performed. Solids capture efficiencies of >95% were observed for all tests and short cold water cleaning pulses proved successful at removing solids from the rotor.

  12. High-power test of annular-ring coupled structures for the J-PARC linac energy upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Jun; Ao, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Yasuo; Asano, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takahiro

    2015-02-01

    Annular-ring coupled structures (ACSs) will increase the beam energy of the Japan proton accelerator research complex (J-PARC) linac from 181 to 400 MeV to achieve a beam power of 1 MW for a materials and life science experimental facility. The mass production of the ACS cavities commenced in March 2009. Before the installation, all cavities require power testing. High-power testing is essential not only for confirming the cavity's design performance but also for preventing delays in cavity conditioning schedule. However, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake damaged J-PARC facilities, including the ACS power-test area, and cavity conditioning was interrupted for two years. After the facility's restoration, two ACS cavities (M01 and M11) were conditioned. They performed 15-20% above the designed accelerating field of 4.2 MV/m. As M01 was initially conditioned six years ago, the most recent conditioning time required for M01 was drastically reduced. From this result, we confirmed that long-term stored ACS cavities purged with nitrogen gas do not produce critical cavity performance issues. During high-power operation of M11, which is a unique cavity equipped with a capacitive iris in a waveguide, no significant increases in the temperature and the discharge rate around the capacitive iris were observed. Even considering beam loss due to residual gas scattering, the vacuum pressure was sufficiently low (4 × 10-6 Pa). More stable operation can be expected following a month-long conditioning process before the beam is commissioned. M11's conditioning successfully demonstrated an auto-conditioning program, and we established the conditioning scheme using this auto-conditioning program for all ACS cavities in a limited time and with limited manpower.

  13. Microstructures in CoPtC magnetic thin films studied by superpositioning of micro-electron diffraction

    PubMed

    Tomita; Sugiyama; Sato; Delaunay; Hayashi

    2000-01-01

    Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy observation of CoPtC thin films showed that 10 nm sized ultrafine particles of CoPt typically were elongated along the substrate normal. Analysis of the superposition of 40 micro-electron diffraction patterns showed that there was no preferred crystal orientation of CoPt particles. This superpositioning technique can be applied to thin films, whose X-ray diffraction analysis is difficult due to the small size of the crystals. PMID:10791426

  14. Characterization of annular two-phase gas-liquid flows in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, W. Scott; Mcquillen, John B.

    1994-01-01

    A series of two-phase gas-liquid flow experiments were developed to study annular flows in microgravity using the NASA Lewis Learjet. A test section was built to measure the liquid film thickness around the perimeter of the tube permitting the three dimensional nature of the gas-liquid interface to be observed. A second test section was used to measure the film thickness, pressure drop and wall shear stress in annular microgravity two-phase flows. Three liquids were studied to determine the effects of liquid viscosity and surface tension. The result of this study provide insight into the wave characteristics, pressure drop and droplet entrainment in microgravity annular flows.

  15. On the Motion of an Annular Film in Microgravity Gas-Liquid Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John B.

    2002-01-01

    Three flow regimes have been identified for gas-liquid flow in a microgravity environment: Bubble, Slug, and Annular. For the slug and annular flow regimes, the behavior observed in vertical upflow in normal gravity is similar to microgravity flow with a thin, symmetrical annular film wetting the tube wall. However, the motion and behavior of this film is significantly different between the normal and low gravity cases. Specifically, the liquid film will slow and come to a stop during low frequency wave motion or slugging. In normal gravity vertical upflow, the film has been observed to slow, stop, and actually reverse direction until it meets the next slug or wave.

  16. Entrained liquid fraction calculation in adiabatic disperse-annular flows at low rate in film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagov, V. V.; Minko, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we continue our study [1] and extend further an approach to low reduced pressures. An approximate model of droplets entrainment from the laminar film surface and an equation for calculating entrainment intensity are proposed. To carry out direct verification of this equation using experimental data is extremely difficult because the integral effect—liquid flow rate in a film at a dynamic equilibrium between entrainment and deposition—is usually measured in the experiments. The balance between flows of droplets entrainment and deposition corresponds to the dynamic equilibrium because of turbulent diffusion. The transcendental equation, which was obtained on the basis of this balance, contains one unknown numerical factor and allows one to calculate the liquid rate. Comparing calculation results with the experimental data for the water-air and water-helium flows at low reduced pressures (less than 0.03) has shown their good agreement at the universal value of a numerical constant, if an additional dimensionless parameter, a fourth root of vaporliquid densities ratio, is introduced. The criterion that determines the boundary of using methods of this work and that of [1] in calculations and that reflects effect of pressure and state of film surface on distribution of the liquid in the annular flow is proposed; the numerical value of this criterion has been determined.

  17. Non-annular, hemispheric signature of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Serrano, J.; Haarsma, R. J.

    2016-07-01

    Sensitivity experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) without a proper stratosphere are performed to locally force a North Atlantic oscillation (NAO)-like response in order to analyse the tropospheric dynamics involved in its hemispheric extent. Results show that the circulation anomalies are not confined to the North Atlantic basin not even within the first 10 days of integration, where the atmospheric response propagates downstream into the westerly jets. At this linear stage, transient-eddy activity dominates the emerging, regional NAO-like pattern while zonal-eddy coupling may add on top of the wave energy propagation. Later at the quasi-equilibrium nonlinear stage, the atmospheric response emphasizes a wavenumber-5 structure embedded in the westerly jets, associated with transient-eddy feedback upon the Atlantic and Pacific storm-tracks. This AGCM waveguided structure rightly projects on the observational NAO-related circumglobal pattern, providing evidence of its non-annular character in the troposphere. These findings support the view on the importance of the circumglobal waveguide pattern on the development of NAO-related anomalies at hemispheric level. It could help to settle a consensus view of the Arctic Oscillation, which has been elusive so far.

  18. Analysis of Annular Thermoelectric Couples with Nonuniform Temperature Distribution by Means of 3-D Multiphysics Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauknecht, Andreas; Steinert, Torsten; Spengler, Carsten; Suck, Gerrit

    2013-07-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) modules with annular geometry are very attractive for waste heat recovery within the automotive world, especially when integrated as stacks into tubular heat exchangers. The required temperature difference is built up between the coolant, which flows inside an inner tube, and the exhaust gas, which flows around an outer tube. The flow pattern of the exhaust gas can be axial or circumferential, which can lead to higher heat transfer coefficients on the outer surface of the tube. However, this multidimensional construction in combination with a complex flow pattern can lead to a nonuniform heat flux. Additionally, the system experiences a nonuniform temperature distribution which consequently leads to complex conditions regarding the electrical potential. The relevant effects are investigated using a three-dimensional (3-D) numerical model implemented in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation environment Star-CCM+. The model supports temperature-dependent characteristics of the materials, contact resistances, and parasitic effects in the TE module. Furthermore, it involves techniques to quickly find the exact maximum power point of the TE module with the given boundary conditions. Using the validated model the influence of the nonuniform temperature distribution is investigated with emphasis on the electrical output and TE efficiency.

  19. Wall Shear Stress, Wall Pressure and Near Wall Velocity Field Relationships in a Whirling Annular Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Winslow, Robert B.; Thames, H. Davis, III

    1996-01-01

    The mean and phase averaged pressure and wall shear stress distributions were measured on the stator wall of a 50% eccentric annular seal which was whirling in a circular orbit at the same speed as the shaft rotation. The shear stresses were measured using flush mounted hot-film probes. Four different operating conditions were considered consisting of Reynolds numbers of 12,000 and 24,000 and Taylor numbers of 3,300 and 6,600. At each of the operating conditions the axial distribution (from Z/L = -0.2 to 1.2) of the mean pressure, shear stress magnitude, and shear stress direction on the stator wall were measured. Also measured were the phase averaged pressure and shear stress. These data were combined to calculate the force distributions along the seal length. Integration of the force distributions result in the net forces and moments generated by the pressure and shear stresses. The flow field inside the seal operating at a Reynolds number of 24,000 and a Taylor number of 6,600 has been measured using a 3-D laser Doppler anemometer system. Phase averaged wall pressure and wall shear stress are presented along with phase averaged mean velocity and turbulence kinetic energy distributions located 0.16c from the stator wall where c is the seal clearance. The relationships between the velocity, turbulence, wall pressure and wall shear stress are very complex and do not follow simple bulk flow predictions.

  20. Design and fabrication of sub-wavelength annular apertures for femtosecond laser machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Kuan-Yu; Tung, Yen-Chun; Chung, Ming-Han; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2015-03-01

    Many research teams have begun pursuing optical micromachining technology in recent years due to its associated noncontact and fast speed characteristics. However, the focal spot sizes and the depth of focus (DOF) strongly influenced the design requirements of the micromachining system. The focal spot size determines the minimum features can be fabricated, which is inversely proportional to the DOF. That is, smaller focal spot size led to shorter DOF. However, the DOF of the emitted visible or near-infrared light beam is typically limited to tens of nanometers for traditional optic system. The disadvantages of using nanosecond laser for micromachining such as burrs formation and surface roughness were found to further influence the accuracy of machined surfaces. To alleviate all of the above-mentioned problems, sub-wavelength annular aperture (SAA) illuminated with 780 nm femtosecond laser were integrated to develop the new laser micromachining system presented in this paper. We first optimized the parameters for high transmittance associated with the SAA structure for the 780 nm femtosecond laser used by adopting the finite difference time domain simulations method. A lateral microscope was modified from a traditional microscope to facilitate the measurement of the emitted light beam optical energy distribution. To verify the newly developed system performance the femtosecond laser was used to illuminate the SAA fabricated on the metallic film to produce the Bessel light beam so as to perform micromachining and process on silicon, PCB board and glass. Experimental results were found to match the original system design goals reasonably well.

  1. Fracture Mechanics Analysis of an Annular Crack in a Three-concentric-cylinder Composite Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuguoglu, Latife H.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2004-01-01

    A boundary-value problem governing a three-phase concentric-cylinder model was analytically modeled to analyze annular interfacial crack problems with Love s strain functions in order to find the stress intensity factors (SIFs) and strain energy release rates (SERRs) at the tips of an interface crack in a nonhomogeneous medium. The complex form of a singular integral equation (SIE) of the second kind was formulated using Bessel s functions in the Fourier domain, and the SIF and total SERR were calculated using Jacoby polynomials. For the validity of the SIF equations to be established, the SIE of the three-concentric-cylinder model was reduced to the SIE for a two-concentric-cylinder model, and the results were compared with the previous results of Erdogan. A preliminary set of parametric studies was carried out to show the effect of interphase properties on the SERR. The method presented here provides insight about the effect of interphase properties on the crack driving force.

  2. Prediction in cases with superposition of different hydrological phenomena, such as from weather "cold drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.; Sanchez, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    The authors have been involved in Model Codes for Construction prior to Eurocodes now Euronorms, and in a Drainage Instruction for Roads for Spain that adopted a prediction model from BPR (Bureau of Public Roads) of USA to take account of evident regional differences in Iberian Peninsula and Spanish Isles, and in some related studies. They used Extreme Value Type I (Gumbell law) models, with independent actions in superposition; this law was also adopted then to obtain maps of extreme rains by CEDEX. These methods could be extrapolated somehow with other extreme values distributions, but the first step was useful to set valid superposition schemas for actions in norms. As real case, in East of Spain rain comes usually extensively from normal weather perturbations, but in other cases from "cold drop" local high rains of about 400mm in a day occur, causing inundations and in cases local disasters. The city of Valencia in East of Spain was inundated at 1,5m high from a cold drop in 1957, and the river Turia formerly through that city was just later diverted some kilometers to South in a wider canal. With Gumbell law the expected intensity grows with time for occurrence, indicating a value for each given "return period", but the increasing speed grows with the "annual dispersion" of the Gumbell law, and some rare dangerous events may become really very possible in periods of many years. That can be proved with relatively simple models, e.g. with Extreme Law type I, and they could be made more precise or discussed. Such effects were used for superposition of actions on a structure for Model Codes, and may be combined with hydraulic effects, e.g. for bridges on rivers. These different Gumbell laws, or other extreme laws, with different dispersion may occur for marine actions of waves, earthquakes, tsunamis, and maybe for human perturbations, that could include industrial catastrophes, or civilization wars if considering historical periods.

  3. A deployable, annular, 30m telescope, space-based observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Justin J.; Wirth, Allan; Jankevics, Andrew; Landers, Franklin; Rohweller, David; Chen, C. Bill; Bronowicki, Allen

    2014-08-01

    High resolution imaging from space requires very large apertures, such as NASA's current mission the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) which uses a deployable 6.5m segmented primary. Future missions requiring even larger apertures (>>10m) will present a great challenge relative to the size, weight and power constraints of launch vehicles as well as the cost and schedule required to fabricate the full aperture. Alternatively, a highly obscured annular primary can be considered. For example, a 93.3% obscured 30m aperture having the same total mirror area (91m2) as a 10.7m unobscured telescope, can achieve ~3X higher limiting resolution performance. Substantial cost and schedule savings can be realized with this approach compared to fully filled apertures of equivalent resolution. A conceptual design for a ring-shaped 30m telescope is presented and the engineering challenges of its various subsystems analyzed. The optical design consists of a 20X annular Mersenne form beam compactor feeding a classical 1.5m TMA telescope. Ray trace analysis indicates the design can achieve near diffraction limited images over a 200μrad FOV. The primary mirror consists of 70 identical rectangular 1.34x1.0m segments with a prescription well within the demonstrated capabilities of the replicated nanolaminate on SiC substrate technology developed by AOA Xinetics. A concept is presented for the deployable structure that supports the primary mirror segments. A wavefront control architecture consisting of an optical metrology subsystem for coarse alignment and an image based fine alignment and phasing subsystem is presented. The metrology subsystem is image based, using the background starfields for distortion and pointing calibration and fiducials on the segments for measurement. The fine wavefront control employs a hill climbing algorithm operating on images from the science camera. The final key technology required is the image restoration algorithm that will compensate for the highly

  4. Effect of the annular region on the performance of a cylindrical Hall plasma thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Mihui; Lee, Jongsub; Choe, Wonho; Seon, Jongho; June Lee, Hae

    2013-02-15

    Performance characteristics of a cylindrical Hall thruster depending on the depth of the annular region (L{sub a}) in front of the anode were investigated. The effect of the annular region was examined by operating thrusters corresponding to four different values of L{sub a} (0, 4, 6, and 10 mm) and a fixed length of the cylindrical region (25 mm). Various measurements such as electron and ion currents, thrust, anode efficiency, current and propellant utilizations, and ion energy distribution functions were performed. Such measurements lead to an interpretation that (1) a considerable potential difference may exist between the anode and the ionization region, which is presumably located near the end of the annular region where magnetic field lines converge; (2) this potential difference increases with respect to increasing L{sub a}; and (3) the presence of the annular region near the anode reduces the specific impulse and anode efficiency for the examined thrusters.

  5. Method of improving image sharpness for annular-illumination scanning electron microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enyama, Momoyo; Hamada, Koichi; Fukuda, Muneyuki; Kazumi, Hideyuki

    2016-06-01

    Annular illumination is effective in enhancing the depth of focus for scanning electron microscopes (SEMs). However, owing to high side lobes of the point-spread function (PSF), annular illumination results in poor image sharpness. The conventional deconvolution method, which converts the PSF to a delta function, can improve image sharpness, but results in artifacts due to noise amplification. In this paper, we propose an image processing method that can reduce the deterioration of image sharpness. With this method, the PSF under annular illumination is converted to that under standard illumination. Through simulations, we verified that the image sharpness of SEM images under annular illumination with the proposed method can be improved without noise amplification.

  6. An iterative method for the solution of nonlinear systems using the Faber polynomials for annular sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, N.J.

    1994-12-31

    The author gives a hybrid method for the iterative solution of linear systems of equations Ax = b, where the matrix (A) is nonsingular, sparse and nonsymmetric. As in a method developed by Starke and Varga the method begins with a number of steps of the Arnoldi method to produce some information on the location of the spectrum of A. This method then switches to an iterative method based on the Faber polynomials for an annular sector placed around these eigenvalue estimates. The Faber polynomials for an annular sector are used because, firstly an annular sector can easily be placed around any eigenvalue estimates bounded away from zero, and secondly the Faber polynomials are known analytically for an annular sector. Finally the author gives three numerical examples, two of which allow comparison with Starke and Varga`s results. The third is an example of a matrix for which many iterative methods would fall, but this method converges.

  7. Biofilm Community Dynamics in Bench-Scale Annular Reactors Simulating Arrestment of Chloraminated Drinking Water Nitrification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Annular reactors (ARs) were used to study biofilm community succession and provide an ecological insight during nitrification arrestment through simultaneously increasing monochloramine (NH2Cl) and chlorine to nitrogen mass ratios, resulting in four operational periods (I to IV)....

  8. Free transverse vibration of a wrinkled annular thin film by using finite difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. G.; Liu, Y. P.; Lan, L.; Tan, H. F.

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the free transverse vibration of a wrinkled annular thin film. The non-dimensional Hamilton motion equation of the wrinkled annular thin film is established, which is solved by using the finite difference method to acquire the vibration frequency and mode. The predicted vibration characteristics are verified by the experimental measurements based on the digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The results show that wrinkles have great effects on the vibration of the annular thin film. Especially for the heavily wrinkled cases, the local-global interactive mode dominates the vibration of the annular thin film. The frequency increases as the wrinkling level increases which is mainly due to the increased nonlinear geometric stiffness. The results provide favorable supports for understanding the role of nonlinear wrinkling on the vibration of thin films.

  9. Entanglement and discord of the superposition of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

    SciTech Connect

    Parashar, Preeti; Rana, Swapan

    2011-03-15

    We calculate the analytic expression for geometric measure of entanglement for arbitrary superposition of two N-qubit canonical orthonormal Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and the same for two W states. In the course of characterizing all kinds of nonclassical correlations, an explicit formula for quantum discord (via relative entropy) for the former class of states has been presented. Contrary to the GHZ state, the closest separable state to the W state is not classical. Therefore, in this case, the discord is different from the relative entropy of entanglement. We conjecture that the discord for the N-qubit W state is log{sub 2}N.

  10. Heisenberg-limited quantum sensing and metrology with superpositions of twin-Fock states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerry, Christopher C.; Mimih, Jihane

    2011-03-01

    We discuss the prospects of performing Heisenberg-limited quantum sensing and metrology using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with input states that are superpositions of twin-Fock states and where photon number parity measurements are made on one of the output beams of the interferometer. This study is motivated by the experimental challenge of producing twin-Fock states on opposite sides of a beam splitter. We focus on the use of the so-called pair coherent states for this purpose and discuss a possible mechanism for generating them. We also discuss the prospect of using other superstitions of twin-Fock states, for the purpose of interferometry.

  11. Superposition of two nonlinear coherent states {π}/{2} out of phase and their nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, O.; Tavassoly, M. K.

    2009-09-01

    Considering the concept of " nonlinear coherent states", we will study the interference effects by introducing the " superposition of two classes of nonlinear coherent states" which are {π}/{2} out of phase. The formalism has then been applied to a few physical systems as "harmonious states", " SU(1,1) coherent states" and "the center of mass motion of trapped ion". Finally, the nonclassical properties such as sub-Poissonian statistics, quadrature squeezing, amplitude-squared squeezing and Wigner distribution function of the superposed states have been investigated, numerically. Especially, as we will observe the Wigner functions of the superposed states take negative values in phase space, while their original components do not.

  12. Relativistic Inverse Scattering Problem for a Superposition of a Nonlocal Separable and a Local Quasipotential

    SciTech Connect

    Chernichenko, Yu.D.

    2005-01-01

    Within the relativistic quasipotential approach to quantum field theory, the relativistic inverse scattering problem is solved for the case where the total quasipotential describing the interaction of two relativistic spinless particles having different masses is a superposition of a nonlocal separable and a local quasipotential. It is assumed that the local component of the total quasipotential is known and that there exist bound states in this local component. It is shown that the nonlocal separable component of the total interaction can be reconstructed provided that the local component, an increment of the phase shift, and the energies of bound states are known.

  13. Security-enhanced asymmetric optical cryptosystem based on coherent superposition and equal modulus decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jianjun; Shen, Xueju; Lin, Chao

    2016-01-01

    We propose a security-enhanced asymmetric optical cryptosystem based on coherent superposition and equal modulus decomposition by combining full phase encryption technique with our previous cryptosystem. In the encryption process, the original image is phase encoded rather than bonded with a RPM. In the decryption process, two phase-contrast filters (PCFs) are employed to obtain the plaintext. As a consequence, the new cryptosystem guarantees high-level security to the attack based on iterative Fourier transform and maintains the good performance of our previous cryptosystem, especially conveniences. Some numerical simulations are presented to verify the validity and the performance of the modified cryptosystem.

  14. Superposition of states by adiabatic passage in N-pod systems

    SciTech Connect

    Amniat-Talab, M.; Saadati-Niari, M.; Nader-Ali, R.; Guerin, S.

    2011-01-15

    We study the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage technique in an N-pod system driven by N pulsed fields when N-2 and N-1 pulses not connected to the initial state have the same shape. We show that, for properly timed pulses, robust population transfer from an initial ground state to an arbitrary coherent superposition of the ground states can be achieved in a single step. The case of N-2 pulses of the same shape involves a geometric phase of the same type as the one appearing in tripod systems.

  15. A Fillable Micro-Hollow Sphere Lesion Detection Phantom Using Superposition

    PubMed Central

    DiFilippo, Frank P.; Gallo, Sven L.; Klatte, Ryan S.; Patel, Sagar

    2010-01-01

    The lesion detection performance of SPECT and PET scanners is most commonly evaluated with a phantom containing hollow spheres in a background chamber at a specified radionuclide contrast ratio. However there are limitations associated with a miniature version of a hollow sphere phantom for small animal SPECT and PET scanners. One issue is that the “wall effect” associated with zero activity in the sphere wall and fill port causes significant errors for small diameter spheres. Another issue is that there are practical difficulties in fabricating and in filling very small spheres (< 3 mm diameter). The need for lesion detection performance assessment of small-animal scanners has motivated our development of a micro-hollow sphere phantom that utilizes the principle of superposition. The phantom is fabricated by stereolithography and has interchangeable sectors containing hollow spheres with volumes ranging from 1 to 14 μL (diameters ranging from 1.25 to 3.0 mm). A simple 60° internal rotation switches the positions of three such sectors with their corresponding background regions. Raw data from scans of each rotated configuration are combined and reconstructed to yield superposition images. Since the sphere counts and background counts are acquired separately, the wall effect is eliminated. The raw data are subsampled randomly prior to summation and reconstruction to specify the desired spheres-to-background contrast ratio of the superposition image. A set of images with multiple contrast ratios is generated for visual assessment of lesion detection thresholds. To demonstrate the utility of the phantom, data were acquired with a multi-pinhole SPECT/CT scanner. Micro-liter syringes were successful in filling the small hollow spheres, and the accuracy of the dispensed volume was validated through repeated filling and weighing of the spheres. The phantom’s internal rotation and the data analysis process were successful in producing the expected superposition

  16. Laser transmission welding of absorber-free thermoplastics using dynamic beam superposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamuschkin, Viktor; Olowinsky, Alexander; van der Straeten, Kira; Engelmann, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    So far, the main approach to weld absorber-free thermoplastics is exploiting their intrinsic absorption by choosing a proper wavelength of the laser. In order to melt the joining partners spatially restricted at the interface usually optics with a high numerical aperture are used. However, practice shows that the heat affected zone (HAZ) extends over a large area along the beam axis regardless of the optics used. Without clamping or convective cooling thermally induced expansion of the material can cause blowholes or deformation of the irradiated surface. To reduce the thermal stress on the part surface a dynamic beam superposition is investigated with the laser beam performing a precession movement.

  17. Strategies for reducing basis set superposition error (BSSE) in O/AU and O/Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuttleworth, I. G.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of basis set superposition error (BSSE) and effective strategies for the minimisation have been investigated using the SIESTA-LCAO DFT package. Variation of the energy shift parameter ΔEPAO has been shown to reduce BSSE for bulk Au and Ni and across their oxygenated surfaces. Alternative strategies based on either the expansion or contraction of the basis set have been shown to be ineffective in reducing BSSE. Comparison of the binding energies for the surface systems obtained using LCAO were compared with BSSE-free plane wave energies.

  18. Large Eddy Simulation of ignition in an annular multi-injector combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicquelin, Ronan; Philip, Maxime; Boileau, Matthieu; Schmitt, Thomas; Bourgoin, Jean-François; Durox, Daniel; Candel, Sébastien

    2013-11-01

    The present work deals with validating the LES methodology for transient ignition simulations, and in particular elucidating the mechanisms that control the light round sequence in a laboratory annular combustor, representative of many practical industrial systems. The simulation benefits from the unique experimental database built at EM2C on a fully transparent annular chamber equipped with 16 premixed swirled injectors. The F-TACLES combustion model is used for its ability to properly represent the flame propagation.

  19. The numerical solution of flow field of short-annular combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Ning, H.

    1986-05-01

    The recirculating flow field of a short-annular combustion chamber has been studied. The body-fitting coordinate system and the 'simple' method combined with a constant viscosity model have been employed to solve the Navier-Stokes equations in a regime containing a complicated curved boundary. The result could provide the theoretical reference for the design and improvement of short-annular combustion chambers.

  20. Modified Surgical Intervention for Extensive Mitral Valve Endocarditis and Posterior Mitral Annular Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gwan Sic; Beom, Min Sun; Kim, Sung Ryong; Kim, Na Rae; Jang, Ji Wook; Jang, Mi Hee; Ryu, Sang Wan

    2016-01-01

    The concomitant presence of posterior mitral annular calcification and infectious mitral valve lesions poses a technical challenge with considerable perioperative risk when using previously proposed techniques for mitral valve surgery. Herein, we report a case of the use of a modified surgical technique to successfully treat a patient with mitral infective endocarditis complicated by a subendocardial abscess and extensive posterior mitral annular calcification. PMID:26889447

  1. An X-band high-impedance relativistic klystron amplifier with an annular explosive cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Danni; Zhang, Jun; Zhong, Huihuang; Qi, Zumin

    2015-11-01

    The feasibility of employing an annular beam instead of a solid one in the X-band high-impedance relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA) is investigated in theory and simulation. Small-signal theory analysis indicates that the optimum bunching distance, fundamental current modulation depth, beam-coupling coefficient, and beam-loaded quality factor of annular beams are all larger than the corresponding parameters of solid beams at the same beam voltage and current. An annular beam RKA and a solid beam RKA with almost the same geometric parameters are compared in particle-in-cell simulation. Output microwave power of 100 MW, gain of 50 dB, and power conversion efficiency of 42% are obtained in an annular beam RKA. The annular beam needs a 15% lower uniform guiding magnetic field than the solid beam. Our investigations demonstrate that we are able to use a simple annular explosive cathode immersed in a lower uniform magnetic field instead of a solid thermionic cathode in a complicated partially shielding magnetic field for designing high-impedance RKA, which avoids high temperature requirement, complicated electron-optical system, large area convergence, high current density, and emission uniformity for the solid beam. An equivalent method for the annular beam and the solid beam on bunching features is proposed and agrees with the simulation. The annular beam has the primary advantages over the solid beam that it can employ the immersing uniform magnetic field avoiding the complicated shielding magnetic field system and needs a lower optimum guiding field due to the smaller space charge effect.

  2. An X-band high-impedance relativistic klystron amplifier with an annular explosive cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Danni; Zhang, Jun Zhong, Huihuang; Qi, Zumin

    2015-11-15

    The feasibility of employing an annular beam instead of a solid one in the X-band high-impedance relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA) is investigated in theory and simulation. Small-signal theory analysis indicates that the optimum bunching distance, fundamental current modulation depth, beam-coupling coefficient, and beam-loaded quality factor of annular beams are all larger than the corresponding parameters of solid beams at the same beam voltage and current. An annular beam RKA and a solid beam RKA with almost the same geometric parameters are compared in particle-in-cell simulation. Output microwave power of 100 MW, gain of 50 dB, and power conversion efficiency of 42% are obtained in an annular beam RKA. The annular beam needs a 15% lower uniform guiding magnetic field than the solid beam. Our investigations demonstrate that we are able to use a simple annular explosive cathode immersed in a lower uniform magnetic field instead of a solid thermionic cathode in a complicated partially shielding magnetic field for designing high-impedance RKA, which avoids high temperature requirement, complicated electron-optical system, large area convergence, high current density, and emission uniformity for the solid beam. An equivalent method for the annular beam and the solid beam on bunching features is proposed and agrees with the simulation. The annular beam has the primary advantages over the solid beam that it can employ the immersing uniform magnetic field avoiding the complicated shielding magnetic field system and needs a lower optimum guiding field due to the smaller space charge effect.

  3. Polarization state modifications in the propagation of high azimuthal order annular beams.

    PubMed

    Lapucci, A; Ciofini, M

    2001-12-01

    Using a vector Fresnel diffraction propagator we investigate the far-field distributions obtained from guided annular modes with different polarization states. Furthermore we demonstrate that a pure azimuthal polarization transforms into a mainly radial one in the propagation of annular beams with azimuthal mode number higher than 0. This property could enhance the performance of a laser metal-cutting system based on these kind of beams. PMID:19424296

  4. The influence of the equivalent hydraulic diameter on the pressure drop prediction of annular test section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kayiem, A. H. H.; Ibrahim, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The flow behaviour and the pressure drop throughout an annular flow test section was investigated in order to evaluate and justify the reliability of experimental flow loop for wax deposition studies. The specific objective of the present paper is to assess and highlight the influence of the equivalent diameter method on the analysis of the hydrodynamic behaviour of the flow and the pressure drop throughout the annular test section. The test section has annular shape of 3 m length with three flow passages, namely; outer thermal control jacket, oil annular flow and inner pipe flow of a coolant. The oil annular flow has internal and external diameters of 0.0422 m and 0.0801 m, respectively. Oil was re-circulated in the annular passage while a cold water-glycol mixture was re-circulated in the inner pipe counter currently to the oil flow. The experiments were carried out at oil Reynolds number range of 2000 to 17000, covering laminar, transition and turbulent flow regimes. Four different methods of equivalent diameter of the annulus have been considered in this hydraulic analysis. The correction factor model for frictional pressure drop was also considered in the investigations. All methods addressed the high deviation of the prediction from the experimental data, which justified the need of a suitable pressure prediction correlation for the annular test section. The conventional hydraulic diameter method is a convenient substitute for characterizing physical dimension of a non-circular duct, and it leads to fairly good correlation between turbulent fluid flow and heat transfer characteristic of annular ducts.

  5. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers based on annular cell geometry for air-coupled applications.

    PubMed

    Na, Shuai; Chen, Albert I H; Wong, Lawrence L P; Li, Zhenhao; Macecek, Mirek; Yeow, John T W

    2016-09-01

    A novel design of an air-coupled capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) with annular cell geometry (annular CMUT) is proposed. Finite element analysis shows that an annular cell has a ratio of average-to-maximum displacement (RAMD) of 0.52-0.58 which is 58-76% higher than that of a conventional circular cell. The increased RAMD leads to a larger volume displacement which results in a 48.4% improved transmit sensitivity and 127.3% improved power intensity. Single-cell annular CMUTs were fabricated with 20-μm silicon plates on 13.7-μm deep and 1.35-mm wide annular cavities using the wafer bonding technique. The measured RAMD of the fabricated CMUTs is 0.54. The resonance frequency was measured to be 94.5kHz at 170-V DC bias. The transmit sensitivity was measured to be 33.83Pa/V and 25.85Pa/V when the CMUT was excited by a continuous wave and a 20-cycle burst, respectively. The receive sensitivity at 170-V DC bias was measured to be 7.7mV/Pa for a 20-cycle burst, and 15.0mV/Pa for a continuous incident wave. The proposed annular CMUT design demonstrates a significant improvement in transmit efficiency, which is an important parameter for air-coupled ultrasonic transducers. PMID:27352025

  6. Jet mixing and emission characteristics of transverse jets in annular and cylindrical confined crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, D. B.; Smith, C. E.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Three dimensional turbulent reacting CFD analyses were performed on transverse jets injected into annular and cylindrical (can) confined crossflows. The goal was to identify and assess mixing differences between annular and can geometries. The approach taken was to optimize both annular and can configurations by systematically varying orifice spacing until lowest emissions were achieved, and then compare the results. Numerical test conditions consisted of a jet-to-mainstream mass-flow ratio of 3.2 and a jet-to-mainstream momentum-flux ratio (J) of 30. The computational results showed that the optimized geometries had similar emission levels at the exit of the mixing section although the annular configuration did mix-out faster. For lowest emissions, the density correlation parameter (C = (S/H) square root of J) was 2.35 for the annular geometry and 3.5 for the can geometry. For the annular geometry, the constant was about twice the value seen for jet mixing at low mass-flow ratios (i.e., MR less than 0.5). For the can geometry, the constant was about 1 1/2 times the value seen for low mass-flow ratios.

  7. Design and characterization of the annular cathode high current pulsed electron beam source for circular components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Langping; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2016-08-01

    In order to irradiate circular components with high current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB), an annular cathode based on carbon fiber bunches was designed and fabricated. Using an acceleration voltage of 25 kV, the maximum pulsed irradiation current and energy of this annular cathode can reach 7.9 kA and 300 J, respectively. The irradiation current density distribution of the annular cathode HCPEB source measured along the circumferential direction shows that the annular cathode has good emission uniformity. In addition, four 9310 steel substrates fixed uniformly along the circumferential direction of a metal ring substrate were irradiated by this annular cathode HCPEB source. The surface and cross-section morphologies of the irradiated samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images of the surface reveal that crater and surface undulation have been formed, which hints that the irradiation energy of the HCPEB process is large enough for surface modification of 9310 steel. Meanwhile, SEM cross-section images exhibit that remelted layers with a thickness of about 5.4 μm have been obtained in all samples, which proves that a good practical irradiation uniformity can be achieved by this annular cathode HCPEB source.

  8. Molecular mechanisms regulating formation, trafficking and processing of annular gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Falk, Matthias M; Bell, Cheryl L; Kells Andrews, Rachael M; Murray, Sandra A

    2016-01-01

    Internalization of gap junction plaques results in the formation of annular gap junction vesicles. The factors that regulate the coordinated internalization of the gap junction plaques to form annular gap junction vesicles, and the subsequent events involved in annular gap junction processing have only relatively recently been investigated in detail. However it is becoming clear that while annular gap junction vesicles have been demonstrated to be degraded by autophagosomal and endo-lysosomal pathways, they undergo a number of additional processing events. Here, we characterize the morphology of the annular gap junction vesicle and review the current knowledge of the processes involved in their formation, fission, fusion, and degradation. In addition, we address the possibility for connexin protein recycling back to the plasma membrane to contribute to gap junction formation and intercellular communication. Information on gap junction plaque removal from the plasma membrane and the subsequent processing of annular gap junction vesicles is critical to our understanding of cell-cell communication as it relates to events regulating development, cell homeostasis, unstable proliferation of cancer cells, wound healing, changes in the ischemic heart, and many other physiological and pathological cellular phenomena. PMID:27230503

  9. An optical system design that converts a Gaussian to a flattop annular beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaochen; Wu, Tengfei; Wang, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Flattop annular beam has been predicted with good character over an increasing application, but the generating of flattop annular beam is rarely mentioned by academic article. In our paper, an optical refractive system, which is designed to achieve flattop annular beam, are proposed. The cone prism is commonly used to get an annular beam, however, the beam intensity distribution is non-uniform. In our design, an additional aspheric lens is placed in front of the cone prism along the optical axis. The lens parameters are theoretically analyzed and well optimized to homogenize the optical field. Furthermore, to lower the requirement of machining accuracy, a pair of aspheric lenses is also designed, which can be used independently to generate flattop annular beam. It combines the function of cone prism and aspheric lens, so as to replace them both. The performance of the implementations has been demonstrated in detail. Simulation result shows that the proposed design is effective and feasible. It is hope that our work would be helpful in related fields. Flattop annular beam, Aspheric lens, Cone prism

  10. Modeling and analysis of thermoacoustic instabilities in an annular combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Sandeep; Sayadi, Taraneh; Le Chenadec, Vincent; Schmid, Peter

    2015-11-01

    A simplified model is introduced to study thermo-acoustic instabilities in axisymmetric combustion chambers. Such instabilities can be triggered when correlations between heat-release and pressure oscillations exist, leading to undesirable effects. Gas turbine designs typically consist of a periodic assembly of N identical units; as evidenced by documented studies, the coupling across sectors may give rise to unstable modes, which are the highlight of this study. In the proposed model, the governing equations are linearized in the acoustic limit, with each burner modeled as a one-dimensional system, featuring acoustic damping and a compact heat source. The coupling between the burners is accounted for by solving the two-dimensional wave equation over an annular region, perpendicular to the burners, representing the chamber's geometry. The discretization of these equations results in a set of coupled delay-differential equations, that depends on a finite set of parameters. The system's periodicity is leveraged using a recently developed root-of-unity formalism (Schmid et al., 2015). This results in a linear system, which is then subjected to modal and non-modal analysis to explore the influence of the coupled behavior of the burners on the system's stability and receptivity.

  11. Criticality Benchmark Analysis of the HTTR Annular Startup Core Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2009-11-01

    One of the high priority benchmarking activities for corroborating the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project and Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Program is evaluation of Japan's existing High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). The HTTR is a 30 MWt engineering test reactor utilizing graphite moderation, helium coolant, and prismatic TRISO fuel. A large amount of critical reactor physics data is available for validation efforts of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). Previous international reactor physics benchmarking activities provided a collation of mixed results that inaccurately predicted actual experimental performance.1 Reevaluations were performed by the Japanese to reduce the discrepancy between actual and computationally-determined critical configurations.2-3 Current efforts at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) involve development of reactor physics benchmark models in conjunction with the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) for use with verification and validation methods in the VHTR Program. Annular cores demonstrate inherent safety characteristics that are of interest in developing future HTGRs.

  12. Experimental investigation of the low NOx vortex airblast annular combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. M.; Biaglow, J. A.; Smith, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A low oxides of nitrogen vortex airblast annular combustor was evaluated which has attained the goal of 1 gm NO2/kg fuel or less during operation. The experimental combustor test conditions were a nominal inlet-air temperature of 703 K, inlet total pressures between 0.52 to 0.83 MPa, and a constant inlet Mach number of 0.26. Exit temperature pattern factors for all test points were between 0.16 and 0.20 and exit swirl flow angles were 47 degrees at isothermal conditions and 23 degrees during combustion. Oxides of nitrogen did not exceed 1.05 gm NO2/kg fuel at the highest inlet pressure and exhaust temperature tested. Previous correlations have related NOx proportionally to the combustor inlet pressure raised to some exponent. In this experiment, a band of exponents between 0.5 and 1.0 resulted for fuel-air ratios from 0.023 to 0.027 and inlet pressures from 0.52 to 0.83 MPa. Previously announced in STAR as N84-22567

  13. Operational verification of a 40-MHz annular array transducer

    PubMed Central

    Ketterling, Jeffrey A.; Ramachandran, Sarayu; Aristizäbal, Orlando

    2006-01-01

    An experimental system to take advantage of the imaging capabilities of a 5-ring polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based annular array is presented. The array has a 6 mm total aperture and a 12 mm geometric focus. The experimental system is designed to pulse a single element of the array and then digitize the received data of all array channels simultaneously. All transmit/receive pairs are digitized and then the data are post-processed with a synthetic focusing technique to achieve an enhanced depth of field (DOF). The performance of the array is experimentally tested with a wire phantom consisting of 25-μm diameter wires diagonally spaced at 1 mm by 1 mm intervals. The phantom permitted the efficacy of the synthetic focusing algorithm to be tested and was also used for two-way beam characterization. Experimental results are compared to a spatial impulse response method beam simulation. After synthetic focusing, the two-way echo amplitude was enhanced over the range of 8 to 19 mm and the 6-dB DOF spanned from 9 to 15 mm. For a wire at a fixed axial depth, the relative time delays between transmit/receive ring pairs agreed with theoretical predictions to within ± 2 ns. To further test the system, B-mode images of an excised bovine eye are rendered. PMID:16555771

  14. Acoustic modal analysis of a full-scale annular combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karchmer, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    An acoustic modal decomposition of the measured pressure field in a full scale annular combustor installed in a ducted test rig is described. The modal analysis, utilizing a least squares optimization routine, is facilitated by the assumption of randomly occurring pressure disturbances which generate equal amplitude clockwise and counter-clockwise pressure waves, and the assumption of statistical independence between modes. These assumptions are fully justified by the measured cross spectral phases between the various measurement points. The resultant modal decomposition indicates that higher order modes compose the dominant portion of the combustor pressure spectrum in the range of frequencies of interest in core noise studies. A second major finding is that, over the frequency range of interest, each individual mode which is present exists in virtual isolation over significant portions of the spectrum. Finally, a comparison between the present results and a limited amount of data obtained in an operating turbofan engine with the same combustor is made. The comparison is sufficiently favorable to warrant the conclusion that the structure of the combustor pressure field is preserved between the component facility and the engine.

  15. Flow Pressure Loss through Straight Annular Corrugated Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, Joseph R.; Kirk, Daniel R.; Marsell, Brandon; Roth, Jacob; Schallhorn, Paul A.; Pitchford, Brian; Weber, Chris; Bulk, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Pressure loss through annular corrugated pipes, using fully developed gaseous nitrogen representing purge pipes in spacecraft fairings, was studied to gain insight into a friction factor coefficient for these pipes. Twelve pipes were tested: four Annuflex, four Masterflex and two Titeflex with ¼”, 3/8”, ½” and ¾” inner diameters. Experimental set-up was validated using smooth-pipe and showed good agreement to the Moody diagram. Nitrogen flow rates between 0-200 standard cubic feet per hour were used, producing approximate Reynolds numbers from 300-23,000. Corrugation depth varied from 0.248 = E/D = 0.349 and relative corrugation pitch of 0.192 = P/D = 0.483. Differential pressure per unit length was measured and calculated using 8-9 equidistant pressure taps. A detailed experimental uncertainty analysis, including correlated bias error terms, is presented. Results show larger differential pressure losses than smooth-pipes with similar inner diameters resulting in larger friction factor coefficients.

  16. NB-UVB phototherapy for generalized granuloma annulare.

    PubMed

    Pavlovsky, Mor; Samuelov, Liat; Sprecher, Eli; Matz, Hagit

    2016-05-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) is a benign, usually self-limited, granulomatous skin disease of unknown etiology. The generalized form of the disease shows a more chronic, relapsing course, rare spontaneous resolution, and poorer response to therapy. Psoralen plus UVA phototherapy has been reported to be effective for GA. However, little is known regarding the efficacy of narrowband UVB phototherapy. Our goal was to determine the efficacy of NB-UVB phototherapy in generalized GA. We carried out a retrospective study of patients with generalized GA treated with NB-UVB phototherapy over a period of 3 years. On completion of treatment, outcome was assessed as complete response (complete clearance of the lesions), partial response (>50% clearance of the lesions), and poor response (<50% clinical response). Therapy was stopped if no improvement was seen after 20 treatments. Thirteen patients were included in the study. 54% of patients treated with NB-UVB had a complete/partial response by the end of the treatment period. NB-UVB phototherapy was well-tolerated, with no serious adverse effects. NB-UVB phototherapy is effective in a substantial portion of patients with generalized GA. To determine the true efficacy of this therapeutic modality, a prospective study comparing it to PUVA is warranted. PMID:26626163

  17. On the motion of an annular viscous jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolka, Linda; North, Justin; Guerra, Bree

    2006-11-01

    We experimentally examine the motion of an annular jet of viscous fluid flowing down the outside of a thin, vertical fiber. As other authors have observed, perturbations develop along the free surface of the jet; our focus is on the instability that leads to the formation of these perturbations. We observe a striking transition in the perturbation dynamics at a critical flow rate, Qc. Above Qc, the distance from the orifice that perturbations form oscillates in time, and the spacing between perturbations varies, typically leading to the coalescence of neighboring perturbations. For fixed Q below Qc, the distance from the orifice that perturbations form is constant, and the spacing between consecutive perturbations remains fixed as they travel down the length of the fiber (2 meters). We find the growth of the perturbations is initially rapid followed by a slower phase as they saturate in size. We compare the nascent perturbation growth to theoretical predictions developed from a long-wave model (Craster & Matar, J. Fluid Mech. 553, 85-105 (2006)).

  18. Design and fabrication of a 40-MHz annular array transducer

    PubMed Central

    Ketterling, Jeffrey A.; Lizzi, Frederic L.; Aristizábal, Orlando; Turnbull, Daniel H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of fabricating a 5-ring, focused annular array transducer operating at 40 MHz. The active piezoelectric material of the transducer was a 9-μm thick polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. One side of the PVDF was metallized with gold and forms the ground plane of the transducer. The array pattern of the transducer and electrical traces to each annulus were formed on a copper-clad polyimide film. The PVDF and polyimide were bonded with a thin layer of epoxy, pressed into a spherically curved shape, and then back filled with epoxy. A 5-ring transducer with equal area elements and 100 μm kerfs between annuli was fabricated and tested. The transducer had a total aperture of 6 mm and a geometric focus of 12 mm. The pulse/echo response from a quartz plate located at the geometric focus, two-way insertion loss (IL), complex impedance, electrical cross-talk, and lateral beamwidth were all measured for each annulus. The complex impedance data from each element were used to perform electrical matching and the measurements were repeated. After impedance matching, fc ≈ 36 MHz and BWs ranged from 31 to 39%. The ILs for the matched annuli ranged from −28 to −38 dB. PMID:16060516

  19. MCNP/MCNPX model of the annular core research reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    DePriest, Kendall Russell; Cooper, Philip J.; Parma, Edward J., Jr.

    2006-10-01

    Many experimenters at the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) have a need to predict the neutron/gamma environment prior to testing. In some cases, the neutron/gamma environment is needed to understand the test results after the completion of an experiment. In an effort to satisfy the needs of experimenters, a model of the ACRR was developed for use with the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport codes MCNP [Br03] and MCNPX [Wa02]. The model contains adjustable safety, transient, and control rods, several of the available spectrum-modifying cavity inserts, and placeholders for experiment packages. The ACRR model was constructed such that experiment package models can be easily placed in the reactor after being developed as stand-alone units. An addition to the 'standard' model allows the FREC-II cavity to be included in the calculations. This report presents the MCNP/MCNPX model of the ACRR. Comparisons are made between the model and the reactor for various configurations. Reactivity worth curves for the various reactor configurations are presented. Examples of reactivity worth calculations for a few experiment packages are presented along with the measured reactivity worth from the reactor test of the experiment packages. Finally, calculated neutron/gamma spectra are presented.

  20. Development of an annular arc accelerator shock tube driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, L. P.

    1973-01-01

    An annular arc accelerator (ANAA) shock tube driver has been developed that deposits the energy of an arc discharge into a flowing gas, which then expands and cools without any delay for the opening of a diaphragm. A simplified one-dimensional flow analysis of the ANAA shock tube has been performed, which indicates that shock velocities greater than 40 km/sec may be obtained using a 300-kJ capacitor bank. The ANAA driver consists of a high-pressure driver, an expansion section, and an electrode section. In operation, the cold gas driver is pressurized until the diaphragm bursts, sending a pressure front down the expansion tube to the arc section. When the accelerated flow arrives at the electrode section, a 100-capacitor, 300-kJ capacitor bank is discharged either by breaking an insulating diaphragm between the electrodes or by the triggering of a series of external switches. Shock velocities of 28 km/sec have been obtained, and modifications are described that are expected to improve performance.

  1. Acoustic modal analysis of a full-scale annular combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karchmer, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    An acoustic modal decomposition of the measured pressure field in a full scale annular combustor installed in a ducted test rig is described. The modal analysis, utilizing a least squares optimization routine, is facilitated by the assumption of randomly occurring pressure disturbances which generate equal amplitude clockwise and counter-clockwise pressure waves, and the assumption of statistical independence between modes. These assumptions are fully justified by the measured cross spectral phases between the various measurement points. The resultant modal decomposition indicates that higher order modes compose the dominant portion of the combustor pressure spectrum in the range of frequencies of interest in core noise studies. A second major finding is that, over the frequency range of interest, each individual mode which is present exists in virtual isolation over significant portions of the spectrum. Finally, a comparison between the present results and a limited amount of data obtained in an operating turbofan engine with the same combustor is made. The comparison is sufficiently favorable to warrant the conclusion that the structure of the combustor pressure field is preserved between the component facility and the engine. Previously announced in STAR as N83-21896

  2. Adaptive control system for large annular momentum control device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, R. C.; Johnson, C. R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A dual momentum vector control concept, consisting of two counterrotating rings (each designated as an annular momentum control device), was studied for pointing and slewing control of large spacecraft. In a disturbance free space environment, the concept provides for three axis pointing and slewing capabilities while requiring no expendables. The approach utilizes two large diameter counterrotating rings or wheels suspended magnetically in many race supports distributed around the antenna structure. When the magnets are energized, attracting the two wheels, the resulting gyroscopic torque produces a rate along the appropriate axis. Roll control is provided by alternating the radiative rotational velocity of the two wheels. Wheels with diameters of 500 to 800 m and with sufficient momentum storage capability require rims only a few centimeters thick. The wheels are extremely flexible; therefore, it is necessary to account for the distributed nature of the rings in the design of the bearing controllers. Also, ring behavior is unpredictably sensitive to ring temperature, spin rate, manufacturing imperfections, and other variables. An adaptive control system designed to handle these problems is described.

  3. Characterization of Novel Calorimeters in the Annular Core Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hehr, Brian D.; Parma, Edward J.; Peters, Curtis D.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Luker, S. Michael

    2016-02-01

    A series of pulsed irradiation experiments have been performed in the central cavity of Sandia National Laboratories' Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) to characterize the responses of a set of elemental calorimeter materials including Si, Zr, Sn, Ta, W, and Bi. Of particular interest was the perturbing effect of the calorimeter itself on the ambient radiation field - a potential concern in dosimetry applications. By placing the calorimeter package into a neutron-thermalizing lead/polyethylene (LP) bucket and irradiating both with and without a cadmium wrapper, it was demonstrated that prompt capture gammas generated inside the calorimeters can be a significant contributor to the measured dose in the active disc region. An MCNP model of the experimental setup was shown to replicate measured dose responses to within 10%. The internal (n,γ) contribution was found to constitute as much as 50% of the response inside the LP bucket and up to 20% inside the nominal (unmodified) cavity environment, with Ta and W exhibiting the largest enhancement due to their sizable (n,γ) cross sections. Capture reactions in non-disc components of the calorimeter were estimated to be responsible for up to a few percent of the measured response. This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy.

  4. Current Density Measurements of an Annular-Geometry Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shastry, Rohit; Patterson, Michael J.; Herman, Daniel A.; Foster, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of the annular-geometry ion engine, or AGI-Engine, has been shown to have many potential benefits when scaling electric propulsion technologies to higher power. However, the necessary asymmetric location of the discharge cathode away from thruster centerline could potentially lead to non-uniformities in the discharge not present in conventional geometry ion thrusters. In an effort to characterize the degree of this potential nonuniformity, a number of current density measurements were taken on a breadboard AGI-Engine. Fourteen button probes were used to measure the ion current density of the discharge along a perforated electrode that replaced the ion optics during conditions of simulated beam extraction. Three Faraday probes spaced apart in the vertical direction were also used in a separate test to interrogate the plume of the AGI-Engine during true beam extraction. It was determined that both the discharge and the plume of the AGI-Engine are highly uniform, with variations under most conditions limited to 10% of the average current density in the discharge and 5% of the average current density in the plume. Beam flatness parameter measured 30 mm from the ion optics ranged from 0.85 0.95, and overall uniformity was shown to generally increase with increasing discharge and beam currents. These measurements indicate that the plasma is highly uniform despite the asymmetric location of the discharge cathode.

  5. Current Density Measurements of an Annular-Geometry Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shastry, Rohit; Patterson, Michael J.; Herman, Daniel A.; Foster, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of the annular-geometry ion engine, or AGI-Engine, has been shown to have many potential benefits when scaling electric propulsion technologies to higher power. However, the necessary asymmetric location of the discharge cathode away from thruster centerline could potentially lead to non-uniformities in the discharge not present in conventional geometry ion thrusters. In an effort to characterize the degree of this potential non-uniformity, a number of current density measurements were taken on a breadboard AGI-Engine. Fourteen button probes were used to measure the ion current density of the discharge along a perforated electrode that replaced the ion optics during conditions of simulated beam extraction. Three Faraday probes spaced apart in the vertical direction were also used in a separate test to interrogate the plume of the AGI-Engine during true beam extraction. It was determined that both the discharge and the plume of the AGI-Engine are highly uniform, with variations under most conditions limited to +/-10% of the average current density in the discharge and +/-5% of the average current density in the plume. Beam flatness parameter measured 30 mm from the ion optics ranged from 0.85 - 0.95, and overall uniformity was shown to generally increase with increasing discharge and beam currents. These measurements indicate that the plasma is highly uniform despite the asymmetric location of the discharge cathode.

  6. Predicting Activation of Experiments Inside the Annular Core Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Joseph Isaac

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this thesis is to create a program to quickly estimate the radioactivity and decay of experiments conducted inside of the Annular Core Research Reactor at Sandia National Laboratories and eliminate the need for users to write code. This is achieved by model the neutron fluxes in the reactor’s central cavity where experiments are conducted for 4 different neutron spectra using MCNP. The desired neutron spectrum, experiment material composition, and reactor power level are then input into CINDER2008 burnup code to obtain activation and decay information for every isotope generated. DREAD creates all of the files required for CINDER2008 through user selected inputs in a graphical user interface and executes the program for the user and displays the resulting estimation for dose rate at various distances. The DREAD program was validated by weighing and measuring various experiments in the different spectra and then collecting dose rate information after they were irradiated and comparing it to the dose rates that DREAD predicted. The program provides results with an average of 17% higher estimates than the actual values and takes seconds to execute.

  7. DEP thermal convection in annular geometry under microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Harunori; Crumeyrolle, Olivier; Mutabazi, Innocent

    2012-11-01

    Thermal convection driven by the dielectrophoretic force is investigated in annular geometry in microgravity environments. A radial heating and a radial alternating electric field are imposed on a dielectric fluid layer filling the gap of two concentric infinite-length cylinders. The resulting dielectric force field is regarded as spatially varying radial gravity that can develop thermal convection. The linear stability problem of a purely conductive basic state is solved by a spectral-collocation method for both axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric disturbances. A stationary non-axisymmetric mode becomes first unstable at a critical Rayleigh number to develop convection. The stability boundary shows asymmetry with respect to heating direction. For an outward heating the critical value approaches that of the Rayleigh-Bénard problem (1708) as the gap size decreases, while it converges to larger values in the narrow gap limit. For an inward heating the instability occurs only when the gap is narrower than a certain value. The critical number diverges with increasing the gap size. Instability mechanism is examined from energetic viewpoints. The feedback of electric field to temperature disturbances is found to stabilize the conductive state for narrow gaps. This work has been partly supported by the CNES, the CNRS and the FEDER.

  8. Visual Measurements of Droplet Size in Gas Liquid Annular Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Fore, L.B.; Ibrahim, B.B.; Beus, S.G.

    2000-07-01

    Drop size distributions have been measured for nitrogen-water annular flow in a 9.67 mm hydraulic diameter duct, at system pressures of 3.4 and 17 atm and a temperature of 38 C. These new data extend the range of conditions represented by existing data in the open literature, primarily through an increase in system pressure. Since most existing correlations were developed from data obtained at lower pressures, it should be expected that the higher-pressure data presented in this paper would not necessarily follow those correlations. The correlation of Tatterson, et al. (1977) does not predict the new data very well, while the correlation of Kataoka, et al. (1983) only predicts those data taken at the lower pressure of 3.4 atm. However, the maximum drop size correlation of Kocamustafaogullari, et al. (1994) does predict the current data to a reasonable approximation. Similarly, their correlation for the Sauter mean diameter can predict the new data, provided the coefficient in the equation is adjusted.

  9. Studies of falling annular films, Parts I and II

    SciTech Connect

    Roidt, R.M.; Evans, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    New environmental requirements and restrictions necessitate exploration of new methods for controlling and containing various chemicals and chemical reactions. A novel method of exercising such control is based upon the cylindrical film reactor, a device originally studied as a confinement for a fusion reactor. The films used in these confinement models were quite thick relative to the radius of the cylindrical film so that the experimental work was generally not relevant to the design of chemical reactors where, for purposes of efficiency, the minimum confinement flowrate is desired. An annular, cylindrical, falling film converges into a single stream due to surface tension forces; this convergence length determines the volume of the reactor. Entrainment of gases from within the film volume to the exit stream allows a constant feed of gas into the reactor volume so that gas phase reactions may be carried out without contact with surrounding atmosphere. The present work is an experimental investigation of the pertinent parameters and stability criteria for thin, falling, cylindrical films. We find that, while only for relatively restricted ratios of gas to liquid flow rates do stable reaction volumes exist, most of this range lies within flow rate limits which may be of use in gas-liquid chemical reactors. 12 refs., 33 figs.

  10. Eruptive xanthoma: a microscopic simulant of granuloma annulare.

    PubMed

    Cooper, P H

    1986-06-01

    The microscopic appearance of eruptive xanthoma (EX) presents the potential for misinterpretation as granuloma annulare (GA). Both exhibit one or multiple lesions in the superficial reticular dermis. Both have a perivascular and interstitial inflammatory cell infiltrate. Extracellular lipid in EX separates and disrupts the reticular dermis, simulating necrobiosis. There are several useful differential diagnostic features. The perivascular infiltrate is histiocytic in EX and lymphoid in GA. The histiocytes of EX have translucent, finely stippled cytoplasm, whereas those of GA have denser eosinophilic cytoplasm. EX lacks a distinctly granulomatous appearance, whereas epithelioid and multinuclear cells are typical of GA. The semilucent extracellular deposits of lipid in EX are associated with only minimal fragmentation of collagen and no evidence of cellular necrosis. Necrobiotic material stains more deeply eosinophilic or basophilic; degradation of collagen is discernable, and there is often evidence of cell death. Both EX and GA exhibit deposits of hyaluronic acid. They tend to be concentrated at the borders of lesions in EX and in the centers of lesions in GA. Elastolysis was not appreciated in EX. It was present in some cases of GA. PMID:3734221

  11. Triplet correlations in the hard rod fluid: A test for topological reduction of graph-theoretic corrections to the superposition approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haymet, A. D. J.

    1984-04-01

    Two series expansions for the triplet correlation function, which have been used previously to study three-dimensional liquids, are evaluated in a case where the exact triple correlation function is known, namely, hard rods in one dimension. These series are studied in the context of the Yvon-Born-Green (YBG) integral equation. The coefficients in the f-bond series are evaluated analytically, but the resultant corrections to the superposition approximation are minor. In contrast, the coefficients of the h-bond series, which are calculated numerically, provide an accurate approximation to the triplet correlation function for densities of interest below two-thirds of the close-packed density. The validity of the ``scaling'' approximation of the h-bond series, which has been used in theories of quantum liquids, is also examined, and these calculations are shown to be relevant to earlier studies of three-dimensional liquids.

  12. Phase sensitivity in deformed-state superposition considering nonlinear phase shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrada, K.

    2016-07-01

    We study the problem of the phase estimation for the deformation-state superposition (DSS) under perfect and lossy (due to a dissipative interaction of DSS with their environment) regimes. The study is also devoted to the phase enhancement of the quantum states resulting from a generalized non-linearity of the phase shifts, both without and with losses. We find that such a kind of superposition can give the smallest variance in the phase parameter in comparison with usual Schrödinger cat states in different order of non-linearity even if for a larger average number of photons. Due to the significance of how a system is quantum correlated with its environment in the construction of a scalable quantum computer, the entanglement between the DSS and its environment is investigated during the dissipation. We show that partial entanglement trapping occurs during the dynamics depending on the kind of deformation and mean photon number. These features make the DSS with a larger average number of photons a good candidate for implementation of schemes of quantum optics and information with high precision.

  13. Strain-Rate Frequency Superposition (SRFS) - A rheological probe of structural relaxation in soft materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, Hans M.

    2007-03-01

    The rheological properties of soft materials such as concentrated suspensions, emulsions, or foams often exhibit surprisingly universal linear and nonlinear features. Here we show that their linear and nonlinear viscoelastic responses can be unified in a single picture by considering the effect of the strain-rate amplitude on the structural relaxation of the material. We present a new approach to oscillatory rheology, which keeps the strain rate amplitude fixed as the oscillation frequency is varied. This allows for a detailed study of the effects of strain rate on the structural relaxation of soft materials. Our data exhibits a characteristic scaling, which isolates the response due to structural relaxation, even when it occurs at frequencies too low to be accessible with standard techniques. Our approach is reminiscent of a technique called time-temperature superposition (TTS), where rheological curves measured at different temperatures are shifted onto a single master curve that reflects the viscoelastic behavior in a dramatically extended range of frequencies. By analogy, we call our approach strain-rate frequency superposition (SRFS). Our experimental results show that nonlinear viscoelastic measurements contain useful information on the slow relaxation dynamics of soft materials. The data indicates that the yielding behavior of soft materials directly probes the structural relaxation process itself, shifted towards higher frequencies by an applied strain rate. This suggests that SRFS will provide new insight into the physical mechanisms that govern the viscoelastic response of a wide range of soft materials.

  14. More accurate matrix-matched quantification using standard superposition method for herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Shi, Xiao-Wei; Liu, E-Hu; Sheng, Long-Sheng; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping

    2012-09-01

    Various analytical technologies have been developed for quantitative determination of marker compounds in herbal medicines (HMs). One important issue is matrix effects that must be addressed in method validation for different detections. Unlike biological fluids, blank matrix samples for calibration are usually unavailable for HMs. In this work, practical approaches for minimizing matrix effects in HMs analysis were proposed. The matrix effects in quantitative analysis of five saponins from Panax notoginseng were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Matrix components were found to interfere with the ionization of target analytes when mass spectrometry (MS) detection were employed. To compensate the matrix signal suppression/enhancement, two matrix-matched methods, standard addition method with the target-knockout extract and standard superposition method with a HM extract were developed and tested in this work. The results showed that the standard superposition method is simple and practical for overcoming matrix effects for quantitative analysis of HMs. Moreover, the interference components were observed to interfere with light scattering of target analytes when evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) was utilized for quantitative analysis of HMs but was not indicated when Ultraviolet detection (UV) were employed. Thus, the issue of interference effects should be addressed and minimized for quantitative HPLC-ELSD and HPLC-MS methodologies for quality control of HMs. PMID:22835696

  15. Berry phase and its sign in quantum superposition states of thermal 87Rb atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welte, S.; Basler, C.; Helm, H.

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the Berry phase in an ensemble of thermal 87Rb atoms which we prepare in a superposition state under conditions near and at electromagnetically induced transparency. The geometric phase is imprinted in the atoms by rotating the laboratory magnetic field. Phase-stabilized light fields permit us to monitor phase changes of the atomic sample in a Ramsey-type interferometer by instant probing of the absorptive response of the atoms as well as by monitoring the free-induction decay of the coherent superposition. The absolute sign of the phase is determined by reference to controllable phase shifts imposed by the experimenter. We prove that the geometric phase is independent of the rotational frequency of the magnetic field in the adiabatic regime, that the phase is additive in multiple rotations, and it is independent of the Landé factor of the atomic magnetic moment, as predicted in Berry's seminal paper. We show that the absolute sign of the phase encodes the sign of the observable angular momentum in relation to laboratory coordinates.

  16. BetaSuperposer: superposition of protein surfaces using beta-shapes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Kwan; Kim, Deok-Soo

    2012-01-01

    The comparison between two protein structures is important for understanding a molecular function. In particular, the comparison of protein surfaces to measure their similarity provides another challenge useful for studying molecular evolution, docking, and drug design. This paper presents an algorithm, called the BetaSuperposer, which evaluates the similarity between the surfaces of two structures using the beta-shape which is a geometric structure derived from the Voronoi diagram of molecule. The algorithm performs iterations of mix-and-match between the beta-shapes of two structures for the optimal superposition from which a similarity measure is computed, where each mix-and-match step attempts to solve an NP-hard problem. The devised heuristic algorithm based on the assignment problem formulation quickly produces a good superposition and an assessment of similarity. The BetaSuperposer was fully implemented and benchmarked against popular programs, the Dali and the Click, using the SCOP models. The BetaSuperposer is freely available to the public from the Voronoi Diagram Research Center ( http://voronoi.hanyang.ac.kr ). PMID:22812415

  17. Entanglement of electronic subbands and coherent superposition of spin states in a Rashba nanoloop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaiee, R.; Golshan, M. M.

    2011-10-01

    The present work is concerned with an analysis of the entanglement between the electronic coherent superpositions of spin states and subbands in a quasi-one-dimensional Rashba nanoloop acted upon by a strong perpendicular magnetic field. We explicitly include the confining potential and the Rashba spin-orbit coupling into the Hamiltonian and then proceed to calculate the von Neumann entropy, a measure of entanglement, as a function of time. An analysis of the von Neumann entropy demonstrates that, as expected, the dynamics of entanglement strongly depends upon the initial state and electronic subband excitations. When the initial state is a pure one formed by a subband excitation and the z-component of spin states, the entanglement exhibits periodic oscillations with local minima (dips). On the other hand, when the initial state is formed by the subband states and a coherent superposition of spin states, the entanglement still periodically oscillates, exhibiting stronger correlations, along with elimination of the dips. Moreover, in the long run, the entanglement for the latter case undergoes the phenomenon of collapse-revivals. This behaviour is absent for the first case of the initial states. We also show that the degree of entanglement strongly depends upon the electronic subband excitations in both cases.

  18. A 3D pencil-beam-based superposition algorithm for photon dose calculation in heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillikainen, L.; Helminen, H.; Torsti, T.; Siljamäki, S.; Alakuijala, J.; Pyyry, J.; Ulmer, W.

    2008-07-01

    In this work, a novel three-dimensional superposition algorithm for photon dose calculation is presented. The dose calculation is performed as a superposition of pencil beams, which are modified based on tissue electron densities. The pencil beams have been derived from Monte Carlo simulations, and are separated into lateral and depth-directed components. The lateral component is modeled using exponential functions, which allows accurate modeling of lateral scatter in heterogeneous tissues. The depth-directed component represents the total energy deposited on each plane, which is spread out using the lateral scatter functions. Finally, convolution in the depth direction is applied to account for tissue interface effects. The method can be used with the previously introduced multiple-source model for clinical settings. The method was compared against Monte Carlo simulations in several phantoms including lung- and bone-type heterogeneities. Comparisons were made for several field sizes for 6 and 18 MV energies. The deviations were generally within (2%, 2 mm) of the field central axis dmax. Significantly larger deviations (up to 8%) were found only for the smallest field in the lung slab phantom for 18 MV. The presented method was found to be accurate in a wide range of conditions making it suitable for clinical planning purposes.

  19. Role of superposition of dislocation avalanches in the statistics of acoustic emission during plastic deformation.

    PubMed

    Lebyodkin, M A; Shashkov, I V; Lebedkina, T A; Mathis, K; Dobron, P; Chmelik, F

    2013-10-01

    Various dynamical systems with many degrees of freedom display avalanche dynamics, which is characterized by scale invariance reflected in power-law statistics. The superposition of avalanche processes in real systems driven at a finite velocity may influence the experimental determination of the underlying power law. The present paper reports results of an investigation of this effect using the example of acoustic emission (AE) accompanying plastic deformation of crystals. Indeed, recent studies of AE did not only prove that the dynamics of crystal defects obeys power-law statistics, but also led to a hypothesis of universality of the scaling law. We examine the sensitivity of the apparent statistics of AE to the parameters applied to individualize AE events. Two different alloys, MgZr and AlMg, both displaying strong AE but characterized by different plasticity mechanisms, are investigated. It is shown that the power-law indices display a good robustness in wide ranges of parameters even in the conditions leading to very strong superposition of AE events, although some deviations from the persistent values are also detected. The totality of the results confirms the scale-invariant character of deformation processes on the scale relevant to AE, but uncovers essential differences between the power-law exponents found for two kinds of alloys. PMID:24229184

  20. SAS-Pro: Simultaneous Residue Assignment and Structure Superposition for Protein Structure Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shweta B.; Sahinidis, Nikolaos V.

    2012-01-01

    Protein structure alignment is the problem of determining an assignment between the amino-acid residues of two given proteins in a way that maximizes a measure of similarity between the two superimposed protein structures. By identifying geometric similarities, structure alignment algorithms provide critical insights into protein functional similarities. Existing structure alignment tools adopt a two-stage approach to structure alignment by decoupling and iterating between the assignment evaluation and structure superposition problems. We introduce a novel approach, SAS-Pro, which addresses the assignment evaluation and structure superposition simultaneously by formulating the alignment problem as a single bilevel optimization problem. The new formulation does not require the sequentiality constraints, thus generalizing the scope of the alignment methodology to include non-sequential protein alignments. We employ derivative-free optimization methodologies for searching for the global optimum of the highly nonlinear and non-differentiable RMSD function encountered in the proposed model. Alignments obtained with SAS-Pro have better RMSD values and larger lengths than those obtained from other alignment tools. For non-sequential alignment problems, SAS-Pro leads to alignments with high degree of similarity with known reference alignments. The source code of SAS-Pro is available for download at http://eudoxus.cheme.cmu.edu/saspro/SAS-Pro.html. PMID:22662161

  1. The manipulation of massive ro-vibronic superpositions using time frequency-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (TFRCARS): from quantum control to quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadoyan, R.; Kohen, D.; Lidar, D. A.; Apkarian, V. A.

    2001-05-01

    Molecular ro-vibronic coherences, joint energy-time distributions of quantum amplitudes, are selectively prepared, manipulated, and imaged in time-frequency-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (TFRCARS) measurements using femtosecond laser pulses. The studies are implemented in iodine vapor, with its thermally occupied statistical ro-vibrational density serving as initial state. The evolution of the massive ro-vibronic superpositions, consisting of 10 3 eigenstates, is followed through two-dimensional images. The first- and second-order coherences are captured using time-integrated frequency-resolved CARS, while the third-order coherence is captured using time-gated frequency-resolved CARS. The Fourier filtering provided by time-integrated detection projects out single ro-vibronic transitions, while time-gated detection allows the projection of arbitrary ro-vibronic superpositions from the coherent third-order polarization. A detailed analysis of the data is provided to highlight the salient features of this four-wave mixing process. The richly patterned images of the ro-vibrational coherences can be understood in terms of phase evolution in rotation-vibration-electronic Hilbert space, using time-circuit diagrams. Beside the control and imaging of chemistry, the controlled manipulation of massive quantum coherences suggests the possibility of quantum computing. We argue that the universal logic gates necessary for arbitrary quantum computing - all single qubit operations and the two-qubit controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate - are available in time-resolved four-wave mixing in a molecule. The molecular rotational manifold is naturally "wired" for carrying out all single qubit operations efficiently, and in parallel. We identify vibronic coherences as one example of a naturally available two-qubit CNOT gate, wherein the vibrational qubit controls the switching of the targeted electronic qubit.

  2. Improvement of Vacuum Pressure in the Annular-Ring Coupled Structures for the J-PARC Linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Yasuo; Oozone, Akira; Tamura, Jun

    The accelerating cavities of the J-PARC linac, additionally comprising an annular-ring-coupled structure (ACS), went into operation in 2014. To further improve the vacuum pressure of the ACS, an additional nonevaporable getter (NEG) pump was designed so that it could be installed independent of the vacuum chamber of the ACS cavity. We confirmed that the NEG pump can be appropriately activated by using a small pumping station and that purging with noble gases reduces the saturation of the NEG surface. In the evacuation test of the prototype ACS cavity with the NEG pump, the partial pressure of H2 and the total pressure were reduced from 4.8 × 10-7 and 6.8 × 10-7 Pa to 2.5 × 10-7 and 4.5 × 10-7 Pa, respectively. The additional NEG pump will be installed in the ACS cavity in the fall of 2014, after which any decrease in pressure and NEG-pump lifetime will be confirmed by long-term-operation experiments.

  3. Quantifying the uncertainty of the annular mode time scale and the role of the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junsu; Reichler, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The proper simulation of the annular mode time scale may be regarded as an important benchmark for climate models. Previous research demonstrated that this time scale is systematically overestimated by climate models. As suggested by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, this may imply that climate models are overly sensitive to external forcings. Previous research also made it clear that calculating the AM time scale is a slowly converging process, necessitating relatively long time series and casting doubts on the usefulness of the historical reanalysis record to constrain climate models in terms of the annular mode time scale. Here, we use long control simulations with the coupled and uncoupled version of the GFDL climate model, CM2.1 and AM2.1, respectively, to study the effects of internal atmospheric variability and forcing from the lower boundary on the stability of the annular mode time scale. In particular, we ask whether a model's annular mode time scale and dynamical sensitivity can be constrained from the 50-year-long reanalysis record. We find that internal variability attaches large uncertainty to the annular mode time scale when diagnosed from decadal records. Even under the fixed forcing conditions of our long control run at least 100 years of data are required in order to keep the uncertainty in the annular mode time scale of the Northern Hemisphere to 10 %; over the Southern Hemisphere, the required length increases to 200 years. If nature's annular mode time scale over the Northern Hemisphere is similarly variable, there is no guarantee that the historical reanalysis record is a fully representative target for model evaluation. Over the Southern Hemisphere, however, the discrepancies between model and reanalysis are sufficiently large to conclude that the model is unable to reproduce the observed time scale structure correctly. The effects of ocean coupling lead to a considerable increase in time scale and uncertainty in time scale, effects which

  4. Quantifying the uncertainty of the annular mode time scale and the role of the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junsu; Reichler, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The proper simulation of the annular mode time scale may be regarded as an important benchmark for climate models. Previous research demonstrated that this time scale is systematically overestimated by climate models. As suggested by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, this may imply that climate models are overly sensitive to external forcings. Previous research also made it clear that calculating the AM time scale is a slowly converging process, necessitating relatively long time series and casting doubts on the usefulness of the historical reanalysis record to constrain climate models in terms of the annular mode time scale. Here, we use long control simulations with the coupled and uncoupled version of the GFDL climate model, CM2.1 and AM2.1, respectively, to study the effects of internal atmospheric variability and forcing from the lower boundary on the stability of the annular mode time scale. In particular, we ask whether a model's annular mode time scale and dynamical sensitivity can be constrained from the 50-year-long reanalysis record. We find that internal variability attaches large uncertainty to the annular mode time scale when diagnosed from decadal records. Even under the fixed forcing conditions of our long control run at least 100 years of data are required in order to keep the uncertainty in the annular mode time scale of the Northern Hemisphere to 10 %; over the Southern Hemisphere, the required length increases to 200 years. If nature's annular mode time scale over the Northern Hemisphere is similarly variable, there is no guarantee that the historical reanalysis record is a fully representative target for model evaluation. Over the Southern Hemisphere, however, the discrepancies between model and reanalysis are sufficiently large to conclude that the model is unable to reproduce the observed time scale structure correctly. The effects of ocean coupling lead to a considerable increase in time scale and uncertainty in time scale, effects which

  5. Exploring flocculation of suspended burned sediment using an annular flume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, W. H.; Clarke, P.; Manning, A. J.; Fitzsimons, M. F.

    2010-05-01

    The frequency and severity of wildfire events are predicted to increase in many fire-prone areas of the world with implications for erosion, sediment transport and sedimentation. While cohesive suspended sediment is known to be transported primarily as flocculated material in river channels, with important implications for catchment nutrient and contaminant fluxes, there has been little work to date to explore the effect of burning on suspended sediment flocculation processes. Since heating has profound effects on surface soil biogeochemistry, it can be hypothesised that in-channel flocculation processes may also be affected as burned eroded material is transported through the catchment system. Using an annular flume and LISST-ST (Laser in Situ Scatter and Transmissometry with Settling Tube) particle size analyser, short-term suspended sediment flocculation dynamics were examined in burned and unburned sediment collected from a wildfire-impacted catchment, Southern Peloponnese, Greece. Fine sediment (< 63 μm) samples were introduced to a small annular flume (45 L capacity) which was operated at range of turbulent shear stresses (0.1, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 Pa). Experiments were undertaken for a range of suspended sediment concentrations (111, 222 and 333 mg l-1) of burned and unburned material. For each shear and sediment concentration scenario, the flume was operated for 30 minutes to induce a theoretical equilibrium between flocs and fluid shear stress after which 5 replicate subsamples were collected and analysed for effective particle size using the LISST-ST. Material was also analysed for absolute particle size following chemical and ultrasonic dispersion. At the two higher sediment concentrations, the effective particle size distribution of unburned material notably coarsened at shear stresses of 0.1-0.3 Pa in comparison to the absolute particle size distribution. This is reflected in a reduction of the percentage of 250 μm) e.g. from 14.4 ± 4.1 % to 5.9 ± 2

  6. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of a continuously rotating detonation in the annular combustion chamber with a wide gap and separate delivery of fuel and oxidizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, S. M.; Dubrovskii, A. V.; Ivanov, V. S.

    2016-07-01

    The possibility of integrating the Continuous Detonation Chamber (CDC) in a gas turbine engine (GTE) is demonstrated by means of three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations, i. e., the feasibility of the operation process in the annular combustion chamber with a wide gap and with separate feeding of fuel (hydrogen) and oxidizer (air) is proved computationally. The CDC with an upstream isolator damping pressure disturbances propagating towards the compressor is shown to exhibit a gain in the total pressure of 15% as compared with the same combustion chamber operating in the deflagration mode.

  7. Uninstrumented assembly airflow testing in the Annular Flow Distribution facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kielpinski, A.L.

    1992-02-01

    During the Emergency Cooling System phase of a postulated large-break loss of coolant accident (ECS-LOCA), air enters the primary loop and is pumped down the reactor assemblies. One of the experiments performed to support the analysis of this accident was the Annular Flow Distribution (AFD) experiment, conducted in a facility built for this purpose at Babcock and Wilcox Alliance Research Center in Alliance, Ohio. As part of this experiment, a large body of airflow data were acquired in a prototypical mockup of the Mark 22 reactor assembly. This assembly was known as the AFD (or the I-AFD here) reference assembly. The I-AFD assembly was fully prototypical, having been manufactured in SRS`s production fabrication facility. Similar Mark 22 mockup assemblies were tested in several test facilities in the SRS Heat Transfer Laboratory (HTL). Discrepancies were found. The present report documents further work done to address the discrepancy in airflow measurements between the AFD facility and HTL facilities. The primary purpose of this report is to disseminate the data from the U-AFD test, and to compare these test results to the I-AFD data and the U-AT data. A summary table of the test data and the B&W data transmittal letter are included as an attachment to this report. The full data transmittal volume from B&W (including time plots of the various instruments) is included as an appendix to this report. These data are further analyzed by comparing them to two other HTL tests, namely, SPRIHTE 1 and the Single Assembly Test Stand (SATS).

  8. Rotating annular chromatograph for continuous metal separations and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, J.M.; Sisson, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Multicomponent liquid chromatographic separations have been achieved by using a slowly rotating annular bed of sorbent material. By continuously introducing the feed material to be separated at a stationary point at the top of the bed and eluent everywhere else around the annulus, elution chromatography occurs. The rotation of the sorbent bed causes the separated components to appear as helical bands, each of which has a characteristic, stationary exit point; hence, the separation process is truly continuous. The concept has been developed primarily on a 279-mm-diam by 0.6-m-long device with a 12.7-mm-wide annulus. The effect of annulus width and diameter has recently been studied using the same device with a 50.8-mm-wide annulus and another 0.6-m-long chromatograph with an 89-mm diameter and annulus widths of 6.4, 12.7, and 22.2 mm. These columns have been constructed of Plexiglas and typically operate at a gauge pressure of 175 kPa. To further study the effect of size and pressure, a new 445-mm-diam by 1-m-long column with a 31.8-mm-wide annulus has been fabricated. Its metal construction allows preparative-scale operation with a wide variety of liquids at pressures to 1.3 MPa. Three metal recovery systems have been explored: (1) separation of iron and aluminum in ammonium sulfate-sulfuric acid solutions; (2) separation of hafnium from zirconium in sulfuric acid solutions; and (3) the separation of copper, nickel, and cobalt in ammonium carbonate solutions. This last system simulates the leach liquor of the Caron process for recovering nickel and cobalt from laterite ores. It has been studied, using similar conditions, on each of the chromatographs, and the results demonstrate the effect of column dimensions on the quality and quantity of the separation. 8 figures, 1 table.

  9. Successful outcome of cryosurgery in patients with granuloma annulare.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, U; Zouboulis, C C; Jacobi, H; Scholz, A; Bisson, S; Orfanos, C E

    1994-04-01

    Several therapeutic methods have been employed in the management of localized granuloma annulare (GA), with varying degrees of success. We performed a prospective trial to evaluate the efficacy, cosmetic results, and safety of cryosurgical treatment in GA. Thirty-one patients with localized GA were treated by cryosurgery, using the contact method. Nitrous oxide (-86 degrees C) or liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C) were used as refrigerants, and were applied with closed probes; each lesion was treated with one freeze-thaw cycle of 10-60 s per session. If necessary, treatment was repeated after 20-30 days. Resolution of the lesions was obtained in all patients, and in 25 of 31 patients (80.6%) they resolved after a single freeze-thaw cycle. Relapse occurred in only one of 11 patients who were followed for more than 2 years, and this occurred 16 months after treatment. Excellent cosmetic results were obtained in 14 of 28 patients who were eligible for evaluation (50%), and good results in 11 (39.3%). The cosmetic result obtained by cryosurgery with nitrous oxide was independent of the size of the lesion, whereas in the group of patients treated with liquid nitrogen a better cosmetic result was obtained with smaller lesions (comparison of lesions < or = 2.40 cm2 with those > 2.40 cm2; P = 0.04). The duration of the lesion, its location, previous treatment with another method, and the number of treatment sessions, did not have any influence on the cosmetic result. The treatment was generally well tolerated. Blister formation occurred in all patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8186116

  10. Superposition of nonparaxial vectorial complex-source spherically focused beams: Axial Poynting singularity and reverse propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, counterintuitive effects such as the generation of an axial (i.e., long the direction of wave motion) zero-energy flux density (i.e., axial Poynting singularity) and reverse (i.e., negative) propagation of nonparaxial quasi-Gaussian electromagnetic (EM) beams are examined. Generalized analytical expressions for the EM field's components of a coherent superposition of two high-order quasi-Gaussian vortex beams of opposite handedness and different amplitudes are derived based on the complex-source-point method, stemming from Maxwell's vector equations and the Lorenz gauge condition. The general solutions exhibiting unusual effects satisfy the Helmholtz and Maxwell's equations. The EM beam components are characterized by nonzero integer degree and order (n ,m ) , respectively, an arbitrary waist w0, a diffraction convergence length known as the Rayleigh range zR, and a weighting (real) factor 0 ≤α ≤1 that describes the transition of the beam from a purely vortex (α =0 ) to a nonvortex (α =1 ) type. An attractive feature for this superposition is the description of strongly focused (or strongly divergent) wave fields. Computations of the EM power density as well as the linear and angular momentum density fluxes illustrate the analysis with particular emphasis on the polarization states of the vector potentials forming the beams and the weight of the coherent beam superposition causing the transition from the vortex to the nonvortex type. Should some conditions determined by the polarization state of the vector potentials and the beam parameters be met, an axial zero-energy flux density is predicted in addition to a negative retrograde propagation effect. Moreover, rotation reversal of the angular momentum flux density with respect to the beam handedness is anticipated, suggesting the possible generation of negative (left-handed) torques. The results are particularly useful in applications involving the design of strongly focused optical laser

  11. Probe with integrated heater and thermocouple pack

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, R.W.; Dial, R.E.; Finnell, W.F.R.

    1988-02-16

    This patent describes a gamma thermometer probe for detecting heat produced within the thermometer probe. It comprises: an outer elongate thermometer sheath; an elongate rod; annular recesses; a longitudinal bore; and an integrated thermocouple pack. The thermocouple pack comprises: a first type wire, and second type wires. The second type wires comprises: an outer section; and an inner segment.

  12. Comment on "Fast determination of the optimal rotational matrix for macromolecular superpositions" [J. Comp. Chem. 31, 1561 (2010)].

    PubMed

    Kneller, Gerald R

    2011-01-15

    Recently Liu et al. published a fast algorithm to solve the eigenvector problem arising in the quaternion-based method for the rotational superposition of molecular structures (J Comput Chem 2010, 31, 1561.). In this Comment, it is shown that the construction of the 4 × 4 matrix to be diagonalized—and not the diagonalization itself—represents the dominating part of the computational effort for the quaternion-based solution of the rotational superposition problem if molecules with more than about 100 atoms are considered. PMID:20662082

  13. Decoherence-free evolution of time-dependent superposition states of two-level systems and thermal effects

    SciTech Connect

    Prado, F. O.; Duzzioni, E. I.; Almeida, N. G. de; Moussa, M. H. Y.; Villas-Boas, C. J.

    2011-07-15

    In this paper we detail some results advanced in a recent letter [Prado et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073008 (2009).] showing how to engineer reservoirs for two-level systems at absolute zero by means of a time-dependent master equation leading to a nonstationary superposition equilibrium state. We also present a general recipe showing how to build nonadiabatic coherent evolutions of a fermionic system interacting with a bosonic mode and investigate the influence of thermal reservoirs at finite temperature on the fidelity of the protected superposition state. Our analytical results are supported by numerical analysis of the full Hamiltonian model.

  14. Superposition of Cohesive Elements to Account for R-Curve Toughening in the Fracture of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Song, Kyongchan

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between a resistance curve (R-curve), the corresponding fracture process zone length, the shape of the traction/displacement softening law, and the propagation of fracture are examined in the context of the through-the-thickness fracture of composite laminates. A procedure that accounts for R-curve toughening mechanisms by superposing bilinear cohesive elements is proposed. Simple equations are developed for determining the separation of the critical energy release rates and the strengths that define the independent contributions of each bilinear softening law in the superposition. It is shown that the R-curve measured with a Compact Tension specimen test can be reproduced by superposing two bilinear softening laws. It is also shown that an accurate representation of the R-curve is essential for predicting the initiation and propagation of fracture in composite laminates.

  15. The external magnetic field created by the superposition of identical parallel finite solenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Melody Xuan; Greenside, Henry

    2016-08-01

    We use superposition and numerical methods to show that the external magnetic field generated by parallel identical solenoids can be nearly uniform and substantial, even when the solenoids have lengths that are large compared to their radii. We examine both a ring of solenoids and a large hexagonal array of solenoids. In both cases, we discuss how the magnitude and uniformity of the external field depend on the length of and the spacing between the solenoids. We also discuss some novel properties of a single solenoid, e.g., that even for short solenoids the energy stored in the internal magnetic field exceeds the energy stored in the spatially infinite external magnetic field. These results should be broadly interesting to undergraduates learning about electricity and magnetism.

  16. Digital coherent superposition of optical OFDM subcarrier pairs with Hermitian symmetry for phase noise mitigation.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xingwen; Chen, Xuemei; Sharma, Dinesh; Li, Chao; Luo, Ming; Yang, Qi; Li, Zhaohui; Qiu, Kun

    2014-06-01

    Digital coherent superposition (DCS) provides an approach to combat fiber nonlinearities by trading off the spectrum efficiency. In analogy, we extend the concept of DCS to the optical OFDM subcarrier pairs with Hermitian symmetry to combat the linear and nonlinear phase noise. At the transmitter, we simply use a real-valued OFDM signal to drive a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) intensity modulator biased at the null point and the so-generated OFDM signal is Hermitian in the frequency domain. At receiver, after the conventional OFDM signal processing, we conduct DCS of the optical OFDM subcarrier pairs, which requires only conjugation and summation. We show that the inter-carrier-interference (ICI) due to phase noise can be reduced because of the Hermitain symmetry. In a simulation, this method improves the tolerance to the laser phase noise. In a nonlinear WDM transmission experiment, this method also achieves better performance under the influence of cross phase modulation (XPM). PMID:24921539

  17. Composite vortex beams by coaxial superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Sujuan; Miao, Zhuang; He, Chao; Pang, Fufei; Li, Yingchun; Wang, Tingyun

    2016-03-01

    We propose the generation of novel composite vortex beams by coaxial superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams with common waist position and waist parameter. Computer-generated holography by conjugate-symmetric extension is applied to produce the holograms of several composite vortex beams. Utilizing the holograms, fantastic light modes including optical ring lattice, double dark-ring and double bright-ring composite vortex beams etc. are numerically reconstructed. The generated composite vortex beams show diffraction broadening with some of them showing dynamic rotation around beam centers while propagating. Optical experiments based on a computer-controlled spatial light modulator (SLM) verify the numerical results. These novel composite vortex beams possess more complicated distribution and more controllable parameters for their potential application in comparison to conventional optical ring lattice.

  18. Time-Temperature Superposition to Determine the Stress-Rupture of Aramid Fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwis, K. G. N. C.; Burgoyne, C. J.

    2006-07-01

    Conventional creep testing takes a long time to obtain stress-rupture data for aramid fibres at the low stress levels likely to be used in practical applications. However, the rate of creep of aramid can be accelerated by a thermally activated process to obtain the failure of fibres within a few hours. It is possible to obtain creep curves at different temperature levels which can be shifted along the time axis to generate a single curve know as a master curve, from which stress-rupture data can be obtained. This technique is known as the time-temperature superposition principle and will be applied to Kevlar 49 yarns. Important questions relating to the techniques needed to obtain smooth master curves will be discussed, as will the validity the resulting curves and the corresponding stress-rupture lifetime.

  19. Free energy surfaces from an extended harmonic superposition approach and kinetics for alanine dipeptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strodel, Birgit; Wales, David J.

    2008-12-01

    Approximate free energy surfaces and transition rates are presented for alanine dipeptide for a variety of force fields and implicit solvent models. Our calculations are based upon local minima, transition states and pathways characterised for each potential energy surface using geometry optimisation. The superposition approach employing only local minima and harmonic densities of states provides a representation of low-lying regions of the free energy surfaces. However, including contributions from the transition states of the potential energy surface and selected points obtained from displacements along the corresponding reaction vectors produces surfaces that compare quite well with results from replica exchange molecular dynamics. Characterising the local minima, transition states, normal modes, pathways, rate constants and free energy surfaces for each force field within this framework typically requires between one and five minutes cpu time on a single processor.

  20. Superposition of an AC field improves the discrimination between peptides in nanopore analysis.

    PubMed

    Jakova, Elisabet; Lee, Jeremy S

    2015-07-21

    In standard nanopore analysis a constant DC voltage is used to electrophoretically drive small molecules and peptides towards a pore. Superposition of an AC voltage at particular frequencies causes molecules to oscillate as they approach the pore which can alter the event parameters, the blockade current (I) and blockade time (T). Four peptides with similar structures were studied. Alpha-helical peptides A10 (FmocDDA10KK), A14, A18 and retro-inverso A10. It was shown that the ratio of translocations to bumping events could be manipulated by a combination of AC voltages and frequencies. In particular, A10 could be studied without interference from retro-inverso A10. Similarly, a large, intrinsically disordered protein of 140 amino acids, α-synuclein, which translocates the pore readily in a DC field could be prevented from doing so by application of an AC field of 200 mV at 100 MHz. PMID:25699656